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OF LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

Zeljko N. Popovic

EPS Electric Power Industry of Serbia, Serbia&Montenegro

zeljko.popovic @su.ev.co.yu

Dragan S. Popovic

School of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia&Montenegro

Vojin Dj. Kerleta

School of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Serbia&Montenegro

Summary - This paper presents a new optimization procedure solution will be found and do not handle constraints well.

for multi-year distribution network planning based on

dynamic programming, local network concept and mixed In this paper is proposed a new decomposition procedure for

integer model. By introducing principles of dynamic multi-year planning of large-scale distribution networks

programming and local network concept the multi-year based on dynamic programming, local network concept and

planning problem of real-size networks is divided into mixed integer model. The proposed procedure is developed in

sequences of sub problems with significantly reduced order to overcome above-mentioned problems.

dimensions, enabling application of complex mixed integer

programming model in each sub problem. The results Based on the principle of dynamic programming the multi-

obtained on several real-life distribution networks have year planning problem is embedded within a family of similar

shown that suggested procedure enables more efficient use of one-stage problems. Furthermore, according to the local

existing capacities and reduction of future expansion costs. network concept the whole network at each stage is divided

into a number of local networks (subproblems). In this way

dimension of the overall problem is drastically reduced

1. INTRODUCTION enabling application of sophisticated and time-consuming

mixed integer model at each subproblem. This model

minimize capital costs of future design, i.e. determines

Deregulation and competitive marketplace enforced optimal reinforcements of existing feeders as well as location

completely new conditions in power industry. Even though a and size of new feeders (decision variables) taking into

distribution company may still operate within regulatory account switching (load transfer) capabilities and operational

framework, it is faced with financial pressures and noticeable constraints in each local network (subproblem). Thus, the

decrease in available capital budgets. In such conditions optimal one-year network design is obtained by sequential

distribution planning process becomes business-driven (rather solving of a number of defined (obtained) local networks

than engineering driven) with the aim of reducing capital while the optimal multi-year planning scenario is obtained

costs of future enhancements and changes in distribution by sequential solving of a number of obtained one-stage

networks. In this sense, there is a strict demand for efficient problems.

planning tools that enable maximal utilization of existing

capacities in distribution network, i.e. finding a way to work A software package, based on proposed procedure, has been

around operational limitations [1]. developed and tested on several real-life distribution

networks. Obtained results prove that suggested procedure is

The main difficulty in developing of a high quality planning a powerful planning tool which can significantly improve

tool is large dimension of distribution networks and the fact utilization of existing capacities and minimize future

that this problem is highly constrained. Necessity to include expansion costs.

dynamic in solving planning problems makes it even more

complex. For solving planning problems several approaches

are used: 1) optimization methods [2-8]; 2) heuristic methods 2. PLANNING PROCEDURE

[9-12]; 3) artificial intelligence (AI) based methods [13,14].

The main feature of optimization methods is the convergence

to the global optimal solution. However, these methods can Multi-year distribution network planning problem can be

hardly be applied to real-size networks because of stated as an allocation problem in which "available recourses"

convergence problems and extensive computer processing. (budget) have to be allocating among the "activities"

The heuristics algorithms can obtain "good" solution for real- (reinforcements and new facilities in each year in the

size problems, but global optimal solution cannot be considered planning period) in such a way that present worth

quarantined. Although AI methods have several advantages expansion costs in the considered planning horizon (objective

(they are robust, flexible, do not require "well behaved" function) are minimized while operational constraints are

objective functions, can be easily applied for multi-objective satisfied. The dynamic programming based procedure for

CIRED2005

Session No 5

CIRED 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution Turin, 6-9 June 2005

solving the above allocation problem in distribution networks cases (paths) will be analyzed in more details.

is described in the following sections.

1 DPSC1

In the first step of the procedure the planning problem for the 3 2

DPSC2

network is solved for each year in the considered planning

horizon. The starting state of the network for determining

planning scenarios in each year is the network configuration 1 3

2 DPSC3

of the year t=0 (base year), as it is shown in Fig.1. The set of

obtained reinforcements and enhancement in year j are named 3 1

DPSC4

PSCtj.

1 2

DPSC5

3

2 1

DPSC6

t=0 PSCt1 PSCt2 PSCt3 PSCtn Fig. 2. Decision tree for three-year planning problem

.

Fig. 1. Determining one stage planning scenarios

Path (1,2,3) define that planning problem is first solved for

year t1. The obtained solution (obtained set of reinforcements

After determining planning scenarios for each year, three and enhancements) becomes the starting state of the network

possible cases may arise: and on the basis of that solution the planning problem for

a) the set of reinforcements and enhancement obtained for year t2 is solved. Afterwards, based on the solution for the

year t is the subset of the set of reinforcements and year t2 the planning scenario for the year t3 is obtained. In this

enhancements obtained for year (t+1), starting from the first way path (1,2,3) define one possible solution for three-year

year (t=1) and up to the last year (t=n) in the planning planning problem (marked as DPSC1 in the Fig. 2). This way

horizon (PSCt1 ⊂ PSCt2 ⊂ ....⊂ PSCtn), of solving multi-year planning problems is well-known as

b) the previous statement is fulfilled for only first m years in forward concept (forward fill-in) [1]. The next path which

the planning horizon i.e., the set of reinforcements and will be analyzed is (3,2,1). In this case the planning problem

enhancements obtained for the first m years is common for all is first solved for the year t3. The obtained set of

years that follow year m, reinforcements and enhancements in this case is marked as

c) neither of the previous statements are fulfilled. PSCt3. After that a planning procedure for year t2 is solved

In the first case the n separately obtained one-stage planning taking into account that available (feasible) set of

scenarios represents the optimal solution of multi-year reinforcements and enhancements in this year is restricted to

planning problem. In the second case optimal planning PSCt3. It leads to the solution in which obtained set of

scenario for the first m years is obtained as in the first case. In reinforcements and enhancements for year t2 (PSCt2) is a

this way the multi-year planning problem is reduced from n- subset of PSCt3 (PSCt2⊂PSCt3). The solution of the planning

year problem to (n-m)-year planning problem. In this case as problem for the year t1 is obtained in the similar way, bearing

well as in the third case the dynamic programming based in mind that available set of reinforcements and

procedure is applied for obtaining the best multi-year enhancements in this case is restricted to PSCt2. Thus, path

planning scenario. (3,2,1) define another possible solution for three-year

planning problem (marked as DSPSC6 in the fig. 2) which is

2.2. Dynamic programming procedure known as backward pull-out [1].

In order to visualize dynamic programming procedure, the The rest of the paths are very similar regarding to the way of

solution of the above-mentioned allocation problem is obtaining multi-year planning scenarios. Because of that only

presented in the form of decision tree. For the sake of clarity, one of them, path (2,3,1), is thoroughly analyzed. In this path

an example of a three year distribution network planning the planning problem is firs solved for the year t2.

problem that is considered. The decision tree for this case is Afterwards, based on that solution, the solution of the

shown in the Fig. 2. planning problem for the year t3 is obtained. Finally, bearing

in mind that everything which is done in the year t1 must also

Sequential solution of planning problem for each year is be in operation in the year t2, the planning problem for year t1

depicted with empty circle and numbered with Roman is solved by restricting available set of reinforcements and

numbers in the Fig. 2. Each path in the decision tree defines enhancements to the PSCt2.

one possible solution for the multi-year planning problem. Maximum number of paths in the decision tree, i.e. number

These solutions are obtained by different sequence of solving of different multi-year planning scenarios, for overall

planning problems for all years in the planning period. In network is n!, where n is the number of one-stage problems

order to clarify the proposed procedure three characteristic (number of considered time intervals (years)). However,

CIRED2005

Session No 5

CIRED 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution Turin, 6-9 June 2005

some paths will lead to the same multi-year planning Table 1. – Multi-year planning scenarios and costs

scenarios. Thus, the number of different dynamic planning Dynamic planning Present worth expansion

scenarios could be much smaller than n!. scenario (fixed) costs (million $)

DPSC1≡ DPSC2 0.8480

One-stage planning problem for the whole network in each DPSC3≡DPSC4 0.6905

path is solved by inclusion of the local network concept [15]. DPSC5≡DPSC6 0.7226

According to this concept the whole network is divided into a

number of local networks (subproblems).In this way The best three-year planning scenario that leads to the

dimensions of the original one-stage problem are significantly minimal present worth expansion costs is DPSC3. The

reduced, enabling application of time-consuming mixed obtained planning scenario for the first year is shown in the

integer model for solving planning problems for each local Fig. 4, for the second year in the Fig. 5 and for the third year

network (subproblem). Thus, the optimal network design for in the Fig. 6. In these figures, obtained reinforcements and

one-stage problem is obtained by sequential solving of a new constructions in each year are presented with bold lines,

number of defined subproblems, i.e. the dynamic so the total number of reinforcements and new constructions

programming concept is also applied in this case as it is in the three-year period is the “ sum” of all bold lines.

presented in details in [8].

obtained one-stage planning scenarios and selection of the

best one is done by applying minimum expansion costs

criterion, i.e. planning scenario with minimum expansion

costs is selected as the best expansion design.

3. APPLICATION

problem for medium voltage network shown in the Fig. 3.

The network consists of 4 feeders, 17 existing branches (solid

lines), 6 possibly new branches (dashed lines) and 1 possibly

new tie (dash-dot-dot-dash line). Thermal capacities of all

branches are shown in p.u. with bold numbers. The lengths of

branches that are longer than 1 km are shown in the Fig. 3.

All other branches are 1 km long. It is assumed that there is a

switch in each branch. Normally opened switches are marked

with "X" in the middle of branch where they are located. The Fig. 3. Test network in the base year

15 existing demand nodes are depicted with empty circles

while 2 future demand nodes are shown as full circles.

Demand node XVII will appear in second year while demand

node XVI will appear in third year. The original loads in the

base year for all demand nodes are presented in p.u. Based

value for thermal capacities and demand loads is 10 MVA.

The load growth rate is 3% by year for all demand nodes.

Cost of building new lines as well as reinforcing existing

lines is 0.145 million$/km while discount rate is assumed to

be 9%.

In the first step, the one-stage planning problem for each year

in the planning horizon is obtained. After analyzing the

obtained set of reinforcements and enhancements in each

year, it is found that (PSCt1 ⊄ PSCt2 ⊄ PSCt3). Decision tree

for this case is the same as the one shown in the Fig. 2.In this

case only three different multi-year planning scenarios are

obtained. These scenarios and corresponding present worth

expansion costs are given in the Table 1.

Fig. 4. Optimal planning scenario in the first year

CIRED2005

Session No 5

CIRED 18th International Conference on Electricity Distribution Turin, 6-9 June 2005

considerably improve efficiency and reduce expansion costs

in the modern (deregulated) distribution systems.

5. REFERENCES

Reference Book, Marcel Dekker Inc.,New York, USA.

[2] M.A. El-Kady, “ Computer-Aided Planning of

Distribution Substation and Primary Feeders”, IEEE

Trans. on PAS, Vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 1183-1189, 1984.

[3] T. Gonen and B.L. Foote, 1981, “ Distribution System

Planning Using Mixed Integer Programming”, IEEE

Proc-C, Vol. 133, no. 2, 70-79.

[4] O.M. Mikic, 1986, “ Mathematical Dynamic Model for

Long-term Distribution System Planning” , IEEE Trans.

on Power Systems, Vol. 1, no. 1, 384-390.

[5] T. Gonen, I. J. Ramirez-Rosado, 1986, “ Review of

Distribution System Planning Models: a model for

optimal multi-stage planning”, IEE Proc-C, Vol. 133, no.

Fig. 5. Optimal planning scenario in the second year

7, 397-408.

[6] I.J. Ramirez-Rosado and T. Gonen, 1991,

“ Pseudodynamic Planning for Expansion of Power

Distribution Systems”, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems,

Vol. 6, no. 1, 245-253.

[7] Z. N. Popovic, D. S. Popovic and M. D. Prica, 2001, “ A

Model for Development Planning of Distribution

Networks”, Proceedings of the 36th Universities Power

Engineering Conference UPEC 2001.

[8] Z. N. Popovic, D. S. Popovic, 2003, "A Novel

Decomposition Procedure for Distribution Network

Planning",in Proceedings of the 38th Universities Power

Engineering Conference UPEC 2003.

[9] K. Nara, et. al. , 1991, “ Multi-Year Expansion Planning

for Distribution Systems”, IEEE Trans. on Power

Systems, Vol. 6, no. 3, 952-958.

[10] K. Nara, et. al. , 1992, “ Distribution Systems Expansion

Planning by Multi-Stage Branch Exchange” , IEEE

Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 7, no. 1, 208-214.

[11] S.K. Goswami, 1997, "Distribution System Planning

Using Branch Exchange Technique", IEEE Trans. on

Power Systems, Vol. 12, No. 2, 718-723.

[12] H. Kuwabura, K. Nara, 1997, "Multi-Year and Multi-

Fig. 6. Optimal planning scenario in the third year

State Distribution System Expansion Planinng by Multi-

Stage Branch Exchange", IEEE Trans. on Power

Delivery, Vol. 12, No. 1, 457-463.

4. CONCLUSION [13] V. Miranda, et. al.,1994, “ Genetic Algorithms in

Optimal Multistage Distribution Network Planning”,

IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1927-

In this paper is proposed an optimization procedure for multi- 1933.

year planning of large-scale distribution networks. The goal [14] I. J. Ramirez-Rosado and J. L. Bernal Agustin, 2001,

of the proposed procedure is to maximally utilize existing "Reliability and Costs Optimization for Distribution

capacities and minimize present worth expansion costs while Networks Expansion Using an Evolutionary Algorithm",

satisfying operational constraints (voltage and thermal IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 16, No. 1, 111-118.

constraints). This goal is achieved through application of [15] D.S. Popovic, R.M. Ciric, 1999, "A Multi-Objective

dynamic programming principles, local network concept and Algorithm for Distribution Network Restoration", IEEE

mixed integer model. It is shown that proposed procedure is a Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1134-1141.

powerful decision-making tool for multi-year expansion

CIRED2005

Session No 5

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