Handout: Problem Solving and 'C' Programming

Version: PSC/Handout/1107/1.0 Date: 16-11-07

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Problem Solving and C Programming

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About this Document ....................................................................................................................6 Target Audience ...........................................................................................................................6 Objectives .....................................................................................................................................6 Pre-requisite .................................................................................................................................6 Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages ...........................7 Learning Objectives ......................................................................................................................7 Problem Solving Aspect ...............................................................................................................7 Program Development Steps .......................................................................................................8 Introduction to Programming Languages ...................................................................................14 Types and Categories of Programming Languages ...................................................................15 Program Development Environments ........................................................................................18 Summary ....................................................................................................................................19 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................19 Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language .............................................................21 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................21 Introduction to C Language ........................................................................................................21 Evolution and Characteristics of C Language ............................................................................21 Structure of a C Program ............................................................................................................23 C Compilation Model ..................................................................................................................24 C Fundamentals .........................................................................................................................25 Character Set..............................................................................................................................25 Keywords ....................................................................................................................................26 Identifiers ....................................................................................................................................26 Data Types .................................................................................................................................26 Variables .....................................................................................................................................28 Constants....................................................................................................................................29 Operators ....................................................................................................................................30 Expressions ................................................................................................................................32 Type Casting...............................................................................................................................33 Input and Output Statements......................................................................................................35 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................39 Summary ....................................................................................................................................39 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................39
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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 5: Selection and Control Structures ............................................................................41 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................41 Basic Programming Constructs ..................................................................................................41 Sequence....................................................................................................................................42 Selection Statements ..................................................................................................................42 ‘if’ Statement ...............................................................................................................................42 Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator .............................................................................................44 Switch Statement ........................................................................................................................45 Iteration Statements ...................................................................................................................46 ‘for’ statements ...........................................................................................................................46 ‘while’ statement .........................................................................................................................48 ‘do - while’ statement ..................................................................................................................48 Break, Continue Statements.......................................................................................................49 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................50 Summary ....................................................................................................................................51 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................51 Session 7: Arrays and Strings ....................................................................................................53 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................53 Need for an Array .......................................................................................................................53 Memory Organization of an Array...............................................................................................53 Declaration and Initialization.......................................................................................................54 Basic Operation on Arrays..........................................................................................................55 Multi-dimensional Array ..............................................................................................................56 Strings.........................................................................................................................................58 String Functions ..........................................................................................................................59 Character Functions ...................................................................................................................61 Try It Out .....................................................................................................................................61 Summary ....................................................................................................................................63 Test your Understanding ............................................................................................................63 Session 9: Functions ...................................................................................................................65 Learning Objectives ....................................................................................................................65 Need for Functions .....................................................................................................................65 Function Prototype .....................................................................................................................66 Function Definition ......................................................................................................................67 Function Call ...............................................................................................................................69 Passing Arguments ....................................................................................................................70 Functions and Arrays ..................................................................................................................73
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..........100 Formatted I/O.................................................................................94 Typedef Statement .....................................................................108 Random File Operations .........................87 Structures and Functions .101 Block I/O ............................................98 String I/O...............................106 Test your Understanding ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................95 Introduction to Files ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................77 Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions.....................................................................................115 Page 4 ©Copyright 2007........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................92 Learning Objectives ..............................................................................................................................................................................102 Try It Out .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 Test your Understanding ........................................................................77 Test your Understanding ...............................................104 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................92 Union of Structures ..........79 Command Line Arguments ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out ....................................................................................................................84 Structures and Arrays ..........................88 Try It Out . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ...........................................................................................................115 Declaration and Initialization........................................................................................................................................................................89 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................................................................95 File Operations .............................................................................................................................................................................75 Summary ...............................................................................................................................................................109 Introduction to Pointers ...............................96 Character I/O ......................................................................................................................................................106 Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers .........................................................................................................................................................82 Introduction to Structures and Unions ...........................................................83 Declaration and Initialization........................................................................108 Preprocessor Directives ........................90 Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives ......79 Learning Objectives .........................................................................................................................................108 Learning Objectives ........................................................... Cognizant Technology Solutions..........................93 Enumeration .........................................................................................................................................................................................92 Unions.................................100 Numeric I/O....................79 Storage Classes ........................................................................

..................................127 Learning Objectives ..................................................................................133 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................151 Websites .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................136 Syntax Summary ............................117 Try It Out ........................................................ All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .......................130 Try It Out .............................152 Page 5 ©Copyright 2007................................................................................................................................................................................136 Test your Understanding ..............................................................................................................................................138 References ................................................125 Session 17: Pointers ............................................................123 Summary ..........................................................................................................................116 Pointers and Arrays .......................................................125 Test your Understanding ......................................151 Books ......................................................................................................................................Problem Solving and C Programming Pointer Arithmetic ....................................................................................................................................................127 Structures and Pointers .................................................................................................. Cognizant Technology Solutions..................................................................................................151 STUDENT NOTES: .................129 Dynamic Memory Allocation .................................................................................127 Functions and Pointers ...........................................

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction About this Document This document provides the following topics: Problem solving concepts An introduction to C programming language Basic concepts of C programming language Target Audience In-Campus Trainees Objectives Explain the concepts of problem solving Explain the concepts of C programming language Write effective programs using C programming language Pre-requisite This module does not require any pre-requisites Page 6 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

you will be able to: Explain the Problem Solving Aspect Identify the steps involved in program development Know about the Programming Languages and it’s types and categories Understand the Program Development Environments Problem Solving Aspect Problem solving is a creative process. The important aspect to be considered in problem-solving is the ability to view a problem from a variety of angles.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 2: Introduction to Problem Solving and Programming Languages Learning Objectives After completing this session. and selecting alternatives for a solution and implementing a solution. To understand the problem. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . We have to be sure that the past experience does not hinder us in developing new methodology or technique for solving a problem. Cognizant Technology Solutions. determining the cause of the problem. It is an act of defining a problem. Different strategies appear to be good for different problems. A problem can be solved successfully only after making an effort to understand the problem. Some of the well known strategies are: Divide and Conquer Greedy Method Dynamic Programming Backtracking Branch and Bound Page 7 ©Copyright 2007. prioritizing. the following questions help: What do we know about the problem? What is the information that we have to process in order the find the solution? What does the solution look like? What sort of special cases exist? How can we recognize that we have found the solution? It is important to see if there are any similarities between the current problem and other problems that have already been solved. identifying. There is no universal method for solving a given problem.

It is also known as Program Analysis. or titles are required in the report? What is the amount of output that will be produced? Specifying the Processing Requirements Determine the processing requirements for converting the input data to output. Defining a problem helps us to understand the problem clear. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . headings. Tasks in defining a problem: o o o Specifying the input requirements Specifying the output requirements Specifying the processing requirements Specifying the input requirements Determine the inputs required and source of the data. The processing requirement specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o What is the method (technique) required in producing the desired output? What calculations are needed? What are the validation checks that need to be applied to the input data? Page 8 ©Copyright 2007. what is the valid range of values that it may assume? What restrictions are placed on the use of these values? Specifying the output requirements Describe in detail the output that will be produced. The input specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What specific values will be provided as input to the program? What format will the values be? For each input item.Problem Solving and C Programming Program Development Steps The various steps involved in Program Development are: o o o o o o o Defining or Analyzing the problem Design (Algorithm) Coding Documenting the program Compiling and Running the Program Testing and Debugging Maintenance Analyzing or Defining the Problem The problem is defined by doing a preliminary investigation. The output specification is obtained by answering the following questions: o o o o What values will be produced? What is the format of these values? What specific annotation. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

the new parts become more focussed and. consider the following guidelines: A problem is divided it into smaller logical sub-problems. several design methodologies can be applied. called Modules Each module should be independent and should have a single task to do Each module can have only one entry point and one exit point. While applying top-down design to a given problem. easier to design Modules may be reused Breaking the problem into parts allows more than one person to work on the solution simultaneously Page 9 ©Copyright 2007. Program Design is both a product and a process. Factorial of a number can be calculated by the formula n! = 1*2*3*4…. therefore.1 Find the factorial of a given number Input: Positive valued integer number Output: Factorial of that number Process: Solution technique which transforms input into output. A well designed program is more likely to be: Easier to read and understand later Less of bugs and errors Easier to extend to add new features Easier to program in the first place Modular Design Once the problem is defined clearly. It is a structured design technique which breaks up the problem into a set of sub-problems called Modules and creates a hierarchical structure of modules. in order to make the design and testing easier Top-down design has the following advantages: Breaking up the problem into parts helps us to clarify what is to be done At each step of refinement. The process results in a theoretical framework for describing the effects and consequences of a program as they are related to its development and implementation. it must be able to move from one module to the next in sequence. so that the logic flow of the program is easy to follow When the program is executed. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . until the last module is executed Each module should be of manageable size. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 2. An important approach is Top-Down programming design.*n Design A design is the path from the problem to a solution in code.

It is defined as an ordered sequence of well-defined and effective operations which. when carried out for a given set of initial conditions. but omits language-specific syntax. i to be 1 Step 3: Input a number n Step 4: Check whether the number is 0. or modifications to the existing algorithm. and terminate in a finite time. This refining continues until the programmer is satisfied that.2: Algorithm for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: Start Step 2: Initialize factorial to be 1. a novice programmer should not view developing algorithm as a single-step operation Example 2. produce output. Example 2. after the completion of each step in the algorithm. The more experience we gain in developing an algorithm. The term “ordered sequence” specifies. the closer our first attempt will be to a correct solution and the less revision will be required.3: Pseudo Code for finding factorial of a given number Step 1: START Step 2: DECLARE the variables n. fact. i Step 2: SET variable fact =1 and i =1 Page 10 ©Copyright 2007. Programmers make initial attempt to the solution and review it. If so report factorial is 1 and goto step 9 Step 5: Repeat step 6 through step 7 n times Step 6: Calculate factorial = factorial * i Step 7: Increment i by 1 Step 8: Report the calculated factorial value Step 9: Stop Pseudo Code Pseudo code is an informal high-level description of an algorithm that uses the structural conventions of programming languages. the next step must be unambiguously defined. However. An algorithm must be: Definite Finite Precise and Effective Implementation independent ( only for problem not for programming languages) Developing Algorithms Algorithm development process is a trial-and-error process. It is an outline of a program written in English or the user's natural language. deletions. to test its correctness. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Algorithm (Developing a Solution technique) An algorithm is a step-by-step description of the solution to a problem. The errors identified leads to insertions. the algorithm is essentially correct and ready to be executed. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

reports). Cognizant Technology Solutions. calculations) Represents Decision Making Represents Pre-defined Process / module Represents off page connector which are used to indicate that the flow chart continues on another page. Output data Represents Process (actions.1: PRINT factorial = 1 Step 4. required to solve a problem. Typical flowchart symbols are given below: Represents Start. It uses different symbols to represent the sequence of operations. Page 11 ©Copyright 2007. The Document Symbol is used to represent any type of hard copy input or output (i. Page numbers are usually placed inside for easy reference.Problem Solving and C Programming Step 3: READ the number n Step 4: IF n = 0 then Step 4. It is usually used to break a flow line that will be continued elsewhere. Connector Symbol represents the exit to.2: GOTO Step 9 Step 5: WHILE the condition i<=n is true. or entry from.e. another part of the same flow chart. It serves as a blueprint or a logical diagram of the solution to a problem. End Represents Input. repeat Step 6 through Step 7 Step 6: COMPUTE fact = fact * i Step 7: INCREMENT i by 1 Step 8: PRINT the factorial value Step 9: STOP Flowchart Flowchart is a diagrammatic representation of an algorithm. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Represents control flow Example 2. fact. i Initialize fact =1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .4: Flow Chart for finding factorial of a given number START Declare the variables n.i =1 Read n True If n=0 0 Print 1 False If i<=n False True fact = fact * i i=i+1 Print fact STOP Coding Page 12 ©Copyright 2007.

Writing a program is called Coding. algorithm descriptions. Linking is done if necessary. It is important to design test cases for abnormal input conditions. The compiler is system software. or particular pieces of programs. Page 13 ©Copyright 2007. After compilation. Linking is the process of putting together all the external references (other program files and functions) that are required by the program. Programs are tested with several test criteria and the important ones are given below: Test whether each and every statement in the program is executed at least once (Basic path testing) Test whether every branch in the program is traversed at least once (control flow) Test whether the input data flows through the program and is converted to an output (data flow) The probability of discovering errors through testing can be increased by selecting significant test cases. flow charts) can be tested for its exactness and efficiency. but also to the programmers themselves. The translation results in the creation of object code. statements. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . and project workbooks Internal documentation. which includes things such as reference manuals. the executable object code is loaded into the computer’s memory and the program instructions are executed. Testing is done during every phase of program development. Program should be tested with all possible input data and control conditions. which does the translation after examining each instruction for its correctness. Documentation can be of great value. which is part of the source code itself (essentially.Problem Solving and C Programming An algorithm expressed in programming languages is called Program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structured walk through is made to verify the design. Documentation comes in two forms: External documentation. requirements can be tested for its correctness. During execution. the design (algorithm. Documenting the Program Documentation explains how the program works and how to use the program. Initially. Testing is needed to check whether the expected output matches the actual output. are easily forgotten or confused without suitable documentation. Details of particular programs. Testing Testing is the process of executing a program with the deliberate intent of finding errors. the declarations. and comments) Compiling and Executing the Program Compilation is a process of translating a source program into machine understandable form. The logic that has been developed in the algorithm is used to write the program. Then. The program is now ready for execution. not only to those involved in maintaining or modifying a program. flowcharts.

Maintainability of the program is achieved by: Modularizing it Providing proper documentation for it Following standards and conventions (naming conventions. This is called foolproof programming. Debugging is the process of identifying their root causes. Maintenance Programs require a continuing process of maintenance and modification to keep pace with changing requirements and implementation technologies. such as BASIC. C. Page 14 ©Copyright 2007. For many programmers. debugging is the hardest part of programming because of improper documentation. Debugging means diagnosing and correcting the root causes.Problem Solving and C Programming The Boundary (or Extreme) Cases How does the algorithm perform at the extremes of the valid cases? The Unusual Cases What happens when the input data violates the normal conditions of the problem or represent unusual condition? The Invalid Cases How does the algorithm react for data which are patently illegal or completely meaningless? An algorithm should work correctly and produce meaningful results for any data. Programs may have logical errors which cannot be caught during compilation. Maintainability and modifiability are essential characteristics of every program. keywords and the syntax for organizing programming instructions. but careful programmers distinguish between the two activities. The term programming languages usually refers to high-level languages. Ada. Some programmers use the terms “testing” and “debugging” interchangeably. A programming language can be defined as a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing the computer to perform specific tasks. COBOL. FORTRAN. debugging occupies as much as 50 percent of the total development time. Each programming language has a unique set of characters. C++. by means of issuing sequence of commands to it. Testing means detecting errors. On some projects. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and Pascal. One of the ways to ensure the correctness of the program is by printing out the intermediate results at strategic points of computation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . using symbolic constants etc) Introduction to Programming Languages What is a Programming Language? Computer Programming is an art of making a computer to do the required operations. Debugging Debugging is a process of correcting the errors.

The study of more than one programming language helps us: to master different programming paradigms to enhance the skills to state different programming concepts to understand the significance of a particular language implementation to compare different languages and to choose appropriate language to improve the ability to learn new languages and to design new languages Types and Categories of Programming Languages Types of Programming Languages There are two major types of programming languages: Low Level Languages High Level Languages Low Level Languages The term low level refers closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The instructions are called machine instruction (machine code) and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). there are many new languages.Problem Solving and C Programming Why Study Programming Languages? The design of new programming languages and implementation methods have been evolved and improved to meet the change in requirements. machine language is not an easy language to learn. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It does not need any translator program. it recognizes the code and converts it in to electrical signals. Thus. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. It is also difficult to debug the program written in this language. Advantage The program runs faster because no translation is needed. Low level languages are machine oriented and require extensive knowledge of computer hardware architecture and its configuration. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program It is difficult to debug the program Page 15 ©Copyright 2007. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101 Machine language is considered to be the first generation language. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. Because of it design. (It is already in machine understandable form) Disadvantages It is very difficult to write programs in machine language. For example. When this sequence of codes is fed in to the computer.

A program written for one computer might not run in other computer. For example. because there is one-to-one translation between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program Disadvantages: Assembly languages are machine dependent. SUB and LOAD etc. Higher level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. Numerical calculations were the dominant form of application for these early machines. There are some numerical & mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code). Advantages of High Level Languages High level languages are easy to learn and use Categories of programming languages Numerical Languages Early computer technology dates from the era just before World War 2 in the late 1930s to the early 1940s. /. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a translator program is required to translate it to the machine language. In order to execute the programs written in assembly language. High Level Languages High level languages are the simple languages that use English like instructions and mathematical symbols like +. it is enough to know the logic and required instructions for a given problem. COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) is mostly suitable for business oriented applications. In high level languages. This translator program is called Assembler. irrespective of the type of computer used. Mnemonics are usually combination of words like ADD. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 16 ©Copyright 2007. %. for its program construction. Advantages: The symbolic keywords are easier to code and saves time and effort It is easier to correct errors and modify programming instructions Assembly Language has utmost the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. These early machines were designed to solve numerical problems and were thought of as ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS. -. Assembly language is considered to be the second-generation language.Problem Solving and C Programming (b) Assembly Language In assembly language. Compiler is a translator program which converts a program in high level language in to machine language. set of mnemonics (symbolic keywords) are used to represent machine codes.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The choice of which language to use depends on the type of computer used. In 1959. Page 17 ©Copyright 2007. PASCAL is very good for writing wellstructured and readable programs. the use of assembly language held on for years in the system area long after other application domains started to use higher-level languages. and the expertise of the programmer. Simplicity and Unity: A programming Language provides. Cognizant Technology Solutions. because there are fewer exceptions & special cases to remember. Later. operations. The syntax of a language should be such that programs may be written. in turn. This. control structures and natural syntax for the problem to be solved. both a conceptual framework for thinking about algorithms and a means for expressing these algorithms. For example. The language should provide appropriate data structures. tested and maintained with ease. Orthogonality: This refers to the attribute of being able to combine various features of a language in all possible combinations. C++ embodies powerful object-oriented features. What makes a Good Language? Every language has its strengths and weaknesses. type of program. Artificial Intelligence Languages (AI) The first step towards the development of AI languages commenced with the evolution of IPL (Information Processing Language) by the Rand Corporation. Naturalness for the application: A language needs syntax that when properly used allows the program structure to reflect the underlying logical structure of the algorithm. Following are the most important features that would make a programming language efficient and easy to use: Clarity. but it is not as flexible as the C programming language.Problem Solving and C Programming Business Languages Business data processing was an early application domain developed after numerical applications. The major landmark here is the development of UNIX. Systems Languages Because of the need of efficiency. the US department of Defense sponsored a meeting to develop COMMON BUSINESS LANGUAGE (CBL). but it is complex and difficult to learn. but it does not lend itself very well to organize large programs. Orthogonality makes a language easy to learn and write programs. which would be a business-oriented language that used English as much as possible for its notation. though not widely used. The major breakthrough occurred. when John McCarthy of MIT designed LISP (List Processing) for the IBM 704. led to the formation of a Short Range Committee to develop COBOL. FORTRAN is a particularly good language for processing numerical data. Many systems programming languages such as CPL & BCPL were designed. where high level languages also proceed to work effectively. more AI languages like SNOBOL & PROLOG were designed. with every combination being meaningful.

coding. usage & maintenance solutions for a problem with minimum investment of programmer time & energy. Cost of Program creation. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Host and Target environment may be different for a program or application. design of efficient run-time support mechanisms are all factors that contribute towards cost of program execution. tested & debugged is called Host Environment. testing & use: This implies design. Each poses different requirement on languages adapted for those environments. Target Environments Target environments can be classified into 3 categories – Batch Processing Environment. Page 18 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This is highly critical for large programs that will be executed continuously. Batch-Processing Environments In batch-processing environments. testing. there is always a substantial gap remaining between the abstract data structures & operations that characterize the solution to a problem and the particular data structures and operations built into a language. Portability of Programs: Portability is an important criterion for many programming projects which essentially indicates the transportability of the resulting programs from the computer on which they are developed to other computer systems. For example. and Embedded System Environment.Problem Solving and C Programming Support for abstraction: Even with the most natural programming language for an application. coded. Cost of Program Maintenance: The highest cost involved in any program is the total life-cycle costs including development costs & the cost of maintenance of the program while it is in production use. Interactive Environment. Cost of use: Cost of use is measured on different languages like: Cost of program execution: Optimizing compilers. the backup process on an organization. Programming Environments (Host Environment) It is the environment in which programs are created and tested. The transaction details of all the departments are collected for backup at one place and the backup is done at a time at the end of the day. A language whose definition is independent of the features of a particular machine forms a useful base for the production of transportable programs. It tends to have less influence on language design than the operating environment in which programs are expected to be executed. The production of programs that operate reliably and efficiently is made much simpler by a good programming environment and by a language that allows the use of good programming tools and practices. efficient register allocation. the input data are collected in ‘batches’ on files and are processed in batches by the program. The external environment which supports the execution of a program is termed as Operating or Target Environment. Program Development Environments The environment under which a program is designed.

An algorithm is a sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem. by alternately sending output to the display & receiving input from the keyboard or mouse. A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer to perform specific tasks. pseudo code and flowchart for the following problem: Sort a list of numbers in ascending order. Two major types of programming languages are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Interactive Environments In interactive environment. algorithm development. Planning a tour. Page 19 ©Copyright 2007. Summary Program development life cycle involves analysis. coded. Target environments can be classified into 3 categories. and maintenance. b) Programs written in high Level languages needs translation for executing them. 4. a program interacts directly with a user at a display console. 2. failure of which would imply failure of the larger system as well. Represent the following problem in top-down design. divides the problem into smaller logical sub problems. State whether the following is True or False : a) Assembly language is a second generation language. documenting. called Modules. Examples include database management systems. Top-down program design. Cognizant Technology Solutions. compiling and running. o o o Batch processing environment Interactive environment Embedded System environment Test your Understanding 1. word processing systems etc. testing. 3. tested & debugged is called Host environment (programming environment) The environment under which a program is executed is called Target environment. Give the algorithm. coding. The environment under which a program is designed. Distinguish between testing and debugging. debugging. The computer system will be an integral part of the larger system. Embedded System Environments An embedded computer system is used to control part of a larger system such as an industrial plant (computerized machineries) or an aircraft.

True. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Easy to carry from place to place b. It can run on any machine d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Transportability of resulting program within machine folders c.Problem Solving and C Programming 5. c (it can run on any machine) Page 20 ©Copyright 2007. Testing is to find errors in programs and debugging is to correct their root causes 4. What is meant by portability of programs? a. True 5. The program needs to be compiled in every machine Answers: 3.

C was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Laboratories in 1972. Prior to C. C had evolved into what is now known as “traditional C”. To assure that the C language remains standard. In 1967. Evolution and Characteristics of C Language Evolution of C Language ALGOL was the first computer language to use a block structure. and B.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 3: Introduction to C Programming Language Learning Objectives After completing this session. you will be able to: Explain the Evolution of C Language Describe the Structure of a C Program Know about the Compilation Model Explain the Basic elements of C language Introduction to C Language C is a general purpose high level programming language. Ken Thompson created a language using many features of BCPL and called it ‘B’. The committee approved a version of C in 1989 which is now known as ANSI C. Page 21 ©Copyright 2007. The data types and control structures are directly supported by most computers. The standard was updated in 1999. which are efficient but nonportable. BCPL. in 1973. resulting in the construction of efficient programs. During 1970s. Both BCPL and B were “typeless” system programming languages. It was evolved from ALGOL. ‘B’ was used to create early versions of UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. C uses many concepts of these languages and new features like data types. Its features allow the development of well-structured programs. It was then approved by the International standards Organization (ISO) in 1990. Martin Richards developed a language called BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) primarily. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) appointed a technical committee to define a standard for C. In 1970. which are portable but inefficient. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Systems languages: Low Level and Assembly language. for writing system software. there are two broad types of languages: Applications languages: Basic and COBOL. The popularity of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible. Because of its flexibility and efficiency it is widely used for software development. UNIX operating system was coded almost entirely in C.

C++. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The following figure depicts the history of languages: Page 22 ©Copyright 2007. C# conserve C syntax. Java.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘C‘ is developed in such a way that it is efficient and portable.

The program execution begins at the opening brace and ends at the closing braces.Problem Solving and C Programming Characteristics of C Language The increasing popularity of C is due to its various desirable qualities: C language is well suited for structured modular programming C is a robust language with rich set of built-in functions and operators C is smaller which has minimal instruction set and programs written in C are efficient and fast C is highly portable (code written in one machine can be moved to other) C is highly flexible C allows access to the machine at bit level (Low level (Bitwise) programming) C supports pointer implementation . Every C program must have one main() function. The closing brace of the main function is the logical end of the program. The executable portion of the main function will have three types of statements: Input. C program can have any number of user-defined functions and they are generally placed immediately after the main() function. The variables that are used in common by more than one function are called Global Variables and are declared in global declaration section. to include functions from the system library. to define the symbolic constants and macro. C program can be documented using these comment lines. Comments are enclosed within /* and */. Page 23 ©Copyright 2007. This function contains two parts: declaration part and executable part. A function is a subroutine that includes one or more statements designed to perform a specific task. This section can have declarations for all the user-defined functions. structures and functions Structure of a C Program A C program can be viewed as a group of building blocks. The preprocessor directives provide instructions to the preprocessor. called functions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . These two parts must appear between the opening and the closing braces. Cognizant Technology Solutions. C is a case sensitive language. although they may appear in any order. Output and Processing statements. The prototype of the user-defined functions (function declaration) is specified after the preprocessor directives. preprocessor directives global declaration section main() { : } user-defined function definitions. All sections except the main() function may be absent when they are not required.extensive use of pointers for memory. array. All the statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon. The declaration part declares all the variables used in the executable part.

Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. num1. } C Compilation Model The C Compilation model describes the program development process in terms of language. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .&num2). &num1.1 /* Program to accept 2 integers from the keyboard as input. Page 24 ©Copyright 2007.num2. printf (“\n The following data was input: %d & %d ”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. printf(“\n The sum of two numbers is = %d”. It removes comments and empty lines in the program. sum). printf(“\n Please enter 2 integer numbers”). printf (“\n Program to find the sum of two numbers\n”). scanf(“%d%d”. The key features of the C compilation model are as follows: The Preprocessor The preprocessor accepts source code as input and interprets preprocessor directives denoted by #. sum = num1+num2. calculate and print their sum */ #include <stdio.h> main( ) { int num1. num2).sum.

#include <stdio. macro definition #define MAX_ARRAY_SIZE 100 C Compiler The C compiler translates the preprocessed code (user written program) to assembly code (machine understandable code). . Blank spaces etc. to create an executable file. C Fundamentals Basic elements of C language constitute Character set.OBJ indicates object code files. These files are usually called header files. file with a. The frequently used escape sequences are given below: o o o o o o o o Horizontal tab ( \t ) Vertical tab ( \v ) Carriage return (\r ) New line ( \n ) Form feed (\f ) Back Space ( \b ) Back Slash ( \\ ) Null ( \0 ) Page 25 ©Copyright 2007. % .z Digits o o All decimal digits 0…9 =.. the link editor combines these functions with main().Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. External variable references are resolved here.defines a symbolic name or constant.2 #include -.h> -.standard library I/O file #define -.standard library maths file.Z o Lowercase a…. Special characters Escape Sequences: Escape sequences are non printable characters. +. [On UNIX. Identifiers. which begin with backward slash and followed by one or more special characters.h> -.includes contents of a named file.] Link Editor If a source file references library functions or functions defined in other source files. #include <math. ? . Cognizant Technology Solutions. The characters in C are grouped into the following categories: Letters o Uppercase A…. Assembler The assembler creates the object code.o suffix and on MSDOS files with . numbers and expressions. Operators and Expression. Character Set Character set defines the characters that are used to form words. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

the range of values that can be represented in memory. predefined meanings in C. The following table shows the list of keywords. No special character is allowed except underscore (_).Problem Solving and C Programming Keywords Keywords have standard. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ANSI C supports two classes of data types: Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types Derived / Compound data types Page 26 ©Copyright 2007. Keywords serve as basic building blocks for program statements. ANSI C supports 32 keywords. All keywords must be written in lowercase. followed by the combinations of alphabets and digits. the number of bytes to be reserved in memory. These keywords can be used only for their intended purpose and they cannot be used as programmer-defined identifiers.3 Valid identifiers : Invalid identifiers: sum_2_nos 5subjects basic_pay emp name _amount #ofstudents Data Types Data types are used to indicate the type of value represented or stored in a variable. It should start with an alphabet. Cognizant Technology Solutions. An Identifier can be of arbitrarily long. and functions. Example 3. and the type of operation that can be performed on a particular data item. Some implementation of C recognizes only the first eight characters and some other recognize first 32 characters. constants. auto break case char const continue default do double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static Long Switch typedef Union unsigned Void volatile While Identifiers Identifiers are names given to various programming elements such as variables.

int = 2 bytes. short int may be 1 byte or 2 bytes int = 2 bytes.Problem Solving and C Programming Primary / Fundamental / Basic / Primitive data types C uses the following basic data types: o o o o int char float double integer quantity character (stores a single character) single precision real (floating point) number double precision real (floating point) number Typical memory requirements for these data types are given below: o o o o int char float double 2 bytes 1 byte 4 bytes 8 bytes The actual number of bytes used in the internal storage for these data types depends on the machine being used. never less than int. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Similarly. The basic data types can be augmented by the use of data type qualifiers. a long int may require the same amount of memory as an int or it may require more memory. For example. 8 bits Represents positive integer numbers -128 to 127 16 bits 0 to 65. o o o o short long signed unsigned A number of qualifiers or modifiers may be assigned to any basic data type to vary the number of bits utilized and the range of values represented by that data type. long int may be 2 bytes or 4 bytes Range of values represented by data types on 16-bit machine Type unsigned char signed char char unsigned int unsigned short int Meaning Unsigned character (positive) Size 8 bits 0 to 255 Range Represents single character. Cognizant Technology Solutions.535 Page 27 ©Copyright 2007. short int may require less space than an int or it may require the same amount of memory. They are. Type Qualifiers Data type qualifiers add additional information to the data types. Here.

295 Represents both positive and negative long integer 32 bits -2.647 Floating Point Number.4 * (10-38) to 3.483.967.4 * (10+38) 1. Variable names are case sensitive (ex: variable EMPNAME is different from variable empname). Cognizant Technology Solutions. It is useful with pointers. The value represented by the identifier may be changed during the execution of the program.147.767 represents positive long integer 32 bits 0 to 4.7 * (10-308) to 1. Variable names must be chosen in such a way that it should be a valid identifier satisfying all the basic conditions. A more accurate floatingpoint number than float 32 bits 64 bits 3.294.648 to 2.4 * (10-4932) to 1. They are used to represent a collection of data. They are: Arrays Structures Unions Enumerated Pointers Variables A variable is an identifier that represents a value.1 * (104932) Increases the size of double. The variable name can be chosen by the programmer in a meaningful way so as to reflect its function or nature in the program.7 * (10+308) 3. Derived Data Types Derived data types are a combination of primitive data types.483.147.Problem Solving and C Programming Type Short signed short short int signed short int int unsigned long long signed long long int signed long int Float Double long double void Meaning Size Range represents both positive and 16 bits negative integer quantity -32. 80 bits Defines an empty data type which can then be associated with some data types. Page 28 ©Copyright 2007.768 to 32. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

General Form: [data type] variable name = value. Example 3. tot = 0.14 Page 29 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. General form: var_data_type list variables. Symbolic Constants A symbolic constant is defined in the preprocessor area of the program and is valid throughout the program. float x. There are two types of constants: Symbolic constants Constant variables.0. The preprocessor directive #define is used to define symbolic constants in a program. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ct=1.5 int total=0. A symbolic constant is defined as follows: #define MAX 100 #define PI 3. Initialization Variables can be initialized in the declaration statement itself or within the program using assignment statement. also called read-only variables. k.4 int i. z. float sum = 0. Symbolic constants are usually represented in upper case letters.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration of a variable Declaration is used to specify the variable names used in the program and the type of data that the variable can hold. int tot. j. y. Example 3. Constants A constant in C refers to the fixed values that do not change during the execution of a program. char ch. ct=1.

const int a = 0Xa92 (Octal representation – prefix 0) (Hexadecimal representation – prefix 0x or 0X) Operators C supports a rich set of operators. const char ch = ‘a’. They include: Arithmetic operators + Addition Subtraction * Multiplication / Division (second operand must be nonzero) % Modulus (both operands must be integer and second operand must be non zero) Relational operators < Less than <= Less than or equals to > Greater than >= Greater than or equals to == Equals to != not equals to These operators are used to form relational expressions. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data. An operator is a symbol that tells the computer to perform mathematical or logical operations. const float pi=3. which evaluates to either true or false. (true – 1. or const long a = 50000l. Constant Variables A constant variable is declared and initialized in the variable declaration section of the program and cannot be modified thereafter. const int a = 0567.Problem Solving and C Programming Each reference to ‘MAX’ in program will cause the value of 100 to be substituted. false – 0) Logical operators && || ! Logical AND (true only if both the operands are true) Logical OR (true if either one operand is true) Logical NOT (negate the operand) Page 30 ©Copyright 2007.14. C operators can be classified into a number of categories. This value cannot be changed by the program. const long a = 50000L. The type of value stored in the constant must be specified in the declaration. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Keyword ‘const’ is used to declare constant variables. Example 3.6 const int size = 100. Cognizant Technology Solutions.

Problem Solving and C Programming Expressions which use logical operators are evaluated to either true or false. +=.Unary minus Increment and decrement operators ++ may be in the form of pre increment or post increment (++ k: pre increment.k: pre increment. Assignment operators = Assignment operator which assign a value to an identifier. /=. printf(“%d”. Special operators & Address operator * Indirection operator comma Comma operator sizeof() Size of operator (sizeof(int) = 2 bytes) Page 31 ©Copyright 2007. printf(“%d”. /*prints 6 . Cognizant Technology Solutions. i++). the value of variable a will be assigned to variable big else b will be assigned. *=.post increment */ /* prints 7 */ -. printf(“%d”. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .pre increment */ /* prints 6 .may be in the form of pre decrement or post decrement (-. (a = a+b equals to a+=b) Unary operators + Unary plus . k--: post increment) Conditional operator (ternary operator) ?: used to carry out simple conditional checking Example: big = (a>b)? a: b In the above statement. if condition is evaluated to true. ++i). -=. Bitwise operators & | << >> Bit wise AND Bit wise OR Left shift Right shift These operators are used to access machine at bit level. k++: post increment) Example: int i=5. %= Compound assignment operators are used whenever. i). left hand side identifier is used in the right hand side expression.

op= Name Parentheses. The expression a + b – c is evaluated as (a + b) – c. c=3 (1) a* b%c+1 is equivalent to (2) ++a*b – c-is equivalent to ((++a)*b) . ! – sizeof() (Typecast) * & ++ -*/% +< > <= >= == != && || ?: = . member access operators Logical NOT. Cognizant Technology Solutions. function calls that evaluates to a value.Problem Solving and C Programming Order of Precedence All the operators have its own precedence and associativity. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Equality comparators Logical AND. High priority operators are evaluated prior to lower priority ones.7: Operators Let a=1. Multiplicative operators. Assignment. Additive operators. operators. The three types of expressions are Arithmetic expression (uses arithmetic operators).(b / c). Inequality comparators. and Logical expression (uses logical operators). b=2. Page 32 ©Copyright 2007.b) / c or a .b / c because we may want the effect as either (a . Relational expression (uses relational operators). unary minus.(c--) which is equal to 1 ((a*b) %c)+1 which is equal to 3 Expressions Expression is a combination of operands. Logical OR. Comma Association Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left to Right Left tot Right Left to Right Right to Left Right to Left Left to Right Example 3. It is necessary to be careful of the meaning of expressions such as a . Conditional. Index. indirection. From high priority to low priority the order for all C operators is given below: Operator ( ) [ ] -> . address Increment and decrement operators. Operators of the same priority group are evaluated from left to right fashion.

The final result of an expression is converted to the type of the variable on the LHS of the assignment statement. float b. C provides two types of type conversions: Implicit and Explicit type conversions. For example.) not a storage location. b+c. the statement x = y + z. (2) a = (b=2. Typecasting allows a variable to behave like a variable of another type. Example 3. before assigning the value to it. However. a=3. The left side of the “=” is always a variable. the assignment operator is “=”.8 (1) a = (b = 2. if the operands of an expression are of different types. whose address specifies where to store the data on the right side. This is called Typecasting. In implicit type conversion. (4) int c. b-c). c=3. c=3.. . computes the value of y+z and store the result in the variable x.which is the same as. b+c). c= a>b. b=4. o o o float to int assignment causes truncation of the fractional part. d = a == b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For example.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment Statement Assignment statement is used to assign a value to a variable. For example: a = b = c = d = 3. c = 3. In C. long int to int causes dropping of the excess higher order bits. is not legal because x + 3 is an arithmetic expression (i.5. but more efficient than: a = 3. The result of the expression will be of higher data type. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .e. C allows multiple assignment statements using =. c=0 d=0 e=1 a= 3 b=3. Page 33 ©Copyright 2007. x + 3 = y. a=b=3. the lower data type is automatically converted to the higher data type before the operation evaluation. (3) int a. d = 3. e = a != b. b = 3.. double to float causes round of digits.5 5 -1 Type Casting C provides a mechanism for allowing the programmer to change the default data type of a given expression.

0 will be stored in sum. y.5 * 3. General Form: (data type)variable/expression/value.10 float (char or int) to to (int or char) float . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Widening: Converting the lower data type value to higher data type value. instead of 5. The typecast (int) tells the C compiler to interpret the result of (1.5 * 3.0.8) as the integer 5. d. This method of typecasting is done by prefixing the variable name with the data type enclosed within parenthesis. b=4. f. b.8). Then. c = a/b.narrowing . float x. y = a / 10. e = -a % -b. the user has to enforce the compiler to convert one data type to another data type by using typecasting operator.0 */ Page 34 ©Copyright 2007. d = a % b. x = a / 10. z.4 (Mixed-mode expression)*/ /*y=1. Another two terms associated with type casting are: Narrowing: Converting the higher data type value to lower data type value. because the variable sum is of type float. /*-2 (Modulus operation retains the sign of the first operand)*/ f = a % -b. c. The original value of the variable is not altered.Problem Solving and C Programming In explicit type conversion. /*f=2*/ /*c=3 */ /*d=2 */ /*x=1. a=14. 5.widening The following examples show different kinds of expressions: Example 3. sum = (int) (1. Cognizant Technology Solutions.7. Example 3.11 int a.9 float sum. Example 3. e.

Another method is to use input functions. General form: char-variable = getchar(). which can get data from the keyboard (standard input-stdin). getchar () This function accepts a single character from the stream stdin (keyboard buffer). return. a=b++ + c++. a=++b + c++. and printing of data are the three essential functions of a computer program. a=++b + ++c. . ch = getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions.13 char ch. Non zero value is true and Zero is false) c Input and Output Statements Reading. b=0.+ --c. a=b-.12 a int a=0.character input from console & doesn’t echo the character. This single character includes alphabets. Example 3. Unformatted Input statements Character Input There are several functions available to input a character from the console. getch (). punctuations. c=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . c = a && b 0 2 2 5 5 0 1 2 3 2 5 5 b 0 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 (Relational expression evaluated to true) 1 (Logical expression evaluated to true. Page 35 ©Copyright 2007. One method is to assign values to variables through the assignment statements. There are two types of Input and Output (I/O) statements: Unformatted I/O statements and Formatted I/O statements.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 3. and tab. processing. digits. c = a>b. There are two methods of providing data to the program variables.

Blank space is also considered as a character. String Input gets () . Unformatted Output statements Character Output putchar() This function displays a single character in the standard output (stdout). Example 3.15 char ch. monitor. This function accepts a string terminated by a new line character.Problem Solving and C Programming getche(). this function serves the purpose. General Form: putchar(char variable). ch = getchar(). Page 36 ©Copyright 2007. putchar(ch). String Output puts() This function displays the string in the standard output. To get a line of text. General Form: gets(stringvariable). Cognizant Technology Solutions.14 char ch[5]. gets(ch).character input from console & echoes the character. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* string is represented as character array */ Example 3.

.] – string of specified characters %u – unsigned General Form: “%-+s0w. C has a special formatting character (%). L) conversion character (d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: puts(str). General Form: scanf (“format string”. gets(ch). %e. Page 37 ©Copyright 2007. g. A character following this defines the format for a value. f. %g – float %s – string %ld – long integer %o – octal %x – hexadecimal %hd – short integer %[. e) Formatted Input Statement scanf() scanf () function is used to read formatted data items. l. Some of the format specifiers are given below: %c – character %d – integer %f. Cognizant Technology Solutions. x. u. Example 3. Formatted I/O Statements Formatted input refers to an input data that has been arranged in a particular format. Format string specifies the field format in which the data is to be entered.pmc” Where: + s 0 w p m c left justify print with sign print space with no sign pad with leading zero field width precision conversion character ( h. list of variables). o.16 char ch[5]. puts(ch).

General Form: printf (“format string”.18 printf (“char=%c. which directs the interpretation of input data. a= 12 & b=3456*/ scanf (“%d%d”. /*delimiter between two input is = (10=20)*/ scanf (“%2d%5d”. /*if the input is 12345 & 10. the delimiter while reading the values is space. To read a string using ‘%s’.4s”. Example 3. first 4 characters printed.Problem Solving and C Programming List of variables specify the address of memory locations where the data is to be stored. &i. /*accepts all inputs including space. This functions returns the number of inputs read successfully. /* column width 10.17 scanf (“%c %d %f”. &ch.&b). General Form: sscanf (str. x). By default. int=%3d. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Format string. “format string”. &x). p. Delimiter can be user-defined. a=12 & b=345 if the input is 12 & 3456. Stops when it encounters new line.&b).*/ Page 38 ©Copyright 2007. str).*f”. a=12345 & b=10*/ sscanf() sscanf() function to read values from a string. list of variables). Address operator (&) is used before the variables. also known as control string contains field specifications. ‘&’ need not be used.*/ scanf (“%d=%d”. i.&a. list of variables). sum). name). /*if the input is 12345 & 10.2f”. &a. floating point=%6. printf (“sum = %*. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . scanf (“%[^\n]s”.ch. Format string and variables are separated by comma. Formatted Output Statement printf() printf () function is used to output the values. &b). &a. Example 3. w. /* width & precision can be user defined*/ printf (“name = %10. This function returns the number of characters printed.

C has Unformatted and Formatted Input / Output statements. the value get computed and prints on the screen Summary C is a structured programming language.y=-10. char. Test your Understanding 1. C program is a collection of functions. Which of the following are valid identifiers? a.b=2.x=5.--y * b / a. double. “format string”. z = x++ . Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to find out value for an expression Code: #include <stdio.z).h> main() { int z.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The program assigns the value and substitute in the expression. total-marks Page 39 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming sprintf() sprintf() function is used to output values to a string. C has a rich set of operators.a=4. printf("The Value of z : %d\n". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Refer File Name: <sesh3_1. C supports four basic primitive data types: int. then based on the operator precedence. main d. Emp_name b. getchar(). Cognizant Technology Solutions. float. General Form: sprintf (str. list of variables). “total” c.

s= (int) y + 3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. 6. If.5. s = 10. What is the difference between getche() and getch()? 6. y=7. ?: is called ternary operator (conditional operator) used to carry out simple decision making. 4 5 7. What is ternary operator in C? 5. a. a = (b = 2) + (c=3). x = 7. the scanf() statement contains the following control : “%d \n %d” Which of the following set of inputs will successfully read ? a.0 . 7. What will be the value of the variables x and s after the following piece of code is executed? float x. 4. . What is the output of the following code? int a . 4 5 b. welcome7 Page 40 ©Copyright 2007.are not the valid characters to form an identifier) 2. valid 3. getche() echoes the input character on screen. b = printf (“welcome”).c ( “ “ .5 4. Is the statement valid? 3. but getch() will not echo the character.Problem Solving and C Programming 2.5. All are valid. x= (int) y. 5. printf (“%d “. Answers: 1.b). s.

Page 41 ©Copyright 2007. It consists of one or more individual statements enclosed within the braces { }. 2 { a=10. until some condition is satisfied. } x=a*b. . Statements in C Simple Statement (expression statement) An expression terminated by a semicolon (. } { { a=1. you will be able to: Write a Simple Program Write program using Conditional statements Write program using Looping and Iteration Basic Programming Constructs The basic programming constructs are sequence. Cognizant Technology Solutions. In a selection structure.) is termed to be a simple statement (or expression statement). c=a + b. selection. b=10. 1 a=8. c=3. Null statement Compound Statements / Blocks Compound statements are used to group the statements into a single executable unit. c=a+b. the control flow can be altered by evaluating conditions. a group of instructions is executed repeatedly. y = x * b – k. and iteration (looping). In an iterative structure.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 5: Selection and Control Structures Learning Objectives After completing this session. Example 5. Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } } { b=2. In a sequence construct. the instructions are executed in the same order in which they appear in the program.

and one or more simple expression statements. Insert more subheadings where required by copying one already done. is executed in a sequential manner. } ] statements3. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The if statement has three basic forms: Simple if-else Nested if if-else if ladder Simple “if-else” General Form: if (expression) { statements1. the Page 42 ©Copyright 2007. It provides the ability to decide the order of execution. Selection Statements Selection statements are used to alter the normal sequential flow of control. relational. and/or logical operators. and/or relational expression. allows us to establish decision-making in the programs. An expression involves arithmetic. the statements1 are executed and the control is transferred to the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. Depending on the result of the expression the statements are executed.<Delete the arrow brackets while entering actual names and text. input-output statements.Problem Solving and C Programming Sequence A program. [ ] is used to represent the optional usage of ‘else’ block. logical. The tests and subsequent decisions are made by evaluating a given expression as either True (non zero) or False (zero). Programs may require certain logical tests to be carried out at some particular points. which consists of declaration statements. The following are the selection constructs available in C: “ if ” statement Conditional / Ternary operator statement (? :) “switch” statement ‘if’ Statement The if statement. } [ else { statements2. Cognizant Technology Solutions. If the expression is evaluated to false (zero). Expression can be arithmetic. If the expression is evaluated to true (nonzero).

4 Program to find the maximum of 3 numbers. else printf (“largest = %d”.max). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .c). Cognizant Technology Solutions. the statements (statements3) next to the if construct is executed. else max = a. General Form: if (expression) { statements1. the evaluation process stops as soon as the outcome. printf(“ max = %d” . Short-circuit Evaluation Whenever the expression with the operators && and || are evaluated. if (a<b) max = b. Page 43 ©Copyright 2007. true or false is known. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 0 AND anything is 0] expr1 || expr2 If expr1 has non-zero value. } else { statements2. Example 5. the evaluation of expr2 will not occur [ 1 OR anything is 1] Nested ‘if’ Statement Body of an ‘if’ statement contains another ‘if’ statement. a).3: Program to find maximum of two numbers. if (a>b) if (a>c) printf(“largest = %d”. if (expression) statements-1.Problem Solving and C Programming statements1 will be skipped and the else part statements (statements2) are executed. } Example 5. if (expression) statements-2. For example: expr1 && expr2 If the value of expr1 is zero. If the else part is not specified.

The final ‘else’ statement is executed only if none of the previous conditions are satisfied. else if (mark >=60) printf(“First Class\n”). else if(expression) statements3. General form: [variable = ]expr1? expr2: This simply states: Page 44 ©Copyright 2007.b). Example 5. It is a more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. ‘if… else if’ Ladder Statement General Form: if (expression) statements1. else printf(“Fail\n”).5 if (mark >= 75) printf(“Honours\n”). . Cognizant Technology Solutions.c). else statements4. else printf (“largest = %d”. else if (mark >=45) printf(“Third Class\n”). Final ‘else’ serves as a default case and is useful in detecting an impossible or error condition. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected expr3.Problem Solving and C Programming else if (c>b) printf (“largest = %d”. else if (mark >=50) printf(“Second Class\n”). else if (expression) statements2. Each condition is evaluated in order and if any condition is true the corresponding statement is executed and the remainder of the chain is skipped. Conditional / Ternary / ?: Operator This operator takes 3 expressions / operands.

if (a>b) max = a. Default case is optional and if specified.6 max = (a>b) ? a : b. Items which represent the case labels must be an integer constant or character constant. else max = b. break. Otherwise the next cases get evaluated. then an execution jump is made to that point. default statements will be executed. logical expression. if there is no match for the case labels. case item2: statement 2. A case label can not appear more than once and there can only be one default expression. The break is needed to terminate the switch after the execution of particular choice. It is a multi-way conditional statement generalizing the ‘ifelse’ statement. Expression may be a constant value. default : statement. break. expr3 is evaluated. General Form: switch (expression) { case item1: statement 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . variable. pointer variable. } Expression in the switch statement. A switch statement allows a single variable to be compared with several possible case labels. relational expression. and/or arithmetic expression. Cognizant Technology Solutions. which are represented by constant values. array variable. which is similar to the following if-else statement. Switch Statement This is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups. Page 45 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming if (expr1 is true) then expr2 else expr3 Where: o o expr2 is evaluated. if the value of expr1 is zero (false part). break. If the variable matches with one of the constants. case itemn: statement n. Example 5. if the value of expr1 is non-zero (true part). must be an integer valued expression.

break. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Page 46 ©Copyright 2007. ‘do. default: printf (“Invalid operator”). break. expression3) { statement / block of statements. expression2.while’. the control is transferred to the statement. The initialization is usually an assignment statement that is used to set the index variable or loop control variable. There are several ways to execute loops in C. expression2 is to set a terminating condition. General Form: for (expression1.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 5. If the test condition is False.7 switch (op) { case ‘+’: c=a+b. break. case ‘/’: c=a/b. Cognizant Technology Solutions. case ‘-’: c=a-b. ‘while’. } Where: expression1 initializes the counter/index variable. } Iteration Statements Most of the real world applications require some set of instructions to perform repetitive actions on a stream of data. break. case ‘*’: c=a*b. the statements inside the loop are executed. If the test condition is True. It is evaluated at the beginning of every iteration. ‘for’ statements This statement is used to repeat a statement or a set of statements for a specified number of times or until a condition satisfied. which follows the loop. The statements used for looping are: ‘for’.

printf (“c=%d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. j++) printf (“\n j = %d”.) { c+=1. y=4. for (j=1. Page 47 ©Copyright 2007.c<=20. is called inner loop. c). Such loops are called nested loops. The second loop. which is evaluated at the end of every iteration. } (7) int c=0. All statements in the inner loop are within the boundaries of the outer loop. These three expressions are separated by semicolons. } Nested ‘for’ statement There are many situations in which a loop statement contains another loop statement. y+=2) z/=10) (2) for (x=0.. the inner loop runs completely. For each & every iteration through the outer loop.Problem Solving and C Programming expression3 is the loop variant/modifier (increment / decrement).c<=20. (3) for (x=0.8 (1) for (x=0. } In the above example. for (. c). x++) x++. z=4000. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. the loop controlled by the value of ‘i’ is called the outer loop. z .i). ((x>3) && (x<9)).9 for (i=1.) { printf (“%d”. for(. c++. controlled by the value of ‘j’.c=c+2) (5) for (c=2.j).j<=3. for (. Example 5. Example 5. y=4.++c) (6) c=2.i<=3.i++) { printf(“\n i = %d”. Different variables must be used to control each loop. (4) c=2. infinite loop infinite loop ((x>3) && (y<9)).

General Form: while (expression) { Statements. while is an exit controlled loop statement. Example 5. otherwise statements after the while block is executed.. If the expression is evaluated Page 48 ©Copyright 2007.. The conditional expression is evaluated at the beginning and the result of the expression decides on the execution of the body of loop. The body of the loop is executed repeatedly until the expression is False. the expression in the while statement is evaluated.while’ statement The do. the expression is checked again. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The body of the loop may have one or more statements. the body of the loop is executed. while (expression). (4) while(1). the body of the loop is executed. while (c<=10) { printf (“%d”. (5) while ( (ch = getche ( )) != ‘q’) putchar(ch). If the expression is initially False. If the expression evaluates to True. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On reaching the do statement. variable or any expression.10 Different ways to use while loops (1) while(x--){ }. (6) c=1. General Form: do statement (s). The braces are needed only if the body contains two or more statements. the program proceeds to evaluate the body of the loop first.Problem Solving and C Programming ‘while’ statement The while is an entry controlled loop statement.c). (2) while(x = x+1){ }. At the end of the loop. } ‘do . ++c. the body of loop is not executed at all. (3) while(x) { }. If the result is True. After executing the body of the loop. } Expression can be a constant value.

loop++) { If (loop==10) break. Continue Statements Break Statement The break statement can appear in the switch statement and the loop statements.while. Example 5. It is used to terminate the current iteration. the program continues to evaluate the body of the loop once again.11 int d=1. This process continues as long as the expression evaluates to True.loop++) { if (loop==50) /* control will come out of the loop. */ printf("%d\n".loop<100. } while (d<=10). the body of the loop is executed at least once. } Only numbers 0 through 9 are printed. the loop will be terminated and control is transferred to the next statement following the do. General Form: continue. Example 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. It skips rest of the statements in the body of the loop and begins the next iteration.loop<50. do { printf (“%d\n”. Example 5. General Form: break.12 for(loop=0. Since the expression is tested at the end of the loop. It causes the execution of the current enclosing switch case or the loop to terminate. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ++d. Page 49 ©Copyright 2007. Continue Statement The continue statement can only appear in the loop statements. When the condition becomes False.Problem Solving and C Programming to True.d). Break.13 for(loop=0.loop).

Problem Solving and C Programming continue.uklbs and kilos and print on the screen. stones. } Refer File Name: <sesh5_1. Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to convert pounds in to equivalent international units starting from 10 pounds to 250 pounds incremental of 10 pounds Code: #include <stdio.e. printf(" US lbs UK st. pounds < 250. printf("%d\n".h> #define KILOS_PER_POUND . float kilos = pounds * KILOS_PER_POUND. uklbs and kilos. } getchar(). pounds+=10) { int stones = pounds / 14. The conversion has to be done starting from 10 pounds till 250 pounds in the incremental of 10 pounds.45359 main() { int pounds. so we have used the for loop. } The numbers 0 through 99 are printed except 50. termination condition and the increment. apply formula to get the stones. kilos). till the pound becomes greater than or equal to 250 pounds Page 50 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. uklbs.loop). printf(" %d %d %d %f\n". Continue this till the termination condition is met i. for(pounds=10. We know the starting point. lbs INT Kg\n"). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . For each pounds. pounds.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program converts pounds in to stones . int uklbs = pounds % 14.

while. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if clause can contain another if statement. When will the default case in switch statement be executed? 3. break statement is used to terminate the loop but continue statement skips the current iteration and continues the loop with the next iteration. break. that are used to carry out conditional looping. An if statement may include only simple statements. switch(i) { default : printf(“0”). Test your Understanding 1. case 2 : printf(“2”). Looping allows a program to repeat a section of code any number of times or until some condition occurs. c. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and do-while statements are repetitive control structures available in C . Ternary operator is more efficient form for expressing simple if statements. case 3 : printf(“3”). for. break. What is the output of the following piece of code? main( ) { int i=3. An if statement must always include an else clause. b. 2. break. Switch statement is a conditional control statement that allows some particular group of statements to be chosen from several available groups.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary if statement is a condition based decision making statement. Which of the following statements are true? a. case 1 : printf(“1”). } } Page 51 ©Copyright 2007.

whenever evaluated expression does not matches with any of the case labels. printf (“%d”))) break. Cognizant Technology Solutions. While is an entry controlled loop (condition is checked in the beginning) and do. 5.while will get executed at least once. What is the difference between a while and do.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. 3 4. else continue.while is exit controlled loop (condition is checked at the end). Default case is executed. The loop statements of do. c 2. 3. } Answers: 1... 01 Page 52 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected ..while statements?What is the output of the following code? while(1) { if (printf (“%d”.

Note: size of an integer is assumed to be 2 bytes Starting address is assumed as 1000 and totally 10 bytes are created. index 1 refers second location. [index 0 refers first location . The individual elements are accessed by specifying the subscript. 1000 1002 1004 1006 1008 Individual memory location is referred by index.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 7: Arrays and Strings Learning Objectives After completing this session. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 53 ©Copyright 2007. the name of the array refers to the base address of the array. set of numbers. Memory Organization of an Array The elements in an array are always stored in consecutive memory locations.]. you will be able to: Explain the concept of Array and memory organization Write program using Single-dimensional arrays Write program using Multi-dimensional arrays Understand Strings Understand String and Character functions Need for an Array Many applications require the processing of multiple data items that have common characteristics (e. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . It holds a fixed number of equally sized data elements.g. If an array of 5 integers elements is created. Address of an array element is calculated as below: Address of ith location = base address + (size of the individual data element * index i ) Address of 0th element = 1000 + (2 * 0) = 1000 Address of 1st element = 1000 + (2 * 1) = 1002 … In C.. etc. totally 10 contiguous bytes will be allocated in memory. Array is a derived data type which is used to store similar data items in contiguous memory locations under a single name. set of names). of the same data type.

2 x[0] x[4] str[2] sales_amt [8] to access the 1st element in array to access the 5th element in array to access the 3rd character in the string (character array) to access the 9th sales amount in the array 5 integers. Defines a floating point array sales_amt of 10 floating point numbers. Each additional set of brackets defines an additional dimension to the array (multi dimensional arrays). float sales_amt[10]. Array declaration reserves space in memory.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Array Declaration Arrays are declared with appropriate data type and size. Defines a character array. Accessing Array Elements The array elements are accessed by specifying the subscript / index. and ending Page 54 ©Copyright 2007. Arrays are defined by appending an integer encapsulated in square brackets at the end of a variable name. indexing begins at 0 and ends at 1 less than the defined size of an array. starting at x[0]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When addressing an element in an array. Example 7. Defines an integer array x of at x[4]. char str[16]="qwerty". starting at sales_amt[0] and ending at sales_amt[9]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. which is represents a string of maximum of 16 characters. int matrix[2][2]. Arrays can be of single dimension or of multi dimensions. Defines a 2*2 matrix (totally 4 elements) of integers. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] .1 int x[5]. General Form: arrayname[index or subscript] Example 7.

and processing of array elements. 5th element to 4th location and so on) Array name is a constant pointer (pointer is a variable which holds address of another variable) to the base address of the array. a[2] = 3 .2. Thus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /*a[4] = 0*/ int a[ ] = {1. a[3] = 4 and a[4] = 5*/ int a[5]={0}.4. size of the array equals the number of elements initialized. If initialized. /*a[0]=1. b[1] = 45.3. When arrays are initialized during declaration. /*all the array elements are initialized to zero*/ int a[5]={1. a[1]=2. (ex. ) */ float b[2]={10. General Form: datatype arrayname[size] = {value(s)}. retrieving. a[1] = 2 . /*a[0] = 1. array can be declared without specifying the exact size.Problem Solving and C Programming Array Initialization Array elements can be initialized during declaration or can be initialized in the program. /* b[0] = 10.3. The following expressions are illegal: a++ (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding one) a+=2 (base address of array ‘a’ is modified by adding two) Page 55 ©Copyright 2007. 3rd element can be deleted by moving 4th element to 3rd location.4}.4}. Insertion and deletion can be done by moving the array elements to the appropriate places. the base address can not be changed. Example 7. OR datatype arrayname[ ] = {value(s)}.34}. partial initialization is allowed.2.2.20 . Cognizant Technology Solutions.2.34 */ Basic Operation on Arrays Basic operations allowed on arrays are storing.3. In such cases. In partial initialization. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero or Null depending on the data type of the array. size depends upon the number of values initialized. a[3]=4 (if size not specified. a[2]=3.5}.45. Zero is initialized for numeric array and Null for character array.3 int a[5]={1.

i<3. a[0]). /* usually loop statement is used to get the array elements*/ Printing out the array elements Example 7.i++) scanf(“%d”. /* gets value for first 3 locations (array name has the base address . (2) /*gets value for 1st location*/ gets value for 2nd location*/ gets value for 3rd location*/ scanf(“%d%d%d”. &a[1]). &a[0]).a[0]. Two-dimensional array – Declaration Two-dimensional arrays are defined in the same way as one dimensional array.i++) printf(“%d”.i<3.5 int a[3]. printf(“%d”. a.Problem Solving and C Programming Getting the value for Arrays Input statement is used to get the values for an array. Cognizant Technology Solutions. scanf(“%d”. a+2).a[1]).a[1]. Multidimensional arrays will also occupy the contiguous memory locations. a[2]). /*prints value of 3rd printf(“%d%d%d”. (2) (3) /*prints value of 1st location*/ /*prints value of 2nd location*/ location*/ printf(“%d”.6 int a[3]. /* prints value of first 3 locations*/ for(i=0. scanf(“%d”. (1) printf(“%d”.&a[i]). Example 7. except that a separate pair of square brackets is required for second dimension. (1) scanf(“%d”. &a[2]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .a[2]). /*loop statement is used to print the array elements */ Multi-dimensional Array The elements of an array can themselves be arrays.pointer)*/ (3) for(i=0. Two dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of one dimensional array (rows & columns) and 3 dimensional arrays can be viewed as set of two dimensional arrays. a+1. General Form: datatype arrayname [row ][column] Page 56 ©Copyright 2007.a[i]).

3. Assume that array starts at location 1000.row 0 & column 1 .row 1 & column 1 a[0][1] a[1][0] a[1][1] will be in location 1002 will be in location 1004 will be in location 1006 Two-dimensional array Initialization Two-dimensional arrays can also be initialized in the declaration statement.3}.5}. a[0][0] will be in location 1000 . /*num[1][2] = 0*/ int num[2][3] = {{1.3.row 1 & column 0 .9: 4-dimensional array sales [year ] [month ] [area ] [salesperson] Advantages Simple and easy to use Stored in Contiguous locations Fast retrieval because of its indexed nature No need to worry about the allocation and de-allocation of arrays Limitations Conventional arrays are static in nature.4. /*row elements are initialized separately*/ int num[2][3] = {{1. n-m locations are unnecessarily wasted No automatic array bounds checking during compilation Page 57 ©Copyright 2007.6}. /*num[0][2] = 0 num[1][1]=num[1][2]=0*/ Example 7. Example 7.{1.2. the uninitialized array elements are initialized to Zero.2.5. Elements of 1st row are stored first and then the elements of next row.8 int num[2][3] = {1. It is necessary to specify the size of the column in declaration.2.row 0 & column 0 .3}}.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 7.2. int num[2][3] = {1. out of n locations defined. (2*2 Elements are stored in row major order. = 4 elements).{4}}. If m elements are needed.4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions.2}. Memory is allocated in the beginning of the execution. In partial initialization. 7 int a[2][2]. creates 8 bytes of contiguous memory locations.

Problem Solving and C Programming Strings Strings are sequence of characters. Example 7. name[3] = ‘D’. A character string is stored in an array of character type.*/ (3) char name[5]. The value at str[6] is the null character. } (4) char name[5] = “INDIA” /* Strings are terminated by the null character. int main( ) { name[0] = ‘G’.11 char studname[50][15]. name[4] = ‘\0’. it is preferred to allocate one extra space to store null terminator */ Array of Strings Two dimensional character arrays are used to represent array of strings. name[2] = ‘O’. String constants are always enclosed within double quotes and character constants are enclosed within single quotes. String should always have a NULL character (‘\0’) at the end. The value at str[5] is the character ‘y’. (2) char str[16]="qwerty". name[1] = ‘O’. String can be represented as a one-dimensional array of characters. return 0. String constants can be assigned to character array variables. one ASCII character per location. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 7. to represent the end of string.’u’. In C.’m’. of strings] [max no. The values from str[7] to str[15] are undefined. /*Creates a string.’\0’). Cognizant Technology Solutions. of chars in strings].10 (1) char c[4]={‘s’. /* 50 student names each with 15 characters at the maximum */ Page 58 ©Copyright 2007. Declaration General Form: char arrayname [no. there is no built-in data type for strings.

’a’.’t’. Illegal operations on Strings C does not allow one array to be assigned to another.13 (1) char name[20].’\0’}. printf(“%s” .’t’. {‘c’. (2) (3) scanf( “%s“ . assignment not allowed name1 = name + “to c “ concatenation is not allowed two strings cannot be compared with the ‘equal to’ operator String Functions C does not provide any operator.”cat” .Problem Solving and C Programming Initialization General Form: char arrayname [ r ] [ c ]={“values”}. which manipulates the entire string at once. Page 59 ©Copyright 2007. int i=0.’a’.’a’.12 char name[3][5] = {“bata” . thus statements of the following form are illegal” name = “GOOD”. while((name[i] = getchar ()) != ‘\n’ ) i++. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .h. Strings are manipulated either via pointers or via special routines available from the standard string library string.’\0’}} = {{‘b’. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Array name itself specifies the base address and %s is a format specifier which will read a string until a white space character is encountered. name).’\0’}. if (name1 == name) Or name1 = name. Example 7.”at”} char name[3][5] {‘a’.’t’. String can be read either character-by-character or as an entire string (using %s format specifier). [Note: no need to use & operator while reading string using %s] Example 7. name).

Append n characters from string2 to string1 Compare first n characters of two strings.string2. c) strstr(s1.s2) strpbrk(s1. Functionality strlen (string) strrev (string) strncat(string1. Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that do not match s2. string2. c) strrchr (string. Copy first n characters of string2 to string1 Converts string to uppercase Converts a string to lowercase Converts the string to integer number Converts the string to floating point number Converts the string to long integer number Find first occurrence of character c in string. n) strncpy(string1. s2) strspn(s1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Returns a pointer to the first occurrence in s1 of any character from s2 Returns the number of characters at the beginning of s1 that match s2. string2) strcmp(string1. s2) strcspn(s1. string2) strcat(string1. string2.Problem Solving and C Programming The following is the list of string functions available in string.h: String Functions strcpy(string1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. s2) Page 60 ©Copyright 2007. Find last occurrence of character c in string.string2) Copy string2 into string1 Concatenate string2 onto the end of string1 Lexically compares the two input strings (ASCII comparison) returns 0 if string1 is equal to string2 < 0 if string1 is less than string2 > 0 if string1 is greater than string2 Gives the length of a string Reverse the string and result is stored in same string. n) strupr (string) strlwr (string) atoi (string) atof (string) atol (string) strchr (string. n) strncmp(string1. Locates the first occurrence of s2 in s1.

) True if c is a space character (\n. “. The header file. is used for the character functions.\r.\a) True if c is a decimal digit True if c is a graphical character (all characters.\f. int i. Functions int isalnum (c) int isalpha (c) int isascii( c) int iscntrl (c) int isdigit (c) int isgraph (c) int islower (c) int isprint (c) int ispunct (c) int isspace( c) int isupper (c) int isxdigit (c) toupper (x) tolower (x) toascii (x) True if c is alphanumeric. ctype. i < 24. which can manipulate a single character.’ ‘) True if c is an uppercase letter True if c is a hexadecimal digit Converts lowercase letter to uppercase Converts uppercase to lowercase Converts the char to ASCII value Functionality Try It Out 1.h> main() { int fib[24]. fib[1] = 1. for(i = 2. fib[0] = 0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . except space) True if c is a lowercase letter True if c is a printable character (all characters including white space) True if c is a punctuation character (. .\v.:. i++) fib[i] = fib[i-1] + fib[i-2]. Problem Statement: Write a program to develop Fibonacci series using arrays Code: #include <stdio.h. ‘.\r.‘. True if c is a control character (\n.\f. . for (i = 0.\t. True if c is a letter. i < 24. i++) Page 61 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Functions C provides the following collection of character functions. True if c is ASCII .

Initially array of size 24 is declared.2. In the for loop start adding the values in the previous two indices of array and store it in the third element Then increment the indices and keep continuing the same process until 24 numbers are added.5.13…. int i. 2. j++) twod[i][j] = i*j. i++) { for (j=0. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_1. as we know the first two numbers initialize the first two elements in the array.. } getchar(). printf("\n"). twod[i][j]).The program computes the series up to 24 numbers.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: The Fibonacci series is 1. for(i=0. i++) for(j=0. } Refer File Name: <sesh7_2. i<4. i. i<4. This program implemented fibonacci series by using for loop and array. Again use the for loop to print the series one by one from the array. fib[i]). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for (i=0. j++) printf("%d ". j<5.j. j<5. getchar().8. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> main() { int twod[4][5].Problem Solving and C Programming printf("%3d %6d\n". Page 62 ©Copyright 2007.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the how to use the two dimensional array.3. Problem Statement: Write a program to demonstrate two dimensional arrays Code: #include <stdio.

Problem Solving and C Programming

In two dimensional array, two indices will be used, one represent the row and the other one column. Here “i” represents row and the “j’ represents the column Two for loops are used. The outer loop decides the row and the inner loop represents the column Initialise both i and j to 0. For each value of i, find out all the values of column by multiplying the i with j with incremental of j. Store the values in the array Use another for loop to print the values in the two dimensional array in the form of matrix. The program output looks like this: o 00000 o 01234 o 02468 o 036912

Summary
An array can be defined as a collection of homogenous elements stored in consecutive memory locations. Array name is a constant pointer to the base address of the array. Conventional array always has a predefined size and the elements of an array are referenced by means of an index / subscript. An array can be of more than one dimension. There is no restriction on the number of dimensions. String is represented as an array of characters. C supports a number of in-built string functions to manipulate strings.

Test your Understanding
1. Is it possible to declare an array x containing 50 integer elements followed immediately by 50 floating point numbers? 2. Why array index should always start with 0? 3. How entire array, x[100] with value 0, is initialized in declaration statement? 4. When a one dimensional array is being declared, under what condition may the size be omitted, with array name followed by an empty pair of square brackets?

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Problem Solving and C Programming

5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int a[5]={2,3}; printf(""\n %d %d %d"",a[2],a[3],a[4]); }

6. List few library functions for string operations. Answers: 1. No, array can contain only similar data items. 2. Array elements are accessed by relative addressing method (base address + index), in order to access the first element, which is in base address, index must be 0. 3. int x[100] = {0} ( partial initialization) 4. If an entire array is being initialized within the declaration. 5. 0 0 0 6. strlen(), strcmp(), strcat(), strrev(), strcpy()

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Session 9: Functions
Learning Objectives
After completing this session, you will be able to: Define functions Understand how to pass arguments to function Understand and Implement Recursive functions Understand how to pass arrays in a function

Need for Functions
Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific, well defined task. As real world applications become more complex and large, several problems arise. Most common are: Algorithms for solving more complex problems become more difficult and hence difficult to design. Even after designing an algorithm, its implementation becomes more difficult because of the size of the program. As programs become larger, testing, debugging, and maintenance will be a difficult task. Thus, complex problems can be solved by breaking them into a set of sub-problems, called Modules. Each module can be implemented independently and later can be combined into a single unit. C supports modularity by means of functions. C functions are classified into two categories. User defined functions Library functions C function offers the following advantages. It facilitates top-down modular programming. Modularity brings logical clarity to the programs It avoids the need for redundant code. The repeated instructions can be written as a function, which can then be called whenever it is needed It facilitates reusability – functions created in one program can be accessed in other programs. C programmer can build on what others have already done, instead of starting from scratch C functions can be used to build a customized library of frequently used routines

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Function Prototype
Like variables, functions are declared and declaration of a function is called Function Prototype. Prototype specifies the signature (name) of the function, the return type, and number and data types of the arguments. It helps the compiler to know about the function. Functions must be declared before it is called. Function prototyping is not mandatory in C. It is mandatory when the function is called prior to its definition. They are desirable, however, because they further facilitate error checking between function calls and the corresponding function definition. Example 9.1 int find_big (int, int); arguments */ void swap (int *, int *); variables. */ float add(float, int); /* function ‘add’ returns float value, takes 1 float variable and 1 integer variable */ /* function ‘swap’ does not return any value, takes 2 pointer /* function find_big returns integer value, takes 2 integer

Example 9.2 (1) main() { int a,b; int sum(int, int) ; scanf("%d%d” , &a, &b); printf(“ %d “ , } int sum(int a , int b) { return a+b; } sum(a, b); /* function prototyping. */

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Memory for the global variables is allocated. type arg2. } main() { fun(). there is no need for the function prototype.. Memory for the local variables is allocated only when the function is invoked and de-allocated when the control moves out of the function. and the operations to be carried out by the function. It can be accessed only within that function. when the program gets executed and deallocated only at the end of program execution.The variables that are common to all the functions are declared outside the functions.arg2 … return-type specifies the name of the function and it must be a valid identifier specifies formal arguments (formal parameters) represents the data type of the data item returned by the function Function Body Function can have declaration statements and any number of valid executable statements. Function Definition Function definition is used to define the function with appropriate name. : return expression. parameters. } Function is defined prior to its reference. If the function is defined before the ‘main’ program. Local Variables . A function definition has two principle components: Function header (first line). executable statement 1.The variables declared inside any function are local to that function. Functions can be defined at any location in the program. Function body. executable statement 2.Problem Solving and C Programming (2) void fun() { printf(“"prototype not needed “). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . So compiler will identify the function name. If it is declared in the Global declaration section.) { local variables Declaration. General form: return-type function-name(type arg1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } Function Header function-name arg1. Global Variables . …. it is used by all the functions in the program. Page 67 ©Copyright 2007.

return(a<b). General Form: return. A function may or may not return a value to the calling function. OR return(expression). Example 9. } If the function doesn’t receive any arguments and doesn’t return any data. A function may receive any number of values from the called function. Default return type is ‘int’. } (2) main() { return 0. expression can be a variable name. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. to calling program) (2) (3) (4) return 0.5 (1) void display(void) { printf(“this is a function”). return(a*b). it is achieved by the return statement. each containing different expression. then void keyword is used to represent that. (control is transferred returns zero returns the product of a & b returns True (1) or False (0) Example 9. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . does not return any value.Problem Solving and C Programming return statement is used to transfer the control back to the calling program. constant value or any single valued expression. Example 9. else return b. If there is no return statement. There can be multiple return statements.4 Function for finding the biggest of two integers int find_big(int a. b) Page 68 ©Copyright 2007. the closing braces (}) in the function body acts as a return statement. If it returns a value. } Function Name Return Type – find_big – integer Formal arguments – 2 (a.3 (1) return.

data type. &num1. it is called Recursion. A recursive function must have the following properties: The problem must be written in a recursive form /* a & b are formal arguments */ Page 69 ©Copyright 2007. When the function call is encountered. big. and the order of the actual arguments and formal arguments should match. Example 9. If the function returns value.num2). } int find_big(int a. int b) { if ( a > b) return a. If a function is returning a value. } Note: Function can also be called using printf (“The biggest is: %d”. &num2). int). followed by a list of parameters enclosed within parentheses. The LHS variable name in the function call is optional. It is a process by which a function calls itself. big=find_big(num1.num2)) statement. When the return statement is executed or last statement is execution. /* function call statement. The number. global declaration */ main( ) { int num1. num1 & num2 are actual arguments */ printf(“ The biggest is : %d “. the control is transferred to the called function and the statements in the function are executed. num2. /* function prototype. the control is transferred back to the place of function call in the calling function. scanf(“%d%d”.6 Program for finding biggest of two integers using the function find_big int find_big(int. Recursion If a function is having a self-reference. the value returned is stored in the LHS variable name. big). Variable names of the actual arguments and the formal arguments need not be same. General form: [variable name =] function name(actual arguments).Problem Solving and C Programming Function Call Functions are invoked by specifying its name. that value is substituted in place of a function call in the calling function. find_big(num1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Actual arguments are the parameters passed to the called function. else return b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

Cognizant Technology Solutions. Depending on its definition. { if (k<=1) return 1. call 3 = 2 * fact(1) call 2 = 3 * fact(2) . scanf(“%d“. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When the return statement is encountered. } fact(int k). On seeing the name of the function in calling statement.7 main() { int n. the condition evaluates to 1 and returns 1 to the calling part (call 3). printf(“Enter an integer\n”). which in turn call function2. fact(int). } If n = 4.Problem Solving and C Programming There must be a base criteria (terminating condition) for which the function doesn’t call itself Example 9. control is transferred back to the called function. which in turn return the value to its calling function. which may call function3. In fourth call. The parameter values are substituted and the function is executed. Function will be evaluated in Last In First Out manner (Stack) Nesting of Functions Functions may be nested. the control is immediately transferred to the function. else return(k*fact(k-1). printf(“Factorial = %d“. Passing Arguments A function is referenced by its name and providing appropriate values for the arguments. functions may be classified as: Functions with no arguments & no return value Functions with no arguments but return value Functions with arguments but no return value Functions with arguments and return value Page 70 ©Copyright 2007. along with the value returned.fact(n)). then call 1 = 4 * fact(3).&n). The main function may call function1.

&c). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 71 ©Copyright 2007. scanf(“%d%d”. sum=add(a. for(i=1.c).b).9 With arguments and no return value return value main() { int n.&a.sum). } border() { int i.c).&b). printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(n.i<=80.8 No Arguments and no return value main() { border(). scanf(“%d%c”. printf(“\t\t Hello World\n””) border(). return. } border(int m.i<=m. border(n. &n.i++) printf(“%c“. char c. } } } scanf(“%d%d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 9. add(int x. sum=add().s). return.b. for(i=1. return(a+b).int y) { return a+b . printf(“\n”).&b).a. printf(“\n”). { int sum. integers\n”).sum).i++) printf(“-“). &a. printf(“Enter2 With main() arguments and printf(“Enter the size of border & style\n”). } { int sum. printf(“\nSum = %d”. } add() { int a. char s) { int i. printf(“\nSum = %d”.b. } No arguments but return value main() Example 9.

} Call by Reference In this approach. int d) /*Function used to swap the values of variables c and d*/ { int temp.10: Program that illustrates call by value mechanism main() { int a. /* prints 10 20 */ Page 72 ©Copyright 2007. b). a=10. a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. d = temp. Actual and formal arguments refer to the different memory locations and the value of actual argument is copied into the formal argument. b). The value of the actual argument will remain same. any changes made to the formal argument are not reflected in their corresponding actual arguments. The values of the actual arguments are copied in to the respective formal arguments. changes in the formal arguments are reflected in actual arguments. pointer variable or array name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . b. Example 9. The actual and formal arguments refer to the same memory location. Note: Actual arguments are address of the ordinary variable. Passing arrays to functions is call by reference by default. a. } void swap(int c. swap(a. They are: Call by Value Call by Reference Call by Value Arguments are usually passed by value in C function calls. Formal arguments should be a pointer variable or array. the addresses of actual arguments are passed to the function call and the formal arguments will receive the address. Cognizant Technology Solutions. c = d. This approach is of practical importance while passing arrays to functions and returning back more than one value to the calling function. b=20. temp = c. So. /* passing the values of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”.Problem Solving and C Programming Passing arguments to a Function: There are two approaches to pass the information to a function via arguments. So.

*d = temp. To pass an array to a function. ++i ) if ( val[i] > max_value ) max_value = val[i]. Example 9. printf("Enter 5 numbers\n"). i < 5. Example 9. return max_value. } void swap(int *c. swap(&a. for( i = 0.12 int { int max_value.11: Program that illustrates call by reference mechanism main() { int a. /* passing the addresses of a and b to c and d of swap function */ printf(“%d %d”. i. temp = *c. &b). a=10.Problem Solving and C Programming a x a is actual argument and x is formal argument. } main() { int values[5]. maximum( int val[] ) /*size of the array need not be mentioned */ Page 73 ©Copyright 2007. b. } /* reference is made */ /* prints 20 10 */ Functions and Arrays It is possible to pass an entire array to a function. *c = *d. i. max_value = val[0]. b=20. which points to an array. Formal argument can be an array or pointer variable. a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . max. int *d) { int temp. b). Array name is interpreted as base address of the array and the address is given to the formal argument. it is enough to give the name of the array as argument.

Problem Solving and C Programming

for( i = 0; i < 5; ++i ) scanf("%d", &values[i] ); max = maximum(values); /* array name is used to pass an entire array without any subscripts */ printf("\nMaximum value is %d\n", max ); } Passing Multidimensional Arrays Multi dimensional arrays can also be passed in the same manner as single dimensional array, but care must be taken in representing the formal arguments. Example 9.13 void print_table(int xsize,int ysize, float table[][5]) { int x,y; for (x=0;x<xsize;x++) { for (y=0;y<ysize;y++) printf("\t%f",table[x][y]); printf("\n"); } } Note: Second dimension is mentioned with its size. In case of three dimensional arrays, second & third dimension has to be mentioned. This is to represent the column size. The array elements are stored in row major form. Arrays can not be returned with return statement since return can pass only a single-value back to the calling program. Therefore, in order to return an array to the calling program, the array must either be defined as global array, or it must be passed as a formal argument to a function.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Try It Out 1. Problem Statement:
Write a program to print out first 10 numbers in descending order using recursive function

Code:
#include <stdio.h> void recurse(int i); void main(void) { recurse(0); getchar(); } void recurse(int i) { if (i<10) { recurse(i+1); printf("%d ",i); } } Refer File Name: <sesh9_1.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
This program explains about how to write recursive function The main program calls the recurse function with value 0 as argument In the recurse function, the value is increment and the recurse function is called again. This time it passes 1 as argument. Again in the next step value will be incremented and the recurse function is called. This continues till the value passed is less than 10. Once it is equal to 10, it start printing the value of i. First it will print the value of 10, then it returns from the function and again prints the value as 9 and returns back. This continues till all the function call is completed. Hence the 10 numbers will be printed in descending order.

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Problem Solving and C Programming

2. Problem Statement:
Write a program to have functioning returning a value

Code:
/* function that returns value*/ #include <stdio.h> #include <stdlib.h> int getval(void); int main() { int weight; weight=getval(); printf("Entered value is %d\n",weight); getchar(); return(0); } int getval(void) { char input[20]; int x; printf("some integer:"); gets(input); x=atoi(input); return(x); } Refer File Name: <sesh9_2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code

How It Works:
The main program calls the getval() function. In getval() function, prompts the user to enter some number. It reads the input value and converts to integer form . Then returns the integer value. The main program then prints the value on the screen.

