Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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....................................................................................................................................................106 Test your Understanding ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 Try It Out ......................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ......................................108 Preprocessor Directives ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Cognizant Technology Solutions............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ....................................................................94 Typedef Statement .................................................................................................................................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization...................................................100 Numeric I/O......................................................................93 Enumeration ............................................................................................................................................................................75 Summary ...............................................84 Structures and Arrays .....................................................95 File Operations .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................101 Block I/O .....................................................................108 Learning Objectives ..........................................................................................................................................................................104 Summary ............................................................................................................................................98 String I/O..................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions .....................................................................90 Test your Understanding ...............................................................................79 Storage Classes .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................88 Try It Out .................................................87 Structures and Functions ..79 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions...............92 Learning Objectives ......106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ............................................................92 Union of Structures ...........108 Random File Operations .............................100 Formatted I/O..................................................................................................................................92 Unions......................89 Summary ...........................................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.........................................................................79 Command Line Arguments .........................115 Declaration and Initialization................109 Introduction to Pointers .........................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ...............................................................................96 Character I/O .............................................................................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives .......................................................77 Test your Understanding ..................................................

..........................................117 Try It Out ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007........127 Structures and Pointers ..........................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ........................................................................................151 Websites .........................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary .................................151 Books ........................................................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers .................................................................................................................................136 Test your Understanding .......................................................................................................................................................127 Learning Objectives ...........................................................116 Pointers and Arrays ....................................................................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: .....................................................................................................................133 Summary ............. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .............123 Summary ...........................................................125 Test your Understanding .138 References ..............129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .....................................................................130 Try It Out ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Functions and Pointers ....................................

Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. There is no universal method for solving a given problem. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. identifying. Cognizant Technology Solutions. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. determining the cause of the problem. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. It is an act of defining a problem. prioritizing. To understand the problem. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. It is also known as Program Analysis. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. headings. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. Program Design is both a product and a process. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. An important approach is Top-Down programming design. several design methodologies can be applied. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. While applying top-down design to a given problem. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. the new parts become more focussed and. Cognizant Technology Solutions. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. therefore.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence.

the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. Example 2. and terminate in a finite time. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. the next step must be unambiguously defined. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. produce output. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. deletions. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. but omits language-specific syntax. to test its correctness. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. or modifications to the existing algorithm. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. fact. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The errors identified leads to insertions. However.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n.

Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. or entry from. required to solve a problem. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. reports). another part of the same flow chart.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true.e.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . End Represents Input. Output data Represents Process (actions. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. i Initialize fact =1. fact. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2.

Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . statements. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. the design (algorithm.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. After compilation. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. During execution. The compiler is system software. flowcharts. Documentation can be of great value. Linking is done if necessary. and project workbooks Internal documentation. Details of particular programs. but also to the programmers themselves. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. algorithm descriptions. The translation results in the creation of object code. requirements can be tested for its correctness. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. Writing a program is called Coding. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. Then. which includes things such as reference manuals. Cognizant Technology Solutions. or particular pieces of programs. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Testing is done during every phase of program development. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. The program is now ready for execution. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. Initially. the declarations.

Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. FORTRAN. On some projects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and Pascal. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. This is called foolproof programming. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. COBOL. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. C++. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. C. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. Ada. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. Testing means detecting errors. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. For many programmers. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. such as BASIC. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data.

Thus. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. machine language is not an easy language to learn. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. there are many new languages. Because of it design. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. For example. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It does not need any translator program.

Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. For example. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. In high level languages. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. -. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. irrespective of the type of computer used. Cognizant Technology Solutions. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. /. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. SUB and LOAD etc. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). This translator program is called Assembler. for its program construction. %.

Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. For example. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. with every combination being meaningful. In 1959. Later. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. and the expertise of the programmer. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). though not widely used. The major breakthrough occurred. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. This. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. operations. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. type of program. tested and maintained with ease. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. The language should provide appropriate data structures. in turn. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. but it is complex and difficult to learn. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved.

efficient register allocation. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. and Embedded System Environment. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. the backup process on an organization. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. Cost of Program creation.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. coded. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. testing & use: This implies design. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. testing. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. coding. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. For example. Interactive Environment. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices.

o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. 4. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Cognizant Technology Solutions. compiling and running. coding. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. Distinguish between testing and debugging. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. and maintenance. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. The environment under which a program is designed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Examples include database management systems. algorithm development. 2. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. called Modules. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. word processing systems etc. Give the algorithm. Represent the following problem in top-down design. Planning a tour. testing. coded. debugging. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. 3. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. documenting. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. Top-down program design.

Problem Solving and C Programming 5. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. True. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4. What is meant by portability of programs? a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . True 5. It can run on any machine d. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. Easy to carry from place to place b.

Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. BCPL. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. which are portable but inefficient. Prior to C. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. The standard was updated in 1999. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. in 1973. In 1970. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. and B. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. To assure that the C language remains standard. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. In 1967. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. for writing system software. It was evolved from ALGOL. which are efficient but nonportable. During 1970s. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C.

Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C++. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Java. C# conserve C syntax.

Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. although they may appear in any order. array. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Every C program must have one main() function. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section.extensive use of pointers for memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . to include functions from the system library. C is a case sensitive language. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. called functions. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. C program can be documented using these comment lines. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. Output and Processing statements. to define the symbolic constants and macro. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks.

1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). num2).h> main( ) { int num1.&num2). &num1.num2. It removes comments and empty lines in the program. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language.sum. num1. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). scanf(“%d%d”. sum = num1+num2. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. sum). Cognizant Technology Solutions. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio.

The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . file with a. Blank spaces etc.defines a symbolic name or constant.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . numbers and expressions.standard library maths file. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. #include <math. . ? . Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words.OBJ indicates object code files. Assembler The assembler creates the object code. +. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Z o Lowercase a…. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code).. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007.includes contents of a named file. the link editor combines these functions with main(). % .h> -.standard library I/O file #define -. Identifiers.z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =. to create an executable file. External variable references are resolved here.h> -. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. Operators and Expression. These files are usually called header files.2 #include -. #include <stdio. [On UNIX. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.

It should start with an alphabet. constants. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. All keywords must be written in lowercase. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and functions. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. The following table shows the list of keywords. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. the range of values that can be represented in memory. Example 3. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ANSI C supports 32 keywords. predefined meanings in C.

Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. Here. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. They are. int = 2 bytes.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. Similarly. never less than int. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.147. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.294.483.4 * (10-4932) to 1.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4. They are used to represent a collection of data. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions.7 * (10-308) to 1.967.647 Floating Point Number. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.768 to 32.483. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program. It is useful with pointers.4 * (10+38) 1. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.147. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname).295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.4 * (10-38) to 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.648 to 2.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32.7 * (10+308) 3.

char ch. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. Example 3. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. j. z.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. y. k. also called read-only variables. ct=1.0. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 int total=0. float sum = 0. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. tot = 0. General form: var_data_type list variables. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. int tot. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float x. ct=1.4 int i. Example 3.

