Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

Cognizant 500 Glen Pointe Center West Teaneck, NJ 07666 Ph: 201-801-0233 www.cognizant.com

Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ......................................................89 Summary ................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Test your Understanding ..........108 Learning Objectives ...........................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007..................................................87 Structures and Functions ..................................................................104 Summary ....................................79 Storage Classes .......................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions..................................................................79 Learning Objectives ......................98 String I/O.....................92 Union of Structures .....................................................................................92 Unions............................................................................................90 Test your Understanding .................................................................100 Numeric I/O...................................................................................................................................84 Structures and Arrays .79 Command Line Arguments ..........................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions .......................................................................................................................................................................109 Introduction to Pointers ........................................................................................101 Block I/O .................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions..............................................................................96 Character I/O ...........106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives .............................75 Summary ..............................................88 Try It Out ...........................................................106 Test your Understanding .....102 Try It Out ...........................................................................................100 Formatted I/O.............................................................................................................108 Random File Operations .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization.............................................................................................................................................................94 Typedef Statement .......................................................................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives .......................................................115 Declaration and Initialization.........................................................................................................................................................................................93 Enumeration .......................................................................................................................................................................95 File Operations ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Preprocessor Directives ...............

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: .............................138 References ...................................................................................................................................................123 Summary .........................................................127 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................130 Try It Out .125 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Cognizant Technology Solutions................................................................117 Try It Out ..............................133 Summary ..........116 Pointers and Arrays .127 Functions and Pointers ............................ All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...............................................................................................................................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .........................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic .................................................................................................................................136 Test your Understanding .........................125 Session 17: Pointers ..............127 Structures and Pointers ...............152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007.................................................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................151 Books .....................................................................................................................151 Websites .....

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007.

It is an act of defining a problem. identifying. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . To understand the problem. determining the cause of the problem. prioritizing. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. There is no universal method for solving a given problem.

It is also known as Program Analysis. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. headings. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced.

Program Design is both a product and a process. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. the new parts become more focussed and. therefore.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. several design methodologies can be applied. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. An important approach is Top-Down programming design. While applying top-down design to a given problem.

2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. or modifications to the existing algorithm. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. Example 2. The term “ordered sequence” specifies.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. produce output. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. and terminate in a finite time. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. However. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. but omits language-specific syntax. the next step must be unambiguously defined. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. The errors identified leads to insertions. deletions. to test its correctness. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. fact. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

required to solve a problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. another part of the same flow chart. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. or entry from. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. reports).2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. Output data Represents Process (actions. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start.e. End Represents Input. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. i Initialize fact =1. fact.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Linking is done if necessary. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. flowcharts. statements. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. but also to the programmers themselves. After compilation. Then. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. The translation results in the creation of object code. Writing a program is called Coding. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. Testing is done during every phase of program development. Initially. Details of particular programs. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Structured walk through is made to verify the design.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. The program is now ready for execution. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the declarations. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. algorithm descriptions. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. or particular pieces of programs. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. and project workbooks Internal documentation. The compiler is system software. Documentation can be of great value. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. which includes things such as reference manuals. During execution. requirements can be tested for its correctness. the design (algorithm.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. and Pascal. On some projects. Testing means detecting errors. FORTRAN. C++. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. This is called foolproof programming. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . such as BASIC. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. For many programmers. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. COBOL. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Ada. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. C. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions.

When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. there are many new languages. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Because of it design. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. It does not need any translator program.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. machine language is not an easy language to learn. Thus. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer.

For example. %. /. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. SUB and LOAD etc. In high level languages. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code).Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. for its program construction. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. This translator program is called Assembler. -. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. irrespective of the type of computer used. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). For example. tested and maintained with ease. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. The major breakthrough occurred. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . operations. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. though not widely used. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. with every combination being meaningful. and the expertise of the programmer. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. The language should provide appropriate data structures. This. but it is complex and difficult to learn. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. in turn. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. type of program. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. In 1959. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. Later. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency.

there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. coding.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. testing & use: This implies design. Interactive Environment. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. testing. coded. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. For example. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. Cost of Program creation. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. and Embedded System Environment. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. efficient register allocation. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the backup process on an organization.

Examples include database management systems. word processing systems etc. Top-down program design. compiling and running. and maintenance. 4. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. 2. called Modules. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. testing. debugging. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. 3. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. documenting. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. Distinguish between testing and debugging. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Give the algorithm. coded. The environment under which a program is designed. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. Represent the following problem in top-down design. algorithm development. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Planning a tour. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. coding. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them.

Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Easy to carry from place to place b. True. What is meant by portability of programs? a.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. It can run on any machine d. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . True 5. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4.

UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. which are portable but inefficient. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. which are efficient but nonportable. Prior to C. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. In 1967. To assure that the C language remains standard. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. The standard was updated in 1999. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It was evolved from ALGOL. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. for writing system software. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. During 1970s. and B. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. in 1973. In 1970. BCPL.

C# conserve C syntax. Java. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. C++.

A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. C is a case sensitive language. C program can be documented using these comment lines. array. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required.extensive use of pointers for memory. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. to define the symbolic constants and macro. Output and Processing statements. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Comments are enclosed within /* and */. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. to include functions from the system library. called functions. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. although they may appear in any order. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. Every C program must have one main() function.

The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. &num1. num2). sum = num1+num2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. sum). scanf(“%d%d”.num2. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. It removes comments and empty lines in the program.&num2). Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. num1. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”).sum. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007.h> main( ) { int num1.

+. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code).OBJ indicates object code files. #include <stdio. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. Blank spaces etc. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words.standard library maths file. These files are usually called header files. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A….h> -. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters.o suffix and on MSDOS files with .includes contents of a named file. #include <math. [On UNIX.Z o Lowercase a…. Assembler The assembler creates the object code. numbers and expressions. % . The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007..z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =. .] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> -. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. to create an executable file. file with a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . External variable references are resolved here. Operators and Expression.defines a symbolic name or constant. the link editor combines these functions with main(). Identifiers. ? .Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.2 #include -.standard library I/O file #define -.

Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. the range of values that can be represented in memory. It should start with an alphabet. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . All keywords must be written in lowercase. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. constants. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. Example 3. and functions. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. predefined meanings in C. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. The following table shows the list of keywords. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long.

535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Here. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Similarly. never less than int. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. int = 2 bytes. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. They are.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. For example. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character.

483.483.147. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.768 to 32.7 * (10-308) to 1. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions.967. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.294.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program.648 to 2.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.147.7 * (10+308) 3. They are used to represent a collection of data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4 * (10+38) 1.647 Floating Point Number. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.4 * (10-38) to 3.4 * (10-4932) to 1. It is useful with pointers.

A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. Example 3. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. Example 3. also called read-only variables. y. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. float sum = 0. ct=1. float x.0. int tot.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. Cognizant Technology Solutions. j. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement.5 int total=0. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. char ch. k. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. z. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ct=1. tot = 0. General form: var_data_type list variables.4 int i.

This value cannot be changed by the program. const float pi=3. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data.14. (true – 1. const char ch = ‘a’. which evaluates to either true or false. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. const long a = 50000L. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. const int a = 0567. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 3. or const long a = 50000l.6 const int size = 100. C operators can be classified into a number of categories.

(a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . i++). if condition is evaluated to true. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. *=. /*prints 6 . %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. -=.post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. printf(“%d”. ++i). i). +=. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. /=. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment.k: pre increment.pre increment */ /* prints 6 . printf(“%d”. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“%d”. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5.

Logical OR.b) / c or a . op= Name Parentheses. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. operators. ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a .7: Operators Let a=1. Equality comparators Logical AND. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . Relational expression (uses relational operators).(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Conditional. function calls that evaluates to a value. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. unary minus. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . Multiplicative operators. and Logical expression (uses logical operators). High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. Additive operators. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity. Inequality comparators. b=2.(b / c). member access operators Logical NOT. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). indirection. Index. address Increment and decrement operators. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . Assignment.

b+c).. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. d = 3. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. if the operands of an expression are of different types. However. c = 3. Example 3. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part.e. In C. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. b=4. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side.which is the same as. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. b+c. x + 3 = y. In implicit type conversion. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. the assignment operator is “=”. (2) a = (b=2.8 (1) a = (b = 2. c=3. c=3. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. float b. (4) int c. b-c). Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. .) not a storage location. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. b = 3. before assigning the value to it. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. but more efficient than: a = 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. e = a != b. c= a>b.5. d = a == b. For example. This is called Typecasting.. double to float causes round of digits. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. a=3. (3) int a.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. the statement x = y + z. a=b=3. For example. The left side of the “=” is always a variable.

e. instead of 5. because the variable sum is of type float. The original value of the variable is not altered. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1. Example 3.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. b.7. y = a / 10. c. d = a % b. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e = -a % -b.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007.5 * 3.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. z. 5.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float . f.narrowing .8). a=14. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. sum = (int) (1. c = a/b. Example 3.8) as the integer 5.0. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value. d. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator.9 float sum.0 will be stored in sum.11 int a. Then.5 * 3. y. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. float x. x = a / 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b=4.

There are two methods of providing data to the program variables.13 char ch. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. a=b-. Another method is to use input functions. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. return. This single character includes alphabets. . which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. a=++b + ++c. General form: char-variable = getchar(). c = a>b. punctuations. ch = getchar().12 a int a=0.+ --c. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. b=0.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c=0. a=++b + c++. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. Example 3. digits. a=b++ + c++. processing.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. and tab. getch (). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

putchar(ch). Blank space is also considered as a character. General Form: gets(stringvariable). Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. To get a line of text. Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. General Form: putchar(char variable). monitor.14 char ch[5]. gets(ch). Cognizant Technology Solutions.15 char ch. this function serves the purpose.character input from console & echoes the character. ch = getchar(). String Input gets () .

gets(ch). Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. A character following this defines the format for a value.16 char ch[5].] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. list of variables). x. g. %e. General Form: scanf (“format string”. l. o. puts(ch). u. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. C has a special formatting character (%). Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. L) conversion character (d.. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. f. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f.

To read a string using ‘%s’. ‘&’ need not be used. the delimiter while reading the values is space.&a.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. floating point=%6. By default. sum). Cognizant Technology Solutions.&b). printf (“sum = %*.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. Format string and variables are separated by comma.2f”. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. &b). This function returns the number of characters printed. Example 3. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. Delimiter can be user-defined. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. “format string”. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. &ch. list of variables). i. int=%3d. p.&b).*f”. &x). a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. first 4 characters printed. name). /* column width 10. which directs the interpretation of input data.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007.18 printf (“char=%c. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. &a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. list of variables).4s”. Format string. also known as control string contains field specifications. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. Example 3. w. &a. General Form: printf (“format string”.ch.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. x). str). /*accepts all inputs including space. Stops when it encounters new line. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. General Form: sscanf (str. &i.

float.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language. “total” c.b=2.h> main() { int z. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. General Form: sprintf (str. list of variables). C supports four basic primitive data types: int. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. main d.x=5. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. Test your Understanding 1. “format string”. z = x++ .--y * b / a. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. C has a rich set of operators. printf("The Value of z : %d\n".y=-10.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. then based on the operator precedence. getchar().a=4. char. Cognizant Technology Solutions.z). C program is a collection of functions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . double. Emp_name b.

4 5 7. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. 4 5 b. Is the statement valid? 3. s. s= (int) y + 3. s = 10. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. What is ternary operator in C? 5.b). printf (“%d “. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 4.0 . a. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). . Answers: 1. x= (int) y. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6.5 4. getche() echoes the input character on screen. What is the output of the following code? int a . b = printf (“welcome”). y=7. 6. 7. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making.5.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. 5. x = 7.5. If. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x.c ( “ “ . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All are valid. but getch() will not echo the character.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. valid 3.

Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. b=10. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. and iteration (looping). In a selection structure. c=a + b. c=3. Example 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In a sequence construct. c=a+b. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. y = x * b – k. } x=a*b. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. } } { b=2. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . until some condition is satisfied. Example 5. In an iterative structure.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). . It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. 1 a=8. 2 { a=10. } { { a=1. selection.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. An expression involves arithmetic. } ] statements3. Expression can be arithmetic. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. relational. logical. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. input-output statements. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and/or relational expression.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. and/or logical operators. is executed in a sequential manner. and one or more simple expression statements. } [ else { statements2. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. which consists of declaration statements. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text.

the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. a). General Form: if (expression) { statements1. } Example 5. if (expression) statements-1. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. Example 5. } else { statements2. If the else part is not specified. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome.c). else max = a. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. if (a<b) max = b. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. printf(“ max = %d” . true or false is known. Cognizant Technology Solutions.max). if (expression) statements-2. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. else printf (“largest = %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 43 ©Copyright 2007.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed.

It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. Example 5. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. .5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”).c). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). else statements4. else if (expression) statements2. else printf (“largest = %d”. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. else if(expression) statements3.b). else printf(“Fail\n”). else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”).

break. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. array variable. Example 5. variable. else max = b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. case itemn: statement n. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. and/or arithmetic expression. logical expression. must be an integer valued expression. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. expr3 is evaluated. default : statement. which is similar to the following if-else statement. } Expression in the switch statement. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. Expression may be a constant value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. if (a>b) max = a. default statements will be executed. case item2: statement 2. If the variable matches with one of the constants. pointer variable. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part).Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. then an execution jump is made to that point. break. Default case is optional and if specified.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. break. which are represented by constant values. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. relational expression. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). if there is no match for the case labels.

expression2. case ‘/’: c=a/b. the control is transferred to the statement. ‘while’. General Form: for (expression1.while’. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. case ‘*’: c=a*b. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. the statements inside the loop are executed. break. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . break. ‘do. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. If the test condition is True. expression3) { statement / block of statements. break. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. There are several ways to execute loops in C. case ‘-’: c=a-b. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). break. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. which follows the loop. If the test condition is False. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b.

9 for (i=1. printf (“c=%d”. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. Example 5.c<=20.j<=3. (3) for (x=0. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop.8 (1) for (x=0. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)).. ((x>3) && (x<9)).) { c+=1. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. z . y=4.c<=20. For each & every iteration through the outer loop.i<=3. } (7) int c=0. for (. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. y=4.. c++.) { printf (“%d”. Different variables must be used to control each loop. } In the above example. c). (4) c=2.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. z=4000. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The second loop. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.j).i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”.i). the inner loop runs completely. x++) x++. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop. is called inner loop. Cognizant Technology Solutions.++c) (6) c=2. for (. Example 5. for(.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). controlled by the value of ‘j’. c). Such loops are called nested loops. for (j=1.

Example 5. while is an exit controlled loop statement. } Expression can be a constant value. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. while (expression). (2) while(x = x+1){ }. If the expression is initially False. the body of the loop is executed. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements.. After executing the body of the loop. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. (3) while(x) { }. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. General Form: while (expression) { Statements.. ++c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. variable or any expression. } ‘do . while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. If the result is True. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. the body of loop is not executed at all. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. the body of the loop is executed. If the expression evaluates to True. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. (4) while(1). (6) c=1. General Form: do statement (s). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement.while’ statement The do. At the end of the loop.c).10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. On reaching the do statement. the expression is checked again.

while. } while (d<=10). do { printf (“%d\n”.13 for(loop=0. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop.loop). It is used to terminate the current iteration. */ printf("%d\n". It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. Example 5. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. When the condition becomes False.11 int d=1. Break.d). Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. Example 5.Problem Solving and C Programming to True. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements.12 for(loop=0. General Form: continue. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ++d.loop++) { If (loop==10) break.loop<50. General Form: break..loop<100. the body of the loop is executed at least once. Example 5.

For each pounds. stones. } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. printf("%d\n". The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. printf(" US lbs UK st. pounds < 250. pounds. int uklbs = pounds % 14. Cognizant Technology Solutions. uklbs and kilos.e. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. lbs INT Kg\n"). pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . } getchar(). for(pounds=10. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. termination condition and the increment.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. apply formula to get the stones. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". so we have used the for loop.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen.loop). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . uklbs.45359 main() { int pounds. We know the starting point.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. kilos).

When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. case 3 : printf(“3”). and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. case 2 : printf(“2”). What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. Test your Understanding 1. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. while. An if statement may include only simple statements. 2. Which of the following statements are true? a. for. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. break. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). An if statement must always include an else clause. if clause can contain another if statement. case 1 : printf(“1”). c. b. break. break. that are used to carry out conditional looping.

else continue. 3 4. 5. printf (“%d”))) break. Default case is executed. 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is the difference between a while and do.. } Answers: 1. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. The loop statements of do.. 3. c 2.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”.. Cognizant Technology Solutions.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end).while will get executed at least once.Problem Solving and C Programming 4.

set of numbers.]. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name. set of names). The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. of the same data type. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. If an array of 5 integers elements is created. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. [index 0 refers first location . index 1 refers second location. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. etc.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. Cognizant Technology Solutions.g. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements..

and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. int matrix[2][2].1 int x[5]. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. char str[16]="qwerty". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. starting at x[0]. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . Array declaration reserves space in memory. Defines a character array. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. When addressing an element in an array. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers.2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. float sales_amt[10]. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays).Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. Example 7. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9].

34}.4. array can be declared without specifying the exact size. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. In such cases.2. (ex.3. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. the base address can not be changed.2. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location.45. In partial initialization. /*a[0] = 1. and processing of array elements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . size depends upon the number of values initialized. /* b[0] = 10.3 int a[5]={1. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. When arrays are initialized during declaration. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. a[1]=2.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1.5}. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array.20 . partial initialization is allowed. /*a[0]=1.3. a[1] = 2 . a[3]=4 (if size not specified. b[1] = 45. Thus. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array. a[2]=3.4}.2. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. If initialized. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.3. Example 7. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}.4}. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ) */ float b[2]={10. retrieving.2. a[2] = 3 .

i<3. (1) scanf(“%d”. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. &a[2]).a[1]).pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0.6 int a[3]. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . scanf(“%d”. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &a[0]).a[2]). &a[1]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .a[1]. a. Example 7. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations.i++) printf(“%d”. a+2).i<3.i++) scanf(“%d”. scanf(“%d”. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array. /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7.a[i]).Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0.5 int a[3]. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension.a[0]. a[2]). /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays. (1) printf(“%d”. (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. a+1. a[0]). printf(“%d”.&a[i]).

= 4 elements). (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order.4. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations. Example 7.{1.2. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .8 int num[2][3] = {1.2}. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . int num[2][3] = {1.{4}}. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.6}. /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.3}}.3}.5. If m elements are needed.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.row 1 & column 0 .Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.3.5}.3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.row 0 & column 1 . n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.2. out of n locations defined. 7 int a[2][2].row 0 & column 0 . Assume that array starts at location 1000. In partial initialization.4. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration.2.2.

one ASCII character per location. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. of strings] [max no. String constants can be assigned to character array variables.11 char studname[50][15]. to represent the end of string. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". Cognizant Technology Solutions. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. name[1] = ‘O’. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. name[3] = ‘D’.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. return 0.’u’. Example 7. /*Creates a string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A character string is stored in an array of character type. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’.’m’. Example 7. The value at str[6] is the null character. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. of chars in strings]. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings.*/ (3) char name[5]. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. name[4] = ‘\0’. there is no built-in data type for strings. name[2] = ‘O’. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end.’\0’). In C. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters.

{‘c’.’a’. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ .”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. name). Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). Cognizant Technology Solutions. int i=0.’t’. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.’t’. which manipulates the entire string at once. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.’\0’}.’a’.Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.h.’\0’}. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7.’a’. printf(“%s” .’\0’}} = {{‘b’. name).12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” .”cat” .13 (1) char name[20]. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”. Example 7.’t’. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++.

string2.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. Find last occurrence of character c in string. Cognizant Technology Solutions. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. s2) strcspn(s1. n) strncmp(string1. c) strrchr (string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. s2) strspn(s1. c) strstr(s1. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. string2) strcmp(string1. string2) strcat(string1.h: String Functions strcpy(string1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. string2. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. string2. n) strncpy(string1. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2.s2) strpbrk(s1.

