SST paper Final | Larynx | Respiratory System

Speech Production


The Physiology of Respiration, Voicing and Speech Production Carla Lasso SST 251 Northern Arizona University April 10, 2009

bronchioles and alveoli. the pressure in the lungs becomes slightly positive. Expiration occurs when the respiratory muscles relax. the xiphoid process and the vertebral column. where gas exchange takes place (Zemlin. During inhalation. this paper will explain how the word “cannot” is produced. talk and make various sounds at the same time? The muscles. In addition.Speech Production The Physiology of Respiration. The pressure in the lungs becomes slightly negative to atmospheric pressure. Breathing or pulmonary ventilation is an active process which occurs due to the control of the autonomic nervous system and is initiated by the diaphragm. Air enters the lungs via the nasal or oral cavity. . along with the muscles. and nerves required to say the word. trachea. As a result. Voicing and Speech Production. pharynx. This paper will serve to explain the physiology of respiration and phonation including the muscles and nerves. The insertion of the diaphragm is a central tendon on the top of the flattened dome. The right and left phrenic nerve supply motor nerve fibers to the diaphragm. oxygen and other gases flow from an area of higher pressure (the outside) to an area of lower pressure (the lungs and alveoli). Physiology of Respiration The primary function of respiration is for the body’s cells to obtain oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. articulators. namely the corpus of L1-L4 and the transverse of L1. air flows out of the lungs and the lung volume decreases. 1998). 2 Have you ever wondered how we can breath. relative to the atmospheric pressure and air flows out. organs and nerves involved in the respiratory system coordinate to form the sounds which become human speech. The diaphragm is the primary muscle of inspiration and is attached to the inferior boundary of the rib cage. secondary and tertiary bronchi. right and left bronchi.

The external intercostals originate on ribs 1-11 and have their insertion on ribs 2 -12. . the transverse arytenoid. cricoid. and epiglottis. It serves as an attachment for numerous muscles of the tongue as well as some of the extrinsic muscles of the larynx. The intrinsic muscles include the cricothyroids. In adults. The intrinsic laryngeal muscles have their origin and insertion within the larynx where they play an important role in respiration and phonation. the larynx is located in the anterior neck and connects the hypopharynx and the trachea. corniculates. however it is involved in the movement of the larynx. The internal intercostals originate on ribs 2-12 and have their insertions on ribs 1-11. Covering the larynx are infrahyoid muscles and superficial cervical fascia. The intercostal muscles form two thin layers that span each of the intercostal spaces. extrinsic muscles. The hyoid is not a part of the larynx. The unpaired cartilages are the thyroid. This allows it to play an important role in the movement of both structures. The paired cartilages consist of the arytenoids. Physiology of Voicing The larynx acts as a valve which can regulate phonation. The external intercostal muscles elevate the ribs up and out thus. the lateral cricoarytenoids. Exhalation is usually a passive process achieved when the internal intercostal muscles lower the ribs down and in. and cuneiforms. and mucosa. The larynx is comprised of skeleton. having an inspiratory effect on the rib cage. respiration and swallowing. All the intercostal muscles are innervated by the corresponding intercostal nerve. It is further comprised of nine cartilages: three unpaired cartilages and three sets of paired cartilages. the posterior cricoarytenoids.Speech Production 3 Ventilation further requires the expansion and contraction of the internal and external intercostal muscles. intrinsic muscles.

mylohyoid. and the thyroarytenoids. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of the larynx. and anchor the larynx. The vagus nerve divides into the internal and external branches. tense the focal folds. lower. and geniohyoid. thus raising the pitch of the voice. The oblique arytenoids are paired muscles that also bring the arytenoids together for phonation. The extrinsic laryngeal muscles connect the larynx to other structures of the body. These two muscle pairs are the only muscles that abduct the vocal cords. sternohyoid. depending upon the requirements for speech at any given moment. The unpaired transverse arytenoid assists in closing the posterior portion of the glottis. digastric. together with the middle and inferior constrictor and stylopharyngeous act to elevate the larynx. The cricothyroids are paired muscles that when contracted. stylohyoid. The external branch remains outside the larynx and innervates the superior thyroid artery and the cricothyroid muscle. Their action is to allow the tight closure of the glottis and they are partially responsible for raising the pitch and amplitude during phonation. The lateral cricoarytenoids are also paired muscles that pivot the vocal bands by rotating the arytenoids and adduct the vocal cords. stabilize. The thyrohyoid.Speech Production 4 the oblique arytenoids. The rest of the cavity of the larynx. The internal branch inervates the thyrohyoid membrane along with the superior laryngeal artery which supply’s the mucosa of the epiglottis and the aryepiglottic folds. The vocal folds are mainly comprised of the paired thyroarytenoids. as well as the remaining muscles is innervated by the laryngeal nerve. The omohyoid. . and sternothyroid act to anchor the larynx and lower it when necessary. These muscles act to raise. The posterior cricoarytenoids are paired muscles that when contracted open the glottis.

They are innervated by the vagus nerve CN X. The palatopharyngus depresses the velum and constricts the pharynx. The mouth must move in various positions for speech to occur. All the while the pharyngeal walls are constantly moving to change the resonating characteristics of the speech sounds being produced. . Muscles of the velum include the levator veli palatine and the palatoglossus which raise the velum. Both the tongue and the velum elevate to produce the “o” sound and the tongue again articulates with the superior alveolar ridge to produce the “t” sound. Next the mandible elevates. It is also innervated by CN XI. The muscles that attach to the external aspect of the mandible. The major muscles involved are the orbicularis oris and the sygomaticus. namely the masseter and the temporalis enable the mandible to raise and lower. the velum again drops down and the tip of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge to produce the “n” sound. It is located in the posterior of the oral cavity. It is innervated by the spinal accessory CN XI. The soft palate or velum is considered a mobile articulator.Speech Production Speech Production of the Word “Cannot” 5 Production of the word “cannot” starts with lowering the mandible and elevating the back of the tongue to contact with the velum to make the “k” sound. These mucles are innervated by the facial nerve CN VII. The temporalis muscle is innervated by the trigeminal nerve and the masseter is innervated by the mandibular nerve via the messeteric nerve. The tongue remains elevated and the velum elevates to produce the “a” sound. The muscularis uvula shortens the velum. The tensor veli palatine tensus the velum and receives innervation from the trigeminal CN V. The mandible articulates with the temporal bone at the temporomandibular joint.

bones. many complicated actions must occur. inferiorly to the hyoid bone and posteriorly to the base of the skull and pharynx. There are multiple muscles. When words are produced in sequence to form meaning. It receives its motor innervation from cranial nerve XII. It inserts on the interior aspect of the mandible. Conclusion Spoken words are produced when air is expelled from the lungs and then through a number of structures.Speech Production 6 The genioglossus is the largest of the tongue muscle and makes up the majority of the body of the tongue. . far more than most individuals realize. and neural innervations required to produce just one sound.

Retrieved March 30. S. 2009. from http://www. (1998).html Eastern Kentucky University.utmb. (2001). Retrieved April 8. Neurological disorders of the larynx and from. Phonetics I. 2009. Production and classification of speech sounds.html Science Clarified (2008). Respiratory system. from.htm 7 Blongman.htm Phillips. (n. 2009. http://www. Retrieved April Speech. Retrieved April 6.html . Retrieved April 6.pdf Retrieved March 28. 2009. from. http://www.eku. 2009. Respiration.d.ling. from. C. (1999).ablongman. Human physiology. http://www. (2008). 2009.Speech Production References Arkansas State University. http://www.

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