Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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....................................................................................................95 File Operations ................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions............................................................................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions................................................................................................106 Test your Understanding ...............................................................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ..92 Union of Structures .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives .90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ...............106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ....................................................................................100 Formatted I/O...................................................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ..........................................................................................................................................88 Try It Out .................................................................................................................................................................................94 Typedef Statement ..........................................................................................................................................................................................83 Declaration and Initialization..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................84 Structures and Arrays ............93 Enumeration .........................................................100 Numeric I/O...............................................................................................................................104 Summary ......................................................................96 Character I/O ..........................................101 Block I/O .........................79 Learning Objectives .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Learning Objectives ....87 Structures and Functions ................................................90 Test your Understanding .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Random File Operations ................98 String I/O.....................................115 Declaration and Initialization...........................................92 Unions..............................79 Storage Classes ............................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ............................95 Introduction to Files ..................................................................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007................................................................89 Summary ......................................................75 Summary ..............108 Preprocessor Directives ...................................................109 Introduction to Pointers ...................................................................79 Command Line Arguments .............................................................102 Try It Out ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Test your Understanding ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................133 Summary .................................................136 Syntax Summary ........................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ..................125 Session 17: Pointers .................................................................................127 Functions and Pointers ............................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...............................................................................................................................................130 Try It Out .......................................................136 Test your Understanding ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007................138 References .................................123 Summary ..............................127 Learning Objectives ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: .........................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Pointers and Arrays ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ................ Cognizant Technology Solutions...................151 Websites ..............127 Structures and Pointers ................................151 Books .......................................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation ..................................................................................................................117 Try It Out ....................................................................................................................................

Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To understand the problem. determining the cause of the problem. prioritizing. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. It is an act of defining a problem. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. identifying. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There is no universal method for solving a given problem. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007.

what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is also known as Program Analysis. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. headings. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output.

consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. the new parts become more focussed and. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. An important approach is Top-Down programming design. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. therefore. Program Design is both a product and a process. several design methodologies can be applied. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. While applying top-down design to a given problem. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. to test its correctness.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. and terminate in a finite time. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. deletions. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. However.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. produce output. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. the next step must be unambiguously defined. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. or modifications to the existing algorithm. but omits language-specific syntax. fact. Example 2. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. The errors identified leads to insertions.

Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . required to solve a problem. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. Output data Represents Process (actions. Cognizant Technology Solutions.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007.e. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. or entry from. End Represents Input. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. reports). another part of the same flow chart.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. fact. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2. i Initialize fact =1.

After compilation. During execution. algorithm descriptions. Testing is done during every phase of program development. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Then. Writing a program is called Coding. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. or particular pieces of programs. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. Documentation can be of great value. The translation results in the creation of object code. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. which includes things such as reference manuals. flowcharts. The program is now ready for execution. statements. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. the declarations. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. Initially. Linking is done if necessary. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. the design (algorithm. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Details of particular programs. requirements can be tested for its correctness. and project workbooks Internal documentation. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. but also to the programmers themselves. The compiler is system software. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program.

debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. such as BASIC. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. C++. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. and Pascal. Testing means detecting errors.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. COBOL. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. For many programmers. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. On some projects. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This is called foolproof programming. C. Ada. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. FORTRAN.

The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. For example. Because of it design. It does not need any translator program. Thus.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. there are many new languages. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. machine language is not an easy language to learn. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer.

High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. -. %. for its program construction. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. This translator program is called Assembler. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. SUB and LOAD etc. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. In high level languages. irrespective of the type of computer used. /. For example. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code).Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications.

Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. In 1959. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. in turn. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. The major breakthrough occurred. tested and maintained with ease. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. The language should provide appropriate data structures. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. and the expertise of the programmer. For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but it is complex and difficult to learn. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. operations. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. This. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. Later. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. though not widely used. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. type of program. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. with every combination being meaningful. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed.

Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. and Embedded System Environment. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. Interactive Environment. coded. Cost of Program creation. the backup process on an organization. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. For example. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. efficient register allocation. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. coding. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. testing. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. testing & use: This implies design.

debugging. 2. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. The environment under which a program is designed. Examples include database management systems. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . coded. Give the algorithm. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. 4. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. coding. documenting. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. compiling and running. testing. Distinguish between testing and debugging. Top-down program design. called Modules. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. algorithm development. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. Planning a tour. 3. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. Represent the following problem in top-down design. word processing systems etc.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and maintenance. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order.

True 5. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. Easy to carry from place to place b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . True. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. It can run on any machine d. What is meant by portability of programs? a. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4.

resulting in the construction of efficient programs. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. It was evolved from ALGOL. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. In 1970. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. In 1967. and B. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. which are efficient but nonportable. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. for writing system software. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. To assure that the C language remains standard. in 1973. BCPL. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. which are portable but inefficient. Prior to C. During 1970s. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. The standard was updated in 1999. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development.

Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. C++. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C# conserve C syntax. Java. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. Output and Processing statements. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. array. C program can be documented using these comment lines. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. to define the symbolic constants and macro. to include functions from the system library. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. although they may appear in any order.extensive use of pointers for memory. Every C program must have one main() function. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. called functions. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. C is a case sensitive language. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.sum. sum = num1+num2. &num1. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. num2).h> main( ) { int num1. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). num1. It removes comments and empty lines in the program.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3.num2. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. sum). printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. scanf(“%d%d”.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio.&num2).

OBJ indicates object code files. +. the link editor combines these functions with main(). C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. These files are usually called header files. Assembler The assembler creates the object code. Identifiers. Operators and Expression.h> -.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. % . External variable references are resolved here.o suffix and on MSDOS files with .includes contents of a named file.2 #include -. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code).z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ? .standard library I/O file #define -. #include <stdio.standard library maths file. file with a. numbers and expressions.defines a symbolic name or constant.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters. [On UNIX. #include <math. to create an executable file.Z o Lowercase a…. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A….h> -. . Blank spaces etc. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters.. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words.

These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. All keywords must be written in lowercase. The following table shows the list of keywords. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. It should start with an alphabet. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. and functions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. Example 3. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. the range of values that can be represented in memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. predefined meanings in C. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). constants. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007.

The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Similarly. They are. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. int = 2 bytes. For example. Here. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . never less than int. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65.

1 * (104932) Increases the size of double. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.967. Cognizant Technology Solutions. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.7 * (10-308) to 1. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program.4 * (10+38) 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.4 * (10-38) to 3. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.147. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32.647 Floating Point Number.768 to 32. It is useful with pointers. They are used to represent a collection of data.147. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.7 * (10+308) 3.294.483.483.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.648 to 2. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.4 * (10-4932) to 1.

4 int i. float sum = 0. char ch. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. also called read-only variables. z. Cognizant Technology Solutions. k. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters.0. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. tot = 0. General form: var_data_type list variables. ct=1. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ct=1. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. Example 3. float x. j.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. int tot.5 int total=0.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. y.

6 const int size = 100. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. const long a = 50000L. const char ch = ‘a’. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. This value cannot be changed by the program. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. const float pi=3.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. Example 3. which evaluates to either true or false. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. or const long a = 50000l. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables.14. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. (true – 1. const int a = 0567.

Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. /=. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. ++i). if condition is evaluated to true. /*prints 6 . i++). *=. +=.pre increment */ /* prints 6 . -=. printf(“%d”. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. printf(“%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“%d”. i).may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment.post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression.k: pre increment.

b=2. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . function calls that evaluates to a value. Logical OR.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. member access operators Logical NOT. Index.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion.7: Operators Let a=1. unary minus. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . operators. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. Additive operators. Inequality comparators. address Increment and decrement operators.b) / c or a . Multiplicative operators. op= Name Parentheses. It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a .(b / c). Equality comparators Logical AND. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. Assignment. Relational expression (uses relational operators).(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and Logical expression (uses logical operators). Conditional. indirection.

c= a>b. x + 3 = y. Example 3. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. b-c). C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. the assignment operator is “=”. d = a == b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the statement x = y + z. a=b=3. The result of the expression will be of higher data type.) not a storage location. c=3. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In C. For example. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. double to float causes round of digits. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. (3) int a. c = 3. In implicit type conversion.. but more efficient than: a = 3.. For example. b = 3.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression.which is the same as. if the operands of an expression are of different types. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. e = a != b. float b. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. . (2) a = (b=2. d = 3. a=3.5. b=4.8 (1) a = (b = 2. before assigning the value to it. (4) int c. However. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. b+c). computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. This is called Typecasting. c=3. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i.e. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. b+c.

d = a % b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. y = a / 10.8). the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator. because the variable sum is of type float.8) as the integer 5.5 * 3.11 int a. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. b.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float . float x. x = a / 10. Example 3. d. e. c = a/b. z.narrowing . Example 3. e = -a % -b. y. 5.0.0 will be stored in sum.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. b=4. The original value of the variable is not altered. sum = (int) (1.5 * 3. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. c. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .7. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1. Then. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b.9 float sum. f. instead of 5. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. a=14. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1.

c = a>b. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements.12 a int a=0. Example 3. processing. a=++b + ++c. a=b-. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. and tab. . General form: char-variable = getchar(). There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables.+ --c. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. a=b++ + c++. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). punctuations. c=0. This single character includes alphabets.13 char ch. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. digits.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. ch = getchar(). b=0. a=++b + c++. Cognizant Technology Solutions. return. getch (). c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. Another method is to use input functions.

Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). Blank space is also considered as a character.character input from console & echoes the character. gets(ch). /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. ch = getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: putchar(char variable). To get a line of text. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. putchar(ch). General Form: gets(stringvariable). Example 3. this function serves the purpose.14 char ch[5]. monitor. String Input gets () . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 36 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming getche().15 char ch.

Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[.16 char ch[5]. %e. C has a special formatting character (%). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. g. A character following this defines the format for a value.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h.. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. list of variables). Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: scanf (“format string”. gets(ch). Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. L) conversion character (d. x. l. o. puts(ch). e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. u. f.

*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. x). By default. General Form: sscanf (str.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. &i. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values.*f”. Format string. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. &b).18 printf (“char=%c. name).*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. /* column width 10. &a. the delimiter while reading the values is space. “format string”. General Form: printf (“format string”.4s”. i. Stops when it encounters new line. To read a string using ‘%s’. Example 3. first 4 characters printed. ‘&’ need not be used. &a.&b).ch. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf (“sum = %*. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. list of variables). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &ch.&a. This function returns the number of characters printed. Delimiter can be user-defined. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. w.&b). /*if the input is 12345 & 10. str). a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. Format string and variables are separated by comma. int=%3d. Example 3. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. also known as control string contains field specifications.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. sum). /*accepts all inputs including space. which directs the interpretation of input data. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. p.2f”. list of variables). floating point=%6. &x).

b=2. “total” c. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. getchar(). printf("The Value of z : %d\n". the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language.a=4.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .y=-10.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “format string”. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. then based on the operator precedence.h> main() { int z. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. C has a rich set of operators. C supports four basic primitive data types: int. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. main d. float. list of variables). z = x++ . C program is a collection of functions. General Form: sprintf (str. char. Emp_name b. Test your Understanding 1.z).x=5.--y * b / a. double.

b). s. x = 7. s= (int) y + 3. All are valid. 4.0 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Is the statement valid? 3. a = (b = 2) + (c=3).Problem Solving and C Programming 2. but getch() will not echo the character. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. getche() echoes the input character on screen.5. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 4 5 7. s = 10. x= (int) y. a. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. valid 3. .5. 5. 7. What is the output of the following code? int a . What is ternary operator in C? 5.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2.5 4. y=7. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. Answers: 1. If. 4 5 b.c ( “ “ . 6. b = printf (“welcome”). printf (“%d “.

} x=a*b.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. Example 5. c=a + b. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. In an iterative structure. b=10.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. In a selection structure. . a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. c=a+b. c=3. In a sequence construct. Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. Cognizant Technology Solutions. y = x * b – k. selection. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. and iteration (looping). } { { a=1. 1 a=8. until some condition is satisfied. 2 { a=10. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. Example 5. } } { b=2. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions.

and/or logical operators. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. logical. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. and/or relational expression. and one or more simple expression statements.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. } ] statements3. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. is executed in a sequential manner. An expression involves arithmetic. Cognizant Technology Solutions. input-output statements. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which consists of declaration statements. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. } [ else { statements2. Expression can be arithmetic. relational.

c). if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. if (expression) statements-2.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. if (expression) statements-1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“ max = %d” . Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. else printf (“largest = %d”. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. If the else part is not specified. } else { statements2. else max = a. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. } Example 5. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. a). true or false is known.max).4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. if (a<b) max = b.

The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). else if (expression) statements2. else printf(“Fail\n”). .Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. else if(expression) statements3. else statements4.b). else printf (“largest = %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”).5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”).c). General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 5.

which is similar to the following if-else statement.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. array variable. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. Expression may be a constant value. else max = b. default : statement. case item2: statement 2.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. Example 5. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). and/or arithmetic expression. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. case itemn: statement n. then an execution jump is made to that point. relational expression. default statements will be executed. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. variable. } Expression in the switch statement. pointer variable. if there is no match for the case labels. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. which are represented by constant values. break. if (a>b) max = a. logical expression. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. must be an integer valued expression. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. expr3 is evaluated. Default case is optional and if specified. break. break. If the variable matches with one of the constants. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

break. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. General Form: for (expression1. ‘while’.while’. break. which follows the loop. expression3) { statement / block of statements. case ‘-’: c=a-b. ‘do. the statements inside the loop are executed. If the test condition is False. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). the control is transferred to the statement.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. If the test condition is True. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. case ‘/’: c=a/b. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. case ‘*’: c=a*b. break. expression2.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There are several ways to execute loops in C. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable.

for(. for (j=1. controlled by the value of ‘j’. c++.) { c+=1.i). j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.i<=3. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0.) { printf (“%d”.. c).c<=20. is called inner loop.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). Example 5.j<=3. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. c).8 (1) for (x=0. } (7) int c=0. The second loop.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. y=4.. z . x++) x++. ((x>3) && (x<9)). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For each & every iteration through the outer loop.9 for (i=1.c<=20. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop. for (. Such loops are called nested loops. the inner loop runs completely. z=4000. These three expressions are separated by semicolons.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2.++c) (6) c=2. printf (“c=%d”. y=4. Example 5. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. } In the above example. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. Different variables must be used to control each loop. (4) c=2. (3) for (x=0.j). for (. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)).

10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. } Expression can be a constant value. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. variable or any expression. while (expression). Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the result is True. the expression is checked again. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. the body of the loop is executed. while is an exit controlled loop statement. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. After executing the body of the loop. If the expression is initially False. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. (3) while(x) { }. General Form: do statement (s). The body of the loop may have one or more statements. the body of loop is not executed at all. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. Example 5. the body of the loop is executed. (4) while(1). On reaching the do statement. General Form: while (expression) { Statements... while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. ++c. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (6) c=1.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. At the end of the loop.while’ statement The do. } ‘do .c). If the expression evaluates to True. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False.

loop).13 for(loop=0. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. When the condition becomes False.while. General Form: break.loop<50. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.12 for(loop=0. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again. ++d.d).Problem Solving and C Programming to True. Example 5. Example 5. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True.11 int d=1.loop<100. do { printf (“%d\n”. General Form: continue. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration. the body of the loop is executed at least once. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. } while (d<=10). Cognizant Technology Solutions. */ printf("%d\n". It is used to terminate the current iteration. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 5.loop++) { If (loop==10) break. Break..loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop.

The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds.loop). Cognizant Technology Solutions.45359 main() { int pounds. int uklbs = pounds % 14. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. uklbs. pounds < 250. so we have used the for loop.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . } getchar(). For each pounds. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . We know the starting point. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. apply formula to get the stones. uklbs and kilos.e. termination condition and the increment. } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. for(pounds=10. printf(" US lbs UK st. printf("%d\n". kilos). pounds. lbs INT Kg\n"). float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n".uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. stones.

Which of the following statements are true? a. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. 2. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. while. An if statement must always include an else clause. for. Cognizant Technology Solutions. case 3 : printf(“3”). break. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. that are used to carry out conditional looping. break. case 1 : printf(“1”). switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. case 2 : printf(“2”). break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. Test your Understanding 1. An if statement may include only simple statements. b. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. if clause can contain another if statement. break. c.

01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. 3 4. The loop statements of do. printf (“%d”))) break.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). Cognizant Technology Solutions. 3.while will get executed at least once.. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. 5..Problem Solving and C Programming 4. else continue. Default case is executed.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”. c 2. What is the difference between a while and do. } Answers: 1.

Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name.].Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. etc. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. If an array of 5 integers elements is created. index 1 refers second location.. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array.g. [index 0 refers first location . The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . of the same data type. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. set of numbers. set of names).

Defines a character array. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. float sales_amt[10].Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. Array declaration reserves space in memory. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. starting at x[0]. int matrix[2][2]. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters.1 int x[5]. char str[16]="qwerty".2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. Example 7. Cognizant Technology Solutions. When addressing an element in an array. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays).

Thus. the base address can not be changed. (ex. /* b[0] = 10.4}. a[1] = 2 . The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.3 int a[5]={1.4}.2.2.20 .34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. ) */ float b[2]={10. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array.3.2. b[1] = 45. array can be declared without specifying the exact size. a[1]=2. In such cases.4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. retrieving.45.34}. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array. If initialized. a[2]=3. partial initialization is allowed.3.5}. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. Cognizant Technology Solutions. When arrays are initialized during declaration. /*a[0] = 1. size depends upon the number of values initialized. /*a[0]=1.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. a[2] = 3 . a[3]=4 (if size not specified. and processing of array elements. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. In partial initialization. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places.3. Example 7.2.

/*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”.i++) scanf(“%d”. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension.a[2]).a[1]).a[1].pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. a[0]).&a[i]). (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. a. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. &a[2]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (1) scanf(“%d”. printf(“%d”. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays.Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. scanf(“%d”.i<3. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays.6 int a[3]. &a[0]). a[2]).i<3. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . scanf(“%d”. (1) printf(“%d”. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. &a[1]). /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0.i++) printf(“%d”. Example 7. a+1.a[i]).5 int a[3]. a+2).a[0].

/*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution.5.row 0 & column 0 . the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.2. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations.5}.3.2}. int num[2][3] = {1. If m elements are needed. = 4 elements).row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions.{4}}. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . In partial initialization. Assume that array starts at location 1000.row 1 & column 0 .4.2. out of n locations defined.8 int num[2][3] = {1. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.3.row 0 & column 1 . 7 int a[2][2]. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature. Example 7.2.6}.2. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.{1.4.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.3}.3}}.

Example 7. return 0.’\0’). The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined.’u’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. String constants can be assigned to character array variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. name[1] = ‘O’. /*Creates a string. In C. A character string is stored in an array of character type.’m’.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. name[3] = ‘D’. name[4] = ‘\0’. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. Example 7.*/ (3) char name[5]. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. of chars in strings].11 char studname[50][15]. of strings] [max no. to represent the end of string. The value at str[6] is the null character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. one ASCII character per location. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. there is no built-in data type for strings. name[2] = ‘O’.

’\0’}. Example 7. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. name).’a’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). which manipulates the entire string at once. printf(“%s” .’\0’}} = {{‘b’. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” .’t’. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. int i=0. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007.’a’. name).’a’. {‘c’.’\0’}.13 (1) char name[20].Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.’t’.h.’t’. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7.”cat” . Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.

s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. string2) strcmp(string1. n) strncmp(string1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c) strstr(s1. string2) strcat(string1.s2) strpbrk(s1. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. c) strrchr (string. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. n) strncpy(string1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. s2) strspn(s1.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. string2. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. Find last occurrence of character c in string. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . s2) strcspn(s1. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. string2.string2.

fib[0] = 0. “.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. ‘.\f.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.\v. fib[1] = 1.:. for(i = 2. . except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric. i < 24. which can manipulate a single character. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio. i < 24. The header file.\t.h. True if c is a control character (\n.h> main() { int fib[24]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions.\r. is used for the character functions. . ctype. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. for (i = 0.) True if c is a space character (\n. True if c is ASCII .\f.‘. int i.\r. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. True if c is a letter.

Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. for (i=0. i<4. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. j++) printf("%d ".8. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. twod[i][j]). i++) for(j=0. 2. i<4. j<5. i++) { for (j=0. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. getchar(). j<5.5. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array.3. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio.13…. for(i=0.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n". as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array. fib[i]).2. } getchar(). int i.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. i.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. Initially array of size 24 is declared.j. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2.. printf("\n"). Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> main() { int twod[4][5].

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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} Function is defined prior to its reference. executable statement 1.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Global Variables . Function body.. type arg2. If it is declared in the Global declaration section. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. there is no need for the function prototype. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. } Function Header function-name arg1. : return expression. parameters. and the operations to be carried out by the function. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. So compiler will identify the function name.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. It can be accessed only within that function.) { local variables Declaration. it is used by all the functions in the program. Local Variables .arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. executable statement 2. …. Memory for the global variables is allocated. } main() { fun().Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “).

There can be multiple return statements. else return b. each containing different expression.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: return. If there is no return statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions.3 (1) return. then void keyword is used to represent that. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. Example 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . constant value or any single valued expression. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. Default return type is ‘int’. return(a*b). A function may receive any number of values from the called function.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). it is achieved by the return statement. If it returns a value. does not return any value. expression can be a variable name. } (2) main() { return 0.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. Example 9. return(a<b). int b) { if ( a > b) return a. OR return(expression).

The LHS variable name in the function call is optional.num2)) statement. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . scanf(“%d%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &num2). General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). find_big(num1.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. } int find_big(int a. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. else return b.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. /* function prototype. it is called Recursion. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”.num2). global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. Example 9. When the function call is encountered. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. The number. big. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. It is a process by which a function calls itself. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. num2. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. int). the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. data type. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. &num1. big). If the function returns value. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. If a function is returning a value. big=find_big(num1. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. /* function call statement. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name.

the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3).&n). then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). the control is immediately transferred to the function. which may call function3. The main function may call function1. { if (k<=1) return 1.fact(n)). functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. When the return statement is encountered.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. printf(“Factorial = %d“. control is transferred back to the called function. along with the value returned. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . printf(“Enter an integer\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed.7 main() { int n. In fourth call. which in turn return the value to its calling function. Depending on its definition. scanf(“%d“. fact(int). Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. which in turn call function2. else return(k*fact(k-1). } fact(int k). } If n = 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On seeing the name of the function in calling statement.

&a. integers\n”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n.b).a. } border() { int i. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”).i<=m. } border(int m.s). scanf(“%d%c”. char c. char s) { int i. border(n.i++) printf(“-“). for(i=1.int y) { return a+b . printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .&c). { int sum. scanf(“%d%d”. printf(“\n”).&b).c). } add() { int a.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). } } } scanf(“%d%d”. &n.b.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9. add(int x. printf(“\nSum = %d”. printf(“\nSum = %d”. return.b. } { int sum.&b). sum=add(a. printf(“\n”). Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.i<=80. sum=add().c).9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. return(a+b).sum). return. for(i=1. &a.i++) printf(“%c“.sum).

b=20. swap(a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. d = temp.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. Example 9. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. b). So. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. } void swap(int c. c = d. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. a. a=10. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. b). The value of the actual argument will remain same. temp = c. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. So. } Call by Reference In this approach. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. pointer variable or array name.

} /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. return max_value. Example 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *d = temp. i. a. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. max_value = val[0]. b). i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. swap(&a. b. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. for( i = 0.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). Example 9. a=10. temp = *c. i < 5. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. which points to an array. int *d) { int temp. &b). it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. } void swap(int *c. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable.12 int { int max_value. max. b=20. To pass an array to a function. *c = *d. } main() { int values[5].

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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A function calling itself is called recursion.i). iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. printf("%d". argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. fn(i). ii) function call. a). well defined task.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. a). { int a = 3. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. } printf(“%d” . printf(“ %d “ . C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. } 4. static. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. Test your Understanding 1. The command line arguments. } fn(int i) { return ++i. What is function prototyping? 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3.

7. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. return data type). it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. In call by reference. b. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. int *p(char *a) c. 3. Using command line arguments. What the following declaration statements imply? a.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. int (*p)(char a) d. In C. a. 10 6. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. 3 4 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. 2. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. int *p(char *a[]) 7. int p(char *a) b. 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . type of its arguments.

it has file scope. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory.. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. This is called block scope. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This means. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used).. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. is determined by where it is defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All other types of variables are local variables. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating.. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code.

If no storage class is specified. a). it is cleared and its memory destroyed. Because of this property. If not initialized in the declaration. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. Once allocated. then its scope is confined to that function. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). printf (“%d “ . the nested variables are unique auto variables. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. Example 10. } printf(“ %d “ . it will retain the value between function calls. they are also called local or internal variables. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. If not initialized in the declaration statement. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. Static variables are stored in memory. it is automatically initialized to zero. a). In the case recursive functions. internal static variables retain values between function calls. When the execution of the block is completed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. by default it is an auto variable. although it is active only in main(). So. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution.Thus.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . with identical names. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). If the variable is declared within a function. { int a =6 . prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program.1 main() { int a = 5 .

External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope.i++) incre(). This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. careful selection must be made for their use. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If not initialized in the declaration. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. When using external variables. for (i=1. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage.2 main() { int i. the variable is initialized to zero. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. instead of keeping it in the memory. printf(“ x = %d\n”. Since the registers are less in numbers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } incre() { static int x = 0. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. They are referred to as global variables. x = x +1. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. Since registers are faster than memory.x).i<=5. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed.

External variable declaration can not have initialization. b). Cognizant Technology Solutions. a). } void fun() { a = 10 . extern int a = 10. printf(“ %d “ . a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. */ void fun(). } int b = 20. The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. but as a first approximation. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. fun().Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. The first word is treated as the name of a program.3 int a = 5 . When a command is entered in a command window. just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. /* external variable declaration. Example 10. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. printf(“ %d “ . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is executed by a command-line interpreter. it is initialized to zero. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window.

Page 83 ©Copyright 2007.4 main( int argc. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings.argc). argv[i]). which are command line strings. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). char* argv[]) { int i. for( i = 0. department code (string). A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. For example. The components are called Members. employee name (string). Example 10. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name.i . } When the following command is given in the command prompt. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . salary (float).Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. i < argc.

. variable-name. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that. no extra structures can be created... General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name...... emp2.. Example 10.. int dept_code. variable-name... type variable-name......5 1) struct employee { int code..Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition... }. : : type variable-name... } .. variable-name... When declaring structure variables. char name[20]. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration.. struct employee emp1. Individual members will be given a separate memory location. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.. “struct” keyword is used to define structures. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable... Here.. variable-name... type variable-name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. Cognizant Technology Solutions. float salary.. tag name is optional...

stud2={102.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. int semester. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. 90.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. If it is partially initialized.”(dot). If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. No storage class can be specified for structure members. float avg. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. Example 10. illegal. } emp1. 1}. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. struct stud stud1={101. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration.78}. int dept_code. then the expression “s. float salary. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. emp2. struct employee { int empno = 101 . static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (tag name is optional here) char name[20].”Dina”. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. }. char name[20].0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. 1. “Raja”. illegal.6 struct { int rollnum.

code emp1. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays.sizeof(emp1)). slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. even though the values stored in the member variables are same.code emp2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[20]. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. For example.name emp1. Example 10. This is because.salary emp2.8 struct emp { int empno. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007.9 struct { int day. int year. the values in slack bytes are also compared. Cognizant Technology Solutions.7 emp1. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. which is always not same for different structure variables. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use.dept_code emp1.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . printf (“Size = %d”. } emp1.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. Example 10. float basic. the assignment expression a = b is valid. Assignment operation is allowed. member-field-name Example 10. While comparing structure variables. int month. }.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. float salary. char name[15]. then we can do so by writing: emp1. int sub_marks[5]. Example 10. struct stud Accessing values: student [1].year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays.avg student[50]. }emp1. }student. struct date doj.rollnum student [1]. Accessing values: student. int avg. In this example.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. Example 10.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber. }.doj. student.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum. int dept_code. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. char name[20].name student [1].sub_marks[0] }.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007.emp2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int semester.semester student [1]. char name [20].

emp2. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. change(&emp1). printf(“ %s “ . } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . }. “AAAA”} . void main( ) { void change(struct emp *).empno). /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. Example 10. it is passed using call by value method. char empname[10]. struct emp emp1 = { 101 .12 struct emp { int empno.empname).13 struct emp { int empno. main( ) { void display(struct emp). We can use pointer to structures. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 10. But changes will not be reflected back. char empname[10]. } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. }. Cognizant Technology Solutions. emp2. “AAAA”} .Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. emp1->empno). When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . printf(“%d” . or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. display(emp1).

strcpy(student1.9.name."Tom"). student1. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name). emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int main ( ) { struct student student3. float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio.marks). } student1. } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. printf (" Marks are %. printf (" Name is %s \n". getchar(). Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. student2. …) Example 10. student2. float marks. x. y).14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. int a. student2.marks = 99.name). Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102.h> struct student { char name[20]. wage is a structure variable of sal structure. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay.2f \n".

Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. int *p. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. Consider the following structure. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. struct { int a. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. Test your Understanding 1. In unions. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . only one member is accessible at a time. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. ) operator. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }*p1. Print the values of the structure. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Answers: 1. union person { char surname[10]. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. 3. char name[15]. }ex. }.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. printf(“Size = %d”. 2. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. The elements of an array are always of the same type. sizeof (ex)). struct stud_type s1. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 4. *p1->p. int age.

like a structure..... union-variable.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session.... Cognizant Technology Solutions..... but no storage is allocated. In the declaration. variable-name..it creates the type... unformatted..... Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member.. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly. }union-variable. and the members of the union are given. along with the keyword ‘union’... the tag name. keyword ‘union’.. variable-name. variable-name..... Page 92 ©Copyright 2007.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . variable-name... Unions follow the same syntax as structures. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name. can be used to declare variables of the union type. type variable-name. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization... Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template .. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members... No other member can be initialized. type variable-name.. For each variable.. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted. ... is a derived data type.. The tag name.. : : type variable-name.. and block file I/O operations Unions Union.

char name[20]. float avg. Thus. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. char name[15]. }. }. Cognizant Technology Solutions.1 union item { int m. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. char c. int dept_code. union { char surname[10].2 { int code. float salary. static union item product = {100}. Example 14. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. struct stud_type { int rollno. s1. The dot operator (. struct employee_type e1. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. struct stud_type }ex. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. }.) is used to access the members. float x. int age.

The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. That is. …… member n } . vtab = `\v'. General Form: enum tag { member1 . green takes the value 6. var2 . These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. tab = `\t’. first enumerated name has index value 0.e1. newline = `\n'. green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. As with arrays. e1 and s1. blue = 5 . next value is calculated as previous plus one. enum colors { red = 1 . tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. member2 . Example 14. the union allows the structure variables. but not both. to share common memory. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. …………… var n.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. Cognizant Technology Solutions. though they have signed integer values. As structures. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. similar to structures or a union. e1 = getch(). The member names must differ from one another. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. backspace = `\b'. at the same time. Here. the user can use either e1 or s1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . definition and variable declaration can be combined.

struct n1 . the results may be stored on disks. files are needed. It is used to give new names to existing data types. Example 14.4 typedef numbers int. In C. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. no need to use struct keyword. numbers n1. employee emp1. integer variables. Then structure variables can be declared as follows. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007.5 typedef { int empno. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. For such applications. emp2.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. General Form typedef datatype new-type. Similarly. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 14. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. }employee. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. n2 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char empname[10]. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing.

This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. When a file is closed. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Text streams consist of printable characters. and all characters will be transferred as such. on some systems. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. In C. the tab character. More generally. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. When a program begins. and the new-line character.in which case the position points to the end of the file. When a file is opened. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. A text stream.h. There are two types of streams: text and binary. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position.

variable list). fscanf(fp. fp = fopen(“name”. "format string". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . "format string". variable list). (Extensions can be specified like test. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. fclose(fp ). the purpose/positioning of opening the file. “mode”). The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. details.c. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fprintf(fp.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. It is a string enclosed within double quotes.

The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. fsetpos(). all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. or fflush(). If the file is opened in the update mode (+). if the file does not open or the file does not exist. If the file is opened with append mode (a). fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. Writing in to a file To write into a file.Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. rewind(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. By default.

