Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................75 Summary ................................................................................94 Typedef Statement ...............92 Learning Objectives .......................................................................................................102 Try It Out .....................................................................................100 Formatted I/O...100 Numeric I/O..........................90 Test your Understanding .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Learning Objectives ..............92 Union of Structures ..............................95 Introduction to Files ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ................................................79 Command Line Arguments ..........................................................................92 Unions.........98 String I/O....115 Declaration and Initialization.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................95 File Operations ........................................................................................79 Learning Objectives ....................................................................88 Try It Out .........................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.................106 Test your Understanding .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Random File Operations .....................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives .................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ......................................................................................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions...................84 Structures and Arrays ...............................................83 Declaration and Initialization......................96 Character I/O ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Storage Classes ...........................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions.........................................................................109 Introduction to Pointers ..............................................................................................................87 Structures and Functions ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Test your Understanding ...........101 Block I/O ...................................104 Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ...89 Summary ............................93 Enumeration .................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Preprocessor Directives ...................................................

.....................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007......................................................................................................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions.......................................................................................................................151 Websites ...................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ........................................................................116 Pointers and Arrays ........................................................................151 Books ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ................................................................................127 Structures and Pointers ...................136 Test your Understanding ........................................................................................................127 Learning Objectives ..........................................................................................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation ..Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ....................117 Try It Out .......................................................................................................123 Summary ........................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers ..................................................................................................................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: ...........................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary ........................133 Summary ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................130 Try It Out .........................................................................................................................................................................................127 Functions and Pointers .....................................................138 References .....................................................................

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007.

you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. identifying. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is an act of defining a problem. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. To understand the problem. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. determining the cause of the problem. There is no universal method for solving a given problem.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. prioritizing.

Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . headings. It is also known as Program Analysis. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced.

1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. An important approach is Top-Down programming design. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. several design methodologies can be applied. the new parts become more focussed and. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. therefore. Program Design is both a product and a process. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. While applying top-down design to a given problem. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems.

It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. The errors identified leads to insertions. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or modifications to the existing algorithm.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. fact. Example 2. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. but omits language-specific syntax. to test its correctness. However.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. produce output.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. the next step must be unambiguously defined. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. Cognizant Technology Solutions. deletions. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. and terminate in a finite time.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. reports).e. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. Cognizant Technology Solutions. required to solve a problem. End Represents Input. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. Output data Represents Process (actions. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. or entry from. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. another part of the same flow chart.

i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i Initialize fact =1. fact. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n.

Details of particular programs. the design (algorithm. Initially.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. Then. The translation results in the creation of object code. The program is now ready for execution. During execution. the declarations. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. flowcharts. or particular pieces of programs. which includes things such as reference manuals. but also to the programmers themselves. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. Linking is done if necessary. and project workbooks Internal documentation. The compiler is system software. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. algorithm descriptions. Testing is done during every phase of program development. After compilation. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. Documentation can be of great value. Writing a program is called Coding. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. requirements can be tested for its correctness. statements. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output.

Testing means detecting errors. Ada. C. C++. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. This is called foolproof programming. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. COBOL. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. and Pascal. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. FORTRAN. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. For many programmers. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. such as BASIC. On some projects. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. It does not need any translator program. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. For example. Thus. machine language is not an easy language to learn. Because of it design. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. there are many new languages. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed.

This translator program is called Assembler. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. SUB and LOAD etc. For example. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. Cognizant Technology Solutions. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). irrespective of the type of computer used. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. /. %. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. for its program construction. -. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. In high level languages. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +.

tested and maintained with ease. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. Later. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. operations. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. and the expertise of the programmer. with every combination being meaningful. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. though not widely used. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. type of program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but it is complex and difficult to learn. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. For example. The language should provide appropriate data structures. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. in turn. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. In 1959. This. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. The major breakthrough occurred. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation.

usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. For example. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. testing. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. coding. coded. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. Interactive Environment. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. Cost of Program creation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. and Embedded System Environment. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. the backup process on an organization. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. testing & use: This implies design. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. efficient register allocation. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007.

a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. documenting. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. word processing systems etc. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. Examples include database management systems. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. compiling and running. Planning a tour. testing. coded. Represent the following problem in top-down design. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. Give the algorithm. Top-down program design. Distinguish between testing and debugging. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. The environment under which a program is designed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. called Modules. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. debugging. 2. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. 4. algorithm development. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. 3. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. coding. and maintenance.

The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. It can run on any machine d. True 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions. True. Easy to carry from place to place b. What is meant by portability of programs? a. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c.

To assure that the C language remains standard. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . During 1970s. and B. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. in 1973. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. BCPL. In 1967. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. Prior to C. for writing system software. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. which are efficient but nonportable. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. The standard was updated in 1999. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. It was evolved from ALGOL. In 1970. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. which are portable but inefficient. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990.

The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. C# conserve C syntax. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C++. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Java.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable.

to define the symbolic constants and macro. C program can be documented using these comment lines. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives.extensive use of pointers for memory. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. Output and Processing statements. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . array. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. Every C program must have one main() function. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. although they may appear in any order. called functions. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. C is a case sensitive language. to include functions from the system library. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

&num1. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”.&num2). scanf(“%d%d”. sum = num1+num2. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. It removes comments and empty lines in the program. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #.num2. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. num2). sum). num1. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> main( ) { int num1. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language.sum.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input.

+.includes contents of a named file.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. . #include <math. the link editor combines these functions with main(). which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code). ? . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . to create an executable file.h> -. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. Identifiers.standard library maths file.2 #include -. file with a. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters.defines a symbolic name or constant. Assembler The assembler creates the object code.Z o Lowercase a…. These files are usually called header files. Operators and Expression.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . Blank spaces etc. External variable references are resolved here.h> -. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words..z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =. [On UNIX.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. numbers and expressions. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A….standard library I/O file #define -.OBJ indicates object code files. #include <stdio. % .

and functions. The following table shows the list of keywords. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. the range of values that can be represented in memory. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. predefined meanings in C. constants. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. It should start with an alphabet. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. Example 3. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. All keywords must be written in lowercase.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard.

short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Here. Similarly. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. They are. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. For example. int = 2 bytes.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. never less than int.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory.

4 * (10+38) 1. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program.4 * (10-38) to 3. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.147. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions.483.768 to 32.483.7 * (10-308) to 1.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.294. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.4 * (10-4932) to 1.147. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32. Cognizant Technology Solutions.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.647 Floating Point Number.967.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.648 to 2.7 * (10+308) 3. They are used to represent a collection of data. It is useful with pointers.

0. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. General form: var_data_type list variables. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. y. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. float x. Example 3.5 int total=0. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. General Form: [data type] variable name = value. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ct=1.4 int i. ct=1. int tot. k. tot = 0. float sum = 0.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. j. z. char ch. also called read-only variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold.

const char ch = ‘a’. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. Example 3. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. const float pi=3.6 const int size = 100. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. This value cannot be changed by the program.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. or const long a = 50000l. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. which evaluates to either true or false. (true – 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. const int a = 0567. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. const long a = 50000L.14.

(a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . if condition is evaluated to true. i). the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. +=.pre increment */ /* prints 6 .post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5.k: pre increment.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. /*prints 6 . Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. printf(“%d”. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. i++). printf(“%d”. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. /=. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ++i). *=. -=. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“%d”.

7: Operators Let a=1.(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. function calls that evaluates to a value. unary minus. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . op= Name Parentheses. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. Additive operators. Conditional. indirection. Relational expression (uses relational operators). The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> .(b / c). ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . member access operators Logical NOT. It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity.b) / c or a . Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. b=2. address Increment and decrement operators. Index. Inequality comparators. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and Logical expression (uses logical operators).b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . operators. Equality comparators Logical AND. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. Logical OR. Assignment. Multiplicative operators.

(4) int c. but more efficient than: a = 3. b = 3. . the assignment operator is “=”.8 (1) a = (b = 2.e. e = a != b. c=3. Example 3. x + 3 = y. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. a=3. For example. For example. (2) a = (b=2. This is called Typecasting. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. c= a>b. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. b-c).Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. a=b=3. c = 3.5.. In C. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. b=4. float b.) not a storage location. b+c). c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. the statement x = y + z.which is the same as. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. if the operands of an expression are of different types. d = 3. before assigning the value to it. Cognizant Technology Solutions..5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. However. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . d = a == b. In implicit type conversion. double to float causes round of digits. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x. c=3. b+c. (3) int a.

11 int a. Example 3. x = a / 10. e = -a % -b. y. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .5 * 3.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. d = a % b. 5. Then. y = a / 10. instead of 5. because the variable sum is of type float.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. f. b=4. float x. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. z. d.narrowing . the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b.7. sum = (int) (1.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. c.9 float sum.0 will be stored in sum. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value. a=14. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c = a/b. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value.0.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float .8).5 * 3. e. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value.8) as the integer 5. b. The original value of the variable is not altered.

return.12 a int a=0. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). punctuations.+ --c. b=0.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c = a>b. digits. . Another method is to use input functions. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. a=b++ + c++. and tab. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. processing. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. a=b-. Example 3. c=0. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). getch (). Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. a=++b + c++. a=++b + ++c. This single character includes alphabets. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. ch = getchar(). and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program.13 char ch. General form: char-variable = getchar().

Example 3. To get a line of text. monitor. gets(ch). Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). putchar(ch).character input from console & echoes the character. Blank space is also considered as a character. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character.15 char ch. /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. ch = getchar(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: gets(stringvariable). this function serves the purpose. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007.14 char ch[5]. String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: putchar(char variable). String Input gets () .Problem Solving and C Programming getche().

%e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. gets(ch). C has a special formatting character (%). Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. Example 3. General Form: scanf (“format string”. puts(ch).] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). A character following this defines the format for a value. Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. g. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format.. l. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[.16 char ch[5].pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. o. f. L) conversion character (d. x. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. list of variables). u.

/*if the input is 12345 & 10. name). which directs the interpretation of input data.&a. Delimiter can be user-defined. x).18 printf (“char=%c. str).4s”. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. i. Example 3. &a. &ch. sum). a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”.&b). /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. also known as control string contains field specifications. Format string. To read a string using ‘%s’. Example 3. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. list of variables). a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. General Form: printf (“format string”. &x). Format string and variables are separated by comma.2f”. printf (“sum = %*. first 4 characters printed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. p. scanf (“%[^\n]s”.&b). By default. /*accepts all inputs including space. list of variables). the delimiter while reading the values is space. Stops when it encounters new line. ‘&’ need not be used.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Address operator (&) is used before the variables. This function returns the number of characters printed. &b). “format string”. &a. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. int=%3d. floating point=%6. /* column width 10.*f”. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. w. &i.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007.ch. General Form: sscanf (str.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored.

C program is a collection of functions. list of variables). Test your Understanding 1. then based on the operator precedence. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio.x=5. “total” c.h> main() { int z. main d.y=-10. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. getchar(). printf("The Value of z : %d\n". C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. General Form: sprintf (str. float.z).b=2. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. C has a rich set of operators. Emp_name b. Cognizant Technology Solutions.a=4.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. z = x++ . C supports four basic primitive data types: int. double. char.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language.--y * b / a. “format string”.

x= (int) y. If. What is the output of the following code? int a . 6.5.5 4. s. 5. s= (int) y + 3. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). x = 7. .b). 7. 4 5 b. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. 4 5 7. a. valid 3.0 . What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Is the statement valid? 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c ( “ “ . but getch() will not echo the character. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. y=7. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. All are valid. What is ternary operator in C? 5.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2.5. b = printf (“welcome”). welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. s = 10. getche() echoes the input character on screen. Answers: 1. printf (“%d “.

you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } { { a=1. c=a+b. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. 2 { a=10.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. selection. } x=a*b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). y = x * b – k. Example 5. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. 1 a=8. In a selection structure. } } { b=2. c=3. . b=10. In a sequence construct. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. Example 5. and iteration (looping). Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. In an iterative structure. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. until some condition is satisfied. c=a + b.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } [ else { statements2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). and/or relational expression. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. Expression can be arithmetic. An expression involves arithmetic. relational. logical. and one or more simple expression statements. which consists of declaration statements. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. input-output statements. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. is executed in a sequential manner.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. } ] statements3. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. and/or logical operators.

For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. } else { statements2. if (a<b) max = b.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. if (expression) statements-1. General Form: if (expression) { statements1.max). a). printf(“ max = %d” . If the else part is not specified. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. } Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. else printf (“largest = %d”. if (expression) statements-2. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. else max = a. true or false is known. Example 5.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers.c). the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value.

It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else statements4. Example 5. else printf (“largest = %d”. . Cognizant Technology Solutions. else printf(“Fail\n”). else if (expression) statements2. General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007.c). Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”).b). else if(expression) statements3.

Expression may be a constant value. logical expression.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. variable. which is similar to the following if-else statement. break. Example 5. If the variable matches with one of the constants. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . break. then an execution jump is made to that point. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). default : statement. pointer variable. and/or arithmetic expression. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. } Expression in the switch statement. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. if (a>b) max = a. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. default statements will be executed. expr3 is evaluated. Default case is optional and if specified. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. case itemn: statement n. array variable.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. which are represented by constant values. case item2: statement 2. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. must be an integer valued expression. else max = b. relational expression. break. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. Cognizant Technology Solutions. if there is no match for the case labels.

expression2 is to set a terminating condition. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. break. If the test condition is False. case ‘*’: c=a*b. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. expression3) { statement / block of statements. which follows the loop. the control is transferred to the statement.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the test condition is True.while’.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. General Form: for (expression1. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. break. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). case ‘/’: c=a/b. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. ‘do. case ‘-’: c=a-b. There are several ways to execute loops in C. the statements inside the loop are executed. break. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. ‘while’. expression2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. break.

Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”. Example 5. for (. } (7) int c=0. } In the above example. printf (“c=%d”. controlled by the value of ‘j’.. for (j=1. c).j).) { printf (“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For each & every iteration through the outer loop.9 for (i=1. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0.8 (1) for (x=0. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration.++c) (6) c=2. the inner loop runs completely. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). z . infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). Cognizant Technology Solutions.j<=3.i).i<=3. y=4.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. (3) for (x=0. for (. c). (4) c=2. ((x>3) && (x<9)). Different variables must be used to control each loop. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. Example 5. x++) x++. c++. y=4. is called inner loop.c<=20. for(. The second loop.) { c+=1..c<=20. Such loops are called nested loops. z=4000.

++c. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. the body of the loop is executed. General Form: do statement (s). If the result is True. the body of loop is not executed at all. variable or any expression.. while is an exit controlled loop statement. The body of the loop may have one or more statements.. } Expression can be a constant value. the body of the loop is executed. Example 5. (3) while(x) { }. the expression in the while statement is evaluated.while’ statement The do.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. otherwise statements after the while block is executed. If the expression evaluates to True. the expression is checked again. If the expression is initially False.c). At the end of the loop. The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. } ‘do . On reaching the do statement. (6) c=1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. General Form: while (expression) { Statements. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. (4) while(1). After executing the body of the loop. while (expression).

++d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 5. General Form: continue.loop<50.12 for(loop=0. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.13 for(loop=0. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements.loop).11 int d=1. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop.d).while. do { printf (“%d\n”. It is used to terminate the current iteration. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. When the condition becomes False. Example 5. */ printf("%d\n". the body of the loop is executed at least once. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again.loop++) { If (loop==10) break. General Form: break. Break. } while (d<=10).Problem Solving and C Programming to True. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. Example 5.. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True.loop<100.

printf(" US lbs UK st. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .e. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". We know the starting point. Cognizant Technology Solutions. pounds. so we have used the for loop. apply formula to get the stones.45359 main() { int pounds. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. lbs INT Kg\n").loop). The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. uklbs.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. printf("%d\n". int uklbs = pounds % 14. } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. for(pounds=10. kilos). } getchar(). float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. stones. pounds < 250. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. termination condition and the increment. For each pounds.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND .c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . Continue this till the termination condition is met i. uklbs and kilos.Problem Solving and C Programming continue.

Test your Understanding 1. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). case 1 : printf(“1”). When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. case 2 : printf(“2”). } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . b. break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. c. break.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. that are used to carry out conditional looping. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. for. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. 2. An if statement may include only simple statements. An if statement must always include an else clause. Which of the following statements are true? a. case 3 : printf(“3”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . while. if clause can contain another if statement. break. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups.

while will get executed at least once. The loop statements of do.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. 3. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. c 2. Default case is executed. else continue. 5. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. What is the difference between a while and do... 3 4.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”. printf (“%d”))) break. 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). } Answers: 1.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

the name of the array refers to the base address of the array.].g. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. set of names). Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. etc. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name. of the same data type. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. set of numbers. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. [index 0 refers first location . If an array of 5 integers elements is created. index 1 refers second location.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. When addressing an element in an array. Array declaration reserves space in memory.1 int x[5]. char str[16]="qwerty". Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. Example 7. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. int matrix[2][2]. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. float sales_amt[10]. starting at x[0]. Defines a character array. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name.2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007.

Thus.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. /*a[0] = 1. size depends upon the number of values initialized.45. and processing of array elements.3. partial initialization is allowed.2. /*a[0]=1. a[2]=3. a[1]=2. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}. ) */ float b[2]={10. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the base address can not be changed. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. (ex. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. Example 7. a[3]=4 (if size not specified.5}.4}. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. retrieving. array can be declared without specifying the exact size. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. a[1] = 2 .4.2. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. /* b[0] = 10.2.20 . a[2] = 3 .3 int a[5]={1. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. If initialized. In such cases. In partial initialization. b[1] = 45.2.3. When arrays are initialized during declaration.3.34}.4}.

(2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”.5 int a[3]. Example 7. a+2). except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007.6 int a[3].i<3. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. scanf(“%d”. &a[2]).i++) scanf(“%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. scanf(“%d”. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”. (1) scanf(“%d”. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array.a[1].&a[i]).a[1]).i++) printf(“%d”. a[2]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &a[1]).a[2]). a+1.pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. a.a[i]). &a[0]).i<3. (1) printf(“%d”. /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7.a[0]. printf(“%d”. a[0]).

If m elements are needed. 7 int a[2][2].8 int num[2][3] = {1.2}. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7.2.3}.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . out of n locations defined.2.3. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.6}. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution.row 0 & column 1 .{4}}. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.3}}.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement. Assume that array starts at location 1000. /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations.{1. = 4 elements).5. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration.2.4. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . int num[2][3] = {1.3. In partial initialization.row 1 & column 0 . Example 7.row 0 & column 0 . n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.5}. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order.4.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.

there is no built-in data type for strings. Example 7.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’.’u’. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". return 0. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. name[3] = ‘D’. one ASCII character per location. The value at str[6] is the null character. In C. of chars in strings]. /*Creates a string. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end.11 char studname[50][15]. of strings] [max no.’\0’). name[1] = ‘O’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . String constants can be assigned to character array variables. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes.’m’. to represent the end of string. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’.*/ (3) char name[5]. A character string is stored in an array of character type. Example 7. name[4] = ‘\0’. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. name[2] = ‘O’.

’t’.Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”.’t’. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator.”cat” . while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier).’\0’}.h. name).’\0’}} = {{‘b’. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007.’a’.13 (1) char name[20]. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . Cognizant Technology Solutions.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. Example 7. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another. which manipulates the entire string at once.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . printf(“%s” . Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.’\0’}. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.’t’. {‘c’.’a’. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string.’a’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . name). int i=0.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. n) strncmp(string1. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. string2) strcat(string1. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. n) strncpy(string1. s2) strspn(s1. c) strstr(s1.h: String Functions strcpy(string1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. s2) strcspn(s1. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2.string2. string2.s2) strpbrk(s1. c) strrchr (string. Find last occurrence of character c in string. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . string2. string2) strcmp(string1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string.

int i.\f. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. fib[0] = 0. is used for the character functions. ctype. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. for (i = 0. fib[1] = 1. ‘.) True if c is a space character (\n.\f.\r.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. True if c is a control character (\n.‘.h> main() { int fib[24]. True if c is ASCII . . which can manipulate a single character.h. for(i = 2. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. i < 24. Cognizant Technology Solutions. True if c is a letter. “. The header file.\r. .\t.:. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. i < 24.\v. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio.

j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. i<4. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1.2. i<4. j<5.h> main() { int twod[4][5].3. for (i=0. j++) printf("%d ".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. j<5. i.5. for(i=0.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. 2.j. i++) for(j=0. printf("\n"). Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio.13…. int i. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n". i++) { for (j=0. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers.8. Initially array of size 24 is declared. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. fib[i]). as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. twod[i][j]).. getchar(). } getchar().

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Function is defined prior to its reference. A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line).arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. parameters. Function body.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). type arg2. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. executable statement 1. It can be accessed only within that function. } Function Header function-name arg1. …. If it is declared in the Global declaration section. and the operations to be carried out by the function.) { local variables Declaration.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. : return expression. Global Variables . executable statement 2. there is no need for the function prototype. Memory for the global variables is allocated.. Local Variables . Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. } main() { fun().The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. So compiler will identify the function name. it is used by all the functions in the program. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. Functions can be defined at any location in the program.

If it returns a value. else return b. Default return type is ‘int’.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). Example 9. OR return(expression). If there is no return statement. Cognizant Technology Solutions.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. each containing different expression. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int b) { if ( a > b) return a. General Form: return. does not return any value. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. } (2) main() { return 0. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. expression can be a variable name. return(a*b). } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. constant value or any single valued expression.3 (1) return. There can be multiple return statements. then void keyword is used to represent that. Example 9. return(a<b). b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. it is achieved by the return statement. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function.

Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. It is a process by which a function calls itself. num2.num2)) statement. /* function prototype. else return b. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. data type. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. } int find_big(int a. The number. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. /* function call statement. If the function returns value. Example 9. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. find_big(num1. If a function is returning a value. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function.num2). the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . big). followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. big=find_big(num1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int). &num2). big. it is called Recursion. &num1. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. When the function call is encountered.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. scanf(“%d%d”.

printf(“Factorial = %d“. the control is immediately transferred to the function. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. which in turn call function2. scanf(“%d“.7 main() { int n. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). which in turn return the value to its calling function. In fourth call. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. which may call function3.fact(n)). { if (k<=1) return 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. along with the value returned. fact(int). control is transferred back to the called function. else return(k*fact(k-1). functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. printf(“Enter an integer\n”). } fact(int k). } If n = 4. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. The main function may call function1.&n). Depending on its definition. When the return statement is encountered.

b. return. sum=add(a. char s) { int i. for(i=1.b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. printf(“\n”). &a.c).int y) { return a+b . printf(“\nSum = %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9.s). } No arguments but return value main() Example 9. } border() { int i. border(n.&b).i<=m. sum=add(). return.c). scanf(“%d%c”. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.sum). printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”).&b).i++) printf(“%c“. } add() { int a. add(int x. char c.i++) printf(“-“).i<=80. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. printf(“\nSum = %d”. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). { int sum. return(a+b). } { int sum.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border().&c). &n. for(i=1. scanf(“%d%d”.a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“\n”).sum). } } } scanf(“%d%d”.&a. } border(int m.b. integers\n”).

Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. d = temp. b. } void swap(int c. } Call by Reference In this approach. swap(a. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. Example 9. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. temp = c. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. The value of the actual argument will remain same. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. a. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. c = d. b=20. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. b).10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. So. So. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a=10. b). pointer variable or array name.

a. b). *c = *d. i. Example 9.12 int { int max_value. temp = *c. a=10. } void swap(int *c. swap(&a.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. which points to an array. &b). /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. max_value = val[0]. *d = temp. i. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. int *d) { int temp. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. for( i = 0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. To pass an array to a function. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. max. i < 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf("Enter 5 numbers\n").11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. b=20. b. return max_value. Example 9. } main() { int values[5]. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i].

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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} printf(“%d” . { int a = 3. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. well defined task. printf("%d". } 4. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. Test your Understanding 1. The command line arguments.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. A function calling itself is called recursion. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is function prototyping? 2. printf(“ %d “ . Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. ii) function call. a). } fn(int i) { return ++i. static. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. fn(i). What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4.i). a). argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method.

int *p(char *a) c. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. int p(char *a) b. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. Using command line arguments. In call by reference. int (*p)(char a) d. What the following declaration statements imply? a. a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. int *p(char *a[]) 7. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. type of its arguments.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. 2. 7. 5. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. b. 3. 10 6. 3 4 4. In C. return data type). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

it has file scope. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. This means. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names... is determined by where it is defined.. All other types of variables are local variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. This is called block scope. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating.

Thus. prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. Static variables are stored in memory. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If not initialized in the declaration statement. So. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. Example 10. If no storage class is specified. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. the nested variables are unique auto variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the variable is declared within a function. In the case recursive functions. a). their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. it will retain the value between function calls. a). { int a =6 . A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. then its scope is confined to that function. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. with identical names. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block).Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. by default it is an auto variable. } printf(“ %d “ . Once allocated. printf (“%d “ . They retain the values throughout the life of the program. If not initialized in the declaration. When the execution of the block is completed. internal static variables retain values between function calls. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . Because of this property. it is automatically initialized to zero. although it is active only in main().1 main() { int a = 5 . they are also called local or internal variables. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. it is cleared and its memory destroyed.

Since registers are faster than memory. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. printf(“ x = %d\n”. When using external variables. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. for (i=1.2 main() { int i. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. the variable is initialized to zero. instead of keeping it in the memory. careful selection must be made for their use. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007.i++) incre(). } incre() { static int x = 0. Since the registers are less in numbers. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. If not initialized in the declaration. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . They are referred to as global variables. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared.i<=5. x = x +1. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. Cognizant Technology Solutions.x).

} void fun() { a = 10 .Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. /* external variable declaration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b). External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. it is initialized to zero. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). a). It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. */ void fun(). The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. but as a first approximation. When a command is entered in a command window. Example 10. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. The first word is treated as the name of a program. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. printf(“ %d “ . fun(). printf(“ %d “ . Cognizant Technology Solutions. just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. } int b = 20.3 int a = 5 . extern int a = 10. External variable declaration can not have initialization. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007.

an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. The components are called Members. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type.i .argc). which are command line strings. For example. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . argv[i]). Example 10. employee name (string). Cognizant Technology Solutions. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items.Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”.4 main( int argc. i < argc. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. for( i = 0. char* argv[]) { int i. department code (string). salary (float). Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items.

. variable-name.. When declaring structure variables. tag name is optional.. no extra structures can be created.. variable-name. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007..... }...... float salary..Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition... int dept_code. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name. “struct” keyword is used to define structures.. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration. Example 10.. type variable-name.. : : type variable-name. variable-name.... type variable-name... Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable.... Individual members will be given a separate memory location.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . struct employee emp1.5 1) struct employee { int code... emp2. char name[20]. Here. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that.... Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } .. variable-name...

If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. 90. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. } emp1.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. illegal. illegal. char name[20]. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. “Raja”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. emp2. int semester. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. }. If it is partially initialized. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int dept_code. struct stud stud1={101.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. 1}. Example 10. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’. float avg. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. float salary. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array.”Dina”. struct employee { int empno = 101 . Page 85 ©Copyright 2007.”(dot).6 struct { int rollnum. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. No storage class can be specified for structure members.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. then the expression “s. 1. stud2={102.78}. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”.

date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’.sizeof(emp1)).7 emp1. For example. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays.code emp2. member-field-name Example 10. which is always not same for different structure variables. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value.8 struct emp { int empno. Example 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name emp1.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. the values in slack bytes are also compared. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. float basic. }. printf (“Size = %d”. } emp1. char name[20]. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure.dept_code emp1. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. int year. While comparing structure variables. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. Example 10.9 struct { int day. This is because. Assignment operation is allowed.code emp1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int month.salary emp2. the assignment expression a = b is valid.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 10. int avg. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1.rollnum student [1]. struct date doj. char name[15].year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays. char name [20]. }student. }.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code.semester student [1]. Accessing values: student. Example 10.doj. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int dept_code. float salary.emp2. int sub_marks[5].avg student[50]. In this example.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.name student [1]. struct stud Accessing values: student [1]. int semester. }emp1. then we can do so by writing: emp1.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum. char name[20].sub_marks[0] }. student.

printf(“%d” . } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . emp1->empno).13 struct emp { int empno. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods.empno). printf(“ %s “ . char empname[10]. char empname[10]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). emp2.empname). emp2.12 struct emp { int empno. Example 10. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. it is passed using call by value method. }. But changes will not be reflected back. }. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . display(emp1). } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. change(&emp1). Example 10. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. “AAAA”} . “AAAA”} . main( ) { void display(struct emp). or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. We can use pointer to structures.

y). float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. strcpy(student1. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. Cognizant Technology Solutions.marks = 99."Tom"). student1. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. student2. wage is a structure variable of sal structure.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. getchar().h> struct student { char name[20]. printf (" Name is %s \n". student2. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name).2f \n". emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. printf (" Marks are %. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x. float marks.9.name.name). } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. int a. …) Example 10. } student1.marks). int main ( ) { struct student student3. student2.

typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. Print the values of the structure. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. int *p. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. ) operator. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. Consider the following structure. In unions. Test your Understanding 1. only one member is accessible at a time. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . }*p1. struct { int a. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach.

union person { char surname[10]. *p1->p. 4. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. char name[15]. 3. }ex. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf(“Size = %d”. 2. struct stud_type s1. int age. sizeof (ex)). whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. }. Answers: 1. The elements of an array are always of the same type.

variable-name. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name.. : : type variable-name. variable-name. keyword ‘union’.. variable-name... In the declaration. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007..... type variable-name..... Unions follow the same syntax as structures. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . like a structure.. type variable-name. and the members of the union are given. but no storage is allocated.. along with the keyword ‘union’.. variable-name. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template .it creates the type..... Cognizant Technology Solutions. No other member can be initialized. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization..Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session. the tag name. For each variable. and block file I/O operations Unions Union. is a derived data type. }union-variable... The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members.... Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member. unformatted. The tag name....... union-variable........ .. can be used to declare variables of the union type.. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted..

Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. The dot operator (. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. only one member variable can be accessed at a time.) is used to access the members. float x.1 union item { int m. union { char surname[10]. float salary. Cognizant Technology Solutions.2 { int code. struct employee_type e1. Example 14. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. Thus. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. }. char c. int dept_code. struct stud_type }ex. s1. }. float avg. }. char name[20]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[15]. int age. static union item product = {100}.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. struct stud_type { int rollno.

the union allows the structure variables. vtab = `\v'. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the user can use either e1 or s1. to share common memory. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. newline = `\n'. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. e1 and s1. but not both. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. blue = 5 . e1 = getch(). We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. enum colors { red = 1 .e1. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . member2 . return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. at the same time. definition and variable declaration can be combined. The member names must differ from one another. green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. though they have signed integer values. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. As structures. next value is calculated as previous plus one. similar to structures or a union. Example 14. That is. General Form: enum tag { member1 . …………… var n. var2 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . first enumerated name has index value 0. …… member n } . backspace = `\b'. Here. As with arrays. tab = `\t’. green takes the value 6.

numbers n1. Example 14. no need to use struct keyword. integer variables. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient.4 typedef numbers int. char empname[10]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Similarly. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. emp2. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. }employee. In C. It is used to give new names to existing data types. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. For such applications. files are needed. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. the results may be stored on disks. struct n1 . Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. n2 . Then structure variables can be declared as follows.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. General Form typedef datatype new-type.5 typedef { int empno. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. employee emp1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 14. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing.

Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. Text streams are composed of a set of lines.in which case the position points to the end of the file. Text streams consist of printable characters. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A text stream. There are two types of streams: text and binary. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. on some systems. When a file is closed. and all characters will be transferred as such. In C. the tab character. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. When a file is opened. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. When a program begins.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. More generally. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . and the new-line character.

(Extensions can be specified like test. fp = fopen(“name”. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex.c. It is a string enclosed within double quotes. variable list). The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. "format string".dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. fprintf(fp.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. variable list). “mode”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. fclose(fp ). fscanf(fp. the purpose/positioning of opening the file. details. "format string". Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler.

if the file does not open or the file does not exist. rewind(). fsetpos().Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Writing in to a file To write into a file. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. If the file is opened with append mode (a). all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. or fflush(). If the file is opened in the update mode (+). By default. because files can be reopened only if they are closed.

char c. If the end-of-file is encountered. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. Example 14. Cognizant Technology Solutions.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c.fp). the pointer is moved to the next position. The fptr may be stdin. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. The EOF is end of file status flag. monitor as a file.dat”. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. On success. This may be a macro version of fgetc.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. keyboard as a file. This fptr may be stdout. if ((fp=fopen(“sample.dat”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which is true if end of file is reached. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. the character is returned. On success. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned.fptr). } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). After the reading a character. Example 14. General Form: ch =getc (fptr). which represents standard output device. fclose(fp). If an error occurs. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. which represents a standard input device. char c. the character is returned.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. otherwise false. If an error occurs.

Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. a nonnegative value is returned. EOF is returned. General Form: fputs (str.n. Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). EOF is returned. a pointer to the string is returned. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. the newline character is read. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fptr). On success. a null pointer is returned. It stops when (n-1) characters are read. a nonnegative value is returned. This function writes an integer to a file. On error. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). a file at a time.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). string can be written to. General Form: putw (i.fptr). fptr). On error. } String I/O Using string I/O. General Form: fgets(str. fclose(fp). or read from. or read from. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. The newline character is copied to the string. the string remains unchanged. On success. A null character is appended to the end of the string. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). or the endof-file is reached. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. On success. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). a file at a time. whichever comes first. On error. Cognizant Technology Solutions. integers can be written to.

General Form: fscanf( fptr. format-string. in a left to right fashion.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). or the width field is satisfied. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the function stops scanning and returns. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. -1 is returned. or form feed. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. new line. On success. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. On success. tab. General Form: i = getw( fptr). Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). or the next incompatible character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. format-string. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. addresses-list). If an error occurred. vertical tab. EOF is returned. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. according to the format specifier specified in format string. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. the number of characters printed is returned. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. variable-list). If an input failure occurs. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. If the input does not match. in a left to right fashion. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. carriage return. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. but are not stored in any of the following arguments.

name .dat" . bytes of data). name . "%d . The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. &std1[i]. std[i].no . The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. int i. clrscr().&std1[i]. Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite().name . Cognizant Technology Solutions.age). %s %d " . fprintf(fpt . Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. std[i].no .no .e. std1[i]. struct { int no.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . std[i]. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . }std[10]. std[i]. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . &std[i].Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. char name[10]. It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007.no . std1[i]. fpt = fopen("details.i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " .age). std1[10]. printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n").age). } fclose(fpt). "r"). &std[i]. fpt = fopen("details.dat" . age )\n\n"). std1[i].age). for(i=0. int age. i++.name .name printf("%d %s %d \n" . "%d %s %d " . std1[i]. i<5 .8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. "w").

The total number of bytes read is (size*n). 5 . i<5 . int i . fptr=fopen("ex. "r" ). fp).age). On success the number of elements written is returned. General Form fread (&str. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. &stud[i]. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr.dat" . n. fp).stud[i]. It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. On error or end-of-file.9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. sizeof(stud1[0]) . sizeof(stud[0]) . Cognizant Technology Solutions. On success the number of elements read is returned. 5 . }stud[10] . size. fread(&stud1 . Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. i++) scanf("%s %d ". fptr = fopen("ex. fclose(fptr).dat" . Page 103 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’.name . size. int age . fptr). "w" ). for(i=0 . stud1[10]. fwrite(&stud . n. struct tag { char name[10]. clrscr(). fptr). General Form fwrite (ptr. printf(" \n\n printing the values "). Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). The total number of bytes written is (size*n).

// This is where I read the lines of the file int count.Print the line number and the line. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. "r"). print it } fclose(inFile).name . i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . // is in the current line and // if so.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. Open the input file. // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). 255. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. myString).Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s".h> #include <stdio.c */ #include <string. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. Code: /* findword. // after this command. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. i<5 . // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString.char *argv[]) { char myString[256].count. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++.h> */ FILE * inFile. stud1[i]. read the input argument. stud1[i]. } Try It Out 1.age).h> /* #include <stdlib.

} Refer File Name: <sesh14_2.y ). value.". "Put a value in the integer member".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members.Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” .x. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. }. value. double y.". value.h> union number { int x. getchar(). Close the file and exit the program 2. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Again read the next line in the file and do the same process.y = 100. int main() { union number value.0. "and print both members. value. value. "int: ". "double:\n". "double:\n". if found print the line number and the full string. "Put a value in the floating member". Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. "int: ".x. one integer and the other double. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union.x = 100.y ). printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". Cognizant Technology Solutions. return 0. value. "and print both members.

Preproccessing is done before compilation. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and what value does it usually have? 4."hello-out").Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. } 3. 2L . fopen(). What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . string I/O. and rewind() functions. Input. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. What is EOF. Cognizant Technology Solutions. formatted I/O and block I/O. } return 0. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. ftell(). Test your Understanding 1. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. sleep(1). i++. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. stdout. 3. Its value on most computers is -1. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times.”. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. No significance. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. printf(“%d”. stderr 2. stdin. a). trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. foo( ). 4.. 5.a ). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Answers: 1.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. In some applications. ftell() and rewind().Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. offset. General Form: fseek( fptr. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. If it is a text stream. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). If it is a binary stream. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. the current file position is returned. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. On error. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. On success.

The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. 0L. Move the file pointer to the end of file. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. 2). form feed. On error. 2). Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. The end-of-file indicator is reset. 0). zero is returned. 0). therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. 10L. or carriage return. horizontal tab. 1). These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). -10L. vertical tab. Example 15. 0L. Cognizant Technology Solutions. On success. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. fseek (fp. Move the file pointer to the beginning. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. Remove comments from the source file. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). 2 On a text stream. 1). a nonzero value is returned. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. The error indicator is NOT reset. fseek (fp.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. fseek (fp. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. fseek (fp. fseek (fp. -10L. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. 10L. General Form: rewind(fptr).1 fseek (fp.

depending on the result of a constant expression. #ifndef. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. #ifdef. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. Ends conditional text. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. #ifdef. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. Defines text for a compile-time error message. #ifndef. Defines a preprocessor macro. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. The # token must appear as a first character. Except for some #pragma directives. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. or #elif test fails. or #elif test fails. #include Inserts text from another source file. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. Cognizant Technology Solutions.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. No semicolon (.

In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. Therefore.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion.h> #include “stdio.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. the file is searched first in the current working directory. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 15. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. and then processed by the compiler. whichever comes first. or until the end of the program source is reached.2 #include <stdio. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. In case that it is not there. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. …. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..

There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. Continuation character for macro definition is \. Cognizant Technology Solutions. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). and #ifndef directive. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing.b) ((a)+(b)). areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. #ifdef. there are zero or more #elif directives. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). and one matching #endif directive. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). For each #if.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. addition=add(2.5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. addition=(2)+(3).3). /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15. } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. zero or one #else directive. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined.. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4).

6 Check whether a variable is defined. then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true).7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. If so. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(name(xyz)). */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. Example 15.8 #define name(x. #elif. or #endif. If the value is 0 (false). If there is a matching #else. and the preceding #if evaluated to false.y) x##y main() { ….somca)). #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. …. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. …. change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). printf(name(ssn. */ Example 15. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”).. Example 15.. If there is a matching #elif. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true).

px = &x. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. & and *. x = 5 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”.9 int x. C provides two operators. * and & are inverse of each other. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. & address operator. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. Cognizant Technology Solutions. as they have a number of useful applications. 5 – value. Whenever a variable is declared. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. &a). *px. int a = 5 . a). prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. for pointer implementation.

invalid . An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. px). A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. q = a. q = p. printf(” address of x = %d “ . Two pointer variables can be compared. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. . One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. *p = &a . *q = NULL. Cognizant Technology Solutions. x). The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. &x). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. hold only the address of the variable of same data type.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. b = &a. Example 15. b .11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. valid valid.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. Null or an address. *px). The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. &px). printf(“ x = %d “ . Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant.

Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. ptr= &i. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. Thus. ptr ++. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. and so on. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. i=5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if v is an array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *pv is the same as v[0]. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15.

5} ptr = a . Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . Cognizant Technology Solutions.*(ptr+i)). displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . similar to ptr = &a[0].*ptr).*(a+i)).14 int a[5] = {1.2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *ptr . Example 15. i .Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15.15 printf (“%d “.4} .3. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear. OR pointer_variable = array_name. Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. Accessing address Example 15. OR ptr_vble = array_name.3. printf (“%d “.16 printf (“%u “. varies according to the dimension.2.17 int a[2][2] = {1. (ptr+i)). printf (“%d “. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn]. ptr = &a[0][0] . Example 15. 4. The way in which the pointer variable used.

Therefore.*(a + i)[ j ]. int *pa=&a[0][0]. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. is a collection of one dimensional array. jth column Accessing value Example 15. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . j.j) value displays the x(i.18 printf (“%d “. int a[2][3]={1.*(*(pa+i)+j)).j) value displays the x(i.j) value Example 15.i++) { for (j=0. printf (“%d “. printf (“%d “. displays the x(i.j++) printf(“\t%d”. Here.6}. it results in a problem. for example.j<3.4. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. for (i=0. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. Cognizant Technology Solutions. each with 2 elements. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1.19 main() { int i.*(*(ptr + i) +j).i<2. For example.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row. refers to the entire row .*(a[ i ] + j).3. So.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.2.5.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15.20 int a[2][2] = {1. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here.4} . p = name. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. Suppose. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. Example 15. Thus. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL.3. When an array is referenced by its name. which can hold the address of a character variable.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . *ptr[2] . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. Once the pointer is declared. ptr[0] = a[0]. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. it refers to the address of the 0th element.2.

“rstu”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. char *name[4] = { “A” . If the elements of array are string pointers.1. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. valid invalid Thus. “ABCD”} . When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. *p). “ABC” . An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance.2.3} . An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. printf(“String output = %s”. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. Cognizant Technology Solutions. make it a pointer to a string of varying length.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. int *p = {0. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. char *p = “string” . “xyz”}. *p). The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. “AB” .

Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays).Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. /* suspicious pointer conversion. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. Example 15. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. int *pa = &a. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. In the above example. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. int *const pa = &a. substantial saving in memory.24 int a. The value cannot be modified.23 const int a=10. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15.

h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . num2 += *pnum. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. Try It Out 1. getchar(). pab=&a. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". long num2 = 0. But it is needed. ++*pnum. num2. long *pnum = NULL. *pnum = 2. *(int *) pab =100.26 int a. Example 15. void *pab. pnum = &num2. *pnum. const int * const pb = &b.25 int b. float b. *pnum + num2). num1.55. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. pab=&b. pnum = &num1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. ++num2. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. *(float *) pab = 105. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. in order to know the size and value of the data item.

1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. Address in array Value\n").a[j]. a[0]=&i1.i5=0.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. %16u %d\n". int j.num2. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. int i1=4.a[j]). printf("Address for(j=0. a[2]=&i3. Then the value of num1 is 2.i4=1. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared. Print all the values num1.e.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. #include <stdio.h> main(){ int *a[5]. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. } printf("using pointer\n"). Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. the array elements is the pointer. a[3]=&i4. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. int *b. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i.value at pnum 2. a[4]=&i5. Increment the value of num2.i3=2.i2=3. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. now the value of num2 is 1. a[1]=&i2.j<5.

for( j=0. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically.*b. malloc(). Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. Declare an array of integer pointers. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. 2. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Test your Understanding 1.j<5. State whether the following are true or false a. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. See the difference. } getchar(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b++. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable.*b.b). Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points.

The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c.%d". but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. *b = &a . which is value of a. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. malloc(). Given the following declaration: int a. n[24]=200. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). calloc(). char str2[]=”abcd”. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. false. The first statement assigns 4 to a. into type int *. The third statement castes **c. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. **c = &b. **c=5. 5. *n. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. printf(“%d %d %d”. True. } 6. 100. sizeof(str1). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Since c points to b. sizeof(“abcd”)). The result is meaningless. n[0]=100. } 4. assign the value to a. 3. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. false 2.sizeof(str2). Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. Answers: 1. 5. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. b = (int *)**c. Differentiate malloc() . What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. false. printf("\n%d. 300 4. 2 5 5 6. Since b points to a.

p = assign() . /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ .Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *p. } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. p =&a. change(p). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007.1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . int *assign() . you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists. *p) . /* function prototype */ void change(int *). Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype .2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . a). Example 17.

} Pointer to this function is declared as. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. return q . which will speeds up the execution. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. main() { int a=10. *q = 20 . int *). *q = &a. else return (y).*p). &b). void (*p)(int x.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. of a is returned */ /* addr. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. rather than an entire array. printf (“%d”. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. *p.. p = big (&a. to a function using pointers. p = add. } Example 17. x + y). } int *big (int *x .Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . So. int y). /* addr. b=20. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . void add(int x. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable.) Suppose we have a function as. of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007.

6 struct stud { int rollnum.5 main() { void abc(). we can write as ptr = &student. func_ptr = display.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. 95. will call the function add() with parameters 10. float avg.”raja”. Cognizant Technology Solutions.20). It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. char name[20]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. *ptr . abc(). Example 17. }. int semester. int (*func_ptr) (). To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. (*func_ptr) (). /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”).67}. 1. Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. Example 17. struct stud student={101. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable.4 int display(). (*abc)(). In this declaration.

Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . ptr->semester. char gender. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. Example 17. calloc () . Cognizant Technology Solutions. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. ptr->rollnum. ptr->avg).8 struct employee { char name[20]. struct employee *empptr.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. float salary.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). Thus. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. ptr->name. int *p.

a[i]+j). for(i=0. i++ for(j=0. for(i=0. *(c[i]+j)). i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). *b[3] . printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). for(i=0. j<3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. j++) printf("\t%d". } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. i<3. for(i=0 . This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. Example 17. i++) for(j=0. j++) scanf("%d". } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). i++) for(j=0. i<3. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). p = (int *) calloc (10. int i. sizeof(int)). i<3. i<3. i++) for(j=0.j. j<3. j++) scanf("%d". i<3. which can hold 10 integers. b[i]+j). /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). free() will take a void pointer. *c[3]. j<3. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). j<3. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. for(i=0. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures.

*p1. which holds the address of another integer pointer. However. As such. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007.ptr1 value int x. p1=&x. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printer. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer. p2=&p1. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. For example. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. Example 17.**p2. it cause memory leakages If not used properly.10 addr. int **p. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .ptr2 x=100. beyond 3 levels. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. video memory. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable.

cardPtr->suit. Print the values of card structure in three different forms.face = "Ace". aCard. Cognizant Technology Solutions. cardPtr = &aCard.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. " of ". aCard. aCard. cardPtr->face. " of ". struct card *cardPtr.suit = "Spades". } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. In the main program.suit. int main() { struct card aCard. }. getchar(). Assign the values of face and suit of card structure.face. aCard. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". ( *cardPtr ).suit ). Page 133 ©Copyright 2007.face. char *suit. return 0.h> struct card { char *face.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. " of ". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ( *cardPtr ). All will print the same. declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio.

h> struct node { int data. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). printf("The data values in the list are\n"). temp-> link = p. } p-> data = n. exit(0). if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n").Problem Solving and C Programming 2. while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio. struct node *insert(struct node *p. } temp = temp-> link. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). } return (p). if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). exit(0).h> # include <stdlib. struct node *link. } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. Cognizant Technology Solutions. p-> link = p. temp = p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int n){ struct node *temp. }. temp-> data = n. } else { temp = p.

Now the start pointer is not NULL. 1 ). the start pointer will be NULL. int x. In the main program. declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . start = insert ( start. Then returns the pointer back. Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. 3 ). } while (temp!= p). so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. } void main() { int n. getchar(). struct node *start = NULL . so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. Then returns back the pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printlist ( start ). } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node.as it is first time. start = insert ( start. start = insert ( start. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. 2). } else printf("The list is empty\n"). 4 ). In the insert function. again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. printf("The created list is\n"). temp=temp->link.temp->data). In the main program. Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. start = insert ( start.

**c=5. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. State whether the following are true or false a. n[0]=100. In the printlist() function. b = (int *)**c. **c = &b. malloc(). Pointer variable can only contain an address b. *b = &a . Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Cognizant Technology Solutions.%d". free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. 2. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. *n. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). Given the following declaration: int a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . n[24]=200. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. } 4. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. printf("\n%d. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. Test your Understanding 1.

false. Differentiate malloc() . Since c points to b. malloc(). this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. sizeof(“abcd”)). but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. char str2[]=”abcd”. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. false 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. sizeof(str1). into type int *. false. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. Answers: 1. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. 300 4. assign the value to a. calloc(). The third statement castes **c. which is value of a. printf(“%d %d %d”. 2 5 5 6.sizeof(str2). The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. 100. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. Since b points to a. True. 3. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The first statement assigns 4 to a. The result is meaningless. } 6.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. 5.

B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. #endif #ifdef. #define max(A. #else. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #elif. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. } /* */ main(int argc.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example.

: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. tab. hex) newline. cr. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. \b \\. ‘\xhh’ \n. \. \r.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. ‘\ooo’. octal. \t. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. \?.

<<. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. &name (type) expr sizeof *. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. -. >=. decrement plus. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. >> >. /. minus. <= ==. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. ~ *pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. (*p). divide. subtract left. modulus (remainder) add. Cognizant Technology Solutions.member pointer -> member Ex. bitwise not indirection via pointer. !. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. <. -+. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .member pointer->member ++. logical not. struct tag name name. % +.

{} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1.h> <stdarg. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch. all others group left to right. do.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=.h> <math. Unary operators. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> <time.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. case const2: statement2 break.h> <string. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left. …… . expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <stdlib.h> <setjmp. -=. *=. for Next iteration of while.h> <signal.h> <limits.h> <ctype. do. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. expr2.h> <stddef.h> <errno.h> <float. while.h> <locale.h> <stdio.

n) memcmp(cs.n) memmove(s. digit Checks whether c is a Space.n) memset(s.ct.n) memchr(cs.n) strcat(s. cr. tab.ct. letter.c.ct. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.ct) strncat(s.n) strcmp(cs.n) strchr(cs.ct) strncmp(cs. form feed.h> Consider s.ct. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string. t are strings and cs.c) memcpy(s.ct.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.c) strrchr(cs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. newline.ct.ct) strncpy(s.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

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Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. f. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. x. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. This is useful only with a width specifier. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). f. i. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). Defines the number of characters to print (optional). then the field is expanded to fit the value. g. The type of conversion to be applied (required). Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. If a * is used in place of the width specifer. e. E. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Negative values still show the sign. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the value overflows the width of the field. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. Overrides the 0 flag. Result will always have a decimal point. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). then the precision argument. o. X. the width argument comes first. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. g. e. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value.sign. u. [. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. Overrides the space flag. Default is to just show the . then the value to be converted.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). Trailing zeros will not be removed. Precision overrides this flag.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. For d.

precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. o. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. X types. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. Value is first converted to a long double. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. u. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. n e. . x. o. For f. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. For f. then the precision argument. e. o. i. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . or . Cognizant Technology Solutions. d. then the value to be converted. i. x. g. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. i. f.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). For d. x. [. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. The minimum number of digits to appear. If a * is used. o. x. Precision does not affect the c type. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. o. u. u. . i.0 For d. E. 6 for f. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. i. e. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. E types. the width argument comes first. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. e. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. x. u. u.

[modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). e. Type unsigned int printed in octal. g. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. d. The argument must be a pointer to an int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. E Type signed int. F. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. b. The exponent contains at least two digits. B.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. A % sign is printed. No characters are printed. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. i o u x X f e. E. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Type double printed as [-]d. C. Single character is printed. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. Type char. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. D. f.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Trailing zeros are removed. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. Otherwise printed as type f. Type pointer to array. [type] d. Type double printed as [-]ddd. c.ddd. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds).

Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. i. then it is base 10. o u x. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. o. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. carriage return. tab.e. The argument is a long double. Digits 0 through 7 only. i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. The argument is a double. Type unsigned int. n e. Type unsigned int. f. u.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. g e. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. Type float. G designated with an e or E. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . vertical tab. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. The input must be in base 8 (octal). Then one or more digits. new line. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. X e. or form feed). [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. f. o. s Type character array. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). Digits 0 through 9 only. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. E. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). Begins with an optional sign. it reaches a nonconvertible character).< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Type signed int. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. u. f. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. d. then it is base 8 (octal). The input must be in base 10 (decimal). Type unsigned int.

No characters are read from the input stream. A null character is appended to the end of the array. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. Requires a matching % sign from the input.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. a dash. No null character is appended to the array. Allows a search set of characters. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. By specifying the beginning character. The argument must be a pointer to an int.] Input Type character array. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set).. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If no width field is specified. then 1 is assumed. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). Pointer to a pointer. If the first character is a carrot (^). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Type character array..

uiuc.G.liu.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards. Third Edition.acm. Ira Pohl. Fourth Edition.bell-labs. “C How to Program”.html http://www. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .pdf http://cm. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “A Book on C”.lysator. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist. “How to solve it by Computer”.Dromey. Tata McGraw Hill R. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.se/c/bwk-tutor.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter. “Programming in C”.html#introduction http://www.

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