Etymology of श ुः śatruḥ in Sanskrit

The word श ुः śatruḥ was claimed erroneously by the Sanskrit Scholars as a Sanskrit Word.
According to Sanskrit dictionary श ुः śatruḥ, means a destroyer, or killer and thereby an
enemy. It is claimed by Sanskrit scholars that the word श ुः śatruḥ is as alleged derived from
शद् śad, which means To fall, perish, decay, kill, destroy
शद् śad I. 1 P. (but Ā. in conjugational tenses) (शीयते, श ) 1 To fall, perish, decay,
wither. -2 To go. -Caus. (शादयित-ते) 1 To cause to go, impel. -2 (शातयित-ते) (a) To fell,
throw down, cut down; क भूभृ कटकि थित सिनना

थ खुराः शितताः Subhāṣ.; Śi.14.

8;15.24. (b) To kill, destroy. -II 1. P. (शदित) To go (usually with आ).
श ुः śatruḥ 1 An overthrower, a destroyer, conqueror. -2 An enemy, a foe, an
adversary; -3 A political rival, a rival neighbouring king.
We have to analyze whether this alleged meaning of destroyer/killer for the word श ुः śatruḥ is
correct or not.
ghna a. (- ी f.) (Used only at the end of comp.) Killing, destroying, removing, curing;
ा ण ः,

बाल ः,

वात ः,








पु य ,


Ms.9.232;8.127;7.218; Y.1.138 &c.
ब barh ब I. 1 Ā. (बहते) 1 To speak. -2 To give. -3 To cover. -4 To hurt, kill, destroy. -5 To
spread. -6 To be pre-eminent or excellent. -II. 1 U. (बहयित-ते) To hurt, injure. -2 To speak. With िन to kill, destroy; िनबहय त ां यो यं ते रा सवनौकसः Rām.6.9.3; िवलोकनेनैव तवामुना मुने कृ तः
कृ ताथ $ि म िनब हतांहसा Śi.1.29.
ह या hatyā [हन्-भावे यप्] Killing, slaying, slaughter, murder, particularly criminal killing; as in
ूणह या, गोह या &c.


If the word श ुः śatruḥ is derived from the word शद् śad which means to destroy, kill, then it
should mean as destroyer or killer. If it so, then the words

न ghna, ब barh, लाव lāva mean

slaying, destroying with श ुः śatruḥ would only mean as follows.
श ु ः śatrughnaḥ 'destroyer of killers'
श ुिनबहण śatrunibarhana a. killer-destroying.
श ुह या śatruhatyā Killing, slaying, slaughter, murder, particularly criminal killing of killer; as in
ूणह या, गोह या &c.
There is no direct meaning of enemy or enmity.
If the word श ुः śatruḥ is derived from the word शद् śad which means to destroy, kill, it should
mean killer and destroyer. It is not correct. An enemy may be a killer. But he need not be a
killer. A killer may be an enemy. But he need not be an enemy.
This word श ुः śatruḥ is not derived from the word which means enmity. However to denote
enmity, a word शा व śātrava was allegedly invented and derived from श ुः śatruḥ.
शा व śātrava a. (-वी f.) 1 Relating to an enemy; -2 Hostile, inimical.
शा वः An enemy;
शा वम् 1 A collection of enemies; -2 Enmity, hostility;
शा वीय śātravīya. a. 1 Relating to an enemy. -2 Hostile, inimical.
Therefore the word श ुः śatruḥ is not a Sanskrit word denoting enemy and erroneously &
allegedly connected with killer. There is no direct meaning of enemy or enmity.
We have to find out the actual origination of the word श ुः śatruḥ denoting enemy.

Rival vs Enemy
As per the oxford dictionary a rival is a person competing with another and an enemy is
person actively hostile to another often hostile nations or army.
There is necessarily no hostility between rivals just competition. One or more siblings
compete against each other initially for the parent’s attention and love and later in life
generally takes the shape of just competition in everything. These siblings, however, cannot
be called enemies. Enemies are very different. As per the definition an enemy is actively
hostile against the other. This means that there is a continuing hatred between the two
enemies. Hatred is very different from rivalry since it does not allow a person to reason or
logic. It would also not allow a person to think positive.
In English, enemy means someone who is hostile to, feels hatred towards, opposes the
interests of, or intends injury to someone else.

Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 5.14.26
kvacin mitho vyavaharan yat kiñcid dhanam anyebhyo vā kākiṇikā-mātram apy
apaharan yat kiñcid vā vidveṣam eti vitta-śāṭhyāt
kvacit — sometimes; mithaḥ — with one another; vyavaharan — trading; yat kiñcit —
whatever little bit; dhanam — money; anyebhyaḥ — from others; vā — or; kākiṇikā-mātram
— a very small amount (twenty cowries); api — certainly; apaharan — taking away by
cheating; yat kiñcit — whatever small amount; vā — or; vidveṣam eti — creates enmity;
vitta-śāṭhyāt — because of cheating.
As far as transactions with money are concerned, if one person cheats another by a
farthing or less, they become enemies.

In view of wealth or money, malicious intention causes one person to use trick or
deception/cheating over others and thereby enmity develops among them. Therefore the
word enmity had its origination in Malice or deception.


ழ ¹(


cuḻal- , 3 v. intr. [Telugu. suḍi- yu.] 1. [Malayalam. cuḻaluka.]

To whirl, spin, rotate, roll, turn on an axis, as wheel; உ

த . ேத


. வ தவ. 12, 205). 2. To revolve in an orbit; வ டமாக

ெவ கதிேரா

த .

(தி . ெபாியதி. 9, 4, 6). 3. To roam, wander;

க ப

ப த .


ழ கி

றி திாித .

ழ ¹(




cuḻal-> ழ ² cuḻal , n. 1. [M. cuḻal.] Whirling, revolving;

. ேவதாள. 72). 2. Curl; வைள .

fraud; ஏமா

ழ சி.

ழ க

(க பரா. மிதிைல.

Deception, fraud; வ சக . ழைல ெபாி ைட


ய (ேதவா. 294, 19). 9. Deception;

¹- த

ழைலைய (தி . ெபாியா . 5, 3, 1). 2.

ேசாதனைன (தி . ெபாியா . 1, 8, 5).

cūḻ- , 11 v. tr. 1. To wind, wrap round;

ப (பாிபா. 10, 80). 2. To surround, hover about;

த .
றி ெமா

த .

(தி வாச. 5, 16).

¹ cūḻ ->



cūḻ- , 4 v. tr. 1. To encompass, surround, envelope;


about, flow around;

றிவ த .
ேவ வியி

ெச த . ெகா யவ


த .

(நால , 230). 2. To go round, as in temple from left to right, hover

consider, consult; ஆரா த . நி

ரவி ேத

ைட. (பி .)

. (W.)

ழைல cuḻalai , n. 1. Receptacle; ெகா கல .

த .

த .

. 5. Machine on an axle turned by the wind;

7. See ழ பைட. (W.) 8. Agitation; ச சல . ழலா

த .

(தி . ெபாியதி. 7, 4, 1).

whirligig, kite; கா றா . ( டா.) 6. Umbrella made of peacock's feathers;

ம கர

. 7. To be dizzy; to swim, as eyes; ெபாறிமய

43). 3. Eddy, whirlpool; ழிநீ . 4. See ழ கா


ற . 5. To be agitated, troubled, distressed in mind; ச சல


ேவதாள மானா



ரா ர க ள ச (தி . இய . 1, 48). 6. To droop, faint, languish; ேசா த .


(க பரா. க ைக . 3). 4. To be tossed about, driven to and fro; அைல

கா றா

க ய

கதி வா


( . ெவ. 9, 16). 3. To deliberate,

வ ேறாழி (க

. 54). 4. To design, intend;

(மணி. 13, 28). 5. To plot, conspire; சதியா ேலாசைன

(சீவக. 261). 6. To select; ேத


த .

( . ெவ. 9, 16). 7. To know; அறித . (ச . அக.) 8. To make, construct;

த . பாைவ

ழிள ைல (க


ன . 102). 9. To draw, paint; எ

. 125). 10. To encounter; தா

த . (J.)

த . ெதா யி

¹ cūḻ ->

³ cūḻ , n. 1. Deliberation, counsel; ஆேலாசைன. 2. Investigation; ஆரா

க றா



(சி. ேபா. 8, 1, 1). 3. Surrounding;



ழா ெம ேட

யாயிரேவதி (க த . அ ர யா. 61). 4. Wreath of flowers for head; தைல கணி மாைல.

ெம தி (தி
³ cūḻ ->

ேகா. 79). 5. Bengal gram. See கடைல. (மைல.)

வ ேலா cūḻ-vallōr , n. Ministers, counsellors; அைம ச . எதிராடா


வ ேலா க

³ cūḻ ->


(தி விைள. பாிநாி. 41).

cūḻvōr, n. 1. Counsellors, ministers; அைம ச . (பி .) 2.
உறவின .






நி பவ .
விைன cūḻ-viṉai , n. Plan, means, expedient; உபாய . ேதாழ
விைன ெதாட கி (ெப
³ cūḻ ->

. இலாவாண. 10, 84).

சி cūḻcci , n.

1. Pervasion, spreading; வியா தி.

சி ஞான

டெராளியாகி (தி . தி வா . 3, 2, 4). 2. Deliberation, counsel, consultation; ஆேலாசைன.
ேபா றா
கிட ைக


சிய தகல

கல கா


உபாய . ெசா லா யா



( றநா. 2, 7). 3. Wisdom;

. உ ைச . 46, 117). 4. Plan, means, expedient;

சா வ ேதா

சிேய (தி . தி வா . 3, 2, 3). 5. Mental

disturbance, distress; மன த மா ற . ைக மிக ன



ைணவராகிய அைம சேரா

சி cūḻcci ->

ணறி . க ம



சி (ெதா . ெபா. 260).




ம திாிக .

(சி. ேபா. சி . 4, ப . 90).

cūḻccam , n. . 1. Deliberation, counsel, consultation; ஆேலாசைன. 2.

Plan, means, expedient; உபாய . (யா . அக.)
³ cūḻ ->


cūḻvār, n. 1. Counsellors, ministers; அைம ச . (பி .) 2. Relations;

friends; உறவின . (W.) 3. Bystanders, spectators, neighbours;

ணாக ெவா கலா
cūḻ ->
ைத தன (ேகாயி

நி பவ .


( ற , 445).

cūḻvu, n. 1. 1. Surrounding, encompassing;


ற வமர

. பத ச . 45). 2. Deliberation, counsel, consultation; ஆேலாசைன. 3.

Plan, means, expedient; உபாய . ஏகாெதாழி வ

(க த . ஏம

ட. 2).

cūḻ ->

cūḻal, n. 1. Surrounding, encompassing;

(பி .) 3. Sand-hill; மண

. விைளயா

Assemblage, company;
( டா.) 6. See
அவதார .

ட . வானவ

சி, 4.

ழ ெல

ழ க

(தி . தி வா . 6, 2, 4, ப


சி தி கி

ைக. 2. Place, locality; இட .

(க த . ேம

(தி . தி

னீ.). 4.

. 48). 5. See

சி, 2.

வா . 7, 5, 5). 7. Incarnation;

அவதார ைத ெசா ல கடவதிேற (ஈ , 2, 7, 6). 8. Trick, stratagem;

த திர .
cūḻ -> సూడు sūḍu. [Telugu] n. Enmity, pique, spite. సుక, వైరము, విద్వేషము. An enemy,
సూడుకాడు sūḍu-kāḍu . [Telugu] n. An enemy. వైరి. సూడుపట్టు or సూడుకొను sūḍu-paṭṭu.
n. To entertain ill will. పగగొను, విరోధించు.
cūḻ ->

¹ cūtu, n. [Kannada. jūdu, Malayalam. cūtu.] 1. Gambling;

ட க ெவ
க ட தி


திைன ( ற , 931). 2. Conical pieces in dice-play;


க வி.

3. Means, device; உபாய . கள
success; ெவ றி. ெவ வ
த திர . இ த

¹ cūtu->

த - த


த திர கார


க றா



தி த

(ெபாிய . த

தா . 21).

ேத (சீவக. 2870). 4. Victory,

(சீவக. 879). 5. Secret; இரகசிய . Loc. 6. Trick;

cūtaṭi , n. Deception, trick; வ சக . Colloq.

கி ேபாேமா (

¹ cūtu ->

ப கிய

ெதன ேவ

எ கி

¹ cūtu ->

தா ட .

cūtaṭi- , v. tr.

To cheat, deceive; ஏமா

த .


² cūtaṉ, n. 1. Gambler;

தா ேவா

. ( டா.). 2. Deep, cunning person;

. Colloq.

¹ cūtu ->
த ³ cūtam->

த ³ cūtam->

த ³ cūtam, n. Gambling;

. ( டா.)

జమ ḍzūzamu. [Tel.] n. Gambling, play

దమ . Deception

సమ .

దమ ḍzūdamu. n. Dice-play, gambling.

த ³ cūtam-> ूतः dyūtḥ 1 Play, gambling, playing with dice; 2 (fig.) A battle, fight;
த ³ cūtam->

ूतम् dyūtam 1 Play, gambling, playing with dice; 2 (fig.) A battle, fight;

த ேபா cūtam-pōr, n. Gambling, considered as a contest;

ேபா . (ெதா . எ

. 417,

தா ட

cūtāṭṭam, n. [Kannada. jūjāṭa.] (யா . அக.) 1. Gambling;

தா ைக. 2. Trick;

த திர .

cūtāṭi, n. Gambler;

தா ேவா

. Colloq.

தா க வி cūtāṭu-karuvi , n. 1. Dice; தாய


சிைக கவ . (யா .

அக.) 2. Conical pieces moved on the chess- board according to the throw of dice;
க ட தி


கா . ( றநா. 52, உைர.)

தாளி cūtāḷi, n. [Kannada. jūdāḷi, Malayalam. cūtāḷi.] +. Gambler;

தா ேவா


The wagering of money on an event extends the motivation for cheating beyond directly
participating competitors. As in sport and games, cheating in gambling is generally related to
directly breaking rules or laws, or misrepresenting the event being wagered on, or interfering
in the outcome.
cal -> சல ³ calam, n. 1. Malice, cherished anger; தணியா ேகாப .

cul -> ச


(பாிபா. 15, 58). 2. Anger; ேகாப . ச திர

ேநா கி (க பரா. மாாீச. 240). 3. Falsehood; ெபா


ைம. சல

4. Deception, trickery; வ சைன. சல பைடயா னிரவி

ற வதன தா

சல ைத

ண ெகா ைக (சில . 9, 69).

றா கிய ெத லா

(பாிபா. 6, 57). 5.

(Nyāya.) Criticism by perverting the sense of a word, ascribing to it a sense not intended by
the speaker, one of the sixteen categories of Indian Logic; ெசா
ேவறானெபா ைள

க பி


42, 5.) 6. Partiality; ப சபாத . சா
Evil deed; தீயெசய . சல தா
மா பா . சல

மல ெசாாி

சல பி



ைடய க

ைர ைகயாகிய நி கிரக தான . (பிரேபாத.

தாைர கா




ேதமா க

(சி. ேபா. சி . 10, 2, 2). 7.

( ற , 660). 8. Hostility, conflict;

த (ம ைர . 112). 9. Competition, rivalry; ேபா

. சல

(தி . ெபாியதி. 3, 9, 1). 10. Obstinacy, tenacity; பி வாத .

க. (W.)

cal -> चल् cal 1 To shake, tremble, move, throb, palpitate, stir; -2 To be affected,

to be disturbed, confused or disordered (as mind), be agitated or perturbed;

cal -> चल् cal -> चल cala a. 1 (a) Moving trembling, shaking, tremulous,

rolling (as eyes &c.) -2 Unsteady, fickle, in- constant, loose, unfixed; -3
However, this word चल cala is not denoting hostility, deception or malice in Sanskrit.

சல ³ calam -> சலவ

¹ calavaṉ, n. 1. Deceitful person; வ சக

(நால , 188). 2. Angry person; ேகாப
ெக ஞா




. 3. Enemy; பைகவ


. அர க

(தி . ெபாியதி. 1, 5, 3).

சல ³ calam -> சலவாதி¹ cala-vāti, n. 1. Angry person; ேகாப
பி வாத கார

. சலவ


. 2. Obstinate person;


சல ³ calam -> சலவிய
சலவிய னாயி

calaviyaṉ, n. Angry person; ேகாப


. சா

(தி ம . 182).

சல ³ calam -> சள ² caḷam , n. 1. Deceit, fraud; வ சைன. (யா . அக.) 2. Fury;

க .

சள ² caḷam-> சட ² caṭam, n. 1. Falsehood, illusion; ெபா . (பி .) 2. Deception, fraud;
வ சக . ( டா.) 3. Cruelty, savageness; ெகா ைம. (பி .) 4. Idleness; ேசா ப . (பி .) 5.
Evil humour of the body that destroys the innate wisdom of the soul at birth; பிற

மாவி ேமாதி அத

ந லறிைவ ெக


ஒ வைக வா .

சட ² caṭam-> शठ् śaṭh 1 P. (शठित) To deceive, cheat, defraud. -2 To hurt, kill. -3 To suffer
pain. -II. 1 P. (शाठयित) 1 To finish. -2 To leave unfinished. -3 To go, move. -4 To be idle or
lazy (शठयित). -5 To deceive, cheat. -6 To speak ill of. -7 To speak well or elegantly.
சட ² caṭam-> शठ śaṭha a. 1 Crafty, deceitful, fraudulent. dis- honest, perfidious. -2 Wicked,
depraved. शठः 1 A rogue, cheat, knave, swindler; Ms.4.3; Bg.18.28. -2 A false or deceitful
lover (who pretends to love one woman while his heart is fixed on another); -3 A fool,
blockhead. -4 A mediator, arbitrator. -5 The Dhattūra plant. -6 An idler, a lazy fellow.
சட ² caṭam-> சட க

caṭaṅkaṭi, n. Deceit; வ சைன. சட க


த சள கா (சரவண.

பணவி . 36).
சட ² caṭam-> (சட த

caṭattam)-> ச

Dispute; ேபாரா ட . ச
ெகா வ

obstinate; நி

த திேல வ

ேபசி (இராமநா. உ

caṭuttam, n. 1. Rivalry, competition; ேபா

த . 3. Challenge;

. 2.

ரவாத . ஒ வ

. 16). 4. Compelling, urging, importuning, being

ப தி ைக. (W.)

caṭuttam-> (ச

adversary; பைகவ


caṭuttar)-> (ச த


cattar)-> ச

றில தா

(சிவரக. ஆ

catturu, n. Foe, enemy,
ேதவ. 3).

catturu-> श ुः śatruḥ 1 An overthrower, a destroyer, conqueror. -2 An enemy, a foe, an

adversary; -3 A political rival, a rival neighbouring king

caṭuttam-> (ச

caṭittam)-> (ச

தி caṭitti) -> (ச தி catti) ->சதி²- த

tr. [Malayalam. Tulu. cati.] To deceive; வ சி த .


cati- , 11 v.

சதி பேத க மெம


. 24).

சதி²- த

cati-> சதி³ cati, n. [M. cati.] Treachery, perfidy, wiles; வ சைன. ( டா.)

cati-kāraṉ, n. Treacherous, deceitful person; traitor; ேமாச கார


சதிெகாைல cati-kolai, n. Assassination; ப ெகாைல.




catimāṉam, n. Treachery, perfidy, wiles; வ சைன. ( டா.). Loc.


cati-mōcam, n. Deceitful treachery; ப ேமாச . Colloq.

caṭuttar)-> (ச த

cattaraṉ)-> சேதர

catēraṉ, n. Foe, enemy;

. (யா . அக.)
catēraṉ-> शतेरः śatērḥ An enemy

சதி³ cati ->சதிய

cattar)-> (ச தர

catiyaṉ, n. [Malayalam. catiyan.] Traitor; ேமாச கார



. 554).

The signification of deceit, is malice from the will with forethought or premeditation, thus from
set purpose. Evils are done either from enmity, or from hatred, or from revenge, and either
with deceit or without it. But evils done with deceit are the worst, because deceit is like a
poison which infects and destroys with infernal venom, for it goes through the whole mind
even to its interiors.
As the prophet says, "He who hides his enmity maintains deceit." Monastic
Agreement 6.26
If you are scratched, you will be injured by the enmity of some deceitful person.
Therefore the word श ुः śatruḥ in Sanskrit is derived / borrowed from Tamil only as mentioned

Word to PDF

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful