# ‫ﺣﻠﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺎﺭﻳﻦ‬

‫ﲤﺎﺭﻳﻦ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺍﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺣﻞ ﺗﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻧﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻧﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫‪(1‬‬

‫) ﺗﺮﺩﺩﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﺗﻔﻮﻕ ‪ (20KHz‬ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻟﻬﺎ ‪ .‬ﻳﺘﻢ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻧﺎﺭ ﻭﺣﺎﺟﺰ ) ﻋﻤﻖ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻜﺘﻞ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺴﻤﻚ ‪ .(...‬ﻳﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫‪ d‬ﺍﻧﻄﻼﻗﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺳﺮﻋﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻧﺎﺭ ﺿﻤﻦ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ )‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺎﺕ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻮﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻤﻮﻉ ‪(.‬‬

‫‪ (2‬ﻧﻌﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ‪:‬‬

‫‪ λ = V.T‬ﺃﻱ ‪λ .f = V‬‬

‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ‪ :‬ﺕ‪.‬ﻉ‬

‫‪λ = 75 mm‬‬

‫‪ (3‬ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺗﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪ ) 2d‬ﺫﻫﺎﺏ ﻭﺇﻳﺎﺏ ( ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ V‬ﺧﻼﻝ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪ ∆t =0,1s‬و
 ا ‪:‬‬
‫‪ 2d = V . ∆t,‬و   ‬
‫‪d = 75m‬‬

‫‪ (2‬ﺣﺪﺩ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺒﻌﺜﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﻱ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺗﻜﺘﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻚ ﻋﻠﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺻﺪ ‪ ) ∆t =0,1s‬هب وإب ا (‪.‬‬

‫‪www.ibnalkhatib2.canlblog.com‬‬

‫ " ‪:‬‬
‫*‪\$%‬ع ا ‪+‬ر ا)ت '" ا
&‪V = 1500m.s \$‬‬
‫* ‪\$.‬دد ا)ت ا ‪f = 20KHz : ,‬‬
‫‪-1‬‬

‫‬

‫ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﺮﻳﻦ‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﻃﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻮﺍﻁ‬
‫ﻳﻄﻴﺮ ﻭﻃﻮﺍﻁ ﻭﻓﻖ ﺧﻂ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺣﺎﺟﺰ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻄﺔ ‪ . Vc = 8 ms-1:‬ﻳﺮﺳﻞ ﻣﻮﺟﺔ ﺻﻮﺗﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺓ ‪: ∆t‬‬
‫ﻳﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻮﺍﻁ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪ d – X‬ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪Vc:‬‬

‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ‪ Vs‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺎﺟﺰ ﺑﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ . d = 30m‬ﻳﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺪﺓ‬
‫‪ . ∆t‬ه" ا' ‪ X‬ا "  ‪ 1‬ا‪0‬اط 
‪,‬‬
‫ا‪
4 %‬ل ا ا‪2‬‬
‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﺎﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺿﻴﺤﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﻘﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﺔ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪d + X :‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬

‫‪d – X = Vc. ∆ t‬‬

‫‪d +X = Vs . ∆t‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻨﻪ ﻧﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻣﺎﻳﻠﻲ‬