Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

Cognizant 500 Glen Pointe Center West Teaneck, NJ 07666 Ph: 201-801-0233 www.cognizant.com

Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
Page 2 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
Page 3 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

.............................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ...........................108 Learning Objectives ..................................................95 Introduction to Files ...................................................................................................90 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................................................. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ....................................................................................101 Block I/O .....................................................................................................................................................................104 Summary ....................................................................100 Formatted I/O.............90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ................................109 Introduction to Pointers ........................................................................................94 Typedef Statement ....................................................................................................95 File Operations ..................................................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ..........................................................................................79 Learning Objectives .........................................................................................................................................................................................88 Try It Out .............84 Structures and Arrays ..................................................................................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives .............................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization......79 Command Line Arguments ................................................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions............93 Enumeration ....................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Character I/O ...............................................................................................................................92 Unions...............................................98 String I/O...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Test your Understanding ................................................................................87 Structures and Functions .106 Test your Understanding .........108 Preprocessor Directives .......89 Summary ...................................................................................................................75 Summary ............................100 Numeric I/O............................................................................................................................................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions......115 Declaration and Initialization......................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ........................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................102 Try It Out ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Random File Operations ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Storage Classes .92 Union of Structures .........................

...........................138 References ........................................................................................................116 Pointers and Arrays .............................................................................................................................................127 Structures and Pointers ..........................................................151 Websites ...117 Try It Out ....................................................................................127 Functions and Pointers ...........................................................136 Test your Understanding ...... Cognizant Technology Solutions....................................................................................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .............................................................123 Summary ....................................133 Summary ..........................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ..................................................................................................................................................................................151 Books .152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007..............................................................................127 Learning Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................................130 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary ...........151 STUDENT NOTES: ...................................................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...........................................................................................................................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers ......

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007.

you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. prioritizing. To understand the problem. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. There is no universal method for solving a given problem.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. identifying. determining the cause of the problem. It is an act of defining a problem. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. headings. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. It is also known as Program Analysis. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4….1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. the new parts become more focussed and. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. several design methodologies can be applied.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. Cognizant Technology Solutions. therefore. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. Program Design is both a product and a process. An important approach is Top-Down programming design.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. While applying top-down design to a given problem.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. but omits language-specific syntax. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. and terminate in a finite time.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. However.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. produce output. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. Example 2. The errors identified leads to insertions. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. or modifications to the existing algorithm. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. to test its correctness. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. fact. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. the next step must be unambiguously defined. deletions. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed.

Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. End Represents Input. another part of the same flow chart. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. required to solve a problem. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. reports).e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. or entry from.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. Output data Represents Process (actions. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

fact.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i Initialize fact =1.

Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. and project workbooks Internal documentation. or particular pieces of programs. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. requirements can be tested for its correctness. Then. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Testing is done during every phase of program development. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. the declarations.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. The compiler is system software. but also to the programmers themselves. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. statements. The program is now ready for execution. Details of particular programs. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Writing a program is called Coding. Initially. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. Linking is done if necessary. The translation results in the creation of object code. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Documentation can be of great value. flowcharts. which includes things such as reference manuals. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. After compilation. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. algorithm descriptions. During execution. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. the design (algorithm.

Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. C++. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. such as BASIC. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. C. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. COBOL. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. Ada. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For many programmers. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. On some projects. Testing means detecting errors. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. This is called foolproof programming. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. and Pascal. FORTRAN. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities.

(a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. there are many new languages. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For example.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. Because of it design. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. machine language is not an easy language to learn. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. It does not need any translator program. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed.

Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . SUB and LOAD etc. irrespective of the type of computer used. For example. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. -. In high level languages. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. This translator program is called Assembler. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. Cognizant Technology Solutions. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. %. /. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. for its program construction. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language.

Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. The major breakthrough occurred. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. This. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. and the expertise of the programmer. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. Later. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. operations. with every combination being meaningful. in turn. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. tested and maintained with ease. but it is complex and difficult to learn. In 1959.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. The language should provide appropriate data structures. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. type of program. though not widely used. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages.

testing & use: This implies design. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cost of Program creation. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. efficient register allocation. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. Interactive Environment. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. and Embedded System Environment. the backup process on an organization. testing. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. coded. For example. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. coding.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. Examples include database management systems. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. Distinguish between testing and debugging. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. 4. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. coding. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. algorithm development. and maintenance. coded. The environment under which a program is designed. 2. word processing systems etc. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. compiling and running. 3. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. Represent the following problem in top-down design. called Modules. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. testing. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. documenting. Planning a tour.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. Give the algorithm. Top-down program design. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. debugging.

It can run on any machine d. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. Easy to carry from place to place b. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. True 5. True.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is meant by portability of programs? a.

BCPL. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. for writing system software. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. In 1970. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. which are portable but inefficient. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. which are efficient but nonportable. It was evolved from ALGOL. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. In 1967. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. and B. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. The standard was updated in 1999. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. in 1973. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. During 1970s. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. Prior to C. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. To assure that the C language remains standard. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types.

The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. Java. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. C++.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. C# conserve C syntax.

The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. C is a case sensitive language. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. to include functions from the system library. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. to define the symbolic constants and macro.extensive use of pointers for memory. although they may appear in any order. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. array. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. C program can be documented using these comment lines. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. Output and Processing statements. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. called functions. Every C program must have one main() function.

printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. It removes comments and empty lines in the program. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .sum. sum = num1+num2.h> main( ) { int num1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. sum). } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language.&num2). The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #.num2. num2). printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). scanf(“%d%d”. num1. &num1.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input.

#include <math. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. #include <stdio. % .z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =.Z o Lowercase a….o suffix and on MSDOS files with .defines a symbolic name or constant. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words. Assembler The assembler creates the object code.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files.2 #include -. numbers and expressions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. to create an executable file. Identifiers.standard library maths file. file with a. . ? . +. External variable references are resolved here.standard library I/O file #define -.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. Operators and Expression. Blank spaces etc.h> -. These files are usually called header files. the link editor combines these functions with main(). macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code).OBJ indicates object code files. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. [On UNIX.includes contents of a named file.h> -.

No special character is allowed except underscore (_). followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. the range of values that can be represented in memory. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. It should start with an alphabet. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. Example 3. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. The following table shows the list of keywords. Cognizant Technology Solutions. constants. predefined meanings in C. All keywords must be written in lowercase. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. and functions. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007.

Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. Similarly. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. never less than int. int = 2 bytes. For example. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. Here. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. They are. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers.

7 * (10+308) 3. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.768 to 32.4 * (10-4932) to 1.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.647 Floating Point Number. It is useful with pointers.147.648 to 2.967.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.4 * (10+38) 1. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.483. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname).295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2. They are used to represent a collection of data.294. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.483.147.7 * (10-308) to 1.4 * (10-38) to 3. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.

int tot. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. float sum = 0.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ct=1.4 int i. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .0. also called read-only variables. float x. z. ct=1. General form: var_data_type list variables.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. tot = 0. Example 3.5 int total=0. k. y. j. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. Example 3. char ch.

This value cannot be changed by the program. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. C operators can be classified into a number of categories.6 const int size = 100.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. Example 3. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. const int a = 0567. const long a = 50000L. or const long a = 50000l. (true – 1.14. which evaluates to either true or false. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . const char ch = ‘a’. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. const float pi=3.

printf(“%d”. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. -=. printf(“%d”. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. printf(“%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. /=.post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. if condition is evaluated to true. i). *=. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. Cognizant Technology Solutions.k: pre increment. /*prints 6 . the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. i++). +=. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ++i).pre increment */ /* prints 6 .may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-.

(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. Index. unary minus. It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a .Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. Logical OR. address Increment and decrement operators. Inequality comparators. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . Cognizant Technology Solutions. ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . Additive operators. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Equality comparators Logical AND.7: Operators Let a=1. Assignment. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. indirection. Relational expression (uses relational operators). The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion.b) / c or a . member access operators Logical NOT. function calls that evaluates to a value. Conditional. operators.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . Multiplicative operators. op= Name Parentheses. and Logical expression (uses logical operators). b=2.(b / c).

For example. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. b+c). b-c). b = 3. the assignment operator is “=”. d = a == b.e. In C. if the operands of an expression are of different types. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions.5. (3) int a. the statement x = y + z. a=3. d = 3. but more efficient than: a = 3. For example. In implicit type conversion.8 (1) a = (b = 2. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. before assigning the value to it. double to float causes round of digits. However. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. x + 3 = y. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. (2) a = (b=2.which is the same as. c= a>b. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. (4) int c.) not a storage location.. c = 3.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b+c. This is called Typecasting. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. c=3. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. a=b=3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. . float b. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. e = a != b. c=3. b=4.

y = a / 10. e = -a % -b. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1. c.8) as the integer 5. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . f. because the variable sum is of type float.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. d = a % b.8).7.5 * 3. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. float x.11 int a. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b.0 will be stored in sum. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis.0. x = a / 10. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator. y. c = a/b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. sum = (int) (1. 5.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1.5 * 3. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. instead of 5. Example 3. a=14.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float .9 float sum. Then. The original value of the variable is not altered.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. b. d.narrowing . e. b=4. z.

return. c=0. processing. Another method is to use input functions.12 a int a=0. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements.+ --c. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). c = a>b. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). Page 35 ©Copyright 2007.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. . There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. ch = getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions.13 char ch. Example 3. punctuations. a=b++ + c++. digits. This single character includes alphabets. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. a=++b + ++c. and tab. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. a=b-. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General form: char-variable = getchar(). and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. a=++b + c++. b=0. getch ().

General Form: gets(stringvariable). Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). this function serves the purpose. To get a line of text. /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.14 char ch[5]. General Form: putchar(char variable). putchar(ch).Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). monitor. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. gets(ch).15 char ch.character input from console & echoes the character. String Input gets () . ch = getchar(). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 3. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. Blank space is also considered as a character.

e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. puts(ch). C has a special formatting character (%). o. Example 3. %e. l. u. A character following this defines the format for a value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f.16 char ch[5]. General Form: scanf (“format string”. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. f. g.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. x. list of variables). gets(ch). Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. L) conversion character (d..

Cognizant Technology Solutions. floating point=%6. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string.&b).ch. x).4s”. Address operator (&) is used before the variables.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. General Form: printf (“format string”. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. str). Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ‘&’ need not be used.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007.2f”. Example 3. /*accepts all inputs including space. also known as control string contains field specifications.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. Format string.&a. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. printf (“sum = %*. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. sum). w. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. General Form: sscanf (str.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. which directs the interpretation of input data. &x). /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. name). Delimiter can be user-defined. This function returns the number of characters printed. To read a string using ‘%s’. &a. list of variables). /*if the input is 12345 & 10. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. &i.*f”. /* column width 10.&b). i. list of variables). the delimiter while reading the values is space.18 printf (“char=%c. first 4 characters printed. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. &ch. By default. &a. int=%3d. Format string and variables are separated by comma. Stops when it encounters new line. p. “format string”. &b).

double. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. char.h> main() { int z. C program is a collection of functions.x=5. getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. “format string”.a=4. “total” c. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. float.b=2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .z). the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language. then based on the operator precedence. Test your Understanding 1. list of variables). Emp_name b.--y * b / a. C has a rich set of operators. General Form: sprintf (str.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. z = x++ . C supports four basic primitive data types: int. printf("The Value of z : %d\n". } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. main d.y=-10.

Answers: 1. printf (“%d “. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. s= (int) y + 3. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. 4 5 7. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. 7. 4. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. 4 5 b. s. Is the statement valid? 3.5. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All are valid. valid 3. What is the output of the following code? int a . b = printf (“welcome”). getche() echoes the input character on screen. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6.5. 5.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. 6. If. . a.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. y=7. s = 10. but getch() will not echo the character. x = 7.b).5 4. x= (int) y. What is ternary operator in C? 5.0 .c ( “ “ . a = (b = 2) + (c=3).

until some condition is satisfied.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). Example 5. In a sequence construct. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. In an iterative structure. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. c=a+b. y = x * b – k. In a selection structure. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. selection. b=10. and iteration (looping). Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. } } { b=2. } { { a=1. Example 5. c=a + b. } x=a*b. 1 a=8. . 2 { a=10. c=3.

If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. } ] statements3. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. Cognizant Technology Solutions. relational. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. Expression can be arithmetic. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. and one or more simple expression statements. is executed in a sequential manner. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. } [ else { statements2. logical. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. which consists of declaration statements. input-output statements. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. and/or logical operators. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. An expression involves arithmetic. and/or relational expression.

a).3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Example 5. } else { statements2. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. if (expression) statements-1. } Example 5.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. else max = a. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. else printf (“largest = %d”. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome.c). If the else part is not specified.max). printf(“ max = %d” . if (expression) statements-2. if (a<b) max = b. true or false is known. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value.

else printf (“largest = %d”.b). else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). else printf(“Fail\n”). Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. else if (expression) statements2. Example 5. else statements4. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. . Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”).c).Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. else if(expression) statements3. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3.

then an execution jump is made to that point. Example 5.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. relational expression. which is similar to the following if-else statement. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. If the variable matches with one of the constants. expr3 is evaluated. default : statement. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. variable. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. if (a>b) max = a. break. Default case is optional and if specified. logical expression. which are represented by constant values. pointer variable. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. Cognizant Technology Solutions. default statements will be executed. case itemn: statement n. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. else max = b. break. } Expression in the switch statement. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. must be an integer valued expression. if there is no match for the case labels. Expression may be a constant value. break. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. case item2: statement 2. array variable. and/or arithmetic expression.

It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. break.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. the control is transferred to the statement. break. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007.while’. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. General Form: for (expression1. default: printf (“Invalid operator”).7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. break. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. the statements inside the loop are executed. If the test condition is True. case ‘/’: c=a/b. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. ‘do. which follows the loop. expression2. If the test condition is False. case ‘-’: c=a-b. ‘while’. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . case ‘*’: c=a*b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. break. There are several ways to execute loops in C. expression3) { statement / block of statements.

z=4000. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.j<=3.8 (1) for (x=0.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop.. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. c). Example 5. y=4. (3) for (x=0. c). for (.j). y=4.9 for (i=1.c<=20. ((x>3) && (x<9)). Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. For each & every iteration through the outer loop. controlled by the value of ‘j’. for (. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } In the above example.++c) (6) c=2. c++.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement).i<=3. for(. x++) x++.c<=20. is called inner loop. The second loop. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 5.. Different variables must be used to control each loop. } (7) int c=0. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration.i). (4) c=2.) { c+=1. Such loops are called nested loops.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”.) { printf (“%d”. the inner loop runs completely. for (j=1. printf (“c=%d”. z . All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop.

The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. General Form: do statement (s). the expression in the while statement is evaluated. The body of the loop may have one or more statements.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. ++c. (4) while(1). the expression is checked again. variable or any expression. General Form: while (expression) { Statements. If the expression evaluates to True. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .while’ statement The do. } ‘do . The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. the body of the loop is executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c). the body of the loop is executed. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. (2) while(x = x+1){ }..Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. Example 5. } Expression can be a constant value. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first.. If the result is True. (3) while(x) { }. while is an exit controlled loop statement. while (expression). while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. (6) c=1. On reaching the do statement. If the expression is initially False. the body of loop is not executed at all. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. At the end of the loop. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. After executing the body of the loop. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch).

loop). ++d. General Form: break. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True.d).12 for(loop=0. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed.loop++) { If (loop==10) break. */ printf("%d\n".11 int d=1. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again.loop<100.Problem Solving and C Programming to True. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. It is used to terminate the current iteration. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007.13 for(loop=0. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. When the condition becomes False. General Form: continue. Example 5. Example 5.while. the body of the loop is executed at least once.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. } while (d<=10). Break.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. do { printf (“%d\n”. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 5. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.loop<50.

loop).e. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. lbs INT Kg\n"). Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. so we have used the for loop. stones. } getchar().45359 main() { int pounds. uklbs. for(pounds=10. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. termination condition and the increment. printf(" US lbs UK st. Cognizant Technology Solutions. pounds. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. kilos).c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones .Problem Solving and C Programming continue. printf("%d\n". int uklbs = pounds % 14.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. uklbs and kilos. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For each pounds. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. pounds < 250.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. We know the starting point. apply formula to get the stones.

Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. c. for. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). while. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. that are used to carry out conditional looping. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. 2. case 2 : printf(“2”). b.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. An if statement must always include an else clause. case 3 : printf(“3”). } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. if clause can contain another if statement. break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Which of the following statements are true? a. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. case 1 : printf(“1”). break. break. An if statement may include only simple statements. break.

Problem Solving and C Programming 4. Default case is executed. 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 5.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). Cognizant Technology Solutions.. printf (“%d”))) break. else continue. } Answers: 1.while will get executed at least once.. What is the difference between a while and do. c 2. The loop statements of do.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”. 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. 3 4.. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. [index 0 refers first location . set of numbers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . of the same data type. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array.. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name.]. etc.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. index 1 refers second location. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. If an array of 5 integers elements is created.g. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. set of names).

1 int x[5]. When addressing an element in an array. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. starting at x[0]. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. int matrix[2][2]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 7. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. float sales_amt[10].Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size.2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. Defines a character array. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. char str[16]="qwerty". Array declaration reserves space in memory.

Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places.4}. Example 7. a[2] = 3 . the base address can not be changed. size depends upon the number of values initialized.4}. /* b[0] = 10. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. (ex.2.20 . a[1]=2.2.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. a[1] = 2 .45.5}. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. Thus. When arrays are initialized during declaration. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. and processing of array elements. If initialized. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.34}. In such cases. /*a[0]=1.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. b[1] = 45.3. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. array can be declared without specifying the exact size. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}.3 int a[5]={1.4. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. partial initialization is allowed. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.3.3. In partial initialization. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. retrieving. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}. /*a[0] = 1. a[2]=3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2.2. ) */ float b[2]={10.

printf(“%d”.6 int a[3]. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. (1) printf(“%d”.i<3. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. scanf(“%d”. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array. &a[2]).a[1].Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 7. &a[0]). scanf(“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i++) scanf(“%d”. &a[1]). except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension.a[2]).&a[i]). a+1. a+2).a[1]). /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address .a[i]). a[0]). /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”.i<3. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays.pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. a.5 int a[3].i++) printf(“%d”. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. a[2]). (1) scanf(“%d”.a[0].

Assume that array starts at location 1000. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . Example 7. 7 int a[2][2]. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If m elements are needed.3}}. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.{1. = 4 elements). /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7.2.row 1 & column 0 .3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.2. In partial initialization. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order. out of n locations defined.5.row 0 & column 1 .row 0 & column 0 . /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.3}. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration. int num[2][3] = {1.6}.2.2}.3.{4}}. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.4.4. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations.8 int num[2][3] = {1.2.5}.

In C. The value at str[6] is the null character. return 0. Example 7. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. /*Creates a string. name[1] = ‘O’. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (2) char str[16]="qwerty". The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined. to represent the end of string. name[2] = ‘O’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A character string is stored in an array of character type. of chars in strings].Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007.’\0’). Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. Example 7. one ASCII character per location. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. there is no built-in data type for strings.11 char studname[50][15]. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. name[4] = ‘\0’. of strings] [max no.’m’.’u’. name[3] = ‘D’. String constants can be assigned to character array variables. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’.*/ (3) char name[5].

Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .’t’.Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.13 (1) char name[20].’a’. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. printf(“%s” . (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator.”cat” . name). String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). Cognizant Technology Solutions.’a’.h.’\0’}. name).’\0’}} = {{‘b’. int i=0. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++.’t’. Example 7. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”.’\0’}.’a’. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . {‘c’.’t’. which manipulates the entire string at once. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7.

Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. n) strncmp(string1. string2) strcat(string1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. string2. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. n) strncpy(string1. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. s2) strcspn(s1.string2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. string2) strcmp(string1. string2.h: String Functions strcpy(string1.s2) strpbrk(s1. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. s2) strspn(s1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Find last occurrence of character c in string. c) strrchr (string. c) strstr(s1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string.

\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007.h> main() { int fib[24]. which can manipulate a single character.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. ‘.\r. True if c is ASCII . .‘.) True if c is a space character (\n. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio.:. True if c is a letter. i < 24. fib[1] = 1. ctype.\f. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. True if c is a control character (\n. for (i = 0.\t.\v. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. i < 24.\r.h. . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for(i = 2. The header file. “. int i. fib[0] = 0. is used for the character functions.\f.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric.

Initially array of size 24 is declared. j++) printf("%d ". } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. i++) { for (j=0. i. int i. for (i=0. for(i=0.2. j<5. printf("\n").h> main() { int twod[4][5]. i<4. 2. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. getchar().13…. j<5. i<4.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. fib[i]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } getchar().Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n".The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array.j.3.8. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1.5. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. twod[i][j]). i++) for(j=0.. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

Page 63 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

Page 64 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

Page 65 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

Page 66 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Local Variables . when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. parameters.) { local variables Declaration.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. } main() { fun(). …. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). Memory for the global variables is allocated. type arg2. and the operations to be carried out by the function. It can be accessed only within that function. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. there is no need for the function prototype. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. } Function Header function-name arg1. executable statement 2. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. Global Variables .Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). So compiler will identify the function name.. it is used by all the functions in the program.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. Function body. If it is declared in the Global declaration section. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. executable statement 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . : return expression. } Function is defined prior to its reference.

Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. each containing different expression. OR return(expression). (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. If there is no return statement.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. constant value or any single valued expression. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. else return b. General Form: return. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). There can be multiple return statements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If it returns a value. expression can be a variable name. return(a<b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 9. Default return type is ‘int’. return(a*b). then void keyword is used to represent that. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. } (2) main() { return 0. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. it is achieved by the return statement. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007.3 (1) return. does not return any value. Example 9.

int). data type. it is called Recursion. When the function call is encountered. Cognizant Technology Solutions. big). num2. If the function returns value. /* function call statement. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. find_big(num1.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. It is a process by which a function calls itself. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. int b) { if ( a > b) return a.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. &num2). the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. scanf(“%d%d”. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. If a function is returning a value. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. The number. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). else return b. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. } int find_big(int a. big. Example 9.num2).num2)) statement. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. /* function prototype. &num1. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. big=find_big(num1.

} If n = 4. { if (k<=1) return 1. The main function may call function1. } fact(int k). scanf(“%d“. printf(“Factorial = %d“. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“Enter an integer\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. else return(k*fact(k-1). along with the value returned. the control is immediately transferred to the function. fact(int). Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. which in turn call function2. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3).fact(n)). In fourth call. When the return statement is encountered. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. Depending on its definition.7 main() { int n.&n). which in turn return the value to its calling function. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . which may call function3. control is transferred back to the called function.

char s) { int i. } border(int m. printf(“\n”). } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.sum). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). sum=add(). return.a.i++) printf(“-“). } border() { int i. } add() { int a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .&c).i++) printf(“%c“. Cognizant Technology Solutions. scanf(“%d%c”.sum). { int sum. printf(“\nSum = %d”. return.i<=m.i<=80.&b). add(int x. for(i=1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. border(n. for(i=1.c). return(a+b).int y) { return a+b . } { int sum.c). char c. &n.&a.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. integers\n”).s). scanf(“%d%d”.b. printf(“\n”). Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.b.b). &a. sum=add(a. printf(“\nSum = %d”. } } } scanf(“%d%d”.&b).

The value of the actual argument will remain same. b). Cognizant Technology Solutions. b). a. swap(a.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. Example 9. } void swap(int c. pointer variable or array name.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. } Call by Reference In this approach. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. d = temp. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. temp = c. So. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. So. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. b. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. b=20. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. a=10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. c = d.

Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. To pass an array to a function. a. for( i = 0. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). swap(&a. max_value = val[0]. Example 9. b. *d = temp. *c = *d. b=20. which points to an array. } void swap(int *c. i. b). Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. a=10. Example 9. &b). } main() { int values[5]. int *d) { int temp. i < 5. return max_value. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. max. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. temp = *c. i. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”.12 int { int max_value.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

Page 74 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

Page 75 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

Page 76 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

{ int a = 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fn(i). printf(“ %d “ . printf("%d". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. a). C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. What is function prototyping? 2. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. a).Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. A function calling itself is called recursion. static. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. The command line arguments. } fn(int i) { return ++i. argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. ii) function call. } printf(“%d” . extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. well defined task.i). Test your Understanding 1. } 4.

Using command line arguments. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. a. 7. return data type). Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. 3. 10 6. In C. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int p(char *a) b. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. int *p(char *a) c. int *p(char *a[]) 7. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. 2. type of its arguments. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. int (*p)(char a) d. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. In call by reference. What the following declaration statements imply? a. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. 5. 3 4 4. b. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

it has file scope. This means. is determined by where it is defined.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007.. All other types of variables are local variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. This is called block scope. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. Cognizant Technology Solutions. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file.. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes.

a situation similar to function nested auto variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. Because of this property. When the execution of the block is completed. then its scope is confined to that function. prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. it will retain the value between function calls. In the case recursive functions. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. with identical names. If not initialized in the declaration statement. Once allocated. printf (“%d “ . Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. } printf(“ %d “ . } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. If the variable is declared within a function.Thus. the nested variables are unique auto variables. Static variables are stored in memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a). Example 10. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If not initialized in the declaration. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . it is automatically initialized to zero. So. a). it is cleared and its memory destroyed. internal static variables retain values between function calls.1 main() { int a = 5 . memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. If no storage class is specified. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. although it is active only in main(). they are also called local or internal variables. by default it is an auto variable. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). { int a =6 . their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global).

instead of keeping it in the memory. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers.i++) incre(). Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. If not initialized in the declaration. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable).i<=5. for (i=1. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function.2 main() { int i. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. Since the registers are less in numbers.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. the variable is initialized to zero. careful selection must be made for their use. x = x +1. printf(“ x = %d\n”.x). we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. } incre() { static int x = 0. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. They are referred to as global variables. When using external variables. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. Since registers are faster than memory.

The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. printf(“ %d “ .Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. } int b = 20. */ void fun(). External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex.3 int a = 5 . but as a first approximation. a). /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. b). just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. When a command is entered in a command window. External variable declaration can not have initialization. fun(). Example 10. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). extern int a = 10. } void fun() { a = 10 . The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. printf(“ %d “ . The first word is treated as the name of a program. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. it is initialized to zero. /* external variable declaration.

Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. salary (float). Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. char* argv[]) { int i. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. Example 10. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for( i = 0. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. which are command line strings. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type.4 main( int argc. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. department code (string). For example. argv[i]). i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”.argc).i . employee name (string). char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. The components are called Members. i < argc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable.

tag name is optional. emp2. Cognizant Technology Solutions...... Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration.. “struct” keyword is used to define structures. Here. char name[20].. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . variable-name.... Page 84 ©Copyright 2007........ float salary. struct employee emp1.. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable.... : : type variable-name. Individual members will be given a separate memory location.... General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.... a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that. } .... }. type variable-name.... When declaring structure variables. Example 10. type variable-name...Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition. variable-name. variable-name.5 1) struct employee { int code. int dept_code. variable-name. no extra structures can be created..

”Dina”. char name[20]. illegal. float avg. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. int semester. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “.6 struct { int rollnum. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. struct stud stud1={101.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. If it is partially initialized. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } emp1.78}. int dept_code. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. Example 10. illegal. stud2={102. No storage class can be specified for structure members. struct employee { int empno = 101 . 1.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. then the expression “s. 90. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. “Raja”. emp2.”(dot). Cognizant Technology Solutions. float salary. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. 1}. }.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’.

Example 10. int month. For example. Example 10. float basic.name emp1.code emp2.8 struct emp { int empno. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int year.dept_code emp1. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. char name[20]. While comparing structure variables. Assignment operation is allowed. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. This is because.9 struct { int day.code emp1.sizeof(emp1)). the assignment expression a = b is valid. which is always not same for different structure variables.salary emp2. }. the values in slack bytes are also compared. } emp1. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value.7 emp1.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. member-field-name Example 10. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. even though the values stored in the member variables are same.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . printf (“Size = %d”.

int semester. struct date doj.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. Example 10. struct stud Accessing values: student [1]. int avg. char name[15].name student [1].semester student [1].doj. Accessing values: student. Example 10. char name[20]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name [20]. In this example. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1.emp2. int sub_marks[5].year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays.sub_marks[0] }. then we can do so by writing: emp1.avg student[50].10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum.rollnum student [1]. float salary. int dept_code.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. student.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }student. }. }emp1.

} Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. change(&emp1).12 struct emp { int empno. “AAAA”} . printf(“ %s “ . emp2. emp1->empno). }.empno). main( ) { void display(struct emp). We can use pointer to structures. } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . Example 10. }. display(emp1).empname). struct emp emp1 = { 101 . char empname[10]. /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). But changes will not be reflected back. printf(“%d” . it is passed using call by value method. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. “AAAA”} . char empname[10]. emp2. Example 10. When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function.13 struct emp { int empno. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments.

marks). Cognizant Technology Solutions. strcpy(student1. …) Example 10. printf (" Name is %s \n".Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102.9. student2. x. getchar().h> struct student { char name[20]. int a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float marks.marks = 99. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name).name. student2.name). emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. int main ( ) { struct student student3. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay."Tom").2f \n". student2. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. y). float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. wage is a structure variable of sal structure. student1. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. } student1. printf (" Marks are %.

) operator. only one member is accessible at a time. In unions. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. struct { int a. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. }*p1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int *p. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . Structures can be nested and can also have self reference.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. Consider the following structure. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. Print the values of the structure. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. Test your Understanding 1. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

sizeof (ex)). Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“Size = %d”. Answers: 1.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. struct stud_type s1. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[15]. int age. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. The elements of an array are always of the same type. }ex. }. union person { char surname[10]. *p1->p. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. 2. 4. 3.

. the tag name. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. and block file I/O operations Unions Union.. type variable-name.. variable-name.... The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly.. type variable-name.. but no storage is allocated. variable-name. along with the keyword ‘union’. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members. }union-variable.. . keyword ‘union’.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session.. variable-name.. Unions follow the same syntax as structures... can be used to declare variables of the union type... Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization. The tag name.. For each variable.. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template . you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted... General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name... Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member..... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . variable-name.... unformatted.. like a structure.. is a derived data type. Cognizant Technology Solutions.it creates the type.. : : type variable-name. union-variable.. and the members of the union are given..... In the declaration..... No other member can be initialized..

float avg. char name[15]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2 { int code. struct stud_type }ex. float x.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. struct stud_type { int rollno. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. char name[20].1 union item { int m. }. static union item product = {100}. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . union { char surname[10]. }. struct employee_type e1. float salary. The dot operator (. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. char c. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. s1. }. int dept_code. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. Example 14. Thus. int age.) is used to access the members.

the user can use either e1 or s1. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. …… member n } .e1.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. similar to structures or a union. definition and variable declaration can be combined. Here. e1 and s1. next value is calculated as previous plus one. var2 .salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. As structures. member2 . These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. tab = `\t’. Example 14. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. enum colors { red = 1 . The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. …………… var n. vtab = `\v'. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. first enumerated name has index value 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . That is.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. at the same time. but not both. General Form: enum tag { member1 . green takes the value 6. blue = 5 . As with arrays. backspace = `\b'. The member names must differ from one another. Cognizant Technology Solutions. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . the union allows the structure variables. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. e1 = getch(). Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. though they have signed integer values. to share common memory. green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. newline = `\n'.

Example 14. numbers n1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Similarly. Example 14.4 typedef numbers int. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. }employee. employee emp1. emp2. integer variables. struct n1 . Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 typedef { int empno. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. General Form typedef datatype new-type.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. Then structure variables can be declared as follows. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. For such applications. files are needed. the results may be stored on disks. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. no need to use struct keyword. In C. It is used to give new names to existing data types. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. char empname[10]. n2 .

When a file is closed. A text stream. the tab character. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. There are two types of streams: text and binary. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data.in which case the position points to the end of the file. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. on some systems. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. In C. and the new-line character. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. When a file is opened. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. and all characters will be transferred as such. More generally.h. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. Text streams consist of printable characters. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When a program begins. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character).Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device.

The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. fclose(fp ). "format string".Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. "format string".dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. (Extensions can be specified like test. the purpose/positioning of opening the file. variable list). fscanf(fp. variable list). Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is a string enclosed within double quotes. “mode”).c. details. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. fprintf(fp. fp = fopen(“name”. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. rewind(). It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the file is opened in the update mode (+). all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. fsetpos(). By default. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). If the file is opened with append mode (a). Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). or fflush(). output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). because files can be reopened only if they are closed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. if the file does not open or the file does not exist. all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. Writing in to a file To write into a file.

which is true if end of file is reached. After the reading a character. the character is returned. Example 14.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. Example 14. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable.fp). which represents a standard input device. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If an error occurs. the pointer is moved to the next position.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. the character is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: ch =getc (fptr). char c. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”).7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. The EOF is end of file status flag. On success. This fptr may be stdout. If the end-of-file is encountered. char c.dat”. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. fclose(fp).dat”. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned.fptr). The fptr may be stdin. which represents standard output device.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. If an error occurs. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. otherwise false. On success. keyboard as a file. monitor as a file. This may be a macro version of fgetc.

string can be written to. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. It stops when (n-1) characters are read. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. The newline character is copied to the string. General Form: fputs (str. On error. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. A null character is appended to the end of the string.n. fptr). On error. fptr). EOF is returned. the string remains unchanged. whichever comes first. General Form: fgets(str. the newline character is read.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). On success. or the endof-file is reached. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). fclose(fp). EOF is returned. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). a nonnegative value is returned. a null pointer is returned. a nonnegative value is returned.fptr). On success. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On success. a file at a time. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). or read from. General Form: putw (i. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). } String I/O Using string I/O. a pointer to the string is returned. On error. a file at a time. or read from. This function writes an integer to a file. integers can be written to. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

the number of characters printed is returned. or form feed. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. vertical tab. General Form: i = getw( fptr). variable-list). Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. tab.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). in a left to right fashion. If an error occurred.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. format-string. new line. EOF is returned. in a left to right fashion. On success. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. carriage return. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. or the width field is satisfied. or the next incompatible character. If the input does not match. If an input failure occurs. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: fscanf( fptr. -1 is returned. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. the function stops scanning and returns. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. addresses-list). Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. format-string. On success. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. according to the format specifier specified in format string. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS.

clrscr(). The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. std[i].age). age )\n\n"). std1[10]. std[i].name .age).no .name . std[i]. std[i]. i++.age). &std1[i]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . bytes of data). int age.name . "%d %s %d " . printf("\n\n enter the details (no . It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007.no . struct { int no. "w").&std1[i]. %s %d " . Cognizant Technology Solutions. char name[10].8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt.dat" . printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). &std[i]. fpt = fopen("details.name printf("%d %s %d \n" . fprintf(fpt . &std[i]. Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). "%d . std1[i]. while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt .no .i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " .e. "r"). std1[i]. i<5 .age). int i. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. }std[10]. name . } fclose(fpt). std1[i]. for(i=0. Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. fpt = fopen("details.dat" .no .Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. std1[i].

fclose(fptr). struct tag { char name[10].Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. "w" ). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name . n. fp). sizeof(stud[0]) . The total number of bytes written is (size*n). int age .stud[i]. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread().dat" . fread(&stud1 . }stud[10] . Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. fptr = fopen("ex. fp).9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. fwrite(&stud . On success the number of elements written is returned.age). i<5 . &stud[i]. i++) scanf("%s %d ". the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. On error or end-of-file. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. clrscr(). 5 . n. for(i=0 . "r" ). Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. General Form fwrite (ptr. int i . fptr=fopen("ex. printf(" \n\n printing the values "). size. size. General Form fread (&str.dat" . Cognizant Technology Solutions. 5 . It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. On success the number of elements read is returned. On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. fptr). sizeof(stud1[0]) . The total number of bytes read is (size*n). fptr). stud1[10].

} Try It Out 1. "r"). Open the input file. // This is where I read the lines of the file int count. // is in the current line and // if so.age). } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. 255.name . // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . In the main program. // after this command.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString.count. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString.char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". print it } fclose(inFile). myString).c */ #include <string. i<5 . Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. stud1[i]. Code: /* findword. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . read the input argument.h> */ FILE * inFile. stud1[i]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> #include <stdio. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1].Print the line number and the line.h> /* #include <stdlib.

"int: ". int main() { union number value. "double:\n". "and print both members.Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” .y = 100. "int: ".". Again read the next line in the file and do the same process.0.y ). one integer and the other double. if found print the line number and the full string. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". value. value. value.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .". Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. value. "double:\n". "Put a value in the integer member". Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n".h> union number { int x. getchar(). value. value. "Put a value in the floating member".y ). return 0.x = 100. Close the file and exit the program 2. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio.x. "and print both members.x. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. }. double y.

and rewind() functions. Preproccessing is done before compilation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ftell(). formatted I/O and block I/O. 2L .Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. Input. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. fopen(). fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files."hello-out"). Output operations on files can be of character I/O. and what value does it usually have? 4. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. } 3. } return 0. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. i++. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . What is EOF. sleep(1). Test your Understanding 1. string I/O. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

.a ). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . stderr 2. stdout. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stdin. Its value on most computers is -1.”. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. 3. 4. 5. printf(“%d”. No significance. } Answers: 1. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. a). foo( ). 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007.

On error. ftell() and rewind(). ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. If it is a binary stream. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: fseek( fptr. If it is a text stream. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. On success. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). In some applications. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. offset. the current file position is returned. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set.

2 On a text stream. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. Remove comments from the source file. Move the file pointer to the end of file. fseek (fp. 2). fseek (fp. fseek (fp. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. a nonzero value is returned. -10L. 0). The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. On error. 2). The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. The error indicator is NOT reset. On success. Example 15. The end-of-file indicator is reset. 1). from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). vertical tab. 0L.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. horizontal tab. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. 10L. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. or carriage return. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fseek (fp. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. -10L. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. fseek (fp. Move the file pointer to the beginning. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. 1). 10L. form feed. zero is returned. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. 0L. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: rewind(fptr). These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#).1 fseek (fp. 0).

#ifndef. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. No semicolon (.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. or #elif test fails. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. #include Inserts text from another source file. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. Defines a preprocessor macro. depending on the result of a constant expression. Defines text for a compile-time error message. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. #ifdef. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. The # token must appear as a first character. #ifndef. Except for some #pragma directives. Ends conditional text. #ifdef. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. or #elif test fails. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

and then processed by the compiler. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. the file is searched first in the current working directory. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. In case that it is not there. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. Example 15. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. whichever comes first. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated.2 #include <stdio.h> #include “stdio. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. Therefore. or until the end of the program source is reached. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file.

the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. ….4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007.

there are zero or more #elif directives. Example 15. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). #ifdef. Continuation character for macro definition is \. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4).5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. Cognizant Technology Solutions.3). and #ifndef directive. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . addition=add(2.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). zero or one #else directive. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level.. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. and one matching #endif directive. addition=(2)+(3). } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. For each #if. areaofsquare=3+4*3+4.b) ((a)+(b)). /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition.

} ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). If there is a matching #else. or #endif. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled.y) x##y main() { …. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). If there is a matching #elif.6 Check whether a variable is defined.8 #define name(x. #elif. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. printf(name(ssn. printf(name(xyz)). If so. …. and the preceding #if evaluated to false.somca)). If the value is 0 (false). …. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 15.7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false)... */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. */ Example 15.

px = &x. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. & address operator. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable.9 int x. 5 – value. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. as they have a number of useful applications. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. Example 15. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. int a = 5 . It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. C provides two operators. * and & are inverse of each other. x = 5 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. &a). 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. Whenever a variable is declared. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. for pointer implementation. *px. & and *.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. a).

Pointer variable of a particular data type can. &x). printf(“ x = %d “ . *q = NULL. q = a. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. *p = &a . Null or an address. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. px). The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. x). printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. q = p. &px). The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. invalid . Two pointer variables can be compared. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. valid valid. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. b . *px). printf(” address of x = %d “ .10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. . Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. Example 15.11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . b = &a. printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”.

Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. and so on. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. Thus. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. *pv is the same as v[0]. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. ptr ++. i=5. if v is an array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ptr= &i. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array.

Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value .Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear. OR ptr_vble = array_name. similar to ptr = &a[0].4} . (ptr+i)). 4.17 int a[2][2] = {1.16 printf (“%u “.2. printf (“%d “.2. varies according to the dimension.*(ptr+i)).15 printf (“%d “.5} ptr = a . i . ptr = &a[0][0] .*ptr). *ptr .3. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn].*(a+i)). &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. Accessing address Example 15. printf (“%d “. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. The way in which the pointer variable used. OR pointer_variable = array_name.14 int a[5] = {1.3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. Example 15.

j.i++) { for (j=0.j<3. Therefore.19 main() { int i. So. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1. for example. printf (“%d “. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. displays the x(i.*(*(pa+i)+j)).j) value Example 15. int *pa=&a[0][0].*(a + i)[ j ]. for (i=0. printf (“%d “. jth column Accessing value Example 15.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. refers to the entire row .3. For example.i<2.j) value displays the x(i.5. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. int a[2][3]={1.2.j) value displays the x(i. is a collection of one dimensional array.6}.18 printf (“%d “. it results in a problem.*(a[ i ] + j).4.*(*(ptr + i) +j). Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. each with 2 elements. Here. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. Cognizant Technology Solutions.j++) printf(“\t%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.

p = name. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. When an array is referenced by its name. ptr[0] = a[0].2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.3. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1].Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). which can hold the address of a character variable. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL.20 int a[2][2] = {1. we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. it refers to the address of the 0th element. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. Once the pointer is declared. Suppose. *ptr[2] . /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. Thus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element.4} . the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. Example 15. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row .

*p). When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. int *p = {0. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. “ABC” . “xyz”}. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. char *name[4] = { “A” . make it a pointer to a string of varying length. printf(“String output = %s”. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier.2. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. Cognizant Technology Solutions.3} .1. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. valid invalid Thus. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. If the elements of array are string pointers. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. *p). “AB” .Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. “rstu”. char *p = “string” . The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. “ABCD”} .

Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. In the above example. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. substantial saving in memory. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. Thus. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). /* suspicious pointer conversion. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. int *const pa = &a. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. The value cannot be modified.24 int a. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. int *pa = &a. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable.23 const int a=10.

pnum = &num1. Example 15. ++num2. pab=&a. pab=&b. *pnum = 2. num2. But it is needed. *pnum.55. Try It Out 1. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. pnum = &num2. long *pnum = NULL. void *pab. in order to know the size and value of the data item. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. *(int *) pab =100. num2 += *pnum. *(float *) pab = 105. float b. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. getchar().26 int a. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. long num2 = 0. *pnum + num2). ++*pnum. const int * const pb = &b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n".25 int b. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. num1.

%16u %d\n". printf("Address for(j=0. Address in array Value\n").i5=0. now the value of num2 is 1. Print all the values num1. int j.j<5. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. Then the value of num1 is 2. #include <stdio. a[4]=&i5.i3=2. a[1]=&i2. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1.a[j]).value at pnum 2. a[2]=&i3. int *b.h> main(){ int *a[5]. a[0]=&i1. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007.a[j].e.j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared. int i1=4.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. a[3]=&i4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the array elements is the pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. Cognizant Technology Solutions.num2. Increment the value of num2.i2=3. } printf("using pointer\n").i4=1.

Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable.*b. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d.*b. malloc(). Test your Understanding 1.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a.j<5. } getchar().b). Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". Declare an array of integer pointers. 2. for( j=0. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. See the difference. State whether the following are true or false a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. b++.

Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. n[24]=200. which is value of a. sizeof(str1). The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. assign the value to a. Given the following declaration: int a. b = (int *)**c. into type int *. 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *n.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. **c=5. malloc(). Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. The first statement assigns 4 to a. *b = &a . 300 4. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. printf(“%d %d %d”. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). } 4. True. false 2. false. 5. calloc(). calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. The third statement castes **c.sizeof(str2). char str2[]=”abcd”. **c = &b. 100. 3. Since c points to b. sizeof(“abcd”)). printf("\n%d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. n[0]=100. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. Differentiate malloc() . } 6. Since b points to a. 2 5 5 6. The result is meaningless. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. false. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a.%d". Answers: 1.

printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . *p) . a).Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. p =&a.2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p .1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *assign() . Example 17. } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . /* function prototype */ void change(int *). } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. *p.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. p = assign() . change(p). Cognizant Technology Solutions.

to a function using pointers. /* addr. printf (“%d”. &b). return q . *q = &a.. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). } Pointer to this function is declared as. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. else return (y). *p. int y).Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. void (*p)(int x. which will speeds up the execution.) Suppose we have a function as. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. *q = 20 . } Example 17. } int *big (int *x .*p). General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. x + y). p = add. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *). Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. Cognizant Technology Solutions. So.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . p = big (&a. of a is returned */ /* addr. main() { int a=10. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. void add(int x. b=20. rather than an entire array.

int semester. }. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. 1. struct stud student={101. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 17. char name[20].Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable. (*abc)(). To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’.”raja”. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. func_ptr = display.67}.6 struct stud { int rollnum. float avg. 95. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”).4 int display(). Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. will call the function add() with parameters 10. we can write as ptr = &student.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *ptr .5 main() { void abc(). (*func_ptr) (). In this declaration. int (*func_ptr) (). abc().20). Example 17.

Page 130 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). Thus. struct employee *empptr. int *p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ptr->avg). and then release this memory when it is no longer required.8 struct employee { char name[20]. Example 17. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. Cognizant Technology Solutions. calloc () . Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. ptr->name. ptr->rollnum. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . char gender.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. float salary. ptr->semester. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions.

for(i=0. i<3. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures.9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . for(i=0 . *b[3] . *(c[i]+j)). int i. j++) scanf("%d". j++) scanf("%d". which can hold 10 integers. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). b[i]+j).j. for(i=0.Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. sizeof(int)). i++) for(j=0. i<3. j<3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. *c[3]. i++) for(j=0. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. i++) for(j=0. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). p = (int *) calloc (10. j<3. j<3. j++) printf("\t%d". } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. for(i=0. j<3. a[i]+j). This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. i<3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. for(i=0. j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). i++ for(j=0. free() will take a void pointer. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). Example 17. i<3. i<3. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)).

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printer. p2=&p1. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. However. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. Example 17.ptr1 value int x. beyond 3 levels. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable.ptr2 x=100. p1=&x. int **p.10 addr. Cognizant Technology Solutions. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. video memory.*p1. As such. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. which holds the address of another integer pointer.**p2. For example.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically.

int main() { struct card aCard.suit. aCard. " of ". struct card *cardPtr. return 0.face. cardPtr->suit.face. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .face = "Ace". aCard. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Print the values of card structure in three different forms.suit = "Spades". declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1.suit ). cardPtr->face. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". All will print the same. }. aCard. " of ". Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. cardPtr = &aCard. getchar(). aCard. ( *cardPtr ). " of ".h> struct card { char *face.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. char *suit. ( *cardPtr ). In the main program.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char.

exit(0). p-> link = p. while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. struct node *insert(struct node *p. }. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). exit(0). } temp = temp-> link. } return (p). if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. } p-> data = n. } else { temp = p. temp-> data = n. int n){ struct node *temp. struct node *link. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio.h> struct node { int data. temp = p. printf("The data values in the list are\n"). temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). temp-> link = p.h> # include <stdlib. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2.temp->data). printlist ( start ). getchar(). In the main program. Then returns the pointer back. declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. int x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. 4 ). so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. start = insert ( start. Then returns back the pointer. struct node *start = NULL . start = insert ( start. 1 ). so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. Cognizant Technology Solutions. start = insert ( start. Now the start pointer is not NULL. 3 ). } else printf("The list is empty\n"). In the insert function. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. start = insert ( start. } void main() { int n. the start pointer will be NULL. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. In the main program. } while (temp!= p).as it is first time. 2). printf("The created list is\n").Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. temp=temp->link.

Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. 2. State whether the following are true or false a. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. printf("\n%d. Test your Understanding 1. n[24]=200. *b = &a . In the printlist() function. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. **c = &b. **c=5. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. b = (int *)**c. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. malloc(). } 4. *n. n[0]=100. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. Given the following declaration: int a. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ).%d".Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call.

Since b points to a. into type int *. char str2[]=”abcd”. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. assign the value to a.sizeof(str2). false. calloc(). The result is meaningless. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The first statement assigns 4 to a. Answers: 1. The third statement castes **c. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. True. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. false 2. 5. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. 100. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. sizeof(str1). this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. which is value of a. } 6. Since c points to b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. false. 300 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. 2 5 5 6. printf(“%d %d %d”. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Differentiate malloc() . sizeof(“abcd”)). malloc(). 3.

#endif #ifdef. #define max(A. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. } /* */ main(int argc. #elif. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. #else.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1.

\. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. ‘\xhh’ \n. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . tab. \r. \?.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. \b \\.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. octal. cr. hex) newline. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. ‘\ooo’. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. \t.

/. logical not. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. divide. <. !. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ~ *pointer. % +. >> >. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. minus. struct tag name name. bitwise not indirection via pointer. modulus (remainder) add. <<. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers.member pointer -> member Ex. &name (type) expr sizeof *.member pointer->member ++. decrement plus. (*p). -+.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. subtract left. <= ==. -. >=.

conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left.h> <stdlib.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=.h> <locale.h> <stdio.h> <setjmp. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement .h> <errno. expr2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch. while. *=. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. do.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.h> <string.h> <limits.h> <float. -=. case const2: statement2 break. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break.h> <time.h> <signal.h> <stdarg.h> <ctype.h> <stddef. …… . all others group left to right. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. do. for Next iteration of while. Unary operators.h> <math.

cr.ct) strncmp(cs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . form feed.c.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007.n) memchr(cs.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.ct) strncpy(s. newline. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.n) strcat(s.n) memset(s.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.ct. t are strings and cs.c) memcpy(s. letter.n) strcmp(cs.ct) strncat(s.n) strchr(cs.ct. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.n) memmove(s.ct. tab.c) strrchr(cs.ct.n) memcmp(cs.ct.ct.h> Consider s.c. digit Checks whether c is a Space.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

Page 143 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

Page 144 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). then the field is expanded to fit the value. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. Result will always have a decimal point. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . f. g. [. x. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). The type of conversion to be applied (required). Negative values still show the sign. E. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. g. i. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. Default is to just show the . Precision overrides this flag. then the value to be converted.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). the width argument comes first. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). If a * is used in place of the width specifer. If the value overflows the width of the field. u. f. e. This is useful only with a width specifier. Overrides the 0 flag. For d. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). Defines the number of characters to print (optional). then the precision argument. Overrides the space flag.sign. o. X. Trailing zeros will not be removed.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character.

. E types. u. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. o. n e. u. x. o. For d. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. X types. For f. u. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. Value is first converted to a long double. u. o. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. o. [. i. The minimum number of digits to appear. i. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . e. E. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. i.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. . then the precision argument. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. e. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. then the value to be converted. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . the width argument comes first.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. x. or .0 For d.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. Precision does not affect the c type. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). If a * is used. i. u. d. f. 6 for f. For f. x. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. x. g. o. i. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. e. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point.

D. c. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as.ddd. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. [type] d. A % sign is printed. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). Trailing zeros are removed. Type char. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). Type double printed as [-]d. b. The argument must be a pointer to an int. E Type signed int. No characters are printed. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Otherwise printed as type f. f. Type double printed as [-]ddd. B. i o u x X f e. C. The exponent contains at least two digits. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). d. Type unsigned int printed in octal. E. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. Single character is printed. e. Type pointer to array. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. F. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. g.

Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. Begins with an optional sign. The input must be in base 8 (octal). Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. d. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). then it is base 8 (octal). i. carriage return. new line. Type unsigned int. u. Type unsigned int. Type signed int. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. The argument is a double. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. vertical tab. o u x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .e. f. f. G designated with an e or E. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. The argument is a long double. Digits 0 through 7 only. g e. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. Digits 0 through 9 only. i. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. s Type character array. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. f. u. it reaches a nonconvertible character). It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). o. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. n e. Type unsigned int. X e. E. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. then it is base 10. Then one or more digits. Type float. tab. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). or form feed). o. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value.

Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. then 1 is assumed. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). By specifying the beginning character. Allows a search set of characters. Requires a matching % sign from the input. Pointer to a pointer. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. If the first character is a carrot (^). A null character is appended to the end of the array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No null character is appended to the array. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. No characters are read from the input stream. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The argument must be a pointer to an int.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. If no width field is specified. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets.] Input Type character array.. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. Type character array.. a dash.

Tata McGraw Hill R. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards. “A Book on C”.uiuc.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.pdf http://cm. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley. Third Edition.lysator.Dromey. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.acm. Fourth Edition.liu. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .html http://www.G.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist. “How to solve it by Computer”. “Programming in C”.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel. Ira Pohl.bell-labs.html#introduction http://www. “C How to Program”.se/c/bwk-tutor.

Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.