C operators can be classified into a number of categories. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. Cognizant Technology Solutions. const char ch = ‘a’. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. or const long a = 50000l.14. const float pi=3.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. which evaluates to either true or false. const long a = 50000L. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. This value cannot be changed by the program. const int a = 0567. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. (true – 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations.6 const int size = 100. Example 3.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. ++i).Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. +=.pre increment */ /* prints 6 . k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. printf(“%d”. /*prints 6 . /=. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement.post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. if condition is evaluated to true. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . i).Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. -=. i++). Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. *=. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever.k: pre increment. printf(“%d”. printf(“%d”. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007.

(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Additive operators. indirection. It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. function calls that evaluates to a value.7: Operators Let a=1. operators.b) / c or a . Index. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. unary minus. b=2. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . address Increment and decrement operators. and Logical expression (uses logical operators). The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. Inequality comparators. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. op= Name Parentheses. Logical OR.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . member access operators Logical NOT. Relational expression (uses relational operators).(b / c). Assignment. ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . Equality comparators Logical AND. Conditional. Multiplicative operators.

5.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. This is called Typecasting.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. but more efficient than: a = 3. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type.which is the same as. Example 3. b+c). b=4. the statement x = y + z. (2) a = (b=2. b = 3. (3) int a. the assignment operator is “=”. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement.8 (1) a = (b = 2. double to float causes round of digits. d = 3. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i.) not a storage location. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b+c. c = 3. a=b=3. c= a>b. ..e. x + 3 = y. For example. float b. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. d = a == b. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. b-c). C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. if the operands of an expression are of different types. a=3. (4) int c. c=3.. c=3. However. In C. e = a != b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. before assigning the value to it. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. For example. In implicit type conversion.

Then. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value.8) as the integer 5. sum = (int) (1.0 will be stored in sum.11 int a.9 float sum. b=4. The original value of the variable is not altered.7.5 * 3. d = a % b.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. instead of 5.8). y = a / 10. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. f. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. y. because the variable sum is of type float. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float . a=14. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 3.narrowing . c = a/b.0. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. float x. 5. c. d.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. z. b. e = -a % -b. Example 3. x = a / 10.5 * 3. e.

a=++b + c++. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). a=++b + ++c. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b=0. . One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. Another method is to use input functions. processing. General form: char-variable = getchar(). a=b-. a=b++ + c++. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. getch (). and tab.13 char ch.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.12 a int a=0. This single character includes alphabets. c=0. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. digits.+ --c. ch = getchar(). return. punctuations. c = a>b. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin).

This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To get a line of text.14 char ch[5].character input from console & echoes the character. General Form: putchar(char variable). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. monitor. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. Blank space is also considered as a character. General Form: gets(stringvariable). /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. ch = getchar(). gets(ch). putchar(ch). this function serves the purpose. Example 3. String Input gets () .15 char ch.

gets(ch). u. puts(ch).16 char ch[5]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). o. f. Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. %e. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. l. list of variables).. General Form: scanf (“format string”.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. Example 3. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. C has a special formatting character (%). A character following this defines the format for a value. L) conversion character (d. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f.

&b). a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. Delimiter can be user-defined. int=%3d. Format string and variables are separated by comma. &a.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”.*f”. first 4 characters printed. By default. printf (“sum = %*. Cognizant Technology Solutions. p. &a. name).*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. str). sum). w. x). &ch. To read a string using ‘%s’. /*accepts all inputs including space. Example 3. Example 3. ‘&’ need not be used. which directs the interpretation of input data. /* column width 10. i. “format string”. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. floating point=%6. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values.&a. list of variables). General Form: printf (“format string”. also known as control string contains field specifications. the delimiter while reading the values is space. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. &x). list of variables).2f”.ch. Format string. /*if the input is 12345 & 10.4s”. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. This function returns the number of characters printed. /*if the input is 12345 & 10.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. Stops when it encounters new line. &b). &i.&b). General Form: sscanf (str.18 printf (“char=%c. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”.

then based on the operator precedence. C has a rich set of operators. C program is a collection of functions. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. Emp_name b. double.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. “format string”.x=5.b=2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. char.a=4. Test your Understanding 1. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. getchar(). } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. “total” c. main d. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language. z = x++ . printf("The Value of z : %d\n". General Form: sprintf (str. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. float.z). C supports four basic primitive data types: int.y=-10.h> main() { int z.--y * b / a. list of variables).

7. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. getche() echoes the input character on screen. s.5. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. y=7.b). Cognizant Technology Solutions. x = 7. If. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). a. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. 5. x= (int) y. printf (“%d “. Answers: 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . . 4 5 7. s= (int) y + 3. 4 5 b. Is the statement valid? 3.5 4.c ( “ “ .Problem Solving and C Programming 2.0 . but getch() will not echo the character.5.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. valid 3. All are valid. What is the output of the following code? int a . What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. 4. b = printf (“welcome”). What is ternary operator in C? 5. s = 10. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. 6.

Example 5. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. b=10.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). until some condition is satisfied. y = x * b – k. 2 { a=10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. selection. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. 1 a=8. } } { b=2. and iteration (looping). Example 5. } { { a=1. c=a + b. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. c=a+b. . } x=a*b. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. c=3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In a selection structure. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. In a sequence construct. In an iterative structure. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007.

} ] statements3. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. An expression involves arithmetic. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. is executed in a sequential manner. } [ else { statements2. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. logical. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and one or more simple expression statements. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. which consists of declaration statements. Expression can be arithmetic. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. and/or logical operators. input-output statements. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and/or relational expression. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). relational.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1.

the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. a).3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. if (expression) statements-1. if (a<b) max = b.c). true or false is known.max). else max = a. } else { statements2. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. else printf (“largest = %d”. } Example 5. If the else part is not specified. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. Example 5. printf(“ max = %d” . if (expression) statements-2.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated.

else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”).b). else printf (“largest = %d”. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. else statements4.c). Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. else printf(“Fail\n”). . It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. Example 5. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. else if (expression) statements2. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else if(expression) statements3.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”).

and/or arithmetic expression. case item2: statement 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. variable. if (a>b) max = a. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. default statements will be executed. case itemn: statement n. default : statement. Example 5. Default case is optional and if specified. If the variable matches with one of the constants.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. if there is no match for the case labels. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. then an execution jump is made to that point. else max = b. relational expression. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. must be an integer valued expression. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). Expression may be a constant value. expr3 is evaluated. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. array variable. break. which is similar to the following if-else statement. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. } Expression in the switch statement.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. pointer variable. break. logical expression. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. break. which are represented by constant values.

‘do. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . break. case ‘/’: c=a/b. expression2. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. If the test condition is True. case ‘*’: c=a*b. If the test condition is False. the control is transferred to the statement. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. break.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. General Form: for (expression1. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). the statements inside the loop are executed. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. break. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. expression2 is to set a terminating condition.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. break. ‘while’. case ‘-’: c=a-b. expression3) { statement / block of statements. which follows the loop.while’. There are several ways to execute loops in C.

is called inner loop.) { c+=1. Different variables must be used to control each loop. z . y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. (4) c=2. c).) { printf (“%d”. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.j). which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). } In the above example. y=4.. controlled by the value of ‘j’. for (j=1. for (. y=4. For each & every iteration through the outer loop.c<=20. c).Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. printf (“c=%d”.9 for (i=1. z=4000. ((x>3) && (x<9)). the inner loop runs completely.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. c++. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop.i<=3. x++) x++.. Example 5.j<=3.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. Example 5.++c) (6) c=2. } (7) int c=0.8 (1) for (x=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. Such loops are called nested loops.i).c<=20. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop. The second loop. for(. (3) for (x=0. for (.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. After executing the body of the loop.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. the body of the loop is executed. (6) c=1. while (expression). (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). while is an exit controlled loop statement. (3) while(x) { }.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. the body of the loop is executed. (4) while(1). } ‘do . the expression in the while statement is evaluated. If the result is True. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: do statement (s). At the end of the loop.. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False.. The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. If the expression evaluates to True. On reaching the do statement. If the expression is initially False. Example 5.c). variable or any expression. the body of loop is not executed at all. the expression is checked again. } Expression can be a constant value. General Form: while (expression) { Statements. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. ++c.while’ statement The do.

Example 5. Example 5. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. ++d.. } while (d<=10). This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True. Break. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements.loop<50. Cognizant Technology Solutions.11 int d=1. General Form: break. General Form: continue.d). Page 49 ©Copyright 2007.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. the body of the loop is executed at least once.loop<100. When the condition becomes False.loop). } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. Example 5.12 for(loop=0.13 for(loop=0. It is used to terminate the current iteration. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements.Problem Solving and C Programming to True. do { printf (“%d\n”.while. */ printf("%d\n".loop++) { If (loop==10) break.

uklbs.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . for(pounds=10. int uklbs = pounds % 14. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. For each pounds. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. uklbs and kilos. pounds.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. termination condition and the increment. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. lbs INT Kg\n"). We know the starting point. pounds < 250. printf(" US lbs UK st.loop). } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. stones. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1.e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf("%d\n". till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones .uklbs and kilos and print on the screen.45359 main() { int pounds. kilos). apply formula to get the stones. so we have used the for loop. } getchar(). pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14.

Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. that are used to carry out conditional looping. break. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. if clause can contain another if statement. break. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. c. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . while. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). Which of the following statements are true? a. for. case 3 : printf(“3”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b. Test your Understanding 1. 2. case 1 : printf(“1”). break. An if statement may include only simple statements. case 2 : printf(“2”). break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. An if statement must always include an else clause.

5. Cognizant Technology Solutions.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”.while will get executed at least once.. 3. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. What is the difference between a while and do.. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. The loop statements of do. 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007.. 3 4. c 2.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end).Problem Solving and C Programming 4. printf (“%d”))) break. } Answers: 1. else continue. Default case is executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

]. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. of the same data type. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. If an array of 5 integers elements is created. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array.g. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. index 1 refers second location. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. set of numbers. etc. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. [index 0 refers first location . Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. set of names). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session..

int matrix[2][2]. Defines a character array. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. starting at x[0]. char str[16]="qwerty". Array declaration reserves space in memory. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . Cognizant Technology Solutions. When addressing an element in an array. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. Example 7. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers.1 int x[5]. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. float sales_amt[10].2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers.

3. Example 7.2.2. b[1] = 45. If initialized.3. size depends upon the number of values initialized.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. a[1] = 2 . and processing of array elements.20 . The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.34}. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}.4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}.4}. a[2]=3. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}.2. a[2] = 3 . array can be declared without specifying the exact size. retrieving. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. In such cases. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1.2. /* b[0] = 10. partial initialization is allowed. /*a[0] = 1. ) */ float b[2]={10.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. (ex.3 int a[5]={1. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.5}.45. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. /*a[0]=1. Thus. the base address can not be changed. When arrays are initialized during declaration.4}. In partial initialization. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a[1]=2. a[3]=4 (if size not specified.3.

a[2]).a[0]. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”.i<3. &a[1]). (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“%d”. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations.a[2]). Cognizant Technology Solutions. (1) printf(“%d”. a+2). /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0.i<3.pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0.5 int a[3]. scanf(“%d”.i++) scanf(“%d”.a[1]. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays.6 int a[3].Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array.&a[i]). scanf(“%d”.a[1]). /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension. (1) scanf(“%d”. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array. a. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. a[0]). a+1.a[i]). &a[0]). Example 7. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays.i++) printf(“%d”. &a[2]). General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007.

If m elements are needed.2. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.2.2.4. int num[2][3] = {1.6}.3}}. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order. In partial initialization.{4}}.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.{1.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.2}. = 4 elements).row 0 & column 1 .2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Assume that array starts at location 1000.3.row 1 & column 0 .3. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.3}. /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.8 int num[2][3] = {1.5.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.5}.4. Example 7. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations. 7 int a[2][2]. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. out of n locations defined.row 0 & column 0 . a[0][0] will be in location 1000 .

} (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. A character string is stored in an array of character type. name[4] = ‘\0’. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. /*Creates a string. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. return 0. Example 7. of chars in strings]. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. of strings] [max no.11 char studname[50][15]. one ASCII character per location. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. name[2] = ‘O’.*/ (3) char name[5]. Example 7. Cognizant Technology Solutions.’\0’). it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. (2) char str[16]="qwerty".’m’. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. there is no built-in data type for strings. name[3] = ‘D’. name[1] = ‘O’.’u’. to represent the end of string. String constants can be assigned to character array variables. The value at str[6] is the null character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In C. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’.

’a’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .’a’.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” .’a’. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. name).13 (1) char name[20].’\0’}} = {{‘b’. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. name). if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.’t’.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 7.’\0’}. which manipulates the entire string at once.’t’. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”.’t’.h. int i=0. {‘c’. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ .Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}. printf(“%s” .’\0’}. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.”cat” . Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string.

string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. string2) strcat(string1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. n) strncpy(string1. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. c) strstr(s1. c) strrchr (string. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. string2. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. s2) strcspn(s1. string2) strcmp(string1. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings.s2) strpbrk(s1. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. s2) strspn(s1.string2. Find last occurrence of character c in string. n) strncmp(string1. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. string2.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. True if c is ASCII . Cognizant Technology Solutions.\v. int i. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. i < 24. . “. . ctype.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1.\f.h> main() { int fib[24]. The header file. ‘. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio. True if c is a letter. for (i = 0. is used for the character functions. fib[0] = 0.‘. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .) True if c is a space character (\n.\r.h. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric. which can manipulate a single character. fib[1] = 1. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. True if c is a control character (\n. i < 24.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.\t. for(i = 2.\r.:.\f.

This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. i++) { for (j=0.8. Initially array of size 24 is declared.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. 2. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio. i<4. j++) printf("%d ". getchar(). j<5.j. twod[i][j]).. i++) for(j=0. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. int i. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n". j<5.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .13…. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array.5. } getchar().3. for(i=0.h> main() { int twod[4][5]. printf("\n"). i<4.2. fib[i]). for (i=0.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. It can be accessed only within that function. : return expression. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. Global Variables . type arg2. there is no need for the function prototype.. Local Variables .The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. executable statement 1.) { local variables Declaration. } Function is defined prior to its reference. So compiler will identify the function name. parameters.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. Function body. and the operations to be carried out by the function. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. it is used by all the functions in the program. executable statement 2.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. } main() { fun(). …. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). If it is declared in the Global declaration section. } Function Header function-name arg1. Memory for the global variables is allocated.

OR return(expression). A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. } (2) main() { return 0. There can be multiple return statements.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. expression can be a variable name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If there is no return statement. then void keyword is used to represent that. it is achieved by the return statement. Example 9. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. A function may receive any number of values from the called function.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. does not return any value. General Form: return. If it returns a value.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 9. constant value or any single valued expression. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. else return b.3 (1) return. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. each containing different expression. Default return type is ‘int’. return(a<b). return(a*b). } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a.

big=find_big(num1. It is a process by which a function calls itself.num2)) statement. data type. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. If the function returns value. num2. big). it is called Recursion. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. If a function is returning a value. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007.num2). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . find_big(num1. Example 9. When the function call is encountered. int). num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. &num1. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. Cognizant Technology Solutions. big. &num2). } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. } int find_big(int a. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. /* function call statement. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. /* function prototype. The number. scanf(“%d%d”. else return b. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses.

The main function may call function1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). along with the value returned. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . scanf(“%d“. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007.&n). printf(“Enter an integer\n”). When the return statement is encountered. } If n = 4.7 main() { int n. printf(“Factorial = %d“. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. else return(k*fact(k-1). Depending on its definition. fact(int). which may call function3.fact(n)). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. which in turn call function2. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. the control is immediately transferred to the function. In fourth call. control is transferred back to the called function. which in turn return the value to its calling function. On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. { if (k<=1) return 1. } fact(int k). then call 1 = 4 * fact(3).

return.&a. } add() { int a. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). return(a+b).sum).b. sum=add(a. for(i=1.i<=m. border(n.a.s).9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. scanf(“%d%d”. return. Cognizant Technology Solutions. add(int x. { int sum.sum).c).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9.i++) printf(“-“). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &n.i<=80.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border().&c). &a.&b). } border(int m. } { int sum. printf(“\n”). integers\n”). printf(“\nSum = %d”. for(i=1. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). printf(“\nSum = %d”.b. printf(“\n”). Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.int y) { return a+b . } No arguments but return value main() Example 9. char s) { int i.&b).i++) printf(“%c“. sum=add(). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n.c). char c. scanf(“%d%c”. } border() { int i. } } } scanf(“%d%d”.b).

/* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. temp = c. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. c = d. b). pointer variable or array name. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. a. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. The value of the actual argument will remain same. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. a=10. So. b). } void swap(int c.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. Example 9. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. swap(a. b. So. } Call by Reference In this approach. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. b=20. d = temp. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable.

b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *d) { int temp. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. } main() { int values[5].12 int { int max_value. return max_value. i. i. Example 9. } void swap(int *c. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. i < 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. max.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. &b). Example 9. b). } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. To pass an array to a function. for( i = 0. *c = *d. max_value = val[0]. which points to an array. a. swap(&a. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. temp = *c. b=20. *d = temp. a=10.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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i). } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. a). What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. { int a = 3. printf("%d". A function calling itself is called recursion. } fn(int i) { return ++i. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. fn(i). a). argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. The command line arguments. What is function prototyping? 2. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. well defined task. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. } printf(“%d” . C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. static. ii) function call. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. printf(“ %d “ . Test your Understanding 1. } 4. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

type of its arguments. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. int *p(char *a[]) 7. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. b. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. Using command line arguments. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. In call by reference. 10 6. What the following declaration statements imply? a. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. In C. Cognizant Technology Solutions. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. 7. a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. int *p(char *a) c. return data type). 3. int (*p)(char a) d. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. 5. 3 4 4. int p(char *a) b.

is determined by where it is defined. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. This is called block scope.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. it has file scope. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file... If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). All other types of variables are local variables. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. This means. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session.

They retain the values throughout the life of the program. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . Once allocated. they are also called local or internal variables.Thus. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. by default it is an auto variable. although it is active only in main(). memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value).Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. It retains its value till the control remains in that block.1 main() { int a = 5 . Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). If not initialized in the declaration statement. Static variables are stored in memory. with identical names. Because of this property. the nested variables are unique auto variables. it is cleared and its memory destroyed. In the case recursive functions. So. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. a). They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. a). then its scope is confined to that function. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. } printf(“ %d “ . internal static variables retain values between function calls. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. If not initialized in the declaration. If no storage class is specified. When the execution of the block is completed. If the variable is declared within a function. printf (“%d “ . prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. it is automatically initialized to zero. { int a =6 . it will retain the value between function calls. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. Example 10.

i<=5. for (i=1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. If not initialized in the declaration. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers.x). If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. They are referred to as global variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i++) incre(). instead of keeping it in the memory. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. x = x +1. When using external variables. Since registers are faster than memory. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. Since the registers are less in numbers. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. } incre() { static int x = 0. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. careful selection must be made for their use. printf(“ x = %d\n”. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable).2 main() { int i. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. the variable is initialized to zero.

Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. a). just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. When a command is entered in a command window. } void fun() { a = 10 . /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. } int b = 20. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it is initialized to zero. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b).Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. External variable declaration can not have initialization. /* external variable declaration. */ void fun(). a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). extern int a = 10. printf(“ %d “ . but as a first approximation. printf(“ %d “ . The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex.3 int a = 5 . The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. Example 10. fun(). The first word is treated as the name of a program.

an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). char* argv[]) { int i.i . i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. argv[i]). C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i < argc.4 main( int argc. Example 10. salary (float). printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. For example. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. The components are called Members.argc). which are command line strings. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings.Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. for( i = 0. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. employee name (string). department code (string). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

. variable-name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .... struct employee emp1... a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that.. Example 10..... Here. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name. type variable-name. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable.... Page 84 ©Copyright 2007... variable-name... float salary.. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.. char name[20]. no extra structures can be created.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. type variable-name.5 1) struct employee { int code. variable-name. Individual members will be given a separate memory location.. : : type variable-name...... “struct” keyword is used to define structures.. }. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration. emp2. int dept_code. variable-name..... When declaring structure variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition.. } ... tag name is optional..

struct employee { int empno = 101 . the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0.”(dot). If it is partially initialized. illegal. }. float avg. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. int semester. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section.78}. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. then the expression “s.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. float salary. 1. 90.6 struct { int rollnum. illegal.”Dina”. (tag name is optional here) char name[20].0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “Raja”. stud2={102. 1}. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. No storage class can be specified for structure members.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. struct stud stud1={101. int dept_code. } emp1. emp2. Example 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. char name[20].

date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007.code emp1.8 struct emp { int empno. printf (“Size = %d”.dept_code emp1.name emp1. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value.sizeof(emp1)). While comparing structure variables.9 struct { int day.code emp2. member-field-name Example 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. } emp1. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. which is always not same for different structure variables. the values in slack bytes are also compared. Assignment operation is allowed. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. }. int year. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. int month. This is because. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. Example 10. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. char name[20]. For example. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays.salary emp2.7 emp1. float basic. the assignment expression a = b is valid.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. Example 10. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type.

In this example.avg student[50]. Example 10.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code.sub_marks[0] }. char name [20].emp2.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. struct stud Accessing values: student [1].year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[15].rollnum student [1]. int dept_code. char name[20].semester student [1]. }. Example 10. Accessing values: student.doj. then we can do so by writing: emp1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int avg. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. int sub_marks[5]. }emp1. float salary.name student [1]. }student. struct date doj. int semester. student.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum.

emp2. printf(“%d” . or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. Example 10. But changes will not be reflected back. display(emp1). /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. “AAAA”} .empno). main( ) { void display(struct emp). All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . We can use pointer to structures. }. emp1->empno). } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. change(&emp1). Cognizant Technology Solutions. }. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . char empname[10]. printf(“ %s “ .13 struct emp { int empno. void main( ) { void change(struct emp *).empname). When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. it is passed using call by value method. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . “AAAA”} .Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. char empname[10]. } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . emp2. Example 10.12 struct emp { int empno.

struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. y).h> struct student { char name[20]. printf (" Name is %s \n". wage is a structure variable of sal structure. …) Example 10. student2. int main ( ) { struct student student3. getchar().Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102.marks). int a."Tom"). Cognizant Technology Solutions. student2.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name). strcpy(student1. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure.name. float marks. student2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .marks = 99. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007.9. x. } student1. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name.2f \n". float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. student1. printf (" Marks are %.name).

Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. }*p1. In unions. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. int *p. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Print the values of the structure. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . enum keyword is used to define enumerations. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. Consider the following structure. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. ) operator. Test your Understanding 1. struct { int a. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . only one member is accessible at a time.

struct stud_type s1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. int age. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. printf(“Size = %d”. *p1->p. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. Answers: 1. char name[15]. sizeof (ex)). union person { char surname[10]. 2. }ex. The elements of an array are always of the same type. 3. 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. }.

type variable-name. .. variable-name...it creates the type. In the declaration..... unformatted. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template .. the tag name..... Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization.. can be used to declare variables of the union type. Unions follow the same syntax as structures... For each variable. No other member can be initialized..... but no storage is allocated. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted. variable-name... }union-variable. variable-name.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. The tag name.... Cognizant Technology Solutions. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly... like a structure.. along with the keyword ‘union’. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name... keyword ‘union’. variable-name.... Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member. type variable-name.... is a derived data type. : : type variable-name. and the members of the union are given. and block file I/O operations Unions Union.. union-variable.... Page 92 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .2 { int code. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. Example 14. s1. }. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. char c. }. struct employee_type e1. The dot operator (. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. int age. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. Thus.1 union item { int m. }. float salary. int dept_code. struct stud_type { int rollno. char name[20]. float x. struct stud_type }ex. Cognizant Technology Solutions. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. char name[15]. union { char surname[10]. static union item product = {100}.) is used to access the members.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. float avg.

We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. vtab = `\v'. blue = 5 . but not both. As structures. at the same time. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. e1 = getch(). definition and variable declaration can be combined.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. to share common memory. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . Here. the union allows the structure variables. var2 . tab = `\t’. backspace = `\b'. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. e1 and s1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers.e1. the user can use either e1 or s1. though they have signed integer values.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. As with arrays. The member names must differ from one another. newline = `\n'. …………… var n. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). first enumerated name has index value 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . member2 .Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. enum colors { red = 1 . tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. That is. Example 14. similar to structures or a union. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. General Form: enum tag { member1 . next value is calculated as previous plus one. green takes the value 6. …… member n } . green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007.

numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. n2 . no need to use struct keyword. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files.5 typedef { int empno. Example 14. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. the results may be stored on disks. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. files are needed. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. General Form typedef datatype new-type. }employee. It is used to give new names to existing data types. numbers n1. char empname[10]. For such applications. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. emp2. employee emp1. Example 14. integer variables. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. In C. struct n1 .4 typedef numbers int. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. Similarly. Then structure variables can be declared as follows.

Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When a file is closed. Text streams consist of printable characters. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available.h. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. There are two types of streams: text and binary. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). A text stream. the tab character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. In C. When a file is opened. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. When a program begins. on some systems. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages.in which case the position points to the end of the file. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. and the new-line character. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. More generally. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . and all characters will be transferred as such. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device.

c. fp = fopen(“name”.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. fscanf(fp. (Extensions can be specified like test. variable list). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . variable list).dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. "format string". "format string". fclose(fp ). It is a string enclosed within double quotes. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. the purpose/positioning of opening the file. “mode”). fprintf(fp. The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. details.

Writing in to a file To write into a file. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. because files can be reopened only if they are closed.Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). If the file is opened with append mode (a). the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. rewind(). or fflush(). all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). If the file is opened in the update mode (+). all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). By default. The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. if the file does not open or the file does not exist. fsetpos(). one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

On success. the character is returned. Example 14. char c. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. This fptr may be stdout.dat”. which represents standard output device.fptr). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 14.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007.fp). The EOF is end of file status flag. If the end-of-file is encountered. On success. which is true if end of file is reached. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. keyboard as a file. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp.dat”. the pointer is moved to the next position. fclose(fp). if ((fp=fopen(“sample. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char c.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. If an error occurs. otherwise false. After the reading a character. The fptr may be stdin. If an error occurs. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). monitor as a file. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. This may be a macro version of fgetc. which represents a standard input device. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). the character is returned.

On success. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). The newline character is copied to the string. or the endof-file is reached. EOF is returned. On error. a pointer to the string is returned. General Form: fgets(str. the string remains unchanged. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). fptr). a nonnegative value is returned. On error. the newline character is read. General Form: putw (i. a file at a time. On success. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). string can be written to. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. a nonnegative value is returned. a file at a time. } String I/O Using string I/O. On error. On success. whichever comes first. fptr).fptr). It stops when (n-1) characters are read. EOF is returned.n. integers can be written to. A null character is appended to the end of the string. or read from. or read from. a null pointer is returned. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). This function writes an integer to a file. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). General Form: fputs (str. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. fclose(fp).

Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). the number of characters printed is returned. or the next incompatible character. carriage return. new line. On success. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. the function stops scanning and returns. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. Cognizant Technology Solutions. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. addresses-list). in a left to right fashion. On success. General Form: fscanf( fptr. vertical tab.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. -1 is returned. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. variable-list). or form feed. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. according to the format specifier specified in format string. If an input failure occurs. tab. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. in a left to right fashion. If an error occurred.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. If the input does not match. or the width field is satisfied. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . format-string. General Form: i = getw( fptr). format-string. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. EOF is returned.

char name[10].no . fpt = fopen("details. for(i=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . std1[i]. %s %d " . std1[i].dat" . Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file.no .name .name printf("%d %s %d \n" .dat" . &std[i].no .no .i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes.age).name . std[i]. The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. i++.Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. "w").age). int i. clrscr(). std1[10]. &std1[i]. fprintf(fpt . }std[10]. struct { int no. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007.age).e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. "%d . name . i<5 . Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). bytes of data).&std1[i].8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt.age). "r"). while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . std1[i]. fpt = fopen("details.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. } fclose(fpt).name . int age. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. &std[i]. printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). std[i]. std[i]. std[i]. age )\n\n"). "%d %s %d " . std1[i]. printf("\n\n enter the details (no .

name . On error or end-of-file.dat" . for(i=0 . int i . On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). stud1[10]. The total number of bytes written is (size*n). Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. The total number of bytes read is (size*n). size. printf(" \n\n printing the values "). fptr = fopen("ex. fptr). clrscr(). &stud[i]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . n. sizeof(stud1[0]) . i++) scanf("%s %d ". i<5 . 5 . int age . fread(&stud1 . Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. n. sizeof(stud[0]) .Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. "r" ). fp).age). fclose(fptr). struct tag { char name[10]. General Form fread (&str.stud[i]. fptr=fopen("ex. Cognizant Technology Solutions.dat" . the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. }stud[10] . fp). Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr.9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. On success the number of elements written is returned. "w" ). General Form fwrite (ptr. fwrite(&stud . On success the number of elements read is returned. 5 . size. fptr).

Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i<5 . } Try It Out 1. inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. // is in the current line and // if so. Open the input file.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 .Print the line number and the line. read the input argument.age).char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. // This is where I read the lines of the file int count. In the main program. Code: /* findword. // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . 255.name . "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file.count. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). // after this command. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0.c */ #include <string. print it } fclose(inFile). Cognizant Technology Solutions. stud1[i].h> #include <stdio. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. stud1[i]. "r").h> */ FILE * inFile. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. myString).h> /* #include <stdlib.

if found print the line number and the full string. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . getchar(). return 0. value.y ).h> union number { int x. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. "and print both members. "and print both members. one integer and the other double. value.x. value. Close the file and exit the program 2.". value. double y. "int: ". "Put a value in the floating member". "double:\n". int main() { union number value.y ). printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. "Put a value in the integer member". Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. value.Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . In the main program declare a variable of union datatype.".0.y = 100. "int: ". Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. "double:\n".x. }. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n".x = 100.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. i++."hello-out"). Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). sleep(1). What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Preproccessing is done before compilation. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. string I/O. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. Input. fopen(). ftell(). formatted I/O and block I/O. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. 2L . and what value does it usually have? 4. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Test your Understanding 1. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. and rewind() functions.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. } 3. } return 0. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. What is EOF.

”. a). Cognizant Technology Solutions. stdout. } Answers: 1. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. stdin. 3.. No significance. 4. foo( ).a ). 5. printf(“%d”. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. Its value on most computers is -1. stderr 2.

This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. the current file position is returned. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. offset. On success. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. In some applications. If it is a text stream. General Form: n = ftell(fptr).Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: fseek( fptr. If it is a binary stream. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). ftell() and rewind(). On error.

-10L. 2). therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. 10L. 0L. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. 10L. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. fseek (fp. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. zero is returned. fseek (fp. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fseek (fp. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). On error. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The end-of-file indicator is reset. fseek (fp. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. Example 15. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). Move the file pointer to the end of file. -10L. 1). Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. The error indicator is NOT reset. fseek (fp. 0). Move the file pointer to the beginning. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. a nonzero value is returned. 0L.1 fseek (fp. General Form: rewind(fptr). Remove comments from the source file. vertical tab. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. On success. or carriage return. 2 On a text stream. 2). change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. form feed.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. horizontal tab. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. 0). 1).

Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. No semicolon (. Except for some #pragma directives. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. or #elif test fails. #ifndef. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. #ifdef. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. #include Inserts text from another source file. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. Defines a preprocessor macro. #ifdef.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. Defines text for a compile-time error message. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. The # token must appear as a first character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. or #elif test fails.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. depending on the result of a constant expression. Ends conditional text. #ifndef. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed.

The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. and then processed by the compiler. whichever comes first. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. Example 15. or until the end of the program source is reached.2 #include <stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files.h> #include “stdio. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In case that it is not there. Therefore. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. the file is searched first in the current working directory.

When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. ….4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier..

3). */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3).5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. Continuation character for macro definition is \. areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). zero or one #else directive. Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. and one matching #endif directive.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. #ifdef.b) ((a)+(b)). These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. and #ifndef directive. For each #if. there are zero or more #elif directives. The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). addition=add(2. addition=(2)+(3). /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion.

change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. #elif. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”).Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). …. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the value is 0 (false). } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). printf(name(xyz)). If so. Example 15. then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. and the preceding #if evaluated to false. Example 15.7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true).somca)). If there is a matching #elif. …. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. If there is a matching #else. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false).6 Check whether a variable is defined.8 #define name(x. printf(name(ssn..y) x##y main() { ….. or #endif. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. */ Example 15.

*px. 5 – value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. C provides two operators. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. as they have a number of useful applications. Example 15. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. Whenever a variable is declared. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. px = &x. for pointer implementation. int a = 5 . The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. & and *.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. x = 5 . & address operator.9 int x. a). Cognizant Technology Solutions. &a). * and & are inverse of each other.

printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. *px). printf(” address of x = %d “ . b . The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. x). printf(“ x = %d “ .11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . b = &a.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. *q = NULL. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *p = &a . A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. px). printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. invalid . The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. q = a. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. valid valid. &px). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. Two pointer variables can be compared.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. &x). printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. Null or an address. Example 15. . q = p.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. if v is an array. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. i=5. ptr ++. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. ptr= &i. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. *pv is the same as v[0]. and so on.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. Thus.

printf (“%d “.5} ptr = a .17 int a[2][2] = {1.3.*ptr). i .*(a+i)). similar to ptr = &a[0].4} .15 printf (“%d “. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. printf (“%d “.*(ptr+i)). The way in which the pointer variable used. OR ptr_vble = array_name. Example 15. Example 15.14 int a[5] = {1.16 printf (“%u “. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *ptr . OR pointer_variable = array_name.3. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.2. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . varies according to the dimension. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn]. Accessing address Example 15. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15.2. ptr = &a[0][0] . Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear. 4. (ptr+i)). Cognizant Technology Solutions.

printf (“%d “. displays the x(i.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.j) value Example 15.j) value displays the x(i.i<2. refers to the entire row . So.*(*(ptr + i) +j).4. j. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1.j++) printf(“\t%d”. Here.2. for example. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row.3. printf (“%d “. Therefore. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. For example.19 main() { int i.5.i++) { for (j=0.j<3.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row. jth column Accessing value Example 15. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. int a[2][3]={1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . is a collection of one dimensional array. for (i=0. int *pa=&a[0][0]. it results in a problem. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. Cognizant Technology Solutions. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array.*(a[ i ] + j).*(a + i)[ j ].j) value displays the x(i. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007.6}.18 printf (“%d “. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array.*(*(pa+i)+j)). each with 2 elements.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. Example 15. Thus.3. Suppose. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL. Once the pointer is declared.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. which can hold the address of a character variable.2.20 int a[2][2] = {1. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. When an array is referenced by its name. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . we have 2 pointers ptr[0].4} . it refers to the address of the 0th element.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). *ptr[2] . ptr[0] = a[0]. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . p = name.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. *p). If the elements of array are string pointers. char *name[4] = { “A” . “xyz”}. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. “ABCD”} . valid invalid Thus. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. make it a pointer to a string of varying length. When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. char *p = “string” . Each pointer is used to represent a particular string.2. “ABC” . printf(“String output = %s”. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. “rstu”. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. *p). Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.1. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. “AB” . it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer.3} . An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. int *p = {0.

Example 15. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. Cognizant Technology Solutions. substantial saving in memory. In the above example. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared.23 const int a=10. int *pa = &a. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. int *const pa = &a. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable.24 int a. Thus.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. The value cannot be modified.

getchar(). pnum = &num1. ++num2. num2. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers.25 int b. num1. long num2 = 0. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. float b. *(float *) pab = 105. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". void *pab. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. long *pnum = NULL. *(int *) pab =100. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. ++*pnum.26 int a. But it is needed. in order to know the size and value of the data item. *pnum + num2). *pnum = 2. pab=&b. *pnum.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type.55.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. pnum = &num2. pab=&a. Try It Out 1. const int * const pb = &b. num2 += *pnum. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. Example 15.

value at pnum 2. int *b. the array elements is the pointer.i4=1. int j. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared.e.a[j]). Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } printf("using pointer\n"). Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a[1]=&i2. a[4]=&i5. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4.i3=2. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum.a[j].j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. Address in array Value\n"). Then the value of num1 is 2.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. printf("Address for(j=0. a[0]=&i1. a[3]=&i4. %16u %d\n".i5=0. int i1=4. Print all the values num1. a[2]=&i3.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum.h> main(){ int *a[5]. #include <stdio. Increment the value of num2.j<5.num2.i2=3. now the value of num2 is 1. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007.

What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. malloc(). Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. State whether the following are true or false a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. } getchar().b). calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. See the difference.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. for( j=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Declare an array of integer pointers.*b.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array.*b. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. b++. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. 2.j<5. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. Test your Understanding 1.

Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. printf("\n%d. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. malloc(). Answers: 1. false 2. calloc(). Since c points to b. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. *b = &a . } 4. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ).sizeof(str2). b = (int *)**c. 3. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. The first statement assigns 4 to a. false. 300 4. sizeof(str1). The third statement castes **c. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. True. **c=5. Since b points to a. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. sizeof(“abcd”)). 2 5 5 6. n[0]=100. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. Differentiate malloc() .%d". 5. 5. } 6. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Given the following declaration: int a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . assign the value to a. into type int *. char str2[]=”abcd”. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. printf(“%d %d %d”. 100. n[24]=200. which is value of a.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. The result is meaningless. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. **c = &b. false. *n.

change(p).1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . p = assign() . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *assign() . } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . Cognizant Technology Solutions. } void change(int *q) { *q = 10.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. /* function prototype */ void change(int *). a).function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007.2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . p =&a. you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. *p. Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. Example 17. *p) . printf(‘’ %d ‘’ .

int *). *q = &a. } Pointer to this function is declared as. x + y).Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . printf (“%d”. *p. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. /* addr. b=20.. &b). *q = 20 . of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. of a is returned */ /* addr. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. return q . main() { int a=10. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. p = add. int y). we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable.) Suppose we have a function as. } int *big (int *x . p = big (&a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. void (*p)(int x. else return (y). } Example 17. So.*p). to a function using pointers. rather than an entire array. void add(int x. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). which will speeds up the execution. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * .

abc(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . will call the function add() with parameters 10.4 int display(). In this declaration. Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. *ptr . (*abc)(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. Example 17. float avg. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable. int semester. we can write as ptr = &student.6 struct stud { int rollnum. 95.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. }.67}.”raja”. Example 17.20).5 main() { void abc(). To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. 1. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). int (*func_ptr) ().Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. char name[20]. (*func_ptr) (). func_ptr = display. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. struct stud student={101.

C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *p. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). ptr->name. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. char gender. calloc () . ptr->semester. struct employee *empptr. ptr->rollnum.8 struct employee { char name[20].7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. float salary. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. Thus. ptr->avg). p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. Example 17.

i<3. i<3. i<3. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. *(c[i]+j)).9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . j<3. for(i=0. for(i=0. } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007.j. *c[3]. i++) for(j=0. j<3. free() will take a void pointer. j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). i++ for(j=0. i++) for(j=0. j++) printf("\t%d". *b[3] . i<3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a[i]+j). i<3. for(i=0. b[i]+j). p = (int *) calloc (10. j++) scanf("%d". This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. j<3. for(i=0. j<3. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. Example 17. sizeof(int)). /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). j++) scanf("%d". for(i=0 . i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)).Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). int i. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). i++) for(j=0. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. which can hold 10 integers.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly.10 addr. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. As such.ptr1 value int x.*p1. which holds the address of another integer pointer. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. printer. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. For example. However. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. Example 17. p2=&p1. video memory. p1=&x.ptr2 x=100. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. beyond 3 levels. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory.**p2. int **p. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means.

Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. getchar(). declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. aCard.face = "Ace". " of ". ( *cardPtr ).Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. " of ". char *suit. struct card *cardPtr. aCard.face. return 0. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. aCard.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. " of ". Print the values of card structure in three different forms.suit.suit ).suit = "Spades".face. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int main() { struct card aCard. cardPtr = &aCard. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". aCard.h> struct card { char *face. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. cardPtr->face. In the main program. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. All will print the same. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . cardPtr->suit. ( *cardPtr ). }.

if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). temp-> data = n. temp-> link = p. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio. p-> link = p. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). Cognizant Technology Solutions. } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. exit(0). } temp = temp-> link. } return (p). }. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. printf("The data values in the list are\n").Problem Solving and C Programming 2. exit(0). int n){ struct node *temp.h> struct node { int data. struct node *insert(struct node *p. } else { temp = p. temp = p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . struct node *link. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n").h> # include <stdlib. } p-> data = n.

In the main program. so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. Now the start pointer is not NULL. Then returns back the pointer. In the insert function. Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. start = insert ( start. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. 4 ). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 3 ). } else printf("The list is empty\n"). start = insert ( start. start = insert ( start. Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. getchar(). Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". 2). start = insert ( start.as it is first time. } while (temp!= p). declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. } void main() { int n. 1 ). printf("The created list is\n"). Then returns the pointer back. printlist ( start ). In the main program. the start pointer will be NULL. struct node *start = NULL .c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node.temp->data). int x. temp=temp->link.

In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b = (int *)**c. n[24]=200. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. **c = &b. malloc(). What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. } 4. Test your Understanding 1. 2. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. *b = &a . State whether the following are true or false a. n[0]=100. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. In the printlist() function. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. **c=5. *n. Given the following declaration: int a. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. printf("\n%d. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. What is the use of generic pointers? 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. What is the output of the following statements? a=4.%d".

calloc(). false. into type int *.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Differentiate malloc() . 100. The result is meaningless. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“%d %d %d”. Answers: 1. false 2. malloc(). sizeof(str1). The third statement castes **c. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. assign the value to a. 2 5 5 6. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. sizeof(“abcd”)). 300 4.sizeof(str2). false. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. } 6. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Since b points to a. True. char str2[]=”abcd”. 5. which is value of a. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. Since c points to b. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The first statement assigns 4 to a.

} /* */ main(int argc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #endif #ifdef. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. #else. #define max(A. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007.: : : ) { declarations statements return value.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined. #elif.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

\b \\. tab. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. octal. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. \?. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. hex) newline. ‘\ooo’. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. \. \r. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘\xhh’ \n. cr. \t.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /. -. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. (*p). minus. modulus (remainder) add. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. divide. struct tag name name. &name (type) expr sizeof *. decrement plus. <= ==. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. -+. bitwise not indirection via pointer.member pointer->member ++.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. subtract left. logical not. !. % +. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. >=. <<.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. ~ *pointer.member pointer -> member Ex. <. Cognizant Technology Solutions. >> >.

h> <setjmp.h> <locale.h> <string. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.h> <float. do. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left. Unary operators.h> <math.h> <stddef. *=. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. do. …… .h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. case const2: statement2 break.h> <limits. while.h> <ctype.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=. for Next iteration of while.h> <errno. all others group left to right. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <stdlib. -=. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break.h> <signal.h> <stdio. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). expr2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> <stdarg.h> <time.

c) strrchr(cs.ct.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.n) memmove(s.c) memcpy(s. Cognizant Technology Solutions. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.ct. tab.ct) strncpy(s. letter.ct.n) memset(s. t are strings and cs. cr.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007.ct. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . newline.n) strcat(s. digit Checks whether c is a Space.n) strchr(cs.ct) strncat(s.n) memchr(cs.n) strcmp(cs.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.c.n) memcmp(cs.c.h> Consider s.ct. form feed.ct) strncmp(cs.ct.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

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E. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. e. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. then the field is expanded to fit the value. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. X. Default is to just show the . the width argument comes first. then the value to be converted. Result will always have a decimal point.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional).sign. If the value overflows the width of the field. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. Overrides the 0 flag. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). g. This is useful only with a width specifier. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. Overrides the space flag. Trailing zeros will not be removed. u. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. For d. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). The type of conversion to be applied (required). g. Precision overrides this flag. [. then the precision argument. f. e. x. o. If a * is used in place of the width specifer. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). Negative values still show the sign. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). f.

u. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. u. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. n e. then the precision argument. e. o. [. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. The minimum number of digits to appear. g. x. o. X types. Value is first converted to a long double. o.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. or . i. x. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*).) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. x. o.0 For d. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. . e. i. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. E. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. u. i. x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary).n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. For d. u. e. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. E types. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. o. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. Precision does not affect the c type. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. d. i. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. the width argument comes first. For f. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. then the value to be converted. f. 6 for f. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . u. For f. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. . If a * is used. x.

Page 148 ©Copyright 2007.ddd. Type double printed as [-]d. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). F. Cognizant Technology Solutions.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. b. Otherwise printed as type f. A % sign is printed. d. D. Type char. E Type signed int. The argument must be a pointer to an int. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. [type] d. c. i o u x X f e. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. g. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. The exponent contains at least two digits. Single character is printed. Type double printed as [-]ddd.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. E. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). Trailing zeros are removed. Type pointer to array. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. B. f. e. No characters are printed. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). C. Type unsigned int printed in octal. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds).

o u x. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. tab. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. f. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. The argument is a double. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. Digits 0 through 9 only. Type signed int. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. X e. f. Digits 0 through 7 only. n e. it reaches a nonconvertible character). The input must be in base 8 (octal).Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). then it is base 10. The argument is a long double. g e. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. Type float. Begins with an optional sign.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. E. Type unsigned int. Then one or more digits. or form feed). then it is base 8 (octal). Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. o. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . Type unsigned int. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. G designated with an e or E. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X.e. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. vertical tab. d. i. u. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. o. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. s Type character array. Type unsigned int. u. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). carriage return. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. f. new line. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end.

. Allows a search set of characters.] Input Type character array. If the first character is a carrot (^). then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. Pointer to a pointer. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. Type character array. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. By specifying the beginning character. The argument must be a pointer to an int. No characters are read from the input stream. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). A null character is appended to the end of the array. then 1 is assumed. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. No null character is appended to the array. Requires a matching % sign from the input.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). a dash. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. If no width field is specified.

“Programming in C”. “C How to Program”.html#introduction http://www. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried. “How to solve it by Computer”. “A Book on C”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.acm.uiuc. Ira Pohl.Dromey.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards. Fourth Edition.pdf http://cm. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.lysator.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley.liu. Third Edition. Tata McGraw Hill R.html http://www.G.se/c/bwk-tutor.bell-labs.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007.

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