Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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.......................................................................................................98 String I/O..................................95 Introduction to Files ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................87 Structures and Functions .....................................................................................................................................................................................77 Test your Understanding .........108 Random File Operations .83 Declaration and Initialization..................................................109 Introduction to Pointers .............................................................108 Preprocessor Directives .........................................................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions............................100 Formatted I/O..................................................................84 Structures and Arrays ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Test your Understanding .....................100 Numeric I/O.........................................................................................................................................................................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ..........................................96 Character I/O ........................................93 Enumeration ............92 Learning Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................106 Test your Understanding ..................................................................................101 Block I/O ............................................92 Unions......................................89 Summary .......................................................................................................................................79 Command Line Arguments ......................................94 Typedef Statement ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007........................................................................115 Declaration and Initialization...............102 Try It Out ................................79 Learning Objectives ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ............................................................................................................108 Learning Objectives ...................................................75 Summary ................................ Cognizant Technology Solutions.........................................................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ....................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ..............................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ..........................................................88 Try It Out ..............92 Union of Structures .............95 File Operations ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Storage Classes ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................104 Summary ..............................................................

...................................................................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007...............130 Try It Out ...................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions..............151 Websites ............................................................................................................................................................................................123 Summary ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Structures and Pointers ..........................................................................136 Syntax Summary ...................................................................................................................138 References ..........136 Test your Understanding .....................................................................................................127 Functions and Pointers . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ......................................................................125 Test your Understanding ...............................................................................................................................................................133 Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................................................151 Books .......................................................................................117 Try It Out .................................................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .............................116 Pointers and Arrays ........................................................................................127 Learning Objectives .............................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic .........................................................................................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers .................................................................................................................................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: .........................................................................................................

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007.

Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. To understand the problem. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. It is an act of defining a problem. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. identifying. prioritizing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There is no universal method for solving a given problem. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. determining the cause of the problem. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved.

Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. headings. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is also known as Program Analysis.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output.

in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. the new parts become more focussed and. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. While applying top-down design to a given problem. therefore. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. several design methodologies can be applied. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An important approach is Top-Down programming design. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. Program Design is both a product and a process. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code.

Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. the next step must be unambiguously defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. to test its correctness. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. The errors identified leads to insertions. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. Example 2.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. deletions. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. However.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. and terminate in a finite time. fact. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. or modifications to the existing algorithm. but omits language-specific syntax. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. produce output.

Page 11 ©Copyright 2007.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions.e. Output data Represents Process (actions. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. another part of the same flow chart. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. required to solve a problem. or entry from. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. reports). Connector Symbol represents the exit to. End Represents Input.

i Initialize fact =1.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2.i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fact.

Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. the design (algorithm. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. Writing a program is called Coding. Linking is done if necessary. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. requirements can be tested for its correctness. the declarations. Testing is done during every phase of program development. Documentation can be of great value. The translation results in the creation of object code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. Details of particular programs. which includes things such as reference manuals. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. Then. or particular pieces of programs. but also to the programmers themselves. After compilation. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. flowcharts. The program is now ready for execution. Initially.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. The compiler is system software. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. statements. and project workbooks Internal documentation. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. During execution. algorithm descriptions.

Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. and Pascal. FORTRAN. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. C++. On some projects. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. such as BASIC. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. Testing means detecting errors. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. COBOL. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. For many programmers. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. C. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. This is called foolproof programming. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. Ada. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007.

Thus. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. Because of it design. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It does not need any translator program. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. For example.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. machine language is not an easy language to learn. there are many new languages.

This translator program is called Assembler. /. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. -. for its program construction. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. %. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). In high level languages. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. irrespective of the type of computer used. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. SUB and LOAD etc. For example. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes.

control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. type of program. but it is complex and difficult to learn. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. in turn. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. operations. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). In 1959. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. Later. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. though not widely used. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . tested and maintained with ease. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. The major breakthrough occurred. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. with every combination being meaningful. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. and the expertise of the programmer. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. The language should provide appropriate data structures. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. For example. This. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed.

Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. testing. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. coding. coded. testing & use: This implies design.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. and Embedded System Environment. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. Interactive Environment. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. the backup process on an organization. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. efficient register allocation. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. For example. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cost of Program creation.

3. coded. word processing systems etc. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. testing. Represent the following problem in top-down design. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. compiling and running. algorithm development. Planning a tour. 2. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. coding. Distinguish between testing and debugging. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . debugging. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. The environment under which a program is designed. Examples include database management systems. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. and maintenance. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. documenting. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. Top-down program design. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. 4. called Modules. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. Give the algorithm.

True 5. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. True. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Easy to carry from place to place b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is meant by portability of programs? a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It can run on any machine d.

C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. which are efficient but nonportable. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. During 1970s. for writing system software. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. BCPL. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. which are portable but inefficient. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. In 1967. and B. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. In 1970. To assure that the C language remains standard. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. Prior to C. The standard was updated in 1999. It was evolved from ALGOL. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. in 1973. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. resulting in the construction of efficient programs.

C# conserve C syntax. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. C++. Java. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. C program can be documented using these comment lines. Every C program must have one main() function. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . to include functions from the system library. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. to define the symbolic constants and macro. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. C is a case sensitive language. called functions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Output and Processing statements. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. array.extensive use of pointers for memory. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. although they may appear in any order. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon.

sum.&num2). Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). sum = num1+num2. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. sum). Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). num1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &num1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. It removes comments and empty lines in the program. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #.h> main( ) { int num1.num2. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. num2). printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. scanf(“%d%d”.

] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. . % . C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. These files are usually called header files.h> -.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code). file with a. #include <stdio. Identifiers. #include <math. Blank spaces etc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words.OBJ indicates object code files. +. to create an executable file.defines a symbolic name or constant. numbers and expressions.h> -.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . ? .z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =.Z o Lowercase a….2 #include -. Cognizant Technology Solutions. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters.includes contents of a named file.. Assembler The assembler creates the object code.standard library maths file. Operators and Expression. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters. [On UNIX.standard library I/O file #define -. External variable references are resolved here. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. the link editor combines these functions with main().

Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. It should start with an alphabet.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). the range of values that can be represented in memory. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. The following table shows the list of keywords. constants. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. All keywords must be written in lowercase. and functions. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. Example 3. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. predefined meanings in C. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Similarly. They are. Here. never less than int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. int = 2 bytes. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. For example.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character.

767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32. Cognizant Technology Solutions.647 Floating Point Number.147.768 to 32.7 * (10-308) to 1. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.4 * (10+38) 1. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.7 * (10+308) 3.967. It is useful with pointers.483.294.648 to 2.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.4 * (10-4932) to 1. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions. They are used to represent a collection of data. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname).4 * (10-38) to 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.483.147.

float x. General form: var_data_type list variables. also called read-only variables. int tot. ct=1. j. z. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. ct=1. float sum = 0.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. Example 3. k. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters.4 int i. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. char ch. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. y. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. Example 3. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. tot = 0. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program.5 int total=0.0.

14. Example 3. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. which evaluates to either true or false.6 const int size = 100. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. const long a = 50000L. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Operators are used in programs to manipulate data.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. Cognizant Technology Solutions. const int a = 0567. const char ch = ‘a’. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. This value cannot be changed by the program. const float pi=3. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. (true – 1. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. or const long a = 50000l.

Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. if condition is evaluated to true.k: pre increment. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus .pre increment */ /* prints 6 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“%d”. -=. i++).Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. ++i). /=. printf(“%d”. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /*prints 6 .post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. *=. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. printf(“%d”. +=. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. i).

Additive operators. function calls that evaluates to a value.(b / c). ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . Multiplicative operators.7: Operators Let a=1. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity. address Increment and decrement operators. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Index. Conditional. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. Equality comparators Logical AND. Logical OR.b) / c or a . Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. Relational expression (uses relational operators).b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. unary minus. operators. member access operators Logical NOT. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). and Logical expression (uses logical operators). op= Name Parentheses. Cognizant Technology Solutions.(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Assignment. b=2. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . indirection. Inequality comparators.

long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. x + 3 = y.. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For example. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation.e.8 (1) a = (b = 2. In C. the statement x = y + z. b=4. c = 3. b+c). Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. a=3. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. . double to float causes round of digits. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. For example. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. before assigning the value to it. b = 3.which is the same as. a=b=3. b+c. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. d = a == b. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. d = 3. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. However.) not a storage location.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. (2) a = (b=2. (3) int a.5. the assignment operator is “=”. This is called Typecasting. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. b-c). float b. if the operands of an expression are of different types. Example 3. c= a>b. c=3. e = a != b. c=3. but more efficient than: a = 3. (4) int c. In implicit type conversion..

8) as the integer 5. c = a/b. d. float x. because the variable sum is of type float. The original value of the variable is not altered. 5.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion.5 * 3. x = a / 10.0 will be stored in sum. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator.8).0. Example 3. instead of 5.narrowing . y. a=14.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. d = a % b. e = -a % -b. y = a / 10.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007.9 float sum. f. e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . sum = (int) (1. Example 3. Then.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. z. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float . b=4.11 int a. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis.5 * 3. c. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. b.7. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value.

Another method is to use input functions. punctuations. General form: char-variable = getchar(). and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer).+ --c. Example 3. ch = getchar(). a=b-. a=b++ + c++. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. a=++b + c++. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. This single character includes alphabets. and tab. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. digits. . b=0.12 a int a=0.13 char ch. c = a>b. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin).character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . getch (). a=++b + ++c. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. c=0. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. return. processing.

ch = getchar(). gets(ch).character input from console & echoes the character. Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). To get a line of text. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007.14 char ch[5]. /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. General Form: putchar(char variable). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. this function serves the purpose. Blank space is also considered as a character. Example 3. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. String Input gets () . monitor.Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). putchar(ch). General Form: gets(stringvariable).15 char ch.

Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. f.16 char ch[5]. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. x. Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. A character following this defines the format for a value. list of variables). %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. u.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. puts(ch). l. L) conversion character (d. %e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: scanf (“format string”. C has a special formatting character (%). Example 3. gets(ch). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. o. g.

This function returns the number of characters printed.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. &x). sum). a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. &i. /*accepts all inputs including space. General Form: printf (“format string”. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. Stops when it encounters new line. Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. &a. “format string”.18 printf (“char=%c. str).4s”. which directs the interpretation of input data. list of variables).ch. i. To read a string using ‘%s’. floating point=%6.&a. Example 3. also known as control string contains field specifications.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. Delimiter can be user-defined.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. list of variables).2f”. /* column width 10. printf (“sum = %*. p. first 4 characters printed. &ch. Format string. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully.&b). &a. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. ‘&’ need not be used. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. name). Address operator (&) is used before the variables. w. x).&b). the delimiter while reading the values is space. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. General Form: sscanf (str. int=%3d. /*if the input is 12345 & 10.*f”. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. Format string and variables are separated by comma. By default. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &b).

General Form: sprintf (str.x=5. list of variables). total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007.z).a=4. C supports four basic primitive data types: int. float. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. getchar().--y * b / a. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. Emp_name b.b=2.y=-10. “format string”. double. printf("The Value of z : %d\n". C program is a collection of functions. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language. z = x++ . char. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . main d. C has a rich set of operators. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression.h> main() { int z. Test your Understanding 1. “total” c. then based on the operator precedence. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. but getch() will not echo the character. Answers: 1. valid 3. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. What is ternary operator in C? 5. s. b = printf (“welcome”). ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. If. getche() echoes the input character on screen. a. s = 10. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. 7. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). x= (int) y. s= (int) y + 3. x = 7.c ( “ “ .5. 4 5 7.5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming 2. y=7. All are valid.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. . 6.5 4. 4.b).0 . Is the statement valid? 3. 4 5 b. printf (“%d “. What is the output of the following code? int a . welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. 5.

c=3.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. } } { b=2. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. Example 5. selection. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In an iterative structure. In a selection structure. and iteration (looping). Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. In a sequence construct. c=a+b. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. } x=a*b.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. y = x * b – k. 2 { a=10. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. Example 5. . until some condition is satisfied. 1 a=8. } { { a=1. c=a + b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b=10.

which consists of declaration statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. relational. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. and/or relational expression. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). and/or logical operators. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). } ] statements3. } [ else { statements2. Expression can be arithmetic.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. is executed in a sequential manner. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. and one or more simple expression statements. input-output statements. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. An expression involves arithmetic. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. logical. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero).

} else { statements2. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement.max). if (expression) statements-2. if (expression) statements-1. if (a<b) max = b.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c). if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. a). else printf (“largest = %d”. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Example 5. else max = a. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. printf(“ max = %d” . the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. true or false is known. If the else part is not specified. Example 5.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed.

General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. . The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. else statements4.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). else printf(“Fail\n”). else if(expression) statements3. Example 5. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). else if (expression) statements2. else printf (“largest = %d”.b). Cognizant Technology Solutions.c).

which is similar to the following if-else statement. if there is no match for the case labels. expr3 is evaluated. pointer variable. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. array variable. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. break. If the variable matches with one of the constants. which are represented by constant values. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . relational expression. case item2: statement 2. variable. must be an integer valued expression. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. break. Example 5. Default case is optional and if specified. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Expression may be a constant value. then an execution jump is made to that point. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. default statements will be executed. if (a>b) max = a. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part).Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. default : statement. else max = b. } Expression in the switch statement. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. and/or arithmetic expression. logical expression. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. case itemn: statement n.

The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. case ‘/’: c=a/b. case ‘*’: c=a*b. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). expression2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. expression3) { statement / block of statements.while’. the statements inside the loop are executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ‘while’. If the test condition is True. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. General Form: for (expression1. ‘do. There are several ways to execute loops in C. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. break.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. the control is transferred to the statement. If the test condition is False. which follows the loop.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. break. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. break. break. case ‘-’: c=a-b.

for (. c++.. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement.j<=3. y=4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Different variables must be used to control each loop.++c) (6) c=2.c<=20.8 (1) for (x=0. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. (3) for (x=0.9 for (i=1.. Example 5.j).c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. z .Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . j++) printf (“\n j = %d”. for (. (4) c=2. the inner loop runs completely. printf (“c=%d”. for (j=1. c).i<=3. x++) x++.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. For each & every iteration through the outer loop. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). } (7) int c=0. z=4000. for(. controlled by the value of ‘j’. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop. y=4. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop.) { c+=1. } In the above example. The second loop. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. is called inner loop. Such loops are called nested loops. c). Page 47 ©Copyright 2007.) { printf (“%d”. Example 5. ((x>3) && (x<9)).c<=20.i).

(3) while(x) { }. (4) while(1). Cognizant Technology Solutions. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the result is True. } Expression can be a constant value.c). If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. The body of the loop may have one or more statements.while’ statement The do. ++c. At the end of the loop. After executing the body of the loop. If the expression is initially False. the body of loop is not executed at all. General Form: while (expression) { Statements. On reaching the do statement. while is an exit controlled loop statement. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. while (expression).10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. General Form: do statement (s). (6) c=1.. the body of the loop is executed. variable or any expression. the body of the loop is executed. If the expression evaluates to True.. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. Example 5. } ‘do . The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. the expression is checked again.

Example 5. the body of the loop is executed at least once.12 for(loop=0.loop<100. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True. } while (d<=10). It is used to terminate the current iteration.loop).. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 5. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. */ printf("%d\n".loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . do { printf (“%d\n”. General Form: continue. When the condition becomes False. General Form: break.13 for(loop=0.loop++) { If (loop==10) break. Break. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration.11 int d=1. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements.d).while. Example 5. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. ++d. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop.Problem Solving and C Programming to True.loop<50.

printf(" %d %d %d %f\n".uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. pounds. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. uklbs. float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. printf("%d\n". Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming continue.loop). } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(" US lbs UK st. For each pounds. } getchar(). uklbs and kilos.45359 main() { int pounds.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . termination condition and the increment. lbs INT Kg\n"). for(pounds=10. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stones. apply formula to get the stones. int uklbs = pounds % 14.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . pounds < 250.e. We know the starting point. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. kilos). so we have used the for loop.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An if statement must always include an else clause.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. while. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. case 2 : printf(“2”). Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. break. 2. c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. that are used to carry out conditional looping. case 1 : printf(“1”). Which of the following statements are true? a. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . break. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. for. Test your Understanding 1. if clause can contain another if statement. case 3 : printf(“3”). An if statement may include only simple statements. b. break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. break.

Problem Solving and C Programming 4.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”.. } Answers: 1.. 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. 5. 3 4.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. What is the difference between a while and do. c 2. printf (“%d”))) break. else continue. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Default case is executed.while will get executed at least once.. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. 3. The loop statements of do.

you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. etc.. [index 0 refers first location . It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. If an array of 5 integers elements is created.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations.]. set of names). 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. set of numbers. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. Cognizant Technology Solutions. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory.g. index 1 refers second location. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. of the same data type. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript.

Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). char str[16]="qwerty". which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. Defines a character array.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers.1 int x[5]. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . starting at x[0]. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. float sales_amt[10]. int matrix[2][2]. When addressing an element in an array. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Array declaration reserves space in memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 7. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. Defines an integer array x of at x[4].2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.2. /* b[0] = 10. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}.4. a[2]=3. b[1] = 45. /*a[0]=1.45. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. a[1] = 2 .3.4}. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array.5}.2. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. retrieving. a[2] = 3 . /*a[0] = 1. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. (ex.34}. Example 7. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. array can be declared without specifying the exact size. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location.3.3 int a[5]={1. If initialized. and processing of array elements. In partial initialization.4}. size depends upon the number of values initialized.3. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.2. a[1]=2.2. In such cases. the base address can not be changed. When arrays are initialized during declaration.20 . Thus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . partial initialization is allowed.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. ) */ float b[2]={10.

printf(“%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. &a[0]).i<3.a[0]. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address .pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7.i<3. a+2). General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. scanf(“%d”. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays.6 int a[3].i++) scanf(“%d”. (1) scanf(“%d”. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”. a[0]).a[i]). /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. (1) printf(“%d”. a+1.a[2]).a[1]. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension. a. &a[2]). Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. Example 7. scanf(“%d”. a[2]). Cognizant Technology Solutions. (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array. &a[1]).i++) printf(“%d”.&a[i]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations.a[1]).5 int a[3].

Assume that array starts at location 1000. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations.row 1 & column 0 . In partial initialization.2. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. int num[2][3] = {1.3}}. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order.2. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration.5.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7. Example 7.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.3.5}.{4}}.2.6}.2}.3.4. If m elements are needed. out of n locations defined.row 0 & column 1 .4.3}. 7 int a[2][2]. = 4 elements).row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.8 int num[2][3] = {1. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 .2.{1. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution.row 0 & column 0 . /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. The value at str[6] is the null character. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007.*/ (3) char name[5]. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined.11 char studname[50][15].’\0’). name[1] = ‘O’. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. to represent the end of string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . String constants can be assigned to character array variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. name[2] = ‘O’.’u’. Example 7. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. one ASCII character per location. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. name[4] = ‘\0’. of strings] [max no. Example 7. of chars in strings].’m’.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /*Creates a string. A character string is stored in an array of character type. name[3] = ‘D’. there is no built-in data type for strings. return 0. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. In C.

’t’. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007.’t’.13 (1) char name[20]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered. {‘c’. Example 7.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . name).’a’.’\0’}.’\0’}. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7.’a’. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. int i=0.Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}. which manipulates the entire string at once. name).’a’. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. printf(“%s” .’t’.’\0’}} = {{‘b’. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier).h.”cat” .”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another.

n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. s2) strcspn(s1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. n) strncmp(string1. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. s2) strspn(s1. c) strstr(s1. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. string2) strcat(string1. c) strrchr (string. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. n) strncpy(string1.string2. string2. Find last occurrence of character c in string. Cognizant Technology Solutions.s2) strpbrk(s1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . string2) strcmp(string1. string2.

Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric.\f. for(i = 2. ‘. fib[0] = 0. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007.\r. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (.\f.h> main() { int fib[24].\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.:. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . True if c is ASCII . i < 24. ctype. . The header file.\v.\t. int i. is used for the character functions.) True if c is a space character (\n.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. fib[1] = 1. i < 24.‘. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio. which can manipulate a single character. True if c is a letter. for (i = 0.h. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. . True if c is a control character (\n. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2].\r.

j<5. twod[i][j]). Initially array of size 24 is declared. printf("\n"). i<4. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. i++) { for (j=0. i. for(i=0. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .3. } getchar().c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added.h> main() { int twod[4][5]. for (i=0.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n". Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. 2. i<4. j<5.j. getchar(). } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array.. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. j++) printf("%d ". int i.8.5. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. fib[i]).13…. i++) for(j=0.2.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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If it is declared in the Global declaration section. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. type arg2. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line).) { local variables Declaration. and the operations to be carried out by the function. So compiler will identify the function name.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. } main() { fun().arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Global Variables . parameters. executable statement 1. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. …. it is used by all the functions in the program. Local Variables . } Function Header function-name arg1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . : return expression.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. It can be accessed only within that function.. Function body. there is no need for the function prototype. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. } Function is defined prior to its reference. executable statement 2. Memory for the global variables is allocated. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. Functions can be defined at any location in the program.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . each containing different expression. } (2) main() { return 0.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). Default return type is ‘int’. Example 9. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. If it returns a value. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. else return b.3 (1) return. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. then void keyword is used to represent that. OR return(expression). Example 9. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. does not return any value.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. constant value or any single valued expression. it is achieved by the return statement. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. There can be multiple return statements. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. expression can be a variable name. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. General Form: return. return(a<b). return(a*b). Cognizant Technology Solutions. If there is no return statement.

find_big(num1. big=find_big(num1. num2. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. &num1. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. scanf(“%d%d”.num2). Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. When the function call is encountered. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. big. Example 9. &num2). it is called Recursion.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. big). /* function call statement. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. If a function is returning a value.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match.num2)) statement. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . data type. It is a process by which a function calls itself. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. The number. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. /* function prototype. else return b. If the function returns value. } int find_big(int a. int).

} fact(int k). functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. the control is immediately transferred to the function. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. In fourth call.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. which in turn return the value to its calling function. When the return statement is encountered. which may call function3.fact(n)). Depending on its definition.7 main() { int n. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The main function may call function1. control is transferred back to the called function. { if (k<=1) return 1. along with the value returned. which in turn call function2. printf(“Enter an integer\n”). } If n = 4. then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. fact(int). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .&n). scanf(“%d“. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. printf(“Factorial = %d“. else return(k*fact(k-1).

int y) { return a+b .c). return. return. } border() { int i. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9. printf(“\n”). add(int x. sum=add(a.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n.&c).i<=80.sum).8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). } border(int m. { int sum.&a. } { int sum.s).a. } add() { int a. } } } scanf(“%d%d”.b).&b). sum=add(). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. border(n. scanf(“%d%c”.b.i++) printf(“-“).&b). printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . scanf(“%d%d”. for(i=1. printf(“\nSum = %d”. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.c). &n. integers\n”).b. printf(“\nSum = %d”. return(a+b). char s) { int i.sum). &a.i<=m. char c. printf(“\n”). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. for(i=1.i++) printf(“%c“.

Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. temp = c. b). This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. pointer variable or array name. The value of the actual argument will remain same. a=10. So. d = temp. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. b=20. } Call by Reference In this approach. Example 9. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. c = d. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. b. } void swap(int c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. So. swap(a. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. b). Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. a.

max. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. int *d) { int temp. i < 5. max_value = val[0]. swap(&a. a. *d = temp. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } main() { int values[5]. i. Example 9. &b). b=20. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). To pass an array to a function. Example 9.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. i. which points to an array. a=10. } void swap(int *c. *c = *d. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. b. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. return max_value.12 int { int max_value. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . temp = *c. for( i = 0. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i].

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. a). } printf(“%d” .Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. fn(i). What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. static. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. a). } fn(int i) { return ++i. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. The command line arguments. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. A function calling itself is called recursion. well defined task.i). ii) function call. { int a = 3. Test your Understanding 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. What is function prototyping? 2. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. printf("%d". } 4. printf(“ %d “ .

a. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. int (*p)(char a) d. int *p(char *a[]) 7. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. type of its arguments. 2. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. 7. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Using command line arguments. 3 4 4. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. 3. int p(char *a) b. int *p(char *a) c. In call by reference. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. 10 6. What the following declaration statements imply? a. 5. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. return data type). d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. b. In C.

you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. it has file scope. This is called block scope. This means.. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ... is determined by where it is defined. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. All other types of variables are local variables. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. If it is defined outside of all the blocks.

It retains its value till the control remains in that block. In the case recursive functions. by default it is an auto variable. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). a). If no storage class is specified. printf (“%d “ . prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. it is cleared and its memory destroyed. } printf(“ %d “ . { int a =6 . Once allocated. it will retain the value between function calls. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). although it is active only in main(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. If not initialized in the declaration statement. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). They retain the values throughout the life of the program. Example 10. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. So. internal static variables retain values between function calls. If the variable is declared within a function. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. then its scope is confined to that function.1 main() { int a = 5 . a). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the nested variables are unique auto variables. If not initialized in the declaration.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. it is automatically initialized to zero. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. they are also called local or internal variables. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. Because of this property.Thus. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. with identical names. Static variables are stored in memory. When the execution of the block is completed.

External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i<=5. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. Since registers are faster than memory. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. They are referred to as global variables. for (i=1.2 main() { int i. the variable is initialized to zero. printf(“ x = %d\n”. x = x +1. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers.x).i++) incre(). Since the registers are less in numbers. } incre() { static int x = 0. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. If not initialized in the declaration. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. careful selection must be made for their use. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). When using external variables. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. instead of keeping it in the memory.

/* external variable declaration. */ void fun(). When a command is entered in a command window. b). fun(). a). A C program is executed by calling its main() function. but as a first approximation. Example 10. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. it is initialized to zero. } void fun() { a = 10 . The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window.3 int a = 5 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. printf(“ %d “ . interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. } int b = 20. External variable declaration can not have initialization.Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. printf(“ %d “ . The first word is treated as the name of a program. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. extern int a = 10. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc.4 main( int argc. i < argc. A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. char* argv[]) { int i. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. The components are called Members. For example.argc). salary (float). argv[i]). for( i = 0. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 10. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. employee name (string). department code (string). C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i . which are command line strings.

. Here... } ... Cognizant Technology Solutions..5 1) struct employee { int code. Individual members will be given a separate memory location.. emp2. type variable-name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . “struct” keyword is used to define structures.. int dept_code. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together....... variable-name... type variable-name.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition. tag name is optional.. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable.... Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration. variable-name. char name[20]... variable-name. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name...... variable-name... : : type variable-name. Example 10..... no extra structures can be created. }.. float salary... When declaring structure variables. struct employee emp1.

Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. float salary.”Dina”.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. 1}.78}. 90. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. illegal. }.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. Example 10.”(dot). If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. “Raja”. } emp1. emp2. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. struct employee { int empno = 101 .6 struct { int rollnum. No storage class can be specified for structure members. illegal. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If it is partially initialized. stud2={102. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 1. float avg. int semester. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. then the expression “s. char name[20]. struct stud stud1={101. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. int dept_code. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable.

} emp1. member-field-name Example 10.code emp2. int month.7 emp1. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. This is because. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. the assignment expression a = b is valid. Assignment operation is allowed. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types.salary emp2. int year.sizeof(emp1)). While comparing structure variables.8 struct emp { int empno.9 struct { int day. For example. char name[20]. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. Example 10. float basic.name emp1. }. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type.code emp1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the values in slack bytes are also compared. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. which is always not same for different structure variables. Example 10.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . printf (“Size = %d”. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure.dept_code emp1.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality.

int dept_code.name student [1]. struct stud Accessing values: student [1].Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. struct date doj. Example 10. student.rollnum student [1].semester student [1]. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. char name [20].10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays. char name[20]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.avg student[50]. Accessing values: student. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .emp2.sub_marks[0] }. int sub_marks[5]. then we can do so by writing: emp1. char name[15]. }. }emp1. In this example. Example 10. float salary.doj. int avg. }student.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. int semester.

struct emp emp1 = { 101 . “AAAA”} . printf(“%d” . printf(“ %s “ . void main( ) { void change(struct emp *).12 struct emp { int empno. Example 10. Example 10.empname). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .13 struct emp { int empno. /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. main( ) { void display(struct emp). }. emp2. char empname[10]. } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. “AAAA”} . But changes will not be reflected back. } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. char empname[10]. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. emp2. it is passed using call by value method. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. change(&emp1). struct emp emp1 = { 101 .empno). emp1->empno). display(emp1). or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. }. We can use pointer to structures.

wage is a structure variable of sal structure. } student1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . student2.name. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. …) Example 10. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. float marks.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. student2.name). struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. y). x.marks).marks = 99."Tom"). int main ( ) { struct student student3. printf (" Marks are %. strcpy(student1. printf (" Name is %s \n". getchar(). student2.2f \n".h> struct student { char name[20]. student1.9. float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. int a. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name).

In the main program assign values to both member of structure. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . only one member is accessible at a time.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. Test your Understanding 1. Print the values of the structure. }*p1. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. struct { int a.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. ) operator. Consider the following structure. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. int *p. In unions.

printf(“Size = %d”. 4. int age. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. struct stud_type s1. sizeof (ex)). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. }ex. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. }. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 3. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. The elements of an array are always of the same type.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. Answers: 1. char name[15]. *p1->p. union person { char surname[10].

Page 92 ©Copyright 2007.. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly... union-variable.... variable-name. keyword ‘union’. In the declaration.... . Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template . variable-name. variable-name..... Unions follow the same syntax as structures........ Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member.. and block file I/O operations Unions Union. unformatted.... Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization. variable-name. type variable-name.. For each variable. but no storage is allocated. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. The tag name. can be used to declare variables of the union type. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name. like a structure.it creates the type. is a derived data type... type variable-name. and the members of the union are given. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members.. No other member can be initialized. the tag name... }union-variable.......Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. : : type variable-name... along with the keyword ‘union’..

Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. float x. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. char name[15]. s1. char c. }. }. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007.1 union item { int m. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. int age. struct employee_type e1.) is used to access the members. static union item product = {100}. struct stud_type { int rollno. float avg.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. int dept_code. union { char surname[10]. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. Example 14.2 { int code. Thus. struct stud_type }ex. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[20]. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. The dot operator (. }. float salary.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. blue = 5 . return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. member2 . at the same time. definition and variable declaration can be combined. green takes the value 6. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). var2 . As with arrays. Here. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. General Form: enum tag { member1 .e1. the union allows the structure variables. …… member n } . The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. enum colors { red = 1 . though they have signed integer values. The member names must differ from one another. newline = `\n'. Example 14. first enumerated name has index value 0. vtab = `\v'. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. next value is calculated as previous plus one. green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. …………… var n. similar to structures or a union. tab = `\t’. backspace = `\b'. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. to share common memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but not both. That is.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. e1 and s1. the user can use either e1 or s1.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. As structures.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. e1 = getch().

4 typedef numbers int. employee emp1. }employee. Example 14. Similarly. n2 . numbers n1. char empname[10]. integer variables. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. the results may be stored on disks. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. Then structure variables can be declared as follows. Cognizant Technology Solutions. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. General Form typedef datatype new-type. Example 14. For such applications. emp2. struct n1 . It is used to give new names to existing data types. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. In C. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. no need to use struct keyword. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. files are needed.5 typedef { int empno.

Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . A text stream. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. When a file is closed. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). the tab character. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. More generally. on some systems. and the new-line character.in which case the position points to the end of the file. Text streams consist of printable characters. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. When a program begins. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. and all characters will be transferred as such. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. There are two types of streams: text and binary. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. In C. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. When a file is opened. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s.

The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . "format string". the purpose/positioning of opening the file. details. fp = fopen(“name”.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. fclose(fp ). fscanf(fp. "format string".c. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. fprintf(fp. variable list). “mode”). (Extensions can be specified like test. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. It is a string enclosed within double quotes. variable list).

all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. fsetpos(). It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). if the file does not open or the file does not exist. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. If the file is opened in the update mode (+). fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. rewind(). output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). Writing in to a file To write into a file. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. By default. The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the file is opened with append mode (a).Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). or fflush().

the character is returned. monitor as a file. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The fptr may be stdin. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. Example 14. On success.dat”. which represents standard output device. This fptr may be stdout. After the reading a character. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. char c.fp).Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. char c. which is true if end of file is reached.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. fclose(fp). the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). If the end-of-file is encountered.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007.fptr). if ((fp=fopen(“sample. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If an error occurs. Example 14. which represents a standard input device. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. On success. the pointer is moved to the next position. The EOF is end of file status flag. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. If an error occurs. keyboard as a file. if ((fp=fopen(“sample.dat”. the character is returned. otherwise false. This may be a macro version of fgetc.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp.

Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). General Form: putw (i. EOF is returned. Cognizant Technology Solutions. On success. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A null character is appended to the end of the string.n.fptr). General Form: fgets(str. This function writes an integer to a file. } String I/O Using string I/O. or read from. On error. On success. fptr). fptr).Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). a nonnegative value is returned. fclose(fp). General Form: fputs (str. EOF is returned. It stops when (n-1) characters are read. On error. a nonnegative value is returned. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. a null pointer is returned. The newline character is copied to the string. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). integers can be written to. a file at a time. On error. string can be written to. or the endof-file is reached. a pointer to the string is returned. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. or read from. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. whichever comes first. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). a file at a time. the newline character is read. the string remains unchanged. On success.

Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. or form feed. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. vertical tab. -1 is returned. variable-list). the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. the function stops scanning and returns. On success. General Form: i = getw( fptr). Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. General Form: fscanf( fptr. in a left to right fashion. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. If an error occurred. If an input failure occurs. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. EOF is returned. or the width field is satisfied. new line. format-string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On success. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. or the next incompatible character. in a left to right fashion. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. format-string. the number of characters printed is returned. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. If the input does not match.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). according to the format specifier specified in format string. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. addresses-list). Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. carriage return. tab.

std1[i]. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. fpt = fopen("details. name . }std[10]. "r"). &std[i]. int i. char name[10]. The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). std[i]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. printf("\n\n enter the details (no .name .dat" .name . } fclose(fpt).dat" .no . fprintf(fpt .age).age). bytes of data).no . } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .age).Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file.8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). &std[i].age).name printf("%d %s %d \n" . Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. clrscr(). &std1[i]. std[i]. int age. std1[i]. std1[10].i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . i++.no .no . i<5 . std[i]. "%d . std1[i]. std[i].e. fpt = fopen("details. struct { int no. %s %d " .Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. for(i=0. while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . "%d %s %d " . age )\n\n"). "w").name . std1[i].&std1[i].

sizeof(stud1[0]) . printf(" \n\n printing the values "). General Form fwrite (ptr. n.name . General Form fread (&str. fread(&stud1 . Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. 5 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. On success the number of elements read is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 5 . fptr=fopen("ex. size. sizeof(stud[0]) . Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. fp). n. On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. "w" ). The total number of bytes read is (size*n).stud[i]. int age . stud1[10]. fwrite(&stud .Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. fclose(fptr). struct tag { char name[10]. "r" ).dat" . for(i=0 . fptr = fopen("ex. fptr). On error or end-of-file. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. int i .dat" . fp). fptr). &stud[i]. On success the number of elements written is returned.age). i++) scanf("%s %d ". clrscr().9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. i<5 . size. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. }stud[10] . The total number of bytes written is (size*n).

count. read the input argument.Print the line number and the line. "r").h> /* #include <stdlib.h> */ FILE * inFile. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s".age). print it } fclose(inFile). i<5 .h> #include <stdio.char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. // after this command. stud1[i]. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. 255.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments.name . // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1].c */ #include <string. // This is where I read the lines of the file int count. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . Open the input file. In the main program. // is in the current line and // if so. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Code: /* findword. stud1[i]. } Try It Out 1. myString). // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0.

}.y ). int main() { union number value. value.0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . "double:\n". "int: ". printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed.".Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . value.x. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. getchar(). In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. "int: ". "and print both members. value. "Put a value in the integer member". Again read the next line in the file and do the same process.y ). "Put a value in the floating member". Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio.x = 100.". value. "double:\n". double y. value. Close the file and exit the program 2.x. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. one integer and the other double. Cognizant Technology Solutions. return 0. if found print the line number and the full string.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members.y = 100.h> union number { int x. "and print both members. value.

Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). and rewind() functions. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol."hello-out"). and what value does it usually have? 4. ftell(). sleep(1). 2L . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. What is EOF. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. formatted I/O and block I/O. string I/O. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. Test your Understanding 1.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. Input. Preproccessing is done before compilation. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. i++. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. } return 0. fopen(). } 3. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2.

It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. } Answers: 1. 5. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. 4. No significance. stdin. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file.a ). stdout.. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. a).”. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Its value on most computers is -1. printf(“%d”. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. foo( ). stderr 2.

fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. ftell() and rewind(). 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. If it is a text stream. In some applications. offset. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On error. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. On success. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). If it is a binary stream. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). the current file position is returned. General Form: fseek( fptr.

General Form: rewind(fptr). fseek (fp. -10L. a nonzero value is returned. -10L. Remove comments from the source file. 0L. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. 1).1 fseek (fp. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. fseek (fp. On error. 2 On a text stream. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. fseek (fp. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. Example 15. 2). 0L. 0). Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. 2). rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. fseek (fp. The end-of-file indicator is reset. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. Move the file pointer to the end of file. fseek (fp. 1). 0).Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. Move the file pointer to the beginning. zero is returned. 10L. or carriage return. form feed. The error indicator is NOT reset. 10L. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . horizontal tab. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. vertical tab. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. On success.

Defines text for a compile-time error message. #include Inserts text from another source file. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #ifdef. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. or #elif test fails. #ifndef. Defines a preprocessor macro. depending on the result of a constant expression. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. No semicolon (. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. or #elif test fails.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. #ifndef. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. The # token must appear as a first character. Ends conditional text. #ifdef. Except for some #pragma directives. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages.

h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. Therefore. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. the file is searched first in the current working directory. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>.h> #include “stdio. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. In case that it is not there. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive.2 #include <stdio. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. Example 15. whichever comes first. and then processed by the compiler. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. or until the end of the program source is reached. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets.

} Page 112 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. …. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).

and one matching #endif directive.. there are zero or more #elif directives. /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). addition=(2)+(3). */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3).Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). Example 15. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. #ifdef. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. and #ifndef directive. For each #if. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a.3). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). Continuation character for macro definition is \. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .b) ((a)+(b)). zero or one #else directive. The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. addition=add(2.

…. If the value is 0 (false). #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. printf(name(ssn. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled.8 #define name(x. …. Example 15. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. If there is a matching #else. If there is a matching #elif. If so.somca)).y) x##y main() { …. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”).. Example 15. */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. and the preceding #if evaluated to false.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). Cognizant Technology Solutions. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false).7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. */ Example 15. or #endif. printf(name(xyz)). then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else.. #elif.6 Check whether a variable is defined.

C provides two operators. Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. a). & and *. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. 5 – value. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. for pointer implementation.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. & address operator. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. px = &x. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. &a). * and & are inverse of each other. as they have a number of useful applications. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. *px. x = 5 .9 int x. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. Whenever a variable is declared. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int a = 5 . Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified.

prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. *px).11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. &px). Two pointer variables can be compared. Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. valid valid. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. Null or an address. q = a. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. printf(“ x = %d “ . q = p. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. b = &a. &x).cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. x). *p = &a . No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. Example 15. The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. printf(” address of x = %d “ . One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. *q = NULL. . px). Cognizant Technology Solutions. invalid . b . Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results.

let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. if v is an array. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ptr ++.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. and so on. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. Thus. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. i=5. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. *pv is the same as v[0]. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. ptr= &i. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name.

15 printf (“%d “. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2. Example 15. similar to ptr = &a[0]. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear.5} ptr = a . OR pointer_variable = array_name. i .Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .*(a+i)). printf (“%d “. OR ptr_vble = array_name.*ptr). 4. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn]. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . *ptr . (ptr+i)). &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15.4} . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. Example 15.17 int a[2][2] = {1. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. varies according to the dimension.14 int a[5] = {1. printf (“%d “.3.16 printf (“%u “. The way in which the pointer variable used. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr .*(ptr+i)). ptr = &a[0][0] .3.2. Accessing address Example 15.

i++) { for (j=0.19 main() { int i. For example. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i<2.j<3.*(a[ i ] + j).2. printf (“%d “. for example. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays.j++) printf(“\t%d”. for (i=0. Here. int *pa=&a[0][0]. refers to the entire row .j) value Example 15. displays the x(i. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array.5.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts. So. j.4. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array.18 printf (“%d “. is a collection of one dimensional array. int a[2][3]={1.6}. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. printf (“%d “. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified.*(*(pa+i)+j)).j) value displays the x(i. jth column Accessing value Example 15. each with 2 elements.3. Therefore.*(a + i)[ j ]. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. it results in a problem.*(*(ptr + i) +j).actually a pointer to the first element in i th row.j) value displays the x(i.

2. Once the pointer is declared. When an array is referenced by its name.20 int a[2][2] = {1. Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 120 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . it refers to the address of the 0th element. Thus. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. *ptr[2] . which can hold the address of a character variable. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. p = name. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers.4} . int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. Suppose.3. ptr[0] = a[0].21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer.

An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. valid invalid Thus. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. int *p = {0. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. make it a pointer to a string of varying length. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. If the elements of array are string pointers. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. “ABCD”} . which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes.2.1. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. “ABC” . Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. “rstu”. char *p = “string” . printf(“String output = %s”. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. char *name[4] = { “A” . It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. *p). *p). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10].3} . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. “AB” . Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. “xyz”}.

Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. In the above example. The value cannot be modified. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. int *const pa = &a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. substantial saving in memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Thus. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. Example 15. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared.23 const int a=10. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable.24 int a. int *pa = &a. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays).

But it is needed. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. pnum = &num1. Type casting is not needed during address assignment.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. *pnum = 2. Try It Out 1. void *pab. num2.26 int a. ++*pnum. long num2 = 0. *pnum. num1. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. in order to know the size and value of the data item. num2 += *pnum. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". float b. pnum = &num2. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. ++num2. *(int *) pab =100. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. pab=&a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 15. pab=&b. long *pnum = NULL. *(float *) pab = 105. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. const int * const pb = &b.25 int b. getchar().55. *pnum + num2). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

e. int *b.h> main(){ int *a[5].i2=3.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0.j<5. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared.i4=1. %16u %d\n". a[0]=&i1. a[1]=&i2. } printf("using pointer\n"). now the value of num2 is 1. a[2]=&i3.j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. Address in array Value\n").a[j]). Print all the values num1.value at pnum 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a[3]=&i4. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i3=2. Then the value of num1 is 2. a[4]=&i5. Increment the value of num2. the array elements is the pointer. int j. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. printf("Address for(j=0.num2. #include <stdio. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum.a[j]. int i1=4.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer.i5=0.

b++. State whether the following are true or false a. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c.*b.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". See the difference.*b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. Declare an array of integer pointers. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. } getchar().b). Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points.j<5. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Test your Understanding 1. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. 2. for( j=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. malloc(). Pointer variable can only contain an address b. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer.

Since c points to b.sizeof(str2). The result is meaningless. false. printf("\n%d. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 2 5 5 6. char str2[]=”abcd”. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. } 6. calloc(). Differentiate malloc() . 5. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. The third statement castes **c. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type.%d". because values cannot be assigned to pointers. malloc(). calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). The first statement assigns 4 to a. 3. false. n[0]=100. Answers: 1. into type int *. } 4. b = (int *)**c. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . **c=5. 300 4. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. 5. assign the value to a. sizeof(str1). this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. sizeof(“abcd”)). **c = &b. Since b points to a. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. false 2. which is value of a. Given the following declaration: int a. n[24]=200.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. *b = &a . True. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. *n. 100. printf(“%d %d %d”.

*p) . } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . int *assign() .Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. a). *p. /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . /* function prototype */ void change(int *). p = assign() .2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . Example 17. p =&a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. change(p).

Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. which will speeds up the execution. *q = 20 . ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. of a is returned */ /* addr. } Example 17.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. p = big (&a. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. b=20. &b).) Suppose we have a function as. to a function using pointers. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . } Pointer to this function is declared as. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). } int *big (int *x . else return (y). printf (“%d”.*p). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int y). void (*p)(int x. /* addr. void add(int x. So. p = add. x + y). return q .. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. rather than an entire array. *q = &a. main() { int a=10. int *). *p.

”raja”. 95. func_ptr = display. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. char name[20]. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. abc(). In this declaration.20).20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . struct stud student={101.6 struct stud { int rollnum. we can write as ptr = &student. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”).4 int display(). Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. int semester. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. (*func_ptr) (). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. float avg. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable.5 main() { void abc(). (*abc)(). Example 17. will call the function add() with parameters 10. 1. int (*func_ptr) (). *ptr . Example 17. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’.67}. }.

Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. ptr->name. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . Cognizant Technology Solutions. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. char gender.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 17. Thus.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. ptr->rollnum.8 struct employee { char name[20]. int *p. ptr->avg). It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. ptr->semester. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. struct employee *empptr. calloc () . float salary. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation.

for(i=0. printf("\n enter the values of second matrix").9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . j<3. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. for(i=0. free() will take a void pointer. j<3. p = (int *) calloc (10. for(i=0. i<3. b[i]+j). j++) scanf("%d". j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. sizeof(int)). which can hold 10 integers. j<3. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). j<3. i<3. int i. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. *c[3]. j++) scanf("%d". Cognizant Technology Solutions. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. i++) for(j=0. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). for(i=0 . i++ for(j=0. *(c[i]+j)). The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. for(i=0. j++) printf("\t%d". /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. i<3. i<3. i++) for(j=0. *b[3] .j. i++) for(j=0. i<3. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)).Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 17. a[i]+j).

video memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions.ptr2 x=100. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. beyond 3 levels. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. As such.10 addr.**p2. p1=&x. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. printer.ptr1 value int x. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. which holds the address of another integer pointer. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory. However. Example 17. int **p. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer. p2=&p1.*p1. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. For example.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

} Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. aCard.suit ). }. declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure.face. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In the main program. " of ".suit = "Spades". Cognizant Technology Solutions. char *suit. Print the values of card structure in three different forms.h> struct card { char *face. int main() { struct card aCard. return 0. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. ( *cardPtr ). Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n".face = "Ace". Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio.suit.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. aCard. getchar(). " of ". aCard. cardPtr->suit. aCard. struct card *cardPtr.face. cardPtr->face. ( *cardPtr ). cardPtr = &aCard. " of ".Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. All will print the same.

h> # include <stdlib. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007.h> struct node { int data. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). printf("The data values in the list are\n"). }. } return (p). struct node *insert(struct node *p. while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. exit(0). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). Cognizant Technology Solutions. } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. temp = p.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. struct node *link. temp-> data = n. p-> link = p. temp-> link = p. exit(0). int n){ struct node *temp. } temp = temp-> link. } else { temp = p. } p-> data = n. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n").

so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. } else printf("The list is empty\n"). } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. 3 ). Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. temp=temp->link. Now the start pointer is not NULL. getchar(). } void main() { int n. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In the main program. printf("The created list is\n").c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node.temp->data). start = insert ( start. In the main program. int x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . start = insert ( start. the start pointer will be NULL. 2). so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". start = insert ( start. struct node *start = NULL . declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. In the insert function. Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. Then returns the pointer back. Then returns back the pointer. 4 ). start = insert ( start. printlist ( start ).as it is first time. } while (temp!= p). 1 ).

Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. malloc().%d". *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). What is the output of the following statements? a=4. Given the following declaration: int a. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. In the printlist() function. *n. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. } 4. n[24]=200. **c=5. **c = &b. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Test your Understanding 1. 2. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. State whether the following are true or false a. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. n[0]=100. b = (int *)**c. printf("\n%d. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *b = &a . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

The result is meaningless. sizeof(str1). false. char str2[]=”abcd”. Since b points to a. The third statement castes **c.sizeof(str2). Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. assign the value to a. Answers: 1. 300 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The first statement assigns 4 to a. } 6. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. 100. 2 5 5 6. Differentiate malloc() . malloc(). calloc(). which is value of a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. sizeof(“abcd”)). The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. into type int *. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. 5. false 2. printf(“%d %d %d”. True. 3.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Since c points to b. false. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b.

#else.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. #endif #ifdef. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. #define max(A.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. } /* */ main(int argc. #elif.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘\xhh’ \n.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. hex) newline. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. ‘\ooo’.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. \r. tab. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . \t. \b \\. \?. octal. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. cr. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. \.

(*p). right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. ~ *pointer. /.member pointer->member ++. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. logical not.member pointer -> member Ex. <. bitwise not indirection via pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . subtract left. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. >> >. !. <= ==. modulus (remainder) add. <<. >=. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. divide. -. decrement plus. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. struct tag name name. -+. minus. % +. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. &name (type) expr sizeof *.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers.

Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.h> <string. all others group left to right. case const2: statement2 break.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.h> <ctype.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left.h> <stddef. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ).h> <stdlib. expr2. …… . Unary operators.h> <stdarg.h> <float. do. while.h> <math.h> <time.h> <signal. -=. for Next iteration of while. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1.h> <errno. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert.h> <limits. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. do.h> <setjmp. *=.h> <locale. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> <stdio. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement .

ct. form feed. newline.n) strcmp(cs.n) memset(s.ct) strncpy(s.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.n) strchr(cs. letter.ct. cr.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. t are strings and cs.ct.c) memcpy(s.ct. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.c. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> Consider s.n) strcat(s.n) memmove(s.ct. Cognizant Technology Solutions.ct) strncmp(cs.n) memchr(cs. tab.ct) strncat(s. digit Checks whether c is a Space.c.ct.c) strrchr(cs.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.n) memcmp(cs.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

g. i. f. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. o. then the precision argument. If the value overflows the width of the field. then the value to be converted. For d. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Result will always have a decimal point.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). e. Default is to just show the . Overrides the space flag. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). Cognizant Technology Solutions. e. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. x. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. The type of conversion to be applied (required).sign. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If a * is used in place of the width specifer. This is useful only with a width specifier. E.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. Negative values still show the sign. Precision overrides this flag. X. g. Overrides the 0 flag. the width argument comes first. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. u. [. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Trailing zeros will not be removed. then the field is expanded to fit the value. f.

Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. o. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. o. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x. i. or . Precision does not affect the c type. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. i. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). o. x. then the precision argument. . E types.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. u.0 For d. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. 6 for f. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. the width argument comes first.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. u. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. u. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. x. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. o. g. e. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e. e. [. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. u. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. x. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . . i. If a * is used. i. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*).) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. The minimum number of digits to appear. E. For f. x. d. For f. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. For d. Value is first converted to a long double. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. X types. n e.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. o. f. i. then the value to be converted. u. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d.

Single character is printed. [type] d. B. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). F. g. i o u x X f e. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). No characters are printed. Type pointer to array. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. A % sign is printed. E.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Type double printed as [-]ddd. b. Type unsigned int printed in octal. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. The argument must be a pointer to an int.ddd. C. d. f. Otherwise printed as type f. The exponent contains at least two digits. c. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. Trailing zeros are removed. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). e. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. D.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. Type double printed as [-]d. E Type signed int. Type char.

then it is base 8 (octal). The argument is a long double. The input must be in base 8 (octal). Type unsigned int. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. f. vertical tab. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). Type signed int. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. u. s Type character array. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. X e. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. tab. Type unsigned int. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. Digits 0 through 9 only. The argument is a double. or form feed). The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. Type unsigned int. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. Digits 0 through 7 only. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. o. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. Then one or more digits. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. carriage return. E. Begins with an optional sign. G designated with an e or E. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . u. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. n e. Type float. g e. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal).< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. it reaches a nonconvertible character). new line. f.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. then it is base 10. o. i. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10.e. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. d. f. o u x. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible).

Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). No characters are read from the input stream. No null character is appended to the array..] Input Type character array. If no width field is specified. then 1 is assumed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The argument must be a pointer to an int. Requires a matching % sign from the input.. If the first character is a carrot (^). and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). Type character array. By specifying the beginning character. Allows a search set of characters. a dash. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. Pointer to a pointer. A null character is appended to the end of the array.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [.

Third Edition.Dromey.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards.bell-labs.liu.html http://www. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley.html#introduction http://www. “Programming in C”. “A Book on C”. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. Fourth Edition.G.se/c/bwk-tutor. “C How to Program”.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.lysator. Ira Pohl.acm. Tata McGraw Hill R.uiuc. “How to solve it by Computer”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.pdf http://cm.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

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