Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ...............92 Union of Structures .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Cognizant Technology Solutions..................................................................................88 Try It Out ...............................................................................................................................................................................108 Random File Operations ......90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives .........87 Structures and Functions ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ....................................................................................................................................................................101 Block I/O .......89 Summary ........................84 Structures and Arrays ...104 Summary .........................................................................................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions..........95 File Operations ........108 Preprocessor Directives ..................................................................................................108 Learning Objectives .............94 Typedef Statement ........................106 Test your Understanding ....................................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Declaration and Initialization.........................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Test your Understanding ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Storage Classes ...............................79 Command Line Arguments ........................................................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................92 Unions....................................................................................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..................................................................109 Introduction to Pointers ..........................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Learning Objectives .................................102 Try It Out ..............................98 String I/O.......77 Test your Understanding .....................100 Numeric I/O.............................................................................................................75 Summary ..................................................................................93 Enumeration ...........................................................................................................96 Character I/O ..............................................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers .........................................................................................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions .....................100 Formatted I/O.................................................................................................................................

...............................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007.........................................................136 Syntax Summary ........................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: ........................................................................................................................................................................................ All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..............127 Structures and Pointers ................................................................133 Summary ....... Cognizant Technology Solutions..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Pointers and Arrays ..........130 Try It Out ....................................................151 Websites ..............117 Try It Out ...................................................................................................................................................................127 Learning Objectives .....................................127 Functions and Pointers ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ...................................................................................................................123 Summary .................................................................................................................136 Test your Understanding .....151 Books ....Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ............................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................138 References ......................................................................................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers .............................................................

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

prioritizing. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. To understand the problem. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. It is an act of defining a problem. There is no universal method for solving a given problem. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. identifying. determining the cause of the problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session.

what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. headings. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is also known as Program Analysis. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007.

Program Design is both a product and a process. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. the new parts become more focussed and. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. An important approach is Top-Down programming design. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. several design methodologies can be applied. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. therefore. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. While applying top-down design to a given problem.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. or modifications to the existing algorithm. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. and terminate in a finite time. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The errors identified leads to insertions. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. Example 2. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. produce output.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. fact.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. However. but omits language-specific syntax. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. the next step must be unambiguously defined. to test its correctness.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. deletions.

repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. required to solve a problem. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. reports).e. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . another part of the same flow chart. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. or entry from.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. End Represents Input. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. Output data Represents Process (actions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page.

i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. i Initialize fact =1.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2. fact.

the declarations. flowcharts. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. Cognizant Technology Solutions. or particular pieces of programs. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. requirements can be tested for its correctness. The program is now ready for execution. Initially. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. The compiler is system software. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. algorithm descriptions.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. Linking is done if necessary. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. statements. Writing a program is called Coding. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. Documentation can be of great value. Testing is done during every phase of program development. During execution. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. which includes things such as reference manuals. The translation results in the creation of object code. but also to the programmers themselves. Then. the design (algorithm. After compilation. and project workbooks Internal documentation. Details of particular programs. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program.

debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. Ada. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. C. On some projects. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. For many programmers. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. such as BASIC. Cognizant Technology Solutions. COBOL. and Pascal. C++. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. Testing means detecting errors.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. FORTRAN. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. This is called foolproof programming. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions.

Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. For example. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. It does not need any translator program. there are many new languages. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. machine language is not an easy language to learn. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). Because of it design.

-. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. /. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. In high level languages. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. SUB and LOAD etc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. irrespective of the type of computer used. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. This translator program is called Assembler. %. For example. for its program construction. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +.

because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. For example. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. The major breakthrough occurred. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. with every combination being meaningful. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. type of program. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. Later. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. This. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. The language should provide appropriate data structures. in turn. In 1959. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. though not widely used. operations. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. Cognizant Technology Solutions. tested and maintained with ease. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). and the expertise of the programmer. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. but it is complex and difficult to learn. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data.

Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Cost of Program creation. coded. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. coding. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. efficient register allocation. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. and Embedded System Environment. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. Interactive Environment. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. testing & use: This implies design.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. testing. For example. the backup process on an organization. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day.

Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . testing. word processing systems etc. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. Planning a tour. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. called Modules. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. algorithm development. coded. compiling and running. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. Represent the following problem in top-down design. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Cognizant Technology Solutions. coding. Top-down program design. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. The environment under which a program is designed. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. 2. and maintenance. Distinguish between testing and debugging. documenting. 3. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. 4. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. Give the algorithm. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. Examples include database management systems. debugging. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft.

True.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. Easy to carry from place to place b. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. It can run on any machine d. True 5. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. What is meant by portability of programs? a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. Cognizant Technology Solutions. BCPL. and B. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. for writing system software. To assure that the C language remains standard. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. In 1967. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. The standard was updated in 1999. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. In 1970. During 1970s. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. It was evolved from ALGOL. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. Prior to C. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. in 1973. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. which are portable but inefficient. which are efficient but nonportable.

The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. C# conserve C syntax. C++. Java. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

extensive use of pointers for memory. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. to include functions from the system library. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Every C program must have one main() function. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. called functions. Output and Processing statements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. to define the symbolic constants and macro. array. C program can be documented using these comment lines. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. C is a case sensitive language. although they may appear in any order.

h> main( ) { int num1. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. sum = num1+num2.sum. &num1. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”).num2.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”.&num2). The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. sum). num2). calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio. scanf(“%d%d”.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. It removes comments and empty lines in the program. num1.

h> -. #include <math.2 #include -. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .standard library maths file. [On UNIX.h> -.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. #include <stdio. These files are usually called header files.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . Assembler The assembler creates the object code. External variable references are resolved here. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters.OBJ indicates object code files.defines a symbolic name or constant. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code). Blank spaces etc..z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =.Z o Lowercase a…. Identifiers. +. numbers and expressions. % .includes contents of a named file. ? . The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words. the link editor combines these functions with main(). .standard library I/O file #define -.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. to create an executable file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. Operators and Expression. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. file with a.

the range of values that can be represented in memory. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. Example 3. The following table shows the list of keywords. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. and functions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. All keywords must be written in lowercase. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. predefined meanings in C. constants. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. It should start with an alphabet.

never less than int.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. They are. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. For example. int = 2 bytes. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. Similarly. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. Here. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.967.7 * (10-308) to 1.147.483.4 * (10-38) to 3.4 * (10-4932) to 1. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname).647 Floating Point Number.648 to 2. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.147. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program. It is useful with pointers.294. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.483.768 to 32. They are used to represent a collection of data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32.7 * (10+308) 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.4 * (10+38) 1. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.

ct=1. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. z. tot = 0. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. Example 3. int tot. float sum = 0.0. float x. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4 int i.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. j.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. ct=1. k. General form: var_data_type list variables. Example 3. y.5 int total=0. char ch. Cognizant Technology Solutions. also called read-only variables.

An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. const long a = 50000L.14. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. const int a = 0567. Example 3. which evaluates to either true or false.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted.6 const int size = 100. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . const float pi=3. or const long a = 50000l. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. This value cannot be changed by the program. const char ch = ‘a’. (true – 1.

/=. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned.k: pre increment. if condition is evaluated to true.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. printf(“%d”. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. *=. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. printf(“%d”. +=. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. i++).Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. i).post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. -=. ++i). %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever.pre increment */ /* prints 6 . /*prints 6 . Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. printf(“%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression.

and Logical expression (uses logical operators). Inequality comparators. ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . Cognizant Technology Solutions. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. op= Name Parentheses.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . indirection. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. function calls that evaluates to a value. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> .(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Equality comparators Logical AND. Additive operators. Logical OR. member access operators Logical NOT.7: Operators Let a=1. Conditional. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007.b) / c or a . The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. Multiplicative operators. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. b=2. operators. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Assignment. It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a .(b / c). address Increment and decrement operators. Index. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . Relational expression (uses relational operators). unary minus. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators).

x + 3 = y. (2) a = (b=2. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. if the operands of an expression are of different types.. d = a == b. . the assignment operator is “=”. (3) int a. the statement x = y + z. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. double to float causes round of digits. e = a != b. b+c).5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. b-c). long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. However. but more efficient than: a = 3.5. b=4. a=3. This is called Typecasting. In implicit type conversion. Example 3. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. d = 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C allows multiple assignment statements using =. c=3. For example. c=3.which is the same as.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. a=b=3.8 (1) a = (b = 2.e. In C. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. c= a>b.. (4) int c. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example. before assigning the value to it.) not a storage location. float b. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. b = 3. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. c = 3. b+c.

x = a / 10.narrowing . The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1.5 * 3. z. b.8) as the integer 5.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007.0 will be stored in sum. y = a / 10. f.5 * 3. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. b=4. e = -a % -b. 5. sum = (int) (1. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. c = a/b. a=14.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. y.7.0. Example 3. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. instead of 5. c. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. float x. d = a % b. d.9 float sum. e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Then. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float .8). The original value of the variable is not altered. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. because the variable sum is of type float.11 int a. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value.

General form: char-variable = getchar(). One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . . getch (). Example 3. processing. a=++b + ++c. b=0. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. Another method is to use input functions. return.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. c=0. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. c = a>b.13 char ch. ch = getchar().12 a int a=0. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. This single character includes alphabets.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. a=b-. Cognizant Technology Solutions. digits. and tab. punctuations. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007.+ --c. a=++b + c++. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. a=b++ + c++. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements.

String Input gets () . String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output.14 char ch[5]. Example 3. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. gets(ch). /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. putchar(ch). monitor. Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). To get a line of text. Blank space is also considered as a character. ch = getchar(). General Form: putchar(char variable). this function serves the purpose.15 char ch.Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: gets(stringvariable).character input from console & echoes the character.

pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. o. gets(ch). A character following this defines the format for a value. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . u. g. f. L) conversion character (d. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. l. x. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. puts(ch). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. %e.16 char ch[5]. General Form: scanf (“format string”.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). list of variables). C has a special formatting character (%)..] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w.

p. sum). &a. which directs the interpretation of input data. General Form: printf (“format string”. Example 3. list of variables).Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. /*accepts all inputs including space. the delimiter while reading the values is space. w. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Delimiter can be user-defined. General Form: sscanf (str. i.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. Format string. name). printf (“sum = %*. int=%3d. scanf (“%[^\n]s”.&b). /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. also known as control string contains field specifications. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. first 4 characters printed. &b). Stops when it encounters new line. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. x). Example 3. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. &a.&a. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. list of variables).&b). str).ch.2f”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. By default. “format string”. /* column width 10. &i. ‘&’ need not be used. floating point=%6. Format string and variables are separated by comma.*f”.18 printf (“char=%c.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. To read a string using ‘%s’. This function returns the number of characters printed.4s”. &ch. &x). a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string.

h> main() { int z.b=2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.z). C has a rich set of operators.x=5. printf("The Value of z : %d\n". Emp_name b. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language.a=4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1.y=-10. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. z = x++ .--y * b / a. “format string”. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. list of variables). “total” c. getchar(). char. main d. C supports four basic primitive data types: int.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. float. C program is a collection of functions. then based on the operator precedence.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. double. Test your Understanding 1. General Form: sprintf (str. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a.

5. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. s. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c ( “ “ . If. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. valid 3. 4 5 b.0 .5 4. . What is the output of the following code? int a . All are valid.b). b = printf (“welcome”). s = 10. 4. Is the statement valid? 3. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). 6. What is ternary operator in C? 5.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. 7. x = 7. 4 5 7. s= (int) y + 3. but getch() will not echo the character.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. Answers: 1. x= (int) y. y=7. getche() echoes the input character on screen. printf (“%d “. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a.5.

and iteration (looping). until some condition is satisfied. } { { a=1. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. 2 { a=10. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. Example 5. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. Example 5. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. } x=a*b. In an iterative structure. selection. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. c=3.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. c=a + b. In a sequence construct. . Cognizant Technology Solutions. c=a+b. Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). y = x * b – k. 1 a=8. } } { b=2. b=10. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In a selection structure.

The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. and one or more simple expression statements. logical. } ] statements3. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. is executed in a sequential manner. An expression involves arithmetic. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. input-output statements. relational. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. and/or relational expression. Expression can be arithmetic. which consists of declaration statements. and/or logical operators. } [ else { statements2.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program.

c). a). else max = a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“ max = %d” . the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. if (expression) statements-2. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. } Example 5. if (a<b) max = b. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. } else { statements2.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. if (expression) statements-1.max). true or false is known. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 5. else printf (“largest = %d”. If the else part is not specified.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed.

else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”).5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. else printf (“largest = %d”. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands.c). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. else printf(“Fail\n”). Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. else if (expression) statements2. else statements4.b). . else if(expression) statements3. Example 5.

logical expression. case item2: statement 2. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. pointer variable.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. break. which are represented by constant values. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . default : statement. array variable. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. relational expression. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). Example 5. must be an integer valued expression. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. default statements will be executed. expr3 is evaluated. then an execution jump is made to that point. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. } Expression in the switch statement. If the variable matches with one of the constants. variable. else max = b. Expression may be a constant value. case itemn: statement n. if there is no match for the case labels.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. break. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). Default case is optional and if specified. and/or arithmetic expression. which is similar to the following if-else statement. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. break. if (a>b) max = a.

case ‘/’: c=a/b.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. ‘do. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007.while’. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. case ‘*’: c=a*b. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. break. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. ‘while’. expression3) { statement / block of statements.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . expression2 is to set a terminating condition. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. break. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. break. the control is transferred to the statement. break. General Form: for (expression1. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. case ‘-’: c=a-b. There are several ways to execute loops in C. expression2. which follows the loop. If the test condition is False. the statements inside the loop are executed. If the test condition is True.

c).c<=20. Example 5. } (7) int c=0. Example 5. For each & every iteration through the outer loop. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. z=4000. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0.9 for (i=1.8 (1) for (x=0. x++) x++.. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). Such loops are called nested loops. the inner loop runs completely. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. (4) c=2. controlled by the value of ‘j’. y=4.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. printf (“c=%d”.++c) (6) c=2. ((x>3) && (x<9)). } In the above example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (3) for (x=0.) { c+=1. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.j). for (j=1. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). c).i). All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop.. c++.c<=20. z . for (. The second loop. is called inner loop.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. y=4.) { printf (“%d”. for (.j<=3. for(. Different variables must be used to control each loop. Cognizant Technology Solutions.i<=3.

General Form: while (expression) { Statements. (3) while(x) { }. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. Example 5. On reaching the do statement. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. the body of the loop is executed. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first..10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: do statement (s).while’ statement The do. (6) c=1. } Expression can be a constant value. At the end of the loop. the body of loop is not executed at all.c).. the expression is checked again. variable or any expression. The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. After executing the body of the loop. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). the body of the loop is executed. (4) while(1). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ++c. If the expression is initially False. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. If the result is True. while is an exit controlled loop statement. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. } ‘do . If the expression evaluates to True. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. while (expression).

It is used to terminate the current iteration. When the condition becomes False. ++d.12 for(loop=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. the body of the loop is executed at least once. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. General Form: break. do { printf (“%d\n”. Example 5.13 for(loop=0.loop).loop++) { If (loop==10) break.. Example 5. } while (d<=10). Example 5. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop.Problem Solving and C Programming to True.loop<50.while. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.loop<100. */ printf("%d\n". General Form: continue.d). } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed.11 int d=1. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. Break. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . We know the starting point. uklbs and kilos.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. } getchar(). printf("%d\n". Cognizant Technology Solutions. termination condition and the increment. pounds < 250. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. For each pounds. pounds.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. printf(" US lbs UK st. uklbs. kilos). pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. stones.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . lbs INT Kg\n"). int uklbs = pounds % 14. for(pounds=10. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n".45359 main() { int pounds.e. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. so we have used the for loop.loop). float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. apply formula to get the stones.

break. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. c. case 3 : printf(“3”). } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. while. An if statement may include only simple statements. Which of the following statements are true? a. break. that are used to carry out conditional looping. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. for. case 1 : printf(“1”). An if statement must always include an else clause. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. b. case 2 : printf(“2”). When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. break. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if clause can contain another if statement. Test your Understanding 1.

What is the difference between a while and do. 3. Default case is executed.. } Answers: 1. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels.while will get executed at least once. else continue. 5.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). 3 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 4.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. The loop statements of do. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf (“%d”))) break... 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007.

If an array of 5 integers elements is created. index 1 refers second location. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array.g. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e.]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . set of names). of the same data type. [index 0 refers first location . 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. set of numbers. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name.. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. Cognizant Technology Solutions. etc.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements.

Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. int matrix[2][2]. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. float sales_amt[10]. When addressing an element in an array. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Defines a character array. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays).1 int x[5]. Example 7. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. Array declaration reserves space in memory. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. char str[16]="qwerty". General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. starting at x[0]. Defines an integer array x of at x[4].2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers.

In such cases.4}. retrieving. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2. partial initialization is allowed.3.20 .34}. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. (ex.2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . array can be declared without specifying the exact size. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.4}. In partial initialization. /* b[0] = 10. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. and processing of array elements.4.45. ) */ float b[2]={10. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. a[1]=2. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. /*a[0]=1. a[2]=3. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location.3.2. a[1] = 2 .34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing.5}. b[1] = 45. a[2] = 3 . Example 7. /*a[0] = 1.3 int a[5]={1.3. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. If initialized. When arrays are initialized during declaration.2. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. size depends upon the number of values initialized. the base address can not be changed. Thus.

General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. a[0]). a. a+1. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. a[2]). (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. printf(“%d”.pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0.a[i]). &a[0]). /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. Example 7.i<3.a[1]. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . &a[1]). (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. a+2). Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array.i++) printf(“%d”.&a[i]).a[2]). /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays. (1) scanf(“%d”. scanf(“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .a[1]).5 int a[3]. (1) printf(“%d”. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension.i<3. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”.a[0]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.6 int a[3]. scanf(“%d”. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. &a[2]).i++) scanf(“%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array.

{1.2.2. Assume that array starts at location 1000. out of n locations defined.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.3. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.5}. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration.4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int num[2][3] = {1.4.5. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.3. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. Example 7. = 4 elements). /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero. 7 int a[2][2]. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.2.8 int num[2][3] = {1. If m elements are needed.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.row 1 & column 0 . (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order.{4}}.2.row 0 & column 0 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations.row 0 & column 1 .6}. In partial initialization.3}.2}.3}}. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 .

one ASCII character per location. In C. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character.*/ (3) char name[5]. name[4] = ‘\0’. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’.’m’. name[1] = ‘O’. /*Creates a string. Example 7. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. of chars in strings]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined. to represent the end of string.11 char studname[50][15]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A character string is stored in an array of character type. String constants can be assigned to character array variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. Example 7.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’.’u’. name[2] = ‘O’. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. name[3] = ‘D’. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". of strings] [max no. return 0. there is no built-in data type for strings.’\0’). The value at str[6] is the null character.

Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. name). which manipulates the entire string at once. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”.h.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.’\0’}.13 (1) char name[20]. int i=0.’a’.”cat” .’a’. printf(“%s” .’\0’}. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.’a’.’t’. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier).12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . Cognizant Technology Solutions. name).’\0’}} = {{‘b’. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. {‘c’. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ .’t’. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. Example 7.Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007.’t’.

s2) strspn(s1. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. string2) strcmp(string1. string2. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. n) strncpy(string1. c) strstr(s1. string2) strcat(string1. n) strncmp(string1. Find last occurrence of character c in string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. c) strrchr (string.s2) strpbrk(s1.string2.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. string2. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. s2) strcspn(s1.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. is used for the character functions.‘. fib[1] = 1.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. . True if c is ASCII . ctype.\v. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric.\t.\f. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2].:.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters. which can manipulate a single character. . i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007.\f. True if c is a letter.) True if c is a space character (\n. for(i = 2. int i. ‘. i < 24. i < 24. True if c is a control character (\n. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (.h> main() { int fib[24]. “.h. fib[0] = 0. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio.\r. for (i = 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The header file.\r.

i<4.3. fib[i]). i++) for(j=0.h> main() { int twod[4][5].. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. j++) printf("%d ". j<5. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio. printf("\n"). } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. int i. i<4. Initially array of size 24 is declared. Cognizant Technology Solutions. for (i=0. i.13…. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array.2. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. 2.8.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1.5. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. } getchar().c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. j<5. i++) { for (j=0.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. for(i=0. getchar(). twod[i][j]).Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n".j.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line).The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. Local Variables . Memory for the global variables is allocated. and the operations to be carried out by the function. } Function Header function-name arg1. Global Variables . type arg2.) { local variables Declaration.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. parameters. } Function is defined prior to its reference. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . executable statement 2. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. It can be accessed only within that function. executable statement 1. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. } main() { fun(). there is no need for the function prototype. it is used by all the functions in the program.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “).The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. Function body. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. : return expression. So compiler will identify the function name. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. …. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. If it is declared in the Global declaration section.

Example 9. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. else return b. return(a<b). Example 9. then void keyword is used to represent that. does not return any value.3 (1) return. OR return(expression). (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. return(a*b). There can be multiple return statements. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. If there is no return statement. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. it is achieved by the return statement.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”).4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. If it returns a value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. constant value or any single valued expression. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. Default return type is ‘int’. } (2) main() { return 0. expression can be a variable name.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. each containing different expression. General Form: return. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement.

} int find_big(int a. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. &num1. big. /* function prototype. scanf(“%d%d”. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. &num2).6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. If the function returns value. When the function call is encountered. data type. find_big(num1.num2). the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. If a function is returning a value. num2. The number. it is called Recursion. big=find_big(num1. /* function call statement. else return b. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. It is a process by which a function calls itself. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. int). When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. big).num2)) statement. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. Example 9. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments).

The main function may call function1. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. control is transferred back to the called function. else return(k*fact(k-1). call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . In fourth call.fact(n)). the control is immediately transferred to the function. On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. fact(int). the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). Depending on its definition. scanf(“%d“.&n). Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. When the return statement is encountered. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. } fact(int k). which may call function3.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. along with the value returned. which in turn call function2. { if (k<=1) return 1. which in turn return the value to its calling function. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested.7 main() { int n. } If n = 4. printf(“Factorial = %d“. then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“Enter an integer\n”).

char s) { int i. integers\n”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. border(n. Cognizant Technology Solutions.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. for(i=1. return.i<=m. add(int x. } border(int m. } border() { int i. return(a+b).s).c). scanf(“%d%c”.b. } { int sum.i++) printf(“-“). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border().b).a.sum). sum=add(a. printf(“\nSum = %d”.i++) printf(“%c“.b.&b). char c.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). for(i=1.c). sum=add(). } } } scanf(“%d%d”. printf(“\n”). return. scanf(“%d%d”. } add() { int a.&a. &n. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. printf(“\nSum = %d”.sum).&c). { int sum.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9.int y) { return a+b . printf(“\n”).&b).i<=80. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). } No arguments but return value main() Example 9. &a.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. c = d. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. So. temp = c. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. } Call by Reference In this approach. b=20. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. b). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. So. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. pointer variable or array name. The value of the actual argument will remain same. b. a=10. d = temp. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. swap(a. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. Example 9. a. b). } void swap(int c.

for( i = 0. To pass an array to a function. a. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. } void swap(int *c. i. } main() { int values[5]. swap(&a. &b). *d = temp. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. a=10. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. Example 9. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. i. *c = *d. max. Example 9.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. max_value = val[0]. which points to an array.12 int { int max_value. i < 5. b.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. b=20. temp = *c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). b). int *d) { int temp. return max_value. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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printf("%d". Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. a). well defined task. static. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. { int a = 3. ii) function call. fn(i). } fn(int i) { return ++i. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition.i). What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. Test your Understanding 1. The command line arguments. argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. a). What is function prototyping? 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A function calling itself is called recursion. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. printf(“ %d “ . } 4. } printf(“%d” .

only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. What the following declaration statements imply? a. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. b. 3. 2. int (*p)(char a) d. 5. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. a. In C. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. Using command line arguments. 3 4 4. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. int *p(char *a[]) 7. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. int *p(char *a) c. int p(char *a) b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Corresponding parameters must be of same type. return data type).Problem Solving and C Programming 6. In call by reference. 10 6. 7. type of its arguments. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters.

This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All other types of variables are local variables. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. it has file scope. This is called block scope. This means. If it is defined outside of all the blocks... If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}).Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . is determined by where it is defined. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007..

although it is active only in main(). They retain the values throughout the life of the program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global).1 main() { int a = 5 . they are also called local or internal variables. In the case recursive functions. with identical names. Because of this property. the nested variables are unique auto variables. When the execution of the block is completed.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). Example 10. { int a =6 . If not initialized in the declaration. a). it is cleared and its memory destroyed. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Thus. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. Static variables are stored in memory. a). If the variable is declared within a function. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. then its scope is confined to that function. Once allocated. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . it will retain the value between function calls. printf (“%d “ . a situation similar to function nested auto variables. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. internal static variables retain values between function calls. So. it is automatically initialized to zero. by default it is an auto variable. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). If not initialized in the declaration statement. If no storage class is specified. prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. } printf(“ %d “ .

Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. instead of keeping it in the memory. x = x +1.i<=5. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007.2 main() { int i.i++) incre(). Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. Since registers are faster than memory. } incre() { static int x = 0. Since the registers are less in numbers. If not initialized in the declaration. careful selection must be made for their use. for (i=1. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. printf(“ x = %d\n”. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When using external variables.x). They are referred to as global variables. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. the variable is initialized to zero.

fun(). /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b.Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. b). a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. External variable declaration can not have initialization. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but as a first approximation. } void fun() { a = 10 . interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. extern int a = 10. printf(“ %d “ . } int b = 20. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. */ void fun(). When a command is entered in a command window. The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. printf(“ %d “ . Example 10. just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. a).3 int a = 5 . The first word is treated as the name of a program. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. it is initialized to zero. /* external variable declaration.

char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. which are command line strings. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items.i . Example 10. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. department code (string). i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. employee name (string). argv[i]). Cognizant Technology Solutions. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. for( i = 0. char* argv[]) { int i. For example. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. salary (float). The components are called Members.argc).4 main( int argc. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type.Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. i < argc.

5 1) struct employee { int code.. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration. tag name is optional.... variable-name.. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name. “struct” keyword is used to define structures.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. type variable-name. float salary.. Individual members will be given a separate memory location.... int dept_code.. : : type variable-name.....Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition.. variable-name.. When declaring structure variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . emp2... variable-name... Example 10.. } .. no extra structures can be created. type variable-name....... }. char name[20]. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that.. variable-name... struct employee emp1.... Here. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable..

}. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. illegal. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. then the expression “s. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. } emp1. struct stud stud1={101. emp2. int dept_code. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. 1}. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’.”(dot). No storage class can be specified for structure members. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “.”Dina”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 90. stud2={102. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null.6 struct { int rollnum. float salary.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. struct employee { int empno = 101 . stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. char name[20]. “Raja”. Example 10. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. If it is partially initialized.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. float avg.78}. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. int semester. 1. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. illegal.

int month.code emp2.code emp1.dept_code emp1. }.9 struct { int day. float basic. the assignment expression a = b is valid. Assignment operation is allowed. For example. even though the values stored in the member variables are same.sizeof(emp1)).salary emp2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 10. } emp1. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. which is always not same for different structure variables. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. the values in slack bytes are also compared. Example 10. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. While comparing structure variables. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. This is because.8 struct emp { int empno. printf (“Size = %d”. char name[20]. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. member-field-name Example 10.7 emp1. int year.name emp1.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct stud Accessing values: student [1].emp2. Example 10.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. int semester. float salary. }emp1. Accessing values: student.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum. student. char name[15]. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1.doj. int dept_code. int avg.name student [1].11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.sub_marks[0] }. int sub_marks[5]. char name[20]. then we can do so by writing: emp1.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. struct date doj. }student.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays.rollnum student [1]. Example 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .semester student [1].avg student[50]. }. char name [20]. In this example.

emp1->empno).13 struct emp { int empno. When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. Example 10. char empname[10].empname).12 struct emp { int empno. } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. printf(“%d” . /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. }. void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). struct emp emp1 = { 101 . display(emp1). } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . printf(“ %s “ . emp2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . “AAAA”} . }. it is passed using call by value method. char empname[10]. main( ) { void display(struct emp). But changes will not be reflected back.empno). Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . We can use pointer to structures. emp2.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. “AAAA”} . Example 10. change(&emp1).

float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. } student1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007.h> struct student { char name[20].Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. y). float marks. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name).marks). strcpy(student1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.name). int main ( ) { struct student student3. wage is a structure variable of sal structure. int a. getchar(). x. …) Example 10.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. student1. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. student2. printf (" Name is %s \n".marks = 99. student2.9."Tom"). printf (" Marks are %. student2.name.2f \n".

What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. Print the values of the structure. only one member is accessible at a time. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. In unions. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. }*p1. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. int *p. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. ) operator. Consider the following structure. Test your Understanding 1.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. struct { int a.

*p1->p. struct stud_type s1. }ex. }. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. sizeof (ex)). printf(“Size = %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. int age. 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[15]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Answers: 1. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. union person { char surname[10]. 2. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. 3. The elements of an array are always of the same type.

the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members... Cognizant Technology Solutions. keyword ‘union’. is a derived data type.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session. the tag name. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template . For each variable.. and block file I/O operations Unions Union.. and the members of the union are given...... like a structure..... can be used to declare variables of the union type. : : type variable-name. variable-name. union-variable. Unions follow the same syntax as structures. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted.. }union-variable. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly.. Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization.. type variable-name. type variable-name. variable-name.. unformatted.. In the declaration... General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name.. along with the keyword ‘union’....... but no storage is allocated... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .....it creates the type... The tag name... variable-name.. variable-name.. .. No other member can be initialized..

float salary. struct stud_type { int rollno. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. float x. struct stud_type }ex. static union item product = {100}. Cognizant Technology Solutions. char c.) is used to access the members. }. Thus.2 { int code. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. }. int age. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. char name[20]. int dept_code.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. }. float avg. struct employee_type e1.1 union item { int m. The dot operator (. Example 14. s1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. union { char surname[10]. char name[15]. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion.

green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. …………… var n. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. Here. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. but not both. As with arrays. Example 14.e1. at the same time.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. though they have signed integer values. vtab = `\v'. Cognizant Technology Solutions. similar to structures or a union. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. definition and variable declaration can be combined. var2 . first enumerated name has index value 0. e1 and s1. to share common memory. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 .Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. As structures. green takes the value 6. next value is calculated as previous plus one. e1 = getch(). blue = 5 . The member names must differ from one another.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). General Form: enum tag { member1 . newline = `\n'. enum colors { red = 1 . the user can use either e1 or s1. backspace = `\b'. …… member n } . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . That is. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. the union allows the structure variables. tab = `\t’. member2 . “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1.

char empname[10].5 typedef { int empno. numbers n1.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. General Form typedef datatype new-type. Similarly. the results may be stored on disks. Then structure variables can be declared as follows. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 14. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. In C. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. no need to use struct keyword.4 typedef numbers int. employee emp1. struct n1 . n2 . supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. Example 14. }employee. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. integer variables. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. files are needed. For such applications. emp2. It is used to give new names to existing data types.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. on some systems. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation .in which case the position points to the end of the file. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. and all characters will be transferred as such. A text stream. When a file is closed.h. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. When a program begins. More generally. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. and the new-line character. the tab character. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. There are two types of streams: text and binary. When a file is opened. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Text streams consist of printable characters.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. In C. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s.

“mode”). The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. (Extensions can be specified like test. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. fclose(fp ). The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. fp = fopen(“name”. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fscanf(fp.c.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. fprintf(fp. variable list). Cognizant Technology Solutions. details. "format string". It is a string enclosed within double quotes. "format string". the purpose/positioning of opening the file. variable list).

output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). if the file does not open or the file does not exist. all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files.Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). rewind(). If the file is opened in the update mode (+). By default. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fsetpos(). Writing in to a file To write into a file. all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. or fflush(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the file is opened with append mode (a). one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. It is good to close all the files opened with fopen().

} else printf(“Error in opening a file”). This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. fclose(fp). If an error occurs. the character is returned. After the reading a character.fptr). otherwise false. the character is returned. This fptr may be stdout.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set.dat”. If the end-of-file is encountered. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. This may be a macro version of fgetc. Example 14.fp). which represents standard output device. char c. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. If an error occurs. the pointer is moved to the next position.dat”. char c. The fptr may be stdin.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. which is true if end of file is reached. which represents a standard input device. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. The EOF is end of file status flag. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. On success. keyboard as a file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). if ((fp=fopen(“sample. On success. monitor as a file. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 14.

On success. a file at a time. On success. a file at a time. On error. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). the newline character is read.fptr). a pointer to the string is returned. a nonnegative value is returned. } String I/O Using string I/O. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. fclose(fp). string can be written to. a null pointer is returned. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). integers can be written to. General Form: fputs (str. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. Cognizant Technology Solutions.n. General Form: fgets(str. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or the endof-file is reached. On error. EOF is returned. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. General Form: putw (i. On error. or read from. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). whichever comes first. It stops when (n-1) characters are read. or read from. EOF is returned. the string remains unchanged. fptr).Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). This function writes an integer to a file. On success. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. A null character is appended to the end of the string. fptr). a nonnegative value is returned. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. The newline character is copied to the string.

Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. General Form: i = getw( fptr). The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. On success. the function stops scanning and returns. addresses-list). variable-list). or form feed. the number of characters printed is returned. On success. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. If an error occurred. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). or the next incompatible character. carriage return. vertical tab. in a left to right fashion. If the input does not match. in a left to right fashion. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. General Form: fscanf( fptr. new line. tab. format-string. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. according to the format specifier specified in format string.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. EOF is returned. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. If an input failure occurs.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). or the width field is satisfied. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. -1 is returned. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. Cognizant Technology Solutions. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. format-string.

char name[10].&std1[i].age). "r"). &std[i].name . Cognizant Technology Solutions. int age.8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. std1[i]. %s %d " . "%d . i<5 . while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . std[i].no . Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. std1[i]. fpt = fopen("details.Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. fprintf(fpt . &std[i]. &std1[i]. std[i]. The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. std[i]. for(i=0. name .age).name . }std[10]. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream.name . } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. } fclose(fpt). bytes of data). printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). std1[10].age). struct { int no.no .Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). std1[i]. age )\n\n").i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . i++. fpt = fopen("details.no .e. std[i]. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . "w"). It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. int i.dat" .dat" . "%d %s %d " . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name printf("%d %s %d \n" .no . clrscr(). std1[i].age).

Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. 5 . General Form fread (&str. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). i++) scanf("%s %d ". size. }stud[10] . Cognizant Technology Solutions. fclose(fptr).stud[i]. n. fwrite(&stud . "r" ). fptr = fopen("ex.9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. int i . On success the number of elements written is returned. On success the number of elements read is returned. Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. n. for(i=0 .dat" . "w" ). fp). fptr=fopen("ex. The total number of bytes read is (size*n). On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. i<5 . printf(" \n\n printing the values "). Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. &stud[i]. General Form fwrite (ptr.dat" . It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’.age). The total number of bytes written is (size*n). fptr). On error or end-of-file. sizeof(stud1[0]) . int age . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name . fread(&stud1 . fptr). stud1[10]. 5 . sizeof(stud[0]) . fp). size. clrscr(). Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. struct tag { char name[10]. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned.

myString). "r"). i<5 . count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. // after this command. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stud1[i].h> */ FILE * inFile. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Open the input file.Print the line number and the line.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 .name . // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). } Try It Out 1.count. print it } fclose(inFile). read the input argument. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . Code: /* findword. In the main program.char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc.h> #include <stdio.c */ #include <string. // This is where I read the lines of the file int count. // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. 255. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. // is in the current line and // if so. stud1[i].age).h> /* #include <stdlib.

printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". }. value. value. value. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. one integer and the other double. int main() { union number value. if found print the line number and the full string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". Cognizant Technology Solutions.x.". "double:\n". Close the file and exit the program 2.y ). "Put a value in the integer member". } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. "double:\n".y = 100.h> union number { int x. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. value. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. return 0. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. value.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. "Put a value in the floating member". Page 105 ©Copyright 2007.x = 100. "and print both members.0. double y. getchar(). "and print both members.x. "int: ".".Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . value.y ). "int: ".

"hello-out"). ftell(). 2L . sleep(1). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Input. string I/O. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. What is EOF. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Preproccessing is done before compilation. } 3. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. formatted I/O and block I/O. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. Test your Understanding 1. } return 0. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. fopen().Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. i++. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. and what value does it usually have? 4. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. and rewind() functions.

} Answers: 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. stdin. 5. printf(“%d”. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file.a ). 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Its value on most computers is -1. No significance. a).. 4. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. foo( ). 3.”. stdout.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. stderr 2.

If it is a binary stream. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. If it is a text stream. offset. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In some applications. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. the current file position is returned. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. General Form: fseek( fptr. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). which corresponds to the current file pointer position. On error. On success. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. ftell() and rewind(). This can be achieved by using the functions fseek().

fseek (fp. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. 10L. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). On success. 0). The end-of-file indicator is reset. fseek (fp. or carriage return. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. form feed. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. 0). Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. 0L. a nonzero value is returned. On error. 0L. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. Move the file pointer to the end of file. fseek (fp. Remove comments from the source file. -10L. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning.1 fseek (fp. 2 On a text stream. Move the file pointer to the beginning. 10L. General Form: rewind(fptr). -10L. vertical tab. 2). rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. Example 15. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. fseek (fp. fseek (fp. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. zero is returned. 1). horizontal tab. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). 1). The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. The error indicator is NOT reset. 2).

The # token must appear as a first character. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. No semicolon (. #ifdef. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. Defines a preprocessor macro. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #ifdef. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. or #elif test fails. Defines text for a compile-time error message. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. #include Inserts text from another source file. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. #ifndef. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. Except for some #pragma directives. Ends conditional text. or #elif test fails. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. #ifndef. depending on the result of a constant expression. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces.

standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. whichever comes first. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value.2 #include <stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. Example 15. the file is searched first in the current working directory. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. or until the end of the program source is reached.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. Therefore. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. and then processed by the compiler. In case that it is not there.h> #include “stdio. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive.

…. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15.. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007.

General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. #ifdef.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. addition=(2)+(3). These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. Continuation character for macro definition is \. areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level.3). and #ifndef directive..b) ((a)+(b)). and one matching #endif directive. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there are zero or more #elif directives. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). addition=add(2. zero or one #else directive. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For each #if.5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a.

Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). or #endif... change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). printf(name(ssn. …. and the preceding #if evaluated to false.8 #define name(x. */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes.6 Check whether a variable is defined. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”).somca)). then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else.y) x##y main() { …. …. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. printf(name(xyz)). If there is a matching #elif.7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. If the value is 0 (false). If so. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15. #elif. If there is a matching #else. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). */ Example 15.

2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. * and & are inverse of each other. 5 – value.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. Whenever a variable is declared. a). memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. x = 5 . It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. int a = 5 . * Indirection or de-referencing operator. & and *. &a). 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. for pointer implementation. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. as they have a number of useful applications. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. *px. & address operator. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .9 int x. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. px = &x. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. C provides two operators. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. Example 15. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007.

*px). *q = NULL. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . q = a. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. Cognizant Technology Solutions. x).cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. printf(“ x = %d “ . q = p. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. Two pointer variables can be compared.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. printf(” address of x = %d “ . invalid . valid valid.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. b . int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. px). printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. . Example 15. b = &a. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. Null or an address.11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. &x). *p = &a . Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. &px). The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer.

if v is an array. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i=5. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. ptr ++. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. and so on. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. *pv is the same as v[0]. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. Thus. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. ptr= &i.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable.

printf (“%d “. varies according to the dimension. (ptr+i)). *ptr .16 printf (“%u “.14 int a[5] = {1. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. OR pointer_variable = array_name.5} ptr = a . Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . The way in which the pointer variable used.*(ptr+i)). printf (“%d “. OR ptr_vble = array_name.2. ptr = &a[0][0] . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.17 int a[2][2] = {1. i . similar to ptr = &a[0]. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn].2.3. Example 15. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15.*(a+i)).*ptr).15 printf (“%d “.4} . a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 15. 4.3. Accessing address Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified.4.*(a + i)[ j ]. int *pa=&a[0][0]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . jth column Accessing value Example 15. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row.6}. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. is a collection of one dimensional array. j. Here. Cognizant Technology Solutions.*(*(pa+i)+j)).Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.j++) printf(“\t%d”. printf (“%d “.j) value displays the x(i. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array.18 printf (“%d “.j<3. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. for example.j) value Example 15. each with 2 elements.j) value displays the x(i. int a[2][3]={1. refers to the entire row . Page 119 ©Copyright 2007.*(*(ptr + i) +j).i<2. displays the x(i.5.2. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1. For example.3. So. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array.19 main() { int i. it results in a problem.*(a[ i ] + j). for (i=0.i++) { for (j=0. printf (“%d “. Therefore.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row.

Suppose. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. which can hold the address of a character variable.3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers.2. p = name. Once the pointer is declared.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”).21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL. Thus. ptr[0] = a[0]. it refers to the address of the 0th element. Example 15. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. When an array is referenced by its name. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. *ptr[2] .20 int a[2][2] = {1.4} . /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row .

Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . make it a pointer to a string of varying length. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. *p). An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance.3} . Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. “rstu”. “ABC” . char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. “ABCD”} . which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. int *p = {0. char *name[4] = { “A” . it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location.1. “AB” . valid invalid Thus. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. printf(“String output = %s”. char *p = “string” . *p). “xyz”}.2. If the elements of array are string pointers. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* suspicious pointer conversion. substantial saving in memory.24 int a. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer.23 const int a=10. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. In the above example. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). The value cannot be modified. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. int *pa = &a.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. Thus. int *const pa = &a. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Example 15.

++num2. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. Example 15. long *pnum = NULL. ++*pnum.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. *pnum + num2). pab=&b. num2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float b. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers.26 int a. num2 += *pnum. Try It Out 1. But it is needed. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. void *pab. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. pnum = &num1. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. num1. *pnum = 2. *(int *) pab =100. *(float *) pab = 105. long num2 = 0. pab=&a. const int * const pb = &b. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". in order to know the size and value of the data item. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. pnum = &num2.25 int b. getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions.55. *pnum.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15.

%16u %d\n". the array elements is the pointer. Then the value of num1 is 2.a[j]. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared. printf("Address for(j=0. Address in array Value\n").e.j<5. int *b. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum.i5=0. Print all the values num1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.i4=1.num2. a[4]=&i5.i2=3.j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a[3]=&i4.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. int j. #include <stdio.i3=2. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. a[1]=&i2. } printf("using pointer\n"). Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i.h> main(){ int *a[5]. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. a[2]=&i3. int i1=4. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. Increment the value of num2. now the value of num2 is 1. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4.a[j]).c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer.value at pnum 2. a[0]=&i1.

j<5. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. 2.*b. for( j=0.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". } getchar().Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. malloc().c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions.b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007.*b. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. See the difference. State whether the following are true or false a. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. Test your Understanding 1. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. b++. Declare an array of integer pointers. Pointer variable can only contain an address b.

The first statement assigns 4 to a. *b = &a . *n. Since b points to a. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. 2 5 5 6. false. n[0]=100. The result is meaningless. assign the value to a. false. 300 4. } 6. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. Differentiate malloc() . calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . false 2. The third statement castes **c. into type int *. **c=5. n[24]=200. 5. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. which is value of a. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. } 4. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. 5. Given the following declaration: int a. sizeof(str1). 100. 3. **c = &b. char str2[]=”abcd”. b = (int *)**c. Since c points to b. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. printf("\n%d. sizeof(“abcd”)). calloc().%d".Problem Solving and C Programming 3. Answers: 1. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). malloc(). True. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”.sizeof(str2). The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. printf(“%d %d %d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. a).2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . /* function prototype */ void change(int *). int *assign() . } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17.1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . p = assign() .function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. Example 17. *p) . Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. change(p). Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. p =&a. *p. /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ .

*q = 20 .Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . void add(int x. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Example 17. } int *big (int *x .3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . } Pointer to this function is declared as. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. *p. Cognizant Technology Solutions. of a is returned */ /* addr. Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. p = add.. x + y). of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. else return (y).*p). we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. to a function using pointers. p = big (&a. int *). So. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. b=20. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. void (*p)(int x. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. return q . printf (“%d”. *q = &a. which will speeds up the execution.) Suppose we have a function as. /* addr. int y). rather than an entire array. &b). main() { int a=10.

‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable. }. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference.”raja”. char name[20]. In this declaration. float avg. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. abc().20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17.6 struct stud { int rollnum.4 int display(). 1. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. struct stud student={101. (*abc)(). To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). will call the function add() with parameters 10. func_ptr = display. int semester. Example 17. Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. *ptr .67}. (*func_ptr) (). we can write as ptr = &student.5 main() { void abc(). int (*func_ptr) ().20). 95. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. Example 17.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10.

float salary. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. struct employee *empptr. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. calloc () .8 struct employee { char name[20]. ptr->semester.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. ptr->name. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). Page 130 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). Cognizant Technology Solutions. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. int *p. ptr->avg). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 17. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. ptr->rollnum. Thus. char gender. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17.

j<3. i++ for(j=0. j++) scanf("%d". j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). Example 17. int i. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). b[i]+j). a[i]+j). j++) printf("\t%d". j++) scanf("%d". *b[3] . for(i=0 . } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). i++) for(j=0. j<3. i<3. This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. i++) for(j=0. } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. free() will take a void pointer.9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . *(c[i]+j)). i<3. i++) for(j=0. which can hold 10 integers.j. i<3. j<3. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)).Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. j<3. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. for(i=0. p = (int *) calloc (10. printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). sizeof(int)). *c[3]. for(i=0. for(i=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. for(i=0. i<3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i<3.

it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. video memory.ptr1 value int x. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. p1=&x. p2=&p1. beyond 3 levels.10 addr. However.*p1. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory. As such. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. Example 17. which holds the address of another integer pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .ptr2 x=100. For example. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. int **p.**p2.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. printer. it cause memory leakages If not used properly.

" of ".suit = "Spades".face = "Ace". " of ".suit. Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. All will print the same. cardPtr->face. ( *cardPtr ). } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. aCard. In the main program. struct card *cardPtr. aCard. }. Print the values of card structure in three different forms. cardPtr->suit. return 0. " of ". Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. ( *cardPtr ). printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char.h> struct card { char *face. getchar(). int main() { struct card aCard. aCard. cardPtr = &aCard. char *suit.suit ). declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . aCard.face. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007.face.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1.

exit(0). } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. exit(0). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. } return (p). struct node *link. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n").h> # include <stdlib. temp-> data = n. printf("The data values in the list are\n"). p-> link = p. temp-> link = p. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). }. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). } p-> data = n. struct node *insert(struct node *p.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. } temp = temp-> link.h> struct node { int data. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. int n){ struct node *temp. temp = p. } else { temp = p. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio.

In the insert function. } else printf("The list is empty\n"). getchar(). Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. struct node *start = NULL . } while (temp!= p). start = insert ( start. 4 ). Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. temp=temp->link. Then returns the pointer back. In the main program. again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. Now the start pointer is not NULL. start = insert ( start. Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. start = insert ( start. Then returns back the pointer. printf("The created list is\n"). so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p.temp->data). 2). } void main() { int n.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". 1 ). start = insert ( start. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printlist ( start ). 3 ).c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. int x. declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. In the main program. the start pointer will be NULL.as it is first time.

Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. *n. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. malloc(). calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. n[24]=200. printf("\n%d. Given the following declaration: int a. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. **c=5. b = (int *)**c. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. *b = &a . 2. **c = &b. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007.%d". What is the use of generic pointers? 3. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). Test your Understanding 1. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25].Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . n[0]=100. State whether the following are true or false a. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. } 4. In the printlist() function.

Problem Solving and C Programming 5. 3. 300 4. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. malloc(). calloc(). The result is meaningless. which is value of a. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. char str2[]=”abcd”.sizeof(str2). calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. assign the value to a. 100. Since b points to a. 5. } 6. false. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The third statement castes **c. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. printf(“%d %d %d”. True. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. Since c points to b. The first statement assigns 4 to a. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Differentiate malloc() . Cognizant Technology Solutions. into type int *. Answers: 1. false 2. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. false. sizeof(str1). 2 5 5 6. sizeof(“abcd”)).

B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. } /* */ main(int argc. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. #define max(A. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #else.: : : ) { declarations statements return value.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. #elif. #endif #ifdef.

\" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. \. ‘\xhh’ \n. octal. ‘\ooo’. \r. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. \b \\.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. cr. \t. \?. tab. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . hex) newline. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int.

subtract left. !. -+. (*p). address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . >> >. &name (type) expr sizeof *.member pointer->member ++. ~ *pointer. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. -.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. minus. modulus (remainder) add.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. <= ==. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name.member pointer -> member Ex. % +. <<. /. Cognizant Technology Solutions. decrement plus. logical not. divide. bitwise not indirection via pointer. <. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. >=. struct tag name name. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007.

{} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.h> <string. case const2: statement2 break.h> <setjmp.h> <float. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement .h> <errno.h> <signal. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <limits.h> <stddef.h> <stdio. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ).h> <math. do. do. expr2. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. Cognizant Technology Solutions. for Next iteration of while.h> <locale. …… . while. Unary operators.h> <stdarg.h> <ctype.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=.h> <time. *=. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left. all others group left to right. -=.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.h> <stdlib.

digit Checks whether c is a Space.ct) strncpy(s. t are strings and cs.c.ct.ct.h> Consider s. form feed.c) strrchr(cs.n) strcmp(cs. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.n) memcmp(cs.ct) strncmp(cs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .n) strchr(cs. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.ct.ct.c) memcpy(s.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. newline.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.ct. cr.c.n) strcat(s.n) memchr(cs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. letter.ct.n) memmove(s. tab.ct) strncat(s.n) memset(s.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Precision overrides this flag. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). If a * is used in place of the width specifer. u. Default is to just show the . then the precision argument. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. E.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. i. then the field is expanded to fit the value. then the value to be converted. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Result will always have a decimal point. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). e. X. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. Negative values still show the sign.sign. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. x. f. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. f. g. Overrides the 0 flag. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . [. e. g. Trailing zeros will not be removed. the width argument comes first. The type of conversion to be applied (required). Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. If the value overflows the width of the field. o. For d. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). This is useful only with a width specifier. Overrides the space flag.

d.0 For d. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. e. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. . u. or . E.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. o. Cognizant Technology Solutions. o. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary).n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. i. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. u. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. For f. i. then the precision argument. x. If a * is used. x. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . For d. Precision does not affect the c type. e. u. o. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. i. x. n e. For f. o. i. 6 for f. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. X types. The minimum number of digits to appear. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. o. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. . then the value to be converted. e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . u. f. x. x. the width argument comes first. u. E types. g. i. Value is first converted to a long double. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. [. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed.

i o u x X f e. b. Trailing zeros are removed. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). c. D. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). C. No characters are printed. e. f. A % sign is printed. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. g. E Type signed int.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. B. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. E. Type double printed as [-]d. F. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. Type char. d. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). The exponent contains at least two digits. Type unsigned int printed in octal. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). The argument must be a pointer to an int. Single character is printed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. Type double printed as [-]ddd. Type pointer to array. [type] d. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional).ddd. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Otherwise printed as type f. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero).

Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. or form feed). Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). Cognizant Technology Solutions. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. g e. o u x. s Type character array. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. Type unsigned int. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. Digits 0 through 7 only. The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. E.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. Type unsigned int. Type signed int. n e. X e.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. carriage return. u. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . The argument is a double. The argument is a long double. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. Digits 0 through 9 only. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. vertical tab. Type unsigned int. Begins with an optional sign. f. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. Type float. f. then it is base 10. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. i. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. i. tab. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). G designated with an e or E. o. d. u. f. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . o. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). The input must be in base 8 (octal). new line. it reaches a nonconvertible character). then it is base 8 (octal). Then one or more digits. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -).e.

If no width field is specified.. Allows a search set of characters. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. No characters are read from the input stream. Pointer to a pointer. No null character is appended to the array. Type character array. Requires a matching % sign from the input. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. By specifying the beginning character.] Input Type character array. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A null character is appended to the end of the array. If the first character is a carrot (^). a dash. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The argument must be a pointer to an int.. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. then 1 is assumed.

G.se/c/bwk-tutor. “C How to Program”.Dromey.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist. Fourth Edition. “How to solve it by Computer”.acm. Third Edition. Tata McGraw Hill R.uiuc.pdf http://cm.html#introduction http://www.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel. Ira Pohl. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .bell-labs. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley.html http://www.liu. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.lysator. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “Programming in C”. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. “A Book on C”.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007.

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