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WITH THE RUSSIAN ARMY,

His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaievich Supreme Coinmanderin-Chief of the Russian Land and Sea Forces, August, 1914, till the 4th September,
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1915
[Frontispiece Vol. I.

G. AND 19 MAPS 48673 VOL. CHIEFLY FROM PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN BY THE AUTHOR. I LONDON: HUTCHINSON & CO. WITH 58 ILLUSTRATIONS. K.M. C. PATERNOSTER ROW 1921 .C.B..WITH THE RUSSIAN ARMY 1914-1917 48673 BEI$(G CHIEFLT EXTRACT'S FROM THE T)IART OF A MILITARY ATTACHE ONTARIO BY MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ALFRED KNOX.

MAY 25 J> I98J 4 1 f .

Yet it is certainly the second theatre in importance. and the 2nd during the battle of Tannenberg (Chapter II. In September he accompanied a cavalry division in a raid in South-West Poland. and probably the most interesting of all to the military reader. The German General Staff. Passing through Germany on the eve of the declaration of war. and retired with it before Hindenburg's first offensive against Warsaw (Chapter III.). but from the point of view of our Ally there has been little or nothing.). it is true. has produced valuable studies of certain episodes of the fighting in Russia. few have dealt with the struggle in the Eastern theatre. He wrote things down as they some seemed to him at the time. he spent a few days at the Headquarters of the Grand Duke Nikolas. The writer can at any rate claim to have enjoyed it is greater opportunities for observation of the Russian army than any other foreign observer.) In the great Russian retreat from Poland in 1915. He then visited the 3rd Army Army just before its invasion of Galicia (Chapter I.).). Until the day. which all lovers of Russia hope is not far distant when the Russian General Staff will be able to publish to the world an official account of the work of the Russian Army in the Great War. These twenty-five chapters give the writer's experiences during three and a half years of war and revolution.PREFACE OF the multitude of war books. of the disaster to the Russian loth Army in February. both previous to the war as Military Attache* to the British Embassy at Petrograd. he asks their forgiveness. 1915. due to lack of . of his Russian friends find his comments occasionally overfrank.). and of the operations on the Narev in the winter of that year (Chapter VI. and in the subsequent Russian counter-offensive towards Krakau (Chapter IV. In the following months he was with the Guard Corps at the battle of Ivangorod. . Some account derived from eye-witnesses is given of the operation of Lodz (Chapter V. and during the war as liaison officer at If the front. thought that these extracts from the Diary of a British officer may prove of interest.

Chapter XVII. with many hitherto unpublished details of Brusilov's offensive and the subsequent operations. ALFRED KNOX. 1915. and of the rapid decline of the Russian army. and the negotiations for the separate peace.vi Preface first armament.-XXV. and Chapter X. . describe the fighting in 1916. raid German cavalry Chapters XII. deals with the political unrest preceding the Chapters XIX. of the adventures of a Russian Delegation despatched to England and France to obtain munitions. give an eye-witness's account of the Revolution of March I2th. tells of the Svyentsyani in September. Chapter IX.-XVI. culminating in the Bolshevik coup d'etat of November 7th Revolution. 1917.). the writer was attached to the Staff of the ist to the Guard Corps and later Army on (Chapter VIII.

. xvii CHAPTER THE OUTBREAK OF I WAR.West Front Boredom of life at Baranovichi The Russian plan of campaign and strategical deployment Composition of the front-line armies Visit to the South. 1914 General situation on the North. . . . . AUGUST. . . 1914 Return from leave through Germany at the end of July The mobilisation General Laguiche Forecast of the enemy's probable distribution of strength Departure from Petrograd in the Grand Duke Nikolas's train The Grand Duke's Staff The journey to Baranovichi Conversation with the Grand Duke General Jilinski. .West Front Dinner with General Ivanov The 3rd Army on the eve of crossing the frontier Visit to the 33rd Division Russian patience and good temper De. . Commander-inChief of the North.CONTENTS OF VOLUME INTRODUCTION THE RUSSIAN ARMY Conditions of service in peace I IN 1914 PAGE Armament Military Law of 1914 Recruitment Expansion in war Number of men available Rifles Organisation Depot units Transport reserve Machine-guns Russia Guns Aircraft Training officers The officers General Staff Regimental and The non-commissioned officers The rank and file . .West Front Interview with General Lunch with General Samsonov Jilinski on the evening of August 23rd at Ostrolenka on August 24th Situation of the 2nd Army Chief of Staff's pessimism Arrival at Neidenburg Visits to General Martos of the XVth Corps and to General Torklus of the 6th Division Battle of Orlau-Frankenau Lack of businesslike method Position of the Russian forces on the evening of the 25th Arrival of General Samsonov at Neidenburg on August 26th German attack on the ist Corps Situation on the night of the 26th Position on the morning of August 2 yth Russian estimate of German strength Signs of nerves Conversation with General Samsonov on the morning of the 28th Drive to Ostrolenka Situation in Warsaw The battle in the Yii . 37 CHAPTER II THE DISASTER TO THE 2ND ARMY. GENERAL HEADQUARTERS AND THE SOUTH-WEST FRONT IN AUGUST. war necessarily fatal to . . . parture from Baranovichi . A long . .

but the price paid was unnecessarily great Wonderful success of the German Command Removal of Russian commanders-r-Reconstitution of the XVth and Xlllth Corps 56 CHAPTER WITH A CAVALRY DIVISION IN III SOUTH-WEST POLAND. . . . The average daily march of the 1 4th Cavalry Division The Russian cavalry Subsequent services of the I4th Cavalry Division Of General Erdeli Of General Sencha Of Captain Sapojnikov Fine death of Colonel Westphalen Death of Captain Plotnikov. . his presentiment Subsequent services of General Novikov and of Colonel Dreyer .viii Contents MM south undecided Back to Ostrolenka The disaster to the 2nd Army from accounts of eye-witnesses Relation of the Russian Staff. 1914 Success of the Russian offensive on the South-West Front Rumoured enemy transfers from the French theatre Visit to the fitape Commandant at Warsaw Pessimistic Englishmen Journey to join the Staff of the 9th Army in Galicia Difficulties at Lyublin Bibikov's death Guard Co-operative Society Anecdotes of the recent fighting The wounded Supply and transport Preparations for the defence of the Vistula Keen subalterns Sandomir The Cossacks Headquarters of the gth Army at Zolbnev General Gulevich Situation in Galicia raid on Austrian communications The start of the Proposed cavalry raid i4th Cavalry Division Generals Novikov and Erdeli Staff of the 1 4th Cavalry Division Polish mistrust of Russian promises Adisturbed night The situation Staff routine Cavalry armament " " Skirmish with Sokols Remounts A month's casualties in a cavalry division Burning of a country house Orders Terrible " situation of the Poles The Bloodthirsty Cornet " The division recalled to the north owing to the German offensive Skirmish with a German cavalry patrol Examination of prisoners Through Pinchov with a sentimental officer The enemy strength estimated at one corps only Maxim's "gallantry" Position of opposing forces Delaying action at Yasenn A Jewish spy Continuation of retreat Adventures of a Cossack squadron commander on reconnaissance Situation on October ist Machine-guns Strength of cavalry regiment Reconnaissance Futility of attempts to delay the advance of the enemy infantry Confidence regarding the speedy end of the war Horse-rations in peace and war Intelligence Re" " connaissance and Battle patrols Orderly parties flying posts A night alarm and subsequent march A German prisoner Russian infantry west of the Vistula Staff of the Cavalry Corps loses control owing to rapidity of enemy advance Supply Narrow escape at " " Ostrovets on October 3rd Last delaying position on October 6th Retirement across the Vistula at Novo Alexandriya Good-bye to the 1 4th Cavalry Division Journey to Warsaw. At Byelostok Recapture and re-abandonment of Neidenburg A German account of events in the and Army Inexperience of Russian commanders Defective services of intelligence and communications Orders and counter-orders Adventures of Samsonov's Chief of Intelligence Work of the ist Army Relation of a member of Rennenkampf's Staff Wanderings of the Ilnd Corps Relation of a member of the Staff of the Ilnd Corps The invasion of East Prussia gained its object. SEPTEMBER- OCTOBER. . AFTERNOTE. . . . 95 . . AFTERNOTE.

. . Failure of Hindenburg's first offensive in Poland Failure of the Russian counter-offensive The latter in reality a gigantic bluff . HINDENBURG'S FIRST OFFENSIVE AGAINST WARSAW AND THE RUSSIAN COUNTER-OFFENSIVE.000 men per division Another visit to the Preobrajenski Regiment Slackness of counter-espionage Weakness of our strategy Grand Duke's enquiries regarding equipment Lack of officers The tunnel at Myekhov Retirement becomes probable Inefficient railway management Inefficiency oa the Lines of Communication Visit to Headquarters of the 2nd Guard Infantry Division Progress of the 3rd Army south of Krakau Desertions Drive to Warsaw Drafts on the march Warsaw rumours Large reinforcements for the front Arrival at Petrograd. . AFTERNOTE.Contents ix CHAPTER IV IN WITH THE QTH ARMY AND THE GUARD CORPS SOUTH WEST POLAND.m. gth and 5th Armies on October 6th Failure of Difficulties in carrying out the Russian change of front the enemy's plans Warsaw crowded with fugitives on October 1 2th The Russians resume the offensive Journey to Lyublin Weather Railway transport Office of Commandant of the Lines of Communication at Lyublin Story of the Jew at Ivangorod The road from Lyublin to Krasnik The distribution of armies The General Lechitski Russian success at ride back from Krasnik Warsaw General Gulevich regrets the lack of bridgeheads on the Vistula The fieldpost Orders issued to the Qth Army for the offensive^ Drive from Lyublin to Ivangorod to join the Guard Corps Russian infantry on the march Second -line transport The battle of Ivangorod Visit to the XXVth Corps in advance of Novo Alexandriya Retirement of the enemy The church at Zvolen A subaltern of the Preobrajenski Regiment A drummer boy's funeral Russian distribution on October 28th The Staff of the Guard Corps A priest's story Touch with the enemy lost Stories of the enemy's doings Visit to Warsaw Russian plans Sufferings of the Poles Return to the Guard Corps Second-line troops Destruction of railways Situation in South-West Poland on November 8th Advance of the Guard Corps towards Krakau Waiting for the 3rd Army Nervousness regarding ammunition supply Composition of the 3rd and 8th Armies Tired infantry A Frenchman The tunnel at Myekhov The system of replacing casualties in the Guard Corps Objectives of Russian armies A Guard regiment in action Russian information of enemy dispositions on November iyth A prisoner's reply The 2nd Guard Infantry Division held up The first news of the offensive from Thorn received at i a. 139 . . . OCTOBER-DECEMBER. 1914 Difficulties First news received of Hindenof supply Transfer to the north burg's advance on September 23rd Question whether the enemy should be met west of or in rear of the Vistula The disaster at Opatov Location of units of 4th. . . . on the i8th General anxiety regarding shortage of ammunition Failure of Russian counter-offensive becomes probable The 45th Division in action Points about winter warfare Views in South-West Poland regarding offensive from Thorn Shortage of shell not local but general Depression Visit to the Finlandski Regiment at Yangrot and to the Preobrajenski Regiment at Poremba Gorna Abandonment of the attempted offensive Losses in the Guard Corps Men in the trenches frozen at night Strength opposite the 4th and 9th Armies gth Army averages only 7. 1914 PAGE Line held by the Russians in Galicia on September 2ist. . . .