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iii) function prototyping Arguments can be passed to a function via call by reference method or by call by value method. well defined task. argc and argv are used to pass arguments to main() function.i). a). static. extern and register) to define scope and life time for the variable. C supports four storage class specifiers (auto. What is the output of the following code? main() { int i=10. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Functions facilitates reusability and brings logical clarity to the programs. What is function prototyping? 2.Problem Solving and C Programming Summary Functions are smaller self-contained components which carry out some specific. } 4. } fn(int i) { return ++i. C functions should be considered with three aspects: i) function definition. a). Arrays can be passed to a function by simply specifying its name. Test your Understanding 1. { int a = 3. } Page 77 ©Copyright 2007. What is relationship between the actual parameters and its formal parameters? 3. printf("%d". fn(i). A function calling itself is called recursion. } printf(“%d” . printf(“ %d “ . What is the difference between call by reference and call by value? 5. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . What is the output of the following code? main() { int a =4. ii) function call. The command line arguments.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. int (*p)(char a) d. type of its arguments. address of the actual parameters are passed to corresponding formal parameters but in call by value. a) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer value b) p is a function which receives a character pointer and returns an integer pointer c) p is a pointer (function pointer) which can point to any function with character argument and integer return value. Function prototyping is like a function declaration statement which informs the compiler about the function (its name. only the values of the actual parameters are copied in to corresponding formal parameters.Problem Solving and C Programming 6. Using command line arguments. return data type). Corresponding parameters must be of same type. In call by reference. What the following declaration statements imply? a. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int *p(char *a) c. In C. int *p(char *a[]) 7. it is needed only when the function is called prior to its definition. a. 3. 2. b. int p(char *a) b. 3 4 4. 7. d) p is a function whose argument is an array of pointers. 5. 10 6. How main() function is called with parameters? Answers: 1. There must be a one-to-one correspondence between the actual and formal parameters. Page 78 ©Copyright 2007.

. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it may be accessed anywhere in the current source code file.. This means. is determined by where it is defined. This is normally called a global variable and is normally defined at the top of the source code. The storage-class-specifier can be any one of the following: auto static register extern Page 79 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 10: Functions/Structures and Unions Learning Objectives After completing this session. Life Time Life time refers to the permanence of a variable – How long the variable will retain its value in memory. If it is defined outside of all the blocks. Scope The scope of the variable (where it can be used). General Form: storage-class-specifier type-specifier variable-names. its scope begins when the variable is defined and ends when it hits the terminating. This is called block scope. If a variable is defined in a block (encapsulated with {and}). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Data type refers to the type of information represented by a variable and storage classes define its life time and scope. it has file scope. All other types of variables are local variables. you will be able to: Use different storage classes in a program Use command line arguments Explain the concept of structures and unions Explain how to declare and initialise Structure Perform operations on structures Perform operation on structures and arrays Perform operation on Structures and functions Storage Classes Variables in C can be characterized by their data type and storage classes..

they are also called local or internal variables. a). Local variables of different functions/blocks may have the same name. their initial value will be unpredictable (garbage value). a). Static variables (static storage class) Static variables are also local (visible) to the block in which the variable is declared. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A variable local to the main function will be normally alive throughout the whole program. } printf(“ %d “ . The scope is only to the function in which it has been declared but the variable exists in the memory throughout the entire life of the program . So. If the variable is declared within a function. it will retain the value between function calls. If no storage class is specified. memory will be de-allocated after the completion of the program execution. it is automatically initialized to zero. In the case recursive functions. Whenever the control again comes to the same block new memory location will be allocated to those variables.Problem Solving and C Programming Automatic variables (Auto storage class) Automatic variables are local (visible) to the block in which they are declared. printf (“%d “ . then its scope is confined to that function. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . it is cleared and its memory destroyed. Example 10. } One important feature of automatic variables is that their value cannot be changed by whatever happens in some other function in the program. by default it is an auto variable. a situation similar to function nested auto variables. If not initialized in the declaration. A static variable may be either internal (local) or external (global). { int a =6 . When the execution of the block is completed. Once allocated. with identical names. Because of this property. prints 5 prints 6 Page 80 ©Copyright 2007. They are local or private to the function in which they are declared. They retain the values throughout the life of the program. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. internal static variables retain values between function calls. Static variables are stored in memory.Thus. the nested variables are unique auto variables. although it is active only in main().1 main() { int a = 5 . If not initialized in the declaration statement. Internal variables are those declared inside a function (or block).

They are referred to as global variables. Since registers are faster than memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . for (i=1. Access to variables outside of their file scope can also be made by using linkage. If the declaration of register variable exceeds the availability. Since the registers are less in numbers. Linkage is done by placing the keyword extern prior to a variable declaration. careful selection must be made for their use.2 main() { int i.x). we must distinguish between: External Variable Definition External Variable Declaration Page 81 ©Copyright 2007. x = x +1. } incre() { static int x = 0. keeping the frequently accessed variables like a loop control variable in a register will increase the execution speed.i++) incre(). When using external variables. If not initialized in the declaration. printf(“ x = %d\n”. External variables can be accessed from any function and the changes done by one function will be reflected through out the entire scope. instead of keeping it in the memory. This allows a variable that is defined in another source code file to be accessed. they will be automatically converted into non register variables (automatic variable). External variables (extern storage class) External variables are not confined to a single function.i<=5. Cognizant Technology Solutions. It retains its value till the control remains in that block. the variable is initialized to zero.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 10. } Output: x = 1 x = 2 x = 3 x = 4 Register variables (register storage class) It is possible to inform the compiler that a variable should be kept in one of the registers. Register variables are local (Visible) to the block in which they declared. Their scope extends from the point of definition through the remainder of the program.

it is initialized to zero. printf(“ %d “ . invalid /* /* prints 10 */ prints 20 */ Command Line Arguments Depending on the operating system and programming environment. The interpreter searches for the program and starts it executing with the command words passed as arguments. Cognizant Technology Solutions. The first word is treated as the name of a program. fun(). } int b = 20. /* external variable declaration. When a command is entered in a command window. b). Page 82 ©Copyright 2007. printf(“ %d “ .Problem Solving and C Programming If not initialized in the declaration. */ void fun(). interpreter breaks up a command into words separated by spaces. but as a first approximation. The function is called with one integer argument that indicates how many words are in the command line and another argument that is a character array of pointers containing the command line words. extern int a = 10. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . just to say that the variable is declared somewhere else in the same program or other programs. A C program is executed by calling its main() function. a).3 int a = 5 . a C program can be executed either by selecting an icon from a graphical user interface or by entering a command in a command window (DOS or UNIX command window). The operation of a command interpreter is quite complex. it is executed by a command-line interpreter. It is usually easier to write programs that are run by entering a command in a command window. Example 10. External variables are useful when working with multiple source files. /* external variable definition (No need to use extern keyword) */ main() { extern int b. } void fun() { a = 10 . External variable declaration can not have initialization.

salary (float). A structure is an aggregation of components that can be treated as a single variable. Page 83 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .i . argv[i]). i < argc. char *argv[]) { : } Where: argc provides a count of the number of command line argument argv is an array of character pointer of undefined size that can be thought of as an array of pointer to strings. printf(“\n Total Number of Arguments = %d”. Structures and unions provide a way to group together logically related data items. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i++) printf(“\nArgument number %d = %s”. Example 10. } When the following command is given in the command prompt. char* argv[]) { int i. C:\tc\bin> CMLPGM c cpp java arguments) Number of Arguments = 4 Argument number 0 = CMLPGM Argument number 1 = c Argument number 2 = cpp Argument number 3 = java (CMLPGM program name.Problem Solving and C Programming main ( int argc.4 main( int argc. employee name (string).argc). Structure Structure is a derived data type used to represent heterogeneous data items. which are command line strings. For example. for( i = 0. The components are called Members. department code (string). c cpp java The following result is displayed Introduction to Structures and Unions Structures and Unions are the main constructs available in C by which programmers can define new data type. an employee is represented with the following attributes: employee code (string / integer).

. “struct” keyword is used to define structures. float salary. Example 10. char name[20]..... type variable-name.... Structure definition and declaration of structure variables can be combined together.. : : type variable-name...... General form: struct tag_name { type variable-name.. When declaring structure variables. Structure-variables can be declared separately by specifying: struct tag_name new-structure-variable.... emp2.. Page 84 ©Copyright 2007.. Note: If tag name is not specified in the declaration. type variable-name...5 1) struct employee { int code.. Individual members will be given a separate memory location.. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . }.. variable-name..... int dept_code. variable-name.Problem Solving and C Programming Declaration and Initialization Declaration C provides facilities to define structures via a template and to declare a tag to be associated with such structures so that it is not necessary to repeat the definition. tag name is optional. a separate instance of structure will be created with the name specified and memory will be allocated for that.. } .... Here.. Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct employee emp1. variable-name. variable-name. no extra structures can be created...

0 Individual structure members can be initialized only via structure variable. The format used is quite similar to initializing an array. int semester. emp2. Initialization Structure variables can be initialized at the time of declaration. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } emp1. Example 10. No storage class can be specified for structure members. uninitialized members are assigned zero or Null. 1. the ‘avg’ will be initialized to 0.78}. }. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . stud For the structure variable ‘stud2’.”(dot). } Accessing the members Members of the structure can be accessed by using the member access operator “. the member variables are automatically initialized to zero or Null depending on the data type of the member variable. illegal. int dept_code. If the structure variable is declared before the main function in the global declaration section. struct stud stud1={101.6 struct { int rollnum. If it is partially initialized. static char[20] empname = “AAAA”. (tag name is optional here) char name[20]. Page 85 ©Copyright 2007. struct employee { int empno = 101 . char name[20]. illegal. 1}. 90. float avg. then the expression “s. “Raja”.”Dina”.m” refers to the value of the member ‘m’ within the structure ‘s’. float salary.Problem Solving and C Programming 2) struct employee { int code. stud2={102. If ‘s’ is a structure variable with a member named ‘m’.

Assignment operation is allowed. } emp1. printf (“Size = %d”.9 struct { int day.name emp1. the assignment expression a = b is valid. int year.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: struct_vble . structures can contain members that themselves are structures. the values in slack bytes are also compared. member-field-name Example 10. While comparing structure variables.salary emp2.8 struct emp { int empno. }. which is always not same for different structure variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int month.sizeof(emp1)). For example. Example 10.code emp2. slack bytes are added in-between two member variables and these slack bytes have garbage value. Note: Member structure must be defined prior to its use.7 emp1.name Operations on Structures Two structure variables cannot be compared for equality. This is because. It causes each member of ‘a’ to be assigned the value of the corresponding member of ‘b’. sizeof() operator can be used to find the size of the structure. char name[20].code emp1. Size = 26 Nested Structure Just as arrays of arrays. even though the values stored in the member variables are same. Cognizant Technology Solutions. date Page 86 ©Copyright 2007.dept_code emp1. float basic. This can be a powerful method to create complex data types. if ‘a’ and ‘b’ are two structure variables of the same structure type. Example 10.

struct stud Accessing values: student [1].emp2. int sub_marks[5]. float salary. int semester.rollnum student [1]. In this example. }. if we want to access the year of joining of an employee of emp1. student.10 Array of structures struct stud { int rollnum. }emp1.year Structures and Arrays A structure can be a array of structure and the members of structures can be arrays.sub_mark[1] Page 87 ©Copyright 2007. int avg.semester student [1].11: Arrays within structures struct student-mark { int rollnumber. char name[20]. Example 10. Accessing values: student. char name [20].avg student[50]. struct date doj. then we can do so by writing: emp1. Example 10.name student [1].sub_marks[0] }. int dept_code. Cognizant Technology Solutions.Problem Solving and C Programming struct employee { int code. char name[15].doj. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . }student.

But changes will not be reflected back. When the structure variable (which not a pointer) is passed as an argument to a function. emp2. display(emp1). change(&emp1). “AAAA”} .12 struct emp { int empno. printf(“ %s “ . or we can pass address of the structure variable using & operator. struct emp emp1 = { 101 . void main( ) { void change(struct emp *). emp2.13 struct emp { int empno. } void display(struct emp emp2) { printf(“ %d “ . } Entire structure can be passed to a function using call by reference method. it is passed using call by value method. Cognizant Technology Solutions. char empname[10]. }.empno). char empname[10]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . /* prints 102 */ Page 88 ©Copyright 2007. emp1->empno). struct emp emp1 = { 101 . We can use pointer to structures.Problem Solving and C Programming Structures and Functions Structures can be passed to a function via call by value and call by reference methods. Example 10. printf(“%d” . Example 10. main( ) { void display(struct emp).empname). “AAAA”} . All the members are copied into corresponding formal arguments. }.

student2.name).9.marks = 99. y). student2. strcpy(student1. int a. emp1 is a structure variable of employee structure.Problem Solving and C Programming } void display(struct emp *emp2) { emp2->empno=102. float b) { } function definition Try It Out Problem Statement: Write a program to access the members of structure Code: #include <stdio. student1. student2. float marks. printf (" Name is %s \n". getchar(). } Page 89 ©Copyright 2007. struct employee emp_pay (struct sal pay. wage is a structure variable of sal structure.14 emp1 = emp_pay (wage. printf (" Marks are %. } student1.2f \n"."Tom").name. } Function can return a structure type struct_name = fun_name (struct_vble_name). int main ( ) { struct student student3.marks). Function should be declared and defined as: struct tag_name fun_name( struct tag_name struct_vble_name. …) Example 10. Cognizant Technology Solutions.h> struct student { char name[20]. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x.

Unions are similar to structures but the main difference is that union members share the common memory location whereas memory is allocated to individual structure members. In the main program assign values to both member of structure. In unions.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare student structure comprising of name and marks. Structure can be passed to a function by both call by value approach and call by reference approach. Test your Understanding 1. How can the content pointed by member pointer p be accessed via structure variable p1? Page 90 ©Copyright 2007. Print the values of the structure. int *p. What distinguishes an array from a structure? 2. struct { int a. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Structures can be nested and can also have self reference. Consider the following structure. ) operator. enum keyword is used to define enumerations. typedef statement is used to define new data types which are compatible with existing ones. What is a self referential structure and where can it be used? 3.Problem Solving and C Programming Refer File Name: <sesh10_1. Summary Structure is a derived data type used to store heterogeneous data items under a single unit. only one member is accessible at a time. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Structure members can be accessed by structure variables using dot ( . }*p1.

Self referential structures will contain a member that is a pointer to the parent structure type. 3. int age. What will be the result when the following code is executed? struct stud_type { int rollno. 2. printf(“Size = %d”. union person { char surname[10]. }. Cognizant Technology Solutions. whereas the members of a structure can be of different types.Problem Solving and C Programming 4. Size = 19 Page 91 ©Copyright 2007. sizeof (ex)). }ex. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . 4. struct stud_type s1. The elements of an array are always of the same type. *p1->p. Answers: 1. It is very useful in applications that involve linked data structures. char name[15].

... type variable-name..... .. Initialization Union can be initialized only with a value for the first union member. variable-name. Page 92 ©Copyright 2007... and block file I/O operations Unions Union. and the members of the union are given.. you will be able to: Explain how to declare and initialise Unions Perform operations on unions How to use typedef statement How to declare and use enumeration data type Explain the concept of file and its types Perform basic file operations Perform formatted.. is a derived data type.. variable-name.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 14: Structures and Unions / Files and Preprocessor directives Learning Objectives After completing this session. The programmer is responsible for interpreting the stored values correctly.. For each variable.. No other member can be initialized. but no storage is allocated... Declaration The declaration can be thought of as a template .it creates the type... variable-name. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Unions follow the same syntax as structures. Union differs from structure in storage and in initialization... In the declaration..... General Form: union tag_name { type variable-name. unformatted. the compiler allocates a piece of storage that can accommodate the largest of the specified members. The tag name. can be used to declare variables of the union type. union-variable. type variable-name.. like a structure.. keyword ‘union’.. along with the keyword ‘union’. }union-variable..... : : type variable-name. the tag name...... Cognizant Technology Solutions.... variable-name..

Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. char name[15]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. s1. The dot operator (. float salary. Union permits a section of memory to be treated as a variable of one type on one occasion. and as a different variable of a different type on another occasion. static union item product = {100}. float x. int age. /* m will be initialized with 100 */ Accessing the member of union The notation used to access a member of a union is identical to that used to access member of a structure. char name[20]. Union of Structures Structures and unions can be members of structures and unions. struct employee_type e1.2 { int code. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Thus. only one member variable can be accessed at a time. person Union of Structures struct employee_type Page 93 ©Copyright 2007. }. union { char surname[10]. Example 14.1 union item { int m. struct stud_type { int rollno. char c. }. float avg. int dept_code.) is used to access the members. struct stud_type }ex. }.

backspace = `\b'. newline = `\n'. } Enumeration variables can be processed in the same manner as other integer variables. General Form: enum tag { member1 . green } Page 94 ©Copyright 2007. vtab = `\v'. “enum” keyword is used to declare enumerated variables. The member names must differ from one another. That is.Problem Solving and C Programming In the above example. As with arrays. Example 14. The elements of this union of structures are accessed using dot operator as follows: ex. …………… var n. green takes the value 6. Enumerated variables can be declared as follows: storage-class enum tag var1 . though they have signed integer values. to share common memory. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . blue = 5 . …… member n } . These constants represent values that can be assigned to corresponding enumeration variables. definition and variable declaration can be combined. Here. tag is a name that identifies enumerations having this composition and members represent the identifiers that may be assigned to variables of this type. first enumerated name has index value 0.salary Enumeration Enumeration is a derived data type. As structures. similar to structures or a union. tab = `\t’. e1 and s1. e1 = getch(). We can also override the 0 start value by assigning some other value. the user can use either e1 or s1. Its members are constants that are written as identifiers.3 enum escapes { bell = `\a'. return = `\r'} main() { enum escapes e1. at the same time. next value is calculated as previous plus one. Cognizant Technology Solutions. var2 .e1. enum colors { red = 1 . if (e1 == newline) printf("newline"). the union allows the structure variables. member2 . but not both.

It is used to give new names to existing data types. Example 14. file manipulations may be done in two ways: Low-level I/O using system calls High-level I/O using functions from standard I/O library The files accessed through the library functions are called Stream Oriented files and the files accessed with system calls are known as System Oriented files. employee emp1. Streams and Files Page 95 ©Copyright 2007. char empname[10]. n2 are the employee is the name given to the structure of the above type. numbers n1. Similarly. In C. For such applications. A file is a place on the disk where a group of related data is stored. General Form typedef datatype new-type. emp2. no need to use struct keyword. }employee. Introduction to Files When a large volume of data is involved. struct n1 .5 typedef { int empno. the results may be stored on disks. integer variables. n2 . numbers is the new name given to integer data type and it can be used to declare integer variables.4 typedef numbers int. supplying data through the keyboard during the execution or displaying the output on the screen is not convenient. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The input data can be stored on disks and the program may access the data from disks for processing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. files are needed. Example 14. Then structure variables can be declared as follows.Problem Solving and C Programming Typedef Statement The ‘typedef’ allows users to define new data types that are equivalent to existing data types. typedef is mostly useful with structures and unions.

Each line has zero or more characters and is terminated by a new line character.Problem Solving and C Programming Streams facilitate a way to create a level of abstraction between the program and an input/output device.in which case the position points to the end of the file. the file position points to the beginning of the file unless the file is opened for an append operation . There are two types of streams: text and binary. The file position indicates where the next operation (read/write) will occur. may be able to handle lines of up to 254 characters long (including the terminating new line character). In C. When a file is opened. there are three available streams: Standard input (stdin) is the stream where a program gets its input data Standard output (stdout) is the stream where a program writes its output data.h. File Operations Files are associated with streams and must be open in order to use it. ‘FILE’ is a structure that holds the description of a file and is defined in stdio. Exiting from the main function causes all open files to be closed. The point of I/O within a file is determined by the file position. More generally. Spaces cannot appear before a newline character. no more actions can be taken on it until it is opened again. and all characters will be transferred as such. and the new-line character. When a file is closed. It is simply a long series of 0’s and 1’s. When a program begins. Basic File operations are: Opening a File Reading from and/or writing into a File Closing the File Page 96 ©Copyright 2007. Conversions may occur on text streams during input and output. Standard error (stderr) is another output stream typically used by programs to output error messages. Text streams are composed of a set of lines. Text streams consist of printable characters. But in the binary stream there will be one-to-one mapping because no conversion exists. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the tab character. there need not be a one-to-one mapping between characters in the original file and the characters read from or written to a text stream. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This allows a common method of sending and receiving data amongst the various types of devices available. on some systems. a text stream removes these spaces even though implementation defines it. A text stream. Binary streams are composed of only 0’s and 1’s.

fclose(fp ). It is a string enclosed within double quotes. fprintf(fp. "format string". The ‘mode’ can be any of the following: r read text mode w write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) a append text mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) rb read binary mode wb write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exits or creates new file) ab append binary mode for writing (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) r+ read and write text mode w+ read and write text mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new file) a+ read and write text mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) Page 97 ©Copyright 2007. (Extensions can be specified like test. Where: The ‘fp’ is a file pointer or file handler.dat etc) The ‘mode’ argument in the fopen() specifies. the code must: define a local ‘pointer’ of type FILE ( called file pointer ) ‘open’ the file and associate it with the file pointer via fopen() perform the I/O operations using file I/O functions ( ex. details.c. “mode”). fscanf(fp. Cognizant Technology Solutions. fscanf() and fprintf() ) disconnect the file from the task using fclose() General form: FILE *fp. variable list).Problem Solving and C Programming The logic is. fp = fopen(“name”. "format string". All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The ‘name’ is to represent filename and it is a string of characters. variable list). the purpose/positioning of opening the file.

Page 98 ©Copyright 2007. rewind(). fclose() returns zero for successful close and returns EOF (end of file) when error is encountered in closing a file. It supports the following ways of reading from and writing into file: Character I/O String I/O Formatted I/O Block I/O Integer I/O Character I/O Using character I/O. one character (byte) can be written to or read from a file at a time. If the file is opened in the update mode (+). It is good to close all the files opened with fopen(). fopen() returns the file pointer position for successful open and returns NULL. the file open fails and it will return NULL to file pointer. if the file does not open or the file does not exist. Writing in to a file To write into a file. all the files opened are closed when the program is terminated. Cognizant Technology Solutions. the file must be opened in ‘w’ mode The function putc() is used to write a byte to a file. output cannot be directly followed by input and input cannot be directly followed by output without an intervening fseek(). The Standard I/O provides variety of functions to handle files. If the file is opened with append mode (a). By default. or fflush(). fsetpos().Problem Solving and C Programming r+b or read and write binary mode rb+ w+b or read and write binary mode (truncates file to zero length if it already exists or creates new wb+ file) a+b or read and write binary mode (opens or creates file and sets file pointer to the end-of-file) ab+ If the file does not exist and it is opened with read mode (r). because files can be reopened only if they are closed. all write operations occur at the end of the file regardless of the current file position. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

This fptr may be stdout. } Reading from a file The function getc() is used to read a byte from a file. If an error occurs. If the end-of-file is encountered. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. char c.fp). Example 14.7: main() { Program to read a character data from a text file FILE *fp.dat”. the character is returned. This function writes the character ch into a file pointed by the file pointer fptr. char c. fclose(fp). the pointer is moved to the next position. If an error occurs.6: Program to create a text file (character file) main() { FILE *fp. the error indicator for the stream is set and EOF is returned. keyboard as a file. The EOF is end of file status flag. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . if ((fp=fopen(“sample. monitor as a file. On success.”r”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getc(fp)) != EOF) Page 99 ©Copyright 2007. The fptr may be stdin. Cognizant Technology Solutions. On success. which represents standard output device. if ((fp=fopen(“sample.”w”)) !=NULL) { while ((c=getchar()) != EOF) putc(c. which is true if end of file is reached. EOF is returned and the end-of-file indicator is set. This may be a macro version of fgetc. This function reads a character from the file and it is returned to the program defined character variable. Example 14.fptr). General Form: ch =getc (fptr). } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). which represents a standard input device. the character is returned. After the reading a character.dat”.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: putc(ch. otherwise false.

the string remains unchanged. If the end-of-file occurs before any characters have been read. integers can be written to. Writing integer in to a file The function used is putw(). Reads a line from the specified stream and stores it into the string pointed to by str. a file at a time. General Form: fputs (str. On error. fptr).fptr). a nonnegative value is returned. General Form: fgets(str. The newline character is copied to the string. or read from. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . or read from.Problem Solving and C Programming putchar(c). EOF is returned. fclose(fp). a nonnegative value is returned. Reading a string from a file The function used is fgets(). a pointer to the string is returned. fptr). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Page 100 ©Copyright 2007. whichever comes first. General Form: putw (i. string can be written to. This function writes an integer to a file.n. Writes a string to the specified stream till the last character is read but does not include the null character. } String I/O Using string I/O. On error. a null pointer is returned. A null character is appended to the end of the string. the newline character is read. or the endof-file is reached. It stops when (n-1) characters are read. } else printf(“Error in opening a file”). Numeric I/O Using numeric I/O. On success. On error. On success. Writing a string in to a file The function used is fputs(). EOF is returned. On success. a file at a time.

according to the format specifier specified in format string. Page 101 ©Copyright 2007. If the input does not match. Other characters in the format string specify characters that must be matched from the input.This function will read the formatted data from the file pointed by fptr. Formatted I/O The formatted I/O functions can handle a group of data in a single call. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Reading formatted data from the file The function used is fscanf(). If an input failure occurs. General Form: fscanf( fptr. A white space character may match with any white space character such as space. or the width field is satisfied. Reads an integer from the file and assigns it to the program defined numeric variable at the LHS. On success. as specified by the format specifiers in format-string and stores in the variables. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . This function will write the values stored in the variables into a file pointed by fptr. whose addresses are given in addresses-list. or form feed. but are not stored in any of the following arguments. in a left to right fashion. new line. The fscanf() function takes input in a manner that is specified by the format argument and stores each input field into the corresponding arguments. The fprintf() function takes the format string specified by the format argument and applies each following argument to the format specifiers in the string. format-string. -1 is returned. or the next incompatible character. format-string. addresses-list). vertical tab. variable-list). Each character in the format string is copied to the stream except for conversion characters which specify a format specifier. the number of characters printed is returned. If an error occurred. the number of input fields converted and stored is returned. in a left to right fashion. On success. the function stops scanning and returns. carriage return. General Form: fprintf ( fptr. Each input field is specified in the format string with a conversion specifier which specifies how the input is to be stored in the appropriate variable. tab. Reading an input field (designated with a conversion specifier) ends when an incompatible character is met. EOF is returned. General Form: i = getw( fptr). Writing formatted data to a file The function fprintf() is used.Problem Solving and C Programming Reading integer from a file The function used is getw().

name printf("%d %s %d \n" . std[i]. &std1[i]. std1[i].name . int i. std1[i]. std[i].age). for(i=0. char name[10]. clrscr().age). printf("\n\n reading from file \n\n").age). }std[10]. Cognizant Technology Solutions. &std[i].no . All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .name . "w").8: Program using fscanf() and fprintf() main() { FILE *fpt. fprintf(fpt .dat" . "r"). fpt = fopen("details. struct { int no. The data handled by block input/output function will be in ‘raw data format’ (i. Used to write a structure or an array of structures to an output file. name . while(!feof(fpt)) { fscanf(fpt . printf("\n\n enter the details (no .no . fpt = fopen("details. std1[i].i++) { scanf("%d %s %d " . i++. std1[i].name . &std[i]. } } Block I/O Block I/O is used to read or write a specified number of bytes. "%d .Transfers a specified number of bytes beginning at a specified location in memory to a file.&std1[i].no . i<5 . %s %d " . The function writes data from the array pointed to by ptr to the given stream. std1[10]. std[i]. } fclose(fpt). age )\n\n"). int age.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 14. "%d %s %d " . std[i].e. bytes of data).dat" .no . Writing in to a file The function used is fwrite(). It writes ‘n’ blocks of size Page 102 ©Copyright 2007.age).

printf(" \n\n printing the values "). Page 103 ©Copyright 2007. General Form fread (&str. On success the number of elements read is returned. It reads ‘n’ number of elements of size ‘size’. On error or end-of-file. The total number of bytes read is (size*n).9: Program using Block I/O main() { FILE *fptr. for(i=0 . "r" ). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .dat" . clrscr(). 5 . fp). fptr). int age . int i . &stud[i]. the total number of elements successfully read (which may be zero) is returned. Where: ptr size n fp pointer to the data block (source) size of each block (number of bytes to be written) number of blocks to be written file pointer (destination) Reading from a file The function used is fread(). size. Reads data from the given stream into the variable pointed to by ptr. fwrite(&stud . On error the total number of elements successfully written (which may be zero) is returned. fptr = fopen("ex. n. 5 . size.age).dat" . Where: &str size n fp destination memory address size of each block (number of bytes to be read) number of blocks to be read file pointer (source) Example 14. fptr=fopen("ex. sizeof(stud[0]) .Problem Solving and C Programming ‘size’. i++) scanf("%s %d ". fptr). n. struct tag { char name[10]. fp). i<5 . The total number of bytes written is (size*n). "w" ). On success the number of elements written is returned. fclose(fptr). Cognizant Technology Solutions.stud[i]. stud1[10]. General Form fwrite (ptr. }stud[10] . sizeof(stud1[0]) .name . fread(&stud1 .

myString). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Read the first line of the file and increment the line count Page 104 ©Copyright 2007. // start at 0 lines counted so far inFile = fopen(argv[1]. Problem Statement: Write a program to find a word in a file.count. i<5 . "r"). Code: /* findword. } Try It Out 1. } Refer File Name: <sesh14_1. count will equal the current line number if (strstr(myString.Print the line number and the line.name . Open the input file.Problem Solving and C Programming for(i=0 . // this will be the file I want to read main(int argc. stud1[i].age).h> #include <stdio. In the main program. // close the file I opened earlier getchar(). inFile) != NULL) // keep reading lines { // until I've seen them all count++.c */ #include <string. i++) printf("\n %s \t %d " . // This is where I read the lines of the file int count.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Run the program by passing file that needs to searched as command line arguments. stud1[i]. print it } fclose(inFile). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . read the input argument.h> */ FILE * inFile. "name") != NULL) // check to see if 'drawline' printf("Line %d] %s". // open the file for reading only while (fgets(myString.char *argv[]) { char myString[256]. // I will use this to count the lines of the file count = 0.h> /* #include <stdlib. 255. // is in the current line and // if so. // after this command.

y ). value.0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . one integer and the other double. "int: ".y = 100.x. Code: //Output both value in a union #include <stdio. value.y ).Problem Solving and C Programming compare the search key word say ”name” . value.x. "and print both members. Close the file and exit the program 2. "double:\n". "and print both members. Problem Statement: Write a program to print both members of union. double y.x = 100. "Put a value in the floating member".". printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n\n". }. "Put a value in the integer member". } Refer File Name: <sesh14_2.h> union number { int x. printf( "%s\n%s\n%s%d\n%s%f\n". "double:\n".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a union having two members. value.". if found print the line number and the full string. value. Continue till all the lines in the file are processed. Page 105 ©Copyright 2007. In the main program declare a variable of union datatype. value. Cognizant Technology Solutions. int main() { union number value. Again read the next line in the file and do the same process. getchar(). return 0. "int: ".

} return 0.Problem Solving and C Programming First assign the value of x as 100 and print both the members. x will print as 100 and y as 0 Next assign the value of y as 100 and print both the members. } 3. formatted I/O and block I/O. What is EOF. Test your Understanding 1. Files can be classified as system oriented and stream oriented files."hello-out"). Preproccessing is done before compilation. What does the following statement specifies? fseek( fptr . ii) file inclusion and iii) conditional compilation. 2L . fopen(). sleep(1). ftell(). Preprocessor directives are identified by # symbol. x will print as 0 and y as 100 Summary Files are used to store bulk of related information in secondary storage. What is the output of the following code? int main() { while(i<10) { fprintf(stdout. Preprocessor directives perform i) macro substitution. fclose() functions are used for opening and closing of files. What are the three files automatically associated with every C program? 2. and what value does it usually have? 4. Direct access of a file is supported by fseek(). Output operations on files can be of character I/O. i++. Input. 2) Page 106 ©Copyright 2007. and rewind() functions. Cognizant Technology Solutions. string I/O. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

foo( ). a). No significance. printf(“%d”.a ). 5. Its value on most computers is -1. It will print hello-out in the monitor 10 times. 4. trying to move file pointer in the forward direction from the end of file. 3.”. stdin. stderr 2. What is the output of the following code? #define a 10 foo( ) { #undef a # define a 50 } main( ) { printf(“%d. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming 5. 50 50 Page 107 ©Copyright 2007.. EOF is a constant returned by many I/O functions to indicate that the end of an input file has been reached. } Answers: 1. Cognizant Technology Solutions. stdout.

the current file position is returned. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . On success. then the value is a value usable by the fseek() function to return the file position to the current position. then the value is the number of bytes from the beginning of the file. Page 108 ©Copyright 2007. If it is a text stream.Problem Solving and C Programming Session 15: Files and Preprocessor directives / Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. 0 1 SEEK_CUR Seeks from the current position. General Form: n = ftell(fptr). fseek() This function sets the file position to the given offset (specified in long integer format). which corresponds to the current file pointer position. from_where) The argument offset signifies the number of bytes to seek from the given ‘from_where’ position. you will be able to: Access files in both sequential and random order Define pre-processor directives Perform pre-processor operations Perform conditional compilation How to declare and initialise Pointers Understand Pointer Arithmetic Perform operations on Pointers and Arrays Random File Operations The functions discussed earlier are to be used for reading and writing data sequentially. offset. ftell() and rewind(). it may be necessary to access some part of the file directly. the value -1L is returned and error number (errno) is set. On error. If it is a binary stream. The argument from_where can be: SEEK_SET Seeks from the beginning of the file. In some applications. General Form: fseek( fptr. ftell() This function takes a file pointer and returns a long int. Cognizant Technology Solutions. This can be achieved by using the functions fseek().

The preprocessed source program file must be a valid C program. 0). 2). 1). On success. Move the file pointer to the end of file. Embed files within the current file Conditionally compile sections of the current file Generate diagnostic messages Remove the blank lines in the program. A token is a series of characters delimited by white space. 2). Example 15. fseek (fp. Preprocessor directives are lines included in the code that are not program statements but directives for the preprocessor. fseek (fp.1 fseek (fp. The error indicator is NOT reset. vertical tab. 10L. These lines are always preceded by a pound sign (#). Page 109 ©Copyright 2007. General Form: rewind(fptr). 0). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Remove comments from the source file. rewind() This function sets the file position to the beginning of the file of the given stream. Move after 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the current Move backward 10 bytes from the EOF. 10L. 0L. fseek (fp. The preprocessor is executed before the actual compilation of code begins. therefore the preprocessor digests all these directives before any executable code is generated for the statements. -10L. The white space allowed on a preprocessor directive may be the space. zero is returned. Cognizant Technology Solutions. horizontal tab.Problem Solving and C Programming SEEK_END Seeks from the end of the file. The error and end-of-file indicators are reset. from_where should be SEEK_SET and offset should be either zero or a value returned from ftell(). Preprocessing is a step that takes place before compilation that lets you to: Replace preprocessor tokens in the current file with specified replacement tokens. 0L. or carriage return. Move after 10 bytes from the beginning. The end-of-file indicator is reset. change the line number of the next line of source and change the file name of the current file. Move the file pointer to the beginning. fseek (fp. Preprocessor Directives One of C's most useful features is its preprocessor. form feed. 2 On a text stream. -10L. On error. fseek (fp. 1). a nonzero value is returned.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The # token must appear as a first character. or #elif test fails. the preprocessor interprets the \ and the new-line character as a continuation marker. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. Conditionally includes source text if the previous #if. #line Supplies a line number for compiler messages. #pragma Specifies implementation-defined instructions to the compiler. The # is not part of the directive name and can be separated from the name with white spaces. #include Inserts text from another source file.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessor directives begin with the # token followed by a preprocessor keyword.) is expected at the end of a preprocessor directive. #ifdef. #ifndef. A preprocessor directive ends at the new-line character unless the last character of the line is the \ (backslash) character. #ifndef. Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is not defined. The preprocessor deletes the \ (and the following new-line character) and splices the physical source lines into continuous logical lines. or #elif test fails. depending on the result of a constant expression. Preprocessor Directives Name Action # #define #elif #else #endif #error Null directive specifying that no action be performed. Except for some #pragma directives. Page 110 ©Copyright 2007. No semicolon (. Cognizant Technology Solutions. #if Conditionally includes or suppresses portions of source code. Defines text for a compile-time error message. Ends conditional text. #ifdef. preprocessor directives can appear anywhere in a program. Defines a preprocessor macro. If the \ character appears as the last character in the preprocessor line. #undef Removes a preprocessor macro definition. #ifdef #ifndef Conditionally includes source text if a macro name is defined.

The preprocessor replaces subsequent occurrences of that identifier with its assigned value until the identifier is undefined with the #undef preprocessor directive. Page 111 ©Copyright 2007. In the second case where the file name is specified between double-quotes. the file is searched first in the current working directory.2 #include <stdio. the file is searched in the directories where the compiler is configured to look for the standard header files. whichever comes first. There are two basic types of macro definitions that you can use to assign a value to an identifer: Object-like Macros (Symbolic constants) Replaces a single identifier with a specified token or constant value. and then processed by the compiler. and then linked as necessary with other programs and libraries. Preprocessing will be done before compilation. Example 15. standard header files are usually included in angle-brackets. File Inclusion The #include directive allows external files to be added in to our source file. If the file name is enclosed between angle-brackets <>. the compiler searches the file in the default directories where it is configured to look for the standard header files. In case that it is not there.h” Preprocessor Macros: #define preprocessor directive is used to define a macro that assigns a value to an identifier. compilation process operates on the preprocessor output. Therefore. which is then syntactically and semantically analyzed and translated. General Form: #include <header file> OR #include “header file” The only difference between both expressions is the places (directories) where the compiler is going to look for the included file. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . while other user specificed header files are included using quotes.Problem Solving and C Programming Preprocessing Operations: Pre processing operations are mainly classifieds into 1) File Inclusion. or until the end of the program source is reached.h> #include “stdio. 2) Macro substitution and 3) Conditional Compilation.

These identifiers can simply be constants or a macro function.Problem Solving and C Programming Function-like Macros Associates a user-defined function and argument list to an identifier. #define General Form: #define symbolicvaraiablename value Example 15. Symbolic Constants The preprocessing directives #define and #undef allow the definition of identifiers which hold a certain value.3 #define SIZE 10 #define NAME letters */ “xyz” /* good practice is to use upper case #undef: General Form: #undef variablename Example 15. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . When the preprocessor encounters that identifier in the program source. the defined function is inserted in place of the identifier along with any corresponding arguments. Cognizant Technology Solutions.. …. } Page 112 ©Copyright 2007.4 #undef SIZE Macros: General Form: #define macroname(argument list) macrodefn Example: #define sqarea(a) ((a)*(a)) main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).

Cognizant Technology Solutions. All the matching directives are considered to be at the same nesting level. Example 15. and #ifndef directive. main() { areaofsquare=sqarea(a).b) ((a)+(b)). } (1) (2) miscalculation because of no parentheses two semicolons in macro expansion. and one matching #endif directive. zero or one #else directive.3). The directives are: #if #ifdef #ifndef #else #elif #endif The directives #ifdef and #ifndef allow conditional compiling of certain lines of code based on whether or not an identifier has been defined. */ areaofsquare = (3) *(3). Continuation character for macro definition is \. addition=add(2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .. /* /* areaofsquare = (a) * (a). For each #if. */ (2) */ ((a)*(a)) Conditional Compilation Directives: A preprocessor conditional compilation directive causes the preprocessor to conditionally suppress the compilation of portions of source code. addition=(2)+(3). These directives test a constant expression or an identifier to determine which tokens the preprocessor should pass on to the compiler and which tokens should be bypassed during preprocessing.5 #define sqarea(a) #define sqa(b) b*b #define add(a. There is no need for semicolon after the macro definition.Problem Solving and C Programming Arguments in the macro definition are enclosed with parenthesis to avoid miscalculation. /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3+4). #ifdef. */ (1) */ areaofsquare=(3+4)*(3+4). /* areaofsquare=sqarea(3). /* areaofsquare=sqa(3+4). there are zero or more #elif directives. General Form: #if constant_expression #else #endif OR #if constant_expression #elif constant_expression #endif Page 113 ©Copyright 2007. areaofsquare=3+4*3+4.

printf(name(xyz)).. If there is a matching #elif. #elif. */ Page 114 ©Copyright 2007. #if define(NUMBER) #undef NUMBER #define NUMBER 1 #endif # and ## operators # causes the argument to be converted as a string enclosed within quotes. */ Example 15. then the lines between the #else and the #endif are compiled. then the constant_expression after that is evaluated and the code between the #elif and the #endif is compiled only if this expression evaluates to a nonzero value (true).8 #define name(x.7 #define name(x) #x main() { …. Cognizant Technology Solutions. …. If the value is 0 (false). If there is a matching #else. } ## concatenation operator /* printf(“xyz”). then the compiler skips the lines until the next #else. printf(name(ssn. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Example 15.. Example 15. and the constant_expression evaluated to 0 (false). } /* printf(“ssnsomca”). If so. ….6 Check whether a variable is defined.somca)).Problem Solving and C Programming The compiler only compiles the code after the #if expression if the constant_expression evaluates to a non-zero value (true). change the value of that variable to 1 after undefining it. or #endif.y) x##y main() { …. and the preceding #if evaluated to false.

All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . int a = 5 . Example 15. C provides two operators. * and & are inverse of each other. 5 – value. The type-specifiers determine that what kind of variable the pointer variable points to. &a). Variable directly references the value and Pointer variable indirectly references the value. Pointers are one of the powerful and frequently used features of C.Problem Solving and C Programming Introduction to Pointers Pointer is a variable that contain the memory address of another variable. Referencing a value through a pointer is called Indirection. Whenever a variable is declared. *px. & and *. Declaration General Form: data-type *pointer-name. 1000 – assumed as the address of a 1000 printf(“ Value = %d”. 2 bytes of memory is allocated for variable ‘a’ a 5 a – variable. Variables contain the values and pointer variables contain the address of variables that has the value. memory is allocated for the variable according to the data type specified. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a). x = 5 . prints the value 5 prints the address 1000 Declaration and Initialization A pointer variable is declared with an asterisk before the variable name. as they have a number of useful applications. It returns the value of the variable to which its operand points. * Indirection or de-referencing operator. & address operator. for pointer implementation. printf(“ Address of a = %u”. px = &x.9 int x. x 5 1000 px 1000 3000 variables values addresses Page 115 ©Copyright 2007. It is a unary operator that returns the address of its operand.

Two pointer variables can be compared.cannot assign value to the pointer variable Pointer Arithmetic Pointer Addition or subtraction is done in accordance with the associated data type.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. printf(” address of x = %d “ . &px). valid valid. hold only the address of the variable of same data type. Cognizant Technology Solutions. A pointer variable can be assigned the value of another pointer variable. q = p. Null or an address. printf (“address of the pointer = %u”.both p and q is pointing to the memory location of variable a invalid – ordinary variables cannot hold address. No other constant can be initialized to a pointer variable. &x). printf(“ x = %d “ .11 Valid and Invalid pointer assignments int a . printf (“content pointed by pointer = %d”.10 Now execute the following printf statements and observe the results. printf (“ address pointed by pointer = %u”. b = &a. *p = &a . invalid . Pointer variable can not be multiplied or divided by a constant. px). q = a. int char float long int adds 2 for every increment adds 1 for every increment adds 4 for every increment adds 4 for every increment All the operations can be done on the value pointed by the pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Pointer variable of a particular data type can. One pointer can be subtracted from another pointer variable provided both are pointing to same array. An integer quantity can be added to or subtracted from a pointer variable. Example 15. prints 5 prints 1000 prints 1000 prints 3000 prints 5 Initialization Pointer variables should be initialized to 0. . The following operations can be performed on pointer variables: A pointer variable can be assigned the address of an ordinary variable or it can be a null pointer. *q = NULL. *px). The following are the illegal operations on pointers variables: Two pointer variables can not be added. Page 116 ©Copyright 2007. x). b .

conventional array is declared and pointer variable can be made to point to the starting location of the array. ptr ++. Pointer pointing to an array Initialization To initialize a pointer variable.12: Pointer arithmetic int * ptr . so writing array subscripting expressions using pointer notation can save compile time. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ptr= &i. Thus.13: Pointer operations Legal operations p1 > p2 p1==p2 Illegal operations p1/p2 p1*p2 p1+p2 p1/5 p1+2 p1-p2 (if p1. i=5. Exact location of the elements can be accessed directly by assigning the starting location of the array to the pointer variable. *(pv+1) is the same as v[1]. Page 117 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. Compiler treats the subscript as a relative offset from the beginning of the array. C treats the name of the array as if it is a pointer to the first element. let ptr = 1000 (location of i) ptr = 1002 (+2 for integers) increments the value of i by 1 ++*ptr or (*ptr)++ Example 15. Array addressing is in the form of relative addressing. *pv is the same as v[0]. p2 points to same array) Pointers and Arrays Arrays Array is used to store the similar data items in contiguous memory locations under single name. The pointer variable is incremented to find the next element. Array subscripting notation is converted to pointer notation during compilation. Array elements are accessed using pointer variable. Pointers Pointer addressing is in the form of absolute addressing. Cognizant Technology Solutions. and so on. if v is an array.

OR pointer_variable = array_name.15 printf (“%d “. Example 15. OR ptr_vble = array_name.*(ptr+i)). Accessing address Example 15.*(a+i)). printf (“%d “. displays address of a(i) displays the a[i] value displays the a[0] value displays the a[i] value .14 int a[5] = {1.Problem Solving and C Programming General Form: pointer_variable = &array_name [starting index]. a[0] = 1 a[1] = 2 a[2] = 3 a[3] = 4 a[4] = 5 ptr + 0 = 1000 ptr + 1 = 1002 ptr + 2 = 1004 ptr + 3 = 1006 ptr + 4 = 1008 *(ptr+0) *(ptr+1) *(ptr+2) *(ptr+3) *(ptr+4) = 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 5 Assume that array starts at location 1000 Pointers and Multi Dimensional Arrays As the internal representation of a multi dimensional array is also linear. The way in which the pointer variable used. i . Page 118 ©Copyright 2007. a pointer variable can point to an array of any dimension. Assume that the array starts at location 1000 &a[0][0] = 1000 &a[0][1] = 1002 &a[1][0] = 1004 &a[1][1] = 1006 a[0][0] = 1 a[0][1] = 2 a[1][0] = 3 a[1][1] = 4 ptr+0 = 1000 ptr+1 = 1002 ptr+2 = 1004 ptr+3 = 1006 *(ptr+0) = 1 *(ptr+1) = 2 *(ptr+2) = 3 *(ptr+3) = 4 *ptr . printf (“%d “.17 int a[2][2] = {1. Example 15. similar to ptr = &a[0]. ptr = &a[0][0] .*ptr). *ptr . varies according to the dimension.3. &a[0] = 1000 &a[1] = 1002 &a[2] = 1004 &a[3] = 1006 &a[4] = 1008 Accessing value Example 15.5} ptr = a .4} .2. 4. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .2.3.16 printf (“%u “. Cognizant Technology Solutions. (ptr+i)). General Form: ptr_vble = &array_name [starting index1]…[starting indexn].

For example. j.j<3. (p+0) + 1 (p+1) + 0 if it is used to represent 0th row and 1st column if it is used to represent 1st row and 0th column and results in p+1. int a[3][2] can be represented by a pointer as follows: int (*p)[2] p is a pointer points to a set of one dimensional array.i++) { for (j=0. for example. (*(ptr + i) +j) is a pointer to jth element in ith row *(*(ptr+i) + j)) refers to the content available in ith row.18 printf (“%d “. So.actually a pointer to the first element in i th row.j) value Example 15.5. Therefore.Problem Solving and C Programming If the pointer to the array is accessed with 2 subscripts.*(a[ i ] + j). printf (“%d “.2.6}. int *pa=&a[0][0].*(a + i)[ j ]. printf (“%d “.3.*(*(pa+i)+j)).19 main() { int i. Page 119 ©Copyright 2007. each with 2 elements. Note: First dimension need not be specified but the second dimension has to be specified. displays the x(i.j++) printf(“\t%d”. jth column Accessing value Example 15. int a[2][3]={1. it results in a problem.i<2. a twodimensional array is defined as a pointer to a group of one dimensional array and in the same way three dimensional arrays can be represented by a pointer to a group of two dimensional arrays. for (i=0.4. multi dimensional arrays can be represented by pointer in the following two ways: Pointer to a group of arrays Array of pointers Pointer to a group of arrays A two dimensional array.*(*(ptr + i) +j). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . is a collection of one dimensional array. Here.j) value displays the x(i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. refers to the entire row . The following representations are used when a pointer is pointing to a 2D array: ptr+i *(ptr+i) is a pointer to ith row.j) value displays the x(i. a single pointer is used and it needs to know how many columns are there in a row.

ptr[0] = a[0]. if we have a character array declared as: char name[30] = {“Data Structures”}.2. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. Thus. it refers to the address of the 0th element. /* ptr[1] is now pointing to the 1st row ptr[0] + 0 ptr[0] + 1 ptr[1] + 0 ptr[1] + 1 = 1000 = 1002 = 1004 = 1006 *(ptr[0] + 0) *(ptr[0] + 1) *(ptr[1] + 0) *(ptr[1] + 1) = = = = 1 2 3 4 ( & a[1][0]) */ Example 15. which can hold the address of a character variable.4} . p = name. /* ptr[0] is now pointing to the 0th row ( & a[0][0]) */ ptr[1] = a[1]. *ptr[2] .20 int a[2][2] = {1. We can declare a character pointer as follows: char *p = NULL.21 (1) (2) *p[3] (*p)[3] declares p as an array of 3 pointers declares p as a pointer to a set of one dimensional array of 3 elements Pointers and Strings Character pointer is a pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming printf(“\n”). ptr[1] and each pointer can point to a particular row . int a[2][2] can be represented as int *ptr[2] Here. we have 2 pointers ptr[0]. Suppose. Example 15. When an array is referenced by its name.3. only one indirection is enough to represent a particular element. } } Output: 1 4 2 5 3 6 Array of Pointers Multi dimensional array can also be expressed in terms of an array of pointers. the address of the array is assigned to this pointer. Page 120 ©Copyright 2007. Once the pointer is declared.

The above statement allocates variable length block of memory and occupies only 14 bytes. “xyz”}. It declares 4 Page 121 ©Copyright 2007. Array of character pointers : char *name[10]. int *p = {0. Character-type pointer variable can be assigned an entire string as a part of its variable declaration. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a set of initial values can be specified as part of the array declaration.1. printf(“String output = %s”. “ABCD”} . Now issue the following printf statements and check the output: printf(“Character output = %c\n”.3} .Problem Solving and C Programming The statement assigns the address of the 0th element to p. An array of character pointers offers a convenient method for storing strings. it refers the content of the address pointed by the pointer variable. “ABC” . If the elements of array are string pointers. *p). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .2. “AB” . The above printf statements produce the outputs as follows: Character output = D String output = Data Structures The reason for the output produced by the second printf statement is because of the %s format specifier. which will print the string till it encounters a ‘\0’ character. Pointer automatically gets incremented to the next location. An advantage is that a fixed block of memory need not be reserved in advance. make it a pointer to a string of varying length. char *p = “string” . valid invalid Thus. Each pointer is used to represent a particular string. When a pointer variable is referred with the indirection operator. This array occupies 30 bytes and the row length is fixed. Conventional array declaration: char name[10][10]. char names[3][10] = { “abcde”. “rstu”. Ragged Arrays Consider the following array declaration. string can be represented by either as a one-dimensional character array or a character pointer. *p). Instead of making each row a fixed number of characters. char *name[4] = { “A” .

Arrays of this type are referred as Ragged arrays (used only in the initialization of string arrays). Pointer to a constant The address of a constant variable can be assigned to a pointer variable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . The value cannot be modified. /* suspicious pointer conversion. Constant pointer to constant data always points to the same memory location and the data at that memory location cannot be modified. Thus. Wise to avoid such assignments */ Variable ‘a’ is a constant variable. Pointers variables that are declared ‘const’ must be initialized when they are declared.Problem Solving and C Programming pointers each pointing to a string.23 const int a=10. In the above example. int *const pa = &a. (2) char s[ ] = “xyz”. Example 15. Constant pointer to non-constant data always points to the same memory locations and the data at that location can be modified through the pointer. int *pa = &a. Pointer variable ‘pa’ can take any other address and value of ‘a’ can be changed using pointer even though it is constant variable. string ‘s’ is stored in 4 bytes.24 int a. A pointer variable can take the address of a non-constant data and constant data. Page 122 ©Copyright 2007. pointer ‘ps’ is stored in 2 bytes and ‘ps’ contains the address of the string that requires 4 bytes. substantial saving in memory. Constant Pointer The pointer variable can be a constant. Cognizant Technology Solutions.22 (1) char *ps = “xyz”. The following example explains the pointer variable to a constant variable: Example 15. *(name + 1) will access the string AB * (name + 2) will access the string ABC *(*(name + i) +j) refers the jth character in ith string *(*(name+3)+3) refers D in the string “ABCD” Memory organization – String Pointers Example 15.

const int * const pb = &b. But it is needed.Problem Solving and C Programming Example 15. *pnum = 2. pab=&b. ++*pnum. pnum = &num2. in order to know the size and value of the data item. pab=&a. num2 += *pnum. Try It Out 1. Type casting is not needed during address assignment. Cognizant Technology Solutions. float b. Problem Statement: Write a program to change the value of variable through pointer Code: //Change value of variable through pointer #include <stdio.25 int b. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . *(int *) pab =100. ++num2.55. printf ("\nnum1 = %ld num2 = %ld *pnum = %ld *pnum + num2 = %ld\n". *pnum. getchar(). Generic Pointer (void Pointer / Pointer to void) The type void * is used to declare generic pointers. *(float *) pab = 105. The generic pointer can be made to point any data type. long *pnum = NULL. void *pab. pnum = &num1. when dereferencing the content using void pointer. *pnum + num2). Page 123 ©Copyright 2007. long num2 = 0. num1.26 int a. num2. Example 15.h> int main(void) { long num1 = 0.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. now the value of num2 is 1. Then num2 equals the num2 _ value at pnum i.a[j].Problem Solving and C Programming return 0. int j.j<5.i3=2. 1+2 = 3(value of num2) Assign the address of num2 to pnum and do increment of value at pnum.i5=0. Now the value at pnum is 4 and num2 is 4. int *b.a[j]). a[2]=&i3. Address in array Value\n"). a[1]=&i2. #include <stdio. a[4]=&i5. Then the value of num1 is 2. %16u %d\n". } Refer File Name: <sesh15_1.value at pnum 2. Initialize num1 and num2 to 0 Assign the address of num1 to pointer pnum.h> main(){ int *a[5].e.num2. the array elements is the pointer. Increment the value of num2.i4=1. } printf("using pointer\n"). First two integer variable num1 and num2 and a pointer to an integer are declared.i2=3.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program gives a hands-on on usage of pointer. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .j++) { printf("%16u a[j]. Problem Statement: Write a program to use array of pointers Code: //In the pointer array. int i1=4. a[3]=&i4. Then assign the value of 2 to pnum. a[0]=&i1. printf("Address for(j=0. Print all the values num1. Page 124 ©Copyright 2007.

See the difference. } Refer File Name: <sesh15_2. for( j=0. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically. & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer.*b. } getchar(). Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Each element of array is an pointer which holds the address of an integer varaiable. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: This program explains the usage of array of pointers. b++. What is the use of generic pointers? Page 125 ©Copyright 2007.b).*b. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. Then print the value in the array by using array indices and using pointers. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. Cognizant Technology Solutions. malloc(). free() function is used to de-allocate the memory.j++) { printf("value of elements %d %16lu\n". Declare five integer variable and and store their address in the array.j<5. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Declare an array of integer pointers. 2.Problem Solving and C Programming b = a. State whether the following are true or false a. Test your Understanding 1.

*b = &a . calloc(). } 4.Problem Solving and C Programming 3. n[0]=100. 3. Since c points to b. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). false. sizeof(“abcd”)).%d". 5. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. Differentiate malloc() . The third statement castes **c. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. Given the following declaration: int a. b = (int *)**c. The first statement assigns 4 to a. but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. into type int *. false 2.sizeof(str2). **c=5. } 6. which is value of a. 100. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. *n. Answers: 1. True. 300 4. 2 5 5 6. The result is meaningless. 5. sizeof(str1). assign the value to a. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. **c = &b. printf(“%d %d %d”. n[24]=200. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. char str2[]=”abcd”. malloc(). Since b points to a. Page 126 ©Copyright 2007. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. printf("\n%d. false.

Cognizant Technology Solutions. p = assign() . *p) . int *assign() . /* function prototype */ void change(int *). /* pointer p is passed to a function – call by reference */ /* prints 10 */ printf(“ %d “ . } /* q is a pointer which will point to the memory location pointed by p */ Example 17.function returning an integer pointer */ int *assign() Page 127 ©Copyright 2007. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } /* will print 20 */ /* function prototype .Problem Solving and C Programming Session 17: Pointers Learning Objectives After completing this session. Functions and Pointers Pointers can be passed to a function as arguments and a function can also return a pointer to the calling program. change(p). p =&a. Example 17. printf(‘’ %d ‘’ . } void change(int *q) { *q = 10.1: Passing pointers as argument main() { int a =5 . a). you will be able to: How to use Pointers with functions How to use Pointers with structures How to implement Dynamic memory allocation in creating a linked lists.2: Function returning pointer main() { int *p . *p.

b=20. *q = 20 . return q . *p. else return (y). void (*p)(int x. printf (“%d”.3: Function receiving pointers and returning pointer int *big (int * . main() { int a=10. So. ‘p’ is a pointer which can point to a function having two integer arguments and returning an integer value. of a is returned */ /* addr. } int *big (int *x .Problem Solving and C Programming { int a . Function Pointer Function will also have a memory address like other variables. void add(int x.*p). &b). of b is returned */ /* address of the variable a or b will be stored in p */ Page 128 ©Copyright 2007. we can have a pointer variable to point to the starting location of a function and can execute the function by means of the pointer variable. rather than an entire array.) Suppose we have a function as. /* addr. } It is possible to pass a portion of an array. int *y) { if (*x > *y) return (x).. p = big (&a. int y). } Example 17. x + y). int y) { printf(“Value = %d”. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *q = &a. int *). makes the pointer to point to the function add() Note: function name specifies the starting address. General Form: return-type (* function_pointer_name)(argument list. to a function using pointers. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } Pointer to this function is declared as. p = add. which will speeds up the execution.

4 int display(). int semester. Page 129 ©Copyright 2007. float avg.20 /*invokes the function display */ Example 17. abc(). struct stud student={101. Example 17. To make ‘ptr’ to point to the structure ‘student’.20). In this declaration.67}. (*func_ptr) (). Example 17. } Output: functionfunction Structures and Pointers Structure variable can be declared as pointers. we can write as ptr = &student. which can hold an address of a variable of the type ‘student’. Pointer declaration to a structure is as follows: struct student *ptr. will call the function add() with parameters 10.Problem Solving and C Programming (*p)(10.”raja”. /* calling the function by function pointer */ } void abc() { printf(“function”). func_ptr = display.6 struct stud { int rollnum. char name[20].5 main() { void abc(). 1. It will be useful when an entire structure is passed to a function via call by reference. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Cognizant Technology Solutions. (*abc)(). }. 95. *ptr . int (*func_ptr) (). ‘ptr’ is a pointer type variable.

calloc () . int *p. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Self-Referential structures A structure containing a member that is a pointer to the same structure type is called selfreferential structures. ptr->rollnum. Dynamic Memory Allocation Conventional arrays are static in nature. float salary.7 printf(“ %d \t %s \t %d \t %f “. char gender. C supports dynamic memory allocation through the following functions: malloc(). It is used to build various kinds of linked data structures. free() These functions provides the ability to reserve as much memory as may required during program execution. Thus. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . ptr->name.Problem Solving and C Programming Accessing a member through pointer variable The notation for referring a member field of a structure pointed by a pointer is as follows: (*pointer).8 struct employee { char name[20]. Page 130 ©Copyright 2007. struct employee *empptr. ptr->semester. arrays can be represented in terms of pointers and an initial memory location can be allocated to pointer variable by means of this memory allocation functions. p = (int *) malloc ( 10 * sizeof(int)) . because size has to be mentioned in the declaration statement itself and fixed block of memory is reserved during the compilation. ptr->avg). and then release this memory when it is no longer required. memberfieldname (OR) pointer -> memberfieldname Example 17. Example 17.

i++) for(j=0. i<3. i++ for(j=0. int i. free(p) will release the memory pointed by a pointer variable ‘p’. i<3. for(i=0 . b[i]+j). j++) scanf("%d". printf("\n enter the values of second matrix"). sizeof(int)). c[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). for(i=0. i<3. *c[3]. } printf(" \n enter the values of matrix 1 \n"). j++) *(c[i]+j) = *(a[i]+j) + *(b[i]+j). This can be used to allocate space for arrays and structures. i++) for(j=0. a[i]+j). j<3. p = (int *) calloc (10. } Page 131 ©Copyright 2007. for(i=0. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . i++) for(j=0. A one dimensional dynamic array can be declared using pointers as follows: int *p. i<3. i++) { a[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). j++) scanf("%d". j<3. for(i=0. Example 17. /* memory is allocated to individual pointers */ b[i] = (int *)malloc( 3 * sizeof(int)). for(i=0. The starting address is pointed by the pointer ‘p’. j++) printf("\t%d". j<3. free() will take a void pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. *(c[i]+j)). i<3. This will return 10 continuous memory blocks of 2 bytes each and initializes them to 0. *b[3] .Problem Solving and C Programming The above program constructs will return memory block of 20 bytes.j.9: Program for adding two matrices using array of pointers void main() { int *a[3] . j<3. which can hold 10 integers.

Problem Solving and C Programming Chain of Pointers Multi dimensional arrays can be declared using pointer to pointer representation and memory can be allocated dynamically. beyond 3 levels.*p1.**p2. represents 2 dimensional array In the above declaration p is a pointer variable. p1=&x. we can refer to any part of the hardware like keyboard. p2=&p1.ptr1 value int x. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . which holds the address of another integer pointer.ptr2 x=100. However. there is no restriction imposed by the compiler as to how many levels we can go about in using a pointer.10 addr. it makes the program difficult to understand and may cause the illegal memory references *p1 addr. Example 17. video memory. Page 132 ©Copyright 2007. For example. As such. printer. it cause memory leakages If not used properly. To access the value we can use either **p2 or Advantages It gives direct control over memory and thus we can play around with memory by all possible means. int **p. Useful while returning multiple values from a function Allocation and freeing of memory can be done wherever required and need not be done in advance(Dynamic Memory Allocation) Limitations If the allocated memory is not freed properly. Cognizant Technology Solutions. it will make the code highly complex and un-maintainable. The following declaration is perfectly valid: int *****p. etc directly As working with pointers is like working with memory. it will provide enhanced performance Pass by reference is possible only through the usage of pointers.

aCard. declare a variable using card structure and pointer variable pointing to card structure. return 0. struct card *cardPtr. Problem Statement: Write a program to access structure using pointers Code: #include <stdio. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .face.Problem Solving and C Programming Try It Out 1. }.face = "Ace". aCard. Assign the values of face and suit of card structure. " of ".h> struct card { char *face. ( *cardPtr ).face.suit. ( *cardPtr ). int main() { struct card aCard. aCard. getchar(). cardPtr->face. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_1. char *suit. " of ".c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure card having face and suit as two pointers to char. cardPtr->suit.suit ). aCard. Print the values of card structure in three different forms. " of ". Page 133 ©Copyright 2007.suit = "Spades". printf( "%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n%s%s%s\n". In the main program. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All will print the same. cardPtr = &aCard.

Problem Statement: Write a program to insert values in a linked list Code: # include <stdio. temp-> link = (struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). }. printf("The data values in the list are\n"). exit(0). int n){ struct node *temp. if(p!= NULL) Page 134 ©Copyright 2007.Problem Solving and C Programming 2. if(p==NULL) { printf("Error\n"). while (temp-> link != p) temp = temp-> link. if(p==NULL){ p=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node)). temp-> data = n. exit(0). if(temp -> link == NULL){ printf("Error\n"). } else { temp = p.h> struct node { int data. } p-> data = n. temp-> link = p. Cognizant Technology Solutions. struct node *link. temp = p. } temp = temp-> link. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . } return (p).h> # include <stdlib. struct node *insert(struct node *p. p-> link = p. } void printlist ( struct node *p ) { struct node *temp.

Then returns back the pointer. printf("The created list is\n"). declare a pointer variable start pointing to struct node and initialize to NULL. again insert() function is called with the returned pointer from previous call and the value as 2.c> to obtain soft copy of the program code How It Works: Declare a structure node with data as the one of the member and the link as the other member which is a pointer to same structure which will hold the address of next node.as it is first time. In the main program. Now the start pointer is not NULL. 2). 1 ).temp->data). Cognizant Technology Solutions. Then returns the pointer back. so it goes to the else part and traverse the linked list till the last node. In the insert function. struct node *start = NULL . so it will allocate memory and assign the value of data as 1 and the link pointing to the same pointer p. start = insert ( start. start = insert ( start. printlist ( start ). getchar(). Page 135 ©Copyright 2007. } while (temp!= p). temp=temp->link. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Call a function insert() and pass the start pointer and the value 1 as argument to the function. In the main program. } void main() { int n. Then allocate memory and assign data as 2 and link pointing to the same pointer p. start = insert ( start. } Refer File Name: <sesh17_2. the start pointer will be NULL. 3 ). int x.Problem Solving and C Programming { do { printf("%d\t". 4 ). } else printf("The list is empty\n"). start = insert ( start.

free() function is used to de-allocate the memory.%d". What is the use of generic pointers? 3. malloc(). using do while loop traverse through the linked list and print all the values. Test your Understanding 1. Size of the pointer variable is equivalent to the size of the data item it points. In the main program call the printlist() function to print all the data in the linked list. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . & operator is used to refer the address of a variable and * operator is used for dereferencing the pointer. n[24]=200. What is the output of the following code? main() { int n[25]. 2. } 4. What is the output of the following statements? a=4. Cognizant Technology Solutions. **c=5. *(n+24)+*(n+0) ). Summary Pointer is a variable which can hold the address of another variable. State whether the following are true or false a.Problem Solving and C Programming Same is continued for next two insert function call. **c = &b. Address of the memory location can be assigned to ordinary variables c. *n. *b = &a . Given the following declaration: int a. n[0]=100. Pointer can refer to the content of the memory location by & operator d. Now four data’s has been inserted in to the linked list. b = (int *)**c. Pointer variable can only contain an address b. Page 136 ©Copyright 2007. Pointer can point to an array of any dimensions. There are two ways to represent multi dimensional arrays by means of pointers: o Single pointer points to set of arrays o Array of pointers Strings can easily be represented using pointer – Ragged arrays. printf("\n%d. In the printlist() function. calloc() functions are used to allocate memory dynamically.

Problem Solving and C Programming 5. Since c points to b. false.sizeof(str2). True. because values cannot be assigned to pointers. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } 6. false 2. The second statement assigns 5 to the location pointed to by the location pointed to by c. Page 137 ©Copyright 2007. char str2[]=”abcd”. The third statement castes **c. calloc() will both allocate the memory dynamically. sizeof(str1). printf(“%d %d %d”. assign the value to a. this statement is equivalent to assigning 5 to a. sizeof(“abcd”)). into type int *. Since b points to a. this is same as assigning 5 to the location pointed to by b. 5. What is the output of the following code? main( ) { char *str1=”abcd”. Generic pointers (void pointers) can point to data items of any type. 3. calloc(). 300 4. false. 2 5 5 6. Differentiate malloc() . but the difference is calloc() will return a contiguous memory location and initializes it to 0. The first statement assigns 4 to a. The result is meaningless. Answers: 1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . malloc(). 100. which is value of a.

#define max(A. #ifndef name defined? line continuation char include library file include user file name text replacement text text replacement macro Example. #else.: : : ) type name main() { declarations statements } type fnc(arg1. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .Problem Solving and C Programming Syntax Summary Program Structure/Functions type fnc(type1. #endif #ifdef.: : : ) { declarations statements return value. char *argv[]) exit(arg) C Preprocessor #include <filename> #include "filename" #define #define name(var) #undef name # ## #if. not defined? defined(name) \ function declarations external variable declarations main routine local variable declarations function definition local variable declarations comments main with args terminate execution Page 138 ©Copyright 2007. #elif.B) ((A)>(B) ? (A) : (B)) undefine quoted string in replace concatenate args and rescan conditional execution is name defined. Cognizant Technology Solutions. } /* */ main(int argc.

float enumeration constant constant (unchanging) value declare external variable register variable local to source file no value structure create name by data type t size of an object (type is size_t) size of a data type (type is size_t) Initialization initialize variable initialize array initialize char string Constants long (suffix) float (suffix) exponential form octal (prefix zero) hexadecimal (prefix zero-ex) character constant (char. \.Problem Solving and C Programming Data Types/Declarations character (1 byte) integer float (single precision) float (double precision) short (16 bit integer) long (32 bit integer) positive and negative only positive pointer to int. \t. Cognizant Technology Solutions. \?. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . \r. \" "abc: : : de" type name=value type name[]={value1. ‘\xhh’ \n. *float enum const extern register static void struct typedef typename sizeof object sizeof(type name) Page 139 ©Copyright 2007.: : : } char name[]="string" char int float double short long signed unsigned *int. cr. \b \\. octal. ‘\ooo’. hex) newline. tab. backspace special characters string constant (ends with \0) L or l F or f e 0 0x or 0X ‘a’.

struct tag name name.member pointer->member ++. minus. create structure member of structure from template member of pointed to structure single value. -+.Problem Solving and C Programming Pointers. <= ==. (*p). address of object cast expression to type size of an object multiply.x and p->x are the same union member : b Operators (grouped by precedence) structure member operator structure pointer increment. -. Arrays & Structures declare pointer to type declare function returning pointer to type type declare pointer to function returning type type generic pointer type null pointer object pointed to by pointer address of object name array multi-dim array Structures struct tag { declarations }. &name (type) expr sizeof *. multiple type structure bit field with b bits Page 140 ©Copyright 2007. decrement plus. bitwise not indirection via pointer. divide. ~ *pointer. Cognizant Technology Solutions. % +. !. /. logical not. modulus (remainder) add.member pointer -> member Ex. <. >=. right shift [bit ops] comparisons comparisons bitwise and bitwise exclusive or bitwise or (incl) logical and name. >> >. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . subtract left. <<. != & ^ | && structure template declaration of members type *name *f() (*pf)() void * NULL *pointer &name name[dim] name[dim1][dim2]….

h> <float. {} break continue goto label label: return expr while statement for statement do statement switch statement if (expr) statement else if (expr) statement else statement while (expr) statement for (expr 1.h> <ctype.h> <string.Problem Solving and C Programming logical or conditional expression assignment operators expression evaluation separator || expr1 ? expr2 : expr3 +=.h> <stdlib. switch (expr) { case const1: statement1 break. *=. for Next iteration of while. expr3) statement do statement while(expr ). for go to Label Return value from function Flow Constructions if statement . default: statement } ANSI Standard Libraries <assert. case const2: statement2 break.h> <setjmp. do.h> <stdio.h> <limits.h> <math. -=.h> <stdarg.h> <time. Unary operators.h> <errno. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . expr2.h> <locale. conditional expression and assignment operators group right to left. while. Cognizant Technology Solutions. all others group left to right.h> <signal. …… .h> <stddef. do.h> Page 141 ©Copyright 2007. Flow of Control Statement terminator Block delimiters Exit from switch.

c) strrchr(cs. tab.ct) strncmp(cs.c) memcpy(s.c. t are strings and cs.c.n) strcmp(cs.ct. newline.n) Functionalities Returns the length of s Copies ct to s Copies up to n chars to s Concatenate ct after s Concatenate up to n chars Compares cs to ct Compares only first n chars Pointer to first c in cs Pointer to last c in cs Copy n chars from ct to s Copy n chars from ct to s (may overlap) Compare n chars of cs with ct Pointer to first c in first n chars of cs Put c into first n chars of cs Page 142 ©Copyright 2007. vtab Checks whether c is a upper case letter Checks whether c is a hexadecimal digit Convert c to lower case Convert c to upper case String Operations <string.h> Consider s.n) strchr(cs.ct) strncpy(s.ct.n) memchr(cs. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . cr.Problem Solving and C Programming Character Class Tests <ctype. Cognizant Technology Solutions. ct are constant strings Functions strlen(s) strcpy(s.ct. letter.n) memset(s. form feed. digit Checks whether c is a Space.h> Functions isalnum(c) isalpha(c) iscntrl(c) isdigit(c) isgraph(c) islower(c) isprint(c) ispunct(c) isspace(c) isupper(c) isxdigit(c) tolower(c) toupper(c) Functionalities Checks whether c is alphanumeric Checks whether c is alphabetic Checks whether c is a control character Checks whether c is a decimal digit Checks whether c is a printing character (not incl space) Checks whether c is a lower case letter Checks whether c is a printing character (incl space) Checks whether c is a printing char except space.ct.ct.ct) strncat(s.ct.n) strcat(s.n) memcmp(cs.n) memmove(s.

Problem Solving and C Programming

Input/Output <stdio.h> Standard I/O Standard input stream Standard output stream Standard error stream End of file Get a character Print a character Print formatted data Print to string s Read formatted data Read from string s Read line to string s (< max chars) Print string s File I/O Declare file pointer Pointer to named file Get a character Write a character Write to file Read from file Close file Non-zero if error Non-zero if EOF Read line to string s (< max chars) Write string s FILE *fp fopen("name","mode") Where modes: r (read), w (write), a (append) getc(fp) putc(chr ,fp) fprintf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fscanf(fp,"format",arg 1,: : : ) fclose(fp) ferror(fp) feof(fp) fgets(s,max,fp) fputs(s,fp) stdin stdout stderr EOF getchar() putchar(chr ) printf("format ",arg 1,..) sprintf(s,"format ",arg 1,… ) scanf("format ",&name1,… ) sscanf(s,"format ",&name1,…. ) gets(s,max) puts(s)

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Codes for Formatted I/O: + Space 0 w p m h c

"%-+ 0w:pmc" left justify print with sign print space if no sign pad with leading zeros min field width precision conversion character: short, l long, L long double conversion character: d,i integer u unsigned c single char s char string f double e,E exponential o octal x,X hexadecimal p pointer n number of chars written g,G same as f or e,E depending on exponent

Standard Utility Functions <stdlib.h> Function Type Absolute value of int n Absolute value of long n Quotient and remainder of ints n,d Quotient and remainder of longs n,d Pseudo-random integer [0,RAND_MAX] Set random seed to n Terminate program execution Pass string s to system for execution abs(n) labs(n) div(n,d) returns structure with div_t.quot and div_t.rem ldiv(n,d) returns structure with ldiv_t.quot and ldiv_t.rem rand() srand(n) exit(status) system(s) Functions

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Problem Solving and C Programming

Conversions Function Type Convert string s to double Convert string s to integer Convert string s to long Convert prefix of s to double Convert prefix of s (base b) to long Convert prefix of s (base b) to unsigned long Storage Allocation Function Type Allocate storage Change size of object Deal locate space Mathematical Functions <math.h> Arguments and returned values are double Function Type Trig functions Inverse trig functions a Arctan (y/x) Hyperbolic trig functions Exponentials and logs Exponentials and logs (2 power) Division and remainder Powers Rounding Functions sin(x), cos(x), tan(x) sin(x), acos(x), atan(x) atan2(y,x) sinh(x), cosh(x), tanh(x) exp(x), log(x), log10(x) ldexp(x,n), frexp(x,*e) modf(x,*ip), fmod(x,y) pow(x,y), sqrt(x) ceil(x), floor(x), fabs(x) Functions malloc(size), calloc(nobj,size) realloc(pts,size) free(ptr) atof(s) atoi(s) atol(s) strtod(s,endp) strtol(s,endp,b) strtoul(s,endp,b) Functions

Page 145 ©Copyright 2007, Cognizant Technology Solutions, All Rights Reserved C3: Protected

precision] Defines the amount of precision to print for a number type (optional). or G G or g 0 Precision is increased to make the first digit a zero. Page 146 ©Copyright 2007. Result will always have a decimal point. After the % character come the following in this order: [flags] [width] Control the conversion (optional). g. Forces the sign (+ or -) to always be shown. f. Nonzero value will have 0x or 0X prefixed to it. then the precision argument. Width: The width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. If the value overflows the width of the field. Defines the number of characters to print (optional). u. Cognizant Technology Solutions. x. X. o. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. E. If the value is not large enough to fill the width. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . then the value to be converted. The type of conversion to be applied (required). g. Overrides the 0 flag.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion Specifier for ‘printf’ statement A conversion specifier begins with the % character. e. [modifier] [type] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). # Alternate form: Conversion Character Result o X or x E. Negative values still show the sign. then the field is expanded to fit the value. space Causes a positive value to display a space for the sign. and G leading zeros are used to pad the field width instead of spaces. Overrides the space flag. Flags: + Value is left justified (default is right justified). For d. f. the width argument comes first.sign. e. then the next argument (which must be an int type) specifies the width of the field. [. Precision overrides this flag. i. This is useful only with a width specifier. then the rest of the field is padded with spaces (unless the 0 flag is specified). Trailing zeros will not be removed. Default is to just show the . If a * is used in place of the width specifer.

u.0 For d. o. For g or G types all significant digits are shown. u. the width argument comes first. x. i. u. o. i. For f. For g or G types specifies the number of significant digits to print. G Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. x. Precision does not affect the c type. i. o. Specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. or . e. The precision can be given as a decimal value or as an asterisk (*). If a * is used. E. For f. X Value is first converted to a long int or unsigned long int . i. Cognizant Technology Solutions. For d. o. The minimum number of digits to appear. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . X Value is first converted to a short int or unsigned short i nt. E types no decimal point character or digits are printed.precision] (none) Default precision values: Result 1 for d. e. For s type all characters in string are print up to but not including the null character. e. g. E types specifies the number of digits after the decimal point. [. For g or G types the precision is assumed to be 1. then the value to be converted. n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. X types then at least n digits are printed (padding with zeros if necessary). d. x. then the next argument (which is of an int type) specifies the precision. u. i. 6 for f. o. x.) to distinguish itself from the width specifier. x. E types. X types. then the precision argument. Page 147 ©Copyright 2007. Value is first converted to a long double. f.Problem Solving and C Programming Precision: The precision begins with a dot (.n Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. . u. Note: when using the * with the width and/or precision specifier. . For s type specifies the maximum number of characters to print. X types the default precision value is used unless the value is zero in which case no characters are printed. n e. [modifier] h h l l L [type] Effect d.

g. D. After the % character come the following in this order: [*] [width] Assignment suppressor (optional). All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . G c s p n % Conversion specifier for ‘fscanf()’ An input field is specified with a conversion specifier which begins with the % character. Output Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using a. The argument must be a pointer to an int. f.Problem Solving and C Programming Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is to be treated as. i o u x X f e. B. Type unsigned int printed in octal. Type double printed as [-]d. Type char. A % sign is printed.ddd. E Type signed int. Type unsigned int printed in hexadecimal as dddd using A. Cognizant Technology Solutions. Stores the number of characters printed thus far in the int. Type double printed as [-]ddd. No characters are printed. Page 148 ©Copyright 2007. If type is E then the exponent is printed with a capital E. e. Decimal point character appears only if there is a nonzero decimal digit. F. Type double printed as type e or E if the exponent is less than -4 or greater than or equal to the precision. Prints the value of a pointer (the memory location it holds). Defines the maximum number of characters to read (optional). Type pointer to array. C. Trailing zeros are removed. String is printed according to precision (no precision prints entire string). b. [modifier] Overrides the size (type) of the argument (optional). c. d. Otherwise printed as type f. Single character is printed. E. Type unsigned int printed in decimal.dddeñdd where there is one digit printed before the decimal (zero only if the value is zero). [type] The type of conversion to be applied (required). [type] d. The exponent contains at least two digits.

f. or form feed). f. G designated with an e or E. The characters 0x or 0X may be optionally prefixed to the value. The input must be in base 8 (octal). then what was read thus far is converted and stored in the variable. Modifier: A modifier changes the way a conversion specifier type is interpreted. n e. followed by an optional decimal-point and decimal value. Begins with an optional sign. x The argument is a long int or unsigned long int . Finally ended with an optional signed exponent value g. o. Page 149 ©Copyright 2007. tab. Type unsigned int. The array must be large enough to hold the sequence plus a null character appended to the end. The argument is a double. g e.Problem Solving and C Programming Assignment suppressor: Causes the input field to be scanned but not stored in a variable. u. d. Inputs a sequence of non-white space characters (space. The base (radix) is dependent on the first two characters. then it is base 16 (hexadecimal).< /td> n Specifies that the pointer points to a short int. Digits 0 through 9 only. g Specifies that the pointer points to a long int. then it is base 8 (octal). carriage return. [modifier] h h l l l L [type] Effect d. If the first character is a digit from 1 to 9. Type float. It also controls what a valid convertible character is (what kind of characters it can read so it can convert to something compatible). then it is base 10. Digits 0 through 9 and the sign (+ or -). Digits 0 through 9 or A through Z or a through z. vertical tab. If the first digit is a zero and the second character is an x or X. Width: The maximum width of the field is specified here with a decimal value. If the first digit is a zero and the second digit is a digit from 1 to 7. u. The argument is a long double. o u x. Type unsigned int.e. X e. The input must be in base 16 (hexadecimal). The input must be in base 10 (decimal). f. s Type character array. Digits 0 through 7 only. Type signed int. i. it reaches a nonconvertible character). Type unsigned int. [type] d i Input Type signed int represented in base 10. Conversion specifier type: The conversion specifier specifies what type the argument is. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . x The argument is a short int or unsigned short int. If the input is smaller than the width specifier (i. o. Cognizant Technology Solutions. i. new line. E. Then one or more digits.

then the scan set is inverted and allows any ASCII character except those specified between the brackets.. Inputs the number of characters specified in the width field. On some systems a range can be specified with the dash character (-).. No characters are read from the input stream. Allows a search set of characters. then 1 is assumed. The argument must be a pointer to an int. If the first character is a carrot (^). A null character is appended to the end of the array. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Allows input of only those character encapsulated in the brackets (the scan set). If no width field is specified. Cognizant Technology Solutions. a dash. Pointer to a pointer.Problem Solving and C Programming [type] [. and an ending character a range of characters can be included in the scan set. c p n % Page 150 ©Copyright 2007. Inputs a memory address in the same fashion of the %p type produced by the printf function. Type character array.] Input Type character array. By specifying the beginning character. Requires a matching % sign from the input. No null character is appended to the array. Stores the number of characters read thus far in the int.

“C How to Program”.com/cm/cs/who/dmr/chist.html#introduction http://www.se/c/bwk-tutor.liu. Ira Pohl. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected . Fourth Edition.G. “A Book on C”. Eastern Economy Edition Al Kelley. Third Edition.bell-labs.com/refcards/c/c-refcard-letter.Problem Solving and C Programming References Websites http://refcards.pdf http://cm. “Programming in C”.Dromey.html http://www. Prentice Hall Byron Gottfried.edu/webmonkeys/book/c_guide/ Books Deitel & Deitel. Tata McGraw Hill R.lysator.uiuc. Cognizant Technology Solutions. “How to solve it by Computer”.acm. Pearson Education Asia Page 151 ©Copyright 2007.

Problem Solving and C Programming STUDENT NOTES: Page 152 ©Copyright 2007. Cognizant Technology Solutions. All Rights Reserved C3: Protected .

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