The header file.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. i < 24.\f. . fib[0] = 0. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. ctype.\r. which can manipulate a single character. i < 24.\t. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric. for(i = 2.\v. Cognizant Technology Solutions. True if c is ASCII .\r. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2].h> main() { int fib[24].h.\f. for (i = 0. “. fib[1] = 1. int i. . Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio. True if c is a letter.:.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.‘. True if c is a control character (\n. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. is used for the character functions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1.) True if c is a space character (\n. ‘.

i<4. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. Initially array of size 24 is declared.5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1.2..3. printf("\n"). i++) for(j=0.h> main() { int twod[4][5].13…. i<4. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array. j<5. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. int i. i.8. for(i=0. } getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio. fib[i]). 2. twod[i][j]). Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. for (i=0. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. i++) { for (j=0. j<5.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n".j. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. j++) printf("%d ". getchar().

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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Functions can be defined at any location in the program. Global Variables . parameters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It can be accessed only within that function. } Function is defined prior to its reference.) { local variables Declaration. If it is declared in the Global declaration section.. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. : return expression. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. So compiler will identify the function name. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. executable statement 2. type arg2. and the operations to be carried out by the function. Memory for the global variables is allocated.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). Function body.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. Local Variables . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is used by all the functions in the program. } Function Header function-name arg1. } main() { fun(). there is no need for the function prototype. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. …. executable statement 1. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program.

Default return type is ‘int’. it is achieved by the return statement. If there is no return statement. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. constant value or any single valued expression. return(a*b). General Form: return. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. each containing different expression. else return b. return(a<b). (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. does not return any value. Example 9. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. Example 9. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. If it returns a value.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. There can be multiple return statements. expression can be a variable name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a.3 (1) return. then void keyword is used to represent that. } (2) main() { return 0. OR return(expression). A function may or may not return a value to the calling function.

the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* function prototype. If a function is returning a value. else return b. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. } int find_big(int a. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. /* function call statement. It is a process by which a function calls itself.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. When the function call is encountered. &num2). Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. Example 9. int). The number. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. scanf(“%d%d”. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. big). big=find_big(num1. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. big. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. find_big(num1. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. num2. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. it is called Recursion. data type. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. &num1.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments).num2).num2)) statement. If the function returns value.

} fact(int k). scanf(“%d“. { if (k<=1) return 1. the control is immediately transferred to the function. printf(“Factorial = %d“. printf(“Enter an integer\n”). The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. which may call function3.7 main() { int n. which in turn return the value to its calling function. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. Depending on its definition. On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. When the return statement is encountered. fact(int).&n). along with the value returned. which in turn call function2. } If n = 4. In fourth call. The main function may call function1. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . else return(k*fact(k-1). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . control is transferred back to the called function.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3).fact(n)).

} } } scanf(“%d%d”. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). &n. border(n. printf(“\n”). sum=add(a. return.b). integers\n”).b. for(i=1.c).&a. scanf(“%d%c”.i<=80. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. } add() { int a. } { int sum. } border() { int i. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”).int y) { return a+b .sum). Cognizant Technology Solutions.a. &a.sum). sum=add().&c). add(int x. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. } border(int m.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n.c).i<=m. char s) { int i. return.b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . { int sum.&b).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. printf(“\n”). for(i=1. printf(“\nSum = %d”. return(a+b).s).i++) printf(“-“).&b). printf(“\nSum = %d”. scanf(“%d%d”.i++) printf(“%c“. char c. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border().

They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. b. } void swap(int c.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. d = temp. b=20. b). /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. a=10. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. pointer variable or array name. b). Cognizant Technology Solutions. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. a. Example 9. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. temp = c. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. So. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. } Call by Reference In this approach. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. So. c = d. swap(a. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The value of the actual argument will remain same. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location.

maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. a. i < 5. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. max_value = val[0].Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. for( i = 0. } void swap(int *c. swap(&a. which points to an array. To pass an array to a function. max. } main() { int values[5]. &b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. temp = *c. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. b). return max_value. Example 9. *d = temp.12 int { int max_value. a=10.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. b=20. i. Example 9. *c = *d. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). i. b. int *d) { int temp.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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} printf(“%d” . well defined task. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is function prototyping? 2. } fn(int i) { return ++i. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. ii) function call. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. A function calling itself is called recursion. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. Test your Understanding 1. The command line arguments. a). What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. fn(i). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“ %d “ . argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. } 4. a). What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. printf("%d". extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. { int a = 3. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name.i). static.

2. 3 4 4. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. 10 6. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int *p(char *a[]) 7. What the following declaration statements imply? a. int (*p)(char a) d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 3. In call by reference. return data type). int p(char *a) b. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. a. Using command line arguments. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. b. 5. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. int *p(char *a) c. In C. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. type of its arguments. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. 7.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. is determined by where it is defined. This means. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. All other types of variables are local variables. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating... If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and})..Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. This is called block scope. it has file scope. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). If it is defined outside of all the blocks. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope.

by default it is an auto variable. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. it will retain the value between function calls. then its scope is confined to that function. they are also called local or internal variables. If not initialized in the declaration statement. it is automatically initialized to zero. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. Once allocated. prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. with identical names. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program .1 main() { int a = 5 . When the execution of the block is completed. printf (“%d “ . So. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block).Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. If the variable is declared within a function. { int a =6 . If no storage class is specified. Static variables are stored in memory. it is cleared and its memory destroyed. although it is active only in main().Thus. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. Example 10. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. the nested variables are unique auto variables. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a). In the case recursive functions. Because of this property. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a). internal static variables retain values between function calls. If not initialized in the declaration. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). } printf(“ %d “ .

} Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. Since registers are faster than memory. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. When using external variables. instead of keeping it in the memory. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. the variable is initialized to zero.x). Cognizant Technology Solutions. It retains its value till the control remains in that block.2 main() { int i. If not initialized in the declaration. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function.i<=5. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. printf(“ x = %d\n”. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). } incre() { static int x = 0. Since the registers are less in numbers.i++) incre(). External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. They are referred to as global variables. x = x +1. for (i=1. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. careful selection must be made for their use.

a). printf(“ %d “ . It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. } int b = 20. /* external variable declaration. extern int a = 10. printf(“ %d “ . but as a first approximation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. */ void fun(). just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. Example 10.Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. it is initialized to zero. fun(). invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. When a command is entered in a command window. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. The first word is treated as the name of a program. interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces.3 int a = 5 . The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. } void fun() { a = 10 . The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. External variable declaration can not have initialization.

i < argc. A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. employee name (string). c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. The components are called Members. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”.i . i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. for( i = 0. salary (float). char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer).4 main( int argc. department code (string).Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. argv[i]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char* argv[]) { int i.argc). } When the following command is given in the command prompt. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. Example 10. which are command line strings. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. For example. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Here. tag name is optional. } .. no extra structures can be created.. }.5 1) struct employee { int code. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable. “struct” keyword is used to define structures. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration.. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name. variable-name. variable-name.... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. Cognizant Technology Solutions. When declaring structure variables. char name[20].. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.... type variable-name. : : type variable-name. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007... a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that. Individual members will be given a separate memory location. variable-name..... float salary......... emp2.. struct employee emp1. int dept_code....Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition... variable-name... type variable-name... Example 10..

int dept_code. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. float salary. }. } emp1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 1. emp2. “Raja”.6 struct { int rollnum. 1}. then the expression “s. float avg. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. illegal. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0.”Dina”. stud2={102. struct employee { int empno = 101 . } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. If it is partially initialized.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. 90. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. struct stud stud1={101. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[20]. No storage class can be specified for structure members.”(dot). uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. illegal. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. int semester. Example 10.78}. (tag name is optional here) char name[20].m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’.

if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. Example 10.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. For example. } emp1.sizeof(emp1)). int year. the values in slack bytes are also compared. While comparing structure variables. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. printf (“Size = %d”. member-field-name Example 10. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types.7 emp1.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble .salary emp2.8 struct emp { int empno. the assignment expression a = b is valid.code emp1. even though the values stored in the member variables are same.name emp1.code emp2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007.9 struct { int day. This is because. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. Example 10. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. float basic. int month. char name[20]. Assignment operation is allowed.dept_code emp1. which is always not same for different structure variables. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. Cognizant Technology Solutions. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. }.

int dept_code. struct stud Accessing values: student [1]. struct date doj.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays.sub_marks[0] }.rollnum student [1]. float salary.name student [1]. char name[20]. In this example. int sub_marks[5]. Example 10. char name[15]. }. int avg. then we can do so by writing: emp1. }student.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. Example 10. char name [20]. Accessing values: student. student. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int semester.avg student[50].emp2.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.doj. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. }emp1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .semester student [1].10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum.

12 struct emp { int empno. char empname[10]. char empname[10]. When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . it is passed using call by value method. or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. But changes will not be reflected back.empno). printf(“ %s “ . emp2. void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). main( ) { void display(struct emp). emp1->empno). We can use pointer to structures. “AAAA”} . printf(“%d” . Example 10.empname). change(&emp1). /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007.13 struct emp { int empno. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . “AAAA”} . }.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. }. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . emp2. display(emp1).

…) Example 10. wage is a structure variable of sal structure.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. student2.h> struct student { char name[20].14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio.2f \n". } student1. float marks.name. y). } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name)."Tom"). student2.name). printf (" Marks are %. student1.marks = 99.marks). emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. strcpy(student1. student2. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. int a. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. int main ( ) { struct student student3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf (" Name is %s \n".9. x. getchar().

typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. int *p. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. struct { int a. only one member is accessible at a time. }*p1. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. Print the values of the structure. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ) operator. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. In unions. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. Consider the following structure. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. Test your Understanding 1. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach.

It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. }. 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct stud_type s1. char name[15]. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. }ex. 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int age. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. Answers: 1. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. *p1->p. union person { char surname[10]. sizeof (ex)). printf(“Size = %d”. 3.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. The elements of an array are always of the same type.

.. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members. can be used to declare variables of the union type... Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template ... is a derived data type. Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member.. like a structure.. In the declaration... . No other member can be initialized.......it creates the type. }union-variable.. but no storage is allocated. : : type variable-name. variable-name... For each variable.. union-variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session.. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization.. unformatted.. type variable-name. along with the keyword ‘union’... keyword ‘union’. and the members of the union are given.. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name.. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted.... Page 92 ©Copyright 2007.... The tag name... variable-name.. variable-name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . variable-name.. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. the tag name. Unions follow the same syntax as structures.... type variable-name. and block file I/O operations Unions Union.

/* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. union { char surname[10].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. Example 14. int dept_code. float x. float salary. s1. The dot operator (. }. static union item product = {100}. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion.) is used to access the members. float avg. char name[15]. struct stud_type { int rollno.2 { int code.1 union item { int m. char name[20]. char c. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. }. struct stud_type }ex. Thus. struct employee_type e1. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. int age. }. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

enum colors { red = 1 . green takes the value 6.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. at the same time. As with arrays. …… member n } . Cognizant Technology Solutions. tab = `\t’. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. the union allows the structure variables. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). similar to structures or a union. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. General Form: enum tag { member1 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. newline = `\n'.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. The member names must differ from one another. vtab = `\v'. e1 = getch(). The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. but not both. …………… var n. though they have signed integer values. var2 . to share common memory.e1. green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. first enumerated name has index value 0. blue = 5 . member2 . Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . Example 14. backspace = `\b'. That is. the user can use either e1 or s1. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. e1 and s1. As structures. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. Here. definition and variable declaration can be combined. next value is calculated as previous plus one.

file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. no need to use struct keyword. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. n2 . Then structure variables can be declared as follows.4 typedef numbers int. For such applications. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . struct n1 . char empname[10]. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. integer variables. files are needed. the results may be stored on disks. In C. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type.5 typedef { int empno. numbers n1. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. Example 14. employee emp1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. Example 14. It is used to give new names to existing data types.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. emp2. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. Similarly. General Form typedef datatype new-type. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. }employee.

and all characters will be transferred as such. When a file is opened. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. In C. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. and the new-line character. When a file is closed. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position.in which case the position points to the end of the file. When a program begins. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. Cognizant Technology Solutions. More generally. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). There are two types of streams: text and binary.h. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. Text streams consist of printable characters. the tab character. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. on some systems.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. A text stream.

variable list). The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. variable list). “mode”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. (Extensions can be specified like test. "format string". "format string". fp = fopen(“name”. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. the purpose/positioning of opening the file. fprintf(fp. fscanf(fp. details. fclose(fp ). The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. It is a string enclosed within double quotes.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c.

It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. or fflush(). all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. fsetpos(). the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. rewind(). if the file does not open or the file does not exist. If the file is opened with append mode (a). all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). Writing in to a file To write into a file.Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). By default. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the file is opened in the update mode (+).

the character is returned. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. On success. This may be a macro version of fgetc. which represents standard output device. If the end-of-file is encountered. char c. This fptr may be stdout. keyboard as a file. which is true if end of file is reached. the character is returned. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”).dat”. the pointer is moved to the next position. monitor as a file. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. otherwise false.dat”. The EOF is end of file status flag. On success.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. which represents a standard input device. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. Example 14. fclose(fp). General Form: ch =getc (fptr).fptr). Example 14. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp.fp).”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. The fptr may be stdin. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If an error occurs.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. char c. After the reading a character. If an error occurs.

a null pointer is returned. On error. On success. a file at a time. General Form: fgets(str.n. or read from. On error. On error. the newline character is read. fclose(fp). On success. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. a pointer to the string is returned. The newline character is copied to the string. whichever comes first. A null character is appended to the end of the string. EOF is returned. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets().Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). EOF is returned. string can be written to. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. or read from. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. a nonnegative value is returned. Cognizant Technology Solutions. integers can be written to. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. } String I/O Using string I/O. a nonnegative value is returned. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On success. a file at a time. the string remains unchanged. General Form: fputs (str. General Form: putw (i. This function writes an integer to a file. fptr).fptr). or the endof-file is reached. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). fptr). It stops when (n-1) characters are read.

or the next incompatible character. format-string. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. the function stops scanning and returns.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). General Form: fscanf( fptr. -1 is returned. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. the number of characters printed is returned. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. On success. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . according to the format specifier specified in format string. in a left to right fashion. If the input does not match. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. format-string. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. If an error occurred. variable-list). Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. EOF is returned. new line. in a left to right fashion. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. If an input failure occurs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. vertical tab.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. or form feed. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. tab. addresses-list). Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. General Form: i = getw( fptr). On success. or the width field is satisfied. carriage return. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf().

std[i]. i<5 . fpt = fopen("details. char name[10]. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. std1[i].dat" . i++. std[i]. Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. "r"). int i. &std[i]. std[i]. clrscr(). for(i=0. name . bytes of data).name printf("%d %s %d \n" . while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt .&std1[i]. fprintf(fpt . &std[i].dat" . &std1[i].age).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14.name .8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. age )\n\n").Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. "%d .age). "%d %s %d " . "w").no . printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). } fclose(fpt). The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions.no . std1[10].no . Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .e. fpt = fopen("details. int age. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. std1[i].name .name .age). std1[i].no . %s %d " .i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . std1[i]. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . std[i]. struct { int no. }std[10].age).

n. fwrite(&stud . sizeof(stud1[0]) . n. Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. i<5 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). On success the number of elements written is returned. int i . sizeof(stud[0]) . fptr = fopen("ex. fptr). The total number of bytes written is (size*n). fread(&stud1 . General Form fread (&str. size. 5 . }stud[10] . stud1[10]. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr.9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. &stud[i]. 5 . On success the number of elements read is returned. fp).dat" .stud[i]. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. "w" ). General Form fwrite (ptr.age). Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. The total number of bytes read is (size*n). fptr=fopen("ex. It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. int age . printf(" \n\n printing the values "). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fclose(fptr).dat" . struct tag { char name[10].name . size. fp). clrscr(). i++) scanf("%s %d ". fptr).Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. "r" ). for(i=0 . On error or end-of-file.

count. Code: /* findword. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. // close the file I opened earlier getchar().Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . In the main program.h> */ FILE * inFile. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. // is in the current line and // if so. "r"). 255.age). i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString. read the input argument. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. stud1[i]. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". Open the input file.Print the line number and the line.h> /* #include <stdlib.c */ #include <string.name . // This is where I read the lines of the file int count.char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. // after this command. } Try It Out 1.h> #include <stdio. stud1[i].c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i<5 . print it } fclose(inFile). count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. myString).

x = 100.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. value. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . int main() { union number value. "Put a value in the integer member". return 0. }.". Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. "and print both members. one integer and the other double. value.h> union number { int x. getchar().x.y ).y = 100. "double:\n".x. "double:\n". Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. "int: ".0.y ). value. value.". value. if found print the line number and the full string. "int: ". double y. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. "Put a value in the floating member". Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. value. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". Close the file and exit the program 2. "and print both members.

Preproccessing is done before compilation. 2L . Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. } 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . ftell(). Test your Understanding 1. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. fopen(). i++."hello-out"). Input. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. and what value does it usually have? 4. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. } return 0. What is EOF. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and rewind() functions. string I/O. sleep(1). formatted I/O and block I/O. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol.

foo( )..a ). What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 4. No significance.”. stdin. stderr 2. 5. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. a). trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. 3. printf(“%d”. } Answers: 1. Its value on most computers is -1. stdout. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007.

On success. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). If it is a binary stream. General Form: fseek( fptr. ftell() and rewind(). Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. In some applications. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . offset. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. the current file position is returned. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. If it is a text stream.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. On error.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. fseek (fp. 2). form feed. fseek (fp.1 fseek (fp. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. Remove comments from the source file. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. 10L. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. 1). The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. -10L. or carriage return. 2). a nonzero value is returned. fseek (fp. Move the file pointer to the beginning. 10L. 0). from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). 0L. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. On success. 0L. 0). fseek (fp. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. vertical tab. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. On error. -10L. zero is returned. Move the file pointer to the end of file. 1).Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. Example 15. The end-of-file indicator is reset. The error indicator is NOT reset. General Form: rewind(fptr). horizontal tab. 2 On a text stream. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. fseek (fp.

#undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. Defines text for a compile-time error message. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Except for some #pragma directives. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. depending on the result of a constant expression.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. or #elif test fails. No semicolon (. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. #ifdef. #ifndef. The # token must appear as a first character. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. Ends conditional text. #include Inserts text from another source file. or #elif test fails. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. Defines a preprocessor macro. #ifdef. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. #ifndef.

the file is searched first in the current working directory. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. Example 15. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. Therefore. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. Cognizant Technology Solutions. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. or until the end of the program source is reached. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. In case that it is not there. and then processed by the compiler.2 #include <stdio. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. whichever comes first. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Preprocessing will be done before compilation. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007.h> #include “stdio.

} Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15.. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. ….Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier.

and one matching #endif directive. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). and #ifndef directive. addition=add(2.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. there are zero or more #elif directives. addition=(2)+(3). There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. Example 15.. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). Continuation character for macro definition is \. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #ifdef. areaofsquare=3+4*3+4.3). For each #if.5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a.b) ((a)+(b)). The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. zero or one #else directive. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing.

…. If there is a matching #elif. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or #endif.8 #define name(x. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. If the value is 0 (false). } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). */ Example 15.somca)).. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. and the preceding #if evaluated to false.7 #define name(x) #x main() { ….y) x##y main() { ….. If so. printf(name(xyz)). then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled.6 Check whether a variable is defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(name(ssn. Example 15. change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. #elif.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). If there is a matching #else. Example 15. ….

5 – value. for pointer implementation. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. * and & are inverse of each other. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. & address operator. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. & and *. x = 5 . int a = 5 . prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. as they have a number of useful applications. a). printf(“ Address of a = %u”. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. *px. &a). It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. Whenever a variable is declared. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. C provides two operators. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C.9 int x. px = &x.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &px). hold only the address of the variable of same data type. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. *p = &a . Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. b . *px). printf(“ x = %d “ . q = p. . int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pointer variable of a particular data type can.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. *q = NULL.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. valid valid. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. Example 15. printf(” address of x = %d “ . Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. invalid . printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15.11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . b = &a. px). &x). x). q = a. Null or an address. Two pointer variables can be compared. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type.

12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. *pv is the same as v[0]. ptr ++. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. ptr= &i.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. Thus.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. if v is an array. i=5. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and so on. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array.

5} ptr = a .4} . a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .17 int a[2][2] = {1. Example 15. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr .2.*ptr). printf (“%d “.*(a+i)). (ptr+i)). The way in which the pointer variable used. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. printf (“%d “.3. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.3. Example 15.15 printf (“%d “. 4. similar to ptr = &a[0]. varies according to the dimension.16 printf (“%u “.*(ptr+i)).2. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. OR ptr_vble = array_name.14 int a[5] = {1. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value .Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i . OR pointer_variable = array_name. ptr = &a[0][0] . *ptr . Accessing address Example 15.

displays the x(i. each with 2 elements. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007.i<2. for example. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array. Therefore.4. int a[2][3]={1. So.6}.*(*(pa+i)+j)). Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified.18 printf (“%d “. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1. is a collection of one dimensional array.j) value Example 15.i++) { for (j=0.*(a + i)[ j ].*(*(ptr + i) +j).j) value displays the x(i. printf (“%d “.3.19 main() { int i. it results in a problem. printf (“%d “. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. refers to the entire row .Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.*(a[ i ] + j). int *pa=&a[0][0].actually a pointer to the first element in i th row. jth column Accessing value Example 15.2. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. Cognizant Technology Solutions. j. For example. for (i=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .j++) printf(“\t%d”.j) value displays the x(i. Here.j<3.5.

Example 15. Suppose. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. which can hold the address of a character variable. Thus. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. When an array is referenced by its name. ptr[0] = a[0].3. we have 2 pointers ptr[0].4} . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Once the pointer is declared. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. it refers to the address of the 0th element. p = name. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. *ptr[2] . Cognizant Technology Solutions. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row .20 int a[2][2] = {1.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”).21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1].2.

An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings.3} . char *p = “string” . “ABC” . valid invalid Thus.1. *p). It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. “AB” . “xyz”}. make it a pointer to a string of varying length. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. char *name[4] = { “A” . a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. int *p = {0. *p). When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. printf(“String output = %s”. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. “rstu”. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. “ABCD”} . The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. If the elements of array are string pointers.2. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character.

In the above example. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15.23 const int a=10. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007.24 int a. substantial saving in memory. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. The value cannot be modified. Thus.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. int *const pa = &a. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Example 15. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. int *pa = &a.

++num2. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. num1. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . const int * const pb = &b.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. *pnum = 2.25 int b.55. Cognizant Technology Solutions. getchar(). *pnum. ++*pnum. Example 15. long num2 = 0. pnum = &num2. long *pnum = NULL. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. pnum = &num1. float b. in order to know the size and value of the data item. num2. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". Try It Out 1. *pnum + num2). *(float *) pab = 105. *(int *) pab =100. pab=&b. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007.26 int a. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. pab=&a. num2 += *pnum. But it is needed. void *pab.

a[2]=&i3.num2. int *b. a[0]=&i1. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. } printf("using pointer\n"). Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. the array elements is the pointer. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. now the value of num2 is 1.e. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array.h> main(){ int *a[5].i3=2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a[3]=&i4. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .j<5. int j. Then the value of num1 is 2.value at pnum 2. %16u %d\n". Increment the value of num2.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0.i4=1. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. printf("Address for(j=0.i5=0. #include <stdio.i2=3. a[4]=&i5. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared.a[j]. int i1=4. Print all the values num1. a[1]=&i2.j++) { printf("%16u a[j].a[j]). Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. Address in array Value\n").

*b. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically.j<5. Declare an array of integer pointers. 2. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. State whether the following are true or false a. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory.b). for( j=0. Test your Understanding 1.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n".*b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } getchar(). Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. b++.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. See the difference. malloc(). There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers.

} 4. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). 3. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. into type int *. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. *b = &a . What is the output of the following statements? a=4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . True. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. The third statement castes **c. sizeof(str1). 5.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. Since b points to a. false. char str2[]=”abcd”. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. false 2. 2 5 5 6. printf(“%d %d %d”. b = (int *)**c. Given the following declaration: int a. **c = &b. 5.sizeof(str2). calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. sizeof(“abcd”)). Cognizant Technology Solutions. calloc(). } 6. printf("\n%d. assign the value to a. 300 4. n[0]=100. 100. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. Since c points to b.%d". The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. false. *n. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. The result is meaningless. **c=5. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. Answers: 1. n[24]=200. malloc(). What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. which is value of a. The first statement assigns 4 to a. Differentiate malloc() .

} void change(int *q) { *q = 10. /* function prototype */ void change(int *). Example 17.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . p =&a. change(p). printf(‘’ %d ‘’ .1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . *p.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . p = assign() .2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. *p) . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. a). int *assign() .

printf (“%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *q = &a. p = add. return q . } It is possible to pass a portion of an array.*p). So. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. } int *big (int *x .) Suppose we have a function as. *p. /* addr. int *). ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. to a function using pointers. which will speeds up the execution. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. *q = 20 . &b). rather than an entire array. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). x + y). else return (y). b=20.. void (*p)(int x. Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. main() { int a=10. } Example 17. void add(int x.Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . p = big (&a.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. } Pointer to this function is declared as. int y). of a is returned */ /* addr. of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007.

Example 17. Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.6 struct stud { int rollnum. (*func_ptr) ().5 main() { void abc(). struct stud student={101.67}. }. int (*func_ptr) (). Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. float avg.4 int display(). abc(). /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. int semester. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. In this declaration. char name[20]. 1. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. we can write as ptr = &student. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . will call the function add() with parameters 10. Example 17. *ptr . (*abc)(). 95.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10.20).”raja”. func_ptr = display.

Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. ptr->name. Thus. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . struct employee *empptr. Example 17. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. ptr->rollnum. Cognizant Technology Solutions.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. and then release this memory when it is no longer required.8 struct employee { char name[20]. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. float salary. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. ptr->avg).Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). calloc () . int *p. ptr->semester. char gender. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions.

for(i=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for(i=0. for(i=0 . A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p.Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. j<3. sizeof(int)). i++) for(j=0. *c[3]. for(i=0. *b[3] . i<3. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). p = (int *) calloc (10. Example 17. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). *(c[i]+j)). j<3. j++) scanf("%d". /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)).9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . j++) scanf("%d". i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. b[i]+j). i<3. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. i<3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. j<3. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). int i. This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. j<3. j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). a[i]+j). i<3. free() will take a void pointer. which can hold 10 integers. for(i=0.j. i<3. j++) printf("\t%d". i++) for(j=0. i++ for(j=0. i++) for(j=0.

10 addr.ptr1 value int x. However. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. int **p. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. Example 17.ptr2 x=100. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. printer. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. p1=&x. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. it cause memory leakages If not used properly.**p2. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. As such.*p1. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. p2=&p1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. beyond 3 levels. video memory. For example. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which holds the address of another integer pointer. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory.

( *cardPtr ). cardPtr = &aCard.h> struct card { char *face.face. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int main() { struct card aCard. Print the values of card structure in three different forms. aCard. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". " of ". ( *cardPtr ). struct card *cardPtr. cardPtr->suit.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1.suit. In the main program. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1.face. Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. aCard.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. }. All will print the same. aCard. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .suit = "Spades". declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. char *suit. aCard. getchar(). " of ". " of ". cardPtr->face.face = "Ace". return 0. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio.suit ).

} void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. temp-> data = n. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). exit(0). if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). struct node *link. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . exit(0). } temp = temp-> link. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). temp-> link = p. temp = p. } else { temp = p. } return (p). p-> link = p. }. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. printf("The data values in the list are\n"). Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> # include <stdlib. struct node *insert(struct node *p. } p-> data = n. while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. int n){ struct node *temp.h> struct node { int data.

Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. start = insert ( start. so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. printlist ( start ). Now the start pointer is not NULL. struct node *start = NULL . Then returns back the pointer.temp->data). the start pointer will be NULL. 4 ). In the insert function. getchar(). Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". Then returns the pointer back.as it is first time. 2). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int x. start = insert ( start. } void main() { int n. } while (temp!= p). again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. temp=temp->link. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In the main program. 3 ). start = insert ( start. In the main program. printf("The created list is\n").c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. start = insert ( start. } else printf("The list is empty\n"). 1 ). declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2.

What is the use of generic pointers? 3. *b = &a . In the printlist() function. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. malloc(). n[0]=100. Given the following declaration: int a. printf("\n%d. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. } 4. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. n[24]=200. State whether the following are true or false a. b = (int *)**c. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. *n.%d". There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. **c=5. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. **c = &b. Test your Understanding 1.

The first statement assigns 4 to a. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. false. into type int *. 5. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. The result is meaningless. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. false 2. char str2[]=”abcd”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Answers: 1. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. } 6. printf(“%d %d %d”. which is value of a. sizeof(str1). calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. sizeof(“abcd”)).Problem Solving and C Programming 5. assign the value to a. 2 5 5 6. 3. calloc(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. True. 300 4.sizeof(str2). The third statement castes **c. Since b points to a. 100. malloc(). Since c points to b. false. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. Differentiate malloc() .

not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. #define max(A. #endif #ifdef.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. #elif. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } /* */ main(int argc. #else. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined.

: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. \?. \t. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. \r. \. \b \\. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. ‘\xhh’ \n. tab. hex) newline. ‘\ooo’. cr. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . octal.

>> >. <= ==. &name (type) expr sizeof *. divide. <. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. <<.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. !. % +. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. (*p). modulus (remainder) add. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. minus. struct tag name name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . logical not. -. >=. bitwise not indirection via pointer. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value.member pointer->member ++. decrement plus. ~ *pointer. subtract left. /. -+. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }.member pointer -> member Ex.

-=. *=.h> <time.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=.h> <stddef. for Next iteration of while. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <signal.h> <limits. do. …… .h> <setjmp. while.h> <ctype. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. expr2. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. do.h> <string. Unary operators. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.h> <float.h> <locale.h> <math.h> <stdio.h> <stdlib.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.h> <stdarg. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). all others group left to right. case const2: statement2 break.h> <errno. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left.

n) memset(s.ct. newline. letter.ct. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c) strrchr(cs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. t are strings and cs.n) memchr(cs. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.ct) strncmp(cs.h> Consider s.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype. form feed.ct) strncpy(s.n) strchr(cs. cr.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007.ct.n) strcat(s.c. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.ct.ct.n) memmove(s.c) memcpy(s.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.c.n) strcmp(cs. digit Checks whether c is a Space.n) memcmp(cs.ct) strncat(s. tab.ct.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. If a * is used in place of the width specifer. g. Overrides the space flag. Trailing zeros will not be removed. Precision overrides this flag. then the value to be converted. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. For d. The type of conversion to be applied (required). x. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). e. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . g. Overrides the 0 flag. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. Default is to just show the . E. X. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. then the precision argument. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). [. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified).sign. i. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). This is useful only with a width specifier. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). f. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. e. the width argument comes first. u. o. Result will always have a decimal point. If the value overflows the width of the field. Negative values still show the sign. then the field is expanded to fit the value. f.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional).

o. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. x. i. For f. the width argument comes first. o. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. e. u. x. u. For f. i. e. Precision does not affect the c type. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. u. E types. [. o. If a * is used. n e. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary).0 For d. g.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. u. . d. o. x. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. x. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . i. E.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. u. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. 6 for f. X types. o. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The minimum number of digits to appear. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). i. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. or . f. x. e. then the value to be converted. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. . n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. then the precision argument. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. For d. Value is first converted to a long double. i.

Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. Single character is printed. No characters are printed. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Type double printed as [-]ddd. D. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). E Type signed int. [type] d. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. F. Otherwise printed as type f. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. A % sign is printed. Type char. The exponent contains at least two digits. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Type unsigned int printed in decimal. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. Trailing zeros are removed. i o u x X f e. b. d. f.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). e. Type pointer to array. The argument must be a pointer to an int. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional).ddd. Type unsigned int printed in octal. g. E. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). B. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Type double printed as [-]d. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). C. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. c.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. u. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. Type unsigned int. f. s Type character array. i. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters.e. carriage return. then it is base 10. i. Type signed int. The input must be in base 8 (octal). It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). The argument is a double. E. X e. n e. it reaches a nonconvertible character). Type unsigned int. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. Begins with an optional sign. The argument is a long double. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. vertical tab. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. or form feed). [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. f. Then one or more digits. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). o. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. o. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). tab. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). f. d. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. o u x. Type unsigned int. new line.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. then it is base 8 (octal). Type float. u. Digits 0 through 9 only. g e. Digits 0 through 7 only. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . G designated with an e or E.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . No null character is appended to the array.] Input Type character array. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). Pointer to a pointer. Type character array.. If the first character is a carrot (^). Requires a matching % sign from the input. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. Allows a search set of characters. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. If no width field is specified. By specifying the beginning character. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. The argument must be a pointer to an int. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-).. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. then 1 is assumed. No characters are read from the input stream. A null character is appended to the end of the array.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. a dash.

“How to solve it by Computer”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. “C How to Program”. Third Edition. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.pdf http://cm. “A Book on C”.liu.uiuc.Dromey.se/c/bwk-tutor.html http://www. Tata McGraw Hill R. Fourth Edition.acm.html#introduction http://www.lysator.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel. “Programming in C”.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley.bell-labs. Ira Pohl.G. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

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