Example 14. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. otherwise false. keyboard as a file. char c.dat”. If the end-of-file is encountered.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. Example 14. This fptr may be stdout. which is true if end of file is reached. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. If an error occurs. If an error occurs. which represents a standard input device. On success. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. which represents standard output device.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. the character is returned. monitor as a file. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. After the reading a character. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the pointer is moved to the next position.dat”. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. The EOF is end of file status flag. the character is returned.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. This may be a macro version of fgetc. The fptr may be stdin. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). char c. On success. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. fclose(fp). if ((fp=fopen(“sample.fp).6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. Cognizant Technology Solutions.fptr).

fptr). Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). On success. } String I/O Using string I/O. On error. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). a nonnegative value is returned. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. EOF is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This function writes an integer to a file. a file at a time. a pointer to the string is returned. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It stops when (n-1) characters are read.n. On success. On error. the string remains unchanged. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. fptr). or the endof-file is reached. fclose(fp). General Form: fgets(str. string can be written to. On error. General Form: putw (i. a nonnegative value is returned. EOF is returned. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). A null character is appended to the end of the string.fptr). whichever comes first. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). or read from. the newline character is read. a file at a time. General Form: fputs (str. or read from. On success. a null pointer is returned. The newline character is copied to the string. integers can be written to.

new line. Cognizant Technology Solutions. format-string. carriage return. variable-list). On success. -1 is returned. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. If an input failure occurs. the number of characters printed is returned. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or form feed. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. or the next incompatible character. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. in a left to right fashion. or the width field is satisfied. format-string. General Form: i = getw( fptr). Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). General Form: fscanf( fptr. addresses-list). The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. tab. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. If the input does not match. If an error occurred. according to the format specifier specified in format string. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. EOF is returned. vertical tab.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. On success. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. the function stops scanning and returns. in a left to right fashion. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf().

std1[i]. int age. printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n").Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . } fclose(fpt). i++. The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i.no . "r"). Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. fpt = fopen("details.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. name . std[i].no . "%d %s %d " .age). fprintf(fpt .8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. char name[10]. "w").age).no .&std1[i]. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream.i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . age )\n\n").name . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &std1[i]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. std[i]. bytes of data). std[i].no .e. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. std1[i]. std1[i]. "%d . fpt = fopen("details. std1[10]. &std[i]. for(i=0.dat" .age). clrscr(). &std[i]. std1[i]. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. i<5 . while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . struct { int no. }std[10].dat" . %s %d " . std[i].name printf("%d %s %d \n" .name .name . Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). int i.age).

size. 5 . On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. On success the number of elements read is returned. fptr).dat" . size. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). sizeof(stud1[0]) . the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. "r" ).dat" . Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. fptr = fopen("ex. 5 . On success the number of elements written is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fptr=fopen("ex.stud[i]. n. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }stud[10] . int age .Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’.name . fp). struct tag { char name[10].age). fread(&stud1 . stud1[10]. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. The total number of bytes read is (size*n). sizeof(stud[0]) . General Form fread (&str. fptr). printf(" \n\n printing the values "). fp). On error or end-of-file. The total number of bytes written is (size*n). int i . Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. for(i=0 . i++) scanf("%s %d ". "w" ). It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. fclose(fptr).9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. n. fwrite(&stud . clrscr(). General Form fwrite (ptr. &stud[i]. i<5 .

// close the file I opened earlier getchar(). // after this command. read the input argument. print it } fclose(inFile).count. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString.h> #include <stdio.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments.Print the line number and the line.name . // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . } Try It Out 1.age). myString). } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . i<5 . Code: /* findword. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. // is in the current line and // if so. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc.h> */ FILE * inFile. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". stud1[i]. inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++.h> /* #include <stdlib. // This is where I read the lines of the file int count.c */ #include <string. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stud1[i]. 255. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. "r"). Open the input file.char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

"and print both members. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2.". value. double y. "int: ". }.0. if found print the line number and the full string. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". "int: ". Close the file and exit the program 2. return 0. one integer and the other double. value.". int main() { union number value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. "Put a value in the floating member". "Put a value in the integer member". "double:\n".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. Again read the next line in the file and do the same process.x.Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . value.h> union number { int x. value. value. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. "and print both members.y ).x = 100. "double:\n". Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. getchar(). printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n".x.y = 100.y ).

Input. formatted I/O and block I/O. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i++. Preproccessing is done before compilation. } 3. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. string I/O. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. and rewind() functions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. What is EOF. Test your Understanding 1. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. } return 0. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. and what value does it usually have? 4. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). 2L . fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. sleep(1). ftell(). fopen()."hello-out"). What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. foo( ). printf(“%d”. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. stdin. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. stdout. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007.a ).”. a). It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stderr 2. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. 5. Its value on most computers is -1. } Answers: 1. 3.. No significance.

from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. offset. If it is a binary stream. On success. In some applications. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. the current file position is returned. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. ftell() and rewind(). the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. On error. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. If it is a text stream. General Form: fseek( fptr.

Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. 0L. fseek (fp. The error indicator is NOT reset. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. The end-of-file indicator is reset.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. zero is returned. form feed. 0). 0). -10L. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fseek (fp. fseek (fp. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. fseek (fp. Remove comments from the source file. 0L. On success. a nonzero value is returned. 2). On error. 1). Move the file pointer to the beginning. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. 10L. 10L. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. or carriage return. vertical tab. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. -10L. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). fseek (fp. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. Example 15. 1). 2). horizontal tab. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell().1 fseek (fp. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. General Form: rewind(fptr). Move the file pointer to the end of file. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. 2 On a text stream.

#ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. Cognizant Technology Solutions. depending on the result of a constant expression. Ends conditional text. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #ifndef. No semicolon (. Defines text for a compile-time error message. Defines a preprocessor macro. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. #ifdef.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. or #elif test fails. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. #ifdef. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. The # token must appear as a first character. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. Except for some #pragma directives. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. #ifndef. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. or #elif test fails. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. #include Inserts text from another source file.

h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. whichever comes first. the file is searched first in the current working directory.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. In case that it is not there. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. Therefore. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. and then processed by the compiler. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. or until the end of the program source is reached. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. Example 15. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007.2 #include <stdio.h> #include “stdio.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. ….4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function.

#ifdef. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). there are zero or more #elif directives.b) ((a)+(b)).5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and #ifndef directive. For each #if. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4).. Continuation character for macro definition is \. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. addition=add(2. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).3). addition=(2)+(3). General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. zero or one #else directive. and one matching #endif directive. The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. Example 15.

If so. printf(name(xyz)). */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true).y) x##y main() { …. Cognizant Technology Solutions.8 #define name(x. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”).7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. */ Example 15. If the value is 0 (false). #elif. and the preceding #if evaluated to false. …. or #endif.somca)). Example 15. change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it.6 Check whether a variable is defined. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled.. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). Example 15. printf(name(ssn. If there is a matching #elif.. then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. If there is a matching #else. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). …. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”).

px = &x. *px. * and & are inverse of each other. a). Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. & and *. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. &a).Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. C provides two operators. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. Example 15. 5 – value. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. int a = 5 . x = 5 . It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. & address operator. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. as they have a number of useful applications.9 int x. for pointer implementation. Whenever a variable is declared. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified.

px). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. Two pointer variables can be compared. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. x).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. *px). printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. q = a. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. *p = &a . valid valid. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. &px). prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. b = &a. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. printf(“ x = %d “ . q = p. printf(” address of x = %d “ . &x). printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b . Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. . invalid . Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. Example 15.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. Null or an address.11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . *q = NULL.

if v is an array. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. ptr ++.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. and so on. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. ptr= &i. i=5. *pv is the same as v[0]. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array.

16 printf (“%u “.*(ptr+i)).2.*(a+i)). Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . printf (“%d “. i . &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. similar to ptr = &a[0]. Accessing address Example 15. 4. varies according to the dimension. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value .*ptr).4} . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007.3. OR ptr_vble = array_name. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.17 int a[2][2] = {1.3. (ptr+i)).2. Example 15. printf (“%d “.14 int a[5] = {1.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index].15 printf (“%d “.5} ptr = a . The way in which the pointer variable used. OR pointer_variable = array_name. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear. *ptr . ptr = &a[0][0] . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension.

j) value Example 15.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row. displays the x(i. refers to the entire row . printf (“%d “. jth column Accessing value Example 15. for (i=0. Therefore. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row.*(*(pa+i)+j)).18 printf (“%d “. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. int *pa=&a[0][0]. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row.j) value displays the x(i.j) value displays the x(i. So. printf (“%d “. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1.19 main() { int i.*(a[ i ] + j). it results in a problem. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array.5. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts. for example. j.i<2.*(a + i)[ j ]. is a collection of one dimensional array.2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .*(*(ptr + i) +j).j++) printf(“\t%d”.4.j<3. int a[2][3]={1. Here. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array. For example. each with 2 elements.3.i++) { for (j=0.6}. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

ptr[0] = a[0]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. When an array is referenced by its name. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. it refers to the address of the 0th element.2. Thus.20 int a[2][2] = {1. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL. p = name. Suppose. *ptr[2] . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. Example 15. which can hold the address of a character variable. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. we have 2 pointers ptr[0].Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row .4} . Once the pointer is declared. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer.3.

“ABCD”} . Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. make it a pointer to a string of varying length. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. “ABC” . a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. “AB” . It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. int *p = {0. valid invalid Thus. The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. *p). *p). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .1. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. “xyz”}. printf(“String output = %s”. If the elements of array are string pointers. char *p = “string” . Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location.2.3} . An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. “rstu”. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. char *name[4] = { “A” . The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Example 15. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Thus. int *const pa = &a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . substantial saving in memory.24 int a. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15.23 const int a=10. In the above example. The value cannot be modified. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. int *pa = &a. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant.

*pnum. *pnum = 2. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. num2. num2 += *pnum. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. long *pnum = NULL. ++*pnum.26 int a. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. in order to know the size and value of the data item. ++num2. getchar(). *pnum + num2).h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. pab=&a. const int * const pb = &b. void *pab. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. pab=&b. pnum = &num1. pnum = &num2. Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. num1. float b. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. *(float *) pab = 105. long num2 = 0. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .25 int b.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type.55. But it is needed. Try It Out 1. *(int *) pab =100.

Then the value of num1 is 2. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4.a[j]). 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. Increment the value of num2.h> main(){ int *a[5]. printf("Address for(j=0. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. now the value of num2 is 1. #include <stdio. the array elements is the pointer. int *b.j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. int i1=4. a[3]=&i4. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. a[0]=&i1. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1.value at pnum 2.i2=3. a[2]=&i3.num2.a[j].Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. a[1]=&i2. Address in array Value\n"). Print all the values num1.j<5. %16u %d\n". int j.i4=1.e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. a[4]=&i5. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. } printf("using pointer\n"). Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array.i5=0.i3=2.

There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Test your Understanding 1. b++. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. Pointer variable can only contain an address b.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers.b). 2. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. } getchar(). What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007.*b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .j<5. State whether the following are true or false a. See the difference. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Declare an array of integer pointers.*b. for( j=0. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. malloc().

printf(“%d %d %d”. **c = &b. } 6. which is value of a. 3. char str2[]=”abcd”. 5. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. n[0]=100. Since c points to b. 5. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. The first statement assigns 4 to a. } 4. Given the following declaration: int a. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. false. printf("\n%d. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. 2 5 5 6. The result is meaningless. false. True. 300 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. false 2. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c.%d". but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. malloc(). calloc(). 100. b = (int *)**c.sizeof(str2). Since b points to a. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. n[24]=200. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. sizeof(str1). sizeof(“abcd”)).Problem Solving and C Programming 3. *b = &a . Differentiate malloc() . The third statement castes **c. *n. assign the value to a. **c=5. Answers: 1. into type int *. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. /* function prototype */ void change(int *). printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. change(p).Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. p =&a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int *assign() . *p. *p) . a). p = assign() .1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . Example 17. } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists.

/* addr. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. *q = 20 . void (*p)(int x. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. p = add.Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. b=20. rather than an entire array. int y). to a function using pointers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. of a is returned */ /* addr. } Pointer to this function is declared as. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. int *). of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. } int *big (int *x . void add(int x.. } Example 17. &b). *q = &a. else return (y). p = big (&a. x + y). So. return q . which will speeds up the execution. printf (“%d”.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . main() { int a=10.) Suppose we have a function as.*p). *p.

int semester. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 17. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. 95. we can write as ptr = &student. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. }.5 main() { void abc(). Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. (*abc)(). int (*func_ptr) (). In this declaration.67}. 1. (*func_ptr) ().6 struct stud { int rollnum. float avg. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). struct stud student={101.”raja”. To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *ptr . Example 17. will call the function add() with parameters 10.20). char name[20]. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable. func_ptr = display.4 int display().Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. abc().

calloc () . int *p.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct employee *empptr. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and then release this memory when it is no longer required. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. ptr->avg). Thus. float salary. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) .8 struct employee { char name[20]. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. ptr->semester. ptr->name. char gender. ptr->rollnum.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. Example 17. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures.

j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). i<3. j++) scanf("%d". for(i=0. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. Example 17. i++ for(j=0. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). j<3. i<3. i<3. } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. which can hold 10 integers. int i. i++) for(j=0.j.Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. i<3.9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . *b[3] . for(i=0 . j<3. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). j<3. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). Cognizant Technology Solutions. for(i=0. sizeof(int)). for(i=0. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). *(c[i]+j)). j++) scanf("%d". b[i]+j). free() will take a void pointer. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. i<3. j<3. This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. p = (int *) calloc (10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i++) for(j=0. j++) printf("\t%d". a[i]+j). A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. i++) for(j=0. for(i=0. *c[3].

int **p. However. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. video memory. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. beyond 3 levels. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers.ptr1 value int x. which holds the address of another integer pointer. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable.*p1. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer.**p2. As such.10 addr. For example. printer.ptr2 x=100.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. Example 17. p2=&p1. p1=&x. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

( *cardPtr ). Assign the values of face and suit of card structure.suit. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007.suit = "Spades". } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. cardPtr->suit. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". Print the values of card structure in three different forms.h> struct card { char *face. " of ". cardPtr->face. }. " of ". char *suit. Cognizant Technology Solutions. aCard.face. ( *cardPtr ). cardPtr = &aCard. struct card *cardPtr. declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. In the main program. int main() { struct card aCard. getchar(). " of ". aCard.face. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .suit ).face = "Ace". aCard. return 0. aCard. All will print the same.

p-> link = p. } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. } temp = temp-> link. Cognizant Technology Solutions. }. struct node *link. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). exit(0). temp-> data = n. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). exit(0). temp-> link = p. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. printf("The data values in the list are\n"). Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio.h> # include <stdlib. struct node *insert(struct node *p. } p-> data = n. } else { temp = p. } return (p).h> struct node { int data. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). int n){ struct node *temp. temp = p.

start = insert ( start. 1 ). start = insert ( start.temp->data). Cognizant Technology Solutions. so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. } while (temp!= p). Now the start pointer is not NULL. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. Then returns the pointer back. Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". In the main program. so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. Then returns back the pointer. In the main program. printlist ( start ).c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. start = insert ( start. 3 ). the start pointer will be NULL.as it is first time. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } void main() { int n. 4 ). Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. temp=temp->link. } else printf("The list is empty\n"). struct node *start = NULL . int x. printf("The created list is\n"). In the insert function. 2). start = insert ( start. again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. getchar().

In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. State whether the following are true or false a. *n. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Given the following declaration: int a. } 4. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. b = (int *)**c. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. *b = &a . Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. n[24]=200.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. Cognizant Technology Solutions. n[0]=100. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. **c=5. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. In the printlist() function. 2. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .%d". Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. printf("\n%d. malloc(). **c = &b. Test your Understanding 1.

The third statement castes **c. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. which is value of a. 3. false.sizeof(str2). Since c points to b. false 2. 300 4. printf(“%d %d %d”. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . malloc(). sizeof(“abcd”)). Differentiate malloc() . The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. } 6. Answers: 1. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. 2 5 5 6. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. 5. into type int *. Since b points to a. assign the value to a. false. 100. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. sizeof(str1). calloc(). The first statement assigns 4 to a. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The result is meaningless. char str2[]=”abcd”. True.

Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. #endif #ifdef.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. } /* */ main(int argc. #define max(A.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined. #elif. #else. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. ‘\xhh’ \n. \b \\. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. ‘\ooo’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. hex) newline. octal. Cognizant Technology Solutions. \t. \. \?. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. cr. tab. \r.

<= ==. >=. subtract left. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. -+. &name (type) expr sizeof *. divide. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. logical not. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. bitwise not indirection via pointer. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. struct tag name name. decrement plus.member pointer->member ++. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. >> >. <<. modulus (remainder) add.member pointer -> member Ex. ~ *pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . -. !. % +. (*p). <. /. minus.

do. *=.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=.h> <limits.h> <time. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.h> <signal.h> <errno.h> <math. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.h> <string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <float. expr2. case const2: statement2 break. while. Unary operators. do. for Next iteration of while. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> <ctype.h> <setjmp.h> <stdlib. all others group left to right. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). -=.h> <stdarg.h> <stddef. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1.h> <stdio. …… . switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break.h> <locale.

n) memmove(s.ct.ct.c.c) strrchr(cs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .ct. form feed. tab.ct. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c.n) strcmp(cs.n) memchr(cs.n) memcmp(cs.ct) strncat(s.n) memset(s.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype. cr.ct. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string. digit Checks whether c is a Space.ct) strncpy(s.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.c) memcpy(s. letter. t are strings and cs.ct) strncmp(cs.n) strchr(cs.ct.n) strcat(s.h> Consider s.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. newline. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

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Overrides the 0 flag. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. f. the width argument comes first. Trailing zeros will not be removed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). then the precision argument. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). x. [. Precision overrides this flag.sign. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. e. i. If a * is used in place of the width specifer. u. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. e. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). X. For d. f. If the value overflows the width of the field. o. Default is to just show the .Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. g. Result will always have a decimal point. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. This is useful only with a width specifier. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the field is expanded to fit the value. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. Overrides the space flag.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). E. g. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Negative values still show the sign. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). then the value to be converted. The type of conversion to be applied (required).

u. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . x. 6 for f.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. For d. o. e. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). Value is first converted to a long double. Precision does not affect the c type. n e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the precision argument. u. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. or . d. x. o. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. e. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. x. . [. u. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. i. For f. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. If a * is used. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). X types. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. o. E types.0 For d. i. u. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. f. then the value to be converted. o. i. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. i. u. e. i. the width argument comes first. E. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. The minimum number of digits to appear. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. x. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. x. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. . g.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. For f. o.

Type unsigned int printed in octal. C. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). Cognizant Technology Solutions. A % sign is printed. [type] d. D. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. g. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. d. B. Type double printed as [-]d. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). E Type signed int. Type char. Type double printed as [-]ddd. The exponent contains at least two digits.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). E. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. b. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). c. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). i o u x X f e. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. f. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . No characters are printed. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. e. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. Trailing zeros are removed.ddd. Otherwise printed as type f.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. F. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. The argument must be a pointer to an int. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Single character is printed. Type pointer to array.

s Type character array. o. tab. n e. vertical tab. u. d. Begins with an optional sign. or form feed). g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. Type unsigned int. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). G designated with an e or E. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. it reaches a nonconvertible character). x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. f. g e. i. Type signed int. Digits 0 through 7 only. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. carriage return. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted.e. then it is base 10. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. o. Digits 0 through 9 only. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. The argument is a long double. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). Then one or more digits. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. X e. f. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. Type float. The argument is a double.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . The input must be in base 10 (decimal). Type unsigned int. The input must be in base 8 (octal). u. f. new line. o u x. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. Type unsigned int. E. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. then it is base 8 (octal).

The argument must be a pointer to an int. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). By specifying the beginning character. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function... If no width field is specified. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. Cognizant Technology Solutions. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). then 1 is assumed. Type character array. Pointer to a pointer. A null character is appended to the end of the array. Allows a search set of characters. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int.] Input Type character array. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. No null character is appended to the array.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. No characters are read from the input stream. a dash. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the first character is a carrot (^). c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. Requires a matching % sign from the input.

Fourth Edition. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007. “Programming in C”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Ira Pohl. Third Edition.bell-labs.pdf http://cm.html#introduction http://www. Tata McGraw Hill R.lysator.acm.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.liu.se/c/bwk-tutor. “A Book on C”.G. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley. “How to solve it by Computer”.uiuc. “C How to Program”.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards.Dromey.html http://www. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007.

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