Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

Cognizant 500 Glen Pointe Center West Teaneck, NJ 07666 Ph: 201-801-0233 www.cognizant.com

Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
Page 2 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
Page 3 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

....................................................................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ............................................89 Summary ................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ...........................................................................................92 Union of Structures .......................................................77 Test your Understanding ..................................................88 Try It Out ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................108 Learning Objectives .............................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions...................102 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................100 Formatted I/O...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ......................................................................106 Test your Understanding ...........................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Declaration and Initialization........................79 Learning Objectives .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................100 Numeric I/O........................................................92 Unions............................................................................................................................................................................................................................94 Typedef Statement ..............................................95 File Operations .........................79 Command Line Arguments ................87 Structures and Functions ..................................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................75 Summary .................................................................................................................................................90 Test your Understanding ................................................................................................................................................79 Storage Classes ....................93 Enumeration ...........................108 Preprocessor Directives ........................................ Cognizant Technology Solutions.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 String I/O..........................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives ............................................83 Declaration and Initialization................................................................................................96 Character I/O .108 Random File Operations ..................................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ................84 Structures and Arrays ........................................................104 Summary .....................101 Block I/O ....................................109 Introduction to Pointers ..............

..................................................................................151 Books ........................................................................................................................................................130 Try It Out ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................116 Pointers and Arrays ...........................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .............................................................151 Websites .........................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ..................................................................................................................................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions...............................................................................................................................................136 Test your Understanding ............138 References .......................................................................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007.......................................................................................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers ...............................................................................................................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary .................................151 STUDENT NOTES: .................127 Structures and Pointers .......................................................................................................................................125 Test your Understanding ...............................127 Functions and Pointers ....................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .................................133 Summary ...........................................................123 Summary .....................................127 Learning Objectives ................................................................117 Try It Out .....................................................................................................

Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. identifying.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. There is no universal method for solving a given problem. To understand the problem. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions. determining the cause of the problem. prioritizing. It is an act of defining a problem.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. It is also known as Program Analysis. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. headings.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. Program Design is both a product and a process. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. therefore. the new parts become more focussed and. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. While applying top-down design to a given problem. An important approach is Top-Down programming design.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. several design methodologies can be applied. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly.

3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. deletions. to test its correctness. Example 2. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed.Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. or modifications to the existing algorithm. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. However. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. and terminate in a finite time. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. the next step must be unambiguously defined. produce output. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. but omits language-specific syntax.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fact. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. The errors identified leads to insertions. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. another part of the same flow chart. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or entry from. Output data Represents Process (actions. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. reports).2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. required to solve a problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. End Represents Input.e.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm.

4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fact. Cognizant Technology Solutions.i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007. i Initialize fact =1.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2.

algorithm descriptions.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. During execution. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. the declarations. The compiler is system software. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. Linking is done if necessary. and project workbooks Internal documentation. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. Testing is done during every phase of program development. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. which includes things such as reference manuals. Initially. Documentation can be of great value. Writing a program is called Coding. or particular pieces of programs. The translation results in the creation of object code. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. but also to the programmers themselves. After compilation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the design (algorithm. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. requirements can be tested for its correctness. Details of particular programs. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. Then. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. Cognizant Technology Solutions. statements. The program is now ready for execution. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. flowcharts. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation.

Testing means detecting errors. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. and Pascal. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. On some projects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For many programmers. Ada. This is called foolproof programming. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . COBOL. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. FORTRAN. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. C. C++. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. such as BASIC.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007.

Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. there are many new languages. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. Because of it design. machine language is not an easy language to learn. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. Thus. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. It does not need any translator program. For example. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language.

because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. In high level languages. -. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. irrespective of the type of computer used. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. for its program construction. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code).Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. %. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. This translator program is called Assembler. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. /. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. SUB and LOAD etc. For example. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. Cognizant Technology Solutions. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. operations. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. with every combination being meaningful.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. tested and maintained with ease. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. The language should provide appropriate data structures. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. though not widely used. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. The major breakthrough occurred. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. type of program. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. This. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. but it is complex and difficult to learn. For example. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. and the expertise of the programmer. Later. In 1959. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. in turn.

The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. testing & use: This implies design. efficient register allocation. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. the backup process on an organization. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. Interactive Environment. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . testing. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. and Embedded System Environment. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. For example. coding. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. Cost of Program creation. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. coded. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed.

Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. documenting. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Top-down program design. testing. Distinguish between testing and debugging. 2. Give the algorithm. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. Represent the following problem in top-down design. Planning a tour. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. compiling and running. 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The environment under which a program is designed. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. debugging. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. word processing systems etc. Examples include database management systems. 4. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. algorithm development. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. coded. coding. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. and maintenance. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. called Modules.

It can run on any machine d. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4. True 5. What is meant by portability of programs? a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . True. Easy to carry from place to place b. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c.Problem Solving and C Programming 5.

It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. During 1970s. BCPL. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. In 1967. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. Prior to C. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. and B. In 1970. which are efficient but nonportable. The standard was updated in 1999. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. for writing system software. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. To assure that the C language remains standard. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It was evolved from ALGOL. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. in 1973. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. which are portable but inefficient.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C# conserve C syntax. Java. C++.

The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. Every C program must have one main() function. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required. Output and Processing statements. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. although they may appear in any order. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007.extensive use of pointers for memory. array. to include functions from the system library. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. to define the symbolic constants and macro. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C program can be documented using these comment lines. The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. called functions. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C is a case sensitive language.

&num2). sum).h> main( ) { int num1. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. scanf(“%d%d”. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. sum = num1+num2. &num1. num1. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language.sum. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It removes comments and empty lines in the program. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”.num2. num2).

the link editor combines these functions with main(). file with a. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007.z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =.OBJ indicates object code files. Blank spaces etc.standard library I/O file #define -.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . +.defines a symbolic name or constant. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. Identifiers. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Assembler The assembler creates the object code. numbers and expressions.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. Operators and Expression.includes contents of a named file. ? . % . These files are usually called header files. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #include <stdio.standard library maths file.2 #include -.h> -.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. .h> -. #include <math. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code). [On UNIX. External variable references are resolved here. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words.Z o Lowercase a…. to create an executable file.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. constants. All keywords must be written in lowercase. and functions. Example 3. The following table shows the list of keywords. No special character is allowed except underscore (_).3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. the range of values that can be represented in memory. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. predefined meanings in C. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables. It should start with an alphabet. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters.

Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. Cognizant Technology Solutions. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. Similarly. They are. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int = 2 bytes. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. never less than int. Here. For example. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .7 * (10-308) to 1. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types.967. It is useful with pointers. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.648 to 2.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32.483.647 Floating Point Number.7 * (10+308) 3.768 to 32. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.4 * (10-38) to 3.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.483.294. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program. They are used to represent a collection of data. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value. Cognizant Technology Solutions.4 * (10+38) 1. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.147.147.4 * (10-4932) to 1.

