Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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...............................................................................................................................................................................................77 Test your Understanding .......................................................89 Summary .........................................................................................................................................................................100 Formatted I/O.......................................................................................................................................................................109 Introduction to Pointers ...................................................................................................................................96 Character I/O .................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Storage Classes .................100 Numeric I/O....................104 Summary ...........................................93 Enumeration ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ............................................................79 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................................................................................108 Preprocessor Directives .......................................................................................................................................108 Random File Operations ......................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions.......................................................................................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ..........108 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................................................................................75 Summary .................................................................................................................84 Structures and Arrays ......................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .............Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out .................................................115 Declaration and Initialization................................................................................................................................95 File Operations .................................................................................98 String I/O.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007...............................................79 Command Line Arguments ..........87 Structures and Functions ..............................................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ........................88 Try It Out ......................................101 Block I/O ...................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions..........................................................................90 Test your Understanding .................106 Test your Understanding .....................................................92 Learning Objectives ..................................................................................94 Typedef Statement .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................102 Try It Out ..............................................................................................92 Unions..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 Union of Structures ....................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions .....................................................

.............................................151 Websites ........................................................................................................................127 Structures and Pointers ........................................................116 Pointers and Arrays ............................133 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers ...........................................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary ....................................................................................................................................151 Books ......................................................................................................................................................................................................130 Try It Out ............................................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ........ Cognizant Technology Solutions.............................................................................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic .............................................................................................. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..................................................138 References ......................................................................123 Summary ..............................................................................................................................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .......................................................................................................................117 Try It Out ....................................................136 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................127 Learning Objectives .151 STUDENT NOTES: ....152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007...........................................................................127 Functions and Pointers ......................................................................................................................................................................................

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. prioritizing. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. Cognizant Technology Solutions. determining the cause of the problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is an act of defining a problem. To understand the problem. There is no universal method for solving a given problem.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. identifying. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem.

headings.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. It is also known as Program Analysis. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. Program Design is both a product and a process. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. An important approach is Top-Down programming design. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. several design methodologies can be applied. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. While applying top-down design to a given problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. therefore.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. the new parts become more focussed and. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4….

to test its correctness. the next step must be unambiguously defined. fact. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. However. deletions. The errors identified leads to insertions. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. but omits language-specific syntax. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. produce output. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. and terminate in a finite time. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. or modifications to the existing algorithm. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. Example 2. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0.

or entry from. Output data Represents Process (actions.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. reports).1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . End Represents Input. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem.e. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. another part of the same flow chart. required to solve a problem. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm.

fact.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. i Initialize fact =1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

statements. Documentation can be of great value. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Details of particular programs. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. The compiler is system software. and project workbooks Internal documentation. the design (algorithm. Then. Linking is done if necessary. or particular pieces of programs. Testing is done during every phase of program development. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. The translation results in the creation of object code. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. requirements can be tested for its correctness. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. algorithm descriptions. which includes things such as reference manuals. the declarations. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. The program is now ready for execution. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. flowcharts. Cognizant Technology Solutions. After compilation. Writing a program is called Coding. but also to the programmers themselves. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. Initially. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. During execution.

One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. such as BASIC. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. and Pascal. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. On some projects. C++. This is called foolproof programming. For many programmers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. COBOL. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. C. Ada. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. FORTRAN. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. Testing means detecting errors.

(It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. Thus.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. It does not need any translator program. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. For example. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. there are many new languages. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. machine language is not an easy language to learn. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. Because of it design. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer.

Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. %. This translator program is called Assembler. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. SUB and LOAD etc. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. -. /. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. irrespective of the type of computer used. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. For example. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. for its program construction. In high level languages. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS.

because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. in turn. but it is complex and difficult to learn. The language should provide appropriate data structures. This. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. Later. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. operations. For example. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. type of program. tested and maintained with ease. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. The major breakthrough occurred. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. with every combination being meaningful. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. though not widely used. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. and the expertise of the programmer. In 1959. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs.

the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. For example. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Interactive Environment. testing. efficient register allocation. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. coded. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. and Embedded System Environment. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. testing & use: This implies design. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. coding. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. the backup process on an organization. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. Cost of Program creation. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application.

called Modules. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. and maintenance. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. 3. word processing systems etc. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. documenting. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Examples include database management systems. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. Top-down program design. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. Distinguish between testing and debugging. coded. Planning a tour. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. coding. 2. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. Represent the following problem in top-down design. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. debugging. compiling and running. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Give the algorithm. algorithm development. testing. 4. The environment under which a program is designed. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems.

The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. What is meant by portability of programs? a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. True 5. Easy to carry from place to place b. It can run on any machine d. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. True. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4.

Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. for writing system software. in 1973. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. Prior to C. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. which are portable but inefficient. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. The standard was updated in 1999. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. To assure that the C language remains standard. It was evolved from ALGOL. In 1967. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. During 1970s. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. In 1970. which are efficient but nonportable. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. Cognizant Technology Solutions. BCPL. and B.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Java. C# conserve C syntax. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. C++.

C program can be documented using these comment lines. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor.extensive use of pointers for memory. array. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. called functions. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. to include functions from the system library. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. Every C program must have one main() function. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. to define the symbolic constants and macro. Output and Processing statements. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. C is a case sensitive language. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. although they may appear in any order. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program.

It removes comments and empty lines in the program. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio.num2. scanf(“%d%d”. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). num1. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. &num1.&num2).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. sum = num1+num2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . num2).sum. sum). printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”).h> main( ) { int num1. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007.

C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. ? .. These files are usually called header files.Z o Lowercase a…. Identifiers. Operators and Expression.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.OBJ indicates object code files. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code).] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. numbers and expressions. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters. Blank spaces etc.standard library I/O file #define -. the link editor combines these functions with main(). #include <stdio.includes contents of a named file.h> -. Assembler The assembler creates the object code. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A….2 #include -. to create an executable file. % . Cognizant Technology Solutions.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .defines a symbolic name or constant. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. . #include <math.standard library maths file. +.z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =.h> -. [On UNIX. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. External variable references are resolved here. file with a.

The following table shows the list of keywords. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 3. constants. ANSI C supports 32 keywords.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). predefined meanings in C. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. It should start with an alphabet. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. and functions. the range of values that can be represented in memory.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. All keywords must be written in lowercase. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers.

short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. never less than int. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. For example. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. int = 2 bytes. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. Here. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. They are.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Similarly. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions.483.647 Floating Point Number.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.483. It is useful with pointers.7 * (10+308) 3. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32.147.7 * (10-308) to 1.294.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). They are used to represent a collection of data. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.147.4 * (10-4932) to 1. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.967.648 to 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.4 * (10-38) to 3.4 * (10+38) 1.768 to 32.

Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. tot = 0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 3. also called read-only variables. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. int tot. z. y. ct=1.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. ct=1. General form: var_data_type list variables. j. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program.4 int i. Example 3.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. char ch.5 int total=0.0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float x. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. k. float sum = 0. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program.

Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. which evaluates to either true or false. Example 3. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. const long a = 50000L. const int a = 0567. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions.6 const int size = 100. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. or const long a = 50000l.14. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This value cannot be changed by the program. const float pi=3. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. const char ch = ‘a’. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. (true – 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

if condition is evaluated to true. ++i). /*prints 6 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. +=.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment.post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. /=. i).k: pre increment. i++). Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. printf(“%d”. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. printf(“%d”. *=. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. -=. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. printf(“%d”.pre increment */ /* prints 6 .

b) / c or a . b=2. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. op= Name Parentheses. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. unary minus. Assignment.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . Logical OR.(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Index.7: Operators Let a=1. ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . operators. and Logical expression (uses logical operators). From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . function calls that evaluates to a value. Additive operators. Relational expression (uses relational operators). The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). address Increment and decrement operators. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Equality comparators Logical AND.(b / c). Multiplicative operators. Conditional. member access operators Logical NOT. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity. indirection. Inequality comparators.

float b. b-c). d = 3. x + 3 = y. Cognizant Technology Solutions. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. c= a>b.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable.) not a storage location. . computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. (3) int a.e. if the operands of an expression are of different types. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. the assignment operator is “=”. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions.5. b+c). but more efficient than: a = 3. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. b+c. For example. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3.8 (1) a = (b = 2.. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. double to float causes round of digits. (4) int c. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. c=3. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. In implicit type conversion. the statement x = y + z. This is called Typecasting. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. C allows multiple assignment statements using =.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. before assigning the value to it. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. For example.which is the same as. Example 3. e = a != b. a=3. b=4. However.. In C. a=b=3. b = 3. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. c=3. (2) a = (b=2. c = 3. d = a == b.

c. b=4. x = a / 10. 5. d. because the variable sum is of type float.narrowing . the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. instead of 5. y = a / 10.8).8) as the integer 5.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float x. Then. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. e = -a % -b.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float .widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3.0 will be stored in sum.9 float sum. e. sum = (int) (1. a=14. c = a/b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. z.7. d = a % b. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1. b. f. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b. Example 3.11 int a. The original value of the variable is not altered.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion.0.5 * 3. y.5 * 3. Example 3.

a=++b + c++. Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. digits. b=0. and tab.12 a int a=0. processing. . Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. c = a>b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . return. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. c=0. a=b-. ch = getchar().13 char ch. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007.+ --c.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. getch (). General form: char-variable = getchar(). There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. a=++b + ++c. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). punctuations. a=b++ + c++. Another method is to use input functions. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. This single character includes alphabets. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin).

character input from console & echoes the character.14 char ch[5].Problem Solving and C Programming getche().15 char ch. this function serves the purpose. Blank space is also considered as a character. gets(ch). monitor. Example 3. To get a line of text. /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. General Form: gets(stringvariable). ch = getchar(). String Input gets () . Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. putchar(ch). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. General Form: putchar(char variable). Cognizant Technology Solutions.

x. l.. gets(ch). Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. L) conversion character (d.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format.16 char ch[5]. f.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). C has a special formatting character (%). e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: scanf (“format string”. puts(ch). list of variables). Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. A character following this defines the format for a value. u. g. %e. o. Example 3.

list of variables). /*accepts all inputs including space. Format string and variables are separated by comma. Delimiter can be user-defined. ‘&’ need not be used.*f”. To read a string using ‘%s’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10.&b). General Form: sscanf (str. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. sum).&b). Example 3. &a. which directs the interpretation of input data. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. p. By default.ch.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. “format string”. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. list of variables).*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. w.&a. &a. int=%3d. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. &i. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. str). Format string. i.18 printf (“char=%c. also known as control string contains field specifications.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”.2f”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: printf (“format string”. &x). /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. floating point=%6. name). Example 3. Stops when it encounters new line. the delimiter while reading the values is space. &ch. first 4 characters printed. /* column width 10. &b). a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. This function returns the number of characters printed. x). a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string.4s”. printf (“sum = %*.

} Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. char.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. getchar(). “format string”. “total” c. list of variables). C has a rich set of operators.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. z = x++ . C supports four basic primitive data types: int. printf("The Value of z : %d\n". General Form: sprintf (str. C program is a collection of functions.a=4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .x=5. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. float.y=-10. Emp_name b. main d.--y * b / a. double. then based on the operator precedence.h> main() { int z. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. Test your Understanding 1.z). the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language.b=2.

Answers: 1. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). s= (int) y + 3. b = printf (“welcome”). s = 10.b). 4. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making.0 . 4 5 7. What is the output of the following code? int a . y=7. . valid 3. 6. Is the statement valid? 3.5 4. x= (int) y. All are valid. printf (“%d “. 4 5 b. What is ternary operator in C? 5. but getch() will not echo the character. s.5. getche() echoes the input character on screen.Problem Solving and C Programming 2.5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. x = 7.c ( “ “ . Cognizant Technology Solutions. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. If. 5. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. a. 7.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2.

c=a + b.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement).Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. until some condition is satisfied. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. b=10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. In an iterative structure. Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. } { { a=1. . selection. y = x * b – k. In a sequence construct. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. Example 5. c=3. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. In a selection structure. } x=a*b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 1 a=8. 2 { a=10. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. Example 5. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. } } { b=2. c=a+b. and iteration (looping).

the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. An expression involves arithmetic. and/or relational expression. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . logical. which consists of declaration statements.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. and one or more simple expression statements. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. relational. input-output statements. } [ else { statements2. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. is executed in a sequential manner. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. and/or logical operators. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Expression can be arithmetic. } ] statements3.

if (expression) statements-2.c).Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. else printf (“largest = %d”. printf(“ max = %d” . Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the else part is not specified. } Example 5.max). a). else max = a. if (expression) statements-1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Example 5. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. true or false is known.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. if (a<b) max = b. } else { statements2. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers.

else if (expression) statements2. else if(expression) statements3. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. . It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. else printf(“Fail\n”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. else statements4. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped.c). Example 5.b). General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. else printf (“largest = %d”. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”).

then an execution jump is made to that point. array variable. case item2: statement 2. which is similar to the following if-else statement. if (a>b) max = a. pointer variable. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). default : statement. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). Expression may be a constant value. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. break. must be an integer valued expression. and/or arithmetic expression. relational expression. Default case is optional and if specified. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. break.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. variable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. case itemn: statement n. else max = b. logical expression. If the variable matches with one of the constants. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. default statements will be executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . expr3 is evaluated. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. Example 5. } Expression in the switch statement. break. which are represented by constant values. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. if there is no match for the case labels. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b.

If the test condition is False. break. General Form: for (expression1. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. If the test condition is True. break. expression3) { statement / block of statements. ‘while’.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5.while’. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. which follows the loop. break. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. case ‘*’: c=a*b. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. expression2. case ‘/’: c=a/b. There are several ways to execute loops in C. case ‘-’: c=a-b. the statements inside the loop are executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. ‘do. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). break. the control is transferred to the statement.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b.

Different variables must be used to control each loop. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 5. for (. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement.++c) (6) c=2. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. (4) c=2. for(. is called inner loop. the inner loop runs completely. For each & every iteration through the outer loop.j).i<=3. y=4.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement).. Example 5.c<=20.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. } In the above example. Such loops are called nested loops. controlled by the value of ‘j’. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)).j<=3. c). (3) for (x=0.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”.. The second loop. c++. ((x>3) && (x<9)).) { printf (“%d”. c). } (7) int c=0.) { c+=1. These three expressions are separated by semicolons.c<=20. Cognizant Technology Solutions. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”. printf (“c=%d”. x++) x++. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop.9 for (i=1. for (j=1. z=4000. for (. y=4.8 (1) for (x=0.i). y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. z .

the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. The body of the loop may have one or more statements.c). while (expression). General Form: while (expression) { Statements..while’ statement The do. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). the body of loop is not executed at all. If the result is True. ++c. Example 5. On reaching the do statement. (3) while(x) { }. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. (4) while(1). General Form: do statement (s). the expression is checked again. At the end of the loop. the body of the loop is executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the body of the loop is executed. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. If the expression evaluates to True. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. If the expression is initially False.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. After executing the body of the loop. while is an exit controlled loop statement. variable or any expression. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. } ‘do . (6) c=1. The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements.. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. } Expression can be a constant value.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. Break.while. It is used to terminate the current iteration.loop).13 for(loop=0. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. When the condition becomes False. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. ++d. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration. Example 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions.11 int d=1. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True.12 for(loop=0. do { printf (“%d\n”. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.. the body of the loop is executed at least once.loop++) { If (loop==10) break.d).loop<50. } while (d<=10).Problem Solving and C Programming to True. General Form: break. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again. */ printf("%d\n".loop<100. Example 5. General Form: continue.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. Example 5.

kilos). apply formula to get the stones.e. uklbs and kilos. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. pounds < 250.loop). } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. for(pounds=10. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. int uklbs = pounds % 14. termination condition and the increment. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. We know the starting point. printf(" US lbs UK st. uklbs. For each pounds. printf("%d\n". so we have used the for loop. Cognizant Technology Solutions.45359 main() { int pounds. } getchar(). pounds.Problem Solving and C Programming continue.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . lbs INT Kg\n"). printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . stones. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2. break. if clause can contain another if statement. while. Which of the following statements are true? a. c. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. case 3 : printf(“3”). break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. An if statement must always include an else clause. An if statement may include only simple statements. case 2 : printf(“2”).Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. break. for. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. Test your Understanding 1. break. case 1 : printf(“1”). b. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. that are used to carry out conditional looping.

While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. 5. else continue. The loop statements of do. What is the difference between a while and do..while will get executed at least once. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. Default case is executed. c 2... } Answers: 1. printf (“%d”))) break. Cognizant Technology Solutions.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. 3. 3 4.

It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. set of names). 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. etc.. If an array of 5 integers elements is created.]. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. [index 0 refers first location . Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C.g. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. set of numbers. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . of the same data type. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name. index 1 refers second location. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. starting at x[0].2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. Example 7. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. int matrix[2][2]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. Defines a character array.1 int x[5]. Array declaration reserves space in memory. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char str[16]="qwerty". Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). When addressing an element in an array. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. float sales_amt[10].

3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. When arrays are initialized during declaration.34}. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. b[1] = 45. Example 7. /* b[0] = 10.5}. Thus. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. a[1] = 2 .Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1.2.2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the base address can not be changed. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. ) */ float b[2]={10.4. If initialized.3 int a[5]={1. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. size depends upon the number of values initialized. /*a[0] = 1. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized.3.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. In such cases.4}. (ex. a[1]=2. a[2] = 3 . a[2]=3. In partial initialization. array can be declared without specifying the exact size.45.2. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}.3. a[3]=4 (if size not specified.4}. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /*a[0]=1.2.3. and processing of array elements. retrieving. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. partial initialization is allowed.20 .

except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension. scanf(“%d”. (1) scanf(“%d”.&a[i]). a+1. a. (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. a[2]). /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . Cognizant Technology Solutions.pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. &a[1]).5 int a[3].i<3. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”.a[i]). General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. printf(“%d”.i++) scanf(“%d”.a[0]. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. scanf(“%d”. a+2).a[1]. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. (1) printf(“%d”.a[2]).i<3. &a[2]).i++) printf(“%d”. &a[0]).Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. Example 7.6 int a[3]. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array.a[1]). a[0]).

2. = 4 elements).5. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order. 7 int a[2][2].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution.row 1 & column 0 .row 0 & column 0 . Assume that array starts at location 1000. out of n locations defined.row 0 & column 1 . In partial initialization.3}.5}. int num[2][3] = {1.{1.2.2}.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature. If m elements are needed. Example 7. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration.3.2.8 int num[2][3] = {1.{4}}. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.3.4.3}}.4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .2. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7.6}. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.

The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. In C. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no.’m’. /*Creates a string. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A character string is stored in an array of character type. to represent the end of string. String constants can be assigned to character array variables. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . there is no built-in data type for strings. one ASCII character per location. Example 7. name[2] = ‘O’. return 0. The value at str[6] is the null character. name[3] = ‘D’.’\0’). /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007.’u’. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. Example 7. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". of strings] [max no.*/ (3) char name[5]. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. of chars in strings]. name[1] = ‘O’. name[4] = ‘\0’.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters.11 char studname[50][15].

’\0’}. name).’a’.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string.’a’. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered. Example 7. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.’\0’}} = {{‘b’.’a’.h. which manipulates the entire string at once. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”.13 (1) char name[20]. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. printf(“%s” . name).Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.’\0’}. int i=0. {‘c’.”cat” . [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ .”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. Cognizant Technology Solutions.’t’.’t’.’t’. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

h: String Functions strcpy(string1. Find last occurrence of character c in string. n) strncpy(string1. string2) strcat(string1.string2.s2) strpbrk(s1. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. string2) strcmp(string1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. string2. c) strrchr (string. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. s2) strspn(s1. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. s2) strcspn(s1. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. n) strncmp(string1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . string2. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. c) strstr(s1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2.

Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric.h.\f.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2].\v. “. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio.‘. for (i = 0.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. . fib[1] = 1.:.\r. for(i = 2. i < 24. The header file. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. ctype. is used for the character functions.\t.h> main() { int fib[24]. True if c is a control character (\n.\r. fib[0] = 0. which can manipulate a single character. int i. . i < 24. True if c is ASCII . Cognizant Technology Solutions.) True if c is a space character (\n. ‘. True if c is a letter.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.\f.

The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. j<5. j++) printf("%d ". i. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio.3. i++) { for (j=0. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. int i. printf("\n"). i<4. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. getchar(). 2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1.5. i<4.j. for (i=0. twod[i][j]).2. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. for(i=0. fib[i]). } getchar().. i++) for(j=0. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. j<5.13….h> main() { int twod[4][5]. Initially array of size 24 is declared.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n".8.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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} Function Header function-name arg1. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). executable statement 2. Global Variables .arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. It can be accessed only within that function.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). So compiler will identify the function name. parameters. Cognizant Technology Solutions.) { local variables Declaration. Function body.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. } main() { fun(). } Function is defined prior to its reference. type arg2. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. Local Variables . Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. …. and the operations to be carried out by the function. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . executable statement 1. there is no need for the function prototype. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. If it is declared in the Global declaration section. Memory for the global variables is allocated. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. : return expression..The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. it is used by all the functions in the program.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). Example 9. then void keyword is used to represent that.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. each containing different expression.3 (1) return. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. Example 9. } (2) main() { return 0. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. return(a<b). constant value or any single valued expression. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . OR return(expression). the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. else return b. General Form: return. return(a*b). } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. If there is no return statement. it is achieved by the return statement. Default return type is ‘int’. expression can be a variable name. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. There can be multiple return statements. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. does not return any value. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. If it returns a value.

} Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”.num2)) statement. Example 9. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007.num2). global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. it is called Recursion. &num2). } int find_big(int a. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* function call statement. else return b. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. scanf(“%d%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. If a function is returning a value. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). data type. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. &num1. When the function call is encountered. find_big(num1. big=find_big(num1. num2. It is a process by which a function calls itself. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. If the function returns value. The number. /* function prototype. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. int). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. big. big). The LHS variable name in the function call is optional.

then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). else return(k*fact(k-1). } fact(int k). Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) .Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9.fact(n)). the control is immediately transferred to the function. The main function may call function1. which may call function3. printf(“Enter an integer\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. { if (k<=1) return 1. When the return statement is encountered. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). scanf(“%d“. } If n = 4. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed.&n). which in turn call function2. along with the value returned. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. Depending on its definition. fact(int). which in turn return the value to its calling function. printf(“Factorial = %d“.7 main() { int n. In fourth call. control is transferred back to the called function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). &n. char s) { int i. printf(“\n”). integers\n”).&c). char c. sum=add(). printf(“\n”). } border(int m.c). return.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. scanf(“%d%d”. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.sum).&a.b. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”).i<=80.b).s). sum=add(a. border(n.sum).i++) printf(“-“). scanf(“%d%c”.i++) printf(“%c“. printf(“\nSum = %d”. return(a+b). } } } scanf(“%d%d”.&b).a. { int sum. printf(“\nSum = %d”. for(i=1.i<=m.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. add(int x. for(i=1.&b). return. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.int y) { return a+b .8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). } { int sum. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. } add() { int a.b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c). } border() { int i. &a.

a=10.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. swap(a. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. a. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. b=20. c = d. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. b). The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. } Call by Reference In this approach. Example 9. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. b). the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. So. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. Cognizant Technology Solutions. temp = c. d = temp. b. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. So. } void swap(int c. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. pointer variable or array name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. The value of the actual argument will remain same. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable.

maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. max_value = val[0]. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i].12 int { int max_value. return max_value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *d) { int temp. b. Cognizant Technology Solutions.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. which points to an array. &b). swap(&a. a. *c = *d. Example 9. *d = temp.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. for( i = 0. temp = *c. b=20. i. i < 5. max. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. a=10. i. Example 9. } main() { int values[5]. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. } void swap(int *c. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). b). To pass an array to a function. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. fn(i). A function calling itself is called recursion. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. printf(“ %d “ . What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. Test your Understanding 1. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. The command line arguments. well defined task. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. } 4. a). static. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method.i). } printf(“%d” . What is function prototyping? 2. a). { int a = 3. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. ii) function call. argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } fn(int i) { return ++i. printf("%d". Cognizant Technology Solutions. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name.

b. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. type of its arguments. return data type). int *p(char *a) c. int (*p)(char a) d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. 3 4 4. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. 3. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. 7. What the following declaration statements imply? a. a. In call by reference. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. 2. 10 6. int *p(char *a[]) 7. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. Using command line arguments. int p(char *a) b. In C. 5.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating. All other types of variables are local variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. This is called block scope. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. This means.. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. is determined by where it is defined. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used).. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session.. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. it has file scope. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope.

Once allocated. it is cleared and its memory destroyed. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. } printf(“ %d “ . with identical names. a). A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. If the variable is declared within a function. a).Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. So. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program .1 main() { int a = 5 . prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. When the execution of the block is completed. then its scope is confined to that function. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. it is automatically initialized to zero. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. internal static variables retain values between function calls.Thus. In the case recursive functions. If not initialized in the declaration. If no storage class is specified. { int a =6 . the nested variables are unique auto variables. although it is active only in main(). They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. If not initialized in the declaration statement. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). Example 10. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). Static variables are stored in memory. it will retain the value between function calls. printf (“%d “ . by default it is an auto variable. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. Because of this property. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. they are also called local or internal variables.

the variable is initialized to zero. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. If not initialized in the declaration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . instead of keeping it in the memory. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. They are referred to as global variables.2 main() { int i.i++) incre(). Since the registers are less in numbers. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). careful selection must be made for their use.i<=5. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. for (i=1. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. } incre() { static int x = 0. printf(“ x = %d\n”. Since registers are faster than memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. When using external variables.x). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. x = x +1. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function.

printf(“ %d “ . } int b = 20. a). The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment.Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. Example 10. it is initialized to zero. fun(). The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. extern int a = 10. b). */ void fun(). External variable declaration can not have initialization. printf(“ %d “ . A C program is executed by calling its main() function. just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs.3 int a = 5 . The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. } void fun() { a = 10 . /* external variable declaration. When a command is entered in a command window. but as a first approximation. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. The first word is treated as the name of a program. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window).

which are command line strings.4 main( int argc. for( i = 0. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer).Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. Example 10.i . A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. i < argc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. salary (float). char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. department code (string). For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. argv[i]).argc). char* argv[]) { int i. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. employee name (string). } When the following command is given in the command prompt. The components are called Members.

. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. tag name is optional. type variable-name...Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable.. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together. Example 10. variable-name. variable-name.. variable-name.. char name[20].. emp2.. variable-name. Individual members will be given a separate memory location.... Here. : : type variable-name.. no extra structures can be created.... General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name........ struct employee emp1... When declaring structure variables. type variable-name.... “struct” keyword is used to define structures. float salary.5 1) struct employee { int code..... Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. } . }.. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that.. int dept_code.

} emp1.6 struct { int rollnum. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration.”Dina”. “Raja”. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. No storage class can be specified for structure members. then the expression “s. Example 10. If it is partially initialized. 90.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. illegal. int dept_code. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. stud2={102. int semester. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. char name[20]. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. struct employee { int empno = 101 . the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0.78}. illegal. }. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. 1. float salary.”(dot). struct stud stud1={101. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. emp2. 1}. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. float avg. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

8 struct emp { int empno.dept_code emp1.code emp1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. float basic. member-field-name Example 10. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. }. Example 10. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. char name[20].name emp1. the values in slack bytes are also compared.sizeof(emp1)). For example.7 emp1. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. printf (“Size = %d”. int year.code emp2. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. } emp1. Example 10.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble .9 struct { int day. This is because. Assignment operation is allowed. int month. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. While comparing structure variables. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. which is always not same for different structure variables. the assignment expression a = b is valid.salary emp2. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure.

int sub_marks[5].sub_marks[0] }. float salary. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. struct stud Accessing values: student [1]. }.rollnum student [1].semester student [1]. int dept_code. char name[15]. In this example.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. int avg. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int semester. Example 10. Example 10. }emp1. struct date doj. then we can do so by writing: emp1. }student.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays.doj. student. Accessing values: student. char name[20].sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007.avg student[50]. char name [20].emp2.name student [1].

12 struct emp { int empno. “AAAA”} . All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. char empname[10]. printf(“%d” . display(emp1). emp2. it is passed using call by value method. Cognizant Technology Solutions. void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). “AAAA”} . emp1->empno). } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . emp2.empno). We can use pointer to structures.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . change(&emp1). But changes will not be reflected back. }. }. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . struct emp emp1 = { 101 . Example 10. main( ) { void display(struct emp). printf(“ %s “ . or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. char empname[10]. When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. Example 10. } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method.13 struct emp { int empno.empname).

14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio.name.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. y).marks). printf (" Marks are %. float marks. getchar(). Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name.h> struct student { char name[20]. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name). strcpy(student1. …) Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . student2.2f \n". int a. student2. } student1. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007."Tom"). int main ( ) { struct student student3.name). student1.9. student2. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay.marks = 99. printf (" Name is %s \n". emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. wage is a structure variable of sal structure. x.

struct { int a. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. only one member is accessible at a time. int *p. ) operator. Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In the main program assign values to both member of structure.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. In unions. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. }*p1. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . Print the values of the structure. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. Consider the following structure.

printf(“Size = %d”. Answers: 1. union person { char surname[10]. 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. char name[15]. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. 2. sizeof (ex)). *p1->p. int age.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. }ex. struct stud_type s1. The elements of an array are always of the same type. 4.

. : : type variable-name. like a structure. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly.. keyword ‘union’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ... and the members of the union are given. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted..... and block file I/O operations Unions Union. For each variable. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template .... type variable-name. In the declaration... unformatted.. variable-name... No other member can be initialized. union-variable. variable-name.. type variable-name. variable-name...... Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member....... Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization... is a derived data type.. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name. .. Unions follow the same syntax as structures. but no storage is allocated. the tag name. The tag name.. variable-name.. along with the keyword ‘union’..... Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. }union-variable. can be used to declare variables of the union type.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session... Cognizant Technology Solutions..it creates the type.

Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. float x. Example 14. }.2 { int code. Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct stud_type }ex. only one member variable can be accessed at a time.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. union { char surname[10]. char name[20]. struct stud_type { int rollno. int dept_code. char c. static union item product = {100}.1 union item { int m. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. float avg. }. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float salary. struct employee_type e1. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. }. Thus. char name[15].) is used to access the members. s1. int age. The dot operator (. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion.

member2 . definition and variable declaration can be combined.e1. blue = 5 . if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). backspace = `\b'. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . first enumerated name has index value 0. That is. As structures. e1 = getch(). var2 . green takes the value 6. green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. at the same time. General Form: enum tag { member1 .salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. vtab = `\v'. but not both. Here. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . Example 14. enum colors { red = 1 . We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. As with arrays. Cognizant Technology Solutions. similar to structures or a union. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. …… member n } . to share common memory. …………… var n. the user can use either e1 or s1. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. the union allows the structure variables. though they have signed integer values. newline = `\n'. e1 and s1. next value is calculated as previous plus one. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. tab = `\t’. The member names must differ from one another.

employee emp1. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. In C. Example 14. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. Example 14. n2 . Similarly. struct n1 . General Form typedef datatype new-type. }employee. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. emp2. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables.5 typedef { int empno. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is used to give new names to existing data types. integer variables. files are needed. numbers n1. For such applications. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type.4 typedef numbers int. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. Then structure variables can be declared as follows. the results may be stored on disks. no need to use struct keyword. char empname[10].

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. and the new-line character. the tab character. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. Text streams consist of printable characters. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. There are two types of streams: text and binary. and all characters will be transferred as such. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. When a program begins. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. When a file is opened. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. More generally. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. In C. A text stream. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. When a file is closed. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available.h. Cognizant Technology Solutions.in which case the position points to the end of the file. on some systems.

“mode”). fprintf(fp. fclose(fp ). "format string". fp = fopen(“name”. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler.c. The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. details. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. fscanf(fp. variable list). It is a string enclosed within double quotes.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. "format string". the purpose/positioning of opening the file. The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. variable list). (Extensions can be specified like test.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies.

It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). If the file is opened in the update mode (+). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Writing in to a file To write into a file. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. fsetpos(). fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position.Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). rewind(). or fflush(). By default. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. if the file does not open or the file does not exist. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). If the file is opened with append mode (a). The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files.

the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char c. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). which represents standard output device. On success. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. char c.fp). if ((fp=fopen(“sample.fptr). fclose(fp). otherwise false.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). which represents a standard input device. which is true if end of file is reached. the pointer is moved to the next position. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. If the end-of-file is encountered. The fptr may be stdin. If an error occurs. the character is returned. monitor as a file. Cognizant Technology Solutions.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. After the reading a character. If an error occurs. This fptr may be stdout.dat”. the character is returned. Example 14.dat”. Example 14. On success. This may be a macro version of fgetc. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. keyboard as a file. The EOF is end of file status flag.

General Form: putw (i. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). This function writes an integer to a file. fptr). It stops when (n-1) characters are read.n. the newline character is read. string can be written to. a nonnegative value is returned. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). On error. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). a file at a time. A null character is appended to the end of the string. fptr). Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. On success. } String I/O Using string I/O. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . integers can be written to. On error. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fclose(fp). Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). General Form: fputs (str. the string remains unchanged. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. EOF is returned. whichever comes first. On error. EOF is returned. a null pointer is returned. a file at a time. The newline character is copied to the string. General Form: fgets(str. On success. On success. a nonnegative value is returned. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). or read from. a pointer to the string is returned. or read from.fptr). or the endof-file is reached.

in a left to right fashion. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. General Form: i = getw( fptr). tab. addresses-list). the function stops scanning and returns. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. EOF is returned. or the width field is satisfied. If an error occurred. according to the format specifier specified in format string. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. vertical tab. the number of characters printed is returned. new line. If the input does not match. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. General Form: fscanf( fptr. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. or form feed. carriage return. On success. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. -1 is returned. variable-list). If an input failure occurs. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. format-string. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. On success. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. or the next incompatible character. format-string. in a left to right fashion. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

std[i].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14.e.no .8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. "%d . std1[10].age).no .age). The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . &std1[i]. age )\n\n"). printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). clrscr().name printf("%d %s %d \n" . i<5 .Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. "%d %s %d " . while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . fpt = fopen("details. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007.dat" . } fclose(fpt). for(i=0.no .age). Cognizant Technology Solutions. }std[10].dat" . name . char name[10]. std1[i]. &std[i]. &std[i]. i++. Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). std1[i]. %s %d " .name . bytes of data).name . The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i.no . std1[i].i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . std1[i]. std[i]. struct { int no. int age. "w").age). fpt = fopen("details. std[i]. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file.name . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fprintf(fpt . "r"). std[i].&std1[i]. int i.

Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. fwrite(&stud . fptr=fopen("ex. &stud[i]. size.age). int i . On success the number of elements written is returned. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). The total number of bytes written is (size*n).stud[i]. i<5 . fp). Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. Cognizant Technology Solutions.dat" . fp). 5 . On success the number of elements read is returned.name . n. Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. General Form fwrite (ptr. The total number of bytes read is (size*n).9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. clrscr(). printf(" \n\n printing the values "). for(i=0 . It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’.dat" . "r" ). i++) scanf("%s %d ". struct tag { char name[10]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. n. fptr). 5 . int age . fread(&stud1 . }stud[10] . "w" ). General Form fread (&str. size. fclose(fptr). sizeof(stud1[0]) . stud1[10]. fptr). sizeof(stud[0]) . fptr = fopen("ex. On error or end-of-file.

h> /* #include <stdlib. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007.c */ #include <string. // This is where I read the lines of the file int count.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 .name . "r"). // is in the current line and // if so. stud1[i]. inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. print it } fclose(inFile). read the input argument. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. // close the file I opened earlier getchar().count.char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. 255. } Try It Out 1. In the main program. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString. i<5 . } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. Code: /* findword. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1].h> #include <stdio. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " .Print the line number and the line. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. // after this command.h> */ FILE * inFile. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .age). myString). stud1[i]. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. Open the input file.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments.

value. "double:\n". "double:\n". one integer and the other double. Again read the next line in the file and do the same process.x. Cognizant Technology Solutions. "and print both members. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . return 0.y ). getchar(). Close the file and exit the program 2. value. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. int main() { union number value.y = 100. value. value.".". }.y ). value. value.0. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. "int: ".Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” .x = 100. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. "Put a value in the floating member". printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". "int: ". In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. if found print the line number and the full string. "and print both members.x. double y. "Put a value in the integer member". Continue till all the lines in the file are processed.h> union number { int x.

2L . 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. What is EOF. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. fopen(). string I/O. formatted I/O and block I/O. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . } 3. and what value does it usually have? 4. ftell(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Test your Understanding 1.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. Preproccessing is done before compilation. and rewind() functions. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage."hello-out"). x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. sleep(1). Output operations on files can be of character I/O. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). Input. } return 0. i++.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 3. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. a). foo( ). It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. 5. } Answers: 1.. printf(“%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. No significance.”. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file.a ). stdout. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. stdin. stderr 2. 4. Its value on most computers is -1.

then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. the current file position is returned. On success. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. In some applications. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). which corresponds to the current file pointer position. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ftell() and rewind(). Page 108 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). If it is a text stream. General Form: fseek( fptr. If it is a binary stream. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. offset. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. On error.

The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. form feed.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. vertical tab. 10L. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2 On a text stream. The error indicator is NOT reset. fseek (fp. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. General Form: rewind(fptr). Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). 0). The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. 1). Move the file pointer to the beginning. zero is returned. fseek (fp. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). fseek (fp. 2). The end-of-file indicator is reset. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. or carriage return. -10L. 10L. On success. fseek (fp. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. a nonzero value is returned. Remove comments from the source file. horizontal tab. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. -10L. On error. 2).1 fseek (fp. Move the file pointer to the end of file. 0). Cognizant Technology Solutions. 0L. Example 15. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. 0L. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. fseek (fp. 1).

The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. #ifndef. #include Inserts text from another source file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. or #elif test fails. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. Ends conditional text. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. Defines a preprocessor macro. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. The # token must appear as a first character. or #elif test fails. #ifdef. #ifndef. depending on the result of a constant expression. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. #ifdef.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. Except for some #pragma directives. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. Defines text for a compile-time error message. No semicolon (. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line.

while other user specificed header files are included using quotes.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. or until the end of the program source is reached. and then processed by the compiler. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. In case that it is not there. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. Example 15. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. Therefore. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. the file is searched first in the current working directory. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files.2 #include <stdio. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> #include “stdio. whichever comes first. Preprocessing will be done before compilation.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes.

3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. …. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15.. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). Cognizant Technology Solutions. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier.

and #ifndef directive. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. Example 15. /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). For each #if. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). zero or one #else directive. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). and one matching #endif directive. #ifdef. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). addition=add(2. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..b) ((a)+(b)). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007.3). areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. addition=(2)+(3). */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. Continuation character for macro definition is \. } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. there are zero or more #elif directives.

then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). */ Example 15. printf(name(xyz)). and the preceding #if evaluated to false. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). If so. …. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .somca)). If there is a matching #else. …. or #endif. Example 15.. */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007.7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). If there is a matching #elif.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true).6 Check whether a variable is defined. change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it.. then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. If the value is 0 (false).8 #define name(x. Example 15. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false).y) x##y main() { …. #elif. printf(name(ssn. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. 5 – value. px = &x. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. Example 15. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. int a = 5 . & and *. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. as they have a number of useful applications. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. C provides two operators. x = 5 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a). prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. *px. & address operator. Whenever a variable is declared. * and & are inverse of each other. &a).Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. for pointer implementation.9 int x. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable.

Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. valid valid. b . &x). printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. q = a. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. px). *q = NULL. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. b = &a. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. invalid . printf(“ x = %d “ .11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. .both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. q = p. Two pointer variables can be compared. The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. &px). printf(” address of x = %d “ . Example 15. *p = &a . Null or an address. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. *px). hold only the address of the variable of same data type.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. x).

ptr ++. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. ptr= &i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. *pv is the same as v[0].13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. if v is an array. and so on. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. i=5. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Thus.

Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. The way in which the pointer variable used.*(a+i)). a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. OR pointer_variable = array_name. Example 15.17 int a[2][2] = {1. similar to ptr = &a[0]. printf (“%d “. ptr = &a[0][0] . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear.3.3.14 int a[5] = {1.16 printf (“%u “.2. Accessing address Example 15. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . varies according to the dimension. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . Cognizant Technology Solutions. 4.4} . Example 15. i .*ptr).*(ptr+i)). OR ptr_vble = array_name.2.5} ptr = a . (ptr+i)). printf (“%d “.15 printf (“%d “. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *ptr . General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn].

i++) { for (j=0. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1. int a[2][3]={1.i<2. refers to the entire row . jth column Accessing value Example 15.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row.*(a + i)[ j ].2. For example.6}. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007.j++) printf(“\t%d”. So.j) value displays the x(i. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. for (i=0.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.*(*(ptr + i) +j).j) value Example 15. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array.4. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified.19 main() { int i.3. int *pa=&a[0][0].*(*(pa+i)+j)). for example. Here. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row.j<3. displays the x(i.j) value displays the x(i. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. printf (“%d “. each with 2 elements. it results in a problem. printf (“%d “. is a collection of one dimensional array. Cognizant Technology Solutions.18 printf (“%d “. j. Therefore.*(a[ i ] + j). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row.5.

ptr[0] = a[0]. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. Suppose.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”).3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus.2. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. which can hold the address of a character variable. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here.4} . } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. Example 15. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it refers to the address of the 0th element. When an array is referenced by its name. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer.20 int a[2][2] = {1. Once the pointer is declared.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. *ptr[2] . /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. p = name.

When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. “rstu”. “AB” . char *p = “string” . *p). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . “xyz”}. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int *p = {0. If the elements of array are string pointers. char *name[4] = { “A” . The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings.3} . a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. “ABCD”} . printf(“String output = %s”. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. valid invalid Thus.1. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. make it a pointer to a string of varying length.2. “ABC” . *p). Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration.

Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable.24 int a. int *const pa = &a. Example 15. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. /* suspicious pointer conversion. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. Thus. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. In the above example. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable.23 const int a=10. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. substantial saving in memory. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. The value cannot be modified. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. int *pa = &a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays).

Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. pnum = &num1. pab=&b. const int * const pb = &b. ++*pnum. pab=&a.26 int a. float b. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. num1. ++num2. *pnum = 2.25 int b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .55. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. But it is needed. void *pab. pnum = &num2. in order to know the size and value of the data item. Example 15. long *pnum = NULL. Cognizant Technology Solutions. getchar(). *pnum + num2). Try It Out 1. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. *(int *) pab =100. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". num2 += *pnum. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. *pnum. *(float *) pab = 105. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. num2. long num2 = 0.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0.

now the value of num2 is 1. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. int *b. a[0]=&i1. a[4]=&i5.value at pnum 2.i4=1. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. a[3]=&i4. Address in array Value\n"). %16u %d\n".num2. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared. the array elements is the pointer. a[1]=&i2.j<5.e.h> main(){ int *a[5].a[j]).Problem Solving and C Programming return 0.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum.a[j].i5=0. #include <stdio. int i1=4. printf("Address for(j=0. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. Increment the value of num2. a[2]=&i3.i2=3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. Print all the values num1.i3=2. } printf("using pointer\n"). } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. int j. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. Then the value of num1 is 2.

& operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Test your Understanding 1. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007.j<5.b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n".Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. State whether the following are true or false a. malloc().*b. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. for( j=0. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. b++. } getchar().*b.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. Declare an array of integer pointers. See the difference. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d.

Differentiate malloc() . sizeof(str1). What is the output of the following statements? a=4. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. printf("\n%d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . **c=5.sizeof(str2). sizeof(“abcd”)). Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. 100. b = (int *)**c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. True. which is value of a. Since b points to a. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. 5. false. calloc(). printf(“%d %d %d”. Since c points to b. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. 5. The third statement castes **c. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). 300 4. malloc(). What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. Given the following declaration: int a. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. *b = &a . n[24]=200.%d". false. } 4. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Answers: 1. n[0]=100. *n. false 2. assign the value to a. char str2[]=”abcd”. The first statement assigns 4 to a. 2 5 5 6.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. into type int *. **c = &b. } 6. 3. The result is meaningless.

int *assign() .Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. Example 17. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *p.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. change(p). /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . *p) . p =&a. } void change(int *q) { *q = 10.1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . p = assign() . /* function prototype */ void change(int *). } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . a). } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p .

*p). p = big (&a. *q = &a.. int y). printf (“%d”. *q = 20 . int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. So. Cognizant Technology Solutions.) Suppose we have a function as.Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. } Pointer to this function is declared as. *p. x + y). &b). General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. return q . main() { int a=10. Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). of a is returned */ /* addr. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. rather than an entire array. b=20. which will speeds up the execution. void add(int x. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. void (*p)(int x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to a function using pointers. else return (y). } Example 17. } int *big (int *x . p = add. int *). makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. /* addr.

It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. int (*func_ptr) ().Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. Example 17. func_ptr = display. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). (*abc)(). will call the function add() with parameters 10. 95.67}. }. (*func_ptr) (). Cognizant Technology Solutions. To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.4 int display().20).”raja”. we can write as ptr = &student. abc().5 main() { void abc(). 1. Example 17. struct stud student={101. float avg.6 struct stud { int rollnum. int semester.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. *ptr . Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. In this declaration. char name[20].

Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. Cognizant Technology Solutions.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. char gender. ptr->semester. Example 17. ptr->rollnum. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). Thus. int *p.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). float salary. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. struct employee *empptr.8 struct employee { char name[20]. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. ptr->name. ptr->avg). memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. calloc () . arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) .

j++) printf("\t%d". i++ for(j=0. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). i++) for(j=0. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). i<3. j<3. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). *b[3] .9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . p = (int *) calloc (10. which can hold 10 integers. i<3. for(i=0. b[i]+j). j<3. printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. sizeof(int)). *c[3].Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. i<3. j<3. free() will take a void pointer. for(i=0. for(i=0 . Example 17. j++) scanf("%d". j++) scanf("%d". a[i]+j).j. i++) for(j=0. for(i=0. *(c[i]+j)). j<3. i<3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. i<3. for(i=0. int i. i++) for(j=0.

we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. p2=&p1. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer. video memory. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. which holds the address of another integer pointer.10 addr. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. For example.*p1. int **p. beyond 3 levels. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. printer. However.ptr1 value int x. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. As such. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . p1=&x.ptr2 x=100.**p2. Example 17.

suit.face = "Ace". cardPtr->suit.face. All will print the same. In the main program. ( *cardPtr ).h> struct card { char *face. aCard. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . " of ". Assign the values of face and suit of card structure.suit ). } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. cardPtr->face. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. }. " of ". declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. aCard. return 0. ( *cardPtr ). cardPtr = &aCard. aCard.suit = "Spades". Page 133 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. struct card *cardPtr. getchar(). " of ".face. char *suit. int main() { struct card aCard. Print the values of card structure in three different forms. aCard.

int n){ struct node *temp.h> # include <stdlib. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio. temp-> link = p. struct node *link. } temp = temp-> link. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } p-> data = n. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. } else { temp = p. temp = p. p-> link = p. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. printf("The data values in the list are\n").h> struct node { int data. temp-> data = n. Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct node *insert(struct node *p. exit(0). }. exit(0).Problem Solving and C Programming 2. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. } return (p).

again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. 4 ). so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. Then returns the pointer back. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. getchar().as it is first time. start = insert ( start. } while (temp!= p). temp=temp->link. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Then returns back the pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". 1 ). declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL.temp->data). } void main() { int n. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. start = insert ( start. 3 ). so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. the start pointer will be NULL. struct node *start = NULL .c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. Now the start pointer is not NULL. } else printf("The list is empty\n"). int x. printf("The created list is\n"). In the main program. In the main program. In the insert function. start = insert ( start. 2). printlist ( start ). start = insert ( start.

Pointer variable can only contain an address b. n[24]=200. State whether the following are true or false a. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Given the following declaration: int a. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. **c=5.%d". & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. printf("\n%d. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. malloc(). Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). b = (int *)**c. In the printlist() function. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. *b = &a . What is the output of the following statements? a=4. n[0]=100. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } 4. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Test your Understanding 1. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. *n. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. 2. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. **c = &b. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list.

into type int *. sizeof(“abcd”)). Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“%d %d %d”. sizeof(str1). What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. false. } 6. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. assign the value to a.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which is value of a. malloc(). Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. 2 5 5 6. false. 100. The result is meaningless. 300 4. 5.sizeof(str2). char str2[]=”abcd”. Since b points to a. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. 3. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. True. Answers: 1. false 2. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. Differentiate malloc() . calloc(). Since c points to b. The first statement assigns 4 to a. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. The third statement castes **c.

B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined.: : : ) { declarations statements return value.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. #elif. #else. #define max(A. } /* */ main(int argc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. #endif #ifdef. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1.

\" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. hex) newline. \t. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. tab. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. octal. \r. ‘\ooo’. cr. \b \\. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. \. \?. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ‘\xhh’ \n.

>=. modulus (remainder) add. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. minus. >> >. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. % +. -. logical not. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. /. Cognizant Technology Solutions.member pointer->member ++. subtract left. &name (type) expr sizeof *. struct tag name name.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. ~ *pointer. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. -+. <<. divide.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment.member pointer -> member Ex. decrement plus. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (*p). <= ==. bitwise not indirection via pointer. !. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. <.

h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. expr2.h> <stdarg.h> <limits. for Next iteration of while. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert.h> <stdio. Unary operators.h> <time. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. case const2: statement2 break. …… . do. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . expr3) statement do statement while(expr ).h> <stddef.h> <signal. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . *=. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break.h> <ctype.h> <stdlib. do. Cognizant Technology Solutions. -=.h> <locale.h> <errno. while.h> <float.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left.h> <setjmp.h> <string.h> <math. all others group left to right.

ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s. newline.ct.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space. letter.ct) strncat(s.n) memmove(s.ct.c.ct. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .ct.ct.h> Consider s.c.n) strchr(cs.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.n) strcat(s. tab. cr.n) memchr(cs. form feed.c) memcpy(s.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007.ct.n) memcmp(cs.ct) strncpy(s.n) strcmp(cs. digit Checks whether c is a Space. t are strings and cs.n) memset(s.ct) strncmp(cs. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c) strrchr(cs.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

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This is useful only with a width specifier. Precision overrides this flag. e. u. the width argument comes first. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. E. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . f.sign. Trailing zeros will not be removed. For d. g. Negative values still show the sign. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional).precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). Defines the number of characters to print (optional). If the value is not large enough to fill the width. then the precision argument. e. o. then the value to be converted. If the value overflows the width of the field.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. [. g. Overrides the space flag. X. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. i. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. If a * is used in place of the width specifer. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. Result will always have a decimal point. then the field is expanded to fit the value. Overrides the 0 flag. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. x. The type of conversion to be applied (required). f. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). Default is to just show the . then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field.

.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. o. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . the width argument comes first. x. u. i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. . o. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. e. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. then the value to be converted. For f. [. For f. g. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. x. 6 for f. For d. e. u. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. Precision does not affect the c type. e. or . o. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. E. then the precision argument. o. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. u. The minimum number of digits to appear. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. X types. i. x. f. x.0 For d.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. If a * is used. n e. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. E types. i. d. x. i. For g or G types all significant digits are shown.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. o. Value is first converted to a long double. u. u. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. Type unsigned int printed in octal. i o u x X f e. Type double printed as [-]d. b.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). The exponent contains at least two digits.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). [type] d. f. Type double printed as [-]ddd. The argument must be a pointer to an int. E. d. C. B. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). Type pointer to array. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. Type char.ddd. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). Otherwise printed as type f. A % sign is printed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). E Type signed int. c. Trailing zeros are removed. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. D. F. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. e. No characters are printed. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. g. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). Single character is printed. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E.

Digits 0 through 7 only. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. i. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). The argument is a long double. The input must be in base 8 (octal). The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). then it is base 10. tab. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. i. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. Type signed int. Type unsigned int. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. g e. s Type character array. E. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. Cognizant Technology Solutions. o u x. o. carriage return. o. u. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. Type unsigned int. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. u.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. Then one or more digits. vertical tab. X e. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). it reaches a nonconvertible character). or form feed). n e.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. Begins with an optional sign. Digits 0 through 9 only. d. Type unsigned int. f. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . G designated with an e or E. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal).e. The argument is a double. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. f. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. f. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Type float. then it is base 8 (octal). new line.

Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. If the first character is a carrot (^). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Allows a search set of characters.] Input Type character array. No characters are read from the input stream. Pointer to a pointer.. The argument must be a pointer to an int. Type character array. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function.. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. If no width field is specified. a dash. Requires a matching % sign from the input. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. A null character is appended to the end of the array. then 1 is assumed. No null character is appended to the array. By specifying the beginning character.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.acm.uiuc.pdf http://cm.lysator.bell-labs.se/c/bwk-tutor. “Programming in C”.html#introduction http://www. Third Edition.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. Tata McGraw Hill R. “A Book on C”.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .G. “C How to Program”.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.liu. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.html http://www.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards. Fourth Edition.Dromey. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley. Ira Pohl. “How to solve it by Computer”.

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