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# Conceptual model

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Model (abstract)) For other uses, see Model (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification.

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This article may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (February 2011) In the most general sense, a model is anything used in any way to represent anything else. Some models are physical objects, for instance, a toy model which may be assembled, and may even be made to work like the object it represents. They are used to help us know and understand the subject matter they represent. The term conceptual model may be used to refer to models that exist only in the mind, or it may be used to refer to models of elements in the mind.

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1 Models of concepts and models that are conceptual 2 Type and scope of conceptual models 3 Models in philosophy and science o 3.1 Mental Model o 3.2 Metaphysical models o 3.3 Epistemological models o 3.4 Logical models o 3.5 Mathematical models o 3.6 Scientific models o 3.7 Statistical model 4 Social and political models o 4.1 Economic models 5 Models in systems architecture 6 Models in information system design o 6.1 Conceptual models of human activity systems o 6.2 Logico-linguistic models o 6.3 Data models 6.3.1 Entity-relationship model 6.3.2 Domain model 7 References 8 See also

Conceptual models also range in terms of the scope of the subject matter that they are taken to represent. [edit] Type and scope of conceptual models Conceptual models (models that are conceptual) range in type from the more concrete. For example. With the exception of iconic models. A model may. In artificial intelligence conceptual models and conceptual graphs are used for building expert systems and knowledge-based systems. [edit] Models in philosophy and science [edit] Mental Model Further information: Mental model.[edit] Models of concepts and models that are conceptual The term "conceptual model" is ambiguous. such as a scale model of Winchester Cathedral.[1] Models of concepts are usually built by analysts who are not primarily concerned about the truth or falsity of the concepts being modeled.g. actual or potential state of affairs. This is to say that it explains the answers to fundamental questions . to the formal generality and abstractness of mathematical models which do not appear to the mind as an image. here the analysts are concerned to represent expert opinion on what is true not their own ideas on what is true. It could mean a model of concept or it could mean a model that is conceptual. The variety and scope of conceptual models is due to the variety of purposes had by the people using them. A metaphysical model intends to represent reality in the broadest possible way. present. for instance. whole classes of things (e. and Cognitive model In cognitive psychology and philosophy of mind. Representation (psychology). But they are. represent a single thing (e. the Statue of Liberty). the electron). A distinction can be made between what models are and what models are models of. in management problem structuring. Conceptual Models of human activity systems are used in Soft systems methodology to explore the viewpoints of stakeholders in the client organization.g. such as the mental image of a familiar physical object. A model of a concept is quite different because in order to be a good model it need not have this real world correspondence. future. The value of a model is usually directly proportional to how well it corresponds to a past. most models are concepts.[3] [edit] Metaphysical models A metaphysical model is a type of conceptual model which is distinguished from other conceptual models by its proposed scope. mostly. and even very vast domains of subject matter such as the physical universe.[2] but a mental model may also refer to a nonphysical external model of the mind itself. intended to be models of real world states of affairs. a mental model is a representation of something in the mind.

[edit] Epistemological models An epistemological model is a type of conceptual model whose proposed scope is the known and the knowable. Attempts to formalize the principles of the empirical sciences. with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. and Nonparametric statistics A statistical model is a probability distribution function proposed as generating data. use an interpretation to model reality. phenomena. and factual relationships. differential equations. Logical models can be broadly divided into ones which only attempt to represent concepts. or game theoretic models. a model is a type of interpretation under which a particular statement is true. in the same way logicians axiomatize the principles of logic. fields. or even universes of set theory.[4] [edit] Statistical model Further information: Statistical model. Parametric model. such as mathematical models. such as the mean . it is called a model of the sentence or theory. These and other types of models can overlap. [edit] Scientific models Main article: Scientific model A scientific model is a simplified abstract view of the complex reality. [edit] Mathematical models Main article: Mathematical model Mathematical models can take many forms. [edit] Logical models In logic. and ones which attempt to represent physical objects. using tools from mathematical logic. including but not limited to dynamical systems. Model theory has close ties to algebra and universal algebra. In a parametric model.such as whether matter and mind are one or two substances. the probability distribution function has variable parameters. graphs. and physical processes in a logical way. among which are scientific models. The world is an interpretation (or model) of these sciences. If a model for a language moreover satisfies a particular sentence or theory (set of sentences). A scientific model represents empirical objects. Model theory is the study of (classes of) mathematical structures such as groups. or whether or not humans have free will. A structure that gives meaning to the sentences of a formal language is called a model for the language. statistical models. The aim of these attempts is to construct a formal system for which reality is the only interpretation. only insofar as these sciences are true.

and variance in a normal distribution. in linear regression where the dependent variable is a polynomial of the independent variable with parametric coefficients. The architectural approach. model selection is slecting the highest exponent. also known as system architecture. A nonparametric model has a distribution function without parameters.. Model selection is a statistical method for selecting a distribution function within a class of them. and more views of a system. The economic model is a simplified framework designed to illustrate complex processes. Structural parameters are underlying parameters in a model or class of models. [edit] Social and political models [edit] Economic models Main article: Economic model In economics. These models are models of concepts. or the coefficients for the various exponents of the independent variable in linear regression. the authors specifically state that they are not intended to represent a state of affairs in the physical world. such as in bootstrapping. The non-architectural approach respectively picks a model for each view. [edit] Models in information system design [edit] Conceptual models of human activity systems Main article: Soft Systems Methodology Conceptual models of human activity systems are used in Soft systems methodology (SSM) which is a method of systems analysis concerned with the structuring of problems in management. such as with cross validation. and is only loosely confined by assumptions. . a model is a theoretical construct that represents economic processes by a set of variables and a set of logical and/or quantitative relationships between them. [edit] Models in systems architecture Main article: system model A system model is the conceptual model that describes and represents the structure. economic models use structural parameters. instead of picking many heterogeneous and unrelated models. The first one is the non-architectural approach and the second one is the architectural approach. and may be done with nonparametric means. behavior. A model may have various parameters and those parameters may change to create various properties.g. A system model can represent mutiple views of a system by using two different approaches. often but not always using mathematical techniques. will use only one integrated architectural model. Frequently. They are also used in Information Requirements Analysis (IRA) which is a variant of SSM developed for information system design and software engineering. e.

. A domain model includes the various entities. Entity-relationship models have had wide application in the building of information systems intended to support activities involving objects and events in the real world. ER diagrams. this method combines models of concepts with models of putative real world objects and events. A domain model may also include a number of conceptual views. often a relational database. Like entity-relationship models. However. [edit] Domain model Main article: Domain model A domain model is a type of conceptual model used to depict the structural elements and their conceptual constraints within a domain of interest (sometimes called the problem domain). plus the constraints governing the conceptual integrity of the structural model elements comprising that problem domain. an entity-relationship model (ERM) is an abstract and conceptual representation of data. or ERDs. their attributes and relationships. used to produce a type of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system. It is a graphical representation of modal logic in which modal operators are used to distinguish statement about concepts from statements about real world objects and events. where each view is pertinent to a particular subject area of the domain or to a particular subset of the domain model which is of interest to a stakeholder of the domain model. Entity-relationship modeling is a database modeling method.[edit] Logico-linguistic models Main article: Logico-linguistic modeling Logico-linguistic modeling is another variant of SSM that uses conceptual models. [edit] Data models [edit] Entity-relationship model Main article: Entity-relationship model In software engineering. this modeling method can be used to build computer games or a family tree of the Greek Gods. In these cases they are models that are conceptual. However. domain models can be used to model concepts or to model real world objects and events. Diagrams created by this process are called entity-relationship diagrams. in these cases it would be used to model concepts. and its requirements in a top-down fashion.