There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. j. int tot. Cognizant Technology Solutions. char ch. General form: var_data_type list variables. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. k. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold.4 int i. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. General Form: [data type] variable name = value.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. z. also called read-only variables. Example 3. float sum = 0. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. ct=1.5 int total=0. ct=1.0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . tot = 0. y. float x. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program.

Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. which evaluates to either true or false. Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This value cannot be changed by the program. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. (true – 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. const long a = 50000L.6 const int size = 100. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. const int a = 0567. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations.14. const float pi=3. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. or const long a = 50000l. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. const char ch = ‘a’.

Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. printf(“%d”. ++i). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *=. +=. if condition is evaluated to true. printf(“%d”. /*prints 6 . i++).k: pre increment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. i). /=. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . printf(“%d”.pre increment */ /* prints 6 .post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. -=. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5.

High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones. address Increment and decrement operators. b=2. Multiplicative operators.7: Operators Let a=1. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . and Logical expression (uses logical operators). function calls that evaluates to a value. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Assignment. Conditional. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). member access operators Logical NOT. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. operators. Additive operators. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. Index. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . Inequality comparators. Logical OR. Equality comparators Logical AND.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . op= Name Parentheses.b) / c or a . Relational expression (uses relational operators). ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = .Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity.(b / c). unary minus. Cognizant Technology Solutions. indirection.

C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. . c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. This is called Typecasting. b=4. but more efficient than: a = 3.5. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. Example 3. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. a=b=3. if the operands of an expression are of different types.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part.which is the same as.. b+c. (4) int c. (2) a = (b=2. b+c). For example. d = a == b. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. (3) int a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . c=3.. c = 3. C allows multiple assignment statements using =.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. c=3. In implicit type conversion. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. before assigning the value to it. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x.) not a storage location. double to float causes round of digits. b-c). For example. However. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. float b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b = 3.e. a=3. x + 3 = y. d = 3. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. c= a>b. the assignment operator is “=”. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. the statement x = y + z. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. In C.8 (1) a = (b = 2. e = a != b. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i.

5. e = -a % -b. c = a/b. y = a / 10. Example 3.0. c.8).5 * 3. The original value of the variable is not altered. b.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. a=14.11 int a.9 float sum. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. Example 3. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float .0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007.0 will be stored in sum. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator. x = a / 10. instead of 5. Then.narrowing . d.8) as the integer 5. y. float x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. e. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3.5 * 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. f. sum = (int) (1. d = a % b. z. b=4. because the variable sum is of type float. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value.7.

+ --c. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). Example 3. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. General form: char-variable = getchar(). a=++b + ++c. a=++b + c++. a=b++ + c++. This single character includes alphabets. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). Cognizant Technology Solutions. c = a>b. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. digits.12 a int a=0. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. . ch = getchar().character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .13 char ch.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. Another method is to use input functions. a=b-. getch (). return. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. b=0. punctuations. and tab. c=0. processing. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program.

General Form: putchar(char variable).15 char ch. Blank space is also considered as a character. gets(ch). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: gets(stringvariable).14 char ch[5].character input from console & echoes the character. Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout).Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. String Input gets () . To get a line of text. this function serves the purpose. Example 3. monitor. putchar(ch). /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. ch = getchar().

Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. %e. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. puts(ch). General Form: scanf (“format string”. Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. L) conversion character (d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . l. C has a special formatting character (%). list of variables). Example 3. g. x. o.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). A character following this defines the format for a value..16 char ch[5]. u. gets(ch). f.

/*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. which directs the interpretation of input data. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. Stops when it encounters new line. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. Example 3. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. the delimiter while reading the values is space.&a. “format string”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. w. p. list of variables). &a. &ch.18 printf (“char=%c. sum). i. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. floating point=%6. Example 3. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. name).4s”. By default. /* column width 10.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. str). This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. &x). &a. ‘&’ need not be used.ch. &i. Format string. printf (“sum = %*. General Form: printf (“format string”. int=%3d. To read a string using ‘%s’. list of variables). /*accepts all inputs including space. scanf (“%[^\n]s”. x).&b). &b). first 4 characters printed.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. Format string and variables are separated by comma.*f”. /*if the input is 12345 & 10.&b). a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. General Form: sscanf (str. This function returns the number of characters printed. also known as control string contains field specifications.2f”. Delimiter can be user-defined.

main d. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: sprintf (str. then based on the operator precedence. list of variables).y=-10. Cognizant Technology Solutions.b=2. getchar(). “format string”. z = x++ . double. Emp_name b. C supports four basic primitive data types: int. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements.a=4.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. “total” c. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. C program is a collection of functions.h> main() { int z.x=5. char. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. float.--y * b / a. Test your Understanding 1. C has a rich set of operators. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language.z). total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007. printf("The Value of z : %d\n".

5. . 6. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. s. 5. getche() echoes the input character on screen. printf (“%d “. b = printf (“welcome”).5 4. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 4 5 7. s= (int) y + 3. a. but getch() will not echo the character. If. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. x= (int) y.b).c ( “ “ . s = 10. What is the output of the following code? int a . What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). x = 7.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. All are valid. 4. What is ternary operator in C? 5.0 .5. Answers: 1. y=7. Is the statement valid? 3. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. valid 3.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. 4 5 b. 7.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. c=a+b. Example 5. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. and iteration (looping). In a selection structure.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. Example 5. y = x * b – k. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. c=a + b. } x=a*b. c=3. selection. In an iterative structure. } } { b=2. Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. In a sequence construct. until some condition is satisfied. b=10. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. } { { a=1. 1 a=8. 2 { a=10. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. . the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement).

} ] statements3. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. is executed in a sequential manner. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). An expression involves arithmetic. and/or logical operators. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). } [ else { statements2. logical. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. which consists of declaration statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). and/or relational expression. and one or more simple expression statements. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Expression can be arithmetic. relational. input-output statements.

the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. if (expression) statements-1.c). the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. if (a<b) max = b. else printf (“largest = %d”. true or false is known. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. If the else part is not specified. else max = a.max). } Example 5.4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. } else { statements2.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. a).Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. if (expression) statements-2. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. printf(“ max = %d” . Example 5.

c).b). It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else statements4. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. Example 5. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). else if(expression) statements3. else printf (“largest = %d”. . else if (expression) statements2. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”).Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. else printf(“Fail\n”). Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped.

if there is no match for the case labels. and/or arithmetic expression. which are represented by constant values. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. Expression may be a constant value. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. } Expression in the switch statement. relational expression. case item2: statement 2. break. if (a>b) max = a. must be an integer valued expression. expr3 is evaluated. which is similar to the following if-else statement. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. Example 5. If the variable matches with one of the constants.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. logical expression. else max = b. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). Default case is optional and if specified. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. break. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). then an execution jump is made to that point. case itemn: statement n. variable. pointer variable. default statements will be executed. array variable. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. default : statement. break. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1.

} Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. case ‘/’: c=a/b. case ‘-’: c=a-b.while’. the control is transferred to the statement. break. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. If the test condition is False. General Form: for (expression1. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. break. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. expression3) { statement / block of statements. break. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. break. expression2. the statements inside the loop are executed. case ‘*’: c=a*b. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). Cognizant Technology Solutions. There are several ways to execute loops in C. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. ‘do. which follows the loop. ‘while’. If the test condition is True.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b.

c). for(. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop. y=4. ((x>3) && (x<9)). Such loops are called nested loops.++c) (6) c=2. z . For each & every iteration through the outer loop.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2.9 for (i=1. The second loop. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop.. is called inner loop. c++. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.) { printf (“%d”. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)).) { c+=1. (4) c=2. c). Different variables must be used to control each loop. } In the above example.i<=3. for (. x++) x++.8 (1) for (x=0. Example 5.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement).c<=20. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007.j<=3. the inner loop runs completely. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. printf (“c=%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 5. for (.j). z=4000. for (j=1.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”.. y=4. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. } (7) int c=0. These three expressions are separated by semicolons.c<=20.i). (3) for (x=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. controlled by the value of ‘j’.

. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. } ‘do . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . After executing the body of the loop. (3) while(x) { }.c). the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. the body of the loop is executed. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. General Form: while (expression) { Statements.while’ statement The do. On reaching the do statement. while (expression). Example 5. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. General Form: do statement (s). otherwise statements after the while block is executed.. If the result is True. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). If the expression is initially False. If the expression evaluates to True. the body of the loop is executed. } Expression can be a constant value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. variable or any expression. the expression in the while statement is evaluated.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. At the end of the loop. the expression is checked again. while is an exit controlled loop statement. the body of loop is not executed at all. The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. ++c. (6) c=1. (4) while(1).

Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007.loop<50.d).while. General Form: break.11 int d=1. do { printf (“%d\n”. */ printf("%d\n". } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. Example 5. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration. Example 5. General Form: continue. ++d.loop++) { If (loop==10) break. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop.Problem Solving and C Programming to True. } while (d<=10). When the condition becomes False. Example 5. Break. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the body of the loop is executed at least once.12 for(loop=0. It is used to terminate the current iteration.loop). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .13 for(loop=0.loop<100. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate.

lbs INT Kg\n"). The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds. We know the starting point.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . so we have used the for loop. printf(" US lbs UK st.e. stones. for(pounds=10.h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND .loop). } getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. pounds < 250.45359 main() { int pounds. } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". printf("%d\n". float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. apply formula to get the stones. uklbs and kilos. int uklbs = pounds % 14. kilos). Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Continue this till the termination condition is met i. pounds. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. uklbs. termination condition and the increment. For each pounds.

break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. break. Which of the following statements are true? a. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. Test your Understanding 1. case 1 : printf(“1”). and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”).Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. while. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if clause can contain another if statement. case 2 : printf(“2”). break. that are used to carry out conditional looping. An if statement must always include an else clause. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. break. for. b. case 3 : printf(“3”). An if statement may include only simple statements. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. c. 2.

c 2.while will get executed at least once. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 5.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. What is the difference between a while and do. } Answers: 1.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. 3. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels.. Default case is executed.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. The loop statements of do.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”. else continue. 3 4. printf (“%d”))) break..

set of names). It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. If an array of 5 integers elements is created. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name.. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. index 1 refers second location.]. [index 0 refers first location . the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. of the same data type. set of numbers. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007.g. etc. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session.

starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. int matrix[2][2]. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays).2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. starting at x[0].1 int x[5]. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 7. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. When addressing an element in an array. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Array declaration reserves space in memory. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . float sales_amt[10]. Defines a character array. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. char str[16]="qwerty". indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. Defines an integer array x of at x[4].

3 int a[5]={1. a[2] = 3 . /* b[0] = 10.3. /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. size depends upon the number of values initialized.5}. array can be declared without specifying the exact size.4}. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array.2. retrieving. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. a[1]=2.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing.4}.34}. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.3.4. Thus. b[1] = 45. Example 7.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program.2. ) */ float b[2]={10. /*a[0]=1. (ex. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In partial initialization. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}. partial initialization is allowed. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized.45. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. /*a[0] = 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When arrays are initialized during declaration. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. If initialized. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places.2.20 .2. a[1] = 2 . General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. the base address can not be changed. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. a[2]=3.3. and processing of array elements. In such cases.

i<3. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array.i++) printf(“%d”. (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”.a[i]). /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. a+1. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. scanf(“%d”. (1) scanf(“%d”. &a[1]). (1) printf(“%d”. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”.a[0]. &a[2]). Cognizant Technology Solutions.6 int a[3]. scanf(“%d”.i++) scanf(“%d”.5 int a[3]. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations.a[1]. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension.&a[i]). &a[0]). a+2).a[2]).a[1]).i<3. a. a[2]). Example 7. (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. printf(“%d”. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays.pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. a[0]). /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays.

a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution.{1. out of n locations defined. Assume that array starts at location 1000. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order.2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.3.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.2}.5. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7.row 0 & column 0 .4. 7 int a[2][2].row 1 & column 0 . If m elements are needed. Example 7.6}.2.3.3}}. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.3}.{4}}.row 0 & column 1 . /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. = 4 elements). int num[2][3] = {1.8 int num[2][3] = {1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.2. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.5}.2. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration. In partial initialization. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.

name[4] = ‘\0’. Example 7. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. String constants can be assigned to character array variables. A character string is stored in an array of character type. The value at str[6] is the null character. return 0. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. name[2] = ‘O’. name[1] = ‘O’. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character.’\0’). The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. there is no built-in data type for strings.’u’. one ASCII character per location.11 char studname[50][15]. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . of strings] [max no.’m’.Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined.*/ (3) char name[5]. In C. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". /*Creates a string. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. Example 7. Cognizant Technology Solutions. name[3] = ‘D’.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. of chars in strings]. to represent the end of string.

13 (1) char name[20]. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007.’a’. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. {‘c’.’\0’}} = {{‘b’.’t’. name). if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another.’t’. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ .’\0’}. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . Cognizant Technology Solutions. name). Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered. int i=0.”cat” .’a’. which manipulates the entire string at once. [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. printf(“%s” .h. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++.’\0’}.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’.Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.’t’. Example 7. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier).’a’.

s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. string2. c) strstr(s1. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. string2) strcat(string1. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1.s2) strpbrk(s1. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. c) strrchr (string. s2) strspn(s1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. string2) strcmp(string1. Find last occurrence of character c in string. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . n) strncmp(string1.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. n) strncpy(string1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. string2.string2. s2) strcspn(s1.

The header file. Cognizant Technology Solutions.‘.) True if c is a space character (\n. fib[1] = 1.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.\v. for (i = 0. i < 24. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (.\f.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1.h. True if c is ASCII .h> main() { int fib[24]. . int i.\t. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. which can manipulate a single character. . Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio. is used for the character functions.\r. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric. ctype.:.\f. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007.\r. True if c is a control character (\n. ‘. “. i < 24.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. for(i = 2. True if c is a letter. fib[0] = 0.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.j. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2.3. i++) { for (j=0.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. twod[i][j]).2.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n". getchar(). j++) printf("%d ". i. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i<4. 2. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array. for(i=0. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array..c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. Initially array of size 24 is declared. j<5.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. fib[i]).13…. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. } getchar(). Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio.5. j<5. int i. i<4. printf("\n").h> main() { int twod[4][5]. for (i=0. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. i++) for(j=0.8.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

Page 63 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

Page 64 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

Page 65 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

Page 66 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

…. } Function Header function-name arg1. So compiler will identify the function name. Memory for the global variables is allocated.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. type arg2.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. } main() { fun(). executable statement 2. executable statement 1. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. and the operations to be carried out by the function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is used by all the functions in the program.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). : return expression. } Function is defined prior to its reference. Local Variables . Global Variables . A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name.) { local variables Declaration. If it is declared in the Global declaration section.. Function body. It can be accessed only within that function. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. parameters. there is no need for the function prototype.

then void keyword is used to represent that. does not return any value. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. Example 9.3 (1) return. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. it is achieved by the return statement. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. constant value or any single valued expression. return(a<b). General Form: return.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). There can be multiple return statements.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0. each containing different expression. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. Default return type is ‘int’. OR return(expression). the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. If there is no return statement. If it returns a value.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. return(a*b). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. } (2) main() { return 0. Example 9. expression can be a variable name. else return b. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a.

The number. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. it is called Recursion. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . num2. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. big). global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. data type. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function.num2). the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. It is a process by which a function calls itself. &num1. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* function call statement. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. /* function prototype. } int find_big(int a. If a function is returning a value.num2)) statement. else return b. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. scanf(“%d%d”.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. If the function returns value. Example 9. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. big. &num2). find_big(num1. int). } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. big=find_big(num1. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. When the function call is encountered.

printf(“Enter an integer\n”). Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. then call 1 = 4 * fact(3).fact(n)). The main function may call function1. along with the value returned. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. else return(k*fact(k-1). call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . In fourth call. which may call function3. { if (k<=1) return 1. the control is immediately transferred to the function. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. printf(“Factorial = %d“. } fact(int k). which in turn call function2. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. control is transferred back to the called function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .&n). Depending on its definition. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). On seeing the name of the function in calling statement.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9.7 main() { int n. When the return statement is encountered. } If n = 4. which in turn return the value to its calling function. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fact(int). scanf(“%d“.

i++) printf(“%c“.i<=80. } add() { int a. add(int x.c).a. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.&b). return(a+b).i<=m. &a. sum=add(a. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007.sum).8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . return.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. } } } scanf(“%d%d”. printf(“\n”).b. char c.sum).&b). printf(“\nSum = %d”.c).i++) printf(“-“). &n.&c). integers\n”).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. sum=add(). for(i=1.b). { int sum. } border(int m. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). scanf(“%d%c”. for(i=1.s).b. } border() { int i.int y) { return a+b . printf(“\nSum = %d”.&a. scanf(“%d%d”. return. printf(“\n”). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. char s) { int i. } { int sum. border(n. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”).

Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. } void swap(int c. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . temp = c. } Call by Reference In this approach. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. The value of the actual argument will remain same. a.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. c = d. pointer variable or array name. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. Example 9. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. swap(a. a=10. b. So. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. b). b). b=20. d = temp. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. So. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”.

it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. max_value = val[0]. return max_value. b=20. To pass an array to a function. } main() { int values[5]. *c = *d. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. b. } void swap(int *c. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. i. int *d) { int temp. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. i < 5.12 int { int max_value. i. which points to an array.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. max. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. b). Cognizant Technology Solutions. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. swap(&a. &b). ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. Example 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a=10. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). temp = *c. for( i = 0. a. Example 9. *d = temp.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

Page 74 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

Page 75 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

Page 76 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

{ int a = 3. ii) function call. printf(“ %d “ . Test your Understanding 1. printf("%d". What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. fn(i). argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function. } 4. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3.i). What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. } printf(“%d” . Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. static. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. } fn(int i) { return ++i. a). iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. A function calling itself is called recursion.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. What is function prototyping? 2. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. well defined task. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. a). The command line arguments.

3. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. In call by reference. int p(char *a) b. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. 10 6.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. 3 4 4. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. What the following declaration statements imply? a. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. type of its arguments. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. In C. Using command line arguments. 7. return data type). 5. int *p(char *a[]) 7. 2. b. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. int (*p)(char a) d. int *p(char *a) c. a.

Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . is determined by where it is defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). This is called block scope. it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. it has file scope. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating.. This means. All other types of variables are local variables. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007.

printf (“%d “ . internal static variables retain values between function calls.1 main() { int a = 5 . prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. If no storage class is specified. In the case recursive functions. Once allocated.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. by default it is an auto variable. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. the nested variables are unique auto variables. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. So. they are also called local or internal variables. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). with identical names. When the execution of the block is completed. Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. a). Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). a). a situation similar to function nested auto variables. it will retain the value between function calls. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. { int a =6 . } printf(“ %d “ . Cognizant Technology Solutions. it is cleared and its memory destroyed. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. Because of this property. it is automatically initialized to zero. If the variable is declared within a function. Example 10. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). Static variables are stored in memory. If not initialized in the declaration statement. If not initialized in the declaration. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. then its scope is confined to that function. although it is active only in main(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Thus.

If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. If not initialized in the declaration. for (i=1. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. } incre() { static int x = 0. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. When using external variables. we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. Since registers are faster than memory. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed.i<=5. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). the variable is initialized to zero. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. x = x +1. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program. They are referred to as global variables.x).i++) incre().Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. printf(“ x = %d\n”. instead of keeping it in the memory. careful selection must be made for their use. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed.2 main() { int i. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Since the registers are less in numbers.

interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. Cognizant Technology Solutions. extern int a = 10. fun(). it is executed by a command-line interpreter. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. it is initialized to zero. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. b). The first word is treated as the name of a program. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007.3 int a = 5 . } void fun() { a = 10 . but as a first approximation. just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. */ void fun(). } int b = 20. /* external variable declaration. printf(“ %d “ . External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. External variable declaration can not have initialization. a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. Example 10.Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. printf(“ %d “ . a). When a command is entered in a command window.

A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. argv[i]). C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. For example. employee name (string).i . The components are called Members. for( i = 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . department code (string). an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). char* argv[]) { int i. Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. which are command line strings.Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. salary (float). Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. } When the following command is given in the command prompt.4 main( int argc. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. i < argc. Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions.argc).

. type variable-name.. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition...... Example 10.. variable-name.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.... float salary. no extra structures can be created. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name... variable-name.. When declaring structure variables.... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . tag name is optional. emp2. type variable-name.... Here.... “struct” keyword is used to define structures....... char name[20].5 1) struct employee { int code.. }. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable... variable-name. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that.. Individual members will be given a separate memory location. struct employee emp1.. variable-name. : : type variable-name. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007. int dept_code.. } .

float avg.6 struct { int rollnum.”(dot).78}. }. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. emp2. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 1}. Example 10. then the expression “s. stud2={102. int dept_code. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. 90. “Raja”. 1. illegal. No storage class can be specified for structure members. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. } emp1. struct stud stud1={101.”Dina”. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int semester.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. char name[20].0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. If it is partially initialized. float salary. struct employee { int empno = 101 . illegal. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’.

salary emp2. int month.code emp2.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. member-field-name Example 10. } emp1. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. char name[20].7 emp1.dept_code emp1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This is because. }. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure.code emp1. Assignment operation is allowed.9 struct { int day.8 struct emp { int empno. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types.name emp1. float basic. For example. Example 10. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. the values in slack bytes are also compared. While comparing structure variables. the assignment expression a = b is valid. printf (“Size = %d”.sizeof(emp1)). int year. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . which is always not same for different structure variables. Example 10. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

char name[15]. int dept_code.rollnum student [1]. struct stud Accessing values: student [1]. int avg.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum. Example 10. char name[20].sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007.emp2. Example 10.sub_marks[0] }.doj. Accessing values: student.name student [1].avg student[50]. float salary. }student. int semester. then we can do so by writing: emp1. char name [20]. }.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays. In this example. student.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber. struct date doj. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .semester student [1]. }emp1. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. int sub_marks[5].

char empname[10]. We can use pointer to structures. All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. Example 10. printf(“ %s “ . change(&emp1). “AAAA”} . char empname[10]. } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. Example 10. display(emp1). it is passed using call by value method. /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. emp2. main( ) { void display(struct emp). void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . }. “AAAA”} .12 struct emp { int empno. printf(“%d” .empname).empno). emp2. But changes will not be reflected back.13 struct emp { int empno. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . }. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . emp1->empno). When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

…) Example 10. printf (" Name is %s \n". getchar(). } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> struct student { char name[20].2f \n". int a. wage is a structure variable of sal structure. student2. } student1.marks). x. float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name).14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. int main ( ) { struct student student3.9. student2. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure. strcpy(student1. y)."Tom").name.marks = 99. printf (" Marks are %. student1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. student2.name). float marks. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name.

Consider the following structure. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. }*p1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. Print the values of the structure. ) operator. Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. only one member is accessible at a time. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . enum keyword is used to define enumerations. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. In unions.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. int *p. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. struct { int a.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2. }. printf(“Size = %d”. }ex. Answers: 1. sizeof (ex)). The elements of an array are always of the same type. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. 4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. union person { char surname[10]. char name[15]. 3. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. int age. *p1->p. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. struct stud_type s1. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno.Problem Solving and C Programming 4.

. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name....it creates the type. ... variable-name. }union-variable. type variable-name. is a derived data type. but no storage is allocated. can be used to declare variables of the union type..... type variable-name. variable-name. unformatted.. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted. the tag name... Cognizant Technology Solutions..... The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly.......... : : type variable-name.. Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template . The tag name.. keyword ‘union’.. along with the keyword ‘union’.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 92 ©Copyright 2007. like a structure. variable-name. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members. For each variable.. and block file I/O operations Unions Union. Unions follow the same syntax as structures. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization.. No other member can be initialized.. union-variable. and the members of the union are given.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session.... variable-name. Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member. In the declaration......

1 union item { int m. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. struct stud_type { int rollno. s1. struct stud_type }ex. float salary. The dot operator (. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. }. int dept_code. }.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. }. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. int age. float x. Thus. struct employee_type e1.) is used to access the members. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[15]. char name[20]. union { char surname[10].2 { int code. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. Example 14. static union item product = {100}. char c. float avg. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

blue = 5 . tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. newline = `\n'. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. …… member n } . e1 and s1.e1. As with arrays. definition and variable declaration can be combined. at the same time. As structures. the union allows the structure variables. the user can use either e1 or s1. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. Example 14. but not both.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. tab = `\t’. enum colors { red = 1 . green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . e1 = getch(). similar to structures or a union. to share common memory. var2 . first enumerated name has index value 0. backspace = `\b'. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). General Form: enum tag { member1 . The member names must differ from one another. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. member2 . Here. next value is calculated as previous plus one. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . green takes the value 6. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. Cognizant Technology Solutions. …………… var n.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. vtab = `\v'. though they have signed integer values. That is.

numbers n1. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. no need to use struct keyword. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. In C. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Then structure variables can be declared as follows. employee emp1. General Form typedef datatype new-type. char empname[10]. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. the results may be stored on disks. files are needed. integer variables. n2 . The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing.4 typedef numbers int. emp2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 typedef { int empno.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. Example 14. It is used to give new names to existing data types. Example 14. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. }employee. struct n1 . A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. Similarly. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. For such applications. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient.

‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed.h. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. and all characters will be transferred as such. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. When a file is opened. on some systems.in which case the position points to the end of the file. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). the tab character. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . In C. This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. and the new-line character. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. A text stream. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Text streams consist of printable characters. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There are two types of streams: text and binary. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. When a file is closed. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. More generally. When a program begins.

dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. variable list).Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. "format string". fscanf(fp. variable list). Cognizant Technology Solutions. fprintf(fp. It is a string enclosed within double quotes.c. “mode”). "format string". (Extensions can be specified like test. The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. details. the purpose/positioning of opening the file. fp = fopen(“name”. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. fclose(fp ). The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters.

It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). rewind().Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). if the file does not open or the file does not exist. If the file is opened with append mode (a). fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. or fflush(). Writing in to a file To write into a file. By default. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. If the file is opened in the update mode (+). The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. fsetpos(). the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated.

EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. the character is returned. which is true if end of file is reached.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. This fptr may be stdout. On success. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. if ((fp=fopen(“sample. If an error occurs. General Form: ch =getc (fptr).6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. keyboard as a file.dat”.fp). the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. The EOF is end of file status flag. Example 14. if ((fp=fopen(“sample.fptr). the character is returned. char c. char c. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. After the reading a character. which represents a standard input device. Example 14. If an error occurs.dat”.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. Cognizant Technology Solutions.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. otherwise false. monitor as a file. This may be a macro version of fgetc. fclose(fp). If the end-of-file is encountered. the pointer is moved to the next position. On success. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. The fptr may be stdin. which represents standard output device.

Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. On success. A null character is appended to the end of the string. string can be written to. a file at a time. On error. a null pointer is returned. On error. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). } String I/O Using string I/O. On error.fptr). It stops when (n-1) characters are read. fclose(fp). General Form: putw (i. fptr). General Form: fputs (str. On success. a nonnegative value is returned. integers can be written to. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. This function writes an integer to a file. fptr).n. On success. General Form: fgets(str. a pointer to the string is returned. the string remains unchanged. the newline character is read. The newline character is copied to the string. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . EOF is returned. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). a file at a time. or read from. a nonnegative value is returned. EOF is returned. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). or read from. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. or the endof-file is reached.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. whichever comes first.

carriage return. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. the number of characters printed is returned. whose addresses are given in addresses-list.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). On success. in a left to right fashion. tab. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. If the input does not match. If an input failure occurs. in a left to right fashion. new line. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. Cognizant Technology Solutions. variable-list). Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If an error occurred. EOF is returned. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. or form feed. -1 is returned. format-string. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. General Form: i = getw( fptr). the function stops scanning and returns. On success. vertical tab. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. or the next incompatible character. addresses-list). according to the format specifier specified in format string. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. General Form: fscanf( fptr. format-string.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. or the width field is satisfied. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007.

fpt = fopen("details. The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. %s %d " . "%d . fpt = fopen("details. int age. Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file.Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file. } fclose(fpt).name printf("%d %s %d \n" . "%d %s %d " . clrscr(). int i. struct { int no.&std1[i]. std[i]. bytes of data).i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . name . It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007.no .name .name .dat" . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .no . }std[10]. &std1[i].name .age). printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n"). "r").e. i<5 . std1[10].no . std1[i]. char name[10]. printf("\n\n enter the details (no .age). while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . "w"). Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite().age). Cognizant Technology Solutions. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes.age). age )\n\n").no . std1[i]. std[i]. std[i].8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. std1[i]. fprintf(fpt . &std[i]. std1[i]. &std[i]. for(i=0. i++.dat" . std[i]. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream.

fclose(fptr). sizeof(stud1[0]) . }stud[10] . It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. i++) scanf("%s %d ". n.age).dat" . size. n. for(i=0 . Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). stud1[10]. On success the number of elements read is returned. fptr = fopen("ex. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. clrscr(). fptr=fopen("ex. On success the number of elements written is returned. fp).dat" . fread(&stud1 . The total number of bytes read is (size*n). fptr). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int age .9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. "r" ). 5 . Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. General Form fwrite (ptr. 5 . printf(" \n\n printing the values ").name . On error or end-of-file.stud[i]. The total number of bytes written is (size*n). i<5 . struct tag { char name[10]. General Form fread (&str. "w" ).Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. fwrite(&stud . int i . &stud[i]. On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. fptr). sizeof(stud[0]) . fp). size.

Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. // after this command. In the main program. stud1[i]. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s".Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. } Try It Out 1. read the input argument.count.c */ #include <string. // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString.age).char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. myString). print it } fclose(inFile). } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. // This is where I read the lines of the file int count.h> */ FILE * inFile.h> /* #include <stdlib. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. Open the input file. 255. i<5 .Print the line number and the line. // is in the current line and // if so. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " .name .h> #include <stdio. Code: /* findword. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. "r"). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. stud1[i]. // close the file I opened earlier getchar().

one integer and the other double. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union.".x = 100. double y. value. "double:\n". "Put a value in the floating member".y ). if found print the line number and the full string.0. value. }. "int: ". Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. "Put a value in the integer member". printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n".x. value.Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . "and print both members. "and print both members. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. value.y ). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Close the file and exit the program 2. int main() { union number value. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . value. "int: ".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. getchar(). "double:\n".". return 0.h> union number { int x.x.y = 100. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. value.

What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i++. and rewind() functions. What is EOF. sleep(1). Test your Understanding 1. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. } return 0. } 3."hello-out"). x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. ftell(). fopen(). formatted I/O and block I/O. and what value does it usually have? 4. Input. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. string I/O. Preproccessing is done before compilation. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. 2L .Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007.

5.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. stderr 2. foo( ). 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007. No significance. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. printf(“%d”. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times.. Its value on most computers is -1. a). trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stdout.a ). } Answers: 1.”. stdin. 3. 4.

the current file position is returned. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. On success. On error. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. General Form: fseek( fptr. In some applications. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). If it is a binary stream. offset. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. If it is a text stream. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. ftell() and rewind(). 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). Cognizant Technology Solutions. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file.

fseek (fp. a nonzero value is returned. On success. 2 On a text stream. 2). 1). from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). Move the file pointer to the end of file. 0). -10L. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. The error indicator is NOT reset. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. vertical tab. Example 15. or carriage return. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). 2).1 fseek (fp.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. form feed. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. fseek (fp. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. On error. The end-of-file indicator is reset. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. 1). Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. 10L. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. fseek (fp. General Form: rewind(fptr). Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 0). 0L. fseek (fp. Move the file pointer to the beginning. fseek (fp. 0L. 10L. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. Remove comments from the source file. -10L. zero is returned. horizontal tab.

The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. Ends conditional text. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. depending on the result of a constant expression. or #elif test fails. #ifdef. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #ifndef.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. Defines text for a compile-time error message. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. #ifdef. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. Defines a preprocessor macro. #ifndef. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. Except for some #pragma directives. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. or #elif test fails. #include Inserts text from another source file. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. The # token must appear as a first character. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. No semicolon (.

If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>.2 #include <stdio. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. or until the end of the program source is reached. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. and then processed by the compiler. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 15. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. whichever comes first. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. the file is searched first in the current working directory. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. Therefore.h> #include “stdio. In case that it is not there. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

…. Cognizant Technology Solutions.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments..3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a). zero or one #else directive. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. For each #if. /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). addition=add(2. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. addition=(2)+(3). The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). and one matching #endif directive. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). and #ifndef directive. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). there are zero or more #elif directives. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3).Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation.3). Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing.b) ((a)+(b)). #ifdef. Continuation character for macro definition is \.5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code.

} ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). */ Example 15. Example 15.8 #define name(x.6 Check whether a variable is defined.. printf(name(ssn. If so. printf(name(xyz)). If the value is 0 (false). Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true). ….somca)).y) x##y main() { …. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. #elif. Example 15. then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. and the preceding #if evaluated to false. If there is a matching #else.7 #define name(x) #x main() { ….. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). or #endif.Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). If there is a matching #elif. …. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

& and *. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. px = &x. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. 5 – value. int a = 5 . Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. x = 5 .9 int x. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . * and & are inverse of each other. Example 15. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. & address operator. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. &a). for pointer implementation. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. Whenever a variable is declared. *px. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. as they have a number of useful applications. a). The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C provides two operators.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. Null or an address.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. Example 15. invalid . Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. *q = NULL. &px).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . q = a. valid valid. Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”. &x). *p = &a . printf(” address of x = %d “ . int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. b = &a. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. printf(“ x = %d “ . px). printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. . *px). q = p. b . Two pointer variables can be compared. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. x). The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable.

13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. i=5. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ptr= &i. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. if v is an array. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. ptr ++. *pv is the same as v[0]. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. and so on. Thus. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element.

3.3. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value . Example 15. Example 15.16 printf (“%u “.*(ptr+i)). &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear.15 printf (“%d “. *ptr . General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn]. (ptr+i)).Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension.*ptr). ptr = &a[0][0] . Accessing address Example 15. 4.14 int a[5] = {1. similar to ptr = &a[0].4} . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . varies according to the dimension. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr .*(a+i)).17 int a[2][2] = {1.5} ptr = a .2. OR ptr_vble = array_name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf (“%d “. i . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. OR pointer_variable = array_name. printf (“%d “.2. The way in which the pointer variable used.

j) value Example 15. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row.j<3.j++) printf(“\t%d”. printf (“%d “.i++) { for (j=0.i<2. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. is a collection of one dimensional array. for (i=0.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row. For example.5.19 main() { int i. int a[2][3]={1. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array. refers to the entire row . Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row.4.j) value displays the x(i. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1.*(a[ i ] + j).2.*(*(pa+i)+j)). displays the x(i.*(*(ptr + i) +j). j. int *pa=&a[0][0]. it results in a problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions. each with 2 elements.3. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . So.*(a + i)[ j ]. printf (“%d “.j) value displays the x(i. Here. jth column Accessing value Example 15. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array.6}. for example. Therefore.18 printf (“%d “.

the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which can hold the address of a character variable.2. Thus. *ptr[2] . Example 15.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Suppose. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. it refers to the address of the 0th element.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1].3. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15.20 int a[2][2] = {1. ptr[0] = a[0]. When an array is referenced by its name.4} . p = name. Once the pointer is declared.

Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. make it a pointer to a string of varying length.2. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. “AB” . The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. char *name[4] = { “A” . This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”.3} . If the elements of array are string pointers. “xyz”}. “rstu”. int *p = {0. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. printf(“String output = %s”. “ABCD”} . Cognizant Technology Solutions. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. valid invalid Thus. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. *p). An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. “ABC” .1. char *p = “string” . Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. *p). string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration.

string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. In the above example. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. The value cannot be modified.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. Thus. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. /* suspicious pointer conversion. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. int *const pa = &a. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15.23 const int a=10.24 int a.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Example 15. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int *pa = &a. substantial saving in memory.

*(int *) pab =100. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. in order to know the size and value of the data item. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *pnum. pnum = &num1.25 int b. *(float *) pab = 105.55. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. num1. pnum = &num2. pab=&b. Example 15. But it is needed. num2. Try It Out 1. pab=&a. long *pnum = NULL. void *pab. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. num2 += *pnum. *pnum = 2. float b. ++*pnum. getchar(). const int * const pb = &b. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio.26 int a. *pnum + num2).Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. long num2 = 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. ++num2.

int j. a[0]=&i1.j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared.i4=1. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. the array elements is the pointer. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. Print all the values num1.j<5. int i1=4. } printf("using pointer\n").i2=3. #include <stdio. a[2]=&i3.num2. Increment the value of num2. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum.a[j]. printf("Address for(j=0. now the value of num2 is 1. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. int *b.i5=0.a[j]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. Address in array Value\n").Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. a[3]=&i4.i3=2. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. a[1]=&i2.e. %16u %d\n". a[4]=&i5.value at pnum 2. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. Then the value of num1 is 2.h> main(){ int *a[5].

Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Test your Understanding 1.*b. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. See the difference. 2. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a.*b. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. malloc(). Declare an array of integer pointers. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. State whether the following are true or false a. Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. Pointer variable can only contain an address b.b). } getchar(). for( j=0. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points.j<5. b++. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer.

*b = &a . The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Since b points to a. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. false 2. Given the following declaration: int a. assign the value to a. sizeof(“abcd”)). into type int *. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ).sizeof(str2). } 6. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. b = (int *)**c. 2 5 5 6. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . false. Cognizant Technology Solutions. sizeof(str1). n[0]=100. which is value of a. The third statement castes **c. calloc(). 300 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. printf("\n%d. printf(“%d %d %d”. Answers: 1. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. 3. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. **c=5. Differentiate malloc() . but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. 5. **c = &b. } 4. The first statement assigns 4 to a. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. false. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. n[24]=200. malloc(). 100. True. char str2[]=”abcd”. The result is meaningless. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. 5.%d". Since c points to b. *n.

/* function prototype */ void change(int *). change(p). Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . int *assign() . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a). } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype .2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . *p) . printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . Example 17. *p.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. p =&a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. p = assign() .1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists.

int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . void add(int x. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. *q = &a. } Example 17. printf (“%d”. int y). main() { int a=10.. return q . void (*p)(int x. So. Cognizant Technology Solutions. of a is returned */ /* addr. p = add.*p). General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list.Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. *q = 20 . &b). } int *big (int *x . else return (y). } Pointer to this function is declared as. /* addr. to a function using pointers. b=20. of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. rather than an entire array. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. int *). p = big (&a. which will speeds up the execution. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. *p. x + y).) Suppose we have a function as.

”raja”. (*abc)().67}. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. int (*func_ptr) (). (*func_ptr) ().6 struct stud { int rollnum. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct stud student={101. abc(). Example 17. float avg. }. 1.20). Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. char name[20]. Page 129 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. we can write as ptr = &student. In this declaration. Example 17. func_ptr = display. 95. To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’. int semester.4 int display(). /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). will call the function add() with parameters 10. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. *ptr .5 main() { void abc().20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17.

arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). struct employee *empptr.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. ptr->avg). ptr->rollnum. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures.8 struct employee { char name[20]. calloc () . float salary. Thus. Example 17. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. char gender. ptr->name. int *p. ptr->semester.

i++ for(j=0. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. j<3. j<3. int i. for(i=0. *c[3]. i++) for(j=0. c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). j++) scanf("%d". for(i=0 .9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . *(c[i]+j)). free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. p = (int *) calloc (10. printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). for(i=0. free() will take a void pointer. *b[3] . for(i=0. This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. i++) for(j=0. j++) scanf("%d". j++) printf("\t%d". i<3. sizeof(int)). The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. i<3. j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). j<3. for(i=0. i<3. i<3.j. a[i]+j). j<3. i++) for(j=0. b[i]+j). i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which can hold 10 integers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). i<3. Example 17.

which holds the address of another integer pointer. video memory. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. p1=&x. As such. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. Example 17. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable.ptr2 x=100. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly.ptr1 value int x.**p2. printer. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007.*p1.10 addr. int **p. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer. For example.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. However. beyond 3 levels. p2=&p1. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard.

suit. " of ". int main() { struct card aCard. }. cardPtr->suit.h> struct card { char *face. " of ". return 0. Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . getchar().face.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. aCard. declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. " of ". All will print the same. cardPtr = &aCard. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program.suit ). aCard. char *suit. aCard. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". ( *cardPtr ).face. struct card *cardPtr. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. Print the values of card structure in three different forms. ( *cardPtr ). aCard.face = "Ace". cardPtr->face.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1.suit = "Spades". Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio.

