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On the link between the structure of A-branes observed in the homological mirror symmetry

and the classical theory of automorphic forms: mathematical connections with the modular
elliptic curves, p-adic and adelic numbers and p-adic and adelic strings.

Michele Nardelli 1, 2

1
Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Largo S. Marcellino, 10
80138 Napoli, Italy

2
Dipartimento di Matematica ed Applicazioni “R. Caccioppoli”
Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II” – Polo delle Scienze e delle Tecnologie
Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia (Fuorigrotta), 80126 Napoli, Italy

Abstract

This paper is a review of some interesting results that has been obtained in the study of the
categories of A-branes on the dual Hitchin fibers and some interesting phenomena associated with
the endoscopy in the geometric Langlands correspondence of various authoritative theoretical
physicists and mathematicians.
The geometric Langlands correspondence has been interpreted as the mirror symmetry of the
Hitchin fibrations for two dual reductive groups. This mirror symmetry reduces to T-duality on the
generic Hitchin fibers. Also from this work we’ve showed that can be obtained interesting and new
mathematical connections with some sectors of Number Theory and String Theory, principally with
the modular elliptic curves, p-adic and adelic numbers and p-adic and adelic strings.
In the Section 1, we have described some equations regarding the Galois group and Abelian class
field theory, automorphic representations of GL2(AQ) and modular forms, adèles and vector
bundles. In the Section 2, we have showed some equations regarding the moduli spaces of SL2 and
SO3 Higgs bundles on an elliptic curve with tame ramification at one point. In the Section 3, we
have showed some equations regarding the action of the Wilson and ‘t Hooft/Hecke operators on
the electric and magnetic branes relevant to geometric endoscopy. In the Section 4, we have
described the Hecke eigensheaves and the notion of fractional Hecke eigensheaves. In the Section
5, we have described some equations concerning the local and global Langlands correspondence. In
the Section 6, we have described some equations regarding the automorphic functions associated to
the fractional Hecke eigensheaves. In the Section 7, we have showed some equations concerning
the modular elliptic curves belonging at the proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem. In the Section 8, we
have showed some equations concerning the p-adic and adelic numbers and the p-adic and adelic
strings. In the Section 9, we have described the P-N Model (Palumbo-Nardelli model) and the
Ramanujan identities, solution applied to ten dimensional IIB supergravity (uplifted 10-dimensional
solution) and connections with some equations concerning the Riemann zeta function.

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In conclusion, in the Section 10, we have described the possible mathematical connections obtained
between some equations regarding the various sections.

1. Galois group and Abelian class field theory, automorphic representations of GL2(AQ)
and modular forms, adèles and vector bundles. [1]

With regard the entire group Gal (F / F ) , it has been known for some time what is the maximal
abelian quotient of Gal (F / F ) . This quotient is naturally identified with the Galois group of the
maximal abelian extension F ab of F . By definition, F ab is the largest of all subfields of F whose
Galois group is abelian. For F = Q , the classical Kronecker-Weber theorem says that the maximal
abelian extension Q ab is obtained by adjoining to Q all roots of unity. In other words, Q ab is the
(
union of all cyclotomic fields Q (ζ N ) . Therefore we obtain that the Galois group Gal Q ab / Q is )
isomorphic to the inverse limit of the groups (Z / NZ ) with respect to the system of surjections
×

pN , M : (Z / NZ ) → (Z / MZ ) for M dividing N :
× ×

( )
Gal Q ab / Q ≅ lim(Z / NZ ) . (1.1)

×

By definition, an element of this inverse limit is a collection ( xN ), N > 1 , of elements of (Z / NZ )


×

such that pN , M (xN ) = xM for all pairs N , M such that M divides N . This inverse limit may be
described more concretely using the notion of p-adic numbers. Recall that if p is a prime, the a p-
adic number is an infinite series of the form

ak p k + ak +1 p k +1 + ak + 2 p k + 2 + ... , (1.2)

where each ak is an integer between 0 and p − 1 , and we choose k ∈ Z in such a way that ak ≠ 0 .
One defines addition and multiplication of such expressions by “carrying” the result of powerwise
addition and multiplication to the next power. One checks that with respect to these operations the
p-adic numbers form a field denoted by Q p . It contains the subring Z p of p-adic integers
which consists of the above expressions with k ≥ 0 . It is clear that Q p is the field of fractions of
Z p . Note that the subring of Z p consisting of all finite series of the form (1.2) with k ≥ 0 is just the
ring of integers Z . The resulting embedding Z a Z p gives rise to the embedding Q a Q p . It is
important to observe that Q p is in fact a completion of Q . To see that, define a norm ⋅ p on Q by
the formula p k a / b = p − k , where a, b are integers relatively prime to p . With respect to this
p

norm p becomes smaller and smaller as k → +∞ . That is why the completion of Q with respect
k

to this norm is the set of all infinite series of the form (1.2), going in the wrong direction. This is
precisely the field Q p . This norm extends uniquely to Q p , with the norm of the p-adic number (1.2)
being equal to p − k . In fact, according to Ostrowski’s theorem, any completion of Q is isomorphic
to either Q p or to the field R of real numbers.

2
Now observe that if N = Π p p is the prime factorization of N , then Z / NZ ≅ Π p Z / p p Z . Let
mp m

Ẑ be the inverse limit of the rings Z / NZ with respect to the natural surjections Z / NZ → Z / MZ
for M dividing N :
Zˆ = lim Z / NZ ≅ ∏ Z p . (1.3)

p

It follows that

p
( ←
)
Zˆ ≅ ∏ lim Z / p r Z , hence Zˆ = lim Z / NZ ≅ ∏ Z p ≅ ∏ lim Z / p r Z ,

p p
( ←
)
where the inverse limit in the brackets is taken with respect to the natural surjective homomorphism
Z / p r Z → Z / p s Z , r > s . So we find that

Ẑ ≅ ∏ Z p . (1.4)
p

Note that Ẑ defined above is actually a ring. The Kronecker-Weber theorem (1.1) implies that
( )
Gal Q ab / Q is isomorphic to the multiplicative group Ẑ × of invertible elements of the ring Ẑ . But
we find from (1.4) that Ẑ × is nothing but the direct product of the multiplicative group Z ×p of
the rings of p-adic integers where p runs over the set of all primes. We thus conclude that

( )
Gal Q ab / Q ≅ Zˆ × ≅ ∏ Z ×p . (1.5)
p

The abelian class field theory (ACFT) describes its Galois group Gal F ab / F , which is the ( )
( )
maximal abelian quotient of Gal (F / F ) . It states that Gal F / F is isomorphic to the group of
ab

× × ×
connected components of the quotient F \ A . Here A is the multiplicative group of invertible
F F

elements in the ring AF of adèles of F , which is a subring in the direct product of all
completions of F . We define the adèles first in the case when F = Q . In this case, the
completions of Q are the fields Q p of p-adic numbers, where p runs over the set of all primes
p , and the field R of real numbers. Hence the ring AQ is a subring of the direct product of
the fields Q p . More precisely, elements of AQ are the collections (( f )
p p∈P )
, f ∞ , where f p ∈ Q p and
f ∞ ∈ R , satisfying the condition that f p ∈ Z p for all but finitely many p ’s. It follows from the
definition that

(
AQ ≅ Zˆ ⊗ Z Q × R . )
We give the ring Ẑ defined by (1.3) the topology of direct product, Q the discrete topology and R
its usual topology. This defines AQ the structure of topological ring on AQ . Note that we have a
diagonal embedding Q a AQ and the quotient

Q \ AQ ≅ Zˆ × (R / Z )

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is compact. This is in fact the reason for the above condition that almost all f p ’s belong to Z p . We
also have the multiplicative group AQ× of invertible adèles (also called idèles) and a natural
diagonal embedding of groups Q× a AQ× . In the case when F = Q , the statement of ACFT is that
( )
Gal Q ab / Q is isomorphic to the group of connected components of the quotient Q× \ AQ× . It is not
difficult to see that
Q× \ AQ× ≅ ∏ Z ×p × R> 0 . (1.6)
p

Hence the group of its connected components is isomorphic to ∏Z


p
×
p , in agreement with the

Kronecker-Weber theorem.
Now we discuss cuspidal automorphic representations of GL2 ( A) = GL2 (AQ ) and how to relate them
to classical modular forms on the upper half-plane. We will then consider the two-dimensional
representations of Gal (Q / Q ) arising from elliptic curves defined over Q and look at what the
Langlands correspondence means for such representations. In this special case the Langlands
correspondence becomes the statement of the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture which implies
Fermat’s last theorem. The cuspidal automorphic representations of GL2 ( A) are those irreducible
representations of this group which occur in the discrete spectrum of a certain space of functions on
the quotient GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A) .
We start by introducing the maximal compact subgroup K ⊂ GL2 ( A) which is equal to
Π pGL2 (Z p )× O2 . Let z be the center of the universal enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra gl2 .
Then z is the polynomial algebra in the central element I ∈ gl2 and the Casimir operator

1 2 1 1
C= X 0 + X + X − + X − X + , (1.7)
4 2 2

where
 0 i 1  1 m i
X 0 =   , X ± =  
 − i 0 2  m i − 1

are basis elements of sl2 ⊂ gl2 .


Consider the space of functions of GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A) which are locally constant as functions on
( )
GL2 A f , where A f = Π ' p Q p , and smooth as functions on GL2 (R ) . Such functions are called
smooth. The group GL2 ( A) acts on this space by right translations:

(g ⋅ f )(h ) = f (hg ) , g ∈ GL2 ( A) .

In particular, the subgroup GL2 (R ) ⊂ GL2 ( A) , and hence its complexified Lie algebra gl2 and the
universal enveloping algebra of the latter also act. The group GL2 ( A) has the center Z ( A) ≅ A×
which consists of all diagonal matrices. For a character χ : Z ( A) → C × and a complex number ρ let

Cχ , ρ (GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A))

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be the space of smooth functions f : GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A) → C satisfying the following additional
requirements:
(i) ( K -finiteness) the (right) translates of f under the action of elements of the compact
subgroup K span a finite-dimensional vector space;
(ii) (central character) f ( gz ) = χ ( z ) f ( g ) for all g ∈ GL2 ( A) , z ∈ Z ( A) , and C ⋅ f = ρf ,
where C is the Casimir element (1.7):
(iii) (growth) f is bounded on GLn ( A) ;
1 u  
(iv) (cuspidality) ∫ f    g du = 0 .
Q \ NA
  0 1  

The space Cχ , ρ (GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A)) is a representation of the group

( ) ∏ 'GL (Q )
GL2 A f = 2 p (1.8)
p ( prime )

and the Lie algebra gl2 , whose actions commute with each other. In addition, the subgroup O2 of
GL2 (R ) acts on it, and the action of O2 is compatible with the action of gl2 making it into a module
over the so-called Harish-Chandra pair ( gl2 ,O2 ) . It is known that Cχ , ρ (GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A)) is a direct
( )
sum of irreducible representations of GL2 A f × gl2 , each occurring with multiplicity one. The
irreducible representations occurring in these spaces are called the cuspidal automorphic
representations of GL2 ( A) . An irreducible cuspidal automorphic representation π may be written
as a restricted infinite tensor product
π = ⊗ 'π p ⊗ π ∞ , (1.9)
p ( prime )

where π p is an irreducible representation of GL2 (Q p ) and π ∞ is a gl2 -module. For all but finitely
many primes p , the representation π p is unramified, which means that it contains a non-zero
vector invariant under the maximal compact subgroup GL2 (Z p ) of GL2 (Q p ) . This vector is then
unique up to a scalar. Let us choose GL2 (Z p ) -invariant vectors v p at all unramified primes p .
Then the vector space (1.9) is the restricted infinite tensor product in the sense that it consists of
finite linear combinations of vectors of the form ⊗ p w p ⊗ w∞ , where wp = v p for all but finitely
many prime numbers p . It is clear from the definition of A f = Π ' p Q p that the group GL2 A f ( )
acts on it. Suppose now that p is one of the primes at which π p is ramified, so π p does not
contain GL2 (Z p ) -invariant vectors. Then it contains vectors invariant under smaller compact
subgroups of GL2 (Z p ) .
Let us assume for simplicity that χ ≡ 1 . Then one shows that there is a unique, up to a scalar, non-
zero vector in π p invariant under the compact subgroup

 a b  
K 'p =   | c ≡ 0 mod p p Z p  (1.10)
n

 c d  

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for some positive integer n p . Let us choose such a vector v p at all primes where π is ramified. In
order to have uniform notation, we will set n p = 0 at those primes at which π p is unramified, so at
such primes we have K p' = GL2 (Z p ) . Let K ' = ∏ p K p' . Thus, we obtain that the space of K ' -
invariants in π is the subspace

π~∞ = ⊗ p v p ⊗ π ∞ , (1.11)

which carries an action of ( gl2 , O2 ) . The space π~∞ of K ' -invariant vectors in π is realized in the
space of functions on the double quotient GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A) / K ' .
Now we use the strong approximation theorem to obtain the following useful statement. Let us set
N = ∏ p p p and consider the subgroup
n

 a b  
Γ0 ( N ) =   | c ≡ 0 mod NZ 
 c d  

of SL2 (Z ) . Then
GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A) / K ' ≅ Γ0 ( N ) \ GL+2 (R ) , (1.12)

where GL+2 (R ) consists of matrices with positive determinant. Thus, the smooth functions on
GL2 (Q ) \ GL2 ( A) corresponding to vectors in the space π~∞ given by (1.11) are completely
determined by their restrictions to the subgroup GL+2 (R ) of GL2 (R ) ⊂ GL2 ( A) .
Consider the case when π ∞ is a representation of the discrete series of ( gl2 (C ), O(2)) . In this case
ρ = k (k − 2) / 4 , where k is an integer greater than 1. Then, as an sl2 -module, π ∞ is the direct sum
of the irreducible Verma module of highest weight − k and the irreducible Verma module with
lowest weight k . The former is generated by a unique, up to a scalar, highest weight vector v∞ such
that
X 0 ⋅ v∞ = − kv∞ , X + ⋅ v∞ = 0 ,

1 0 
and the latter is generated by the lowest weight vector   ⋅ v∞ .
 0 − 1
Thus, the entire gl2 (R ) -module π ∞ is generated by the vector v∞ , and so we focus on the function
on Γ0 ( N ) \ SL2 (R ) corresponding to this vector. Let φπ be the corresponding function on SL2 (R ) .
By construction, it satisfies
φπ (γg ) = φπ ( g ) , γ ∈ Γ0 ( N ) ,
  cosθ sin θ   ikθ
φπ  g    = e φπ ( g ) 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π .
  − sin θ cos θ  

We assign to φπ a function fπ on the upper half-plane

H = {τ ∈ C | Imτ > 0}.

Recall that H ≅ SL2 (R ) / SO2 under the correspondence

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a b  a + bi
SL2 (R ) ∈ g =   a ∈H .
c d  c + di

We define a function fπ on SL2 (R ) / SO2 by the formula

fπ ( g ) = φ ( g )(ci + d ) .
k

When written as a function of τ , the function f satisfies the conditions

 aτ + b  a b 
 = (cτ + d ) fπ (τ ) ,   ∈ Γ0 ( N ) . (1.13)
k
fπ 
 cτ + d  c d 

In addition, the “highest weight condition” X + ⋅ v∞ = 0 is equivalent to fπ being a holomorphic


function of τ . Such functions are called modular forms of weight k and level N .
Thus, we have attached to an automorphic representation π of GL2 ( A) a holomorphic modular
form fπ of weight k and level N on the upper half-plane. We expand it in the Fourier series


fπ (q ) = ∑ an q n , q = e 2πiτ . (1.14)
n =0

The cuspidality condition on π means that fπ vanishes at the cusps of the fundamental domain of
the action of Γ0 ( N ) on H . Such modular forms are called “cusp forms”. In particular, it vanishes at
q = 0 which corresponds to the cusp τ = i∞ , and so we have a0 = 0 . Further, it can shown that
a1 ≠ 0 , and we will normalize fπ by setting a1 = 1 . The eq. (1.14) in related also to the following
conjecture: for each elliptic curve E over Q there should exist a modular cusp form

f E (q ) = ∑n =1 an q n ,

with a1 = 1 and
a p = p + 1− # E (Fp ) (1.14b)

for all but finitely many primes p . This is in fact the statement of the celebrated Taniyama-
Shimura conjecture that has recently proved by A. Wiles and others. It implies Fermat’s Last
Theorem.
The normalized modular cusp form fπ (q ) contains all the information about the automorphic
representation π . In particular, it “knows” about the Hecke eigenvalues of π .
Let us give the definition the Hecke operators. This is a local question that has to do with the local
factor π p in the decomposition (1.9) of π at a prime p , which is a representation of GL2 (Q p ) .
Suppose that π p is unramified, i.e., it contains a unique, up to a scalar, vector v p that is invariant
under the subgroup GL2 (Z p ) . Then it is an eigenvector of the spherical Hecke algebra Η p which is
the algebra of compactly supported GL2 (Z p ) bi-invariant functions on GL2 (Q p ) , with respect to the

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convolution product. This algebra is isomorphic to the polynomial algebra in two generators H1, p
and H 2, p , whose action on v p is given by the formulas

H1, p ⋅ v p = ∫ ρ p ( g ) ⋅ v p dg , (1.15) H 2, p ⋅ v p = ∫ ρ p ( g ) ⋅ ρ p dg , (1.16)


( )
M 12 Z p ( )
M 22 Z p

where ρ p : GL2 (Z p ) → End π p is the representation homomorphism, M 2i (Z p ), i = 1,2 are the double
cosets

M 21 (Z p ) = GL2 (Z p ) GL2 (Z p ) , M 22 (Z p ) = GL2 (Z p ) GL2 (Z p )


 p 0  p 0
 0 1  0 p

in GL2 (Q p ) , and we use the Haar measure on GL2 (Q p ) normalized so that the volume of the
compact subgroup GL2 (Z p ) is equal to 1.
Since the integrals are over GL 2 (Z p ) -cosets, H1, p ⋅ v p and H 2, p ⋅ v p are GL2 (Z p ) -invariant vectors,
hence proportional to v p . Under our assumption that the center Z ( A) acts trivially on π (χ ≡ 1) we
have H 2 ⋅ v p =v p . But the eigenvalue h1, p of H1, p on v p is an important invariant of π p . This
invariant is defined for all primes p at which π is unramified. These are precisely the Hecke
eigenvalues.
Now we should consider automorphic representations of the adèlic group GLn ( A) . Here A = AF is
the ring of adèles of F , defined in the same way as in the number field case. For any closed point
x of X , we denote by Fx the completion of F at x and by Ο x its ring of integers. If we pick a
rational function t x on X which vanishes at x to order one, then we obtain isomorphisms
Fx ≅ k x ((t x )) and Ο x ≅ k x [[t x ]] , where k x is the residue field of x (the quotient of the local ring Ο x
by its maximal ideal). This field is a finite extension of the base field k and hence is isomorphic to
Fq x , where q x = q deg x . The ring A of adèles of F is by definition the restricted product of the
fields Fx , where x runs over the set of all closed points of X .
Note that GLn (F ) is naturally a subgroup of GLn ( A) . Let K be the maximal compact subgroup
K = ∏ x∈ X GLn (Ο x ) of GLn ( A) . The group GLn ( A) has the center Z ( A) ≅ A× which consists of the
diagonal matrices. Let χ : Z ( A) → C × be a character of Z ( A) which factors through a finite quotient
of Z ( A) . Denote by Cχ (GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A)) the space of locally constant functions
f : GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A) → C satisfying the following additional requirements:

(i) ( K -finiteness) the (right) translates of f under the action of elements of the compact
subgroup K span a finite-dimensional vector space;
(ii) (central character) f ( gz ) = χ ( z ) f ( g ) for all g ∈ GLn ( A), z ∈ Z ( A) ;
(iii) (cuspidality) let N n1, n 2 be the unipotent radical of the standard parabolic subgroup Pn1, n 2
of GLn corresponding to the partition n = n1 + n2 with n1 , n2 > 0 . Then

∫ ϕ (ug )du = 0 , ∀g ∈ GLn ( A) . (1.17)


N n1 ,n2 ( F ) \ N n1 ,n2 ( A )

The group GLn ( A) acts on Cχ (GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A)) from the right: for

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f ∈ Cχ (GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A)) , g ∈ GLn ( A)

we have
(g ⋅ f )(h ) = f (hg ) , h ∈ GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A) . (1.18)

Under this action Cχ (GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A)) decomposes into a direct sum of irreducible representations.
These representations are called irreducible cuspidal automorphic representations of GLn ( A) . We
denote the set of equivalence classes of these representations by Α n .
Now let π be an irreducible cuspidal automorphic representation of GLn ( A) . One can show that it
decomposes into a tensor product
π = ⊗ 'π x , (1.19)
x∈ X

where each π x is an irreducible representation of GLn (Fx ) . Furthermore, there is a finite subset S
of X such that each π x with x ∈ X \ S is unramified, i.e., contains a non-zero vector vx stable
under the maximal compact subgroup GLn (Ο x ) of GLn (Fx ) . The space ⊗'x∈ X π x is by definition the
span of all vectors of the form ⊗ x∈ X wx , where wx ∈ π x and wx = vx for all but finitely many
x ∈ X \ S . Therefore the action of GLn ( A) on π is well-defined. Let x be a point of X with
residue field Fq x . By definition, Η x be the space of compactly supported functions on GLn (Fx )
which are bi-invariant with respect to the subgroup GLn (Ο x ) . This is an algebra with respect to the
convolution product
( f1 ∗ f 2 )(g ) = ∫ ( )
f1 gh −1 f 2 (h )dh , (1.20)
GLn ( Fx )

where dh is the Haar measure on GLn (Fx ) normalized in such a way that the volume of the
subgroup GLn (Ο x ) is equal to 1. It is called the spherical Hecke algebra corresponding to the point
x.
Let H i , x be the characteristic function of the GLn (Ο x ) double coset

M ni (Ο x ) = GLn (Ο x ) ⋅ diag (t x ,..., t x ,1,...,1) ⋅ GLn (Ο x ) ⊂ GLn (Fx ) (1.21)

of the diagonal matrix whose first i entries are equal to t x and the remaining n − i entries are equal
to 1. Note that this double coset does not depend on the choice of the coordinate t x . Then Η x is the
commutative algebra freely generated by H1, x ,..., H n −1, x , H n±,1x :

[ ]
Η x ≅ C H1, x ,..., H n −1, x , H n±,1x . (1.22)

Define an action of f x ∈ Η x on v ∈ π x by the formula

f x ∗ v = ∫ f x ( g )( g ⋅ v )dg . (1.23)

9
Since f x is left GLn (Ο x ) -invariant, the result is again a GLn (Ο x ) -invariant vector. If π x is
irreducible, then the space of GLn (Ο x ) -invariant vectors in π x is one-dimensional. Let vx ∈ π x be a
generator of this one-dimensional vector space. Then

f x ∗ vx = φ ( f x )vx

for some φ ( f x ) ∈ C . Thus, we obtain a linear functional φ : Η x → C . In view of the isomorphism


(1.22), a homomorphism Η x → C is completely determined by its values on H1, x ,..., H n −1, x , which
could be arbitrary complex numbers, and its value on H n , x , which has to be a non-zero complex
number. These values are the eigenvalues on vx of the operators (1.23) of the action of f x = H i , x .
These operators are called the Hecke operators. It is convenient to package these eigenvalues as an
n -tuple of unordered non-zero complex numbers z1 ,..., zn , so that

H i , x ∗ vx = qxi (n − i ) / 2 si ( z1 ,..., zn )vx , i = 1,..., n , (1.24)

where si is the i th elementary symmetric polynomial. In other words, the above formulas may be
used to identify
[
Η x ≅ C z1±1 ,..., zn±1 ] Sn
. (1.25)

Now, we show the interpretation of automorphic representations in terms of the moduli spaces of
rank n vector bundles.
We will restrict ourselves from now on to the irreducible automorphic representations of GLn ( A)
that are unramified at all points of X . Suppose that we are given such a representation π of
GLn ( A) . Then the space of GLn (Ο ) -invariants in π , where Ο = ∏ x∈ X Ο x , is one-dimensional,
spanned by the vector
v = ⊗ vx ∈ ⊗' π x = π , (1.26)
x∈ X x∈ X

Hence v gives rise to a GLn (Ο ) -invariant function on GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A) , or equivalently, a function
fπ on the double quotient
GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A) / GLn (Ο ) . (1.27)

This function is an eigenfunction of the spherical Hecke algebras Η x for all x ∈ X .


Let X be a smooth projective curve over any field k and F = k ( X ) the function field of X . We
define the ring A of adèles and its subring Ο of integer adèles in the same way as in the case
when k = Fq . Then we have the following:

Lemma

There is a bijection between the set GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A) / GLn (Ο ) and the set of isomorphism classes of
rank n vector bundles on X .

We consider this statement in the case when X is a complex curve. Any rank n vector bundle V
on X can be trivialized over the complement of finitely many points. This is equivalent to the

10
existence of n meromorphic sections of V whose values are linearly independent away from
finitely many points of X .
Let x1 ,..., xN be the set of points such that V is trivialized over X \ {x1 ,..., xN } . The bundle V can
also be trivialized over the small discs Dxi around those points. Thus, we consider the covering of
X by the open subsets X \ {x1 ,..., xN } and Dxi , i = 1,..., N . The overlaps are the punctured discs Dx×i ,
and our vector bundle is determined by the transition functions on the overlaps, which are GLn -
valued functions g i on Dx×i , i = 1,..., N . The difference between two trivializations of V on Dxi
amounts to a GLn -valued function hi on Dxi . If we consider a new trivialization on Dxi that differs
from the old one by hi , then the i th transition function g i will get multiplied on the right by
hi : g i a g i hi |D × , whereas the other transition functions will remain the same. Likewise, the
xi

difference between two trivializations of V on X \ {x1 ,..., xN } amounts to a GLn -valued function h
on X \ {x1 ,..., xN } . If we consider a new trivialization on X \ {x1 ,..., xN } that differs from the old one
by h , then the i th transition function g i will get multiplied on the left by h : g i a h |D × g i for all
xi

i = 1,..., N . We obtain that the set of isomorphism classes of rank n vector bundles on X which
become trivial when restricted to X \ {x1 ,..., xN } is the same as the quotient

( ( ) ( ))
GLn X \ {x1 ,..., xN } \ ∏i =1 GLn Dx×i / ∏i =1 GLn Dxi . (1.28)
N N

Here for an open set U we denote by GLn (U ) the group of GLn -valued function on U , with
pointwise multiplication. If we replace each Dxi by the formal disc at xi , then GLn Dx×i ( ) will
become GLn (Fx ) , where Fx ≅ C ((t x )) is the algebra of formal Laurent series with respect to a local
( )
coordinate t x at x , and GLn Dxi will become GLn (Ο x ) , where Ο x ≅ C [[t x ]] is the ring of formal
Taylor series. Then, if we also allow the set x1 ,..., xN to be an arbitrary finite subset of X , we will
obtain instead of (1.28) the double quotient

GLn (F ) \ ∏ x∈ X GLn (Fx ) / ∏ x∈ X GLn (Ο x ) , (1.29)


'

where F = C ( X ) and the prime means the restricted product. But this is exactly the double quotient
in the statement of the Lemma. This completes the proof.
Thus, when X is a curve over Fq , irreducible unramified automorphic representations π are
encoded by the automorphic functions fπ , which are functions on GLn (F ) \ GLn ( A) / GLn (Ο ) . This
double quotient makes perfect sense when X is defined over C and is in fact the set of
isomorphism classes of rank n bundles on X . But what should replace the notion of an
automorphic function fπ in this case? We will argue that the proper analogue is not a function, as
one might naively expect, but a sheaf on the corresponding algebro-geometric object: the moduli
stack Bunn of rank n bundles on X . Let V be an algebraic variety over Fq . Then, the “correct”
geometric counterpart of the notion of a ( Ql -valued) function on the set of Fq -points of V is
the notion of a complex of l -adic sheaves on V. Let us just say the simplest example of an l -
adic sheaf is an l -adic local system, which is a locally constant Ql -sheaf on V. For a general

11
l -adic sheaf there exists a stratification of V by locally closed subvarieties Vi such that the
sheaves F |Vi are locally constant.
The important property of the notion of an l -adic sheaf F on V is that for any morphism
f : V ' → V from another variety V ' to V the group of symmetries of this morphism will act on
the pull-back of F to V ' . In particular, let x be an Fq -point of V and x the Fq -point
corresponding to an inclusion Fq a Fq . Then the pull-back of F with respect to the composition
x → x → V is a sheaf on x , which is nothing but the fiber Fx of F at x , a Ql -vector space. But
the Galois group Gal (Fq / Fq ) is the symmetry of the map x → x , and therefore it acts on Fx . In
particular, the (geometric) Frobenius element Frx , which is the generator of this group acts on Fx .
Taking the trace of Frx on Fx , we obtain a number Tr (Frx , Fx ) ∈ Ql . Hence we obtain a function f F
on the set of Fq -points of V , whose value at x is

f F ( x ) = Tr (Frx , Fx ) . (1.30)

More generally, if Κ is a complex of l -adic sheaves, one defines a function f (Κ ) on V (Fq ) by


taking the alternating sums of the traces of Frx on the stalk cohomologies of Κ at x :

( )
f Κ ( x ) = ∑ (− 1) Tr Frx , H xi (Κ ) . (1.31)
i

The map Κ → f Κ intertwines the natural operations on complexes sheaves with natural operations
on functions.
Thus, because of the existence of the Frobenius automorphism in the Galois group Gal (Fq / Fq )
(which is the group of symmetries of an Fq -point) we can pass from l -adic sheaves to functions on
any algebraic variety over Fq . This suggests that the proper geometrization of the notion of a
function in this setting is the notion of l -adic sheaves.

2. On some equations concerning the moduli spaces of SL2 and SO3 Higgs bundles on an
elliptic curve with tame ramification at one point. [2]

We consider a Higgs field ϕ that is a section of

K ⊗ Ο( p ) ⊗ W = ⊕ i3=1 K ⊗ Ο( p ) ⊗ Ο(qi ) .
2 −1

For each i , we can pick a section ui of K ⊗ Ο( p ) ⊗ Ο(qi ) , namely ui = (dx / y )( x − ei ) , with


2 −1

Trui2 = (dx / y ) ( x − ei ) . The general form of the Higgs field is


2

3
ϕ = ∑ aiui , (2.1)
i =1

with complex constants ai . This gives

12
2
 dx  3
Trϕ =  
2
∑ a (x − e ) .
2
i i (2.2)
 y  i =1

Letting z ≈ x −1 / 2 be a local parameter at infinity, the polar part of Trϕ 2 is 4(dz / z ) ∑a


2 2
i i .
Setting this to 2σ 02 (dz / z ) , we require
2

σ 02
∑ ai2 =
i 2
. (2.3)

( )
This affine quadric describes a Zariski open set in Μ H C ; SL∗2 . The constant term multiplying
(dx / y )2 on the right hand side of (2.2) is − ∑i ei ai2 . This enables us to describe the Hitchin
fibration; it is the map from (a1 , a2 , a3 ) to
w0 = −∑ ei ai2 . (2.4)
i

A fiber of the Hitchin fibration is given by the intersection of the two quadrics (2.3) and (2.4). The
parameter σ 0 can be scaled out of these equations, assuming that it is nonzero. We set
w0 = −σ 02 w / 2 , and bi = ai ( )
2 / σ 0 to put the two quadrics in the form

b12 + b22 + b32 = 1 ; e1b12 + e2b22 + e3b32 = w . (2.5)

For generic w , this intersection is a smooth curve of genus 1, with some points omitted because we
have assumed W to be stable. Now, if f = ∑i bi2 − 1 , g = ∑i eibi2 − w , then a singularity of the
fiber is a point with f = g = df ∧ dg = 0 . A short calculation shows that df ∧ dg = 0 precisely if
two of b1 ,b2 and b3 vanish. If bi is non-vanishing for some i and b j = 0 for j ≠ i , then we must
have
w = ei (2.6)

and
bi = ±1 . (2.7)

Moreover, each singular fiber Fw contains two singular points, given in eqn. (2.7). The singular
fibers consist of two components of genus 0 joined at two double points. To see this, take i = 1 . If
w = e1 , then a linear combination of the equations f = 0 and g = 0 gives

(e2 − e1 )b22 + (e3 − e1 )b32 = 0 ,


or
b2 = ±b3 − (e3 − e1 ) / (e2 − e1 ) . (2.8)

This describes a curve Fw, 0 that is a union of two genus zero components meeting at one point,
b2 = b3 = 0 . Now solving for b1 via b12 = 1 − b32 (e2 − e3 ) / (e2 − e1 ) gives a double cover of Fw, 0 . The
double cover, which is the fiber Fw of the Hitchin fibration, is branched over two points in each

13
component of Fw, 0 . A double cover of a curve of genus zero branched at two points is still of genus
zero. So Fw consists of two components of genus zero, meeting at the two points b2 = b3 = 0 ,
b1 = ±1 . On of the most important properties of the moduli space Μ H of stable Higgs bundles is
that it can be approximated as T ∗Μ , where Μ is the moduli space of stable bundles (Μ is a
Zariski open set the moduli space that parametrizes stable and semi-stable bundles). The reason for
this is that the cotangent space to Μ , at a point corresponding to a stable bundle E , is
H 0 (C , K ⊗ ad (E )) . So a point in T ∗Μ is a pair ( E , ϕ ) , or in other words a Higgs bundle. This
gives an embedding of T ∗Μ as a Zariski open set in Μ H . This has an analog for ramified Higgs
bundles. In this case, one takes Μ to be the moduli space of stable bundles with parabolic structure
at a point p , and Μ H to be the moduli space of stable ramified Higgs bundles. Then Μ H has a
Zariski open set that is not quite T ∗Μ but is an affine symplectic deformation of T ∗Μ . We denote
~ ~
such an affine symplectic deformation as T ∗Μ . Here T ∗Μ denotes a complex symplectic variety
~
with a map to Μ , such that locally in Μ , T ∗Μ is symplectically isomorphic to T ∗Μ . For
applications to geometric Langlands, it is important to restrict the fibers of the Hitchin fibration
~
from Μ H to T ∗Μ or T ∗Μ , since this is an essential step in interpreting A -branes in terms of D -
modules.
~
Now let us consider the fibers of the Hitchin fibration. Their intersection with the quadric T ∗Μ is
obtained by supplementing the defining equation of the quadric with the equation

e1b12 + e2b22 + e3b32 = w , (2.9)

giving an algebraic curve Fw . This curve can be projected to Μ , and gives a double cover of Μ .
So the fiber Fw of the Hitchin fibration of Μ H is really, for generic w , the smooth projective curve
that corresponds to the affine curve just described.
We can describe Fw as a projective curve by simply adding another variable b4 , where b1 ,...,b4 are
understood as homogeneous coordinates on CP 3 and obey

3 3

∑ bi2 = b42 ,
i =1
∑e b
i =1
i i
2
= wb42 . (2.10)

Missing when one approximates Μ H by an affine deformation of the cotangent bundle are the four
points with b4 = 0 . These points correspond to stable Higgs bundles (E ,ϕ ) where the parabolic
bundle E is unstable. They form a single orbit of the group Q = Z 2 × Z 2 of pairwise sign changes of
b1 , b2 , b3 . Explicitly, the values of z corresponding to these four points are

e2 − e1 e −e
z=± ± 3 1 . (2.11)
e2 − e3 e2 − e3

To gain some insight about the D -modules arising in the geometric Langlands program, we must
~
describe Fw as a curve in T ∗Μ . For this, we use the coordinates z , v~, and find, after some algebra,
that we can describe the fiber F by an explicit quadratic equation for v~ , of the form
w

A( z )v~ 2 + B ( z )v~ + C ( z ) = 0 , (2.12)

14
with
A( z ) = (e2 − e3 )z 4 + (4e1 − 2e2 − 2e3 )z 2 + (e2 − e3 )
(
B ( z ) = −4 z (e2 − e3 )z 2 + 2e1 − e2 − e3 )
( )
C ( z ) = 4 (e2 − e3 )z 2 + e1 − w . (2.13)

Note that
dA
B=− . (2.14)
dz

Then, the eq. (2.12) can be rewritten also

[(e
2 ] [ ( )]
− e3 )z 4 + (4e1 − 2e2 − 2e3 )z 2 + (e2 − e3 ) v~ 2 + − 4 z (e2 − e3 )z 2 + 2e1 − e2 − e3 v~ +
( )
+ 4 (e2 − e3 )z + e1 − w = 0 .
2
(2.14b)

If we let z approach one of the four values in eq. (2.11), then one of the roots of the quadratic
equation for v~ goes to infinity. So at any of those values of z , a point in the Hitchin fiber is
~
“missing” if we restrict to T ∗Μ . In fact, the four critical values of z are precisely the zeroes of the
polynomial A( z ) . Let z ∗ be any one of the zeroes of A( z ) .The behaviour of the polar branch of v
near z ∗ is v ≈ −σ 0 B (z ) / A( z ) , which using eq. (2.14) reduces to

1
v ≈ σ0 . (2.15)
z − z∗

For the geometric endoscopy, we must examine in a similar way the singular fibers of the Hitchin
fibration. For example, we take w = e1 , so that the fiber Fe1 splits into components Fe±1 defined by
the ratio of b2 / b3 , as in eq. (2.8). Compactifying the two components in projective space, we see
~
that of the four points at b4 = 0 , two lie on Fe+1 and two on Fe−1 . If we restrict to T ∗Μ , the two
curves Fe±1 behave near the two relevant critical values of z . So each fractional A -brane has two
points with this sort of behaviour.

3. On some equations concerning the action of the Wilson and ‘t Hooft/Hecke operators
on the electric and magnetic branes relevant to geometric endoscopy. [2]

A Wilson operator in L
G gauge theory is associated to the choice of a point p ∈ C and a
L
representation R of G . For simplicity, we will take L R to be the three-dimensional
L

representation of LG = SO3 , and we write W p for the corresponding Wilson operator. The action of
W p on B -branes can be described as follows. Let B be a B -brane associated with a coherent sheaf
Κ → Μ H . Then W p ⋅ B is the B -brane associated with the sheaf Κ ⊗ W p , where W p is the
restriction of W to Μ H × p . (We understand W as a rank 3 vector bundle with structure group
SO3 ). Thus, the action of W p on coherent sheaves is

Κ → Κ ⊗W p . (3.1)

15
We take the case of a brane supported at a Z 2 orbifold singularity r ∈ Μ H . Such a singularity is
associated with an SO3 local system whose structure group reduces to O2 . We recall that O2 is
embedded in SO3 as the subgroup
* * 0 
 
* * 0  (3.2)
 0 0 ± 1
 

and that any SO3 local system whose structure group reduces to O2 has symmetry group Z 2 ,
generated by the central element of O2 :
 −1 0 0
 
 0 −1 0 . (3.3)
 0 0 1
 

We will consider a generic local systems of this type whose group of automorphism is precisely this
Z 2 . In the present context, W r , the restriction of W to r × C , is a local system whose structure
group reduces to O2 , so it has a decomposition

W r = U ⊕ det U , (3.4)

where U is a rank 2 local system, with structure group O2 , and det U is its determinant. The
central generator of Z 2 acts as – 1 on U and as +1 on det U .
The category of branes supported at the orbifold singularity r is generated by two irreducible
objects B+ and B− . Each is associated with a skyscraper sheaf supported at r . They differ by
whether the non-trivial element of Z 2 acts on this sheaf as multiplication by +1 or by – 1.
Since B+ and B− both have skyscraper support at r , W p acts on either of them by tensor product
with the three-dimensional vector space W r× p , the fiber of W at r × p . In view of eq. (3.4), there
is a decomposition W r× p =U p ⊕ det U p , where the non-trivial element of Z 2 acts as – 1 on the
first summand and as +1 on the second summand. So we have

(
W p ⋅ B+ = B− ⊗ U p )⊕ (B ⊗ det U )
+ p

W p ⋅ B− = (B+ ⊗U p )⊕ (B ⊗ det U ) .
− p (3.5)

Note that det U p is a one-dimensional vector space on which Z 2 acts trivially, so B± ⊗ det U p is
isomorphic, non-canonically, to B± . And U p is a two-dimensional vector space on which the non-
trivial element of Z 2 acts as multiplication by – 1. So B± ⊗ U p is isomorphic, non-canonically, to
the sum of two copies of Bm . Thus up to isomorphism we have

W p ⋅ B+ = B+ + 2B− ; W p ⋅ B− = B− + 2B+ . (3.6)

16
The magnetic dual of a Wilson operator W p is an ‘t Hooft operator Tp . An A -brane Α that is an
eigenbrane for the ‘t Hooft operators, in the sense that, for every ‘t Hooft operator Tp ,

Tp ⋅ Α = Α ⊗ V p (3.7)

for some vector space V p , is known as a magnetic eigenbrane. Wilson operators of LG gauge
theory are classified by a choice of representation of LG , and ‘t Hooft operators of G gauge theory
are likewise classified by representations of LG . Electric-magnetic duality is expected to map
Wilson operators to ‘t Hooft operators and electric eigenbranes to magnetic eigenbranes.
Let us review the action of an ‘t Hooft operator Tp on a Higgs bundle (E , ϕ ) . In case ϕ = 0 , the
possible Hecke modifications are the usual ones considered in the geometric Langlands program;
they are parametrized by a subvariety of the affine Grassmannian known as a Schubert variety V ,
which depends on a choice of representation L R of the dual group LG . For instance, if G = SL2 and
L
R is the three-dimensional representation of LG = SO3 , then a generic point in V corresponds to a
Hecke modification of an SL2 bundle E of the following sort: for some local decomposition of E
as a sum of line bundles Ν1 ⊕ Ν 2 , E is mapped to Ν1 ( p ) ⊕ Ν 2 (− p ) .
Letting Ν1 and Ν 2 vary, this gives a two-parameter family of Hecke modifications of E . A family
of modifications of E of this type can degenerate to a trivial modification, and V contains a point
corresponding to the trivial Hecke transformation. If instead ϕ ≠ 0 , one must restrict to Hecke
modifications that are in a certain sense ϕ -invariant. For G = SL2 , and assuming ϕ to be regular
semi-simple at the point p , ϕ -invariance means that the decomposition E = Ν1 ⊕ Ν 2 must be
compatible with the action of ϕ , in the sense that ϕ : E → E ⊗ K maps Ν1 to Ν1 ⊗ K and Ν 2 to
Ν 2 ⊗ K . These are precisely two possible choices of Ν1 and Ν 2 : locally, as ϕ ( p ) is regular semi-
simple, we can diagonalize ϕ
a 0 
ϕ =   , (3.8)
 0 − a 

and Ν1 and Ν 2 must equal, up to permutation, the two “eigenspaces”.


Now let us see what the ϕ -invariant Hecke modifications look like from the point of view of the
spectral curve π : D → C . We consider first the case of a generic spectral curve, given by an
equation det ( z − ϕ ) = 0 . A ϕ -invariant Hecke modification leaves fixed the characteristic
polynomial of ϕ and hence maps each fiber F of the Hitchin fibration to itself.
A point p ∈ C at which ϕ is regular semi-simple lies under two distinct points p ' , p ' '∈ D . The
bundle E is π ∗ (L ) for some line bundle L → D , and ϕ = π ∗ ( z ) . The latter condition means that
the eigenspaces of ϕ ( p ) correspond to the two distinct values of z lying above p , or in other
words to the two points p ' and p ' ' . This being so, a non-trivial ϕ -invariant Hecke modification of
(E,ϕ ) at the point p comes from a transformation of L of the specific form
L → L ⊗ Ο( p'− p' ') (3.9)

for one or another of the two possible labellings of the two points p ' , p ' ' lying above p .
Now we can see why an A -brane Α F supported on a fiber F of the Hitchin fibration and endowed
with a flat line bundle R is a magnetic eigenbrane, that is an eigenbrane for the ‘t Hooft operator

17
Tp . First of all, Tp maps F to itself, since it preserves the characteristic polynomial of ϕ . Since
Tp preserves the support of Α F , it is conceivable for Α F to be an eigenbrane for Tp . Now,
assuming that we choose p so that ϕ ( p ) is regular semi-simple, the evaluation of Tp ⋅ Α F comes
from a sum of contributions from the three ϕ -invariant Hecke modifications that were just
described. One of them is the trivial Hecke modification, and this leaves Α F invariant. The other
two come from transformations L → L ⊗ Ο( p'− p' ') . Such a transformation can be interpreted as
an isomorphism Φ : F → F of the Hitchin fiber. If the labelling of the two points p ' and p ' ' is
reversed, then Φ is replaced by Φ −1 . F is a complex torus, and Φ is a “translation” of F by a
constant vector. In general, if R → F is a flat line bundle over a complex torus and Φ : F → F is a
translation, then Φ∗ (R ) = R ⊗ V for some one-dimensional vector space V . From this it follows
that Α is an eigenbrane for Tp . In fact, we have

(
T p ⋅ Α F = Α F ⊗ C ⊕ V ⊕ V −1 , ) (3.10)

where the three contributions on the right come respectively from the trivial Hecke modification
and the non-trivial modifications that involve Φ and Φ −1 .
Now, we consider a special fiber F of the Hitchin fibration that is a union of two irreducible
components F1 and F2 that intersect each other on a divisor. This being so, we can construct rank 1
A -branes Α1 and Α 2 supported on F1 or F2 . These branes are unique if F1 and F2 are simply-
connected, as in the case of a curve of genus 1 with 1 point of ramification. In the derivation of eq.
(3.10) describing the action of Tp , a key ingredient was the map Φ : F → F by
L → L ⊗ Ο( p'− p' ') . The essential new fact in the case that F is reducible is simply that Φ
exchanges the two component of F . Likewise Φ −1 exchanges the two components. Hence Φ or
Φ −1 exchange Α1 and Α 2 . Since Tp acts by 1 + Φ + Φ −1 , it follows that we have up to isomorphism

Tp ⋅ Α1 = Α1 + 2Α 2 ; Tp ⋅ Α 2 = Α 2 + 2Α1 . (3.11)

This is in perfect parallel with the formula (3.6) for the electric case.
If Α1 and Α 2 have moduli, this should be described a little more precisely. Α1 depends on the
choice of a suitable line bundle L → F1 , and we should take Α 2 to be the brane associated with the
( )
line bundle Φ∗ (L ) → F2 . Note that Φ∗ (L ) and Φ −1 (L ) are isomorphic, though not canonically

so.
One expects to get the more precise result analogous to (3.5). One uses standard methods of
algebraic geometry to construct Tp ⋅ Α1 and Tp ⋅ Α 2 as B -branes in complex structure I . This will
give a result more precise than (3.11):

Tp ⋅ Α1 = (Α1 ⊗ I1 ) ⊕ (Α 2 ⊗ I2 ) ; Tp ⋅ Α 2 = (Α 2 ⊗ I1' ) ⊕ (Α1 ⊗ I2' ), (3.12)

with vector spaces I1 , I2 , etc., of dimensions indicated by the subscripts. All these admit natural K -
valued endomorphisms θ1 ,θ 2 , etc., coming from the Higgs field, and (I1 ,θ1 ) , etc., are Higgs bundles
over C . Relating these Higgs bundles to local systems via Hitchin’s equations, one expects to
arrive at the analog of (3.5),

18
(
Tp ⋅ Α1 = Α 2 ⊗ U p )⊕ (Α ⊗ det U );
1 p (
Tp ⋅ Α 2 = Α1 ⊗ U p )⊕ (Α 2 ⊗ det U p ). (3.13)

~
For gauge group SL2 , the basic Wilson operator to consider is the operator W p associated with the
two-dimensional representation. Roughly speaking, it acts by the obvious analog of eq. (3.1).
Letting (Ε, ϕ̂ ) denote the universal Higgs bundle over Μ H (SL2 ) × C , W p acts on the sheaf Κ
~

defining a B -brane Β by
Κ →Κ ⊗Ε p (3.14)

~
where Ε p is the restriction to Μ H × p of the universal rank two bundle Ε → Μ H × C . W p obeys
~
W p2 = 1 + W p , (3.15)

expressing the fact that the tensor product of the two-dimensional representation with itself is a
direct sum of the trivial representation and the three-dimensional representation; they correspond to
the terms 1 and W p on the right hand side of eq. (3.15).
If we write Β and Β' for the ordinary and twisted versions of the brane related to the skyscraper
sheaf, then the action of the Wilson operator is
~ ~
W p ⋅ Β = Β'⊗Ε r × p ; W p ⋅ Β' = Β ⊗ Ε r × p . (3.16)

The sum Β
ˆ = Β ⊕ Β' is therefore an electric eigenbrane in the usual sense:

~
W p ⋅ Βˆ = Βˆ ⊗ Ε r × p . (3.17)

~
The action of the ‘t Hooft operator Tp on branes Α1, 2 and Α1∗, 2 is schematically

~ ~
Tp ⋅ Α1 = Α1∗ + Α∗2 ; Tp ⋅ Α 2 = Α1∗ + Α∗2 , (3.18)

and similar formulas with Αi and Α∗i exchanged. These formulas and the analogous ones for the
action of the ‘t Hooft operator Tp dual to the three-dimensional representation are compatible with
the relation
~
Tp2 = 1 + Tp . (3.19)

This relation is dual to eq. (3.15).

4. On the Hecke eigensheaves and on the notion of “fractional Hecke eigensheaves”. [2]

Let us recall the traditional definition of Hecke eigensheaves used in the geometric Langlands
Program.
These are D -modules on BunG, the moduli stack of G -bundles on a curve C , satisfying the Hecke
eigenobject property. Recall that for each finite-dimensional representation V of the dual group LG
we have a Hecke functor HV acting from the category of D -modules on BunG to the category of

19
D -modules on C × BunG. Let ε be a flat LG -bundle on C . A Hecke eigensheaf with “eigenvalue”
ε is by definition a collection of data

(F, (α )
V V ∈Re p ( G ) ),
L (4.1)

where F is a D -module on BunG and (αV ) is a collection of isomorphisms


αV : HV (F )→Vε F , (4.2)

where
Vε = ε L× V
G

is the flat vector bundle on C associated to V . For a Hecke eigensheaf (4.1), by restricting the
isomorphisms αV to x , we obtain a compatible collection of isomorphisms


αV , x : HV , x (F )→Vε , x ⊗ F . (4.3)

Here
Vε , x = ε x L× V ,
G

where ε x is the fiber of ε at x , is a vector space isomorphic to V .


Let us discuss the category of Hecke eigensheaves in our endoscopic example, when G = SL2 ,
L
G = SO3 , and Γ = Z 2 . We expect that in this case any D -module satisfying the Hecke eigensheaf
property is a direct sum of copies of a D -module, which we will denote by F . The D -module F
corresponds to an A -brane Α on a singular fiber of Μ H (G ) , which is a magnetic eigenbrane with
respect to the ‘t Hooft operators. This A -branes is reducible:

Α = Α+ ⊕ Α− ,

where the A -branes Α ± are irreducible. Furthermore, there is not a preferred one among them.
Therefore we expect that the D -module F is also reducible:

F = F+ ⊕ F− ,

and each F± is irreducible. We also expect that neither of them is preferred over the other one.
Recall that the notion of an eigensheaf, includes the isomorphisms α V for all representations V of
SO3 . By using the compatibility with the tensor product structure, we find that everything is
determined by the adjoint representation of SO3 , which we denote by W , as before. A Hecke
eigensheaf may therefore be viewed as a pair (F,α ) , where


α : HW (F )→Wε F . (4.4)

20
In the endoscopic case the structure group of our SO3 -local system ε is reduced to the subgroup
O2 = Z 2 ∝ C × . Denote by U the defining two-dimensional representation of O2 . Then det U is the
one-dimensional sign representation induced by the homomorphism O2 → Z 2 . We have

W = (det U ⊗ I ) ⊕ (U ⊗ S ) ,

as a representation of O2 × Z 2 , where Z 2 is the centralizer of O2 in SO3 , and S is the sign


representation of Z 2 , and I is the trivial representation of Z 2 . Therefore we have the following
decomposition of the corresponding local system:

Wε = (det U ε ⊗ I ) ⊕ (U ε ⊗ S ) . (4.5)

Now we suppose that we are given an LG -local system ε on a curve C , and let Γ be the group of
its automorphisms. We will identify Γ with a subgroup of LG by picking a point x ∈ C and
choosing a trivialization of the fiber ε x of ε at x .
Suppose that we are given an abelian subcategory C of the category of D -modules on BunG
equipped with an action of the tensor category Rep (Γ ) . In other words, for each R ∈ Rep (Γ ) we
have a functor
M a R∗M ,

and these functors compose in a way compatible with the tensor product structure on Rep (Γ ) . The
category of Hecke eigensheaves with eigenvalue ε will have as objects the following data:

(F, (α )
V V ∈Re p ( G ) ),
L (4.6)

where F is an object of C , and the αV are isomorphisms defined below. Denote by Res Γ (V ) the
restriction of a representation V of LG to Γ . If Rep (Γ ) is a semi-simple category, then we obtain a
decomposition
Res Γ (V ) = ⊕ Fi ⊗ Ri ,
i

where the Ri are irreducible representations of Γ and Fi is the corresponding representation of the
centralizer of Γ in LG . Twisting by ε , we obtain a local system (Res Γ (V ))ε on C with a
commuting action of Γ , which decomposes as follows:

(Res Γ (V ))ε = ⊕ (Fi )ε ⊗ Ri .


i

Note that since Γ is the group of automorphisms of ε , the structure group of ε is reduced to the
centralizer of Γ in G , and Fi is a representation of this centralizer. Therefore Fi may be twisted
by ε , and the resulting local system (or flat vector bundle) on C is denoted by (Fi )ε . The
isomorphisms αV have the form


αV : HV (M )→ (Res Γ (V ))ε ∗ M = ⊕(Fi )ε (Ri ∗ M ) , M ∈C , (4.7)
i

21
and they have to be compatible in the obvious sense. We will denote the category with objects (4.6)
satisfying the above conditions by Αutε' . The category of Hecke eigensheaves of this type matches
more closely the structure of the categories of A - and B -branes. What does the category Αutε' look
like in our main example of geometric endoscopy? In this case the category C should have two
irreducible objects, F+ and F− , which are the D -modules on BunG corresponding to the fractional
A -branes Α + and Α − . The category Rep (Z 2 ) acts on them as follows: the sign representation S
of Γ = Z 2 permutes them,
S ∗ F± = Fm ,

while the trivial representation I acts identically.


Since the category of representations of SO3 is generated by the adjoint representation W , it is
sufficient to formulate the Hecke property (4.7) only for the adjoint representation W of SO3 . It
reads
HW (F+ ) ≅ (det U ε F+ ) ⊕ (U ε F− ) , HW (F− ) ≅ (det U ε F− ) ⊕ (U ε F+ ) , (4.8)

where det U ε and U ε are the summands of Wε defined in formula (4.5). This matches the action of
the ‘t Hooft operators on the A -branes given by formula (3.13). Since that formula describes the
behaviour of the fractional branes Α ± , we will call the property expressed by formulas (4.7) and
(4.8) the fractional Hecke property, and the corresponding D -modules fractional Hecke
eigensheaves.

5. On some equations concerning the local and global Langlands correspondence. [2]

The ring AF of adéles of F is by definition the restricted product

AF = ∏ ' Fx , (5.1)
x∈C

where the word “restricted” refers to fact that elements of AF are collections ( f x )x∈C , where
f x ∈ Ο x for all but finitely many x ∈ C . Let Gal (F / F ) be the Galois group of F , the group of
automorphisms of the separable closure F of F , which preserve F pointwise. We have a
natural homomorphism Gal (F / F ) → Gal (k / k ) . The group Gal (k / k ) is topologically generated by
the Frobenius automorphism Fr : y a y q , and is isomorphic to the pro-finite completion Ẑ of the
group of integers Z . The preimage of Z ⊂ Zˆ in Gal (F / F ) is the Weil group W of F . The Weil
F
group is the arithmetic analogue of the fundamental group of C . Therefore the arithmetic analogue
of a LG -local system on C is a homomorphism

σ : WF → L G . (5.2)

The global Langlands conjecture predicts, roughly speaking, that to each σ corresponds an
automorphic representation π (σ ) of the group G ( AF ) . This means that it may be realized in a
certain space of functions on the quotient G (F ) \ G ( AF ) . The group WFx may be realized as a
subgroup of the global Weil group WF , but non-canonically. However, its conjugacy class in WF is

22
canonical. Hence the equivalence class of σ : WF → L G as above gives rise to an equivalence class
of homomorphisms
σ x : WFx → L G . (5.3)

We have the infinite-dimensional representation π = ⊗'x∈C π x of G ( AF ) . (We note that AF is the


ring of adéles of F ). We take K to be the product

K = ∏ Kx
x∈C

of compact subgroups K x ⊂ G (Fx ) ≅ G ((t )) . A typical example is the subgroup G (Ο x ) = G[[t ]] .


Any vector in π is invariant under the subgroup that is the product of G (Ο x ) for all but finitely
many x . If π is automorphic, then π K is realized in the space of functions on the double quotient
G (F ) \ G ( AF ) / K , which are Hecke eigenfunctions for all x ∈ C for which K x = G (Ο x ) .

THEOREM 1

The representation
⊗'π
x∈C
x (5.4)

of SL2 ( AF ) , where AF is the ring of adéles of F , is an automorphic representation if and only if


# S is even.

Denote by Sσ the group of automorphisms of our homomorphism σ : WF → PGL2 , that is, the
centralizer of the image of σ in PGL2 . Let Sσ0 be its connected component. Likewise, for each
x ∈ C , let Sσ x be the group of automorphisms of σ x : WF → PGL2 and Sσ0 x
its connected
component. We have natural homomorphisms Sσ → Sσ x and Sσ0 → Sσ0 x , and hence a
homomorphism
Sσ / Sσ0 → Sσ x / Sσ0 x . (5.5)

In our case, for generic σ in the class that we are considering here we have Sσ = Sσ / Sσ0 = Z 2 ,
generated by the element
1 0 
  (5.6)
 0 − 1

of PGL2 (this is the centralizer of O2 ⊂ PGL2 ).


The Theorem 1 may then be reformulated as saying that (5.4) is automorphic if and only if Sσ / Sσ0
acts trivially on the corresponding representation of ∏ x∈C
Sσ x / Sσ0 x , via the diagonal
homomorphism
Sσ / Sσ0 → ∏ Sσ x / Sσ0 x . (5.7)
x∈C

23
Note that, according to the above discussion, if x is split, then the homomorphism (5.5) has trivial
image, even if the group Sσ x / Sσ0 x is non-trivial. Therefore we may choose either of the two
irreducible representations of SL2 (Fx ) from the local L -packet associated to such a point as π x ,
and in both cases the corresponding representations (5.4) will simultaneously be automorphic or
not. In this sense, the split points do not affect the automorphy of the representation (5.4), unlike the
non-split points, for which it is crucial which one of the two members of the L -packet we choose as
the local factor of (5.4).
Suppose now that # S is even and so the representation (5.4) is automorphic. Then the one-
dimensional vector space
⊗ (π x ) x (5.8)
K

x∈C

may be realized in the space of functions on

SL2 (F ) \ SL2 ( AF ) / ∏ K x , (5.9)


x∈C

where AF is the ring of adéles of F and, for the eq. (5.1) the eq. (5.9) can be written also

 
SL2 (F ) \ SL2  ∏ ' Fx  / ∏ K x . (5.9b)
 x∈C  x∈C

Moreover, any non-zero vector in (5.8) gives rise to a Hecke eigenfunction f on (5.9) with the
eigenvalues prescribed by the conjugacy class σ x (Frx ) . This means that it is an eigenfunction of the
Hecke operator TW , x corresponding to the adjoint representation W of PGL2 and a point x ∈ C ,
that is,
TW , x ⋅ f = Tr (σ x (Frx ),W ) f , (5.10)

where Frx is the Frobenius conjugacy class corresponding to x in WF . Here TW , x is a generator of


the spherical Hecke algebra of K x bi-invariant compactly supported functions on SL2 (Fx ) . For
either choice of K x this algebra is canonically isomorphic to Rep (PGL2 ) , and under this
isomorphism TW , x corresponds to the class of the adjoint representation of PGL2 .

6. On some equations concerning the automorphic functions associated to the fractional


Hecke eigensheaves. [2]

Now we replace a complex curve by a curve C defined over a finite field k = Fq . We have the
moduli stack BunG of G -bundles on our curve C defined over k . This is an algebraic stack over
k . Therefore we have the notion of a Hecke eigensheaf on BunG corresponding to an unramified
homomorphism σ : WF → L G . We view σ as an l -adic LG -local system ε on C . Hence, for
each representation V of LG the corresponding twist

Vε = ε L× V
G

24
is a locally constant l -adic sheaf on C , and these sheaves are compatible with respect to the
tensor product structure on representations of LG . We also have Hecke functors HV , V ∈ Rep LG , ( )
defined in the same way as over C . A Hecke eigensheaf with “eigenvalue” ε (or σ ) is, by
definition, a perverse ( l -adic) sheaf F on BunG together with the additional data of
isomorphisms


αV : HV (F )→Vε F . (6.1)

We recall that for any algebraic variety Y over Fq , we may assign a function on the set of Fq -
points of Y to any l -adic sheaf (or a complex) F on Y .
Indeed, let y be an Fq -point of Y and y the Fq -point corresponding to an inclusion Fq a Fq .
Then the pull-back of F with respect to the composition y → y → Y is a l -adic sheaf on a
point Spec Fq . The data of such a sheaf is the same as the data of a Ql -vector space, which we may
think of as the stalk Fy of F at y . There is an additional piece of data on this vector space. Indeed,
the Galois group Gal (Fq / Fq ) is the symmetry group of the morphism y → y , and therefore it acts
on Fy . In particular, we have an action of the (geometric) Frobenius element Fry , corresponding
(the inverse of) the generator of the Galois group of Fq , acting as x a x q . This automorphism
depends on the choice of the morphism y → y , but its conjugacy class is independent of any
choices. Thus, we obtain a conjugacy class of automorphisms of the stalk Fy . Therefore the trace of
the geometric Frobenius automorphism is canonically assigned to F and y . We will denote it by
Tr (Fry , F ) . If F is a complex of l -adic sheaves, we take the alternating sum of the traces of
Fry on the stalk cohomologies of F at y . Hence we obtain a function f F, Fq on the set of Fq -
points of Y , whose value at y ∈ Y (Fq ) is

( )
f F , Fq ( y ) = ∑ (− 1) Tr Fry , H yi (F ) .
i

Similarly, for each n > 1 we define a function f F , F n on the set of Fq n -points of Y by the formula
q

( )
f F , F n ( y ) = ∑ (− 1)Tr Fry , H yi (F ) ,
q
( )
y ∈ Y Fq n . (6.2)
i

If Y = BunG, then the set of Fq -points of Y is naturally isomorphic to the double quotient

 
G (F ) \ G ( AF ) / G ∏ Ο x  . (6.3)
 x∈C 

(Also here AF is the ring of adéles of F ). Therefore any perverse sheaf F on BunG gives rise to a
function f F , Fq on the double quotient (6.3). Suppose now that (F, (αV )) is a Hecke eigensheaf on
BunG. Consider the corresponding function f F , Fq on the set BunG (Fq ) , isomorphic to the double
quotient (6.3), and its transform under the Hecke functor HV , restricted to

25
(C × BunG )(Fq ) = C (Fq )× BunG (Fq ).

The action of the Hecke functor HV on sheaves becomes the action of the corresponding Hecke
operators TV , x on functions. Hence for each x ∈ C (Fq ) the left hand side of (6.1) gives rise to the
function TV , x ⋅ f F , Fq , whereas the right hand side becomes Tr (Frx ,Vε ) f F , Fq . Hence the isomorphism
(6.1) implies that

TV , x ⋅ f F , Fq = Tr (Frx ,Vε ) f F , Fq = Tr (σ x (Frx ),V ) f F , Fq , ∀x ∈ C (Fq ) . (6.4)

We have that the A -brane Α corresponding to F , which is represented by a rank one unitary local
system on the singular Hitchin fiber, which has two irreducible components. We have that Α splits
into two Α -branes, Α + and Α − supported on the two irreducible components of the Hitchin fiber.
Therefore we expect that the D -module F also splits into a direct sum,

F = F+ ⊕ F− , (6.5)

of two irreducible D -modules on Bun SL2 corresponding to the two Α -branes on the singular
Hitchin fiber. Moreover, since the Α -branes Α ± are fractional eigenbranes with respect to the ‘t
Hooft operators, we expect that the sheaves F± satisfy the fractional Hecke property introduced
precedently.
This leads us to postulate that the same phenomenon should also occur for curves over a finite field
Fq . Namely, the regular Hecke eigensheaf F corresponding to an l -adic local system ε on a
curve C defined over Fq , should also split as a direct sum (6.5). Moreover, these sheaves should
satisfy the fractional Hecke property and hence give rise to a category of fractional Hecke
eigensheaves. In the setting of curves over finite fields we can pass from l -adic perverse
sheaves on Bun SL2 , to functions. Then, we started with A -brines and ended up with automorphic
functions satisfying the fractional Hecke property. Schematically, this passage looks as follows :

overC overC overFq


A -branes → D -modules → perverses sheaves → functions.

Let C be a curve over Fq and ε and endoscopic l -adic PGL2 -local system on C
(corresponding to an unramified homomorphism σ : WF → PGL2 ). This means that its structure
group is reduced to O2 , but not to a proper subgroup. Then the group of automorphisms of ε is Z 2 .
Ο(D )
Let D be a finite set of closed points of C . Denote by F D a regular Hecke eigensheaf on BunSL 2

with the “eigenvalue” ε . Motivated by our results on A -branes in the analogous situation for
curves over C , we conjecture that F D splits as a direct sum

F D = F+D ⊕ F−D (6.6)

of perverse sheaves F±D which satisfy the following fractional Hecke property with respect to ε
(and so we also call them the fractional Hecke eigensheaves):

α + : HW (F+D )→(det U ε F+D ) ⊕ (U ε F−D ) ,



(6.7)

26
α − : HW (F−D )→(U ε F+D ) ⊕ (det U ε F−D ) .

(6.8)

Here W is the adjoint representation of PGL2 and we use the decomposition of the rank three local
system Wε on C with respect to the action of its group Z 2 of automorphisms as in formula (4.5),

Wε = (det U ε ⊗ I ) ⊕ (U ε ⊗ S ) , (6.9)

where I and S are trivial and sign representations of Z 2 , respectively, and det U ε and U ε are the
rank one and two local systems on C defined as follows.
Recall that by our assumption the PGL2 -local system ε is reduced to O2 , so we view it as an O2 -
local system. We then set
Uε = ε × U ,
O2

where U is the defining two-dimensional representation of O2 . The formula (6.6) implies that

f D = f +D + f −D , (6.10)

Ο(D )
where f D = f F D , F is the function on BunSL 2
associated to the regular Hecke eigensheaf F D .
q

Furthermore, the functions corresponding to the fractional Hecke eigensheaves F± are:

f± =
1
( f ± f ') . (6.11)
2

Ο(D )
In addition to the “proper” Hecke functors HW acting on the categories of D -modules on BunSL 2
,
~ Ο(D )
there are also “improper” Hecke functors H x acting from the category of D -modules on BunSL2
Ο(D + x )
to the category of D -modules on BunSL 2
. They are defined via the Hecke correspondence
Ο(D )
between the two moduli stacks consisting of pairs of rank two bundles Μ ∈ BunSL 2
and
Ο(D + x )
Μ '∈ BunSL 2
such that Μ ⊂ Μ ' as a coherent sheaf.
In formula (3.18) we have computed the action of the improper ‘t Hooft operators on the branes
Α ± . Based in this formula, we conjecture that the improper Hecke operators should act on the
fractional Hecke eigensheaves F±D as follows:

~
( )
H x F+D ≅ F+D + x ⊕ F−D + x ,
~
( )
H x F−D ≅ F+D + x ⊕ F−D + x . (6.12)

This should hold for all points x ∈ C if C is defined over C, and all split points, if C is defined
over Fq . This formula indicates that the improper Hecke functor fails to establish an equivalence
Ο(D ) Ο(D + x )
between the categories of fractional Hecke eigensheaves on BunSL 2
and BunSL 2
for the
endoscopic local systems. This may be viewed as a geometric counterpart of the vanishing of the
improper Hecke operator acting on functions which is closely related to the structure of the global
L -packets of automorphic representations associated to endoscopic σ : WF → PGL2 .
For a regular Hecke eigensheaf F D = F+D ⊕ F−D we have

27
~
( )
H x FD ≅ V ⊗ FD+ x , (6.13)

where V is a two-dimensional vector space.


Ο(D )
Recall that the functions fσD, ± , corresponding to the sheaves FσD, ± on BunSL 2
, are given by formula
(6.11),
1
(
fσD, ± = fσD ± fσD' .
2
)
(6.14)

With regard the fractional Hecke eigensheaves, we now revisit them in the case when the
underlying curve C is defined over Fq . It is instructive to look at the corresponding functions on
the sets of Fq -points of BunG and to express them in terms of the ordinary Hecke eigenfunctions,
the way we did in the endoscopic example for G = SL2 above (see formula (6.14)).
Consider first the case when G is a one-dimensional torus. The corresponding moduli space, the
Picard variety Pic, breaks into connected components Pic n , n ∈ Z , and the Hecke eigensheaf Fσ
corresponding to a one-dimensional l -adic representation σ of the Weil group WF , breaks
into a direct sum
Fσ = ⊕ Fσ , n , (6.15)
n∈Z

where Fσ , n is supported on Pic n . This is an analogue of the decomposition (6.6). Let fσ (resp.,
fσ , n ) be the function on Pic (Fq ) (resp., Pic n (Fq ) ) corresponding to Fσ (resp., Fσ , n ). Then we have

fσ = ∑ fσ , n .
n∈Z

This is analogous to formula (6.10). We now wish to express the functions fσ , n in terms of
(ordinary) Hecke eigenfunctions fσ ' , similarly to formula (6.14).
This is achieved by a simple Fourier transform. Namely, for each non-zero number γ ∈ C × (in what
follows we identify Ql with C) we define a one-dimensional representation α γ of WF as the
composition of the homomorphism
res : W f → WFq = Z , (6.16)

obtained by restricting to the scalars Fq ⊂ F , and the homomorphism

Z → C× , 1a γ .

Now let σ γ = σ ⊗ α γ be the twist of σ by α γ . Then we have the following obvious formula

1
fσ γ − n −1dγ ,
2πi ∫γ =1 γ
fσ , n = (6.17)

expressing the functions fσ , n as integrals of the ordinary Hecke eigenfunctions corresponding to the
twists σ γ of σ by α γ , γ = 1 .

28
In our most detailed example of A -branes corresponding to the elliptic curves in Section 2, we have
considered some equations concerning a slightly different moduli space corresponding to ramified
Ο( D )
Higgs bundles. In this case the relevant moduli stack is BunSL 2 ,I p
which parametrizes rank two
vector bundles on C with determinant Ο(D ) and a parabolic structure at a fixed point p of C . It is
instructive to look at how the story with L-packets plays out in this case.
Ο( D )
Let C be again defined over Fq . Then the set of Fq -points of BunSL 2 ,I p
is isomorphic to the double
quotient
 
SL2 (F ) \ SL2 ( AF ) /  ∏ K x × I p  . (6.18)
 x≠ p 

(Note that also here AF is the ring of adéles of F ). Here I p = K 'p ∩ K p'' is the Iwahori subgroup
of SL2 (Fp ) , and K x = K x'' for x ∈ D , K x = K x' , otherwise. Let us suppose that p is a non-split
point of C , with respect to the unramified covering C ' → C affiliated with an unramified
homomorphism σ : WF → O2 . Then the local L-packet corresponding to p and a homomorphism
σ : WF → PGL2 constructed as above consists of two irreducible representations, π 'p and π 'p' , but
( )
now both π 'p
Ip
( )
and π 'p'
Ip
are one-dimensional.
Let us fix the local factors π x , x ≠ p . Then we have two non-isomorphic irreducible representations
of SL2 ( AF ) ,
⊗π
x≠ p
x ⊗ π 'p and ⊗π
x≠ p
x ⊗ π 'p' .

According to Theorem 1, only one of them is automorphic; that is, may be realized as a constituent
of an appropriate space of functions on SL2 (F ) \ SL2 ( AF ) . However, their spaces of invariants with
respect to the subgroup
∏ Kx × I p x≠ p

are both one-dimensional. Therefore no matter which one of them is automorphic, we will have a
one-dimensional space of Hecke eigenfunctions on the double quotient (6.18). Thus, the function on
Ο( D )
the set of Fq -points of BunSL 2 ,I p
associated to a regular Hecke eigensheaf will be non-zero. Then,
we obtain that the functions f ±D associated to fractional Hecke eigensheaves are also non-zero in
this case.

7. On some equations concerning the modular elliptic curves belonging the proof of
Fermat’s Last Theorem. [3]

Let T1 ( N , q ) be the ring of endomorphism of J1 ( N , q ) generated by the standard Hecke operators.


One can check that U p preserves B either by an explicit calculation or by noting that B is the
maximal abelian subvariety of J1 ( N , q ) with multiplicative reduction at q. We set
J 2 = J1 ( N ) × J1 ( N ) . More generally, one can consider J H ( N ) and J H (N , q ) in place of J1 ( N ) and
J1 ( N , q ) (where J H (N , q ) corresponds to X 1 ( N , q ) / H ) and we write TH ( N ) and TH ( N , q ) for the
associated Hecke rings.

29
(
In the following lemma if m is a maximal ideal of Τ1 Nq r −1 or Τ1 Nq r we use m(q ) to denote the ) ( )
( )
maximal ideal of Τ1(q ) Nq r , q r +1 compatible with m , the ring 1 q Τ( ) (Nq , q ) ⊂ Τ (Nq , q )
r r +1
1
r r +1
being
the sub-ring obtained by omitting U q from the list of generators.

LEMMA 1.

If q ≠ p is a prime and r ≥ 1 then the sequence of abelian varieties

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ξ1 ξ2
0 → J1 Nq r −1 → J1 Nq r × J1 Nq r → J1 Nq r , q r +1 (7.1)

(
where ξ1 = (π 1, r o π ) ,−(π 2, r o π )
∗ ∗
) (
and ξ 2 = π 4∗, r , π 3∗, r ) induces a corresponding sequence of p-
divisible groups which becomes exact when localized at any m(q ) for which ρ m is irreducible.

Now, we have the following theorem:

THEOREM 2.

 p −1 
Assume that ρ 0 is modular and absolutely irreducible when restricted to Q (− 1) 2 p  . Assume
 
also that ρ 0 is of type (A), (B) or (C) at each q ≠ p in Σ . Then the map ϕ D : RD → ΤD (remember
that ϕ D is an isomorphism) is an isomorphism for all D associated to ρ 0 , i.e., where
D = (⋅, Σ, Ο, Μ ) with ⋅ = Se, str, fl or ord. In particular if ⋅ = Se, str or fl and f is any newform for
which ρ f , λ is a deformation of ρ 0 of type D then

# H D1 (QΣ / Q,V f ) =# (Ο /η D , f ) < ∞ (7.2)

where η D, f is the invariant defined in the following equation (η ) = (η D , f ) = (πˆ (1)) .

We assume that

ρ = Ind LQκ : Gal (Q / Q ) → GL2 (Ο ) (7.3)

is the p-adic representation associated to a character κ : Gal (L / L ) → Ο× of an imaginary


quadratic field L .
Let M ∞ be the maximal abelian p-extension of L(ν ) unramified outside p .

PROPOSITION 1.

There is an isomorphism

( )

QΣ / Q, Y ∗ → Hom(Gal (M ∞ / L(ν )), (K / Ο )(ν ))
1 Gal ( L (ν ) / L )
H unr (7.4)

1
where H unr denotes the subgroup of classes which are Selmer at p and unramified everywhere else.

30
Now we write 1
H str (QΣ / Q,Yn∗ ) (where Yn∗ = Yλ∗n and similarly for Yn ) for the subgroup of
1
H unr( ) {
QΣ / Q, Yn∗ = α ∈ H unr
1
( )
QΣ / Q, Yn∗ : α p = 0inH 1 Q p , Yn∗ / Yn∗ ( ( ) )}
0
where Yn∗ ( )0
is the first step in the
filtration under D p , thus equal to Yn / Yn0 ( )∗
or equivalently to Y ∗ ( ) 0
λn ( )
where Y ∗
0
is the divisible
submodule of Y ∗ on which the action of I p is via ε 2 . It follows from an examination of the action
I p on Yλ that

1
H str (QΣ / Q, Yn ) = H unr
1
(QΣ / Q, Yn ) . (7.5)

In the case of Y ∗ we will use the inequality

1
# H str (QΣ / Q,Y ∗ ) ≤# H unr1 (QΣ / Q,Y ∗ ) . (7.6)

Furthermore, for n sufficiently large the map

1
H str (QΣ / Q,Yn∗ ) → H str1 (QΣ / Q,Y ∗ ) (7.7)

is injective.
The above map is then injective whenever the connecting homomorphism

( ) (
H 0 L p ∗ , (K / Ο )(ν ) → H 1 L p ∗ , (K / Ο )(ν )λn )
is injective, which holds for sufficiently large n. Furthermore, we have

(QΣ / Q, Yn ) =# H 0 Q , Y 0 ( ( ) ) ## HH ((QQ,,YY )) .
1 0
# H str ∗

( )
n
(7.8)
# H str QΣ / Q, Yn∗ ∗
1 p n 0
n

Thence, setting t = inf q # (Ο / (1 − ν (q ))) if ν mod λ = 1 or t = 1 if ν mod λ ≠ 1 (7.8b), we get

1
# H Se (QΣ / Q, Y ) ≤ 1 ⋅ ∏ l q ⋅# Hom(Gal (M ∞ / L(ν )), (K / Ο)(ν ))Gal (L (ν ) / L ) (7.9)
t ∈Σ

( )
where l q =# H 0 Qq , Y ∗ for q ≠ p , l p = lim # H 0 Q p , Yn0
n →∞
( ( ) ).

This follows from Proposition 1, (7.5)-
(7.8) and the elementary estimate

( 1
# H Se (QΣ / Q, Y ) / H unr
1
(QΣ / Q, Y ) ≤ ) ∏l q , (7.10)
{ }
q∈Σ − p

( )
which follows from the fact that # H 1 Qqunr , Y ( )
Gal Q qunr / Q q
= l q . (Remember that l is the l -adic
representation).
Let w f denote the number of roots of unity ζ of L such that ζ ≡ 1 mod f ( f an integral ideal of
Ο L ). We choose an f prime to p such that w f = 1 . Then there is a grossencharacter ϕ of L
satisfying ϕ ((α )) = α for α ≡ 1 mod f . According to Weil, after fixing an embedding Q a Q p we

31
can associate a p-adic character ϕ p to ϕ . We choose an embedding corresponding to a prime above
p and then we find ϕ p = κ ⋅ χ for some χ of finite order and conductor prime to p.
The grossencharacter ϕ (or more precisely ϕ o N F / L ) is associated to a (unique) elliptic curve E
defined over F = L( f ) , the ray class field of conductor f , with complex multiplication by Ο L and
isomorphic over C to C / Ο L . We may even fix a Weierstrass model of E over Ο F which has good
reduction at all primes above p . For each prime Β of F above p we have a formal group ÊΒ ,
and this is a relative Lubin-Tate group with respect to FΒ over L p . We let λ = λÊ be the
Β

logarithm of this formal group.


Let U ∞ be the product of the principal local units at the primes above p of L fp ∞ ; i.e., ( )
U ∞ = ∏U ∞ ,Β where U ∞ , Β = limU n , Β .

Β p

To an element u = lim un ∈ U ∞ we can associate a power series f u , Β (Τ ) ∈ ΟΒ [Τ] where ΟΒ is the


×

ring of integers of FΒ . For Β we will choose the prime above p corresponding to our chosen
embedding Q a Q p . This power series satisfies un, Β = ( f u , Β )(ωn ) for all n > 0, n ≡ 0(d ) where
[
d = FΒ : L p ] and {ωn } is chosen as an inverse system of π n division points of ÊΒ . We define a
homomorphism δ k : U ∞ → ΟΒ by

k
 1 d 
δ k (u ) := δ k , Β (u ) =  log f u , Β (Τ) Τ = 0 . (7.11)
 λ 'Eˆ (Τ) dΤ 
 Β 

Then
δ k (uτ ) = θ (τ )k δ k (u ) (7.12) for τ ∈ Gal (F / F )

[ ]
where θ denotes the action on E p ∞ . Now θ = ϕ p on Gal (F / F ) . We want a homomorphism
on u∞ with a transformation property corresponding to ν on all of Gal (L / L ) . We observe that
ν = ϕ p2 on Gal (F / F ) .
Let S be a set of coset representatives for Gal (L / L ) / Gal (L / F ) and define

( )
Φ 2 (u ) = ∑ν −1 (σ )δ 2 u σ ∈ ΟΒ [ν ] . (7.13)
σ ∈S

Each term is independent of the choice of coset representative by (7.8b) and it is easily checked that

( )
Φ 2 u σ = ν (σ )Φ 2 (u ) .

It takes integral values in ΟΒ [ν ] . Let U ∞ (ν ) denote the product of the groups of local principal units
at the primes above p of the field L(ν ) . Then Φ 2 factors through U ∞ (ν ) and thus defines a
continuous homomorphism
Φ 2 : U ∞ (ν ) → C p .

32
Let C∞ be the group of projective limits of elliptic units in L(ν ) . Then we have a crucial theorem of
Rubin:

THEOREM 3.

There is an equality of characteristic ideals as Λ = Z p [[Gal (L(ν ) / L )]] -modules:

char ∧ (Gal (M ∞ / L(ν ))) = char ∧ (U ∞ (ν ) / C∞ ) .

Let ν 0 = ν mod λ . For any Z p [Gal (L(ν 0 ) / L )]-module X we write X (ν 0 ) for the maximal quotient
of X ⊗ Ο on which the action of Gal (L(ν 0 ) / L ) is via the Teichmuller lift of ν 0 . Since
Zp

Gal (L(ν ) / L ) decomposes into a direct product of a pro-p group and a group of order prime to p,

Gal (L(ν ) / L ) ≅ Gal (L(ν ) / L(ν 0 )) × Gal (L(ν 0 ) / L ) ,

we can also consider any Z p [[Gal (L(ν ) / L )]] -module also as a Z p [Gal (L(ν 0 ) / L )]-module. In
particular X (ν 0 ) is a module over Z p [Gal (L(ν 0 ) / L )] ≅ Ο . Also Λ(ν 0 ) ≅ Ο[[Τ]] .
(ν 0 )

Now according to results of Iwasawa, U ∞ (ν )


(ν 0 )
is a free Λ(ν 0 ) -module of rank one. We extend Φ 2
Ο -linearly to U ∞ (ν ) ⊗Z p Ο and it then factors through U ∞ (ν )
(ν 0 )
. Suppose that u is a generator of
U ∞ (ν ) and β an element of C∞(ν 0 ) . Then f (γ − 1)u = β for some f (Τ) ∈ Ο[[Τ]] and γ a
(ν 0 )

topological generator of Gal (L(ν ) / L(ν 0 )) . Computing Φ 2 on both u and β gives

f (ν (γ ) − 1) = φ2 (β ) / Φ 2 (u ) . (7.14)

We have that ν can be interpreted as the grossencharacter whose associated p-adic character , via
the chosen embedding Q a Q p , is ν , and ν is the complex conjugate of ν .
Furthermore, we can compute Φ 2 (u ) by choosing a special local unit and showing that Φ 2 (u ) is a
p-adic unit.
Now, if we have that
1
# H Se (
(QΣ / Q, Y ) ≤# Ο / Ω− 2 L f 0 (2,ν ) ⋅ ∏ l q , )
q∈Σ

and # (Ο / hL ) ⋅ ∏l q , (7.15)
q∈Σ − { p }

(
where l q = # H 0 Qq , ((K / Ο )(ψ ) ⊕ K / Ο )

) and hL is the class number of Ο L , combining these we
obtain the following relation:

1
# H Se ( )
(QΣ / Q,V ) ≤# Ο / Ω− 2 L f 0 (2,ν ) ⋅# (Ο / hL ) ⋅ ∏ l q , (7.16)
q∈Σ

( )
where l q =# H 0 Qq ,V ∗ (for q ≠ p ), l p =# H 0 Q p , Y 0 ( ( ) ) . (Also here, we remember that

l is p-
adic).

33
Let ρ 0 be an irreducible representation as in (5). Suppose that f is a newform of weight 2 and
level N, λ a prime of Ο f above p and ρ f , λ a deformation of ρ 0 . Let m be the kernel of the
homomorphism Τ1 ( N ) → Ο f / λ arising from f .
We now give an explicit formula for η developed by Hida by interpreting , in terms of the cup
product pairing on the cohomology of X 1 ( N ) , and then in terms of the Petersson inner product of
f with itself. Let
(, ) : H 1 (X 1 (N ), Ο f )× H 1 (X 1 (N ), Ο f ) → Ο f (7.17)

be the cup product pairing with Ο f as coefficients. Let p f be the minimal prime of Τ1 ( N ) ⊗ O f
associated to f , and let
L f = H 1 (X 1 ( N ), Ο f ) p f .[ ]
If f = ∑ an q n let f ρ = ∑ an q n . Then f ρ is again a newform and we define L f ρ by replacing
f by f ρ in the definition of L f . Then the pairing (,) induces another by restriction

(, ) : L f × L f ρ → Οf . (7.18)

Replacing Ο by the localization of Ο f at p (if necessary) we can assume that L f and L f ρ are free
of rank 2 and direct summands as Ο f -modules of the respective cohomology groups. Let δ1 , δ 2 be
a basis of L f . Then also δ1 , δ 2 is a basis of L f ρ = L f . Here complex conjugation acts on
H 1 (X 1 ( N ), Ο f ) via its action on Ο f . We can then verify that

(δ ,δ ) := det (δ ,δ ) i j

is an element of Ο f whose image in Ο f , λ is given by π η 2 (unit). ( )


To give a more useful expression for (δ , δ ) we observe that f and f ρ can be viewed as elements
of H 1 ( X 1 ( N ), C ) ≅ H 1DR ( X 1 (N ), C ) via f a f (z )dz , { }
f ρ a f ρ dz . Then f , f ρ form a basis for
L f ⊗Ο f C . Similarly {f , f } form
ρ
a basis for L f ρ ⊗Ο f C . ( )
Define the vectors ω1 = f , f ρ ,
ω2 = ( f , f ρ ) and write ω1 = Cδ and ω2 = C δ with C ∈ M 2 (C ) . Then writing f1 = f , f 2 = f ρ
we set
(ω , ω ) := det (( fi , f j )) = (δ , δ )det (CC ).

Now (ω , ω ) is given explicitly in terms of the (non-normalized) Petersson inner product , :


(ω , ω ) = −4 f, f
2
where f, f =∫
ℑ / Γ1 ( N )
ffdxdy . Hence, we have the following equation:

2
(ω , ω ) = −4 ∫ℑ / Γ ( N ) ffdxdy  . (7.19)
 1 

34
To compute det (C ) we consider integrals over classes in H1 (X 1 ( N ), Ο f ) . By Poincaré duality there

exist classes c1 , c2 in H1 (X 1 ( N ), Ο f ) such that det ∫ δ i  is a unit in Ο f . Hence det C generates


 cj 
 
the same Ο f -module as is generated by det ∫ f i  for all such choices of classes ( c1 , c2 ) and
  c j 
{ }  
with { f1 , f 2 } = f , f ρ . Letting u f be a generator of the Ο f -module det ∫ f i  we have the
  j 
c

following formula of Hida:


π (η 2 ) = f , f / u f u f × (unit in Ο f , λ ).
2

Now, we choose a (primitive) grossencharacter ϕ on L together with an embedding Q a Q p


corresponding to the prime p above p such that the induced p-adic character ϕ p has the properties:
(i) ϕ p mod p = κ 0 ( p = maximal ideal of Q p ).
(ii) ϕ p factors through an abelian extension isomorphic to Z p ⊕ T with T of finite order prime to
p.
(iii) ϕ ((α )) = α for α ≡ 1( f ) for some integral ideal f prime to p.

Let p0 = kerψ f : Τ1 ( N ) → Ο f and let Af = J1 ( N ) / p0 J1 ( N ) be the abelian variety associated to f by


Shimura. Over F + there is an isogeny Af / F + ≈ E/ F + ( )
d
[
where d = Ο f : Ζ . ]
We have that the p-adic Galois representation associated to the Tate modules on each side are
( )
equivalent to Ind FF ϕ0 ⊗ Ζ p K f , p where K f , p = Ο f ⊗ Q p and where ϕ p : Gal (F / F ) → Ζ×p is the p-
+

adic character associated to ϕ and restricted to F .We now give an expression for fϕ , fϕ in terms
( )
of the L-function of ϕ . We note that LN (2,ν ) = LN (2,ν ) = LN 2,ϕ 2 χˆ and remember that ν is the p-
adic character, and ν is the complex conjugate of ν , we have that:
 
fϕ , fϕ =
1
16π 3
2  1 
( )
N ∏ 1 −  LN 2,ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ) , (7.20)
 qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 

where χ is the character of fϕ and χ̂ its restriction to L ; ψ is the quadratic character


associated to L ; LN ( ) denotes that the Euler factors for primes dividing N have been removed;
Sϕ is the set of primes q N such that q = qq ' with q | cond ϕ and q, q ' primes of L , not
necessarily distinct.

THEOREM 4.

Suppose that ρ 0 is an irreducible representation of odd determinant such that ρ 0 = Ind LQκ 0 for a
character κ 0 of an imaginary quadratic extension L of Q which is unramified at p. Assume also
that:
(i) det ρ 0 Ip =ω ;
(ii) ρ 0 is ordinary.

35
Then for every D = (⋅, Σ, Ο,φ ) such that ρ 0 is of type D with ⋅ = Se or ord,

RD ≅ ΤD

and ΤD is a complete intersection.

COROLLARY.

For any ρ 0 as in the theorem suppose that

ρ : Gal (Q / Q ) → GL2 (Ο )

is a continuous representation with values in the ring of integers of a local field, unramified outside
a finite set of primes, satisfying ρ ≅ ρ 0 when viewed as representations to GL2 (Fp ) . Suppose
further that:
(i) ρ Dp is ordinary;

(ii) det ρ Ip = χε k −1 with χ of finite order, k ≥ 2 .


Then ρ is associated to a modular form of weight k .

THEOREM 5. (Langlands-Tunnell)

Suppose that ρ : Gal (Q / Q ) → GL2 (C ) is a continuous irreducible representation whose image is


finite and solvable. Suppose further that det ρ is odd. Then there exists a weight one newform f
such that L(s, f ) = L(s, ρ ) up to finitely many Euler factors.

Suppose then that


ρ 0 : Gal (Q / Q ) → GL2 (F3 )
is an irreducible representation of odd determinant. This representation is modular in the sense that
over F3 , ρ 0 ≈ ρ g , µ mod µ for some pair ( g , µ ) with g some newform of weight 2. There exists a
representation
([ ])
i : GL2 (F3 ) a GL2 Ζ − 2 ⊂ GL2 (C ).

By composing i with an automorphism of GL2 (F3 ) if necessary we can assume that i induces the
( )
identity on reduction mod 1 + − 2 . So if we consider i o ρ 0 : Gal (Q / Q ) → GL2 (C ) we obtain an
irreducible representation which is easily seen to be odd and whose image is solvable.
Now pick a modular form E of weight one such that E ≡ 1(3) . For example, we can take E = 6 E1, χ
where E1, χ is the Eisenstein series with Mellin transform given by ζ (s )ζ (s, χ ) for χ the quadratic
( )
character associated to Q − 3 . Then fE ≡ f mod 3 and using the Deligne-Serre lemma we can
find an eigenform g ' of weight 2 with the same eigenvalues as f modulo a prime µ ' above
(1 + )
− 2 . There is a newform g of weight 2 which has the same eigenvalues as g ' for almost all
( )
Tl ’s, and we replace ( g ' , µ ') by ( g , µ ) for some prime µ above 1 + − 2 . Then the pair ( g , µ )
satisfies our requirements for a suitable choice of µ (compatible with µ ' ).

36
We can apply this to an elliptic curve E defined over Q , and we have the following fundamental
theorems:

THEOREM 6.

All semistable elliptic curves over Q are modular.

THEOREM 7.

Suppose that E is an elliptic curve defined over Q with the following properties:
(i) E has good or multiplicative reduction at 3, 5,
(ii) For p = 3, 5 and for any prime q ≡ −1 mod p either ρ E , p Dq is reducible over Fp or ρ E , p I q is
irreducible over Fp .
Then E is modular.

8. On some equations concerning p-adic and adelic numbers, p-adic and adelic strings.

8.1 Measure and integration on the adelic space A concerning the adelic study of the zeta function.
[4]

We take the case where S = ε is a minimal regular model of elliptic curve E over a global
field k . We will assume the set S − of horizontal curves in S ' contains the image of the zero
section of ε → B . To work with the zeta integral we will need measure and integration on ( A × A) ,
×

and also on B × B and (B × B ) . The central object of this subsection is an unramified zeta integral.
×

The zeta integral will be an integral with respect to a measure on ( A × A) .


×

The space A×y coincides with the preimage of its image with respect to the projection map p y .
Functions which we will integrate in the study of the zeta integral will all be constant on groups
associated to A1y . Hence, it is sufficient to work with an R -valued measure on (Ay × Ay ) which is
×

the pullback with respect to (p , p )


y y of a normalized one dimensional adelic measure on
(A ( ) × A ( ) ) , and with the measure on ( A × A)
k y k y
× ×
which is their tensor product.
From the definition of A we deduce that the multiplicative group A× is the restricted product of
A×y with respect to (OAy ) , y ∈ S ' . Similarly to the definition of Ay = Ay0 define an adelic space
×

{(
Ay × Ay := α x(1,)z , α x(2,z) )
x∈ y
( ) }
: α x(m, z) ∈ K x , z , α x(m, z) ∈ Ay , m = 1,2 . (8.1)

Define ( A × A) as the restricted product of (Ay × Ay ) with respect to (Ay × Ay ∩ OAy × OAy ) .
× × ×

We define µ( A × A )× as the tensor product of the normalized local measures µ(K × K )× , x ∈ y . The
y y x ,z x ,z

definition of (Ay × Ay ) implies that µ( A × A )× is a real valued measure. Define µ( A× A )× as the tensor
×
y y

product of µ( A × A )× , y ∈ S ' . Define a space of functions R( A × A )× as the linear space generated by


y y y y

( (1)
g y = ⊗ x∈ y f x , z , f x , z (2 )
) with g y = hy o ( p y , p y ) for an integrable function hy on (Ak ( y ) × Ak ( y ) ) , and
×

37
such that f x(,mz ) is continuous on K x×, z , f x(,mz )charK × ∈ RK x , z for all x ∈ y and f x(,mz ) O × = 1 for almost
x,z x ,z

all x ∈ y, m = 1,2 . For f y = ⊗ x∈ y f x , z ∈ R( A )× define


y × Ay

∫ f dµ (
y A y × Ay )× = ∏ x∈ y ∫ f x , z dµ(K x , z × K x , z )× (8.2)

and extend by linearity to R( A )× .


y × Ay

Define a space of functions R( A× A )× as the linear space generated by ⊗ y∈S ' f y with
( )
f y = f y(1) , f y(2 ) ∈ R( A × A )× such that ⊗ y∈S ' f y induces a continuous map ( A × A) → C and
y y
×

∏ ∫ f dµ (
y ∈S ' y Ay × Ay )× (8.3)

absolutely converges in the compactified complex plane C ∪ {∞} .


For f = ⊗ f y ∈ R( A× A )× with f y ∈ R( A × A )× define
y y

∫ fdµ( A× A )×
= ∏ ∫ f y dµ ( A )× (8.4)
y × Ay
y∈ S '

and extend by linearity to R( A× A )× .


Now we describe an exemple. Let f = ⊗ y∈S ' ⊗ x∈ y f x , z where for all non-archimedean x, z

f x, z =
s
x, z
char(t cx ,z ,1 O c
, t1 xx,,zz , 2 O x , z ), (8.5)
1x ,z x,z

and for all y ∈ S ' cx , z , m = 0 for almost all x ∈ y , m = 1,2, and for almost all y ∈ S ' ∏ qx ,xz, z ,m = 1 ,
c
x∈ y

m = 1,2. Define the components of f over archimedean places as

fω , y (α , β ) =
s
ω, y
( (
exp − eωπ p y (α ) + p y (β )
2 2
), (8.6)

for (α , β ) ∈ Οω , y × Οω , y where is the usual absolute value, p y is the projection map, eω = 1 if ω


is a real embedding and eω = 2 if ω is a complex embedding. Then

2
d x , z − (c x , z ,1 + c x , z , 2 )s  1 
∫ f dµ (
y A y × Ay )× = ∏q x, z

 1 − q−s 
 ∏ Γω (s ) , ,y (8.7)
x∈ y , na  x, z  ω ∈y

y ∈ S− Γω , y (s ) = π − s Γ(s / 2 ) if ω
2
where for the factor is a real embedding and
Γω , y (s ) = (2π ) Γ(s ) if ω is a complex embedding. So we get
2−2s 2

2
d x , z − (c x , z ,1 + c x , z , 2 )s  1 
∫ fdµ( A× A )×
=∏ ∏q x, z

 1 − q−s 
 ∏ Γω (s ) . ,y (8.8)
y∈S ' x∈ y , na  x, z  ω ∈ y∈ S −

38
The product of the Euler factors over y ∈ S ' , up to finitely many removed, equals the square of the
Hesse zeta function of ε .
Now we define an R(( X )) -valued translation invariant measure µ B y × B y on By × By which lifts the
discrete counting measure on k ( y ) × k ( y ) . Components of a measurable set with respect to this
measure for almost all y ∈ S ' are sets ( p y , p y ) ( pt ) . Define a measure
−1
µ B × B = ⊗ y∈ S ' µ B y ×By
.
( )
For a subset S0 of S ' and f = ⊗ f y , f y = ⊗ x∈ y f x(,1z) , f x(,2z) , f x(,mz ) ∈ QK x , z , f y = g y o ( p y , p y ) where
( )
g y = g (y1) , g (y2 ) , g (ym ) are integrable functions on Ak ( y ) , define ∫B S0 × B S 0
f (β )dµ B× B (β ) as equal to

∏ ∫
y∈S 0 k ( y )× k ( y )
g y dµk ( y )× k ( y ) and extend to the space generated by such functions. The right hand side
can diverge if S0 is infinite. Then, we have:

∫ f (β )dµ B× B (β ) = ∏ ∫
y∈S 0 k ( y )× k ( y )
g y dµk ( y )× k ( y ) . (8.9)
B S0 × B S 0

Since the measure on k ( y ) is discrete counting, we can take the induced by it measure on k ( y ) .
×

Define the measure on (By × By ) as induced from the measure on By × By . So this measure is just
×

the pullback with respect to ( p y , p y ) of the discrete measure on (k ( y ) × k ( y )) . Define the measure
×

on (B × B ) as the induced from the measure on B × B . For a subset B = ∏ ( p y , p y ) (By ) of


× −1

(B × B )× and f = ⊗ f y as above, define

∫ fdµ( B × B )× = ∏ y ∫ g y dµ k ( y )× k ( y ) . (8.10)
B By

Using the local transforms Fx, z one easily gets an adelic transform F . Define spaces QA , QA× A as
adelic version of the local space QF . For a function f ∈ QA× A and a finite subset S0 of S ' ,
α ∈ (AS × AS
0 0
) ×
we get a summation formula which follows from the one dimensional formula

∫B S0 × B S 0
f (αβ )dµ BS0 × BS0 (β ) =
1
α ∫ B S0 × B S0
( )
f α −1β dµ BS0 × B S0 (β ) . (8.11)

8.2 Zeta integrals.[4]

We will define zeta integrals in the local case and then in the adelic case. The general formula
for the zeta integral has a shape similar to the dimension one zeta integral:

ζ (g , χ ) = ∫ g~χ t dµ (8.12)
T

where g is a function in the spaces R or Q, χ is a quasi-character on the group which describes


abelian extensions and χ t is its pullback to a quasi-character on the group T , local or adelic, tildes
and T stand for a certain rescaling of the original functions and groups, the need for which is
dictated by dimension two theory needs. If one prefers to ignore the higher class field theory and K-
delic objects, in the unramified theory without essential loss one can work with the zeta integral

39
(
ζ g,
s
) = ∫ g~
T
s/2
dµ . (8.13)

First, we define rescaling local homomorphisms o' and an adelic homomorphism O' . For a
non-archimedean two dimensional local field F with local parameters t2 , t1 define

o ': T → F × F , (t u , t u ) a (t
j
1 1
l
1 2
2j
1 )
u , t12l u2 ; (8.14)
1

in the archimedean case define

o ': T → F × F , (α1u1,α 2u2 ) a (α1 α1 u1,α 2 α 2 u2 ) , (8.15)

where α i ∈ E × , ui ∈1 + tE[[t ]] and is the usual absolute value on E . Denote by o the bijection
o' (T ) → T .
On the adelic side define o' = ⊗o' x , z : TS → AS × AS , and the inverse bijection o : o' (TS ) → TS . For
α ∈ T we will use the notation α~ = o' (α ) . For a complex valued continuous function f whose
domain includes T and is a subset of F × F form f o o : o' (T ) → C , then extend it by continuity to
the closure of o' (T ) in F × F and by zero outside the closure, denote the result by f o : F × F → C .
Note that the closure of T in F × F is Ο × Ο . Introduce an extension g~ of a function
g = f o : F × F → C as the continuous extension on Ο × Ο of

g~ (α1 , α 2 ) = g (α1 ,α 2 ) + ∑1≤ i ≤3 g ((α1 ,α 2 )ν i ) , (α1 ,α 2 ) ∈ F × × F × , (8.16)

in the non-archimedean case, where ν 1 = (t1−1 , t1−1 ),ν 2 = (t1−1 ,1),ν 3 = (1, t1−1 ) and as the continuous
extension of f o in the archimedean case. So, for example, if f = char(t O , t O ) then f o (α1 , α 2 ) = 1 for
j l
1 1

(α1 ,α 2 ) ∈ F
× F only if α1 ∈ t U , α 2 ∈ t O , k ≥ j , m ≥ l , hence f o is not a continuous
× × 2k
1
2m
1
×

~
function; but f = char(t 2 j O ,t 2 l O ) is.
1 1

For a complex function g on the adelic T which is the tensor product of its local components g x , z
define g~ as the tensor product of the local g~x , z , and extend the definition to the space generated by
such functions. We will have different rescaling on vertical and horizontal curves. For a curve y
denote by T1, y the kernel of the module map on Ty . Choose a set of representatives M y ∈ Ty of
N y = Ty which forms a group. So if k ( y ) is of positive characteristic then N y is a cyclic group
generated by q y , if k ( y ) is of characteristic zero then N y is the multiplicative group of positive real
numbers. Define a map O' = ⊗Oy' : T → T curvewise : Oy' (α ) = o' (α ) if y is vertical,
O (mγ ) = o' (m )γ for m ∈ M y , γ ∈ T1, y if y is horizontal. Put
'
y

T = O' (T ), Ty = O' (Ty ) . (8.17)

If k ( y ) is of characteristic zero then Ty = Ty . Using the homomorphism t define for a function f


on K 2t (F ) or on J S the function f t is the pullback with respect to t to the local or adelic T . So 2t

40
is the module function on T . Now, for a function g ∈ RF ×F or g ∈ R( A× A )× and a quasi-character
χ : K 2t (F ) → C × or χ : J S → C × , χ PS = 1 define a generic local zeta integral as

ζ (g , χ ) = ζ ( g , χ , µ ) = ∫ g~χ~t dµ ( F ×F )× (8.18)
o '(T )

and an adelic zeta integral as

ζ ( g , χ ) = ζ S ,S ' (g , χ , µ ) = ∫ g~χ~t dµ( A× A ) . (8.19) ×


T

For g ∈ QF ×F and g ∈ R( A× A )× the zeta integrals take complex values.


For the local non-archimedean zeta integral in the case where µ (O ) = 1 , we have that

ζ ( g , χ ) = (1 − q −1 ) ∑ (q ) ∫ ( )
g t1j u1 , t1l u2 χ 0 (t (u1 , u 2 ))dµ F ×F (u1 , u2 ) , (8.20)
−2 − s j +l
O× ×O×
j ,l∈Z

where χ = χ 0 , χ 0 is of finite order and trivial on {t1 , t 2 }. If, moreover, for fixed j , l the value
s
2

( j
g t u ,t u
1 1
l
1 2 ) is constant = g ( j, l ) , then
0

ζ ( g , χ ) = (1 − q −1 ) ∑ (q ) g 0 ( j , l )∫ × χ 0 (t (u1 , u2 ))dµ F ×F (u1 , u2 ) . (8.21)


−2 − s j +l
O ×O×
j ,l∈Z

If g = ⊗ y∈S ' g y then

ζ S ,S ' ( g , χ ) = ∏ ζ y (g y , χ ) , ζ y (g y , χ ) = ∫ g~y χ~t dµ( A× A ) , (8.22)×


Ty
y∈S '

thence
ζ S ,S ' ( g , χ ) = ∏ ∫ g~y χ~t dµ( A× A ) . (8.23) ×
Ty
y∈S '

Write the quasi-character χ as ∏χ x, z . If, furthermore, g y = ⊗ x∈y g x , z , then we have the following
formulas. If y is a vertical curve then ζ y (g y , χ ) = ∏x∈y ζ x , z (g x , z , χ x , z ) is the product of the generic
local zeta integrals. If y is horizontal in characteristic zero then ζ y (g y , χ ) = ∏x∈y ζ x , z (g x , z , χ x , z )
where the local factor equals
∫ g~x , z χ~x , zt x , z dµ K × × (8.24)
Tx , z x , z ×K x , z

and therefore differs from the generic local zeta integral defined above, since Tx , z which differs
from o' (Tx , z ) unless Fx , z is archimedean. If y is horizontal in positive characteristic then introduce
an auxiliary zeta integral
( s/2
)
ζ ya g y , 2 = ∫ g~y (α )α dµ( A × A )× (α ) . (8.25)
s
Ty y y

The latter is the product of


41
∫ g~y (α )α dµ K × (α ) ,
s/2
× (8.26)
Tx , z x , z ×K x , z

to calculate which one can use the formulas for horizontal y in characteristic zero. If

(
ζ ya g y ,
s
2
)= ∑ ∫
n∈N y T1, y
g~y (mnγ )dµ ( A × A )× (γ )n −s / 2 , (8.27)
y y

mn ∈ Ty , mn y = n , then (
ζ y gy,
s
2
)= ∑ n∈N y
c2 n n − s .

The adelic zeta integral diverges unless S = ε corresponds to an elliptic curve over a global field,
since otherwise ly , will take the same value different from 1 for infinitely many vertical curves.
Now, we assume that S = ε is a minimal regular model of elliptic curve E over a global field k ,
(see pg.9) and that the set S ' of curves contains the image of the zero section S → B . From Tate’s
algorithm for the special fibre of a regular model of elliptic curve we know that for every point x
on ε there is a branch z of a vertical y passing through x such that the finite residue field k z ( x )
coincides with the residue field k ( x ) of x .
Now we define a kind of a centrally normalized function f for which the calculation of the adelic
zeta integral is straightforward. Put

f = ⊗ y∈S ' f y , f y = ⊗ x∈y f x ,z (8.28)

and define the local factors as follows. For non-archimedean ( x, z ) on vertical curves y in a non-
singular fibre and horizontal curves in characteristic zero put f x , z = char(Ox , z ,Ox , z ) . On a vertical curve
( )
y in a non-singular fibre f y = f y and F ( f y )(α ) = f y ν y−1α with ν y ∈ T1, y . On a vertical curve y in
~

(
a singular fibre define f x , z (α ) = char(Ox , z ,Ox , z ) (ε x , zα ) with (ε x , z ) ∈ Ty , ε x , z = t1, x ,xz, z , t1, x ,xz, z , such that for
−c −c'
)
( )
f y = ⊗ x∈y f x ,z we have F ( f y )(α ) = f y ν y−1α with ν y ∈ T1, y . On a horizontal curve y in positive
characteristic define f x , z (α ) = char(Ox , z ,Ox , z ) (ε x , zα ) with (ε x , z ) ∈ Ty such that for f y = ⊗ x∈y f x ,z we have
( ) ( )
F f y (α ) = f y ρ y−1α with ρ y ∈ T1, y . Over archimedean places put
~ ~

[ (
fωpr, y (α , β ) = exp − eωπ p y (α ) + p y (β )
4 4
)], (8.29)

for (α , β ) ∈ Οω , y × Οω , y .

[ ( )]
So then
fω , y (α , β ) = exp − eωπ p y (α ) + p y (β ) . (8.30)
~ pr 2 2

For a fixed archimedean σ choose ηω , y ∈ R>0 equal each other, such that

∏ωηω 2 eω
,y = ηω2 n, y = ly (8.31)

where n = k : Q .

42
For a horizontal y in characteristic zero define f y as having components char(Ox , z ,Ox , z ) at non-
archimedean data and [(
fω , y (α ) = fωpr, y η ω , y , η ω , y α )]
at ω , y . Then on horizontal curves in
( ) ( )
characteristic zero we have F f y (α ) = f y ρ y α with ρ y ∈ T1, y . On vertical fibres put ρ y = ν~y and
~ ~ −1

define
ρ = ⊗ y∈S ' ρ y . (8.32)

Now, using the previous formulas it is easy to obtain the following theorem of ζ f , ( s
2
).
THEOREM

For every vertical curve y we have

( )
2
 1 
ζy f, = l ∏ 
1− s
 . (8.33)
s
2 −s
x∈y  1 − q x , z
y 

For every horizontal curve y the zeta integral ζ y f , ( s


) is a meromorphic function which satisfies
( )= ζ (f , )
2
2− s
the functional equation ζ y f ,
s
2 y 2
and which is holomorphic outside its poles of
multiplicity two at s = 0,2 in characteristic zero and at q ys = 1, q 2y in positive characteristic. For a
horizontal curve y in characteristic zero the zeta integral ζy f, ( s
2
) is the square of a one
dimensional integral at s / 2 on k ( y ) .

Recall that the (unramified) zeta function of a scheme S is

ζ S (s ) = ∏ 1 − k ( x )
x∈S0 '
( )
− s −1
, (8.34)

where x runs through the set of closed points on S . It is equal to the product ∏ b∈B0
ζ S (s ) , where
b

Sb = S × B b . It is easy to see that ζ S (s ) absolutely and normally converges on R (s ) > 2 . Classically


we know even a stronger property: ζ S (s ) extends to a meromorphic function on R (s ) > 3 / 2 with
the only simple pole(s) at s = 2 in characteristic zero and q s = q 2 in positive characteristic. The
previous theorem implies a comparison of the zeta integral and the square of the Hasse function of
ε which, in particular, implies the convergence of the zeta integral on the half plane R (s ) > 2 .

COROLLARY

On R (s ) > 2 (
ζ ε ,S ' f ,
s
2
) = c ( )ζ (s ) ,
ε ,S '
s
2 ε
2
cε ,S ' ( ) = c ( )c − ( ).
s
2 ε ,S '
s
2 ε ,S '
s
2

The first factor cε ,S ' ( )= ∏


s
2 b∈B0 b
i (s ) where


(
ib (s ) = ∏  ly1−s ∏ 1 − k z ( x )
−s
)−2 
(
∏ 1 − k ( x ) −s , (8.35)

2
)
y ⊂ε b  x∈y  x∈ε b

43
where y runs through irreducible components of ε b without multiplicities. The factor ib (s ) equals
1 on all non-singular fibres ε b . Furthermore, we have:

ζ ε ,S ' f ,( s
2
)= ∏ b∈B0 ∏
 1−s
(
 ly ∏ 1 − k z (x ) −s
 )
−2 
( )
∏ 1 − k ( x ) −s ζ ε (s )2 . (8.36)

2

y ⊂ε b  x∈y  x∈εb

The second factor is the product of zeta integrals for horizontal curves and hence has a
meromorphic continuation to the complex plane and satisfies the functional equation
cε ,S − ( )= c − ( )
s
ε ,S
2− s
and is holomorphic outside its poles at s = 0,2 in characteristic zero and
( )
2 2

at q s = 1, q 2 in positive characteristic. The zeta integral ζ ε ,S ' f ,


s
2
absolutely and normally
converge on R (s ) > 2 .

The general case of S introduce a (renormalized) zeta integral

(
ζ S ,S ' g ,
s
2, S
)= ∏ ζ (
 P1 ( B ),P1 ( B )b f ,
y ⊂ Sb ,b∈B0 
s
2, P ( B )
1 )
g −1
(
ζ S,y g,
s
2,S
) ⋅ ∏ ζ (g , ).
y∈S '\ S '
S,y
s
2,S
(8.37)

For y in a non-singular fibre Sb the y -factor ly1−s of ζ S , y g , ( s


2 ,S
) is cancelled out by the b -factor
( )
of ζ P1 ( B ) f ,
s g −1
which is equal to its inverse. Define f similar to the function f above. Similar
( ) equals the
2

to the previous calculation one deduces that for R (s ) > 2 the zeta integral ζ S ,S ' f ,
s

( )
2, S

product of ζ P1 ( B ) (s ) ζ S (s )2 and of cS ,S '


2 g −2 s
2
which is the product of exponential and Euler
factors for vertical curves in singular fibres and of factors for horizontal curves in S ' .

8.3 Adelic strings and zeta strings. [5] [6] [7] [8]

Recall that the field of rational numbers Q plays an important role in physics. On Q there is the
( ) ( )
usual . ∞ and p-adic . p absolute value, where p denotes a prime number. Completion of Q with
respect to . ∞ and . p yields the field of real (R ≡ Q∞ ) and p-adic (Q p ) numbers, respectively.
The set of all adeles A may be given in the form

A = U Α (S ) , Α(S ) = R × ∏ Q p × ∏ Z p . (8.38)
S p∈S p∉S

A has the structure of a topological ring. Recall that quantum amplitudes defined by means of path
integral may be symbolically presented as

 1 
A(K ) = ∫ A( X )χ  − S [ X ]DX , (8.39)
 h 

44
where K and X denote classical momenta and configuration space, respectively. We note that
χ (a ) is an additive character, S [ X ] is a classical action and h is the Planck constant.
Now we consider the simple p-adic and adelic bosonic string amplitudes based on the functional
integral (8.39). We know that the scattering of two real bosonic strings in 26-dimensional space-
time at the tree level can be described in terms of the path integral in 2-dimensional quantum field
theory formalism as follows:

 2πi  2πi ( j ) µ
k µ X (σ j ,τ j ) , (8.40)
 4 
A∞ (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ DX exp S 0 [X ] × ∏ ∫ d 2σ j exp
 h  j =1  h 

where DX = DX 0 (σ ,τ )DX 1 (σ ,τ )...DX 25 (σ ,τ ) , d 2σ j = dσ j dτ j and

S0 [X ] = −
T
∫ d 2σ∂α X µ ∂α X µ (8.41)
2

with α = 0,1 and µ = 0,1,...,25 . Hence, we obtain:

 2πi  T  2πi ( j ) µ
k µ X (σ j ,τ j ) .
 4 
A∞ (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ DX exp  − ∫ d σ∂α X ∂ X µ   × ∏ ∫ d σ j exp
2 µ α 2

 h  2   j =1  h 
(8.41b)

It is possible to obtain the crossing symmetric Veneziano amplitude

A∞ (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ x ∞1 2 1 − x ∞2 3 dx . (8.42)


kk kk
R

As p-adic Veneziano amplitude, the p-adic analogue of eq. (8.42) is

Ap (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g 2p ∫ x p1 2 1 − x p2 3 dx , (8.43)


kk k k
Qp

where only the string world sheet, parametrized by x , is p-adic. Expressions (8.42) and (8.43) are
Gel’fand-Graev beta functions on R and Q p , respectively.
Now we take p-adic analogue of (8.40), i.e.

Ap (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∫ DXχ p  − S 0 [ X ] × ∏ ∫ d 2σ j χ p  − k µ( j ) X µ (σ j ,τ j ) , (8.44)


2  1  4  1 
p
 h  j =1  h 

to be p-adic string amplitude, where χ p (u ) = exp(2πi{u}p ) is p-adic additive character and {u}p is
the fractional part of u ∈ Q p . In (8.44), all space-time coordinates X µ , momenta ki and world sheet
(σ ,τ ) are p-adic. Evaluation of (8.44) leads to the following equation:

 −1
(
ki k j log (σ i − σ j ) + (τ i − τ j ) ) .
4
Ap (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g 2p ∏ ∫ d 2σ j χ p  ∑
2 2
(8.45)
j =1  2hT i< j 

Adelic string amplitude is product of real and all p-adic amplitudes, i.e.

45
AA (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = A∞ (k1 ,..., k4 )∏ Ap (k1 ,..., k 4 ) . (8.46)
p

In the case of the Veneziano amplitude and (σ i ,τ j ) ∈ Α(S ) × Α(S ) , where Α(S ) is defined in (8.38),
we have
4
AA (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∫ x ∞ 1 − x ∞ dx × ∏ g ∏∫ d σ ×∏ g
2 k1k2 k 2 k3 2 2 2
∞ R p j p . (8.47)
p∈S j =1 p∉S

Hence, we take the adelic coupling constant as

g A2 = g ∞ ∏ g p = 1 , 0 ≠ g ∈ Q . (8.48)
2 2

Furthermore, it follows that p-adic effects in the adelic Veneziano amplitude induce discreteness of
string momenta and contribute to an effective coupling constant in the form

4
g ef2 = g A2 ∏∏ ∫ d 2σ j ≥ 1 . (8.49)
p∈S j =1

Like in ordinary string theory, the starting point of p-adic strings is a construction of the
corresponding scattering amplitudes. Now, for the eq. (8.42) we can write also the following
equations

A∞ (a, b ) = g 2 ∫ x ∞ 1 − x ∞ dx
a −1 b −1
(8.50)
R

 Γ(a )Γ(b ) Γ(b )Γ(c ) Γ(c )Γ(a )


= g2 + +  (8.51)
 Γ(a + b ) Γ(b + c ) Γ(c + a ) 

ζ (1 − a ) ζ (1 − b ) ζ (1 − c )
= g2 (8.52)
ζ (a ) ζ (b ) ζ (c )

 i µ
( )
4
∏ ∫ d σ j exp ik µ X ,
α ( j) µ
= g 2 ∫ DX exp − ∫ d 2
σ∂ X ∂
µ α X 2
(8.53)
 2π  j =1

a = −α (s ) = −1 − , b = −α (t ) , c = −α (u ) with the conditions


s
where h = 1 , T = 1 / π , and
2
s + t + u = −8 , i.e. a + b + c = 1 .
The p-adic generalization of the expression (8.50) is

Ap (a, b ) = g 2p ∫ x p 1 − x p dx , (8.54)
a −1 b −1
Qp

where . p denotes p-adic absolute value. In this case only string world-sheet parameter x is treated
as p-adic variable, and all other quantities have their usual (real) valuation. A further adelic formula
is

46
A∞ (a, b )∏ Ap (a, b ) = 1 (8.55)
p

where A∞ (a, b ) denotes the usual Veneziano amplitude (8.50). Hence, we obtain the following
equation
g 2 ∫ x ∞ 1 − x ∞ dx∏ Ap (a, b ) = 1 . (8.55b)
a −1 b −1
R
p

Now for the unified path integral approach to ordinary and p-adic N-point bosonic string amplitudes
at the tree level, we have that

 1 
( )
N
Av (k1 ,..., k N ) = g vN −2 ∏ ∫ d 2σ j ∫ χ v  − ∫ L X µ , ∂α X µ d 2σ Dv X , (8.56)
j =1  h 

where v = ∞,2,..., p,..., µ = 0,1,...,25, α = 0,1, and χ ∞ (a ) = exp(− 2πia ) , χ p (a ) = exp(2πi{a}p ) .


The above Lagrangian is

∂α X µ (σ ,τ )∂α X µ (σ ,τ ) + − 1∑ k µ( j ) X µ (σ ,τ )δ (σ − σ j )δ (τ − τ j ) . (8.57)
N
T
L=−
2 j =1

Note that this approach is adelic and based on the following assumptions: (i) space-time and matter
are adelic at the Planck (M-theory) scale, (ii) Feynman’s path integral method is an inherent
ingredient of quantum theory, and (iii) adelic quantum theory is a more complete theory than the
ordinary one. Consequently, a string is an adelic object which has simultaneously real and all p-adic
characteristics. The target space and world-sheet are adelic spaces. Adelic Feynman’s path integral
is an infinite product of the ordinary one and all p-adic counterparts. The corresponding adelic
string amplitude is

( ) ( ) ( ) (
A k A(1) ,..., k A( N ) = A∞ k∞(1) ,..., k∞( N ) ∏ Ap k (p1) ,..., k p( N ) ∏ Ap k p(1) ,..., k p( N ) , (8.58))
p∈S p∉S

where k A(i ) is an adele, i.e.


(
k A(i ) = k∞(i ) , k2(i ) ,..., k (pi ) ,... ) (8.59)

with the restriction that k (pi ) ∈ Z p for all but a finite set S of primes p . The topological ring of
adeles k A(i ) provides a framework for simultaneous and unified consideration of real and p-adic
string momenta. Adelic string amplitude contains nontrivial p-adic modification of the ordinary one.
Now we consider the case A → C with regard p-adic and adelic analysis. In this case functions are
complex-valued while their arguments are adeles. The related analysis is used in adelic approach to
quantum mechanics, quantum cosmology, quantum field theory and string theory. Many important
complex-valued functions from real and p-adic analysis can be easily extended to this adelic case.
Adelic multiplicative and additive characters are:

π s ( x ) = x = x∞ ∞ ∏ x p p ,
s
x∈ I , s ∈C ,
s s
(8.60)
p

47
{ }p
χ ( x ) = χ ∞ ( x∞ )∏ χ p (x p ) = e −2πix
2πi x p

p

∏e
p
, x∈ A. (8.61)

Since all except finite number of factors in (8.60) and (8.61) are equal to unity, it is evident that
these infinite products are convergent. One can show that π s ( x ) = 1 if x is a principal idele, and
χ ( x ) = 1 if x is a principal adele, i.e.

x ∞ ∏ x p = 1, x ∈ Q ∗ , s ∈ C ,
s s
(8.62)
p

χ ∞ ( x )∏ χ p (x ) = e −2πix ∏ e
2πi {x }p
= 1, x∈Q . (8.63)
p p

It is worth noting that expressions (8.62) and (8.63) for s = 1 represent the simplest adelic product
formulas, which clearly connect real and p-adic properties of the same rational number. In fact, the
formula (8.62), for s = 1 , connects usual absolute value and p-adic norms at the multiplicative
group of rational numbers Q∗ . Maps ϕ P : A → C , which have the form

ϕ P ( x ) = ϕ∞ ( x∞ )∏ ϕ p (x p )∏ Ω p x p
p∈P p∉P
( ), p
(8.64)

where ϕ ∞ ( x∞ ) are infinitely differentiable functions and fall to zero faster than any power of x∞ ∞
as x∞ ∞ → ∞ , and ϕ p (x p ) are locally constant functions with compact support, are called
elementary functions on A . All finite linear combinations of the elementary functions (8.64) make
the set S ( A) of Schwartz-Bruhat functions ϕ ( x ) . A is a locally compact ring and therefore there is
the corresponding Haar measure, which is product of the real and all p-adic additive Haar measures.
The Fourier transform of the Schwartz-Bruhat functions ϕ ( x ) is

ϕ~(ξ ) = ∫ ϕ ( x )χ ( xξ )dx (8.65)


A

and it maps S ( A) onto S ( A) . The Mellin transform of ϕ ( x ) ∈ S ( A) is defined using the


s
multiplicative character x in the following way:

Φ(s ) = ∫ ϕ ( x ) x d ∗ x = ∫ ϕ∞ ( x∞ ) x∞ ∞ dx∞ × ∏ ∫ ϕ p (x p ) x p
s −1 s −1 dx
Re s > 1 .
s
, (8.66)
I R
p
Qp p 1 − p −1

Φ(s ) may be analytically continued on the whole complex plane, except s = 0 and s = 1 , where it
has simple poles with residues − ϕ (0) and ϕ~ (0) , respectively. Denoting by Φ the Mellin transform
~
of ϕ~ then there is place the Tate formula

Φ(s ) = Φ (1 − s ) .
~
(8.67)

If we take
ϕ ( x ) = 4 2e −πx
2

∏ p
( ),
Ω p xp
p

48
which is the simplest ground state of the adelic harmonic oscillator, then from the Tate formula
(8.67) one gets the well-known functional relation for the Riemann zeta function, i.e.

s −1
1− s 
s
− s
π 2 Γ ζ (s ) = π 2
Γ ζ (1 − s ) . (8.68)
2  2 

Its interesting this connection between the harmonic oscillator and the Riemann zeta function.
With regard the zeta strings, hence the Riemann zeta function applied to the strings, the equation of
motion for the zeta string φ is

  k2 ~ φ
eixk ζ  − φ (k )dk =
1
ζ  φ =
(2π )D ∫
r (8.69)
2 k02 − k 2 >2+ε
 2 1−φ

which has an evident solution φ = 0 . For the case of time dependent spatially homogeneous
solutions one has to consider the equation of motion

 − ∂ t2   k2 ~ φ (t )
φ (t ) = e −ik0tζ  0 φ (k0 )dk0 =
1
ζ 
(2π ) ∫k0 >
. (8.70)
 2  2 +ε
 2 1 − φ (t )

In the weak field approximation (φ (t ) << 1) the above expression φ / (1 − φ ) ≈ φ and (8.70) becomes
a linear equation which can be written in the form

−ik0t   k0 
( ~
)
2

∫R   2 θ k0 − 2 − ε − 1φ (k0 )dk0 = 0 ,


e ζ  (8.71)
 

 k02 
where θ is the Heaviside function. Since ζ   > 1 when k0 > 2 the equation (8.71) has
 2
solution only for φ (k0 ) = 0 . This also means the absence of mass.
~

Furthermore, with regard the coupled zeta strings φ and θ which are open and closed respectively,
the equations of motion are:

n ( n −1)
 ixk  k2 ~
ζ  φ =
1
ζ
∫  2 
e  − φ (k )dk = ∑ θ 2
φ n , (8.72)
2 (2π )D n≥1

 n2 n(n − 1) n (n2−1)−1 n+1 



ζ  θ =
1 ixk 
ζ
∫  4 
e  −
k2 ~
θ (k )dk = ∑ θ +
2(n + 1)
θ φ −1  . ( ) (8.73)
4 (2π )D n≥1  

9. The P-N Model (Palumbo-Nardelli model) and the Ramanujan identities, solution applied
to ten dimensional IIB supergravity (uplifted 10-dimensional solution) and connections with
some equations concerning the Riemann zeta function. [9]

49
Palumbo (2001) has proposed a simple model of the birth and of the evolution of the Universe.
Palumbo and Nardelli (2005) have compared this model with the theory of the strings, and
translated it in terms of the latter obtaining:

− g µρ g νσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µ φ∂ν φ  =


 R 1 1 
− ∫ d 26 x g −
 16πG 8 2 

( )

 1 ~ 2 κ 2
2 
= ∫ 2 ∫ d 10 x(− G ) e − 2Φ  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ µ Φ − H 3 − 102 Trν F2  ,
1 1/ 2
(9.1)
0
2κ 10  2 g10 

A general relationship that links bosonic and fermionic strings acting in all natural systems.
It is well-known that the series of Fibonacci’s numbers exhibits a fractal character, where the forms
5 −1
repeat their similarity starting from the reduction factor 1 / φ = 0,618033 = (Peitgen et al.
2
1986). Such a factor appears also in the famous fractal Ramanujan identity (Hardy 1927):

5 −1 5
0,618033 = 1 / φ = = R(q) + , (9.2)
2 3+ 5  1 q f 5 (−t ) dt 
1+
2
exp ∫ 1/ 5

4/5 
 5 0 f (−t ) t 

 
 
3 5
and π = 2Φ −  R ( q ) + , (9.3)
20  3+ 5  1 q f (−t ) dt  
5

 1+ exp ∫ 
4/5  
 5 0 f (−t ) t  
1/ 5
 2

5 +1
where Φ= .
2

Furthermore, we remember that π arises also from the following identity:

π=
12 (
log 
)(
 2 + 5 3 + 13 
,
) (9.3a) and π=
24 
log 
 10 + 11 2 
 +
 10 + 7 2  
  .
130 2 142   4   4 
      
(9.3b)

The introduction of (9.2) and (9.3) in (9.1) provides:






− g µρ g νσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) +
 R 1 1
− ∫ d 26 x g − ⋅
16G   8
  
 3  5 
 2Φ −  R(q ) + 
 20  3+ 5  1 q f (−t ) dt  
5

  1 +
2
exp ∫
 5 0 f −t
1/ 5
(

)
t 4 / 5  
 

50
 
 
− g µν ∂ µ φ∂ν φ ] = ∫ 2 ⋅ 2Φ −  R (q ) +
1 ∞ R 3 5 ⋅
2 0 κ 11 20  3+ 5  1 q f (−t ) dt  
5

 1+ exp ∫ 
4/5  
 5 0 f (−t ) t  
1/ 5
 2
κ112
∫ d x(− G ) e R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ Φ −
10 −2Φ 1/ 2 µ
[ 1 ~ 2
2
H3 −
 
Trν
 
3  5 
2Φ −  R ( q ) +  2 Rg102
20  3+ 5  1 q f (−t ) dt  
5



1 +
2
exp ∫ 1/ 5

4/5  
 5 0 f (−t ) t  
( F ) ],
2
2
(9.4)

which is the translation of (30) in the terms of the Theory of the Numbers, specifically the possible
connection between the Ramanujan identity and the relationship concerning the Palumbo-Nardelli
model.

a. Solution applied to ten dimensional IIB supergravity (uplifted 10-dimensional solution).

This solution can be oxidized on a three sphere S 3 to give a solution to ten dimensional IIB
supergravity. This 10D theory contains a graviton, a scalar field, and the NSNS 3-form among other
fields, and has a ten dimensional action given by

1 1 1 
S10 = ∫ d 10 x g  R − (∂φ ) 2 − e −2φ H µνλ H µνλ  . (9.5)
4 2 12 

We have a ten dimensional configuration given by

2
3/ 4
 r2  r
5/ 4
 2  Q  
2

ds =   − + + dr 2  +   dθ + dψ + dϕ +  dψ + cos θdϕ − 5 dt  


2 2 2 2 2 2
10  h ( r ) dt r dx 0, 5
r  h( r )  2   5r  

5 r
φ = − log ,
4 2

dr ∧ dt ∧ (dψ + cos θdϕ ) −


Q g
H3 = − 6
sin θdθ ∧ dϕ ∧ dψ . (9.6)
r 2

This uplifted 10-dimensional solution describes NS-5 branes intersecting with fundamental strings
in the time direction.
Now we make the manipulation of the angular variables of the three sphere simpler by introducing
the following left-invariant 1-forms of SU(2):

σ 1 = cosψdθ + sinψ sin θdϕ , σ 2 = sinψdθ − cosψ sin θdϕ , σ 3 = dψ + cos θdϕ , (9.7)

Q 1
and h3 = σ 3 − dt . (9.8)
5 r5

51
Next, we perform the following change of variables

4
r 5 ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ 1
= ρ5, t = t , dx 4 = dx 4 , dx5 = dZ , g = 2 g~ , Q = 2 2 7 Q , σ i = ~ σ~i . (9.9)
2 32 2 2 2 g

It is straightforward to check that the 10-dimensional solution (9.6) becomes, after these changes

ρ  ~ 2 ~ 2  ~ g~Q 1 ~  
~ 2
~ 2
[ ]
1 −1 ~ 2
ds10 = ρ ds6 + ~ 2 σ 1 + σ 2 +  σ 3 −
g  ρ 4
d t   + ρdZ 2 ,
2
  4 2  
φ = − ln ρ ,
~
1 ~ ~ ~ Q ~ ~
H 3 = − ~ 2 σ 1 ∧ σ 2 ∧ h3 + d t ∧ d ρ ∧ h3 , (9.10)
g 2 g~ρ 5

where we define

~ ~ ρ2
d~
s 62 = − h ( ρ )d t 2 + ~ dρ 2 + ρ 2 d~
x02, 4 (9.11)
h (ρ )

and, after re-scaling M,


~ ~
~ 2 M g~ 2 2 Q 2 1
h =− 2 + ρ + . (9.12)
ρ 32 8 ρ6

We now transform the solution from the Einstein to the string frame. This leads to

1  ~2 ~2  ~ g~Q 1 ~  
~ 2
1 −2 ~ 2
2
10 [ ]
ds = ρ ds6 + ~ 2 σ 1 + σ 2 +  σ 3 −
g  ρ 4
d t   + dZ 2 ,
2
  4 2  

φ = −2 ln ρ ,

H3 = H3 . (9.13)

We have a solution to 10-dimensional IIB supergravity with a nontrivial NSNS field. If we perform
an S-duality transformation to this solution we again obtain a solution to type-IIB theory but with a
nontrivial RR 3-form, F3 . The S-duality transformation acts only on the metric and on the dilaton,
leaving invariant the three form. In this way we are led to the following configuration, which is S-
dual to the one derived above

1 ~2 ρ 2  ~2 ~2  ~ g~Q 1 ~  
~ 2
2
10 [ ]
ds = ds6 + ~ 2 σ 1 + σ 2 +  σ 3 −
g  ρ 4
d t   + ρ 2 dZ 2 ,
2
  4 2  

φ = 2 ln ρ ,

52
F3 = H 3 . (9.14)

With regard the T-duality, in the string frame we have

1 2 r2  2 gQ 1  
2
2
10 [ ] 2 
ds = ds 6 + 2 σ 1 + σ 2 +  σ 3 − 4
dt   + r −2 dZ 2 . (9.15)
2 g   4 2 r  

This gives a solution to IIA supergravity with excited RR 4-form, C 4 . We proceed by performing a
T-duality transformation, leading to a solution of IIB theory with nontrivial RR 3-form, C 3 . The
complete solution then becomes

1 2 r2  2 gQ 1  
2
2
10 [ ] 2 
ds = ds 6 + 2 σ 1 + σ 2 +  σ 3 − 4
dt   + r 2 dZ 2 ,
2 g   4 2r  

φ = 2 ln r

1 Q 1
C3 = − 2
σ 1 ∧ σ 2 ∧ h3 − 5
dt ∧ dr ∧ h3 . (9.16)
g 2g r

We are led in this way to precisely the same 10D solution as we found earlier [see formula (9.14)].
With regard the Palumbo-Nardelli model, we have the following connection with the eq. (9.5):

− g µρ g νσ Tr (G µν G ρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µ φ∂ν φ  =
 R 1 1 
− ∫ d 26 x g −
 16πG 8 2 

( ) →

 1 ~ 2 κ 2
= ∫ 2 ∫ d 10 x(− G ) e −2Φ  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ µ Φ − H 3 − 102 Trν F2
1 1/ 2 2

0 2κ 10  2 g10 
1 
→ ∫ d 10 x g  R − (∂φ ) − e −2φ H µνλ H µνλ  . (9.17)
1 2 1
4 2 12 

b. Connections with some equations concerning the Riemann zeta function.

We have obtained interesting connections between some solutions concerning ten dimensional IIB
supergravity and some equations concerning the Riemann zeta function, specifying the Goldston-
Montgomery theorem.
In the chapter “Goldbach’s numbers in short intervals” of Languasco’s paper “The Goldbach’s
conjecture”, is described the Goldston-Montgomery theorem.

THEOREM 1

Assume the Riemann hypothesis. We have the following implications: (1) If 0 < B1 ≤ B2 ≤ 1 and
X B1
F (X ,T ) ≈
1
T log T uniformly for ≤ T ≤ X B2 log 3 X , then
2π 3
log X

53
X

∫ (ψ (1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δ (x )
1 1
dx ≈ δX 2 log , (9.18)
2

1
2 δ

1 1
uniformly for B2
≤δ ≤ B .
X X 1
X

∫ (ψ ((1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δx ) dx ≈ 2 δX
1 1
(2) If 1 < A1 ≤ A2 < ∞
2 2
and log uniformly for
1
δ
F (X ,T ) ≈
1 1 1
≤ T ≤ 1 / A2 log 3 X , then T log T uniformly for
X 1 / A1 3
log X X 2π

T A1 ≤ X ≤ T A2 .

Now, for show this theorem, we must to obtain some preliminary results .

Preliminaries Lemma. (Goldston-Montgomery)

Lemma 1.

+∞
We have f ( y ) ≥ 0 I (Y ) = ∫ e f (Y + y )dy = 1 + ε (Y ) . If R(y) is a Riemann-
−2 y
∀y ∈ R and let
−∞
integrable function, we have:

b
b 
∫a R ( y ) f (Y + y )dy = 
∫ R ( y )dy (1 + ε ' ( y )) .

a 

Furthermore, fixed R, ε ' (Y ) is little if ε ( y ) is uniformly small for Y + a − 1 ≤ y ≤ Y + b + 1 .

Lemma 2.

Let f (t ) ≥ 0 a continuous function defined on [0,+∞ ) such that f (t ) << log 2 (t + 2 ) .


If
T
J (T ) = ∫ f (t )dt = (1 + ε (T ))T log T ,
0
then

π
2
 sin ku  
∫0  u  f (u )du =  2 + ε ' (k )k log k ,
1

with ε ' (k ) small for k → 0 + if ε (T ) is uniformly small for

1 1
2
≤ T ≤ log 2 k .
k log k k

Lemma 3.

54
Let f (t ) ≥ 0 a continuous function defined on [0,+∞ ) such that f (t ) << log 2 (t + 2) . If


π
2
 sin ku   1
I (k ) = ∫   f (u )du =  + ε ' (k ) k log , (9.19) then
0
u  2  k

T
J (T ) = ∫ f (t )dt = (1 + ε ' )T log T , (9.20)
0

1 1
with ε ' small if ε (k ) ≤ ε uniformly for ≤ k ≤ log 2 T .
T log T T

Lemma 4.

4 X i (γ − γ ')
Let F ( X , T ) := ∑ . Then (i) F ( X , T ) ≥ 0 ; (ii) F ( X , T ) = F (1 / X , T ) ; (iii) If
0<γ ,γ '<T 4 + (γ − γ ')
2

The Riemann hypothesis is preserved, then we have

 1  1  log log T 
F ( X , T ) = T  2 log 2 T + log X  + O 

X  2π  log T 

uniformly for 1 ≤ X ≤ T .

Lemma 5.

Let δ ∈ (0,1] and a (s ) =


(1 + δ ) −1
s
. If c(γ ) ≤ 1 ∀y we have that
s

c(γ ) c(γ )
2 2
+∞ +∞
 2 1 
∫ a(it ) ∑γ 1 + (t − γ )2 dt = ∫ γ∑≤Z a(1 / 2 + iγ )1 + (t − γ )2 dt + O δ 2 log3 δ  + O Z log3 Z 
2

−∞ −∞

1
for Z > .
δ

For to show the Theorem 1, there are two parts. We go to prove (1).
We define
2
X iγ
T
( )
J X , T = 4∫ ∑ dt .
0 γ 1 + (t − γ )
2

Montgomery has proved that (


J ( X , T ) = 2πF ( X , T ) + O log 3 T )
and thence the hypothesis

F (X ,T ) ≈ J ( X , T ) = (1 + o(1))T log T . Putting k = log(1 + δ ) , we have


1 1
T log T is equal to
2π 2

55
2
 sin kt 
a (it ) = 4
2
 .
 t 

For the Lemma 2, we obtain that


∞ 2
X iγ π  1 π 
∫ a(it ) ∑γ 1 + (t − γ )2 dt =  2 + o(1)k log k =  4 + o(1)δ log δ
2 1
0

1 3 1
for ≤T ≤ log 2 .
δ log 2 1 δ δ
δ

For the Lemma 5 and the parity of the integrand, we have that

2
+∞
X iγ π 
∫−∞ γ∑≤Z 1 + (t − γ )2 dt =  2 + o(1)δ log δ
( ) 1
a ρ (a)

1 1
if Z ≥ log 3 .
δ δ

X iγ
From the S (t ) = ∑ a (ρ ) we note that the Fourier’s transformed verify that
1 + (t − γ )
2
γ ≤Z

Sˆ (u ) = π ∑ a (ρ ) X iγ e(− γu )e
−2π u
.
γ ≤Z

From the Plancherel identity, we have that

2
+∞
2 
∫ γ∑ a(ρ )X e(− γu ) du =  + o(1)δ log .
iγ −4π u 1
e
−∞ ≤Z π  δ

For the substitution Y = log X , − 2πu = y we obtain

2
+∞

∫ γ∑ a(ρ )e dy = (1 + o(1))δ log


iγ (Y + y ) −2 y 1
e . (b)
−∞ ≤Z δ

Using the Lemma 1 with R( y ) = e 2 y if 0 ≤ y ≤ log 2 and R( y ) = 0 otherwise, and putting


Y+y
x=e we have that
2
2X
3 
∫ γ∑ a(ρ )x dx =  + o(1)δX 2 log .
ρ 1
X ≤Z 2  δ

Substituting X with X 2 − j , summarizing on j, 1 ≤ j ≤ K , and using the explicit formula for ψ ( x )


with Z = X log 3 X we obtain

56
∫ (ψ ((1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δx ) dx = 2 (1 − 2 )
X
+ o(1) δX 2 log
1
2 −2 K 1
.
X 2− K
δ

Furthermore, we put K = [log log X ] and we utilize, for the interval 1 ≤ x ≤ X 2 − K , the estimate of
Lemma 4 (placing X 2 − K for X ). Thus, we obtain (1).
Now, we prove (2).
We fix an real number X 1 . Making an integration for parts between X 1 and X 2 = X 1 log 2 / 3 X 1 we
obtain, remembering that for hypothesis we have
X

∫1 (ψ ((1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δx ) dx ≈ 2 δX log δ ,
2 1 2 1

X2
1 
∫ (ψ ((1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δx ) x dx =  + o(1)δX 1−2 log .
2 −4 1
that (c)
X1 2  δ

Utilizing the estimate, valid under the Riemann hypothesis

∫ (ψ ((1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δx ) dx << δX
2 2 2
log 2 ,
1
δ

we obtain analogously as before that


 1
∫ (ψ ((1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δx ) x
1
−4
dx << δX 2−2 log 2 = o δX 1−2 log  .
2
(d)
X2
δ  δ

Now, summarizing (c) and (d) and multiplying the sum for X 12 we obtain


 x 2 X 12 
∫1  X 12 , x 2 (ψ ((1 + δ )x ) −ψ (x ) − δx ) x dx = (1 + o(1))δ log δ .
2 −2 1
min

Putting X 1 = X , Y = log X , x = eY + y and using the explicit formula for ψ ( x ) with Z = X log 3 X ,
we obtain the equation (b).
5 r
Now, we take the equations (9.6) and (9.14) and precisely φ = − log and φ = 2 ln ρ . We note
4 2
3
that from the equation (9.20) for ε ' = and T = 1/2 , we have
2
T
5 1
J (T ) = ∫ f (t )dt = (1 + ε ' )T log T = log .
0
4 2

T
1
Furthermore, for ε ' = 3 and T = 1/2 , we have J (T ) = ∫ f (t )dt = (1 + ε ' )T log T = 2 log .
0
2

57
5 r
These results are related to φ = − log putting r = 1 and to φ = 2 ln ρ putting ρ = 1 / 2 , hence
4 2
with the Lemma 3 of Goldston-Montgomery theorem. Then, we have the following interesting
relations:

T T
φ = − log ⇒ − ∫ f (t )dt = −[(1 + ε ')T log T ] , (9.21) φ = 2 ln ρ ⇒ ∫ f (t )dt = (1 + ε ')T log T , ⇒
5 r
4 2 0 0

1 1 1 
⇒ ∫ d 10 x g  R − (∂φ ) 2 − e −2φ H µνλ H µνλ  (9.22)
4 2 12 

hence the connection between the 10-dimensional solutions (9.5) and some equations related to the
Riemann zeta function.
From this the possible connection between cosmological solutions concerning string theory and
some mathematical sectors concerning the zeta function, whose the Goldston-Montgomery
Theorem and the related Goldbach’s Conjecture.

10. Mathematical connections.

Now we take the eq. (7.11) of Section 7. We note that can be related with the Godston-Montgomery
equation, the ten dimensional action (9.5) and the relationship of Palumbo-Nardelli model (9.1) of
Section 9, hence we have the following connection:

k
 1 d 
T
δ k (u ) := δ k ,Β (u ) =  log f u ,Β (Τ) Τ=0 ⇒ 2 ln ρ ⇒ ∫ f (t )dt = (1 + ε ')T log T , ⇒
 λ 'Eˆ (Τ) dΤ 
 Β  0

1 1 1 
⇒ ∫ d 10 x g  R − (∂φ ) 2 − e −2φ H µνλ H µνλ  ⇒
4 2 12 

( )

 1 ~ 2 κ102 2 
⇒ ∫ 2 ∫ d x(− G ) e  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ Φ − H 3 − 2 Trν F2  =
1 10 1/ 2 µ
−2 Φ

0
2κ10  2 g10 
− g µρ gνσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ  .
 R 1 1 
− ∫ d 26 x g − (10.1)
 16πG 8 2 

Now we take the eq. (7.20) of Section 7. We note that can be related with the equation regarding
the Palumbo-Nardelli model and with the Ramanujan’s identity concerning π . Hence, we have the
following connections:

 
fϕ , fϕ =
1
16π 3
2  1 
( )
N ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ) ⇒
 qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 

58

∫ d x(− G )
1
⇒ ∫ π 2 fϕ , fϕ ⋅ e −2 Φ ⋅
10 1/ 2

  1 
0
( )
N 2 ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ )GN
 q N  q 
 1 ~ 2 κ2
⋅  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ µ Φ − H 3 − 102 Trν F2
2 g10
2
( ) =
 
 
 
  1 µρ νσ
 − g g Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) +
1
= − ∫ d 26 x g  − R ⋅ π 2 fϕ , fϕ ⋅
  1 


N 2
 ∏ 
 1 − 
  LN 2, ϕ 2
χ
ˆ L (
N (1,ψ )G
 8
 )
  q N  q  
1 
− g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ  , (10.2)
2 

 
fϕ , fϕ =
1
16π 3
2  1 
(
N ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ) ⇒ )
 qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 
 

1
3
  1 
2
(
N ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ) .)
    qq∉SN  q 
    ϕ 
 
R(q ) +
3  5 
162Φ −
 20  3+ 5  1 q f 5 (− t ) dt   
 

1+
2
exp
 5 0
∫ ( )

f − t 1/ 5 t 4 / 5   

(10.3)

Now, we take the eqs. (8.44) and (8.47) of Section 8. We note that can be related with the Palumbo-
Nardelli relationship. Thence, we have the following connections:

Ap (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g 2p ∫ DXχ p  − S 0 [ X ] × ∏ ∫ d 2σ j χ p  − k µ( j ) X µ (σ j ,τ j ) ⇒


 1  4  1 
 h  j =1  h 

− g µρ gνσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ  =


 R 1 1 
⇒ − ∫ d 26 x g −
 16πG 8 2 

( ) ,

1/ 2 −2 Φ  1 ~ 2 κ102
=∫
1
2 ∫
d 10
x (− G ) e  R + 4∂ µ Φ ∂ µ
Φ − H 3 − 2 Trν F2
2
(10.4)
0
2κ10  2 g10 

4
AA (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ x ∞1 2 1 − x ∞2 3 dx × ∏ g 2p ∏ ∫ d 2σ j × ∏ g 2p ⇒
kk k k
R
p∈S j =1 p∉S

59
− g µρ gνσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ  =
 R 1 1 
⇒ − ∫ d 26 x g −
 16πG 8 2 

( )

 1 ~ 2 κ 2
2 
= ∫ 2 ∫ d 10 x(− G ) e −2Φ  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ µ Φ − H 3 − 102 Trν F2  ,
1 1/ 2
(10.5)
0
2κ10  2 g10 

While, if we take the eqs. (8.40), (8.69) and (8.73) of Section 8, we note that can be related with the
Ramanujan’s identity concerning π and with Palumbo-Nardelli model. Then, we obtain the
following connections:

 2πi  2πi ( j ) µ
k µ X (σ j ,τ j ) ⇒
 4 
A∞ (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ DX exp S 0 [ X ] × ∏ ∫ d 2σ j exp 
 h  j =1  h 

− g µρ gνσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ  =


 R 1 1 
⇒ − ∫ d 26 x g −
 16πG 8 2 

( ) ⇒

 ~ 2 κ2
d 10 x(− G ) e −2Φ  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ µ Φ −
1 1
=∫ 2 ∫
H 3 − 102 Trν F2
1/ 2 2

0
2κ10  2 g10 
    
     
   i S X  ×

R(q ) +
3  5 1
⇒ g ∞ ∫ DX exp22Φ −
2

20  3+ 5 f (− t ) dt    h
0
   1 q 5

5 ∫0
1+ exp 
 
 

 2  ( )
f − t 1/ 5 t 4 / 5    

    
    
    i k ( j ) X µ (σ ,τ ) ,
4
R(q ) +
3  5
× ∏ ∫ d σ j exp22Φ −
2

f 5 (− t ) dt    h
µ
20  3+ 5
j j
j =1    1 q 
  

1+
2
exp
 5 0
∫ f (−t ) t   
1/ 5

4/5  
 
  
(10.6)

 k2 ~ φ
eixk ζ  − φ (k )dk =
1
ζ ( /2) φ =
(2π )D ∫
r ⇒
k02 − k 2 > 2+ε
 2 1−φ
 k2 ~ φ
eixk ζ  − φ (k )dk =
1

 
D ∫ r
k02 − k 2 >2 +ε 1−φ
    2
    
   
22Φ −  R(q ) +
3  5
  20 3+ 5  1 q f (−t ) dt   
5

  

1+
2
exp
 5 ∫0 f (−t1/ 5 ) t 4 / 5   
    

− g µρ gνσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ  =


 R 1 1 
⇒ − ∫ d 26 x g −
 16πG 8 2 

( )

 1 ~ 2 κ 2
2 
= ∫ 2 ∫ d 10 x(− G ) e −2Φ  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ µ Φ − H 3 − 102 Trν F2  ,
1 1/ 2
(10.7)
0
2κ10  2 g10 

60
 n2 n(n − 1) n (n2−1)−1 n+1 
ζ ( /4) θ =
1 ixk 
ζ
∫  4 
e  −
k2 ~
θ (k )dk = ∑ θ +
2(n + 1)
θ ( φ −1  ⇒ )
(2π )D n≥1  

1
⇒ D
    
    
   
22Φ −  R(q ) +
3  5
  20 3+ 5  1 q f (−t ) dt   
5

  

1+
2
exp
 5 ∫0 f (−t1/ 5 ) t 4 / 5   
    
 n2 n(n − 1) n (n2−1)−1 n+1 
ixk 
ζ
∫  4 
e  −
k2 ~
θ (k )dk = ∑ θ +
2(n + 1)
θ (
φ −1  ⇒ )
n≥1  

( ) =

1 / 2 −2 Φ  1 ~ 2 κ102
⇒∫ 2 ∫
1
d 10
x (− G ) e  R + 4∂ µ Φ ∂ µ
Φ − H 3 − 2 Trν F2
2

0
2κ10  2 g10 
− g µρ gνσ Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) − g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ  .
 R 1 1 
− ∫ d 26 x g − (10.8)
 16πG 8 2 

Now, we take the eqs. (6.17) of Section 6 and eq. (7.20) of Section 7. We have the following
connections:

i ⋅ fσ ,n 1
= fϕ , fϕ ⋅ ⇒
8π 2
∫γ fσ γ γ −n −1
dγ  
=1   1 
(
N 2 ∏ 1 −  LN 2,ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ))
 qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 
fϕ , fϕ
⇒ i ⋅ fσ ,n = 8π 2 ∫ fσ γ γ −n−1dγ ⋅ ⇒
γ =1  
  1 
( )
N 2 ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ )
 qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 

d 10 x(− G ) e −2 Φ ⋅
1
⇒ ∫ π 2 fϕ , fϕ ⋅ ∫
1/ 2

  1 
0
( )
N 2 ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ )GN
 q N  q 
 1 ~ 2 κ2
⋅  R + 4∂ µ Φ∂ µ Φ − H 3 − 102 Trν F2  =
2 g10
2 
( )
 
 
 
  1 µρ νσ
 − g g Tr (Gµν Gρσ ) f (φ ) +
1
= − ∫ d 26 x g  − R ⋅ π 2 fϕ , fϕ ⋅
 




  1  
( 8
N 2 ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ )G  )
  q N  q  
1 
− g µν ∂ µφ∂ν φ 
2  (10.9)

61
With regard the eqs. (6.15) and (6.17) of Section 6, we have also the following connections with the
eq. (7.20) of Section 7 and the eqs. (8.44) and (8.47) of Section 8:

1
Fσ = ⊕ Fσ ,n ⇒ fσ , n = ∫ fσ γ γ − n −1dγ ⇒
n∈Z 2πi γ =1

fϕ , fϕ
⇒ i ⋅ fσ ,n = 8π 2 ∫ fσ γ γ −n−1dγ ⋅ ⇒
γ =1  
  1 
N 2 ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ) ( )
 qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 
⇒ Ap (k1 ,..., k4 ) = g 2p ∫ DXχ p  − S 0 [X ] × ∏ ∫ d 2σ j χ p  − k µ( j ) X µ (σ j ,τ j ) ⇒
 1  4
 1 
 h  j =1  h 
4
⇒ AA (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ x ∞1 2 1 − x ∞2 3 dx × ∏ g 2p ∏ ∫ d 2σ j × ∏ g 2p . (10.10)
kk kk
R
p∈S j =1 p∉S

Now, with regard the eqs. (5.1) and (5.9b) of Section 5, it is possible the following mathematical
connections with the eq. (7.20) of Section 7 and with the eq. (8.47) of Section 8, hence:

 
AF = ∏ ' Fx ⇒
1
π 3
2  1 
N ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ) ⇒ ( )
x∈C 16  qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 
4
⇒ AA (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ x ∞1 2 1 − x ∞2 3 dx × ∏ g 2p ∏ ∫ d 2σ j × ∏ g 2p ,
kk kk
(10.11)
R
p∈S j =1 p∉S

 
 
SL2 (F ) \ SL2  ∏ ' Fx  / ∏ K x ⇒
1
16π 3
2  1 
N ∏ 1 −  LN 2, ϕ 2 χˆ LN (1,ψ ) ⇒ ( )
 x∈C  x∈C  qq∉SN  q 
 ϕ 
4
⇒ AA (k1 ,..., k 4 ) = g ∞2 ∫ x ∞1 2 1 − x ∞2 3 dx × ∏ g 2p ∏ ∫ d 2σ j × ∏ g 2p .
kk kk
(10.12)
R
p∈S j =1 p∉S

Conclusion

Hence, in conclusion, also for some mathematical sectors concerning the link between the structure
of A-branes observed in the homological mirror symmetry and the classical theory of automorphic
forms, can be obtained interesting and new connections with other sectors of Number Theory and
String Theory, principally the p-adic and adelic numbers, the Ramanujan’s modular equations,
some formulae related to the Riemann zeta functions, the modular elliptic curves and p-adic and
adelic strings.
Furthermore, also the fundamental relationship concerning the Palumbo-Nardelli model, a general
relationship that links bosonic string action and superstring action (i.e. bosonic and fermionic

62
strings acting in all natural systems), can be related with some equations regarding the p-adic
(adelic) string sectors and some sectors of Number Theory.

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Prof. Branko Dragovich of Institute of Physics of Belgrade (Serbia) for the
important and fundamental advices and references that he has give me and his availability and
friendship with regard me. Furthermore I would like to thank also Prof. M. Watkins for his
availability and his excellent Number Theory & Physics archive:
http://www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/zeta/physics.htm

References

[1] Edward Frenkel – “Lectures on the Langlands Program and Conformal Field Theory” –
arXiv:hep-th/0512172v1 – 15.12.2005

[2] Edward Frenkel and Edward Witten – “Geometric Endoscopy and Mirror Symmetry” –
arXiv: 0710.5939v1 [math.AG] – 31.10.2007

[3] Wiles Andrew – “Modular Elliptic Curves and Fermat’s Last Theorem” – Annals of
Mathematics, 141 (1995), 443-551

[4] Fesenko I. – “Adelic study of the zeta function of arithmetic schemes in dimension two” - 2000

[5] Branko Dragovich – “On Adelic Strings” – arXiv:hep-th/0005200v1 – 22.05.2000

[6] Branko Dragovich – “Adelic strings and noncommutativity” – arXiv:hep-th/0105103v1 –


11.05.2001

[7] Branko Dragovich and Andrei Khrennikov – “p-Adic and Adelic Superanalysis” –
arXiv:hep-th/0512318v1 – 27.12.2005

[8] Branko Dragovich – “Zeta Strings” – arXiv:hep-th/0703008v1 – 01.03.2007

[9] Michele Nardelli – “On some mathematical connections between Fermat’s Last Theorem,
Modular Functions, Modular Elliptic Curves and some sector of String Theory” – CNR
142JA2007 – 02.04.2007

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