Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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..............................92 Union of Structures ..............................98 String I/O..................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions.........................................................104 Summary .................89 Summary ..................................................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ....79 Storage Classes ..........................................................................................................................................106 Test your Understanding .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................94 Typedef Statement ...................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................101 Block I/O ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................100 Formatted I/O.......................................................96 Character I/O ...............................................................................................................................................................................92 Unions..........................................................................................................77 Test your Understanding .....................................................................................108 Learning Objectives ............................................................................................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................75 Summary .................. Cognizant Technology Solutions.......................115 Declaration and Initialization..........................................102 Try It Out . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...................................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................................................108 Random File Operations ........................................................87 Structures and Functions .......................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions .......................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................88 Try It Out ...........84 Structures and Arrays .......................79 Command Line Arguments .......................................................................................................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives .................................79 Learning Objectives ............................108 Preprocessor Directives ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................93 Enumeration ................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives .....................100 Numeric I/O.............................................................................................................95 File Operations .......................................................90 Test your Understanding .......................................................................109 Introduction to Pointers ....................................................................

...............................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................136 Syntax Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Structures and Pointers ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................117 Try It Out ......116 Pointers and Arrays ...............................................151 Websites ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................138 References .....................151 Books ........................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions..127 Learning Objectives .................................................................................................................................. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .............................................................................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers .....123 Summary ................................................................................................136 Test your Understanding ................................................................................................................130 Try It Out .............................................................................127 Functions and Pointers .......................................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: ...........................................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ......................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .................................................................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007.......................................133 Summary ...........................................

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007.

prioritizing. There is no universal method for solving a given problem. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. To understand the problem. determining the cause of the problem. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. It is an act of defining a problem. identifying. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. headings. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is also known as Program Analysis. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation.

called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. the new parts become more focussed and. While applying top-down design to a given problem. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. therefore. An important approach is Top-Down programming design.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. several design methodologies can be applied. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. Program Design is both a product and a process.

the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. the next step must be unambiguously defined. The errors identified leads to insertions. to test its correctness. fact. produce output. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. deletions. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. but omits language-specific syntax.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or modifications to the existing algorithm. Example 2. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. However. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. and terminate in a finite time.

1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. another part of the same flow chart.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. Output data Represents Process (actions. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. End Represents Input. reports). required to solve a problem.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. or entry from.e. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere.

fact. i Initialize fact =1.i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2.

The compiler is system software. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. and project workbooks Internal documentation. Initially. Documentation can be of great value. requirements can be tested for its correctness. Testing is done during every phase of program development. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. statements. the declarations. Writing a program is called Coding. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. Details of particular programs. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. The program is now ready for execution.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. algorithm descriptions. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the design (algorithm. flowcharts. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Linking is done if necessary. or particular pieces of programs. which includes things such as reference manuals. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. Then. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. The translation results in the creation of object code. During execution. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. After compilation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but also to the programmers themselves. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions.

For many programmers. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. C. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. This is called foolproof programming. FORTRAN. Ada. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. Testing means detecting errors. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. such as BASIC. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. and Pascal. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. On some projects. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. COBOL. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. C++. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. For example. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. Because of it design. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). Thus. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. there are many new languages. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. It does not need any translator program. machine language is not an easy language to learn.

There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). This translator program is called Assembler. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. irrespective of the type of computer used. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. /. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. %. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. In high level languages. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. SUB and LOAD etc. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. for its program construction. -. For example.

the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. and the expertise of the programmer. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. but it is complex and difficult to learn. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. Later. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. For example. with every combination being meaningful. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. In 1959. This. operations. The major breakthrough occurred. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. type of program. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. The language should provide appropriate data structures. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. though not widely used. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. in turn.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. tested and maintained with ease. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704.

This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. efficient register allocation. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. Cost of Program creation. testing. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. Interactive Environment. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. and Embedded System Environment. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. the backup process on an organization. For example. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. coding. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. coded. testing & use: This implies design. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems.

Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. debugging. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. Give the algorithm. Planning a tour. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. Examples include database management systems.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. 2. 4. The environment under which a program is designed. 3. coding. coded. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. testing. compiling and running. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. called Modules. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. and maintenance. algorithm development. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Top-down program design. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Distinguish between testing and debugging. word processing systems etc. documenting. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. Represent the following problem in top-down design. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007.

True 5. What is meant by portability of programs? a. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Easy to carry from place to place b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. True. It can run on any machine d. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. Prior to C. BCPL. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. which are efficient but nonportable. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. in 1973. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. and B. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. The standard was updated in 1999. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In 1970. To assure that the C language remains standard. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. for writing system software. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. It was evolved from ALGOL. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. In 1967. which are portable but inefficient. During 1970s. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories.

The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C# conserve C syntax. C++. Java. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. to include functions from the system library. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. Every C program must have one main() function. called functions. although they may appear in any order. to define the symbolic constants and macro. C program can be documented using these comment lines. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. Output and Processing statements. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. Comments are enclosed within /* and */.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. C is a case sensitive language. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon.extensive use of pointers for memory. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. array. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces.

h> main( ) { int num1. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. &num1.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. sum).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”.&num2). calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. num2). num1. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. scanf(“%d%d”. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”).num2. It removes comments and empty lines in the program. sum = num1+num2.sum. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

includes contents of a named file.OBJ indicates object code files.defines a symbolic name or constant. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. +. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . #include <math. . macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code). These files are usually called header files.. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words.h> -. Blank spaces etc. the link editor combines these functions with main(). ? . file with a. to create an executable file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Operators and Expression.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files.z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =. [On UNIX. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters. % .o suffix and on MSDOS files with .standard library maths file. Assembler The assembler creates the object code. Identifiers. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set.Z o Lowercase a…. External variable references are resolved here.2 #include -.standard library I/O file #define -.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.h> -. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. #include <stdio. numbers and expressions.

and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. and functions. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. predefined meanings in C. It should start with an alphabet.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . All keywords must be written in lowercase. the range of values that can be represented in memory. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. The following table shows the list of keywords. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. constants. ANSI C supports 32 keywords.

8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Here. Cognizant Technology Solutions.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. They are. never less than int. int = 2 bytes. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. Similarly. For example. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types.

Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.4 * (10+38) 1.294. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname).647 Floating Point Number.4 * (10-4932) to 1.768 to 32. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.4 * (10-38) to 3. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.648 to 2.483. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program.967.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.147. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.147. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.7 * (10+308) 3.7 * (10-308) to 1.483.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double. They are used to represent a collection of data. It is useful with pointers.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.

Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. Example 3.0. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. z. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. tot = 0. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program.5 int total=0. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. also called read-only variables. General form: var_data_type list variables. ct=1. k. float sum = 0.4 int i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 3. y. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. float x. char ch. int tot. ct=1. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. j. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

which evaluates to either true or false.14. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. const long a = 50000L. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. const char ch = ‘a’. (true – 1. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. const float pi=3. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. or const long a = 50000l. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. This value cannot be changed by the program. Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. const int a = 0567. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data.6 const int size = 100.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted.

may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. -=.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. /*prints 6 .k: pre increment. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . i++).pre increment */ /* prints 6 . if condition is evaluated to true. ++i). k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. i). %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. printf(“%d”. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. /=. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *=. printf(“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. printf(“%d”. +=.

b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . function calls that evaluates to a value.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity. op= Name Parentheses. Relational expression (uses relational operators). member access operators Logical NOT. address Increment and decrement operators. indirection. Equality comparators Logical AND. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. Logical OR. ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . operators. Additive operators. Assignment. Inequality comparators. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) .7: Operators Let a=1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Index. and Logical expression (uses logical operators). Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. unary minus. Multiplicative operators. b=2. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> .b) / c or a .(b / c). The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). Conditional. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion.

c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x.5. before assigning the value to it. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. This is called Typecasting. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. the assignment operator is “=”. if the operands of an expression are of different types.e. c= a>b. (3) int a. Example 3.8 (1) a = (b = 2. a=b=3. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007.which is the same as. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .) not a storage location. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. For example. d = a == b. float b. x + 3 = y. In C. but more efficient than: a = 3. double to float causes round of digits. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. c=3. For example. d = 3..5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. b+c). the statement x = y + z. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. b = 3. However. In implicit type conversion. c = 3. . (4) int c. c=3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b+c. e = a != b. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type.. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. (2) a = (b=2. b-c). b=4. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. a=3. The result of the expression will be of higher data type.

e. b=4.8) as the integer 5. d = a % b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c. float x. 5. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator. Then. y.5 * 3. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value.9 float sum. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. a=14.8).widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. y = a / 10. c = a/b. The original value of the variable is not altered. instead of 5. Example 3. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float . because the variable sum is of type float.11 int a.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. d.narrowing .0 will be stored in sum. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value. b. f.5 * 3.0. Example 3. sum = (int) (1. e = -a % -b.7. z. x = a / 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion.

c = a>b. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. a=b-. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). and tab. b=0. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. punctuations. ch = getchar(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console.13 char ch.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.+ --c. Another method is to use input functions. digits. a=++b + c++. This single character includes alphabets. a=++b + ++c. General form: char-variable = getchar(). There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true.12 a int a=0. c=0. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. return. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 3. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. a=b++ + c++. . processing.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. getch ().

Blank space is also considered as a character. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. monitor. putchar(ch). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .15 char ch. ch = getchar(). To get a line of text. General Form: gets(stringvariable). Cognizant Technology Solutions. this function serves the purpose.14 char ch[5]. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). Example 3.character input from console & echoes the character. /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. String Input gets () .Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). General Form: putchar(char variable). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. gets(ch).

f. o.16 char ch[5].Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: scanf (“format string”. L) conversion character (d.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. %e. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007.. x. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. puts(ch). gets(ch). Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. C has a special formatting character (%). list of variables). Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. l. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. Example 3.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. u. g. A character following this defines the format for a value. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

4s”. Example 3. int=%3d. &i. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. w. To read a string using ‘%s’. This function returns the number of characters printed. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. also known as control string contains field specifications.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007.18 printf (“char=%c. the delimiter while reading the values is space.&b). p. /*if the input is 12345 & 10.ch.*f”. Format string. list of variables). str). Example 3. first 4 characters printed. Stops when it encounters new line. “format string”. &ch. which directs the interpretation of input data. list of variables). i. General Form: printf (“format string”. Format string and variables are separated by comma.2f”. ‘&’ need not be used. /*accepts all inputs including space. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. &a. Delimiter can be user-defined. floating point=%6. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. General Form: sscanf (str. name). /* column width 10. x). Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. By default. sum). &a. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10.&a. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”.&b).Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. &b). &x). printf (“sum = %*.

float. General Form: sprintf (str. “total” c. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. C program is a collection of functions.x=5. char. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. getchar(). C supports four basic primitive data types: int.--y * b / a. then based on the operator precedence.h> main() { int z.a=4. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language.b=2.z). Test your Understanding 1. list of variables).Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. main d. double. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. “format string”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C has a rich set of operators. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. printf("The Value of z : %d\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . z = x++ .y=-10. Emp_name b.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a.

5. s. What is the output of the following code? int a . If. x= (int) y. s = 10. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. b = printf (“welcome”).c ( “ “ . 5. 4. Answers: 1. 4 5 7. a.5 4. 4 5 b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. getche() echoes the input character on screen. printf (“%d “.Problem Solving and C Programming 2.b). the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. What is ternary operator in C? 5. valid 3.5. s= (int) y + 3. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. 7. . What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x.0 . 6. x = 7. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). Is the statement valid? 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . y=7. but getch() will not echo the character. All are valid.

1 a=8. } x=a*b. Example 5. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. In an iterative structure. selection. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. } } { b=2. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. b=10. In a selection structure.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. until some condition is satisfied. c=a+b. y = x * b – k. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and iteration (looping). Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. c=3. c=a + b. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. . Example 5. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. 2 { a=10. In a sequence construct. } { { a=1.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session.

which consists of declaration statements. logical. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. is executed in a sequential manner. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. Expression can be arithmetic. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. An expression involves arithmetic. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. } ] statements3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } [ else { statements2. and/or logical operators. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. relational. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. and one or more simple expression statements. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and/or relational expression. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero).Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). input-output statements.

Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. if (expression) statements-2. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value.max). If the else part is not specified. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a).Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. Example 5. true or false is known. if (expression) statements-1. } Example 5. printf(“ max = %d” . the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. General Form: if (expression) { statements1.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. } else { statements2. else max = a. else printf (“largest = %d”.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. if (a<b) max = b.c). if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. . else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. Example 5. else if (expression) statements2. else statements4. It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. else printf (“largest = %d”. else if(expression) statements3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”).Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied.c). ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007.b). else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). else printf(“Fail\n”). else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”).

A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. default : statement. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. must be an integer valued expression.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. default statements will be executed. and/or arithmetic expression. array variable. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. logical expression. if (a>b) max = a. relational expression. else max = b. break. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. If the variable matches with one of the constants. then an execution jump is made to that point. break. which is similar to the following if-else statement. } Expression in the switch statement. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. Example 5. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. Default case is optional and if specified. if there is no match for the case labels. break. Expression may be a constant value. expr3 is evaluated. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. pointer variable. case item2: statement 2. case itemn: statement n. which are represented by constant values. variable.

} Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. expression3) { statement / block of statements. break.while’. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. which follows the loop. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. There are several ways to execute loops in C. break. break. the statements inside the loop are executed. If the test condition is False. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). If the test condition is True. case ‘*’: c=a*b.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. case ‘-’: c=a-b. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. case ‘/’: c=a/b. expression2. General Form: for (expression1. ‘do. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. Cognizant Technology Solutions. break. ‘while’. the control is transferred to the statement.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

} In the above example. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop. Example 5. ((x>3) && (x<9)). for(. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). Example 5. c++.c<=20. The second loop.i).. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. For each & every iteration through the outer loop. controlled by the value of ‘j’. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. c).) { c+=1. Such loops are called nested loops. z .j<=3. is called inner loop.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. c). (4) c=2. for (. x++) x++. for (j=1. z=4000. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.8 (1) for (x=0.++c) (6) c=2. for (. printf (“c=%d”.c<=20.j). } (7) int c=0.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop.) { printf (“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . y=4.. Different variables must be used to control each loop. the inner loop runs completely. Cognizant Technology Solutions.i<=3. (3) for (x=0.9 for (i=1. y=4. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0.

The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. (4) while(1). Example 5.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. At the end of the loop. while (expression). After executing the body of the loop. } Expression can be a constant value. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. General Form: while (expression) { Statements. ++c. the body of loop is not executed at all.c). variable or any expression. On reaching the do statement. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. (3) while(x) { }. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. If the expression evaluates to True.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. General Form: do statement (s).. the body of the loop is executed. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. while is an exit controlled loop statement. (6) c=1.. If the result is True. the expression is checked again. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). } ‘do . the body of the loop is executed. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. If the expression is initially False.while’ statement The do.

loop). Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: break. Example 5.11 int d=1. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again.loop++) { If (loop==10) break.loop<100. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Break. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. */ printf("%d\n".loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. General Form: continue. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration.13 for(loop=0.. Example 5. When the condition becomes False. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True. It is used to terminate the current iteration. do { printf (“%d\n”. ++d.Problem Solving and C Programming to True.d). Cognizant Technology Solutions.while.12 for(loop=0. the body of the loop is executed at least once. } while (d<=10). It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. Example 5.loop<50. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.

printf("%d\n".uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. pounds < 250. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". For each pounds. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. kilos). for(pounds=10. printf(" US lbs UK st.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. uklbs and kilos.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. so we have used the for loop. We know the starting point. apply formula to get the stones. int uklbs = pounds % 14. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .loop). termination condition and the increment. stones. lbs INT Kg\n"). } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. } getchar(). Continue this till the termination condition is met i. float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND.e.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . uklbs.45359 main() { int pounds. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. pounds.

Which of the following statements are true? a. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. b. case 2 : printf(“2”). that are used to carry out conditional looping. case 3 : printf(“3”). An if statement may include only simple statements. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . Test your Understanding 1. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2. break. break. break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. for. c. while. break. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. An if statement must always include an else clause. if clause can contain another if statement.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. case 1 : printf(“1”).

else continue.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”. Default case is executed. printf (“%d”))) break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. } Answers: 1. 3 4.. What is the difference between a while and do. 5.while will get executed at least once. c 2. 3.. The loop statements of do.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007..while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end).

etc. If an array of 5 integers elements is created.]. set of names). the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. [index 0 refers first location . index 1 refers second location.g. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. set of numbers. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. of the same data type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. int matrix[2][2]. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. float sales_amt[10].1 int x[5]. When addressing an element in an array. Array declaration reserves space in memory. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). char str[16]="qwerty". Defines a character array. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. starting at x[0]. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. Example 7.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size.

/*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. b[1] = 45. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. /*a[0]=1.20 .4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .2. and processing of array elements. a[2] = 3 . In such cases.3.3. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array.45. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. the base address can not be changed. size depends upon the number of values initialized.34}.3 int a[5]={1. If initialized. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. partial initialization is allowed. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.2. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}.4}. /* b[0] = 10. a[2]=3.2. When arrays are initialized during declaration. Thus. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. ) */ float b[2]={10.5}. Example 7. array can be declared without specifying the exact size. /*a[0] = 1. (ex. a[1]=2. a[1] = 2 . 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. In partial initialization.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program.3. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. retrieving. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized.2.4}.

a[2]).a[i]). &a[1]).a[1].5 int a[3].a[1]). a+1. Example 7.i<3.i<3. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension.i++) printf(“%d”.a[0]. printf(“%d”. a[0]).pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. a.&a[i]). Cognizant Technology Solutions.a[2]).Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array. (1) printf(“%d”. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0.6 int a[3]. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address .i++) scanf(“%d”. scanf(“%d”. scanf(“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. a+2). (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. &a[2]). /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”. (1) scanf(“%d”. &a[0]).

3.3}}.row 0 & column 1 .2.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.2. Example 7. /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a[0][0] will be in location 1000 .3}.3.5. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7. Assume that array starts at location 1000. out of n locations defined.row 0 & column 0 .8 int num[2][3] = {1.6}. 7 int a[2][2].row 1 & column 0 .2.4. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. = 4 elements). Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature. In partial initialization. If m elements are needed. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2}. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration. int num[2][3] = {1.2.5}.{1.4.{4}}. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.

*/ (3) char name[5]. Example 7. name[2] = ‘O’. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. to represent the end of string. A character string is stored in an array of character type. name[1] = ‘O’. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters.’m’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined. name[3] = ‘D’. of strings] [max no.’\0’). /*Creates a string. Example 7. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. String constants can be assigned to character array variables.11 char studname[50][15].10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. In C. one ASCII character per location.’u’. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. there is no built-in data type for strings. The value at str[6] is the null character. name[4] = ‘\0’. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. of chars in strings].Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. return 0.

”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’.’\0’}. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). name). printf(“%s” . Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.’\0’}} = {{‘b’. name). assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator.13 (1) char name[20]. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. which manipulates the entire string at once.’t’. int i=0.’a’. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007.”cat” . Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . Example 7.’t’.’\0’}. {‘c’.’t’.’a’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. Cognizant Technology Solutions.’a’.

s2) strspn(s1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. n) strncmp(string1. string2) strcat(string1. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. c) strstr(s1. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. s2) strcspn(s1. string2) strcmp(string1.string2.s2) strpbrk(s1. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. string2. string2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Find last occurrence of character c in string. c) strrchr (string. n) strncpy(string1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string.

\r. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions.\f. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ctype.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1.\t. fib[0] = 0.:. .h. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric. int i.h> main() { int fib[24]. for (i = 0. The header file.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters. ‘. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. True if c is ASCII . Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio. is used for the character functions.‘. True if c is a control character (\n. True if c is a letter.) True if c is a space character (\n.\r. i < 24. i < 24. which can manipulate a single character. .\f.\v. for(i = 2. “. fib[1] = 1.

The program computes the series up to 24 numbers.2. j<5. j++) printf("%d ". In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n".. Cognizant Technology Solutions. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. } getchar(). i.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array.5.13…. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. i<4. getchar(). j<5. i<4. fib[i]). Initially array of size 24 is declared. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio.3. 2.j.h> main() { int twod[4][5]. twod[i][j]). } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for (i=0. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. for(i=0. i++) for(j=0. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array. printf("\n").8. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. int i. i++) { for (j=0.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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It can be accessed only within that function. If it is declared in the Global declaration section. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. } main() { fun(). } Function is defined prior to its reference. it is used by all the functions in the program. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. Memory for the global variables is allocated. Local Variables . parameters. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. } Function Header function-name arg1. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. Function body. Functions can be defined at any location in the program.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements.. executable statement 2. ….) { local variables Declaration. type arg2. there is no need for the function prototype. So compiler will identify the function name. executable statement 1. Global Variables . Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. and the operations to be carried out by the function. : return expression. Cognizant Technology Solutions.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions.

(control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. There can be multiple return statements. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. If there is no return statement. expression can be a variable name. Cognizant Technology Solutions.3 (1) return. each containing different expression. Example 9.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. } (2) main() { return 0. does not return any value.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. else return b. constant value or any single valued expression. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. it is achieved by the return statement. If it returns a value. OR return(expression). General Form: return. Example 9. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. return(a*b). then void keyword is used to represent that. return(a<b). Default return type is ‘int’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. Cognizant Technology Solutions.num2)) statement.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. &num2). the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. big. If a function is returning a value. scanf(“%d%d”. big=find_big(num1. If the function returns value. The number. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. } int find_big(int a. Example 9. &num1. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. find_big(num1. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. big). int). The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. When the function call is encountered. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. /* function call statement. it is called Recursion. It is a process by which a function calls itself. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). num2.num2). data type. else return b. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. /* function prototype. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “.

The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. which in turn return the value to its calling function. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the control is immediately transferred to the function. printf(“Enter an integer\n”).fact(n)). the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3).&n). } If n = 4.7 main() { int n. In fourth call. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. else return(k*fact(k-1). } fact(int k).Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. { if (k<=1) return 1. along with the value returned. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. Depending on its definition. printf(“Factorial = %d“. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. which may call function3. which in turn call function2. The main function may call function1. fact(int). then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). scanf(“%d“. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . When the return statement is encountered. On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. control is transferred back to the called function.

c). for(i=1. border(n.i<=80.&b). printf(“\n”). integers\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. scanf(“%d%d”. } { int sum.b). for(i=1. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.b. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). add(int x.i<=m. sum=add(a. &n. } } } scanf(“%d%d”. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n.a.b.&a. char s) { int i. return(a+b). char c. } border(int m. printf(“\nSum = %d”.sum).s).i++) printf(“%c“.sum). } border() { int i.c). printf(“\nSum = %d”.int y) { return a+b . return.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. } add() { int a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n.&b). { int sum. sum=add().8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border().i++) printf(“-“). return. scanf(“%d%c”.&c). printf(“\n”). &a.

Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. a=10. swap(a. Example 9. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. So. So. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b). } Call by Reference In this approach. b). Cognizant Technology Solutions. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. The value of the actual argument will remain same.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. } void swap(int c. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. c = d. b=20. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. d = temp. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. pointer variable or array name. a. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. temp = c. b. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”.

Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. Example 9. *c = *d. b=20. i < 5. return max_value. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). Example 9. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. } void swap(int *c. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. b). maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a=10. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. for( i = 0.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. &b). int *d) { int temp. i. b. a. swap(&a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .12 int { int max_value. *d = temp. To pass an array to a function. max_value = val[0]. } main() { int values[5]. which points to an array. max. temp = *c. i.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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well defined task. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. A function calling itself is called recursion. What is function prototyping? 2. { int a = 3. Test your Understanding 1. static. printf(“ %d “ . Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. } fn(int i) { return ++i. The command line arguments. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. } printf(“%d” . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. } 4. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10.i). Cognizant Technology Solutions. argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. a). ii) function call. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. fn(i). printf("%d".Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. a). C supports four storage class specifiers (auto.

d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. int *p(char *a) c. type of its arguments. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. b. 3 4 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a. return data type). 10 6. int (*p)(char a) d. 3. In C. int p(char *a) b. int *p(char *a[]) 7. In call by reference. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Corresponding parameters must be of same type.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. 5. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. 7. Using command line arguments. What the following declaration statements imply? a. 2.

All other types of variables are local variables. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This is called block scope. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007... This means. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code..Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. is determined by where it is defined. it has file scope. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If it is defined outside of all the blocks.

with identical names. If not initialized in the declaration. prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). Example 10. Static variables are stored in memory. the nested variables are unique auto variables. although it is active only in main(). They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. printf (“%d “ . it is cleared and its memory destroyed. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. If no storage class is specified. it is automatically initialized to zero. a). So. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. internal static variables retain values between function calls.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. it will retain the value between function calls. then its scope is confined to that function. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. by default it is an auto variable. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block).Thus. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If not initialized in the declaration statement. In the case recursive functions. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global).1 main() { int a = 5 . a). they are also called local or internal variables. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. } printf(“ %d “ . When the execution of the block is completed. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . Once allocated. { int a =6 . If the variable is declared within a function. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. Because of this property.

If not initialized in the declaration. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage.2 main() { int i.i<=5. They are referred to as global variables.i++) incre(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It retains its value till the control remains in that block. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. Since registers are faster than memory. careful selection must be made for their use. the variable is initialized to zero.x). instead of keeping it in the memory. for (i=1. printf(“ x = %d\n”. x = x +1. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. Since the registers are less in numbers. } incre() { static int x = 0. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. When using external variables. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10.

It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. it is initialized to zero. a). The first word is treated as the name of a program. /* external variable declaration. but as a first approximation. b). Example 10. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . extern int a = 10. */ void fun(). printf(“ %d “ . The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. External variable declaration can not have initialization. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. printf(“ %d “ . interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). } int b = 20. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. When a command is entered in a command window. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words.3 int a = 5 . } void fun() { a = 10 . fun().

argc). A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. i < argc. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. which are command line strings. employee name (string).Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. char* argv[]) { int i. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. Example 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . salary (float).i . The components are called Members. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. Cognizant Technology Solutions.4 main( int argc. argv[i]). For example. for( i = 0. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. department code (string).

.. struct employee emp1.... Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . : : type variable-name.. variable-name.. “struct” keyword is used to define structures. no extra structures can be created.. variable-name.5 1) struct employee { int code. int dept_code... Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that..... }. Here... Cognizant Technology Solutions........ Individual members will be given a separate memory location. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name... type variable-name. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007... char name[20]. tag name is optional. variable-name. float salary... Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration. type variable-name... When declaring structure variables. Example 10.. emp2.. variable-name. } ..

char name[20]. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stud2={102. int dept_code. illegal. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. int semester. If it is partially initialized. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. illegal. 1. 1}. 90.6 struct { int rollnum. float avg. “Raja”.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. (tag name is optional here) char name[20].”Dina”.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . No storage class can be specified for structure members. then the expression “s. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code.78}. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. Example 10. } emp1. float salary. struct stud stud1={101. struct employee { int empno = 101 . If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. }. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. emp2.”(dot).

Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. structures can contain members that themselves are structures.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . float basic.9 struct { int day. char name[20]. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types.dept_code emp1.code emp1. This is because. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 10.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. the assignment expression a = b is valid.name emp1.7 emp1. int month. the values in slack bytes are also compared. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007.8 struct emp { int empno. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. }.sizeof(emp1)). It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. printf (“Size = %d”. While comparing structure variables. int year. member-field-name Example 10. Assignment operation is allowed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 10. } emp1. For example.code emp2.salary emp2. which is always not same for different structure variables. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type.

int sub_marks[5].year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays. }student. In this example.doj. struct stud Accessing values: student [1]. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. int avg.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum. Example 10. }.avg student[50]. then we can do so by writing: emp1. float salary.name student [1].Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code.semester student [1].sub_marks[0] }. student. char name [20].11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.emp2. char name[15]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Accessing values: student. }emp1. int semester. struct date doj.rollnum student [1]. int dept_code. char name[20].

} void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . emp2. printf(“ %s “ . char empname[10]. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . }. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. But changes will not be reflected back. emp1->empno). display(emp1). char empname[10]. Example 10. emp2. } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method.13 struct emp { int empno. “AAAA”} . main( ) { void display(struct emp). or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. printf(“%d” .empno). We can use pointer to structures. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “AAAA”} . void main( ) { void change(struct emp *).empname). /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . Example 10. When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. }.12 struct emp { int empno. change(&emp1). it is passed using call by value method. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

wage is a structure variable of sal structure. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102."Tom"). } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name). x.name). strcpy(student1. } student1. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. student2. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. student1. student2.name.marks = 99. int a. …) Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int main ( ) { struct student student3. student2.9.2f \n". float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. float marks.marks). printf (" Marks are %. y). printf (" Name is %s \n".h> struct student { char name[20]. getchar(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. Consider the following structure. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . ) operator.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. only one member is accessible at a time. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. struct { int a. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }*p1. int *p.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. Print the values of the structure. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. In unions.

Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. 4. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. int age.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. }. }ex. sizeof (ex)). 3. 2. char name[15]. printf(“Size = %d”. struct stud_type s1. *p1->p. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Answers: 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The elements of an array are always of the same type. union person { char surname[10].

variable-name. }union-variable... Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization.... In the declaration. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members... Unions follow the same syntax as structures. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name... No other member can be initialized. The tag name. variable-name.. can be used to declare variables of the union type. For each variable.. is a derived data type....Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. variable-name....... variable-name.. keyword ‘union’.it creates the type. : : type variable-name.. like a structure..... type variable-name. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template . union-variable. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted.. along with the keyword ‘union’.... Cognizant Technology Solutions... The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly... type variable-name. the tag name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and block file I/O operations Unions Union.. . Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member..... and the members of the union are given... unformatted. but no storage is allocated.

The dot operator (.2 { int code. struct stud_type { int rollno. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. int dept_code. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. float x. int age. Thus. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. char name[20].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14.) is used to access the members. union { char surname[10]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct employee_type e1. char name[15]. }. float avg. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. s1. float salary. }. }.1 union item { int m. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. Example 14. struct stud_type }ex. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. char c. static union item product = {100}.

to share common memory. As structures. definition and variable declaration can be combined. next value is calculated as previous plus one. backspace = `\b'. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. Example 14. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. var2 . Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . …… member n } . tab = `\t’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. vtab = `\v'. enum colors { red = 1 . } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. first enumerated name has index value 0. The member names must differ from one another. newline = `\n'.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. Here. member2 . blue = 5 .Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. similar to structures or a union. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). General Form: enum tag { member1 . These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . though they have signed integer values. …………… var n. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. but not both. the user can use either e1 or s1.e1. green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. As with arrays. at the same time. e1 and s1. e1 = getch(). “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. the union allows the structure variables. green takes the value 6. That is.

supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. Similarly. numbers n1. In C.5 typedef { int empno. Example 14. files are needed. Example 14. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. integer variables. char empname[10]. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. }employee. employee emp1. It is used to give new names to existing data types. no need to use struct keyword. the results may be stored on disks. General Form typedef datatype new-type. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. struct n1 . Then structure variables can be declared as follows. For such applications. n2 . typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions.4 typedef numbers int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . emp2.

Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. A text stream. on some systems. More generally. When a file is opened. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. and all characters will be transferred as such. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. and the new-line character. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. When a program begins. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. In C. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. Text streams consist of printable characters. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device.h. When a file is closed. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the tab character.in which case the position points to the end of the file. There are two types of streams: text and binary. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio.

The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. the purpose/positioning of opening the file. fscanf(fp. "format string". “mode”).c. details. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. (Extensions can be specified like test. fprintf(fp. It is a string enclosed within double quotes.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. fclose(fp ). variable list). fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. variable list). fp = fopen(“name”. "format string".

the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. if the file does not open or the file does not exist. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). fsetpos(). fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL.Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). If the file is opened with append mode (a). Writing in to a file To write into a file. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. rewind(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the file is opened in the update mode (+). The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. or fflush(). By default. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. char c. monitor as a file. On success. Example 14. This may be a macro version of fgetc. This fptr may be stdout. which represents standard output device. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. the character is returned. char c. The EOF is end of file status flag. the character is returned.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. which represents a standard input device.dat”. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set.fptr). } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. keyboard as a file. which is true if end of file is reached. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. Example 14.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch.dat”. On success. otherwise false.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. The fptr may be stdin. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). If the end-of-file is encountered. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. the pointer is moved to the next position. After the reading a character. fclose(fp). If an error occurs. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). If an error occurs.fp).

a file at a time. a null pointer is returned. On success. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). a file at a time. integers can be written to. fclose(fp). Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). or the endof-file is reached. a pointer to the string is returned. This function writes an integer to a file. On success. General Form: fgets(str. It stops when (n-1) characters are read. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the newline character is read. or read from. On error. On success. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. General Form: putw (i. fptr). General Form: fputs (str. } String I/O Using string I/O. Cognizant Technology Solutions. string can be written to. fptr). EOF is returned. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). On error.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). a nonnegative value is returned. or read from.fptr). the string remains unchanged. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. The newline character is copied to the string. whichever comes first. On error. a nonnegative value is returned. A null character is appended to the end of the string. EOF is returned. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str.n.

If the input does not match. tab. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. variable-list). whose addresses are given in addresses-list.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). format-string. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. vertical tab. carriage return. the function stops scanning and returns. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or form feed. addresses-list). Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. EOF is returned. If an error occurred. format-string. new line. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. -1 is returned. General Form: fscanf( fptr. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. If an input failure occurs.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. On success. in a left to right fashion. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. according to the format specifier specified in format string. or the next incompatible character. in a left to right fashion. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. or the width field is satisfied. On success. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. the number of characters printed is returned. General Form: i = getw( fptr).

i<5 .name printf("%d %s %d \n" . std1[i].no . fprintf(fpt .&std1[i].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14.name . "%d . std[i].no . Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite().name .dat" . std1[i]. fpt = fopen("details.dat" . std[i]. &std[i]. name . std1[i]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }std[10]. clrscr(). i++.Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. for(i=0.no .age).age). %s %d " . Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file.8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. &std1[i]. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name . "r").age). fpt = fopen("details.age).e. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . "w"). age )\n\n"). int i. struct { int no. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. "%d %s %d " . &std[i]. char name[10]. std1[i]. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i.no . while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . } fclose(fpt). std[i]. std1[10]. printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). std[i]. int age. bytes of data).i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " .

General Form fwrite (ptr. i++) scanf("%s %d ". for(i=0 . Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. fptr).stud[i]. The total number of bytes read is (size*n). int age . 5 . "w" ).Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. General Form fread (&str. struct tag { char name[10]. int i .dat" . n. size. On error or end-of-file.9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. fread(&stud1 . fwrite(&stud . size. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &stud[i]. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. fp). n.age). The total number of bytes written is (size*n). sizeof(stud1[0]) . fp). On success the number of elements read is returned.name . fclose(fptr). printf(" \n\n printing the values "). stud1[10]. clrscr(). fptr=fopen("ex. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). sizeof(stud[0]) . the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. }stud[10] .dat" . Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i<5 . On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. fptr = fopen("ex. fptr). On success the number of elements written is returned. It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. "r" ). 5 .

stud1[i]. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " .char *argv[]) { char myString[256].Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . Open the input file. myString).Print the line number and the line. In the main program.c */ #include <string.age). // This is where I read the lines of the file int count.count. inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. // after this command. print it } fclose(inFile). read the input argument.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. 255. // close the file I opened earlier getchar().h> */ FILE * inFile. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s".h> /* #include <stdlib. i<5 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name . } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. "r"). // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. } Try It Out 1. // is in the current line and // if so. stud1[i]. // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString. Code: /* findword. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1].h> #include <stdio. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

value. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed.x.Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” .x. "Put a value in the floating member". Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio.y ). value. value. "double:\n".". return 0. }. value.h> union number { int x. value. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. getchar().y ). printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. Close the file and exit the program 2. double y.0. "int: ". } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. "and print both members. one integer and the other double. int main() { union number value.". value. "and print both members.y = 100. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". "int: ".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. if found print the line number and the full string. "Put a value in the integer member". "double:\n".x = 100.

2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. sleep(1). Preproccessing is done before compilation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } return 0. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. What is EOF. } 3. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . Output operations on files can be of character I/O. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. string I/O. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). 2L . x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. and what value does it usually have? 4. and rewind() functions.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. i++. Input. ftell()."hello-out"). fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. formatted I/O and block I/O. Test your Understanding 1. fopen().

stdout.a ). What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. Its value on most computers is -1. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. } Answers: 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. a). printf(“%d”.”. No significance. foo( ). stderr 2. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. 4. stdin.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. 5.

On error. On success. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. If it is a text stream. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In some applications. ftell() and rewind(). which corresponds to the current file pointer position. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. the current file position is returned. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format).Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. General Form: fseek( fptr. offset. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. If it is a binary stream. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. fseek (fp. Move the file pointer to the beginning. fseek (fp. a nonzero value is returned. -10L. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. 10L. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#).1 fseek (fp. Remove comments from the source file. horizontal tab. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. 2). zero is returned.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. -10L. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. 0L. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. General Form: rewind(fptr). fseek (fp. On error. form feed. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. or carriage return. 2). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. 0L. The error indicator is NOT reset. Example 15. 1). fseek (fp. vertical tab. 2 On a text stream. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. The end-of-file indicator is reset. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. 0). 10L. 1). On success. fseek (fp. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. 0). Move the file pointer to the end of file.

#ifdef. or #elif test fails. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. depending on the result of a constant expression. Defines a preprocessor macro. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Except for some #pragma directives. #ifdef. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. No semicolon (. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. Defines text for a compile-time error message. #include Inserts text from another source file. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Ends conditional text. #ifndef.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. #ifndef. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. The # token must appear as a first character. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. or #elif test fails. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character.

while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. or until the end of the program source is reached. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. Therefore. and then processed by the compiler. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files.h> #include “stdio. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. In case that it is not there. Example 15.2 #include <stdio. whichever comes first. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. Cognizant Technology Solutions. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. the file is searched first in the current working directory.

the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. ….4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

/* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). and one matching #endif directive. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). zero or one #else directive. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For each #if. Example 15. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). Continuation character for macro definition is \. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4).5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. addition=add(2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .b) ((a)+(b)). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. there are zero or more #elif directives. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code.3). /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. and #ifndef directive. #ifdef. addition=(2)+(3). main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).. } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion.

#elif. printf(name(ssn.8 #define name(x. If so.. Example 15. then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. If there is a matching #else.somca)). */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. …. …. and the preceding #if evaluated to false. Example 15.y) x##y main() { …. If there is a matching #elif. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). or #endif. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .7 #define name(x) #x main() { ….. Cognizant Technology Solutions.6 Check whether a variable is defined. */ Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). printf(name(xyz)). } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). If the value is 0 (false).

Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. int a = 5 . C provides two operators. Whenever a variable is declared. *px. Example 15. & and *. a). for pointer implementation. & address operator. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. 5 – value. &a). px = &x. as they have a number of useful applications. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. * and & are inverse of each other. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. x = 5 .9 int x.

b . *px). Two pointer variables can be compared. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. *p = &a . invalid . Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. q = p.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. *q = NULL. . Page 116 ©Copyright 2007.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. valid valid. &x). prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. b = &a. Example 15. printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. printf(“ x = %d “ . printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. printf(” address of x = %d “ . q = a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. hold only the address of the variable of same data type.11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . x). One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. px). The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &px). Null or an address.

conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. Thus. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. i=5. and so on. ptr= &i. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. ptr ++. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. if v is an array.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. *pv is the same as v[0].

a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. OR pointer_variable = array_name. i . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.3.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . similar to ptr = &a[0]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .16 printf (“%u “. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . Accessing address Example 15.*(a+i)). Example 15. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear.2. Example 15. *ptr . ptr = &a[0][0] .14 int a[5] = {1. varies according to the dimension. The way in which the pointer variable used.5} ptr = a .4} .17 int a[2][2] = {1. OR ptr_vble = array_name. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn].3.2. (ptr+i)).*ptr).15 printf (“%d “. printf (“%d “. 4. printf (“%d “.*(ptr+i)).

it results in a problem. For example.j<3. jth column Accessing value Example 15. displays the x(i. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. for (i=0. int *pa=&a[0][0].Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2.i++) { for (j=0. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. int a[2][3]={1. Therefore. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays.19 main() { int i.j) value displays the x(i.*(a + i)[ j ].3. each with 2 elements. is a collection of one dimensional array.*(*(pa+i)+j)).j) value displays the x(i. printf (“%d “.6}. for example.*(*(ptr + i) +j).18 printf (“%d “. Here. printf (“%d “.j++) printf(“\t%d”. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array.i<2. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row.j) value Example 15. refers to the entire row .5. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4.*(a[ i ] + j). So. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1. j. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row.

Suppose. p = name.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL.2. Example 15. Thus. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. Once the pointer is declared. it refers to the address of the 0th element. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .20 int a[2][2] = {1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ptr[0] = a[0]. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. *ptr[2] . we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. When an array is referenced by its name.4} .3. which can hold the address of a character variable. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers.

This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. “AB” . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. “rstu”. “ABCD”} . Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10].3} . *p). “xyz”}. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. *p).1. “ABC” . Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the elements of array are string pointers. valid invalid Thus. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string.2. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. char *name[4] = { “A” . make it a pointer to a string of varying length. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. char *p = “string” . Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. int *p = {0. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. printf(“String output = %s”. The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier.

Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared.24 int a. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. substantial saving in memory.23 const int a=10. The value cannot be modified. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. In the above example. Thus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15. int *pa = &a. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. int *const pa = &a. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified.

The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. ++num2. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *pnum = 2. Try It Out 1. *(int *) pab =100. long *pnum = NULL. const int * const pb = &b. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. num2 += *pnum. long num2 = 0. Example 15. ++*pnum. *pnum. float b. getchar(). num2. pab=&a. void *pab.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. *pnum + num2). Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. pnum = &num2. in order to know the size and value of the data item. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. Cognizant Technology Solutions.55.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. *(float *) pab = 105.26 int a. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio.25 int b. num1. pnum = &num1. But it is needed. pab=&b. when dereferencing the content using void pointer.

First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared. a[1]=&i2. a[4]=&i5. int *b.value at pnum 2. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. a[2]=&i3. a[0]=&i1.i5=0. Increment the value of num2.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array.i4=1. %16u %d\n". printf("Address for(j=0. Address in array Value\n"). } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1.h> main(){ int *a[5]. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum.a[j]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Print all the values num1.num2. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. int i1=4. a[3]=&i4. #include <stdio. now the value of num2 is 1.e. Then the value of num1 is 2.i3=2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.j++) { printf("%16u a[j].a[j]). the array elements is the pointer. } printf("using pointer\n").c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer.i2=3.j<5. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. int j.

& operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .*b. for( j=0. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. State whether the following are true or false a. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points.j<5. Test your Understanding 1.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d.*b. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. See the difference. } getchar(). calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. malloc().Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. b++.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. 2.b). Declare an array of integer pointers. Pointer variable can only contain an address b.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. *b = &a .Problem Solving and C Programming 3. The third statement castes **c. n[24]=200. 5. 3. char str2[]=”abcd”. Answers: 1. The result is meaningless. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type.%d". malloc(). 5. assign the value to a. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Since b points to a. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). True. **c = &b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 100. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. which is value of a. Given the following declaration: int a. Differentiate malloc() . false 2. 2 5 5 6. b = (int *)**c. sizeof(“abcd”)). this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. printf(“%d %d %d”. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. *n. into type int *. n[0]=100. } 6. calloc().sizeof(str2). Since c points to b. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. } 4. false. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. The first statement assigns 4 to a. **c=5. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. 300 4. sizeof(str1). What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. printf("\n%d. false.

1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . Example 17.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. int *assign() . } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . a). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program.2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . *p. /* function prototype */ void change(int *).function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. *p) . } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. change(p). p =&a. p = assign() . you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . rather than an entire array. which will speeds up the execution. x + y). Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. b=20. printf (“%d”. } Example 17. void add(int x.Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . p = add. int y).*p). int *). return q . of a is returned */ /* addr. *p. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. So. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. } Pointer to this function is declared as. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. &b). *q = &a.. main() { int a=10. to a function using pointers. void (*p)(int x. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x).) Suppose we have a function as. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* addr. p = big (&a. else return (y). *q = 20 . } int *big (int *x .

abc().”raja”.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. (*func_ptr) ().6 struct stud { int rollnum. (*abc)(). Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.4 int display(). will call the function add() with parameters 10. 95. Cognizant Technology Solutions. char name[20]. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float avg.20). Example 17. Example 17. *ptr . To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. }. 1. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference.5 main() { void abc(). func_ptr = display. In this declaration.67}. struct stud student={101. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. int (*func_ptr) (). } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. int semester. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. we can write as ptr = &student.

memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. float salary.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. struct employee *empptr. calloc () . and then release this memory when it is no longer required. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. Example 17. char gender. int *p. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ptr->semester.8 struct employee { char name[20]. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). ptr->avg). Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. ptr->rollnum. Thus. ptr->name.

i<3. p = (int *) calloc (10. i++ for(j=0. free() will take a void pointer. j<3. j<3. *b[3] . i<3. i<3. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). a[i]+j). which can hold 10 integers. *(c[i]+j)). i<3. j<3. for(i=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). for(i=0 . free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. for(i=0. sizeof(int)). j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). for(i=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . i++) for(j=0.j. for(i=0. int i. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). i++) for(j=0. j++) printf("\t%d". b[i]+j). j<3.Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. i++) for(j=0. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). Example 17. i<3. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. *c[3]. } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). j++) scanf("%d". j++) scanf("%d".

it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. p1=&x. For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it cause memory leakages If not used properly. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer.10 addr.*p1. video memory. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. beyond 3 levels. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable.ptr2 x=100. Example 17. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. However. p2=&p1. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable.ptr1 value int x. printer. int **p.**p2. which holds the address of another integer pointer. As such.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers.

suit. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. int main() { struct card aCard. Assign the values of face and suit of card structure.face.face = "Ace". " of ". Print the values of card structure in three different forms.h> struct card { char *face. char *suit. struct card *cardPtr. declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . cardPtr = &aCard. " of ".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. cardPtr->face. ( *cardPtr ). aCard. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". All will print the same. cardPtr->suit. In the main program. }. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1.suit ).suit = "Spades". aCard. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. ( *cardPtr ). return 0. getchar(). aCard. aCard. " of ".face.

} p-> data = n. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio.h> struct node { int data. } temp = temp-> link. temp-> link = p. int n){ struct node *temp. }. exit(0).h> # include <stdlib. Cognizant Technology Solutions. p-> link = p. temp-> data = n. while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). temp = p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf("The data values in the list are\n"). } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). } else { temp = p. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). exit(0). } return (p). struct node *link.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. struct node *insert(struct node *p. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n").

Then returns the pointer back. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . start = insert ( start. 4 ). 2). declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. In the insert function. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. the start pointer will be NULL. so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. start = insert ( start. 1 ).c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. } else printf("The list is empty\n"). printlist ( start ). temp=temp->link. so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. } while (temp!= p). struct node *start = NULL . Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. start = insert ( start. In the main program. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. } void main() { int n. int x.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". printf("The created list is\n"). Then returns back the pointer. getchar(). again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. Now the start pointer is not NULL. Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. start = insert ( start.temp->data).as it is first time. 3 ).

What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. } 4.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. *b = &a . n[24]=200. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory.%d". using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. b = (int *)**c. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is the output of the following statements? a=4. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. In the printlist() function. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Given the following declaration: int a. *n. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. **c=5. **c = &b. Test your Understanding 1. malloc(). There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. printf("\n%d. State whether the following are true or false a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. n[0]=100. 2.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The first statement assigns 4 to a. Differentiate malloc() . this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. char str2[]=”abcd”. sizeof(str1). Page 137 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. The third statement castes **c. The result is meaningless. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. calloc(). this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. Since c points to b. false. assign the value to a. 3. 100. 2 5 5 6. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Answers: 1. false.sizeof(str2). } 6. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. sizeof(“abcd”)). What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. which is value of a. malloc(). false 2. Since b points to a. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. printf(“%d %d %d”. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. 5. into type int *. 300 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. True.

#elif. #else. } /* */ main(int argc.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. #endif #ifdef.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . #define max(A. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1.

\?. ‘\xhh’ \n. tab. \r. ‘\ooo’. cr. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. \t.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. \. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. octal. hex) newline. \b \\.

/. minus.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers.member pointer -> member Ex. <= ==. -+. ~ *pointer. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. struct tag name name. divide. -. bitwise not indirection via pointer.member pointer->member ++. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. <<. >=. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . <. Cognizant Technology Solutions. >> >.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. modulus (remainder) add. % +. logical not. subtract left. decrement plus. !. &name (type) expr sizeof *. (*p). Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }.

default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. for Next iteration of while.h> <stddef.h> <locale. do. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.h> <time. while. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. *=.h> <errno.h> <limits. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ).h> <ctype. -=. case const2: statement2 break. …… .h> <stdarg. expr2.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> <math. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left.h> <stdio.h> <setjmp. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break.h> <string. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . all others group left to right.h> <float. do. Unary operators. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <signal.h> <stdlib.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=.

t are strings and cs.ct.n) memmove(s.ct. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.c) strrchr(cs. newline.c) memcpy(s.n) memcmp(cs. letter.ct) strncpy(s.n) memchr(cs. tab. Cognizant Technology Solutions. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.ct) strncat(s.ct.n) strchr(cs.ct. cr. digit Checks whether c is a Space.ct. form feed.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.c.ct) strncmp(cs.n) strcat(s.n) memset(s.n) strcmp(cs.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .ct.h> Consider s.c.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

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u. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign.sign. Overrides the 0 flag. X. This is useful only with a width specifier. [. For d. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). The type of conversion to be applied (required). f. then the precision argument. then the value to be converted. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. Result will always have a decimal point. If a * is used in place of the width specifer. Default is to just show the . If the value is not large enough to fill the width. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). Negative values still show the sign. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. g. g. o. f.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. e. If the value overflows the width of the field. Trailing zeros will not be removed.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). x. then the field is expanded to fit the value. Precision overrides this flag. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Overrides the space flag. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. i. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. the width argument comes first. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). E.

u.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. . E types. If a * is used. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. u. x. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. d. X types. e. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e. f. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. 6 for f.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. x. o.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. . e. i. x. o. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. the width argument comes first. o.0 For d. x. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. u. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. then the value to be converted. n e. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. Precision does not affect the c type. [. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. o. x. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. The minimum number of digits to appear. u. i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . then the precision argument. u. o. i. For f. g. For d. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. or . X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . For f. E. i. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. Value is first converted to a long double.

Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. [type] d. The argument must be a pointer to an int. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). Cognizant Technology Solutions. c. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. g. Type pointer to array. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). d. E Type signed int. D. E. A % sign is printed. Type double printed as [-]d. Type double printed as [-]ddd. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. C. b. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. Trailing zeros are removed. No characters are printed. i o u x X f e. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Single character is printed.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a.ddd. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). e. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). Type unsigned int printed in octal. B. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. f. Type char. Otherwise printed as type f. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . F. The exponent contains at least two digits. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional).

The argument is a long double. Type unsigned int. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). The input must be in base 8 (octal). The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Begins with an optional sign. o u x. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal).Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. f. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). then it is base 10. E.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -).e. Digits 0 through 7 only. then it is base 8 (octal). The input must be in base 10 (decimal). Type signed int. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. X e. i. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. o. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. o. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. tab. G designated with an e or E. Digits 0 through 9 only. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. d. Type unsigned int. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. s Type character array. u. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. The argument is a double. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. it reaches a nonconvertible character). vertical tab. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. or form feed). Type unsigned int. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. f. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Type float. n e. The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. Then one or more digits. carriage return. f. u. new line. g e.

Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. a dash. No characters are read from the input stream. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). If the first character is a carrot (^). c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. By specifying the beginning character. Type character array. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. If no width field is specified. A null character is appended to the end of the array. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. Allows a search set of characters... Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. Requires a matching % sign from the input. The argument must be a pointer to an int. then 1 is assumed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No null character is appended to the array.] Input Type character array. Pointer to a pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

bell-labs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.se/c/bwk-tutor. Third Edition. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards.lysator. Fourth Edition. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.html#introduction http://www. “A Book on C”.G.uiuc. “How to solve it by Computer”. “C How to Program”.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist. Ira Pohl.html http://www.Dromey. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.acm.liu.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel. “Programming in C”.pdf http://cm. Tata McGraw Hill R.

Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

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