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c 

 

 (c ) is a set of communications standards for
simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the
traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. It was first defined in 1988 in the
CCITT red book.[1] Prior to ISDN, the phone system was viewed as a way to transport voice,
with some special services available for data. The key feature of ISDN is that it integrates speech
and data on the same lines, adding features that were not available in the classic telephone
system. There are several kinds of access interfaces to ISDN defined as Basic Rate Interface
(BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI) and Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN).

ISDN is a circuit-switched telephone network system, which also provides access to packet
switched networks, designed to allow digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary
telephone copper wires, resulting in potentially better voice quality than an analog phone can
provide. It offers circuit-switched connections (for either voice or data), and packet-switched
connections (for data), in increments of 64 kilobit/s. A major market application for ISDN in
some countries is Internet access, where ISDN typically provides a maximum of 128 kbit/s in
both upstream and downstream directions. Channel bonding can achieve a greater data rate;
typically the ISDN B-channels of 3 or 4 BRIs (6 to 8 64 kbit/s channels) are bonded.

ISDN should not be mistaken for its use with a specific protocol, such as Q.931 whereby ISDN
is employed as the network, data-link and physical layers in the context of the OSI model. In a
broad sense ISDN can be considered a suite of digital services existing on layers 1, 2, and 3 of
the OSI model. ISDN is designed to provide access to voice and data services simultaneously.

However, common use has reduced ISDN to be limited to Q.931 and related protocols, which are
a set of protocols for establishing and breaking circuit switched connections, and for advanced
call features for the user. They were introduced in 1986.[2]

In a videoconference, ISDN provides simultaneous voice, video, and text transmission between
individual desktop videoconferencing systems and group (room) videoconferencing systems.


c   
c 
 refers to ISDN's ability to deliver at minimum two simultaneous connections,
in any combination of data, voice, video, and fax, over a single line. Multiple devices can be
attached to the line, and used as needed. That means an ISDN line can take care of most people's
complete communications needs (apart from broadband Internet access and entertainment
television) at a much higher transmission rate, without forcing the purchase of multiple analog
phone lines. It also refers to Integrated Switching and Transmission[3] in that telephone switching
and carrier wave transmission are integrated rather than separate as in earlier technology.





c  
Main article: Basic Rate Interface

The entry level interface to ISDN is the Basic(s) Rate Interface (BRI), a 128 kbit/s service
delivered over a pair of standard telephone copper wires. The 144 kbit/s payload rate is broken
down into two 64 kbit/s bearer channels ('B' channels) and one 16 kbit/s signaling channel ('D'
channel or delta channel). This is sometimes referred to as 2B+D.

The interface specifies the following network interfaces:

ï? The  
   is a two-wire interface between the exchange and a  



, which is usually the demarcation point in non-North American networks.
ï? The r
   is a serial interface between a computing device and a 
,
which is the digital equivalent of a modem.
ï? The V
   is a four-wire bus that ISDN consumer devices plug into; the S & T
reference points are commonly implemented as a single interface labeled 'S/T' on an
Network termination 1 (NT1).
ï? The ð
   defines the point between a non-ISDN device and a terminal adapter
(TA) which provides translation to and from such a device.

BRI-ISDN is very popular in Europe but is much less common in North America. It is also
common in Japan - where it is known as INS64.



c  
Main article: Primary Rate Interface

The other ISDN access available is the Primary Rate Interface (PRI), which is carried over an E1
(2048 kbit/s) in most parts of the world. An E1 is 30 'B' channels of 64 kbit/s, one 'D' channel of
64 kbit/s and a timing and alarm channel of 64 kbit/s. In North America PRI service is delivered
on one or more T1s (sometimes referred to as 23B+D) of 1544 kbit/s (24 channels). A T1 has 23
'B' channels and 1 'D' channel for signalling (Japan uses a circuit called a J1, which is similar to a
T1).

In North America, Non-Facility Associated Signalling allows two or more PRIs to be controlled
by a single D channel, and is sometimes called "23B+D + n*24B". D-channel backup allows for
a second D channel in case the primary fails. NFAS is commonly used on a T3.

PRI-ISDN is popular throughout the world, especially for connection of PSTN circuits to PBXs.

Even though many network professionals use the term "ISDN" to refer to the lower-bandwidth
BRI circuit, in North America by far the majority of ISDN services are in fact PRI circuits
serving PBXs.[

  ]

   
The bearer channel (B) is a standard 64 kbit/s voice channel of 8 bits sampled at 8 kHz with
G.711 encoding. B-Channels can also be used to carry data, since they are nothing more than
digital channels.

Each one of these channels is known as a DS0.

Most B channels can carry a 64 kbit/s signal, but some were limited to 56K because they traveled
over RBS lines. This was commonplace in the 20th century, but has since become less so.



 
  
The signaling channel (D) uses Q.931 for signaling with the other side of the link.



X.25 can be carried over the B or D channels of a BRI line, and over the B channels of a PRI
line. X.25 over the D channel is used at many point-of-sale (credit card) terminals because it
eliminates the modem setup, and because it connects to the central system over a B channel,
thereby eliminating the need for modems and making much better use of the central system's
telephone lines.

X.25 was also part of an ISDN protocol called "Always On/Dynamic ISDN", or AO/DI. This
allowed a user to have a constant multi-link PPP connection to the internet over X.25 on the D
channel, and brought up one or two B channels as needed.


 
In theory, Frame Relay can operate over the D channel of BRIs and PRIs, but it is seldom, if
ever, used.

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The gain of horn antennas often increases (and the beamwidth decreases) as the
frequency of operation is increased. This is because the size of the horn aperture is
always measured in wavelengths; at higher frequencies the horn antenna is
"electrically larger"; this is because a higher frequency has a smaller wavelength.
Since the horn antenna has a fixed physical size (say a square aperture of 20 cm
across, for instance), the aperture is more wavelengths across at higher frequencies.
And, a recurring theme in antenna theory is that larger antennas (in terms of
wavelengths in size) have higher directivities.

Horn antennas have very little loss, so the directivity of a horn is roughly equal to its
gain.

Horn antennas are somewhat intuitive and relatively simple to manufacture. In


addition, acoustic horn antennas are also used in transmitting sound waves (for
example, with a megaphone). Horn antennas are also often used to feed a dish
antenna, or as a "standard gain" antenna in measurements.

Popular versions of the horn antenna include the E-plane horn, shown in Figure 1.
This horn antenna is flared in the E-plane, giving the name. The horizontal dimension
is constant at .

Figure 1. E-plane horn antenna.


Another example of a horn antenna is the H-plane horn, shown in Figure 2. This horn
is flared in the H-plane, with a constant height for the waveguide and horn of —.

Figure 2. H-Plane horn antenna.

The most popular horn antenna is flared in both planes as shown in Figure 3. This is a
pyramidal horn, and has a width  and height at the end of the horn.

Figure 3. Pyramidal horn antenna.

Horn antennas are typically fed by a section of a waveguide, as shown in Figure 4.


The waveguide itself is often fed with a short dipole, which is shown in red in Figure
4. A waveguide is simply a hollow, metal cavity (see the waveguide tutorial).
Waveguides are used to guide electromagnetic energy from one place to another. The
waveguide in Figure 4 is a rectangular waveguide of width ! and height , with !>.
The E-field distribution for the dominant mode is shown in the lower part of Figure 1.
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Figure 4. Waveguide used as a feed to horn antennas

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The waves travel down a horn as spherical wavefronts, with their origin at the apex of the horn.
The pattern of electric and magnetic fields at the aperture plane of the horn, which determines
the radiation pattern, is a scaled-up reproduction of the fields in the waveguide. However,
because the wavefronts are spherical, the phase increases smoothly from the center of the
aperture plane to the edges, because of the difference in length of the center point and the edge
points from the apex point. The difference in phase between the center point and the edges is
called the —. This phase error, which increases with the flare angle, reduces the gain
and increases the beamwidth, giving horns wider beamwidths than plane-wave antennas such as
parabolic dishes.

At the flare angle, the radiation of the beam lobe is down about -20 dB from its maximum
value.[10]

The increasing phase error limits the aperture size of practical horns to about 15 wavelengths;
larger apertures would require impractically long horns.[11] This limits the gain of practical horns
to about 1000 (30 dB) and the corresponding minimum beamwidth to about 5 - 10°.

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