Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

Cognizant 500 Glen Pointe Center West Teaneck, NJ 07666 Ph: 201-801-0233 www.cognizant.com

Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
Page 2 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
Page 3 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Storage Classes ............................104 Summary ..........................83 Declaration and Initialization....................................................................................................75 Summary ......................92 Learning Objectives ...............................................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ..................................115 Declaration and Initialization.....................................................96 Character I/O ...........................................................................79 Learning Objectives ................ All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ....................................................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ......................................................92 Union of Structures ................................................................................................................................88 Try It Out ...............87 Structures and Functions ......................................................................................................................................................................100 Numeric I/O..............................................................................................93 Enumeration .................................................................................................................................108 Random File Operations ...........................................................................................................................92 Unions.......................................................................................................................................................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ........................109 Introduction to Pointers .................................102 Try It Out ..................................................................................................................................................................................................79 Command Line Arguments ..........................................................................................................................................................................108 Learning Objectives ..................................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions...................77 Test your Understanding .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................98 String I/O.........................................................................................................................................95 File Operations .....................................................................................................100 Formatted I/O.......................................90 Test your Understanding ......................................................................101 Block I/O ...........94 Typedef Statement .....84 Structures and Arrays ..........................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out .............................106 Test your Understanding ......................................................................................................................................................................................89 Summary ...........108 Preprocessor Directives .....106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers ...............................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions....................................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................................136 Syntax Summary ...........................151 Websites ...127 Structures and Pointers ...........................................................................127 Learning Objectives .......................................................................125 Session 17: Pointers ......................................................................... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .....................................................................................................117 Try It Out ................................................138 References ........................................................................................................................................................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation ...........................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ...............................................................................................................133 Summary .................................................................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007...................151 STUDENT NOTES: ....................151 Books ..................................................125 Test your Understanding .....................................116 Pointers and Arrays ...............................................................................................................................................136 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................................................................................................123 Summary .......................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions............................................................................................................................................................127 Functions and Pointers .............................................................................................................................................130 Try It Out ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.

To understand the problem. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. determining the cause of the problem. It is an act of defining a problem. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. There is no universal method for solving a given problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions. prioritizing. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. identifying. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session.

The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It is also known as Program Analysis. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item. headings. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear.

The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code. the new parts become more focussed and. While applying top-down design to a given problem. until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. Program Design is both a product and a process. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. therefore. An important approach is Top-Down programming design.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. Cognizant Technology Solutions. several design methodologies can be applied. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4….

a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. Example 2. but omits language-specific syntax. or modifications to the existing algorithm. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. the next step must be unambiguously defined. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. However. deletions. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. and terminate in a finite time.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that. The errors identified leads to insertions.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. produce output. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. to test its correctness. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. fact. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which.

Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Output data Represents Process (actions. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. another part of the same flow chart. required to solve a problem. End Represents Input.e. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. or entry from.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference. Connector Symbol represents the exit to. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. Cognizant Technology Solutions. reports).

i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007.4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2. i Initialize fact =1. fact.

Details of particular programs. The program is now ready for execution. which includes things such as reference manuals.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. requirements can be tested for its correctness. but also to the programmers themselves. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. the design (algorithm. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. or particular pieces of programs. The compiler is system software. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. Testing is done during every phase of program development. The translation results in the creation of object code. algorithm descriptions. Linking is done if necessary. Then. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. statements. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. the declarations. Initially. During execution. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. which is part of the source code itself (essentially. Writing a program is called Coding. flowcharts. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. and project workbooks Internal documentation. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. After compilation. Documentation can be of great value.

FORTRAN. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. C. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. COBOL. This is called foolproof programming. Testing means detecting errors. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. For many programmers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. Cognizant Technology Solutions. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes. and Pascal. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors. such as BASIC. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. Ada. On some projects.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. C++.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. there are many new languages. For example. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. machine language is not an easy language to learn. It does not need any translator program.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. Because of it design.

In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. irrespective of the type of computer used. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. for its program construction. -. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. For example. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. This translator program is called Assembler.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. /. SUB and LOAD etc. In high level languages. Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. %.

both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. This. The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. In 1959. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. but it is complex and difficult to learn. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. The language should provide appropriate data structures. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language. and the expertise of the programmer. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. The major breakthrough occurred. with every combination being meaningful.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. in turn. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. Later. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. tested and maintained with ease. For example. though not widely used. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. type of program. operations.

Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. testing. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed. Cost of Program creation. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. efficient register allocation. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. coding. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. testing & use: This implies design. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. Interactive Environment. coded. and Embedded System Environment. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. the backup process on an organization. For example. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 4. Examples include database management systems. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. compiling and running. coded. Top-down program design. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. Planning a tour. Distinguish between testing and debugging. called Modules. coding. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. documenting. algorithm development. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. word processing systems etc. Give the algorithm. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. 3. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. Represent the following problem in top-down design. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. The environment under which a program is designed. and maintenance. 2. testing. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well.Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. debugging. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

True. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Easy to carry from place to place b. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. True 5. Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It can run on any machine d.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. What is meant by portability of programs? a.

you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. in 1973. Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. BCPL. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . During 1970s. C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. It was evolved from ALGOL. To assure that the C language remains standard. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. and B. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. In 1967. Cognizant Technology Solutions. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. which are efficient but nonportable. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. The standard was updated in 1999. Prior to C. for writing system software. In 1970. which are portable but inefficient. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers.

Java. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . C# conserve C syntax. C++.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007.

extensive use of pointers for memory. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces. called functions. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. to include functions from the system library. C is a case sensitive language. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. Every C program must have one main() function. Output and Processing statements. although they may appear in any order. Cognizant Technology Solutions. to define the symbolic constants and macro. array. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. C program can be documented using these comment lines. These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required.

&num1.num2. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). It removes comments and empty lines in the program. printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”).sum. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007. sum). sum = num1+num2. num1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . num2).&num2). scanf(“%d%d”. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio.h> main( ) { int num1.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h> -. . Blank spaces etc.z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code). which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters. #include <math. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. #include <stdio. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. Identifiers.includes contents of a named file. Operators and Expression.. numbers and expressions.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files.defines a symbolic name or constant. the link editor combines these functions with main(). The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set. External variable references are resolved here. These files are usually called header files. Assembler The assembler creates the object code.Z o Lowercase a…. +.OBJ indicates object code files. [On UNIX.standard library maths file. file with a.standard library I/O file #define -. to create an executable file.2 #include -.h> -. % . ? .o suffix and on MSDOS files with .

Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. The following table shows the list of keywords. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers. All keywords must be written in lowercase. constants. No special character is allowed except underscore (_). Example 3. the range of values that can be represented in memory. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. predefined meanings in C. and functions. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It should start with an alphabet. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. Cognizant Technology Solutions. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007.

int = 2 bytes. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. Cognizant Technology Solutions. never less than int. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. Similarly. For example. They are.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. Here.

967. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .483.295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.483. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.4 * (10+38) 1.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32.7 * (10-308) to 1.647 Floating Point Number.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double.294.7 * (10+308) 3. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program. Cognizant Technology Solutions.147.147. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types. They are used to represent a collection of data. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions. It is useful with pointers.4 * (10-38) to 3.4 * (10-4932) to 1.648 to 2.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.768 to 32.

4 int i. General form: var_data_type list variables. y. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. float sum = 0. tot = 0. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. ct=1. also called read-only variables. char ch. Example 3. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables. z. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. Example 3. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .0. int tot. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. j. k. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3.5 int total=0. float x. ct=1.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters. General Form: [data type] variable name = value.

This value cannot be changed by the program. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions.6 const int size = 100. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. const long a = 50000L.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. Example 3. or const long a = 50000l. const float pi=3. const int a = 0567. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. const char ch = ‘a’. const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. (true – 1.14. which evaluates to either true or false.

i++). +=. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier.may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. i). Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level.post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. /=. if condition is evaluated to true. -=.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment. printf(“%d”. *=. k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement.k: pre increment.Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /*prints 6 . (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression.pre increment */ /* prints 6 . ++i). k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. printf(“%d”. printf(“%d”. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever.

Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) .b) / c or a . Assignment. Index. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Inequality comparators. indirection.b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . Page 32 ©Copyright 2007. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones.(b / c). Multiplicative operators. function calls that evaluates to a value. op= Name Parentheses. Relational expression (uses relational operators). Additive operators. unary minus. and Logical expression (uses logical operators). Logical OR. ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . operators. b=2. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity.(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands.7: Operators Let a=1. member access operators Logical NOT. address Increment and decrement operators. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . Equality comparators Logical AND. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators). Conditional. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

a=b=3.8 (1) a = (b = 2. if the operands of an expression are of different types. c=3. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. e = a != b.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression. the assignment operator is “=”. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. In implicit type conversion.e.which is the same as. b = 3. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. b=4. b+c). c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. float b. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. x + 3 = y. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. This is called Typecasting. . In C. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. For example. For example.. c=3. However. b+c.) not a storage location. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. b-c). c= a>b. The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable.5. d = 3. (2) a = (b=2. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. (4) int c. Example 3. (3) int a. but more efficient than: a = 3. a=3. double to float causes round of digits. before assigning the value to it. c = 3. the statement x = y + z. d = a == b. computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x.

4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. c.0 will be stored in sum.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float .widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3.5 * 3. c = a/b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 3.0. f.narrowing . y = a / 10. 5. sum = (int) (1.9 float sum. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. e = -a % -b. because the variable sum is of type float. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b. y.7. Then. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value.11 int a. d = a % b. z.8) as the integer 5. e. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. b=4. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator. instead of 5. b. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1.8). x = a / 10. Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. Example 3. d. The original value of the variable is not altered. a=14. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value. float x.5 * 3.

This single character includes alphabets. digits. return. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. a=++b + c++. . Example 3. Another method is to use input functions. and tab. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. ch = getchar().13 char ch.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character.+ --c. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .12 a int a=0. a=++b + ++c.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements. processing. a=b++ + c++. getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). c = a>b. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. c=0. getch (). There are two methods of providing data to the program variables. punctuations. c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. General form: char-variable = getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. a=b-. which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). b=0.

Blank space is also considered as a character.character input from console & echoes the character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). String Input gets () . Cognizant Technology Solutions. General Form: gets(stringvariable). /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3. Example 3. General Form: putchar(char variable). Page 36 ©Copyright 2007.15 char ch. Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). putchar(ch). monitor. ch = getchar(). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output.14 char ch[5]. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character. To get a line of text. gets(ch). this function serves the purpose.

A character following this defines the format for a value. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. g.16 char ch[5]. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. f. Cognizant Technology Solutions. list of variables).] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. %e. Example 3. u. gets(ch). x.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). L) conversion character (d. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: scanf (“format string”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . puts(ch).pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h.. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. C has a special formatting character (%). l. o.

&x). printf (“sum = %*. &i. Address operator (&) is used before the variables. Delimiter can be user-defined. ‘&’ need not be used.&b). Format string and variables are separated by comma.*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. Stops when it encounters new line. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. General Form: printf (“format string”. &a.*f”. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. floating point=%6. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. &ch.2f”. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully.&b). also known as control string contains field specifications.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string.18 printf (“char=%c. This function returns the number of characters printed. str). list of variables). Example 3. x). w. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int=%3d. Example 3.&a. name). &b). General Form: sscanf (str. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. By default. &a. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. list of variables). p. first 4 characters printed. scanf (“%[^\n]s”.4s”.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. sum). which directs the interpretation of input data. /*accepts all inputs including space. To read a string using ‘%s’. “format string”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i. /* column width 10.ch. Format string. the delimiter while reading the values is space.

then based on the operator precedence. char.h> main() { int z. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .--y * b / a.x=5. General Form: sprintf (str.z). getchar(). C has a rich set of operators. printf("The Value of z : %d\n".a=4. main d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. list of variables).c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007.b=2. “total” c.y=-10. float.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a. C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. C program is a collection of functions. Emp_name b. double. z = x++ . C supports four basic primitive data types: int. “format string”. Test your Understanding 1.

What is the output of the following code? int a . What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. but getch() will not echo the character. 5.b).c ( “ “ . s = 10. getche() echoes the input character on screen. . 4 5 b. x= (int) y. a = (b = 2) + (c=3).are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. a. valid 3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 6. Answers: 1. 4. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007.0 .5 4. 7. What is ternary operator in C? 5. All are valid. b = printf (“welcome”). s= (int) y + 3.Problem Solving and C Programming 2.5. Is the statement valid? 3. printf (“%d “. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . s. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. 4 5 7.5. If. x = 7. y=7.

b=10.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. y = x * b – k. and iteration (looping). c=3. until some condition is satisfied.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. 1 a=8. In a sequence construct. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. In a selection structure. } { { a=1. selection. c=a+b. . you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. c=a + b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2 { a=10. } x=a*b. In an iterative structure. Example 5. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program. Example 5. } } { b=2. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. input-output statements. } [ else { statements2. and/or relational expression. which consists of declaration statements. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero). the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. logical. An expression involves arithmetic. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed. and/or logical operators. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). } ] statements3. and one or more simple expression statements. The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. Expression can be arithmetic. is executed in a sequential manner. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. relational.

If the else part is not specified. } Example 5. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. else printf (“largest = %d”. if (expression) statements-2.3: Program to find maximum of two numbers.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed.max). For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”.c). the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. else max = a. if (expression) statements-1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 5. printf(“ max = %d” . true or false is known. } else { statements2. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. a).4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if (a<b) max = b.

General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). else if (expression) statements2. Example 5.c). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3. Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). else if(expression) statements3. The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands. .b). ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else printf (“largest = %d”. It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. else statements4.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition.5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). else printf(“Fail\n”).

if there is no match for the case labels. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. break. default : statement. pointer variable. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. which is similar to the following if-else statement. } Expression in the switch statement. Default case is optional and if specified. relational expression. break.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. case item2: statement 2. if (a>b) max = a. then an execution jump is made to that point. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. If the variable matches with one of the constants. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. which are represented by constant values. else max = b. default statements will be executed. break. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007. must be an integer valued expression. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. and/or arithmetic expression. logical expression. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. expr3 is evaluated. case itemn: statement n. variable. Example 5. array variable. Expression may be a constant value.

break. If the test condition is False. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). expression2.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. break. General Form: for (expression1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. Cognizant Technology Solutions.while’. the statements inside the loop are executed. break. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. case ‘/’: c=a/b. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. If the test condition is True. Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the control is transferred to the statement. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’. ‘while’. case ‘-’: c=a-b. There are several ways to execute loops in C. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. which follows the loop. ‘do. case ‘*’: c=a*b. break. expression3) { statement / block of statements. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration.

c).c<=20. Different variables must be used to control each loop.) { c+=1. Example 5. (3) for (x=0. x++) x++. z . y=4.) { printf (“%d”. for (j=1. } In the above example. c++. for (.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement). controlled by the value of ‘j’.i<=3.c<=20. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)). y=4. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop. z=4000. Such loops are called nested loops. ((x>3) && (x<9)). } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. } (7) int c=0.i).9 for (i=1. for(. the inner loop runs completely. Cognizant Technology Solutions. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop.j).c=c+2) (5) for (c=2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.j<=3. c). (4) c=2. Example 5.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. is called inner loop.++c) (6) c=2.. printf (“c=%d”. for (. For each & every iteration through the outer loop. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration.. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. The second loop.8 (1) for (x=0.

variable or any expression. General Form: do statement (s). (4) while(1).Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the body of loop is not executed at all. (3) while(x) { }.while’ statement The do. while is an exit controlled loop statement. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. } Expression can be a constant value. } ‘do . the expression is checked again. General Form: while (expression) { Statements. the body of the loop is executed. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first. At the end of the loop. If the expression evaluates to True. If the result is True. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). On reaching the do statement. After executing the body of the loop. Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. the body of the loop is executed. ++c. the expression in the while statement is evaluated. (2) while(x = x+1){ }. If the expression is initially False. (6) c=1. while (expression). The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements.c). otherwise statements after the while block is executed.

Problem Solving and C Programming to True.11 int d=1.loop<100.while. */ printf("%d\n". It is used to terminate the current iteration.13 for(loop=0. Example 5. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements.d).loop).loop<50. Example 5. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True. Break. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. When the condition becomes False. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. Example 5. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed.loop++) { If (loop==10) break. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements. General Form: break. } while (d<=10). General Form: continue. ++d.12 for(loop=0. Cognizant Technology Solutions. do { printf (“%d\n”. the body of the loop is executed at least once..

} getchar().h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . uklbs. stones. printf("%d\n". We know the starting point. uklbs and kilos. For each pounds.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". int uklbs = pounds % 14. pounds < 250. } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1.Problem Solving and C Programming continue. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . apply formula to get the stones. termination condition and the increment. for(pounds=10.loop). pounds. float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. Continue this till the termination condition is met i. kilos). so we have used the for loop. printf(" US lbs UK st. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio. lbs INT Kg\n").45359 main() { int pounds.e. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds.

if clause can contain another if statement. break. Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. Test your Understanding 1. } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007. break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. break. 2. that are used to carry out conditional looping.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . case 3 : printf(“3”). c. Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. for. case 2 : printf(“2”). Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . b. Which of the following statements are true? a. case 1 : printf(“1”). An if statement must always include an else clause. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. while. An if statement may include only simple statements.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 3 4. What is the difference between a while and do. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. } Answers: 1. The loop statements of do. Default case is executed. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. 3. c 2.. whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels.while will get executed at least once. else continue. 5.. printf (“%d”))) break.while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007.

It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e.g. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . etc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. of the same data type. Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. set of numbers. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations. The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. index 1 refers second location. set of names).. [index 0 refers first location .]. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C. If an array of 5 integers elements is created.

Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. int matrix[2][2]. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. starting at x[0]. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007.1 int x[5]. When addressing an element in an array. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. Example 7. Array declaration reserves space in memory. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name.2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. Defines a character array. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] . float sales_amt[10]. char str[16]="qwerty".

2. ) */ float b[2]={10.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing. In such cases.45.4}. the base address can not be changed. Example 7. /*a[0] = 1. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007.3. (ex. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. and processing of array elements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .5}. a[2] = 3 . /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}. In partial initialization. a[2]=3. size depends upon the number of values initialized. If initialized. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. retrieving. When arrays are initialized during declaration.4.4}. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program.3. a[1] = 2 .20 . a[1]=2.34}. Thus.3 int a[5]={1.2. /*a[0]=1. b[1] = 45. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.2. array can be declared without specifying the exact size. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. /* b[0] = 10. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}.3. partial initialization is allowed.2.

scanf(“%d”.a[i]). Example 7.&a[i]). a+1. a.6 int a[3]. &a[1]). (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. scanf(“%d”. (1) printf(“%d”.i++) printf(“%d”. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array.i++) scanf(“%d”.i<3. (1) scanf(“%d”. a[2]).pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. printf(“%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 int a[3]. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension. a[0]).a[1]).a[1]. /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”.i<3. a+2). /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays.a[2]). (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”. /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays.Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . &a[2]). General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007.a[0]. &a[0]).

Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7. /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.{4}}. Assume that array starts at location 1000.2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4. If m elements are needed. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. Cognizant Technology Solutions.row 0 & column 0 . out of n locations defined.5.2.4. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order.8 int num[2][3] = {1.3.3}}. In partial initialization. = 4 elements).3}.6}.row 1 & column 0 . 7 int a[2][2]. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration. int num[2][3] = {1. /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.2.{1.3.9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 .2}. Example 7.2. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.5}.row 0 & column 1 .

11 char studname[50][15]. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined.’\0’). The value at str[6] is the null character.’m’. name[4] = ‘\0’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. there is no built-in data type for strings. return 0. A character string is stored in an array of character type. of chars in strings]. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters.10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. to represent the end of string.’u’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. In C. String constants can be assigned to character array variables.*/ (3) char name[5].Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. name[2] = ‘O’. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. Example 7. one ASCII character per location. name[3] = ‘D’. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. of strings] [max no. Example 7. /*Creates a string. name[1] = ‘O’.

13 (1) char name[20].”cat” .’\0’}} = {{‘b’. assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator. int i=0. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). printf(“%s” . {‘c’. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++.’a’. name). Cognizant Technology Solutions. name).Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}.’t’.’\0’}.’t’. Example 7. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another.’a’.’t’.’a’.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” .h. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. which manipulates the entire string at once. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered.’\0’}. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’. thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”.

s2) strcspn(s1. Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings. string2. Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. n) strncpy(string1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2.s2) strpbrk(s1.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. string2) strcat(string1. Find last occurrence of character c in string. c) strstr(s1. c) strrchr (string.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. string2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1. n) strncmp(string1. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string.string2.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string. s2) strspn(s1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. string2) strcmp(string1. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string.

i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.) True if c is a space character (\n.‘. True if c is a control character (\n. “. for (i = 0. i < 24.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. which can manipulate a single character. except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. int i. i < 24. for(i = 2. The header file. fib[1] = 1. ctype.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions.:. ‘.h. is used for the character functions.\v.\t. True if c is ASCII .\r.\r. True if c is a letter. . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric.h> main() { int fib[24].\f. fib[0] = 0.\f. .

} Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. j<5.8. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array. i<4. Page 62 ©Copyright 2007. i++) { for (j=0. i<4. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. fib[i]). i++) for(j=0. for(i=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .j. j<5. printf("\n").c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. } getchar(). twod[i][j]). 2.2.5. j++) printf("%d ".13….c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. int i.3. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1.. for (i=0.The program computes the series up to 24 numbers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added. Initially array of size 24 is declared. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. getchar(). Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio. i.Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n".h> main() { int twod[4][5].

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

Page 63 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

Page 64 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

Page 65 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

Page 66 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). It can be accessed only within that function. executable statement 1. If it is declared in the Global declaration section. Function body. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. parameters. Memory for the global variables is allocated. there is no need for the function prototype.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. …. So compiler will identify the function name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. : return expression. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. Local Variables .) { local variables Declaration. it is used by all the functions in the program. } main() { fun().Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. executable statement 2. } Function is defined prior to its reference. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution. type arg2.. and the operations to be carried out by the function. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. } Function Header function-name arg1. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007. Global Variables .The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions.

expression can be a variable name. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. each containing different expression. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then void keyword is used to represent that. If there is no return statement. General Form: return. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. else return b. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. Example 9. If it returns a value. Default return type is ‘int’. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 9. it is achieved by the return statement. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. OR return(expression). return(a*b). int b) { if ( a > b) return a.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a. constant value or any single valued expression.3 (1) return. return(a<b). There can be multiple return statements. } (2) main() { return 0. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. does not return any value.

int). it is called Recursion. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. } int find_big(int a.Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. num2. If a function is returning a value. big. big). /* function prototype. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. big=find_big(num1. When the function call is encountered. &num1.num2). /* function call statement. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments). The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. scanf(“%d%d”.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. If the function returns value. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. It is a process by which a function calls itself. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function.num2)) statement. data type. find_big(num1. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. Example 9. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. The number. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. &num2). and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. else return b. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference.

the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). control is transferred back to the called function. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. Cognizant Technology Solutions. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . then call 1 = 4 * fact(3). In fourth call. When the return statement is encountered.&n). The main function may call function1. else return(k*fact(k-1). which in turn return the value to its calling function. scanf(“%d“. { if (k<=1) return 1. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. which may call function3. Depending on its definition. } fact(int k). fact(int). the control is immediately transferred to the function. On seeing the name of the function in calling statement. } If n = 4. printf(“Factorial = %d“.fact(n)). call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . which in turn call function2. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments.7 main() { int n.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. along with the value returned. printf(“Enter an integer\n”).

c). return(a+b). scanf(“%d%d”. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.sum).&b).&c). } border(int m.a.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). sum=add(a. char c. printf(“\n”). &n. printf(“\nSum = %d”.int y) { return a+b .s).&a.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. } add() { int a.i++) printf(“%c“. for(i=1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.i<=m.i++) printf(“-“). scanf(“%d%c”. border(n. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . integers\n”). printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). } } } scanf(“%d%d”.c). } border() { int i. add(int x.&b). char s) { int i. printf(“\nSum = %d”.b.b).sum). { int sum. sum=add(). printf(“\n”).b. return. } { int sum. return.9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n. &a.i<=80. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. for(i=1.

Example 9. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. pointer variable or array name. b). c = d. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. b). d = temp. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. a=10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The value of the actual argument will remain same. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. b=20. So. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. } Call by Reference In this approach. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. b. swap(a. a. temp = c.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp. So. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } void swap(int c. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument.

*c = *d. &b). a=10. swap(&a. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument. max_value = val[0]. Example 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } main() { int values[5]. int *d) { int temp. i < 5. b=20. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. return max_value. which points to an array. *d = temp. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. b). i. i. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). To pass an array to a function. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable.12 int { int max_value. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. max.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. } void swap(int *c. b. Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. a. temp = *c. for( i = 0. Example 9.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

Page 74 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

Page 75 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

Page 76 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable.i). well defined task. } fn(int i) { return ++i. The command line arguments. } 4. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. printf(“ %d “ . Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. Test your Understanding 1. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. { int a = 3. } printf(“%d” . What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. What is function prototyping? 2. iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. ii) function call. A function calling itself is called recursion. a). Cognizant Technology Solutions. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. static. printf("%d". a). } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. fn(i). argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function.

Page 78 ©Copyright 2007. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. 3 4 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. 7. int *p(char *a) c. int (*p)(char a) d. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. type of its arguments. 2. int p(char *a) b. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. Using command line arguments. 10 6. Corresponding parameters must be of same type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. b. In call by reference. int *p(char *a[]) 7. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters. 3. 5. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In C. What the following declaration statements imply? a. return data type). a. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1.

it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file.. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. This is called block scope. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}).. is determined by where it is defined. General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. This means. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. All other types of variables are local variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating. it has file scope. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes.

Thus.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. Static variables are stored in memory. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . printf (“%d “ . Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. it is automatically initialized to zero. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. If not initialized in the declaration statement. it will retain the value between function calls. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. Once allocated. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables. they are also called local or internal variables. } printf(“ %d “ . Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. internal static variables retain values between function calls. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). When the execution of the block is completed. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. a).1 main() { int a = 5 . the nested variables are unique auto variables. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. { int a =6 . then its scope is confined to that function. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. by default it is an auto variable. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. with identical names. Because of this property. Example 10. If the variable is declared within a function. So. it is cleared and its memory destroyed. In the case recursive functions. a). Cognizant Technology Solutions. If not initialized in the declaration. although it is active only in main(). If no storage class is specified.

i++) incre(). Since the registers are less in numbers.2 main() { int i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. } incre() { static int x = 0. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. the variable is initialized to zero. instead of keeping it in the memory. x = x +1. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. printf(“ x = %d\n”. careful selection must be made for their use. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program.x). for (i=1. They are referred to as global variables.i<=5. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. If not initialized in the declaration. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. When using external variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. Since registers are faster than memory. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed.

External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. When a command is entered in a command window. just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. } int b = 20. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. it is initialized to zero. fun(). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b).Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. printf(“ %d “ . a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). printf(“ %d “ . The first word is treated as the name of a program. a). extern int a = 10. External variable declaration can not have initialization. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. but as a first approximation.3 int a = 5 . } void fun() { a = 10 . /* external variable declaration. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. */ void fun().

The components are called Members. argv[i]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer). For example. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. for( i = 0. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. Example 10. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. which are command line strings.argc). Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. employee name (string). salary (float).Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc. A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. department code (string).4 main( int argc.i . C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. char* argv[]) { int i. i < argc. } When the following command is given in the command prompt.

variable-name.5 1) struct employee { int code.. int dept_code.... variable-name. }... Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable.. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. variable-name.... Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together. char name[20]. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007... struct employee emp1... type variable-name.. type variable-name... : : type variable-name..... When declaring structure variables. Individual members will be given a separate memory location.. General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name. “struct” keyword is used to define structures. variable-name.. Example 10..... float salary. } . emp2.. tag name is optional... Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration...Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition.. Here. no extra structures can be created... All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that.

illegal. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0. int semester. then the expression “s. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. 90.6 struct { int rollnum. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. } emp1. illegal.”(dot). int dept_code. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. }. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. 1}.0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable.78}.”Dina”. “Raja”. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. char name[20]. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. float salary. 1. Example 10. stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’. struct stud stud1={101. No storage class can be specified for structure members. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. float avg. If it is partially initialized. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. stud2={102. struct employee { int empno = 101 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. emp2. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’.

which is always not same for different structure variables. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . char name[20]. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. While comparing structure variables. float basic.salary emp2. Example 10. member-field-name Example 10. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. Example 10. This is because. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .8 struct emp { int empno. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. int year. Assignment operation is allowed.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality.code emp1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the assignment expression a = b is valid.sizeof(emp1)).9 struct { int day.7 emp1. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007. }. the values in slack bytes are also compared. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use. For example. even though the values stored in the member variables are same.dept_code emp1.name emp1. structures can contain members that themselves are structures. } emp1.code emp2. int month. printf (“Size = %d”.

emp2.name student [1]. Example 10.11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber.semester student [1].rollnum student [1].sub_marks[0] }.avg student[50]. char name[20]. student.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays. char name [20]. struct date doj.doj. then we can do so by writing: emp1. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. int semester. char name[15].Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. int sub_marks[5]. }. Accessing values: student. struct stud Accessing values: student [1].10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum. Cognizant Technology Solutions. float salary. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. int avg. }student. int dept_code. In this example. }emp1. Example 10.

display(emp1). All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. But changes will not be reflected back.13 struct emp { int empno. emp2. Example 10. /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . printf(“ %s “ . }.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. Example 10. “AAAA”} . }. char empname[10].empname).empno). or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. printf(“%d” . main( ) { void display(struct emp). } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. Cognizant Technology Solutions.12 struct emp { int empno. emp1->empno). emp2. change(&emp1). } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . struct emp emp1 = { 101 . it is passed using call by value method. char empname[10]. “AAAA”} . We can use pointer to structures. void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

h> struct student { char name[20]. strcpy(student1. getchar(). } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. printf (" Name is %s \n". printf (" Marks are %. x. Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. float marks. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure.marks).Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. int a."Tom"). …) Example 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. student2. int main ( ) { struct student student3. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name). float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. student1.2f \n". Cognizant Technology Solutions.marks = 99.name. wage is a structure variable of sal structure.name). student2. } student1.9. student2. y).

How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. Test your Understanding 1. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. only one member is accessible at a time. ) operator. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. In unions. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. Consider the following structure. struct { int a. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. Print the values of the structure. }*p1. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. int *p.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

The elements of an array are always of the same type. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. 2. char name[15]. sizeof (ex)). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int age. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. Answers: 1. *p1->p. struct stud_type s1. union person { char surname[10]. 4. }. }ex. printf(“Size = %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. 3.

}union-variable... Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. is a derived data type.. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly.... No other member can be initialized. and the members of the union are given. In the declaration. like a structure... For each variable.. keyword ‘union’.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session. General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name.. type variable-name.. variable-name.... Unions follow the same syntax as structures... Page 92 ©Copyright 2007.it creates the type. . variable-name...... can be used to declare variables of the union type.. unformatted.. union-variable. type variable-name. : : type variable-name. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization... Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template .. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted.. along with the keyword ‘union’. Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member. and block file I/O operations Unions Union...... but no storage is allocated.. variable-name. variable-name.... The tag name.... the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members.. the tag name.

struct stud_type { int rollno. }. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. }. int age.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. Cognizant Technology Solutions.1 union item { int m. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. float x. Thus. s1. float avg. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. struct employee_type e1. struct stud_type }ex. char c.2 { int code. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. int dept_code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . char name[20]. The dot operator (. char name[15]. float salary.) is used to access the members. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. static union item product = {100}. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. Example 14. union { char surname[10]. }.

Example 14. As structures. vtab = `\v'. blue = 5 . “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. first enumerated name has index value 0. enum colors { red = 1 . green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. The member names must differ from one another. backspace = `\b'. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. As with arrays. var2 . …………… var n. We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. similar to structures or a union. newline = `\n'. e1 and s1. the union allows the structure variables. though they have signed integer values. Here. member2 . …… member n } . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . at the same time. next value is calculated as previous plus one. green takes the value 6. These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables.e1.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. but not both. the user can use either e1 or s1. if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). e1 = getch(). The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. to share common memory. tab = `\t’. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers. General Form: enum tag { member1 .Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. Cognizant Technology Solutions. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. definition and variable declaration can be combined. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. That is.

typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions. Similarly. the results may be stored on disks. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. }employee. numbers n1. employee emp1. integer variables. For such applications.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. General Form typedef datatype new-type. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. Example 14. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. Example 14. numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables. In C. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. Cognizant Technology Solutions.5 typedef { int empno. The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. It is used to give new names to existing data types. char empname[10]. no need to use struct keyword. Then structure variables can be declared as follows.4 typedef numbers int. n2 . files are needed. emp2. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. struct n1 .

Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device. on some systems. Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character).h. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. and the new-line character. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. More generally. and all characters will be transferred as such. Cognizant Technology Solutions. When a program begins. A text stream. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. There are two types of streams: text and binary. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. When a file is closed. In C. Text streams consist of printable characters.in which case the position points to the end of the file. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. the tab character. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. When a file is opened. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . “mode”). The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. "format string". It is a string enclosed within double quotes. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. variable list). fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. variable list). The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. (Extensions can be specified like test.c. "format string". fclose(fp ). details. fscanf(fp.Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. fprintf(fp. the purpose/positioning of opening the file. fp = fopen(“name”.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the file is opened in the update mode (+). the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. Writing in to a file To write into a file. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. if the file does not open or the file does not exist. or fflush(). If the file is opened with append mode (a).Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. By default. because files can be reopened only if they are closed. fsetpos(). rewind(). the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.fp). General Form: ch =getc (fptr). if ((fp=fopen(“sample. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. The fptr may be stdin. the character is returned. if ((fp=fopen(“sample.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. char c.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. This may be a macro version of fgetc.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. char c. the pointer is moved to the next position. otherwise false. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”).Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . the character is returned.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp. On success. which represents a standard input device. After the reading a character. which is true if end of file is reached. which represents standard output device. monitor as a file. This fptr may be stdout. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. fclose(fp). If the end-of-file is encountered. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. If an error occurs. keyboard as a file.fptr). This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. Example 14. If an error occurs. On success. Example 14.dat”. The EOF is end of file status flag.dat”.

Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. It stops when (n-1) characters are read.fptr). EOF is returned. a pointer to the string is returned. a file at a time. whichever comes first. Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. General Form: putw (i. A null character is appended to the end of the string. On success. EOF is returned. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). the string remains unchanged. string can be written to. the newline character is read. On success. fptr). On error. This function writes an integer to a file. The newline character is copied to the string. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. } String I/O Using string I/O. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. a file at a time. integers can be written to. or read from. On error. or the endof-file is reached. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). On success. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). General Form: fgets(str. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . a nonnegative value is returned. a null pointer is returned.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). Cognizant Technology Solutions. fptr). Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. or read from. On error. General Form: fputs (str. a nonnegative value is returned.n. fclose(fp).

format-string. Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. addresses-list). The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. On success. General Form: fscanf( fptr. the number of characters printed is returned. vertical tab. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. or the width field is satisfied. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. If the input does not match.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. variable-list). On success.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw(). in a left to right fashion. in a left to right fashion. This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. General Form: i = getw( fptr). Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). If an error occurred. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. -1 is returned. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input. EOF is returned. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. tab. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the function stops scanning and returns. or form feed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or the next incompatible character. according to the format specifier specified in format string. new line. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. carriage return. If an input failure occurs. format-string. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met.

std1[i]. std1[i]. age )\n\n"). The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. %s %d " . struct { int no. for(i=0. while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . name .age).age). "%d .age). fpt = fopen("details. Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes.&std1[i]. int age. &std1[i]. printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n").Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file.i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " .age). std1[i]. int i. std[i].name . It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007. "w"). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). fprintf(fpt .name .dat" . i++. printf("\n\n enter the details (no . &std[i]. std[i].Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. char name[10]. The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream.e.no . bytes of data). i<5 .no . fpt = fopen("details.name . clrscr(). std1[i].8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. &std[i]. std1[10].no .dat" .no . std[i]. "%d %s %d " . std[i]. }std[10]. Cognizant Technology Solutions.name printf("%d %s %d \n" . } fclose(fpt). "r").

i<5 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The total number of bytes read is (size*n). 5 . int i . fwrite(&stud . sizeof(stud1[0]) .age). Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14.stud[i]. n. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). i++) scanf("%s %d ". fclose(fptr).dat" . &stud[i]. clrscr(). fptr). General Form fwrite (ptr. fp). struct tag { char name[10]. n. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned.9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. fptr=fopen("ex. "r" ). fread(&stud1 . int age . }stud[10] . fptr = fopen("ex.dat" . On error or end-of-file. On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. fptr). On success the number of elements written is returned. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. stud1[10]. "w" ). On success the number of elements read is returned. The total number of bytes written is (size*n). 5 . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. size.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. for(i=0 . printf(" \n\n printing the values ").name . fp). size. sizeof(stud[0]) . General Form fread (&str. Page 103 ©Copyright 2007.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString.Print the line number and the line. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. stud1[i]. // is in the current line and // if so. Cognizant Technology Solutions. // after this command. inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++. 255. Code: /* findword. i<5 . // This is where I read the lines of the file int count. read the input argument.name .h> /* #include <stdlib. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". print it } fclose(inFile). "r"). // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString.c */ #include <string. myString).c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments.char *argv[]) { char myString[256].count.age). Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0. // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). Open the input file. stud1[i].h> */ FILE * inFile. // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . } Try It Out 1.h> #include <stdio.

"Put a value in the integer member".y ). getchar(). double y.". } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2. Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. Close the file and exit the program 2. "and print both members. "double:\n". "double:\n". value. "Put a value in the floating member". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . value.x. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype.y = 100. "int: ".y ). return 0. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. value.". int main() { union number value. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n".x = 100. value. one integer and the other double. }.0. "int: ". if found print the line number and the full string. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed.Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” .x. Cognizant Technology Solutions. value. "and print both members. value. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n".h> union number { int x. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members.

and what value does it usually have? 4. and rewind() functions. } return 0. Output operations on files can be of character I/O. } 3. 2L . Cognizant Technology Solutions. i++.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. ftell(). fopen(). What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout."hello-out"). formatted I/O and block I/O. ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. sleep(1). x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. What is EOF. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. Input. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. string I/O. Preproccessing is done before compilation. Test your Understanding 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol.

Its value on most computers is -1. a). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 4. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. stderr 2. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. foo( ). } Answers: 1. printf(“%d”.a ).Problem Solving and C Programming 5. 3.. No significance. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. 5. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. stdin. stdout. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007.

then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. which corresponds to the current file pointer position. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. the current file position is returned. On error. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). offset. If it is a text stream. General Form: fseek( fptr. ftell() and rewind(). This can be achieved by using the functions fseek(). fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . In some applications. On success. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. If it is a binary stream. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file.

2). fseek (fp. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). The error indicator is NOT reset. 0). from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). 10L. Move the file pointer to the beginning. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 109 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. 0L. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. Remove comments from the source file. fseek (fp. -10L. 2). fseek (fp. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. fseek (fp. General Form: rewind(fptr). horizontal tab. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. fseek (fp.1 fseek (fp. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. 10L. Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. vertical tab. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. 0). 1). The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. Cognizant Technology Solutions. 0L. or carriage return. 2 On a text stream. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. The end-of-file indicator is reset. 1). rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. On error. form feed. -10L. zero is returned. On success. Move the file pointer to the end of file. a nonzero value is returned. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. Example 15.

#undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword. Ends conditional text. Defines text for a compile-time error message. Except for some #pragma directives. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. No semicolon (. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. #ifndef. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. #include Inserts text from another source file. #ifdef. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. or #elif test fails. or #elif test fails. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. #ifndef. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. Defines a preprocessor macro. #ifdef. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. Cognizant Technology Solutions. depending on the result of a constant expression. The # token must appear as a first character. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed.

In case that it is not there. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. or until the end of the program source is reached. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries.2 #include <stdio. the file is searched first in the current working directory. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. Therefore. and then processed by the compiler. Example 15. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007.h> #include “stdio. whichever comes first. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation. while other user specificed header files are included using quotes. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated.

. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value. These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function. …. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source.

Example 15. areaofsquare=3+4*3+4. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a)..Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation.5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3).3). There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition. The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. and one matching #endif directive. /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .b) ((a)+(b)). and #ifndef directive. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). there are zero or more #elif directives. zero or one #else directive. addition=add(2. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). Continuation character for macro definition is \. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. #ifdef. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). For each #if. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. addition=(2)+(3).

…. printf(name(xyz)). #elif. */ Example 15. then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. If so. If there is a matching #else. Example 15. If there is a matching #elif. If the value is 0 (false). */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true).8 #define name(x. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. printf(name(ssn. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false).y) x##y main() { ….. Cognizant Technology Solutions. change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. ….Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true).somca)). Example 15.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). or #endif.7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. and the preceding #if evaluated to false.6 Check whether a variable is defined.

*px. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand. prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. 5 – value. px = &x. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. for pointer implementation. int a = 5 . * Indirection or de-referencing operator. a). Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &a). as they have a number of useful applications. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. Whenever a variable is declared. & and *. & address operator. * and & are inverse of each other. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. x = 5 . printf(“ Address of a = %u”. C provides two operators. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15.9 int x. Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value.

Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”. printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. q = p. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. valid valid. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Null or an address. q = a. The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. invalid . b . The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. &x). *q = NULL. printf(“ x = %d “ . x). A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. printf(” address of x = %d “ . Example 15. *p = &a .Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. Pointer variable of a particular data type can. . *px). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . px). Two pointer variables can be compared.11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . &px). b = &a.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array.

Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. Thus. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable. *pv is the same as v[0]. ptr ++. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 117 ©Copyright 2007. ptr= &i. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. if v is an array. so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. and so on. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. i=5.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element.

14 int a[5] = {1.2. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear.*ptr). printf (“%d “. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15. (ptr+i)).*(a+i)). Example 15. Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. OR pointer_variable = array_name. varies according to the dimension.4} .17 int a[2][2] = {1. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr .16 printf (“%u “. similar to ptr = &a[0].3. Accessing address Example 15. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value .5} ptr = a . ptr = &a[0][0] . OR ptr_vble = array_name. *ptr . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. 4.2. i .3. General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn].Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index].15 printf (“%d “.*(ptr+i)). The way in which the pointer variable used. printf (“%d “.

18 printf (“%d “.3. For example. it results in a problem. int a[2][3]={1.j) value Example 15.*(a[ i ] + j). refers to the entire row . a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. Therefore. for example.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts. So.j++) printf(“\t%d”. j. The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row. displays the x(i. Here.*(*(ptr + i) +j).4.*(a + i)[ j ].actually a pointer to the first element in i th row. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007.j) value displays the x(i.5.i++) { for (j=0.j<3. jth column Accessing value Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row. for (i=0.j) value displays the x(i. int *pa=&a[0][0]. each with 2 elements.i<2. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1.2. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. printf (“%d “.6}. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array. printf (“%d “.*(*(pa+i)+j)).19 main() { int i. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array. is a collection of one dimensional array.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which can hold the address of a character variable. ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . Once the pointer is declared. Thus.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer. int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. we have 2 pointers ptr[0].4} . } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers.20 int a[2][2] = {1. *ptr[2] . /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. When an array is referenced by its name. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL.2. Suppose. Example 15. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. ptr[0] = a[0]. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. it refers to the address of the 0th element. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}. p = name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”).3. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element.

The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. *p). printf(“String output = %s”. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”.3} .2. int *p = {0. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. *p). Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. Cognizant Technology Solutions. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .1. “AB” . char *p = “string” . “ABC” . “ABCD”} . it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. make it a pointer to a string of varying length. The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. “rstu”. valid invalid Thus. “xyz”}. char *name[4] = { “A” . When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. If the elements of array are string pointers.

In the above example. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. Thus. substantial saving in memory. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. Example 15. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer.23 const int a=10.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”.24 int a. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. int *pa = &a. Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. The value cannot be modified. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15. int *const pa = &a.

pnum = &num2. *pnum. ++*pnum. in order to know the size and value of the data item.26 int a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .25 int b.55. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". But it is needed. ++num2. float b.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0. num2 += *pnum. pab=&a. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. num1. *(float *) pab = 105. Try It Out 1. Example 15. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. const int * const pb = &b. pab=&b.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. pnum = &num1. *pnum + num2). *pnum = 2. num2. Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. void *pab. getchar(). long num2 = 0. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio. long *pnum = NULL. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *(int *) pab =100.

Page 124 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #include <stdio. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i. Increment the value of num2. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum. First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared.i3=2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i2=3.i5=0.h> main(){ int *a[5]. } printf("using pointer\n"). now the value of num2 is 1.j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. int j. a[2]=&i3.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. a[1]=&i2. %16u %d\n". a[4]=&i5. int i1=4. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4.i4=1. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum. printf("Address for(j=0. Then the value of num1 is 2.Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. Print all the values num1.num2.value at pnum 2. a[3]=&i4. the array elements is the pointer. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array.a[j]). a[0]=&i1. Address in array Value\n"). int *b.e.j<5.a[j].

c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers.*b. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. See the difference. free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. 2. Pointer variable can only contain an address b.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically.b). b++. Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array. malloc(). Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. for( j=0. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. State whether the following are true or false a. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007. Test your Understanding 1.*b. Declare an array of integer pointers. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2.j<5. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } getchar().

calloc(). What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . assign the value to a. printf("\n%d. 2 5 5 6. false. *n. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. malloc(). b = (int *)**c. True. The first statement assigns 4 to a. char str2[]=”abcd”. Answers: 1. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. 3.sizeof(str2). this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. false. Differentiate malloc() . which is value of a. 100. n[0]=100. sizeof(str1). because values cannot be assigned to pointers. Given the following declaration: int a. } 6. sizeof(“abcd”)). this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. false 2. 5. The third statement castes **c. printf(“%d %d %d”. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. Since c points to b. The result is meaningless. **c = &b. n[24]=200.Problem Solving and C Programming 3.%d". Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. *b = &a . 300 4. Since b points to a. } 4. 5. **c=5. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. into type int *. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ).

} /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *assign() . a). p = assign() . /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . *p.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. } void change(int *q) { *q = 10. change(p). you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists.1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 .2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype . *p) . Example 17.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. p =&a. printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . /* function prototype */ void change(int *). Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. int *).Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . So.*p).) Suppose we have a function as. to a function using pointers. return q . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. x + y). } Pointer to this function is declared as. b=20. p = add. which will speeds up the execution. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. *q = &a. makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &b). *p. p = big (&a. } int *big (int *x . void add(int x.. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x). } Example 17. main() { int a=10. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. int y). printf (“%d”. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. rather than an entire array.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . void (*p)(int x. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. else return (y). of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. *q = 20 . /* addr. of a is returned */ /* addr.

*ptr . we can write as ptr = &student. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. In this declaration. To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’.67}. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr.5 main() { void abc(). func_ptr = display. }. (*abc)(). float avg.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Example 17.4 int display(). will call the function add() with parameters 10. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. (*func_ptr) (). It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. abc(). 1.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. int (*func_ptr) (). int semester. 95.20).6 struct stud { int rollnum. ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable.”raja”. struct stud student={101. Example 17. char name[20].

ptr->avg).8 struct employee { char name[20]. Thus. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. Example 17. and then release this memory when it is no longer required. It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. ptr->semester. ptr->rollnum. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). struct employee *empptr. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. float salary. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. char gender. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int *p. calloc () . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer). ptr->name. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions.

This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. i++ for(j=0. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). i++) for(j=0. for(i=0. which can hold 10 integers. j<3. j++) scanf("%d". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes. *c[3]. a[i]+j). for(i=0 . } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). for(i=0. free() will take a void pointer. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. j<3. j<3. i<3. i<3. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’.9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p.j. i++) for(j=0. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). Example 17. *(c[i]+j)). j<3. i<3. for(i=0. p = (int *) calloc (10. b[i]+j). int i. i<3. i++) for(j=0. j++) scanf("%d". c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). for(i=0. i<3. *b[3] . j++) printf("\t%d". sizeof(int)).

Cognizant Technology Solutions.*p1.Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. beyond 3 levels. int **p. Example 17. For example. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. As such. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer.**p2. However.ptr1 value int x. video memory. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory.10 addr. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. p2=&p1. printer. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. p1=&x.ptr2 x=100. which holds the address of another integer pointer.

face = "Ace". " of ". aCard. " of ". } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. Page 133 ©Copyright 2007. Print the values of card structure in three different forms. Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. struct card *cardPtr.suit = "Spades". declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. In the main program. ( *cardPtr ).face.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. cardPtr->face. aCard.h> struct card { char *face. All will print the same.suit.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. }.suit ).face. aCard. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. char *suit. cardPtr->suit. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int main() { struct card aCard. ( *cardPtr ). getchar(). printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". " of ". aCard. return 0. cardPtr = &aCard.

printf("The data values in the list are\n"). } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp. temp-> data = n. temp = p. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007. struct node *link. if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). } temp = temp-> link. temp-> link = p. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)).h> # include <stdlib. Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . exit(0). exit(0). while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } p-> data = n.h> struct node { int data. }. int n){ struct node *temp. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). struct node *insert(struct node *p. } else { temp = p. } return (p). if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). p-> link = p.

Now the start pointer is not NULL. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node. } else printf("The list is empty\n"). temp=temp->link.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t".temp->data). again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .as it is first time. In the main program. start = insert ( start. so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Then returns the pointer back. 2). start = insert ( start. start = insert ( start. In the main program. } void main() { int n. Then returns back the pointer. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. printlist ( start ). 4 ). int x. In the insert function. so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. the start pointer will be NULL. printf("The created list is\n"). 3 ). start = insert ( start. 1 ). struct node *start = NULL . } while (temp!= p). getchar(). Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL.

free() function is used to de-allocate the memory. What is the use of generic pointers? 3. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. n[24]=200. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Cognizant Technology Solutions. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. **c=5. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. } 4. *n. Test your Understanding 1. n[0]=100. Given the following declaration: int a. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. State whether the following are true or false a.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. b = (int *)**c. using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). In the printlist() function. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. **c = &b. printf("\n%d. 2.%d". Pointer variable can only contain an address b. malloc(). There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. *b = &a .

into type int *. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The third statement castes **c. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. Since b points to a.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. false. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. assign the value to a. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. sizeof(“abcd”)). The result is meaningless. 300 4. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. Since c points to b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 2 5 5 6. calloc(). The first statement assigns 4 to a. char str2[]=”abcd”. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. malloc(). false. 100. } 6. printf(“%d %d %d”. which is value of a. false 2. 3. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. sizeof(str1). Differentiate malloc() . 5. Answers: 1.sizeof(str2). True.

B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined. } /* */ main(int argc. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if.Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. #define max(A. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example.: : : ) { declarations statements return value.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. #else. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #elif. #endif #ifdef. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007.

\. cr. \b \\. ‘\xhh’ \n. \r. \?. Cognizant Technology Solutions. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007. ‘\ooo’. \t.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. octal. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. hex) newline. tab. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char.

<<. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. !. (*p). bitwise not indirection via pointer. -+. >=. minus. decrement plus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ~ *pointer. -. subtract left. Cognizant Technology Solutions. >> >. <. address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. /. &name (type) expr sizeof *. modulus (remainder) add. divide. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]…. % +. <= ==. struct tag name name. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers.member pointer->member ++.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment.member pointer -> member Ex. logical not. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007.

for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=. Unary operators. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left.h> <setjmp.h> <stdlib.h> <float. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). do. for Next iteration of while.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007.h> <stddef.h> <time. …… . *=. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> <math. -=. all others group left to right.h> <locale. case const2: statement2 break. expr2. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1.h> <signal. while.h> <ctype. default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert.h> <stdarg.h> <limits.h> <errno.h> <string. do.h> <stdio.

letter.ct. cr. newline. t are strings and cs. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.ct.c.n) memchr(cs.ct) strncpy(s.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype.h> Consider s. form feed.c) strrchr(cs. tab.ct. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.n) strchr(cs.ct.n) memcmp(cs.n) strcmp(cs. digit Checks whether c is a Space.ct.n) strcat(s. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .n) memmove(s. Cognizant Technology Solutions.ct) strncmp(cs.ct.ct) strncat(s.c) memcpy(s.n) memset(s.c.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

Page 143 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

Page 144 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

Negative values still show the sign. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). f. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. then the field is expanded to fit the value. [. o. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). Trailing zeros will not be removed. then the value to be converted. i. The type of conversion to be applied (required). space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. g. Precision overrides this flag. x. Cognizant Technology Solutions. e. Default is to just show the . If a * is used in place of the width specifer. g. then the precision argument.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. E. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value.precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). Result will always have a decimal point. u.sign. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). If the value overflows the width of the field. the width argument comes first. Overrides the space flag. # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. This is useful only with a width specifier. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). e. Overrides the 0 flag. X. f. For d.

u. E. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. 6 for f. x. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. Value is first converted to a long double. Precision does not affect the c type. X types. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. For f. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. then the precision argument. f. For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. e. x. u. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed.0 For d. x. then the value to be converted. or . For f. o. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). o.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). d.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (. e. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . o. . u. i.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. . X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. g. e. the width argument comes first. o. x. i. i. i. u. u. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. o. x. E types. n e. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. The minimum number of digits to appear. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. [. If a * is used. For d.

Type unsigned int printed in decimal.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). Trailing zeros are removed. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). g. i o u x X f e. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. F. E Type signed int. d. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Type pointer to array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. e. Type double printed as [-]d. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. A % sign is printed. [type] d. G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. Single character is printed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). Otherwise printed as type f. The exponent contains at least two digits. Type double printed as [-]ddd. b. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. c. B. D.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. No characters are printed. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. The argument must be a pointer to an int. Type unsigned int printed in octal.ddd. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). f. E. C. Type char.

vertical tab. s Type character array. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. g e. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. f. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. then it is base 8 (octal). o. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. then it is base 10. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . Begins with an optional sign. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). o. n e. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. f. Digits 0 through 7 only. The argument is a long double. Type unsigned int. tab. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. u. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. i. Type unsigned int. or form feed). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. Type signed int. The argument is a double. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. o u x. The input must be in base 10 (decimal). new line. Type float.e. Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. it reaches a nonconvertible character). The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. The input must be in base 8 (octal). Digits 0 through 9 only. Then one or more digits. G designated with an e or E. i. u. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. d. E.< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. carriage return. f. Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. X e. Type unsigned int. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal). then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable.

Pointer to a pointer. Allows a search set of characters. then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets.. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Type character array. No characters are read from the input stream. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. then 1 is assumed. The argument must be a pointer to an int. A null character is appended to the end of the array. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-). No null character is appended to the array.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [..] Input Type character array. Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). If no width field is specified. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a dash. If the first character is a carrot (^). By specifying the beginning character. Requires a matching % sign from the input.

Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.lysator. Fourth Edition. Tata McGraw Hill R. Third Edition.liu.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist. “Programming in C”.acm.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .uiuc.bell-labs.pdf http://cm. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel.G. “How to solve it by Computer”.html http://www. Ira Pohl.html#introduction http://www. “C How to Program”. “A Book on C”.se/c/bwk-tutor.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.Dromey. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.