} else { temp = p. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } p-> data = n. temp-> data = n. temp-> link = p. struct node *insert(struct node *p. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio. } temp = temp-> link. } return (p). p-> link = p. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). int n){ struct node *temp. exit(0). }. printf("The data values in the list are\n").Problem Solving and C Programming 2. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). exit(0). struct node *link.h> struct node { int data. } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. temp = p. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)).h> # include <stdlib.

Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. the start pointer will be NULL. } void main() { int n. again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. Then returns back the pointer. In the main program. printlist ( start ). In the main program. Then returns the pointer back. getchar(). so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } while (temp!= p). In the insert function. Now the start pointer is not NULL. so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. 4 ). 3 ). } else printf("The list is empty\n").c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node.as it is first time. start = insert ( start. int x. start = insert ( start. 1 ). Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. struct node *start = NULL . start = insert ( start. printf("The created list is\n"). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .temp->data). temp=temp->link. 2).Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". start = insert ( start.

What is the output of the following statements? a=4.%d". What is the use of generic pointers? 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. State whether the following are true or false a. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . printf("\n%d. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. n[0]=100. **c=5. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Test your Understanding 1. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. } 4. n[24]=200. **c = &b. *b = &a . Given the following declaration: int a. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. malloc(). In the printlist() function. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. *n. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. 2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b = (int *)**c. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer.

assign the value to a. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. false. Answers: 1. which is value of a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b.sizeof(str2). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. The result is meaningless. Differentiate malloc() . 100. Since b points to a. The first statement assigns 4 to a. True.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. } 6. false. char str2[]=”abcd”. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. 300 4. 5. printf(“%d %d %d”. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. malloc(). into type int *. 2 5 5 6. calloc(). sizeof(“abcd”)). sizeof(str1). false 2. Since c points to b. The third statement castes **c. 3. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007.

#define max(A. Cognizant Technology Solutions.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. #else. #endif #ifdef. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. #elif. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. } /* */ main(int argc.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. \. tab. cr. \r. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. \b \\. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ‘\xhh’ \n. octal.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. ‘\ooo’. \t. \?. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’. hex) newline.

member pointer->member ++. <. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . bitwise not indirection via pointer. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. /.member pointer -> member Ex. subtract left. modulus (remainder) add. divide. (*p). >> >. minus. logical not. % +.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. struct tag name name.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. >=. !. -. <= ==. ~ *pointer. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. -+. &name (type) expr sizeof *. <<. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. decrement plus.

default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert.h> <signal. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. *=.h> <errno.h> <string.h> <limits.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch. expr2. case const2: statement2 break.h> <locale.h> <stddef. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ).h> <setjmp. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> <float. …… . -=. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left. do. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1. Unary operators. while.h> <stdlib.h> <stdarg. for Next iteration of while. for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement .h> <stdio.h> <ctype. do.h> <math. all others group left to right.h> <time.

n) strcat(s.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.c) memcpy(s. tab.h> Consider s.ct) strncpy(s. digit Checks whether c is a Space. newline. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.ct. form feed.ct) strncmp(cs.n) strcmp(cs.n) memchr(cs.n) strchr(cs. t are strings and cs.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype. cr.n) memcmp(cs.ct. Cognizant Technology Solutions.c.n) memmove(s.ct. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.ct) strncat(s.c.ct. letter.c) strrchr(cs.ct.ct.n) memset(s.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

Page 143 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

Page 144 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. The type of conversion to be applied (required). Defines the number of characters to print (optional). If a * is used in place of the width specifer. For d. x. Precision overrides this flag. then the value to be converted. g. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. Cognizant Technology Solutions. u. Trailing zeros will not be removed. i. Overrides the 0 flag. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. Negative values still show the sign. f.sign. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. Result will always have a decimal point.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). g. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. If the value overflows the width of the field. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . f. X. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. This is useful only with a width specifier. [. e. then the field is expanded to fit the value. then the precision argument. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). o. Overrides the space flag. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). Default is to just show the . [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). E. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. the width argument comes first. e.

i. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . x. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. x. For f. x.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. e. e. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . o. u. If a * is used. u. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. then the precision argument. u. X types. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. Value is first converted to a long double. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. 6 for f. o. or . E. E types. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. [. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). i. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. i. For f. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed. .) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. i. For d. n e. Precision does not affect the c type. The minimum number of digits to appear. then the value to be converted. o. d. x. u. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. u. x. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. o. g. f. e. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. i. . o.0 For d. the width argument comes first. For g or G types all significant digits are shown.

Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision.ddd. Type char. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. Type unsigned int printed in octal. d. Type unsigned int printed in decimal. C. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). D. B. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). b.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. The argument must be a pointer to an int. i o u x X f e. Single character is printed. Trailing zeros are removed. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). g. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. c. Otherwise printed as type f. f.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. E. Type double printed as [-]d. A % sign is printed. Type double printed as [-]ddd. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). E Type signed int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No characters are printed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . e. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. F. [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). [type] d. Type pointer to array. The exponent contains at least two digits.

Type unsigned int. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. d. f. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int .Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. then it is base 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then it is base 8 (octal). Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. vertical tab. G designated with an e or E. X e. i. g e. Type signed int. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. Digits 0 through 7 only. Type float. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. new line. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. Type unsigned int. then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. f. u. n e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The argument is a double. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. Digits 0 through 9 only. carriage return. i. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. Type unsigned int. The input must be in base 8 (octal). or form feed). If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. Then one or more digits. o u x. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. o. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value.e. u. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. o. The argument is a long double. it reaches a nonconvertible character). E. s Type character array. Begins with an optional sign. tab. f. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is.

a dash. Cognizant Technology Solutions. No characters are read from the input stream. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. The argument must be a pointer to an int. Type character array.. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). If no width field is specified. then 1 is assumed. A null character is appended to the end of the array. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. No null character is appended to the array.] Input Type character array. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. Allows a search set of characters. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. Requires a matching % sign from the input. Pointer to a pointer. If the first character is a carrot (^).. By specifying the beginning character.

pdf http://cm.uiuc.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.liu.html http://www.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter. Third Edition.G. Tata McGraw Hill R. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “Programming in C”. “C How to Program”.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley. “A Book on C”.acm.lysator.bell-labs. Fourth Edition. Ira Pohl. “How to solve it by Computer”.Dromey.se/c/bwk-tutor. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html#introduction http://www. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful