This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

Filters Digital Modulation Techniques © Richard Harris

Objectives

• To be able to discuss the purpose of filtering and determine the properties of well known filters. • You will be able to:

– Describe I/Q diagrams and their uses – Provide an overview of digital modulation application areas – Describe the characteristics of the various forms of filters and their use in digital transmission

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 2

Presentation Outline

• Filtering methods

– Raised cosine – Square-root raised cosine – Gaussian filters

• Detection methods for standard Digital Modulation techniques • PSDs for common Digital Modulation schemes

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 3

References

• Digital Modulation in Communication Systems – An Introduction (Hewlett Packard Application Note 1298) • Principles of Digital Modulation, by Dr Mike Fitton, mike.fitton@toshiba-trel.com Telecommunications Research Lab Toshiba Research Europe Limited

Communication Systems 143.332 - Digital Modulation

Slide 4

Digital Modulation Slide 5 . Spectral efficiency of the signal is improved using filtering. irrespective of whether it is amplitude. Thus. phase or frequency. Communication Systems 143.Filtering – 1 • • • Filtering allows the transmitted bandwidth to be significantly reduced without losing the content of the digital data.332 . will need wide occupied bandwidth. if we have a technique that can help to slow down these transitions then it will narrow the occupied bandwidth. Many possible varieties: – Raised cosine – Square-root raised cosine – Gaussian filters • • Any fast transition in a signal.

Digital Modulation Slide 6 .332 . the reduced bandwidth increases the sensitivity because more noise and interference are rejected. – Overshooting implies more carrier power and phase from the transmitter amplifiers Communication Systems 143. • On the receiver side. • Tradeoffs may be necessary though: – Some types of filtering may cause the trajectory of the signal (the paths of transitions between states) to overshoot . • It also reduces interference since it lowers the tendency of one signal to interfere with another.Filtering – 2 • Filtering helps to smooth these transitions (in I and Q).

332 . Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 7 .Filtering – 3 • Other problems – Filtering may make radios more complex and larger. – Filtering can create ISI problems • Can occur if heavy filtering so that the symbols blur together and each symbol affects those around it . • This is determined by the time response or the impulse response of the filter.

Digital Modulation 1 f0 Slide 8 .Nyquist or Raised-Cosine Filters • The following graph shows the impulse or time domain response of a Nyquist filter. • Nyquist filters have the property that their impulse response rings at the symbol rate. Communication Systems 143.332 . • The filter is chosen to ring or have the impulse response of the filter cross through zero at the symbol clock frequency. – We have seen this figure before.

Nyquist filters heavily filter the signal without blurring the symbols together at the symbol times. Communication Systems 143. Note that Inter-Symbol Interference does exist at all times except the symbol (decision) times. half being in the transmit path and half in the receiver path. In this case root Nyquist filters (commonly called root raised cosine) are used in each part. Usually the filter is split.332 .Nyquist or Raised-Cosine Filters • • • • • • • The time response of the filter goes through zero with a period that exactly corresponds to the symbol spacing. so that their combined response is that of a Nyquist filter. Adjacent symbols do not interfere with each other at the symbol times because the response equals zero at all symbol times except the centre (desired) one.Digital Modulation Slide 9 . This is important for transmitting information without errors caused by Inter-Symbol Interference.

Digital Modulation Slide 10 .332 . Communication Systems 143. • Filtering in the transmitter reduces the adjacentchannel-power radiation of the transmitter.Nyquist or Raised-Cosine Filters • Sometimes filtering is desired at both the transmitter and receiver. and thus its potential for interfering with other transmitters.

both filters are designed until the combined result of the filters and the rest of the system is a full Nyquist filter. – The receiver may be a small hand-held model and the transmitter may be a large cellular base station. the results are the best data rate. Communication Systems 143.332 . To get zero Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI).Digital Modulation Slide 11 .Nyquist or Raised-Cosine Filters • • • Filtering at the receiver reduces the effects of broadband noise and also interference from other transmitters in nearby channels. • • This is why root-Nyquist filters are used in receivers and transmitters as √Nyquist x √Nyquist = Nyquist. Matched filters are not used in Gaussian filtering. – If the design is done correctly. Potential differences can cause problems in manufacturing because the transmitter and receiver are often manufactured by different companies. the most efficient radio. and reduced effects of interference and noise.

The phase states vary somewhat causing a blurring of the symbols as shown in the figure below. • • Communication Systems 143. Wireless system architects must decide just how much of the Inter-Symbol Interference can be tolerated in a system and combine that with noise and interference. a GSM signal will have a small blurring of symbols on each of the four states because the Gaussian filter used in GSM does not have zero Inter-Symbol Interference.Gaussian Filter .Digital Modulation Slide 12 .1 • In contrast.332 .

Digital Modulation Slide 13 .332 .Gaussian Filter – 2 Communication Systems 143.

Gaussian Filter – 3 • Gaussian filters are used in GSM because of their advantages in carrier power. • The Gaussian filter is a Gaussian shape in both the time and frequency domains.Digital Modulation Slide 14 . Communication Systems 143. and it does not ring like the raised cosine filters do. • This reduces the tendency for particular sequences of symbols to interact which makes amplifiers easier to build and more efficient. • Its effects in the time domain are relatively short and each symbol interacts significantly (or causes ISI) with only the preceding and succeeding symbols. occupied bandwidth and symbol-clock recovery.332 .

332 . • Thus r gives a direct measure of the occupied bandwidth of the system and is calculated as Occupied bandwidth = Symbol rate X (1 + r). the occupied bandwidth would be: Occupied bandwidth = Symbol rate X (1 + 0) = symbol rate. • If the filter had a perfect characteristic with sharp transitions and r = 0.1 • The sharpness of a raised cosine filter is described by the value of r – the roll-off parameter. Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 15 .Filter Bandwidth Parameter r .

2 Communication Systems 143.Filter Bandwidth Parameter r .332 .Digital Modulation Slide 16 .

11. • In practice. • Occupied bandwidth cannot be stated in terms of BT because a Gaussian filter’s frequency response does not go identically to zero.5.Digital Modulation Slide 17 . Communication Systems 143. though some video systems use an r-value as low as 0. • Common values for BT are 0.35 to 0.2 and make good. it is possible to implement an r-value below 0.332 . practical radios. compact. as does a raised cosine.Filter Bandwidth Parameter r . – Typical values range from 0.3 to 0.3 • An r-value of one uses twice as much bandwidth as an r-value of zero.5. The corresponding term for a Gaussian filter is BT (bandwidth time product).

No filtering means an r of infinity. look at a QPSK signal and examine how different values of r effect the vector diagram. Communication Systems 143. the transitions between states are instantaneous. If the radio has no transmitter filter as shown on the left of the graph. For example.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 18 .Different Filter Bandwidths • Different filter bandwidths show different effects.

Power Spectral Densities and Detection Methods for Digital Modulation © Richard Harris .

otherwise errors are introduced.Digital Modulation Slide 20 . It is necessary to have an accurate version of the carrier. It is then possible to reproduce the transmitted signal.332 .Coherent Reception • An estimate of the channel phase and attenuation is recovered. and demodulate. Carrier recovery methods include: – Pilot Tone (such as Transparent Tone in Band) – Less power in information bearing signal – High peak-to-mean power ratio • • • Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation – Less power in information bearing signal Carrier Recovery (such as Costas loop) – The carrier is recovered from the information signal Communication Systems 143.

and – a corrupted reference (the previous symbol). This is because the differential system has two sources of error: – a corrupted symbol. – The previous symbol acts as an estimate of the channel. • Differential reception is theoretically 3dB poorer than coherent. • Non-coherent reception is often easier to implement.332 . each symbol is modulated relative to the previous symbol.Differential Reception • In the transmitter. for example in differential BPSK: – 0 = no change 1 = +180o • In the receiver. Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 21 . the current symbol is demodulated using the previous symbol as a reference.

Computing the PSD of OOK • The Power Spectral Density of the complex envelope is computed using our PSD formula as: 2 ⎡ ⎛ sin π fTb ⎞ ⎤ A ⎢δ ( f ) + Tb ⎜ Pg ( f ) = ⎟ ⎥ 2 ⎢ ⎝ π fTb ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 2 c • Assuming that m(t) has a peak value of 2 • The PSD of OOK is then given by 1 ⎡ Pg ( f − f c ) + Pg (− f − f c ) ⎤ ⎦ 4⎣ Note: We have already considered this in a tutorial Communication Systems 143.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 22 .

Plot of PSD for OOK • The null-null bandwidth is 2R • The transmission bandwidth of OOK is BT = 2B where B is the baseband bandwidth • With raised cosine rolloff filtering. hence – BT = (1+r)R • Note: – For binary signalling. Communication Systems 143. D = R. B= ½(1+r)R.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 23 .

Digital Modulation Slide 24 .Detection of OOK – 1 • The following set up is used to detect OOK signals: OOK in Envelope Binary output detector Non-coherent Detection OOK in Low-pass Binary output filter Coherent Detection with Low-Pass Filter Processing Communication Systems 143.332 .

Digital Modulation Slide 25 . Communication Systems 143.Detection of OOK – 2 • Note: – When the received OOK signal is corrupted by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN).332 . the optimal detection (to obtain the lowest possible Bit Error Rate – BER ) requires coherent detection with matched filter processing.

332 .Digital Modulation Slide 26 .Binary Phase-Shift Keying • Computing the PSD for the complex envelope of BPSK gives the following: ⎛ sin πfTb ⎞ Pg ( f ) = A T ⎜ ⎜ πfT ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ b 2 c b 2 • Assuming that m(t) has peak values of ±1 • The PSD of BPSK is then given by 1 [Pg ( f − f c ) + Pg (− f − f c )] 4 Communication Systems 143.

332 . • Raised cosine-rolloff filtering can be used to conserve bandwidth Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 27 .The PSD of BPSK • The bandwidth for BPSK is the same as for OOK.

332 .Digital Modulation Slide 28 .Detection of BPSK • [ s (t )(− sin ωc t ]LP recovers m(t) • Coherent detection must be used. Communication Systems 143.

the two signals are orthogonal if ∫ • That is: Tb 0 s1 (t ) s2 (t )dt = 0 0 Communication Systems 143.332 .Digital Modulation ∫ Tb Ac2 cos(ω1t + θ1 ) cos(ω2t + θ 2 )dt = 0 Slide 29 .Orthogonal Signalling – 1 • Consider transmitting a binary 1 over the bit interval 0<t<Tb using an FSK signal given by: s1 (t ) = Ac cos(ω1t + θ1 ) • The binary 0 is transmitted using the signal s2 (t ) = Ac cos(ω2t + θ 2 ) • Where θ1 = θ2 for continuous phase FSK.

• Therefore sin[2π h + (θ1 − θ 2 )] − sin(θ1 − θ 2 ) =0 2π h Communication Systems 143.332 .Orthogonal Signalling – 2 • This means that Ac2 ⎡ sin[(ω1 − ω2 )Tb + (θ1 − θ 2 )] − sin(θ1 − θ 2 ) ⎤ ⎥ 2 ⎢ (ω1 − ω2 ) ⎣ ⎦ Ac2 ⎡ sin[(ω1 + ω2 )Tb + (θ1 + θ 2 )] − sin(θ1 + θ 2 ) ⎤ + ⎢ ⎥=0 2 ⎣ (ω1 + ω2 ) ⎦ • The second term is negligible since we assume ω1+ω2 is large.Digital Modulation Slide 30 .

Orthogonal Signalling – 3 • Where (ω1 − ω2 )Tb = 2π (2∆F )Tb and h = 2∆FTb • For θ1 = θ2 the minimum value for orthogonality is h=0. the minimum value for the orthogonality is h=1. or a peak frequency deviation of 1 1 ∆F = = R 2Tb 2 Communication Systems 143.5.Digital Modulation Slide 31 . or a peak frequency deviation of 1 1 ∆F = = R 4Tb 4 • For θ1 ≠ θ2 the discontinuous phase FSK case.332 .

• The complex envelope is g (t ) = Ac e jθ ( t ) ∫−∞ m ( λ ) d λ = Ac e t • Where ∆F= ¼R and m(t) = ±1 • MSK is a constant amplitude signal Communication Systems 143.Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) • Minimum Shift Keying is continuous phase FSK with a minimum modulation index (h=0.332 .5) that will produce orthogonal signalling.Digital Modulation Slide 32 .

332 . viz: FM Transmitter ∆F= ¼R • MSK is equivalent to OQPSK with sinusoidal pulse shaping.MSK – 2 • MSK can be generated by using a simple FM modulator. Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 33 .

PSD of MSK • The PSD of the complex envelope is given by: 16 Ac2Tb ⎛ cos 2 2π Tb f ⎞ Pg ( f ) = ⎟ ⎜ π 2 ⎝ [1 − (4Tb f ) 2 ]2 ⎠ Communication Systems 143.Digital Modulation Slide 34 .332 .

332 .Digital Modulation Slide 35 .GMSK – 1 • Gaussian-filtered MSK – The data (rectangular shaped pulses) are filtered by a filter having a Gaussian shaped frequency response H( f ) = e − ⎡ ( f / B )2 (ln 2 / 2) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ – Where B is the 3dB bandwidth of the filter • The PSD of GMSK can be obtained via computer simulation Communication Systems 143.

3 (ie. the 3dB bandwidth is 0.332 .GMSK – 2 • BTb = 0.3 is the modulation format used in GSM cellular telephone systems • GMSK and MSK can be detected either coherently or non-coherently Communication Systems 143.3 of the bit rate) gives a good compromise for relatively low side-lobes and tolerable ISI • GMSK has a constant envelope • GMSK with BTb = 0.Digital Modulation Slide 36 .

dn=1 if phase difference is π and dn=0 if no phase difference Communication Systems 143.332 .Detection of DPSK • Partially coherent detection: – Does not require carrier phase synchronisation • Receiver detects the relative phase difference between the waveforms of en and en-1 to determine dn • In the previous example.Digital Modulation Slide 37 .

Digital Modulation Slide 38 .332 . the peak frequency deviation ∆F = D f / 2π for m(t) having values of ±1.PSD of FSK • h is the digital modulation index. • (See pages 349-351 for the mathematical expression for the PSD in this case) Communication Systems 143.

thus BT = 2(∆F + R) • With raised cosine filtering.332 .Digital Modulation Slide 39 . hence BT = 2∆F + (1 + r ) R Communication Systems 143. B=R. • Using the first null bandwidth. B = 1/2 (1+r)R.Bandwidth of FSK • The approximate bandwidth is given by Carson’s rule: BT = 2( β + 1) B • Where β = ∆F / B and B is the bandwidth of the squarewave data waveform.

332 .Digital Modulation Slide 40 .Detection of FSK Communication Systems 143.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd