Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

Cognizant 500 Glen Pointe Center West Teaneck, NJ 07666 Ph: 201-801-0233 www.cognizant.com

Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
Page 2 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
Page 3 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

.....................................106 Test your Understanding ..100 Formatted I/O..............................................................................................77 Test your Understanding .......................................100 Numeric I/O.....................................................................................................................................................................................................87 Structures and Functions ............................................................................................. Cognizant Technology Solutions....................................108 Learning Objectives .........................................................................................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization......90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ......................79 Command Line Arguments .......................................................................................................................................................................108 Preprocessor Directives ......109 Introduction to Pointers ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Test your Understanding .......92 Unions..............................................................................................................88 Try It Out ...........................79 Learning Objectives ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................104 Summary ................................................................................102 Try It Out ..............115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.........................................94 Typedef Statement .............................................................................95 File Operations ....................................92 Union of Structures .......................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................75 Summary ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives ............................................................................................98 String I/O............................93 Enumeration .............................................................89 Summary .................................................................95 Introduction to Files ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................84 Structures and Arrays .......................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ...............................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ....................................................101 Block I/O ..............................................................................................115 Declaration and Initialization..........................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Character I/O ..................79 Storage Classes ............................................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ....................................................108 Random File Operations ..........................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions....................133 Summary ....................................................................................123 Summary ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic .....................................................151 Websites ...........................................................125 Session 17: Pointers ....................116 Pointers and Arrays .....................130 Try It Out .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ......................127 Learning Objectives .......129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .........................................................................................................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007...................................127 Functions and Pointers ......................................................136 Test your Understanding ..................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: ................................................................138 References ..........................117 Try It Out ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................151 Books ...................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .........................................................................................127 Structures and Pointers .........................................................................................................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

prioritizing.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. There is no universal method for solving a given problem. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. To understand the problem. identifying. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is an act of defining a problem. determining the cause of the problem. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution.

Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . headings. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. It is also known as Program Analysis.

easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. several design methodologies can be applied. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. Program Design is both a product and a process. While applying top-down design to a given problem. therefore. An important approach is Top-Down programming design. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. the new parts become more focussed and. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output.

fact.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. deletions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and terminate in a finite time. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. but omits language-specific syntax. the next step must be unambiguously defined. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. or modifications to the existing algorithm. The errors identified leads to insertions.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. produce output. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. However. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. to test its correctness. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. Example 2. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which.

Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. required to solve a problem. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4.e. Output data Represents Process (actions. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. End Represents Input. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. or entry from. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. reports).2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. another part of the same flow chart.

Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2. fact.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. i Initialize fact =1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

and project workbooks Internal documentation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. Linking is done if necessary. After compilation. algorithm descriptions. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Details of particular programs. Documentation can be of great value. flowcharts. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. During execution. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. The compiler is system software. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. or particular pieces of programs.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. Initially. Testing is done during every phase of program development. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. the declarations. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Then. The program is now ready for execution. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. the design (algorithm. which includes things such as reference manuals. Writing a program is called Coding. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. requirements can be tested for its correctness. but also to the programmers themselves. statements. The translation results in the creation of object code.

Ada. This is called foolproof programming. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C++. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. such as BASIC. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. FORTRAN. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. For many programmers. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. On some projects. COBOL. Testing means detecting errors. and Pascal. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. C. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it.

It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. Because of it design. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. It does not need any translator program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . there are many new languages. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. machine language is not an easy language to learn. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. For example. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. Thus.

%. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. SUB and LOAD etc. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. -. In high level languages. irrespective of the type of computer used. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. For example. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This translator program is called Assembler. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. /.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. for its program construction.

Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. tested and maintained with ease. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. For example. The major breakthrough occurred. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and the expertise of the programmer. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). type of program. The language should provide appropriate data structures. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. in turn. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. This. though not widely used. but it is complex and difficult to learn. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. with every combination being meaningful. operations. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. In 1959. Later. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation.

coded. coding. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. and Embedded System Environment. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. Cost of Program creation. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. For example. the backup process on an organization. testing.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. testing & use: This implies design. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. Interactive Environment. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. efficient register allocation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed.

Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. Planning a tour. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. Give the algorithm. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. Top-down program design. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. debugging. Examples include database management systems. compiling and running. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . called Modules. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. 2. coding. Distinguish between testing and debugging. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. and maintenance. documenting. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. coded. Cognizant Technology Solutions. algorithm development. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. 4. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. word processing systems etc. Represent the following problem in top-down design. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. The environment under which a program is designed. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. 3. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. testing.

Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. True 5. Easy to carry from place to place b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It can run on any machine d. True. What is meant by portability of programs? a. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4.

Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. Prior to C. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. BCPL. To assure that the C language remains standard. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. It was evolved from ALGOL. In 1967. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. The standard was updated in 1999. for writing system software. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In 1970. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. and B. in 1973. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. During 1970s. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. which are portable but inefficient. which are efficient but nonportable.

C++.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. C# conserve C syntax. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Java.

Every C program must have one main() function. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon.extensive use of pointers for memory. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. C is a case sensitive language. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. to include functions from the system library.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . to define the symbolic constants and macro. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. called functions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. Output and Processing statements. although they may appear in any order. array. C program can be documented using these comment lines. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program.

It removes comments and empty lines in the program. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input.sum. &num1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language.h> main( ) { int num1. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). scanf(“%d%d”.&num2).num2. num2). sum). Cognizant Technology Solutions. num1. sum = num1+num2.

Z o Lowercase a…. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . External variable references are resolved here. . C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. Assembler The assembler creates the object code.z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =. % .OBJ indicates object code files. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters. to create an executable file. +. ? .] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. #include <math.h> -. Identifiers. #include <stdio.2 #include -.includes contents of a named file.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. [On UNIX. These files are usually called header files.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.standard library maths file.. the link editor combines these functions with main().h> -. Cognizant Technology Solutions. numbers and expressions. Operators and Expression.standard library I/O file #define -. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words. Blank spaces etc.defines a symbolic name or constant. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. file with a. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code).

Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. and functions. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. The following table shows the list of keywords. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. the range of values that can be represented in memory. constants. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. All keywords must be written in lowercase. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. predefined meanings in C. Example 3. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No special character is allowed except underscore (_).Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. It should start with an alphabet. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers.

short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . They are. never less than int. For example. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. Here. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. Similarly. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. int = 2 bytes.

It is useful with pointers.147.4 * (10+38) 1.768 to 32.7 * (10-308) to 1.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.967. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program. They are used to represent a collection of data. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.147.647 Floating Point Number. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.4 * (10-4932) to 1.7 * (10+308) 3.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.483.294.648 to 2.483. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.4 * (10-38) to 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.

ct=1. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. int tot.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. Example 3. ct=1. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. also called read-only variables. char ch. float sum = 0. z. y. float x. k.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. General form: var_data_type list variables.4 int i. j. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program.5 int total=0.0. tot = 0. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. which evaluates to either true or false. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (true – 1. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. or const long a = 50000l. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. const char ch = ‘a’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. const float pi=3.14. const long a = 50000L. Example 3. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. const int a = 0567.6 const int size = 100. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. This value cannot be changed by the program.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions.

printf(“%d”. printf(“%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false.pre increment */ /* prints 6 . the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. /=. -=. +=. *=.k: pre increment. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. i++). printf(“%d”. ++i). %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. i).post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. /*prints 6 . if condition is evaluated to true. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

7: Operators Let a=1. function calls that evaluates to a value. member access operators Logical NOT.(b / c). Logical OR.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. Conditional. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). Inequality comparators. b=2. Assignment. Multiplicative operators.(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. operators. indirection. Relational expression (uses relational operators). address Increment and decrement operators. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . op= Name Parentheses. unary minus.b) / c or a . and Logical expression (uses logical operators). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Additive operators. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. Equality comparators Logical AND. Index.

x + 3 = y.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. . Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b+c. c=3. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. (3) int a. a=b=3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The result of the expression will be of higher data type. (2) a = (b=2.) not a storage location. the assignment operator is “=”. In C. For example. e = a != b. b=4.5. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. In implicit type conversion. b-c). b+c). if the operands of an expression are of different types. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. This is called Typecasting. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. a=3. c= a>b. (4) int c. float b.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. c = 3. double to float causes round of digits. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. before assigning the value to it. d = 3. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. b = 3. c=3.e. However. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side.. The left side of the “=” is always a variable.. the statement x = y + z. but more efficient than: a = 3. d = a == b.which is the same as. For example.8 (1) a = (b = 2.

because the variable sum is of type float. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1. d.9 float sum. e = -a % -b. instead of 5.0. Then. e.8) as the integer 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 3. c = a/b.5 * 3. float x.7. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. c. b. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. b=4. f.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. z. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. Example 3.8).Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float . General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value. sum = (int) (1. a=14. y. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b.0 will be stored in sum. x = a / 10.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. The original value of the variable is not altered.narrowing . Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions.11 int a. y = a / 10.5 * 3. d = a % b. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value.

12 a int a=0. a=++b + ++c. digits. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. This single character includes alphabets. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). Cognizant Technology Solutions. a=b++ + c++. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. General form: char-variable = getchar().Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program.+ --c.13 char ch. Another method is to use input functions. ch = getchar(). b=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . getch (). c = a>b. . Example 3. and tab. return. c=0. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. a=b-. a=++b + c++. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. punctuations.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. processing.

String Input gets () . To get a line of text. Example 3. /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). General Form: gets(stringvariable). monitor.Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). General Form: putchar(char variable).14 char ch[5]. ch = getchar(). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .character input from console & echoes the character. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. Blank space is also considered as a character. gets(ch). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. this function serves the purpose. putchar(ch).15 char ch.

Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. C has a special formatting character (%). Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. gets(ch).16 char ch[5]. x. l. o.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . g. %e. u.. L) conversion character (d.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. A character following this defines the format for a value. puts(ch). %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. Example 3. f. list of variables). General Form: scanf (“format string”.

Example 3. By default. &ch. p. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. ‘&’ need not be used.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. name). sum). a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. /*accepts all inputs including space. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. the delimiter while reading the values is space. list of variables). Delimiter can be user-defined. i. str). scanf (“%[^\n]s”.*f”. first 4 characters printed. w.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. floating point=%6.&a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Format string and variables are separated by comma. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values.&b).ch. which directs the interpretation of input data. Example 3. /* column width 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. x). Format string. &i. int=%3d. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. Stops when it encounters new line. printf (“sum = %*. &b). Address operator (&) is used before the variables.18 printf (“char=%c. also known as control string contains field specifications. General Form: printf (“format string”. General Form: sscanf (str. list of variables). &a.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007.&b). To read a string using ‘%s’. &a.2f”. “format string”.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. This function returns the number of characters printed. &x).4s”. /*if the input is 12345 & 10.

z = x++ . float. Cognizant Technology Solutions. list of variables).--y * b / a.z). General Form: sprintf (str.x=5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C program is a collection of functions. then based on the operator precedence. C supports four basic primitive data types: int. “format string”. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. char. double. getchar().y=-10. main d. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1.b=2.h> main() { int z.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. “total” c.a=4. Emp_name b. printf("The Value of z : %d\n". C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. C has a rich set of operators. Test your Understanding 1. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a.

5. Is the statement valid? 3. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. Answers: 1. 7. 4 5 7. x = 7. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . s = 10. All are valid. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). a. x= (int) y. What is ternary operator in C? 5.5 4. s. . What is the output of the following code? int a . s= (int) y + 3.b). ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. valid 3. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x.0 . y=7.5. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. If. printf (“%d “. 6. 5. but getch() will not echo the character.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. getche() echoes the input character on screen.c ( “ “ .are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. 4 5 b. 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b = printf (“welcome”).

. selection. } { { a=1. and iteration (looping). In a selection structure. 2 { a=10. until some condition is satisfied. c=a+b. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. 1 a=8. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. In a sequence construct. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. Example 5. c=3. y = x * b – k. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. } x=a*b. } } { b=2. c=a + b.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. In an iterative structure. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. Example 5. b=10.

If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). input-output statements. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. and one or more simple expression statements. is executed in a sequential manner. which consists of declaration statements. Expression can be arithmetic. An expression involves arithmetic. relational. and/or relational expression. } [ else { statements2. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. } ] statements3. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. logical.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. and/or logical operators. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block.

c). Cognizant Technology Solutions.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. else max = a. } else { statements2. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. Example 5. if (a<b) max = b. If the else part is not specified. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. if (expression) statements-1.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. a). true or false is known.max). Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. } Example 5. printf(“ max = %d” . if (expression) statements-2. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. else printf (“largest = %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. General Form: if (expression) { statements1.

. else if(expression) statements3. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007.c).5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. else printf(“Fail\n”). It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. else statements4. Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). Example 5.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”.b). ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else if (expression) statements2. else printf (“largest = %d”. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. variable. break. Default case is optional and if specified. must be an integer valued expression. Example 5.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. default statements will be executed. case itemn: statement n. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. Expression may be a constant value. If the variable matches with one of the constants. break. default : statement. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. then an execution jump is made to that point. } Expression in the switch statement. pointer variable. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . else max = b. case item2: statement 2. expr3 is evaluated. which is similar to the following if-else statement. and/or arithmetic expression. array variable. which are represented by constant values. break. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. relational expression. if (a>b) max = a. if there is no match for the case labels. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. logical expression. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007.

General Form: for (expression1. break. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. break. If the test condition is False. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. break. case ‘*’: c=a*b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ‘while’. expression2 is to set a terminating condition.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). the statements inside the loop are executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘do. case ‘/’: c=a/b. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. There are several ways to execute loops in C. expression2.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. expression3) { statement / block of statements. case ‘-’: c=a-b. the control is transferred to the statement. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration.while’. If the test condition is True. break. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. which follows the loop.

for (. c). which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. y=4. y=4. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop.9 for (i=1.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. x++) x++. z .c<=20. } (7) int c=0. the inner loop runs completely.j). Example 5.i). Page 47 ©Copyright 2007.++c) (6) c=2. Different variables must be used to control each loop. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. (4) c=2.) { c+=1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. Such loops are called nested loops. } In the above example. z=4000. for (. (3) for (x=0. The second loop.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. for(.i<=3.. is called inner loop. printf (“c=%d”.c<=20. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. ((x>3) && (x<9)). j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.8 (1) for (x=0. c++.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop.) { printf (“%d”. controlled by the value of ‘j’. for (j=1. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. For each & every iteration through the outer loop. Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). c).j<=3.

If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. ++c. If the expression is initially False. (3) while(x) { }. Example 5. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements.while’ statement The do. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. If the expression evaluates to True. while is an exit controlled loop statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . while (expression). (4) while(1). } Expression can be a constant value.c). the body of the loop is executed.. If the result is True. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. General Form: do statement (s). the body of the loop is executed. At the end of the loop. General Form: while (expression) { Statements. (2) while(x = x+1){ }.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. After executing the body of the loop. the expression is checked again. } ‘do . (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). (6) c=1.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. the body of loop is not executed at all. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. variable or any expression. On reaching the do statement. otherwise statements after the while block is executed.

Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . */ printf("%d\n". General Form: break. Example 5. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again.loop++) { If (loop==10) break.d). do { printf (“%d\n”. It is used to terminate the current iteration.Problem Solving and C Programming to True. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop.loop). } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed.13 for(loop=0. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. } while (d<=10). Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. Example 5. the body of the loop is executed at least once.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.11 int d=1. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True.12 for(loop=0. When the condition becomes False. General Form: continue. Break. ++d. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate.loop<50.loop<100. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop.while.

stones. lbs INT Kg\n"). } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. pounds < 250. pounds. printf("%d\n".45359 main() { int pounds. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". kilos).e. uklbs and kilos. Cognizant Technology Solutions.loop). } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. printf(" US lbs UK st. so we have used the for loop. We know the starting point. } getchar(). uklbs. int uklbs = pounds % 14. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. for(pounds=10. termination condition and the increment.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . apply formula to get the stones. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For each pounds.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . case 2 : printf(“2”). switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). while.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. case 1 : printf(“1”). break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. that are used to carry out conditional looping. An if statement must always include an else clause. break. case 3 : printf(“3”). for. Test your Understanding 1. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. c. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. break. b. if clause can contain another if statement. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. An if statement may include only simple statements. Which of the following statements are true? a. 2.

c 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 5. 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Answers: 1. 3.. The loop statements of do..while will get executed at least once. What is the difference between a while and do.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”.. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. Default case is executed. printf (“%d”))) break. 3 4.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end).Problem Solving and C Programming 4. else continue.

The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. set of names). If an array of 5 integers elements is created.. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. index 1 refers second location. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index.].Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. of the same data type. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. etc. [index 0 refers first location . Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name.g. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . set of numbers. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e.

int matrix[2][2]. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . Defines a character array. When addressing an element in an array. Example 7. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. Array declaration reserves space in memory. starting at x[0].Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. char str[16]="qwerty". and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions.2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers.1 int x[5]. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. float sales_amt[10]. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index.

array can be declared without specifying the exact size. and processing of array elements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. /* b[0] = 10. When arrays are initialized during declaration. a[1]=2. /*a[0] = 1.2. the base address can not be changed. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. In such cases. retrieving. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. a[1] = 2 .3. ) */ float b[2]={10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . size of the array equals the number of elements initialized.3.5}. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. Example 7. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array.2. Thus. In partial initialization. size depends upon the number of values initialized. a[2] = 3 .34}. partial initialization is allowed. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}.2. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.4.2. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. b[1] = 45.4}.20 . /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. (ex.45.3 int a[5]={1.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. If initialized. /*a[0]=1.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. a[2]=3.4}. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location.3.

Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. printf(“%d”. a[2]). Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. scanf(“%d”. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension. Cognizant Technology Solutions. scanf(“%d”.a[1].5 int a[3]. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays. (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array. a[0]).a[2]).a[i]).Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. (1) scanf(“%d”. (1) printf(“%d”. &a[0]). (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”.6 int a[3].pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. Example 7.i<3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i<3.&a[i]).a[0]. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . a+2).i++) printf(“%d”. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0.a[1]). &a[2]).i++) scanf(“%d”. a+1. a. &a[1]).

Cognizant Technology Solutions.2. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero. /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.3}.4. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row. out of n locations defined.8 int num[2][3] = {1.5}.{1.3.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.2.5. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. = 4 elements). (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order.2. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . In partial initialization. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .6}.row 0 & column 0 . /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.row 0 & column 1 . Example 7. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. If m elements are needed.4.{4}}. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. Assume that array starts at location 1000. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration. 7 int a[2][2].row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.3.row 1 & column 0 . creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations. int num[2][3] = {1.2.2}.3}}.

A character string is stored in an array of character type. there is no built-in data type for strings. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. In C. Example 7. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. of strings] [max no. /*Creates a string. The value at str[6] is the null character.’m’.*/ (3) char name[5].’u’. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. one ASCII character per location. of chars in strings]. to represent the end of string. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. Example 7. return 0. name[4] = ‘\0’. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no.11 char studname[50][15].Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. name[2] = ‘O’. name[3] = ‘D’.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. String constants can be assigned to character array variables. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. name[1] = ‘O’.’\0’). Cognizant Technology Solutions. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . int i=0.’\0’}.’a’. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.’\0’}. name). if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name. which manipulates the entire string at once. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.”cat” . name).13 (1) char name[20]. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier).’t’.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”.h.’a’. Example 7. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. {‘c’. printf(“%s” . Cognizant Technology Solutions.’\0’}} = {{‘b’.’a’. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7.’t’.’t’. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” .

Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. string2. c) strstr(s1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. Cognizant Technology Solutions. string2) strcmp(string1.string2. c) strrchr (string. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. n) strncpy(string1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. string2) strcat(string1. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. string2. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. Find last occurrence of character c in string. s2) strcspn(s1. n) strncmp(string1.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. s2) strspn(s1.s2) strpbrk(s1.

which can manipulate a single character.\r. is used for the character functions.\f. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. for (i = 0.\f.\v.‘. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions.h. for(i = 2. fib[0] = 0. ctype. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio.) True if c is a space character (\n. fib[1] = 1.h> main() { int fib[24]. i < 24. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. ‘. True if c is a control character (\n. True if c is ASCII .\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters. True if c is a letter. Cognizant Technology Solutions. .:. “. The header file. . int i. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (.\t.\r. i < 24.

13…. j<5. int i. Cognizant Technology Solutions.8. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. for(i=0. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. 2. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. j<5. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. i++) for(j=0. for (i=0. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array. twod[i][j]).5.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. fib[i]). Initially array of size 24 is declared.h> main() { int twod[4][5]. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. printf("\n").3. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. i++) { for (j=0. j++) printf("%d ".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1..2.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i<4. } getchar().The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. i<4. getchar().j. i.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

Page 63 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

Page 64 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

Page 65 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

Page 66 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

So compiler will identify the function name. If it is declared in the Global declaration section.. and the operations to be carried out by the function. it is used by all the functions in the program. It can be accessed only within that function. parameters.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). Local Variables . If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. …. type arg2. } Function Header function-name arg1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. there is no need for the function prototype. Global Variables . Functions can be defined at any location in the program. executable statement 1. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. Memory for the global variables is allocated. } main() { fun().) { local variables Declaration. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. executable statement 2.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. } Function is defined prior to its reference. : return expression. Function body. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

int b) { if ( a > b) return a.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. else return b. There can be multiple return statements. General Form: return. it is achieved by the return statement. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. If there is no return statement. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. constant value or any single valued expression.3 (1) return. each containing different expression. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. Example 9. Default return type is ‘int’. If it returns a value. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. Cognizant Technology Solutions. return(a<b). does not return any value.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. OR return(expression). expression can be a variable name. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. then void keyword is used to represent that. return(a*b). Example 9. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. } (2) main() { return 0.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program.

General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). Example 9. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. find_big(num1.num2). Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. big).num2)) statement. big. data type. &num1. it is called Recursion. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. When the function call is encountered. } int find_big(int a. num2. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. /* function prototype. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. If a function is returning a value. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. scanf(“%d%d”. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. big=find_big(num1. &num2). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. If the function returns value. It is a process by which a function calls itself. /* function call statement.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. else return b. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. The number. int). Cognizant Technology Solutions. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution.

along with the value returned. printf(“Factorial = %d“. { if (k<=1) return 1. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. which in turn call function2. else return(k*fact(k-1). fact(int). Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. } fact(int k). scanf(“%d“. then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When the return statement is encountered. } If n = 4. printf(“Enter an integer\n”).7 main() { int n. the control is immediately transferred to the function. control is transferred back to the called function. which in turn return the value to its calling function. which may call function3.fact(n)). In fourth call. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. The main function may call function1. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . On seeing the name of the function in calling statement.&n). Depending on its definition.

b. return(a+b). sum=add(a.sum).i++) printf(“-“). char s) { int i. border(n. return. } { int sum.i<=m. char c. return. } } } scanf(“%d%d”.i<=80. printf(“\nSum = %d”.&a. scanf(“%d%c”. printf(“\nSum = %d”. printf(“\n”). } add() { int a. &n.b.&c).s). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. } border() { int i.int y) { return a+b . add(int x.a. printf(“\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n.i++) printf(“%c“.c).c). for(i=1. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. { int sum. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } border(int m.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). sum=add().Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9.sum). for(i=1. scanf(“%d%d”. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.&b). &a. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border().&b).b). integers\n”).

So. temp = c. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. pointer variable or array name. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. Example 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. So. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. swap(a. b). Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b=20. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. a. } Call by Reference In this approach. c = d. a=10. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. d = temp. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. The value of the actual argument will remain same. b. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. } void swap(int c. b).

Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. *c = *d. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. return max_value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } void swap(int *c. } main() { int values[5].11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. Example 9. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. a=10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i < 5. To pass an array to a function. int *d) { int temp. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. b=20. swap(&a. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. which points to an array. b. max_value = val[0]. temp = *c.12 int { int max_value. Example 9. b). /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. i. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. for( i = 0. a. *d = temp. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. &b). max. i.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

Page 74 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

Page 75 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

Page 76 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Test your Understanding 1. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. static. The command line arguments. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. } fn(int i) { return ++i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } printf(“%d” . What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. a). What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. } 4. printf("%d". C supports four storage class specifiers (auto.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific.i). What is function prototyping? 2. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. ii) function call. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. fn(i). { int a = 3. printf(“ %d “ . a). A function calling itself is called recursion. well defined task. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5.

return data type). a. In call by reference. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. In C. int *p(char *a[]) 7. 5. int p(char *a) b. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int (*p)(char a) d. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. b. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. type of its arguments. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. int *p(char *a) c. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. What the following declaration statements imply? a. 10 6.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. 7. Using command line arguments. 3 4 4. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. 2. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name.

This means. it has file scope. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. All other types of variables are local variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. is determined by where it is defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. This is called block scope. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code.. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. If it is defined outside of all the blocks.. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating.

Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). it is cleared and its memory destroyed. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. So. a). The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . internal static variables retain values between function calls. When the execution of the block is completed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. Static variables are stored in memory. If not initialized in the declaration. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value).Thus. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. then its scope is confined to that function. the nested variables are unique auto variables. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. Example 10. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. a). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . with identical names. printf (“%d “ . prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). although it is active only in main(). they are also called local or internal variables. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. In the case recursive functions. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. If not initialized in the declaration statement. Once allocated. it is automatically initialized to zero.1 main() { int a = 5 . } printf(“ %d “ . it will retain the value between function calls. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. by default it is an auto variable. { int a =6 . If the variable is declared within a function. Because of this property. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. If no storage class is specified.

i++) incre(). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. x = x +1. Since the registers are less in numbers. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. the variable is initialized to zero. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. printf(“ x = %d\n”. They are referred to as global variables.2 main() { int i. for (i=1. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable).i<=5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Since registers are faster than memory. } incre() { static int x = 0. When using external variables. instead of keeping it in the memory.x). Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. If not initialized in the declaration. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. careful selection must be made for their use.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. When a command is entered in a command window.Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. Example 10. */ void fun(). /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. /* external variable declaration. interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. it is initialized to zero. External variable declaration can not have initialization. a). } void fun() { a = 10 . invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). extern int a = 10. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. b). It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. but as a first approximation. The first word is treated as the name of a program. it is executed by a command-line interpreter.3 int a = 5 . just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. printf(“ %d “ . printf(“ %d “ . Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. fun(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } int b = 20. The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. A C program is executed by calling its main() function.

Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). which are command line strings. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. i < argc. for( i = 0. The components are called Members. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings.i . department code (string). argv[i]). A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. employee name (string).4 main( int argc. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char* argv[]) { int i. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. Example 10. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name.argc). For example. salary (float).

. no extra structures can be created. variable-name. When declaring structure variables..... Individual members will be given a separate memory location. type variable-name..5 1) struct employee { int code.. float salary. emp2.. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007.... tag name is optional.. variable-name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .....Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition. } . variable-name.. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name. struct employee emp1........ type variable-name. Here. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that. }.. int dept_code. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable. variable-name..... Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration... Example 10. char name[20].. “struct” keyword is used to define structures.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.. : : type variable-name...

int dept_code. 90. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. float avg. “Raja”.”(dot).m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. struct employee { int empno = 101 .”Dina”. stud2={102. emp2. illegal. Example 10.78}. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. float salary. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. then the expression “s. No storage class can be specified for structure members. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 1.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. } emp1. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. int semester. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. }.6 struct { int rollnum. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. If it is partially initialized. illegal. struct stud stud1={101. 1}.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. char name[20]. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration.

Example 10.code emp1.sizeof(emp1)).Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. }. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. int month.7 emp1. char name[20]. For example. int year. } emp1. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays.code emp2.9 struct { int day.name emp1.8 struct emp { int empno. the assignment expression a = b is valid. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. member-field-name Example 10. While comparing structure variables. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. This is because. printf (“Size = %d”. which is always not same for different structure variables. the values in slack bytes are also compared. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. Assignment operation is allowed.salary emp2. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. Example 10.dept_code emp1. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. float basic. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’.

char name[20].sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. }.doj.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber. In this example.emp2. }student.rollnum student [1].sub_marks[0] }.name student [1]. Example 10. char name[15]. then we can do so by writing: emp1. int sub_marks[5]. struct date doj. struct stud Accessing values: student [1].10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays. Cognizant Technology Solutions. char name [20]. int avg.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. Accessing values: student. student. Example 10. }emp1. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. int semester. int dept_code. float salary.avg student[50]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .semester student [1].

But changes will not be reflected back. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 10. emp1->empno). }. struct emp emp1 = { 101 .empno).empname). char empname[10]. emp2. char empname[10]. We can use pointer to structures. it is passed using call by value method. change(&emp1). “AAAA”} . Example 10. emp2.13 struct emp { int empno. printf(“ %s “ . All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. printf(“%d” . When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. main( ) { void display(struct emp). } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. “AAAA”} .Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . display(emp1). }. void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007.12 struct emp { int empno.

printf (" Marks are %.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. student2. int main ( ) { struct student student3. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. y). …) Example 10.name."Tom").marks = 99. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf (" Name is %s \n". getchar(). Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. wage is a structure variable of sal structure. student2. int a. strcpy(student1. x. Cognizant Technology Solutions. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. student2.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. student1.9. } student1.2f \n".h> struct student { char name[20]. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name).name). float marks.marks).

What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. Test your Understanding 1. In unions. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. Consider the following structure. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. only one member is accessible at a time. }*p1. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. ) operator. int *p. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Print the values of the structure. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. struct { int a.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks.

4. struct stud_type s1. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. 2. }. sizeof (ex)). 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . union person { char surname[10]. Answers: 1. The elements of an array are always of the same type. }ex. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. printf(“Size = %d”. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. int age. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. *p1->p. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. char name[15].

.. unformatted... the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members.. variable-name.. keyword ‘union’.... the tag name. type variable-name. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session... The tag name.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template .. Unions follow the same syntax as structures. }union-variable. variable-name..it creates the type....... For each variable. but no storage is allocated.. and the members of the union are given. In the declaration. .. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted.... The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly... union-variable. No other member can be initialized. variable-name.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. along with the keyword ‘union’.. can be used to declare variables of the union type.. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007.. is a derived data type.. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization.. type variable-name.. and block file I/O operations Unions Union. like a structure... Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member. : : type variable-name..... variable-name.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. }. float avg. int age. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion.2 { int code. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. char c. static union item product = {100}. s1. float x. float salary. The dot operator (. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. char name[15]. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. }. struct stud_type }ex. Thus. union { char surname[10]. Example 14. char name[20]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. struct stud_type { int rollno. struct employee_type e1. int dept_code.1 union item { int m. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure.) is used to access the members.

at the same time. That is. definition and variable declaration can be combined. e1 = getch(). backspace = `\b'. tab = `\t’. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. …………… var n. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. the union allows the structure variables. As with arrays. though they have signed integer values. newline = `\n'. to share common memory. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. green takes the value 6. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. the user can use either e1 or s1. Here. Example 14. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. As structures.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .e1. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . similar to structures or a union. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. blue = 5 . General Form: enum tag { member1 . but not both.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. …… member n } . vtab = `\v'. e1 and s1. next value is calculated as previous plus one. var2 . first enumerated name has index value 0. The member names must differ from one another. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. Cognizant Technology Solutions. enum colors { red = 1 . member2 .

file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. General Form typedef datatype new-type. It is used to give new names to existing data types. Then structure variables can be declared as follows. For such applications.5 typedef { int empno. integer variables. Example 14. no need to use struct keyword. files are needed. struct n1 . Example 14. In C. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. employee emp1. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. the results may be stored on disks. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. }employee. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. n2 . emp2. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. numbers n1. Similarly.4 typedef numbers int. char empname[10]. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables.

Text streams consist of printable characters. on some systems. When a file is closed. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. When a file is opened. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s.in which case the position points to the end of the file. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. and all characters will be transferred as such. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. More generally. When a program begins. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. A text stream.h. There are two types of streams: text and binary. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. and the new-line character. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. the tab character. In C. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output.

the purpose/positioning of opening the file. "format string". "format string". the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is.c. fscanf(fp. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. fp = fopen(“name”. variable list). (Extensions can be specified like test. It is a string enclosed within double quotes. variable list). “mode”). fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. fclose(fp ).dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fprintf(fp. details. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

rewind(). If the file is opened with append mode (a). Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. or fflush(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the file is opened in the update mode (+). if the file does not open or the file does not exist. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. By default. The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. Writing in to a file To write into a file. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). fsetpos(). all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. It is good to close all the files opened with fopen().Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file.

which represents standard output device. The fptr may be stdin. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. On success. char c. If the end-of-file is encountered. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). fclose(fp). Cognizant Technology Solutions. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. This fptr may be stdout.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. which is true if end of file is reached. the character is returned. Example 14.dat”. char c. On success. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. Example 14. keyboard as a file.fp). the pointer is moved to the next position. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. This may be a macro version of fgetc. which represents a standard input device. If an error occurs. After the reading a character. If an error occurs.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . monitor as a file. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). otherwise false. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. the character is returned. The EOF is end of file status flag.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file.dat”. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch.fptr).

On error. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). a nonnegative value is returned. A null character is appended to the end of the string.n. the newline character is read. On success. It stops when (n-1) characters are read. fclose(fp). a file at a time. The newline character is copied to the string. or read from. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. On error. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . EOF is returned. On success.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). or read from. On error. This function writes an integer to a file. General Form: fgets(str. fptr). a null pointer is returned. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). General Form: putw (i. whichever comes first. integers can be written to. a nonnegative value is returned. On success. General Form: fputs (str. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. the string remains unchanged. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets().fptr). fptr). } String I/O Using string I/O. or the endof-file is reached. a pointer to the string is returned. a file at a time. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. EOF is returned. string can be written to.

addresses-list). The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. in a left to right fashion. General Form: fscanf( fptr. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. the function stops scanning and returns. EOF is returned. variable-list).Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). -1 is returned. or the next incompatible character. If the input does not match.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. carriage return. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. If an input failure occurs. On success. If an error occurred. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. tab. according to the format specifier specified in format string. Cognizant Technology Solutions. new line. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). General Form: i = getw( fptr). General Form: fprintf ( fptr. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. or the width field is satisfied. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. the number of characters printed is returned. On success. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. vertical tab. or form feed. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. format-string. format-string. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. in a left to right fashion.

age). The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i.name . bytes of data).dat" .e. std[i].dat" . age )\n\n"). for(i=0. fprintf(fpt . printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). i++.age). } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. fpt = fopen("details. std1[10]. %s %d " . std1[i]. &std1[i]. "r").age). Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. "%d %s %d " . std[i].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt .name . fpt = fopen("details.no .age). name .name .no . i<5 . struct { int no.Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. std[i]. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite().i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . std[i].8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. int i. &std[i].no . std1[i]. "%d . Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . std1[i]. char name[10]. } fclose(fpt). &std[i]. }std[10]. "w"). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .no . std1[i]. int age.name printf("%d %s %d \n" . clrscr(). The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream.&std1[i].

Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. int i . for(i=0 . On success the number of elements read is returned. fptr). 5 . On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. i<5 . i++) scanf("%s %d ". sizeof(stud1[0]) . 5 .name . n. It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. printf(" \n\n printing the values "). The total number of bytes read is (size*n). fptr=fopen("ex. The total number of bytes written is (size*n). size.stud[i]. fptr = fopen("ex. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. size. fwrite(&stud . fclose(fptr). int age . Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). On success the number of elements written is returned. On error or end-of-file. fp).age).9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. n. clrscr(). fptr). fp). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. fread(&stud1 . General Form fwrite (ptr. }stud[10] . struct tag { char name[10]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form fread (&str. sizeof(stud[0]) . "r" ). Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. "w" ). &stud[i].dat" . stud1[10].dat" .

h> */ FILE * inFile. inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. 255. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Print the line number and the line. myString). stud1[i]. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString. // is in the current line and // if so.c */ #include <string.count. i<5 . // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0.h> #include <stdio. print it } fclose(inFile). Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . In the main program. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. read the input argument. // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). // after this command.h> /* #include <stdlib. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. stud1[i]. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. Open the input file. "r"). } Try It Out 1. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". // This is where I read the lines of the file int count. Code: /* findword. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " .char *argv[]) { char myString[256].age).name .

return 0. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". "int: ".Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . }. value. Close the file and exit the program 2.".h> union number { int x. value. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. value.x. "double:\n". one integer and the other double.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n".x = 100. "Put a value in the integer member". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. getchar().y ). Page 105 ©Copyright 2007.y = 100. value. "Put a value in the floating member".". if found print the line number and the full string.x. int main() { union number value. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. "and print both members. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. "double:\n". "and print both members. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. double y. "int: ". value.y ).0. value.

and what value does it usually have? 4. } 3. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. Input. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2L . 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. Preproccessing is done before compilation. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is EOF. ftell(). formatted I/O and block I/O. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. sleep(1). i++. string I/O. fopen(). What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. } return 0. Test your Understanding 1. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. and rewind() functions."hello-out").

Cognizant Technology Solutions. No significance. 4.a ). stderr 2. printf(“%d”. 5.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. stdin. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. foo( ). Its value on most computers is -1. a).”. stdout. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Answers: 1.. 3.

If it is a text stream. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. the current file position is returned. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. ftell() and rewind().Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. General Form: fseek( fptr. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. offset. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. On error. In some applications. On success. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If it is a binary stream. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. General Form: n = ftell(fptr).

A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. horizontal tab. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. 2). Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. 0L. 0). or carriage return. 2 On a text stream. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The error indicator is NOT reset. 1). a nonzero value is returned. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. -10L. Remove comments from the source file. 10L. Example 15. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. 2). fseek (fp. On error. zero is returned. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. General Form: rewind(fptr). fseek (fp. On success. fseek (fp. form feed. 0L. vertical tab. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). Cognizant Technology Solutions. -10L. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. The end-of-file indicator is reset. 1). Move the file pointer to the end of file. Move the file pointer to the beginning.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. 10L.1 fseek (fp. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). fseek (fp. 0). therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. fseek (fp.

#ifdef. Except for some #pragma directives. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. Defines a preprocessor macro. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. The # token must appear as a first character. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. #ifdef. or #elif test fails. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. Ends conditional text. #include Inserts text from another source file. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. #ifndef. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. or #elif test fails. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. No semicolon (. Defines text for a compile-time error message. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. #ifndef. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . depending on the result of a constant expression.

Preprocessing will be done before compilation. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. the file is searched first in the current working directory. whichever comes first. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> #include “stdio. Therefore. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. and then processed by the compiler.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion.2 #include <stdio. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. Example 15. or until the end of the program source is reached. In case that it is not there. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive.

the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function.. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. ….

zero or one #else directive. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined.. Continuation character for macro definition is \. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3).Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. addition=(2)+(3). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . there are zero or more #elif directives. and one matching #endif directive. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a).5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a.b) ((a)+(b)). These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). addition=add(2. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4).3). */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. #ifdef. Example 15. and #ifndef directive. /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. For each #if.

or #endif. printf(name(xyz)).somca)).. */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007.y) x##y main() { …. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). Example 15.7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true).8 #define name(x.6 Check whether a variable is defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). If there is a matching #elif. Example 15. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it.. #elif. If there is a matching #else. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. If so. If the value is 0 (false). */ Example 15. …. …. printf(name(ssn. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). and the preceding #if evaluated to false.

Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. & address operator. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. x = 5 .9 int x. px = &x. &a). * and & are inverse of each other. & and *. C provides two operators. as they have a number of useful applications. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. a). int a = 5 . for pointer implementation. Whenever a variable is declared. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. *px. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. 5 – value. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand.

cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. &x). printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. b = &a. Null or an address. The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. valid valid. Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. *px). One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. Pointer variable of a particular data type can.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *q = NULL. . invalid . q = a. printf(“ x = %d “ .10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. *p = &a . Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. &px). x). printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. printf(” address of x = %d “ . Example 15.11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . b . Two pointer variables can be compared. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. px).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. q = p.

Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. *pv is the same as v[0]. i=5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. ptr= &i. if v is an array. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. Thus. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. and so on. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. ptr ++.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time.

4} . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .3.*ptr). Example 15. OR ptr_vble = array_name. Example 15. The way in which the pointer variable used. ptr = &a[0][0] . &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear. *ptr . varies according to the dimension.5} ptr = a . a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension.15 printf (“%d “. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . (ptr+i)).Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index].2. 4. similar to ptr = &a[0]. OR pointer_variable = array_name.16 printf (“%u “.17 int a[2][2] = {1. Accessing address Example 15.2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.*(a+i)).*(ptr+i)). printf (“%d “.14 int a[5] = {1. i . printf (“%d “. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn].

j) value displays the x(i.j++) printf(“\t%d”.j) value Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. int *pa=&a[0][0].6}.18 printf (“%d “. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. for (i=0. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. displays the x(i.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.2. printf (“%d “.*(*(ptr + i) +j). For example.j) value displays the x(i. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array. each with 2 elements.i<2. Here.19 main() { int i. printf (“%d “. j.3.*(a + i)[ j ].4. it results in a problem. Therefore. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified.5.i++) { for (j=0. is a collection of one dimensional array. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. So. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1.j<3. int a[2][3]={1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. jth column Accessing value Example 15. refers to the entire row .*(a[ i ] + j).*(*(pa+i)+j)). for example.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row.

/* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. which can hold the address of a character variable. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. it refers to the address of the 0th element. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . p = name. Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”).4} . Suppose. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . When an array is referenced by its name. ptr[0] = a[0].20 int a[2][2] = {1.2. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. *ptr[2] . Once the pointer is declared. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. we have 2 pointers ptr[0].3. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here.

Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. “ABCD”} .1. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. “ABC” . char *name[4] = { “A” . “xyz”}. *p).2. “rstu”. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. printf(“String output = %s”. “AB” . The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. make it a pointer to a string of varying length. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *p). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. int *p = {0. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. If the elements of array are string pointers.3} . It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. valid invalid Thus. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. char *p = “string” . An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance.

Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer.23 const int a=10. Thus. substantial saving in memory. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. int *const pa = &a. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. In the above example.24 int a. The value cannot be modified. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *pa = &a. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. Example 15. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15.

void *pab. float b. num1. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. pab=&a. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .55. num2. *(float *) pab = 105. Try It Out 1. *pnum. num2 += *pnum. *pnum = 2. const int * const pb = &b. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. pab=&b. *(int *) pab =100. ++*pnum. pnum = &num1. in order to know the size and value of the data item. long *pnum = NULL. getchar(). ++num2. pnum = &num2. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. long num2 = 0. But it is needed.25 int b.26 int a. *pnum + num2). Example 15. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007.

num2. %16u %d\n".e. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. Then the value of num1 is 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.i4=1.a[j]. now the value of num2 is 1. Address in array Value\n"). a[4]=&i5.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. the array elements is the pointer.i3=2.j<5. int j.i5=0. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared. a[1]=&i2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int i1=4. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. a[0]=&i1. a[3]=&i4. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. printf("Address for(j=0. Increment the value of num2. a[2]=&i3. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0.a[j]).j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. Print all the values num1. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum.i2=3. } printf("using pointer\n"). Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. int *b. #include <stdio.value at pnum 2.h> main(){ int *a[5].

Test your Understanding 1. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays.*b. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. Cognizant Technology Solutions.j<5.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. malloc().Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. See the difference. Declare an array of integer pointers. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2.*b. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. b++.b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". } getchar(). for( j=0. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. State whether the following are true or false a. 2.

Differentiate malloc() . n[0]=100. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Since b points to a. b = (int *)**c. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. 3. The first statement assigns 4 to a. } 4. false 2. which is value of a. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Since c points to b. n[24]=200.sizeof(str2). Given the following declaration: int a. } 6. malloc(). false. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. *b = &a . Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). because values cannot be assigned to pointers. True. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. sizeof(str1). printf(“%d %d %d”. assign the value to a. into type int *. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. 5. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. calloc(). **c = &b. *n. sizeof(“abcd”)). The third statement castes **c. false. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 300 4. 100. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. **c=5. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. 2 5 5 6. char str2[]=”abcd”. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. printf("\n%d.%d". Answers: 1. 5. The result is meaningless.

a). you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. int *assign() .1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype .2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. *p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(‘’ %d ‘’ .Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. *p) . change(p). /* function prototype */ void change(int *). Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. Cognizant Technology Solutions.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . p =&a. Example 17. p = assign() .

which will speeds up the execution. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &b). printf (“%d”.) Suppose we have a function as. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). *q = &a. void add(int x. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. main() { int a=10. of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007.. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. x + y). void (*p)(int x. } Example 17. int *). So.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . /* addr. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. rather than an entire array. to a function using pointers. of a is returned */ /* addr. } Pointer to this function is declared as. p = add. p = big (&a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . else return (y). } int *big (int *x . } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. int y). ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value.*p). b=20. Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. *q = 20 .Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . return q . *p.

20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. int (*func_ptr) (). which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. Example 17. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. 1.”raja”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . func_ptr = display.20). To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. Example 17. struct stud student={101. *ptr . Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.5 main() { void abc(). /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). int semester. (*func_ptr) (). (*abc)(). we can write as ptr = &student.6 struct stud { int rollnum. In this declaration. char name[20]. abc().67}. 95. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. will call the function add() with parameters 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable.4 int display(). float avg. }.

because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. ptr->semester. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ptr->rollnum. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. int *p. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. float salary.8 struct employee { char name[20]. struct employee *empptr. ptr->avg). C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). ptr->name. Thus. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. Example 17. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. calloc () . arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . Cognizant Technology Solutions. char gender. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer).

sizeof(int)). j++) scanf("%d". *c[3]. b[i]+j). j++) scanf("%d". } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. i++) for(j=0. a[i]+j). i<3. int i.Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. i<3.j. *b[3] . printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). j<3. i++ for(j=0. p = (int *) calloc (10. for(i=0 . j++) printf("\t%d". This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. *(c[i]+j)). Cognizant Technology Solutions.9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). j<3. i++) for(j=0. This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. i<3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for(i=0. for(i=0. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. which can hold 10 integers. j<3. i<3. for(i=0. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). i++) for(j=0. free() will take a void pointer. i<3. j<3. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. Example 17. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). for(i=0.

it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. which holds the address of another integer pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. As such. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. p1=&x. p2=&p1.ptr1 value int x. Example 17. For example. However. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .ptr2 x=100. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007.*p1.10 addr. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. printer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. beyond 3 levels. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. int **p. video memory. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard.**p2. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory.

c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. aCard. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. In the main program.face. struct card *cardPtr. Print the values of card structure in three different forms. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. " of ".face. aCard.suit = "Spades".face = "Ace".Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1.suit. ( *cardPtr ). ( *cardPtr ). }. aCard.suit ). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int main() { struct card aCard. cardPtr = &aCard. getchar(). " of ". cardPtr->face. " of ". } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. char *suit. cardPtr->suit. All will print the same. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". return 0.h> struct card { char *face. Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. aCard.

} return (p). temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } else { temp = p. printf("The data values in the list are\n").h> # include <stdlib. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). Cognizant Technology Solutions. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio. struct node *link. p-> link = p. } p-> data = n. temp-> link = p. temp = p.h> struct node { int data. exit(0).Problem Solving and C Programming 2. temp-> data = n. } temp = temp-> link. int n){ struct node *temp. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). struct node *insert(struct node *p. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). exit(0). }.

3 ). again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. start = insert ( start. In the main program. so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. In the insert function. start = insert ( start. printf("The created list is\n").Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. temp=temp->link. Then returns back the pointer. declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2.as it is first time. Cognizant Technology Solutions. so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. In the main program. struct node *start = NULL . start = insert ( start. getchar(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } void main() { int n. 2). } else printf("The list is empty\n"). int x. Then returns the pointer back. 4 ). Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function.temp->data). Now the start pointer is not NULL. } while (temp!= p). start = insert ( start. printlist ( start ). the start pointer will be NULL. 1 ).

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. 2. n[24]=200. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Test your Understanding 1. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. printf("\n%d. malloc(). In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. **c=5. *n. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Given the following declaration: int a. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. In the printlist() function. } 4.%d". n[0]=100. **c = &b. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. b = (int *)**c. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. *b = &a . State whether the following are true or false a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Since b points to a. which is value of a. 100. Since c points to b. 2 5 5 6. 3. calloc(). Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Answers: 1. sizeof(str1). True. false 2. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. printf(“%d %d %d”. } 6. false. sizeof(“abcd”)). Differentiate malloc() . What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. 5. assign the value to a. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. The first statement assigns 4 to a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. malloc(). 300 4. false. The third statement castes **c. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. char str2[]=”abcd”. into type int *. The result is meaningless. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .sizeof(str2). The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c.

char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined. #else. #define max(A. #endif #ifdef.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. #elif. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. } /* */ main(int argc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

*float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . tab. \. \r. ‘\ooo’. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘\xhh’ \n. octal. \b \\.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. cr. \t. \?. hex) newline.

logical not. (*p). struct tag name name.member pointer->member ++. % +. >> >. -. -+. bitwise not indirection via pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. ~ *pointer. /. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. divide. <. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name.member pointer -> member Ex. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. <= ==. >=. !. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. minus. subtract left. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. decrement plus. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. <<. modulus (remainder) add. &name (type) expr sizeof *. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment.

case const2: statement2 break.h> <stdlib. …… .h> <math.h> <ctype.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=. -=.h> <string. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. all others group left to right.h> <stdio. *=.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. for Next iteration of while. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <time. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> <errno. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. Unary operators. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.h> <float.h> <limits. while.h> <setjmp. do.h> <signal. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement .h> <stdarg. expr2.h> <locale.h> <stddef. do.

n) strcat(s.ct.c.ct.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space. letter.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.ct) strncpy(s. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.ct. newline.n) strcmp(cs. cr.n) memset(s.n) memchr(cs.n) memmove(s.ct. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c) memcpy(s.ct.c) strrchr(cs.n) memcmp(cs.ct) strncmp(cs.h> Consider s. Cognizant Technology Solutions.ct. digit Checks whether c is a Space.n) strchr(cs.c. t are strings and cs.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. tab. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.ct) strncat(s. form feed.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

Page 143 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

Page 144 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

u. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. Trailing zeros will not be removed. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). X. o. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). then the value to be converted. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. If a * is used in place of the width specifer. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. Overrides the space flag. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). g. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). then the precision argument. e. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). then the field is expanded to fit the value. x. E. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. Precision overrides this flag. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. The type of conversion to be applied (required). the width argument comes first.sign. Result will always have a decimal point. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). f. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. f. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. g. For d. [. e. Overrides the 0 flag. Default is to just show the . If the value overflows the width of the field. i. This is useful only with a width specifier. Negative values still show the sign.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character.

X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). e. o. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. For g or G types all significant digits are shown.0 For d.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. u. d. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. e. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. g. The minimum number of digits to appear. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . For f.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. u. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. X types. 6 for f. i. i. Value is first converted to a long double. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. or . then the precision argument. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. u. x. i. o. Precision does not affect the c type. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. E. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). the width argument comes first. x. e. u. f. Cognizant Technology Solutions. x. . . o. n e. u. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. o. x. x. For f. i. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. o. then the value to be converted. If a * is used.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. E types. i. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. [. For d. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt.

e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. B.ddd. Otherwise printed as type f. i o u x X f e. Type double printed as [-]ddd. Type unsigned int printed in octal. Type pointer to array. b. The exponent contains at least two digits. F. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. D. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. g. E. Type char. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. Type double printed as [-]d. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. Trailing zeros are removed. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). d. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). The argument must be a pointer to an int. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. No characters are printed.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). E Type signed int. A % sign is printed. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. C. c. f. [type] d. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). Single character is printed. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E.

G designated with an e or E. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. i. it reaches a nonconvertible character). g e. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. The argument is a double. Type float. Cognizant Technology Solutions. E. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value.e. u. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. u. Digits 0 through 9 only. Then one or more digits. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Type unsigned int. i. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. f. o. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. or form feed). d.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. vertical tab. f. new line.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . then it is base 8 (octal). It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. Digits 0 through 7 only. f. The input must be in base 8 (octal). Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. Type unsigned int. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. carriage return. o. s Type character array. o u x. tab. then it is base 10. Type unsigned int. Begins with an optional sign. X e. The argument is a long double. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). n e. Type signed int. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal).

A null character is appended to the end of the array. then 1 is assumed. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. a dash.. No null character is appended to the array. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. Pointer to a pointer.. Requires a matching % sign from the input. No characters are read from the input stream. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. Type character array. By specifying the beginning character. If no width field is specified.] Input Type character array. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. Allows a search set of characters. If the first character is a carrot (^). The argument must be a pointer to an int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-).Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Third Edition.pdf http://cm.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.lysator. “Programming in C”.liu.uiuc. Cognizant Technology Solutions.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.se/c/bwk-tutor. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley. “How to solve it by Computer”.Dromey.html http://www.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards. Ira Pohl.acm. Tata McGraw Hill R.bell-labs. “C How to Program”. “A Book on C”. Fourth Edition.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.html#introduction http://www. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.G.

Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.