should not have detached troops to the north .H. 1915 Distribution of armies west of Warsaw Fighting against Austrians Opinions of General Erdeli and of Count Prjetski on the role and tactics of cavalry The Staff of the 5th Army at Mogilnitsa Christmas-trees Difficulty of obtaining information General Plehve An enemy airman Plehve and Miller Visit to the XlXth Corps The Poles as fighters WEST . 1914 PACE Hindenburg appointed Commander-in-Chief of the German Forces in the East Ludendorff suggests the offensive from Thorn The German counter-measures Mackenzen 's concentration Tardy Russian rapid advance Defeat of the ist and 2nd Armies in detail Arrangements for the rescue of the 2nd Army Generals Rennenkampf and Plehve Plehve and the orderly officer Move north of the 5th Army Enterprise of the German penetrating force Launch of the relieving forces from the ist Army The advance of the Lovich Force Change of commander Lack of information and of proper equipment Second change of commander Modification of orders The German penetrating force receives orders to retire.x Contents CHAPTER V HINDENBURG'S SECOND OFFENSIVE IN POLAND.H. . Command might 202 CHAPTER WAR OF POSITION VI OF THE VISTULA. THE GERMAN ATTACK ON THE RUSSIAN IOTH ARMY. I2TH AND IST ARMIES IN ADVANCE OF THE NAREV. 7 p. OPERATIONS OF THE IOTH. . on the 22nd Further change of orders in the Lovich Force The 6th Siberian Division asks for help Indecision Russians in the dark Staff of Lovich Force loses touch with all its columns Destruction of the 6th Siberian Division Escape of the German penetrating force Its remarkable work Disappointment of the Russians Russian forces much intermingled Arrival of German reinforcements Loss of Lodz and Lovich Retirement of the Russian armies to the " river line" The operation of Lodz probably the most interesting of the war from a military psychological standpoint The fog of war Value of co-operation Wonderful German organisation Mackenzen's initial success His failure owing to the delay and weakness of the German offensive further south Question whether the German Supreme not with advantage have delayed its offensive till the arrival of reinforcements from France and have then launched it from Mlava instead of from Thorn The Russian Intelligence on this occasion at fault Brilliant work of the Russian 5th Army Rennenkampf's failure Question whether the Russian Supreme Command . .m.Q. Warsaw in January. 1915 Shortage of rifles The cause Shortage of shell Reduction of the number of guns in the infantry division from forty-eight to thirty-six The " " retirement to the river line caused by loss of men and deficiency of armament Question whether the Grand Duke knew in October of the deficiency of rifles and of shell Secretiveness of Russian officials General Sukhomlinov amply warned by the Staffs of the Fronts and by the Artillery Department His career and character The Assistant Minister of War Interview with General Sukhomlinov on December i6th Optimism of the Times Visit to G. JANUARY TO MARCH. . The Emperor at G.Q. NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER.

on the peace training of officers and on the issue of impossible orders Orders issued on March i6th for a general standfast on the North.West Front Russian units in the Eastern theatre outnumber enemy units. . but the enemy superior in communications. . . . . . number of machine-guns and in organisation Recalled to Petrograd . . . General Sukhomlinov.Contents The Poles and the Russians two points of view Clumsy German propaganda The ijth Division and the 68th Borodino Regiment Poor trenches Distribution of strength in the IVth Corp Formation of the 1 2th Army Appointment of General Gulevich as Chief of Staff of the North-West Front His reception of the news Russian armies on the South-West Front Anecdote from the 4th Army Enemy offensive against the nth Army Comparison of strength on the South. . dismissed on June 25th and succeeded by General Polivanov Colonel Myasoyedov hung as a ... on Russian generals..West Front Enemy attack on the Bzura at the end of January The Guard Corps ordered to Lomja Billets at Lomja The disaster to the loth Army Situation on the Narev in the middle of February Task of the I2th Army Tactical instructions Concentration of the 1 2th Army A cavalry "raid" East Prussian versus Galician line of advance Regroupment on February i6th Indecision regarding point of concentration of reinforcements Count Nostitz Orders and counter-orders Sufferings of the wounded Playing at war in the Staff Futile march of the 2nd Guard Infantry Division and the Guard Rifle Brigade The troops between the Bobr and the Pissa : xi PAGB placed under the orders of General Bezobrazov Orders for the attack on February 2oth Failure of the 2nd Division at Yedvabno and consequent collapse of the attack General discouragement Continued transfer of Russian and enemy forces to the Narev front Visit to the 2nd Guard Infantry Division Shell Superiority of the Germans in manoeuvre Arrival of General Plehve at Lomja Poor impression made by the Vth and 1st Corps disagreement between Generals Plehve and Bezobrazov regarding the plan of attack The question of Osovets Futile attacks on March 2nd.. supply of shell.216 CHAPTER VII IN REAR SERVICES AND THE INTERNAL SITUATION SUMMER OF 1915 THE SPRING AND Losses in five months of war Number of men called up The Opolchenie Depot units Infantry Cavalry artillery Number of divisions mobilised Lack of rifles Other desiderata Lack_of guns_arid of shell Attitude of the Artillery Department The~GTand Duke Serge Suggestions put forward by the French Technical Mission Lord Kitchener's policy Russian attitude towards the firm of Vickers Colonel Ellershaw's mission to the Grand Duke Nikolas General Manikovski Russia's effort in shell production in the first nine months of war compared with England's Lord Kitchener's message and the reply of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Gas masks Riots in Moscow in June Three unpopular ministers The Minister of War. 3rd and 4th Adventure of Austin armoured cars The operation of Prasnish News of the attack on the Dardanelles Lack of shell Pessimism Losses Failure of the second German offensive on Prasnish Visit to the 2nd Guard Infantry Division with General Bezobrazov The power of religion Dinner to the Commander of the Hlrd Caucasian Corps Colonel Engelhardt's views on strategy. .. spy War weariness of all classes 267 .

xii Contents V The " CHAPTER VIII THE GERMAN OFFENSIVE ON THE DUNAJEC AND THE RETREAT FROM POLAND. . the v Commandant 324 . . 8th and nth Armies Exhaustion of the 3rd Army Despatch of reinforcements Przemysl abandoned Failure of the counter-offensive west of the San Lack of heavy artillery Confusion of units in the 3rd and 8th Armies The capture of Memel by the Russians leads to the German invasion of Kurland The importance of the new offensive at first underrated Formation of the 1 3th Army The Russians outnumbered The transfer of three from the north to the 4th and 3rd Armies Optimism at Warcorps sawVisit to the Staff of the North. 1915 Shortage of rifles Shaken morale of the army Deserters A young officer's letter to General Alexyeev Opinions of Generals Odishelidze and Novitski regarding the Russian soldier General Ruzski General Ewarth Supper with General Lebedev . . " PAGE 280 CHAPTER IX EVENTS ON THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN FRONTS FROM THE MIDDLE OF AUGUST TILL THE MIDDLE OF OCTOBER.West Front at Syedlets Opinions regarding Generals Ruzski and Alexyeev Composition of the Russian armies at the beginning of July The Supreme Command opposed to a counter-offensive owing to lack of rifles and shell Disagreement of General Bezobrazov with General Lesh First meeting of the Russian Guard with the Prussian Guard General Bezobrazov replaced in command of the Guard Corps by General Olukhov The flank of the Guard turned owing to the retreat of the Ilnd Siberian Corps Incompetence of General Antipov Retreat of the 3rd Army Lyublin and Kholm abandoned Lunch with the Staff of the 4th Army At the Staff of the ist Army Retreat of the ist Army in July Retreat of the I2th Army The retirement from the Vistula Situation on August 7th Novogeorgievsk Visit to the XXVIIth Corps on August i2th Effect of lack of armament on morale Feeling regarding the " inaction " of the Allies Fine conduct of the regimental officers under the strain of the retreat The tragedy of the lack of shell The staff of the I2th Army moved to Petrograd Staff of the I3th Army moved to Riga The fall of Kovna and of Novogeorgievsk Visit to Osovets and its abandon. . 1915 Lack of transverse railways The stcry of the fall of Kovna Trial of Formation of the Northern Front under General Ruzski Events on the Dvina in late August and early September Assumption of the Supreme Command by the Emperor with General Alexyeev as Chief of Staff Opinions regarding General Alexyeev Opinions regarding the change in the Supreme Command Unpopularity of the Empress Mistrust of authority Corruption on the railways The German cavalry raid on Svyentsyani Retreat of the loth Army Distribution of the Russian armies in October. .West Front Capture of Przemysl Offensive by the 3rd and 8th Armies in the Carpathians in April The Mackenzen stroke on the Dunajec Retreat of the 3rd Army Retreat of the 4th. APRIL-AUGUST. . . ment on August 22nd Polish fugitives . 1915 stand-fast on the North.

Contents xiii CHAPTER X WITH A RUSSIAN DELEGATION TO ENGLAND AND FRANCE Composition of the Delegation Situation in Arkhangel Mined in the White Sea Three weeks in a bay in Lapland Work in London Appeal to Lord Kitchener and interview with Sir William Robertson in Paris Visit to the French Front Interview with General Foch Short visit to the British Front St. . Omer Impressions of the Russians regarding Lord Kitchener and Mr. MM 354 ONTARIO . Lloyd George Fate of Admiral Russin Adventures of Commander Romanov . . .

The Disaster to the 2nd Army. Scale 1/2.000 xi . Scale 1/2. 1914.000 in 1/1. 1914. Position of the Opposing Forces on 1914. 1915. The Strategical Deployment in the Eastern Theatre.000 V.000. 1915. South-West Poland. 1914.000. August i6th-i8th. IV. Narev February and March. 1914. Situation on August 20th. showing the occupied by the Russian armies on September 2ist.000 SKETCH B. Scale 1/500. The Storming Scale of Kovna. Scale 1/3.000.000. Operations in the Russian theatre. and Scale 1/1. 1915-Sep- SKETCH A. The Prasnish Operation.000 IV. Situation November I7th-22nd. 26th. ruary 25th. Situation evening of Scale 1/500.000.000. November I4th-I7th. VII.000. 1915. 1915.000 Situation on August line III: South. Approximate position of Russian Armies on October 2ist. Scale 1/3. Lodz.000 November nth. German Offensive Prussia. t ember. The Lodz Operation.LIST OF MAPS MAP I. 1914. Operations on the 1915.000 II. Scale 1/3. 1914. Movements of the 2nd Army. Feb- IX. against the loth Russian Army Scale in East February 7th-22nd.000.000.000 May. Scale 1/1.000 X. 1/500. Scale 1/2.West Poland and Galicia. To illustrate Chapters III. previous to the first German offensive against Warsaw.000 VIII. and the supposed position of enemy forces.000 SKETCH C.000 VI.000. Scale 1/1.

. . .H. . Orlau-Frankenau. . . of Lbmja. . . . . . . . . . . . 1915 Packing up to fly before German advance. is Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaievich Frontis. . . . Inspector of Artillery of the Guard 300 Staff of the Guard Corps. . . 1914 75 S. . . . . . . . . . 1915 301 Jewish fugitives escaping from Reiovets. July 18-31. . . 1915 Lieutenant Gershelman and Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich 300 Duke of Mecklenburg. . . . Novogrod. . . N.W. G. N. destroyed by Germans. . Commander of Preobrajenski Regiment of the . . General Balanin. . . Poland. . . General Brjozovski. . . . . 1915 254 Peasant women at work on a position N. . . . of Myekhov. . 140 Railway bridge. of Kyeltsi. Mogilnitsa. . Commander XXVIIth Corps 311 Count Ignatiev. . . Group of Kharkov Opolchenie Tired-out men of the 5th Rifle Brigade . . . . . . . . 1915 310 Colonel L a Baltic baron 310 II Siberian Corps 311 Typical faces.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . . . 1915 255 Bridging 255 Headquarters of 2nd Division of the Guard. . . . . . 1914 75 Sandomir. . 1915 301 General Bezobrazov thanking 3rd and 4th Guard Rifle Regiments for their services. . . .Q. . . 1914 141 Railway demolished near Myekhov. . . . Facing page 74 Operations Department of the General Staff. 1915 254 under difficulties. . . . . . . 1914 141 Officers of the 5th Battery.. Guard Baron Budberg. . . . 318 318 319 319 330 330 331 331 XV . . . defender of Osovets General Brjozovski and specimens of shell fired into fortress Grand Duke Dimitri Pavlovich distributing crosses. . / . . . . . . September. . . . . 1914 140 Cooking-carts. . . . . . Lagov. . . N. . and hole made by German . . N. . . . . . . 1915 Second line defences. . . 1914-15 General Marquis de Laguiche and General Ivanov 74 Russians collecting German wounded. demolished by Germans. . . . . . . . . . 1915 . 1914 Western end of tunnel.E. . . . . shell . . . . . 2nd Guard Artillery Brigade 204 " " Rodzianko and telephone 204 sentry 205 Headquarters 5th Army. . . of Lomja. 1915 205 Operations Section of the Staff of 5th Army. Poland.

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with the exception of certain races such as the inhabitants of the Grand Duchy of Finland. and some of them were called up occasionally from civil life for six xvii weeks' elementary training. fleet served under special regulations. 476 3 7 8 5 6 The number males estimated at over one and a half millions of that completed the age of twenty each year was more than the resources of the Empire could train. from the twenty-first The Cossacks and follows was liable to personal military service to the end of the forty-third year of age. The serving period of twenty-three years was divided as : COLOUR SERVICE. of the UNDERpopulation the Mohammedan the law in force at the outbreak of war the whole of the tribes of the Caucasus and the native popula- tion of Russia in Asia. OPOLCHENIE. ist RESERVE.INTRODUCTION THE RUSSIAN ARMY IN 1914 Russian Empire. Years. Among the men so exempted those physically fit for military service were at once enrolled in the Opolchenie or national militia. Years. 2nd Ban. Infantry arid Artillery (except Horse Artillery) Other arms and services . amounting to some one hundred and eighty millions. Years. B . Years. so the incidence of the military law was lightened by a liberal grant of exemptions for family and educational reasons. Ban.

768. This law. additional peace strength was to be used to raise a new corps for the Western frontier. together with the French law raising the period of service from two to three years. The following table shows the actual figures up to 1914 and the proposed figures from 1915 to 1917 : Year.300.000 1.283 Estimated Total Peace Strength on April I4th.000 : 4355i3 43I. constituted the reply of the Dual Alliance to the recent increase of the German Army. The was also to provide the personnel of twenty-six new six-squadron cavalry regiments and a large increase in the artillery. a new corps for Siberia.320.460. additions to the The new law provided through annual contingent for an increase of 468.000 585.000 1.. . The balance of the additional units near the frontier.xviii Introduction important law to increase the strength of the army was An passed by the legislature in secret session in the spring of 1914. This pro- vision in effect lengthened the colour service of the infantry and field artillery from three to three and a quarter years.300.000 1916 1917 585>ooo bill further arranged. 436. Annual Contingent of Previous Autumn. a new It division for the Caucasus and a 4th Rifle Brigade for Finland. while the last-joined contingent was undergoing preliminary training. to retain with the colours for an additional The three months the men about to pass to the reserve. in order to cover the dangerous period.300.000 1.000 1.000 . .000 in the peace strength by the year 1917. and of the mounted and technical troops from four to four and a quarter years.000 1914 1915 455>ooo 585. 1.610. not required for these new formations was to be allotted to strengthen the peace establishment of men and so to help to counteract the disadvantages the Russians suffered from the comparative slowness of their mobilisation. 1911 1912 1913 About 1.97 1 1.

When the Germans struck.Introduction The programme was drawn up mainly with the idea xix of perfect- Its extent was caling the defences of the Western frontier. the Minister had the sole right to report to the Emperor on all military matters. Armenians. and it is significant that it was to reach its full effect in 1917. and this bill into there can be no manner the of doubt that the passing of if of the potent factors. Neither the Russians nor the subject races ' were permitted to serve near their homes. or France. The peace strength and one-third ' of of was units was ' composed of two-thirds Russians subject races. Topography. and other branches dealing with Military Communications. pleted to war strength by incorporating trained men from the local populations. Esthonians. to save time. law was one which decided German Government to declare war in August. The Head-Quarter Staff did the work of our Adjutant-General's . corresponded to our Military Operations Directorate. the year when the extortionate commercial treaty forced by Germany on a defenceless Russia the year after the Japanese war was due for revision. but were drafted to On mobilisation. and from December. culated on the increase in the German army. Letts. to 1909 the Emperor seems to have hesitated as to whether the Chief of the General Staff should be independent of From 1905 the Minister of War as in subordinate to him as in Germany and Austro-Hungary. not the all-potent factor. only one of the new formations the 4th Finland Rifle Brigade. units comunits at a distance. Georgians. Organisation and Training. The party favouring the concentration of the supreme power in the hands of the Minister of War definitely won. 1909. and Mobilisation." such as Poles. Under the Minister of War were the various departments and The Supreme Directorate of the General Staff contained the Department of the General Quartermaster. as a rule etc. All these facts were of course known in Germany. which directorates. was ready For political reasons the territorial system of recruitment never introduced in Russia. 1914.

On mobilisation thirty-five infantry reserve divisions were formed styled 53rd-84th and I2th-i4th Siberian. and Pensions Branches. Caucasus. fifty. Kiev. Vilna. artillery division of three eight-gun field batteries and a rifle rifle artillery park. The territory of the empire was in peace divided into twelve : military districts.two Line and eleven Siberian Rifle. Ist-XXVth Line. four Grenadier. Warsaw. These were grouped in two brigades. four Finland. The armament and training The Intendance The Military Technical Directorate dealt with the technical troops. Kazan. 1st and Ilnd Turkistan and Ist-Vth Siberian. a field artillery brigade of six eight-gun batteries and park brigade. the Grenadier. Irkutsk and the Pri-Amur. There were thirty-seven army corps : The number of infantry divisions was seventy : three Guard. each under a Commander-in-Ohief Petrograd. Omsk. transport and pay. There were twenty-four cavalry and Cossack divisions. The infantry division consisted normally an a artillery of four four-battalion regiments. Ist-IIIrd Caucasian. the Guard. The normal composition divisions : of an army corps was two infantry one division (two six-gun batteries) of light howitzers with howitzer park and a battalion of sappers (three sapper and two telegraph companies).xx Introduction dealt with supply. regular cavalry division contained four regiments each of six squadrons. two Caucasian and six Turkistan. and in addition eleven independent cavalry and Cossack cavalry brigades. There were in addition eighteen Rifle Brigades : five European. The rifle brigade contained four two-battalion rifle regiments. one Guard. Moscow. Artillery Department attended to the of artillery. Turkistan. of which the first contained the Dragoon and the Lancer regiments and the The second the Hussar and the Cossack regiments. Odessa. The establishment of these reserve divisions was identical with that of the .

000 mobilisation the whole of the active army. 2. ordnance depots.600 were liable to military service. including reserve.600. was place for only about three millions in the fighting formations. Regular army. was 81. men from 350.Introduction regular divisions. Opolchenie.980. first-line a parent Russia therefore commenced the war with the equivalent of 114 infantry and about 36 cavalry divisions.000 Opolchenie. transport columns and to depot battalions. Of course.000 .000.500. out of 74. 1910. 3.000 15. for the male population of Russia on January 1st.000 thirty-nine to forty-three years 4. who were detached on mobilisation from regiment. whom The following is an estimate : of the number of men who were classified for mobilisation 1. reserve division xxi Each of the four infantry regiments of the was formed by the addition of officers and men from the reserve to a cadre of twenty-two officers and four hundred rank and file. hospitals. .262.050. 2nd Ban untrained men from twentyone to forty-three years. 114 divisions represented a poor effort compared with that of Germany and France.000. A number of additional Gossack cavalry divisions were formed on mobilisation and other Cossack divisions were added later. and the ist Ban of the Opolchenie was On Of this total of some five millions there partially mobilised. 3. about . ist Ban partially-trained men from twenty-one to forty-three years. reserve and the Cossacks were called out. fully-trained men from twenty-one to thirty-nine years of age Cossacks 5.000 5. The remainder were allotted to line-of-communication formations. . Ban . about Opolchenie. fully-trained ist men fully-trained 200. 6.

250 strong. Thus some regiments provided ten officers a battalion commander. the rifle regiment two battalions and the cavalry division of twenty-four squadrons had each a machine-gun section of eight Maxims. together replacement of casualties.xxii Introduction of depot battalions formed on mobilisation was Of these. The proportion of artillery was inadequate. Each cavalry division had a horse artillery division of two six-gun batteries armed with the same Both field and horse batteries had two 3* gun of 1902. Most of these were of the 1902 model with steel shield and panoramic sight. sixteen were affiliated to and fed directly the 192. interfered with the proper preparation of drafts. The remainder were unaffiliated The number and sent recruits to replace wastage in any units at the of the front on requisition from the Mobilisation Department Supreme Directorate of the General Staff.F. was the outbreak of bullet. The cadres of the depot battalions were furnished by certain previously-designated first-line units. three- bayonet). interfered throughout the war with the systematic front. . and the lack of spare billeting accommodation near the with the poor carrying capacity of the Russian railways. but some units had still the 1900 gun. including " and stood the test of war well. At fool-proof it war was being resighted to suit the new pointed The infantry regiment of of four battalions. pared drafts. an adjutant and The cadre companies preeight cadre company commanders.. for despatch to the front as required. provision of accommodation most of the barracks lying in the Staff. infantry regiments of the Guards. The Russian infantry and cavalry were armed with the line rifle of 1891. field guns. The rate of wastage far exceeded the calculations of the General was found necessary to send drafts to the Difficulties of climate and in the front only partially trained. The normal infantry division had an artillery brigade of six eight-gun batteries armed with 3" Q. though heavy (9! Ibs. " This weapon. and in 1915 it centre of large towns together with the inefficiency of the training personnel.

F. the Kiev.F. 2 six-gun batteries 24 12 Heavy guns Total per corps o 108 3 four-gun batteries 144 . many of them were of inferior armament. expand threefold. In other words. gun (Model 1909) of Schneider-Danglis pattern. field guns.F. into a total of sixty-three heavy However. six-gun batteries 108 96 4 six-gun batteries 12 Light howitzers. with a backing for the whole army of seventy-five batteries (450 guns) of light howitzers as corps artillery and of twenty-one batteries (84 guns) of modern heavy guns as army artillery. Caucasian. To sum rifles had up. The gun was not a real quick-firer and was much too heavy for work with cavalry. partly with the 2-95" Q. 12 eight-gun batteries 18 PROPOSED. howitzers (Model 1909) of Krupp pattern. i. The mountain batteries. On 1910) and one four-gun mobilisation these seven divisions com- (Model menced to batteries. which took the place of field batteries in certain units in Finland. -28 light howitzers and -05 so-called heavy It field had been decided in the spring of 1914 to commence the reorganisation and increase of the artillery. for transport by draught or by pack. The Russian army was only known to possess seven divisions of heavy field artillery.000 rifles only 3-4 guns. and partly with fitted the older 3" Q. the 114 Russian infantry divisions of 14. Field guns.e. mountain gun of 1904. Each division contained two four-gun batteries of 6" " howitzers battery of 4-2 guns.. Both guns were Each army corps had a light howitzer division containing field two six-gun batteries of 4-8" Q. there were per 1.000 only forty-eight field guns each. The following table shows the existing and the proposed organisation of the arm in the normal army corps : EXISTING. were armed. Turkistan and Siberian Military Districts.Introduction xxm wagons per gun.

for her revenues but Russia's excuse for her economy was greater. work of any Russian dirigible during the war. In January. As in other countries. Ilya Muromets. were more needed for internal development. Its trials had not given very satisfactory results." had been boomed by the Press. none of which was of any military value. . but an order had been given in the spring of 1914 for the delivery of ten of the type by autumn. Russia had no dirigibles of power equal to the German She had at the outbreak of war five up-to-date machines of the second class and ten yet smaller machines. The Vilna. 1914. In spite of Imperial and Press encouragement.xxiv The supply of shell Introduction was 1. there were only eleven aero clubs in Russia compared with one hundred in Germany. but with only moderate success. large stocks were not kept because they could not have been used in the annual peace practice in time to avoid Russia was greater owing to the small output of the Russian factories. aeronautics in Russia had made no progress as a sport. and there were about the same number of trained pilots.000 per field gun.000 aeroplanes for delivery in the three years 1914-1916 . invented by a M. Nothing was heard of the Zeppelins. The membership of the All-Russia Aero Club declined from 874 in 1910 to 360 in 1912. the preference of the authorities having been given in 1912 to Nieuports. 400 of these were ordered from various works in Russia for delivery by the autumn of 1914. of The crime economy in of shell rapidly . Sikorski and " called after a national Siberian hero. and in 1913. in succession to Farmans. Orenburg and Riga Clubs ceased to exist in 1913. Morane-Saulniers and Duperdussins. the General Staff did not expect a long war. The Government had done its best to encourage the home manufacture of flying material. A large aeroplane with four engines. It was decided in 1913 to order 1. which could not be depended on in an emergency to provide large quantities deterioration. As in France and England. The smaller machines were of various types. The number of aeroplanes that were in the country was 320. Caucasus. Nijni-Novgorod. and these were all maintained by the keenness of some single local individual.

whose feeding further complicated matters roads and by its cumbrousness decreased the mobility of the for military use that it . by the twelve Personal District Comen- manders breathed initiative was couraged. with a capacity of perhaps twenty engines a month. at events on paper. and Kalep's " at Riga. writer in Danzer's A Generally speaking. and would therefore be at the mercy of a lighter but more wiry and intelligent opponent. The comparison was extraordinarily true. and the number of civilian-owned transport cars suitable was possible to requisition in Russia in the first thirteen months of war was only an additional 475. and the enemy's command of the air in the Eastern theatre was The rapid development of air material during the " Kerenski's offensive in July. Armee Zeitung in November. Meddling with their juniors by . the Gnome at Moscow. 1917. the teaching of the General Staff in the peace period from 1905 to 1914 had been devoted to the inculcation of the spirit of the offensive. lacked activity and quickness.Introduction xxv There were only two engine factories. All the instructional manuals and all the memoranda this all issued spirit. when never challenged till the Russian pilots were assisted by French and British. who. 418 transport and 2 ambulance . There were at the outbreak of war only 679 Government automobiles 259 passenger. Motor Works ' war left the Russian industry still further behind. The Western Allies supplied large numbers of machines. fighting troops. with an output of two or three. but there was a general lack of skilled mechanics to put them together and keep them in order. ' In transport the army of our Allies was far behind its opponents. The army in advance of railhead had to depend mainly on horse This absorbed an enormous number of men and transport. 1909. because of his enormous bulk. muscle-bound prize-fighter. it blocked the horses. but the ineffectiveness and lack of mobility of the army arose more from the want of modern equipment and from inherent national characteristics than from merely bad leading and insufficient training. compared the Russian army of that day to a heavy-weight.

that there had not been time to weld the artillery and infantry of the division into one indivisible whole. and the task of raising the general level was rendered doubly difficult after the war by the large The war number of resignations among the better educated. Dismounted action was still preferred and little attempt was made to combine mobility with fire tactics. Only a few weeks before the war writers in the military Press tried to prove that the change had been positively harmful in that creased the volume of correspondence. instance. less it In January. the horses and men were of splendid material. Scouting was poor. Their pensions were raised. both educational and moral. The pay of all officers up to and including the rank of lieutenant-colonel was raised by amounts varying from 25 per cent. since in 1910 the divisional artillery had been placed under the divisional commander for tactical training. later. The flow of promotion was officer . The Musketry Regulations of 1909 represented a striking advance on those of 1899. it had in- In infantry training stress had been laid on instruction in work in extended order and in the use of cover. The guns showed a marked preference for concealed positions and in little mobility. the allowance of practice ammunition was increased.123 officers. these reforms had been too recent. The combination of the arms had improved. for Still. could to combat the by a series of measures for improving the position of the and increasing his professional qualifications. and commanders of all grades at manoeuvres were ordered to remain in the positions they would occupy in war. and since. Still. Manchuria had revealed many shortcomings in the officer class. It was obvious. to 35 per cent. the engineer units had been permanently allotted to mixed commands of all arms instead of being trained as before in watertight compartments. 1910. It was difficult to judge of the quality of artillery training from manoeuvres.xxvi senior Introduction commanders was strictly forbidden. there was a shortage of no The military administration did what evil than 5. and The cavalry on the whole seemed to have made less progress.

The great majority of vacancies for regimental commander in the infantry and cavalry of the line were filled by officers of the among General Staff or Guard Corps." entrance to the latter being classes. though passed over repeatedly. Meanwhile the bulk of the regimental officers of the Russian army suffered from the national their faults. they were inclined to neglect duties unless constantly supervised. military With possible to youths of an inferior educational standard. and they were too prone to spend a holiday in eating rather more and in sleeping much more. Musketry courses for officers were established in many of the military districts. Unlike our officers. all the yunker The accommodation schools were changed to military schools. They hated the irksome round of everyday training. from 150 to 200 suicides It is though the garrison numbered small wonder that there were the officers of this garrison every year. or on extra-regimental duty. the idea of levelling up the social class of officers. army in the immediate neighbourhood of The monotony of life in these frontier stations without the relaxation of out-of-door amusements can be imagined. on the frontier of Afghanistan.Introduction accelerated retirement. and such men. The gunnery courses were extended and a splendid training-ground was acquired at Luga. for fortress A third school for field and a new school artillery were started. Schools for the training of officers were formerly of two " " " and yunker. men with a tendency to laziness consoled themselves with the excuse that it was no use working. These reforms required time to produce their full effect. xxvii by the In a fixing little an age limit for compulsory over one year 341 generals and 400 of colonels were retired as inefficient. officers. in all military schools artillery was increased. they had no taste for outdoor amusements. If not actually lazy. In Termez. were allowed to remain till by those who had been detached The natural result was that the they qualified for . there was not a single tennis-court. for instance. In the new distribution an attempt had been made to avoid the waste of time in the strategical concentration consequent on the lack of railways by quartering in peace a larger proportion of the various frontiers.

when he has twelve to fourteen years' service.e. the General Staff officer manoeuvres. but his work remains the same. but seldom did. adding that there " Another battery Intendance Officer was very conscientious number ! commander from the Kazan The Military District stated that his battery sent out 8. and left him wearied and listless a sucked orange when he came to his real work. and the young officer was out of touch with troops except at Six years after leaving the Academy. The corps. best educated officers passed into the Nikolas Academy or Staff College very young. He never decides anything and never expresses an opinion of his own. brigade and battalion commanders had little to do. They article in the were then supposed to command a company or squadron for two The next four years were spent in a years. but spends his time in collating the is becomes a lieutenant-colonel." as one writer put it. but the 4. He opinions of others. while the commanders of the division. described the life of the average General Staff officer. Work was badly distributed between the links of the chain of command. regiment and company were overwhelmed by administrative detail.. An Russian military paper. " then generally transferred to the Staff of his district or to army headquarters.500.000 each year. The only qualities of his character that have . i. the In 1913 a battery commander in Central Asia stated that of letters despatched from his battery in the year was " should not be more than 3. They left the Academy usually with six to eight years' service. and they had little further incentive to work. writing and report scribbling that in the Russian army drowns every promising reform in a " sea of ink occupied far too much of the combatant officer's time. before they had time to learn their regimental work. Once they had passed the test of the three years' study there. subordinate position on the staff of a division or corps or fortress. meanwhile blocking promotion for their and energetic juniors. the preparation of his command for ' war. in 1912. much less the management of men.xxviii Introduction more capable pension. the Russki Invalid. their careers were made if they refrained from quarrelling with some influential superior.500. Letter" that vice.

but both classes year only served as privates or N. By the new Law of Military Service of 1912 all short-term volunteers were compelled to serve for two years. but very many hated the military life and were far too lazy to enforce discipline or look after the comfort of their men.Introduction xxix a chance of development are those of self-control and a highly disciplined respect for those superiors on whom he knows that his Before appointment to the comfuture promotion depends. represented a weaker element not so much the regular regimental officers. as in other countries. In the matter of non-commissioned officers the Russian army was still more hopelessly behind its enemies." the first class with superior educational qualifications served one the second class served two years. but their keenness often disappeared at the front since they found no one of The numbers to teach them. ." exceptional educational qualifications had been excused the full " short-term volunperiod of conscript service and had served as Previous to 1912 they were divided into two classes teers. .O. who. In spite of the pessimism of this article. while on mobilisation they of reserve who were called up from civil life . were required to the position of officer. were mostly killed during the first years of war but the officers officers The regimental on mobilisation and who reflected all the faults from a national point of view of the " These were men who on account of Russian Intelligentsya. large young officers that the military schools passed out during the war proved better material. which might be reduced to one and fill a half or one and two-third years on their passing an examination Some of these men qualifying them for the position of officer. proved splendid material.'s only.O." mand of a regiment usually when he had twenty-three to twentysix years' service less the General Staff officer was only in more or four direct contact with the men for one further period in months command of a battalion or as administrative officer in a regiment of cavalry. it is fair to add that the General Staff officer proved himself in the war to be the cream of the army.

C. the same faults as the men. three of the first class of The Ministry War had and two of the second.O. to assist officers in training.035 lance- corporals and bombardiers serving at the beginning of 1914. they were given a bounty of 106 on the completion of ten years' reengaged service and promised a pension of 10 on the completion offered to induce .535 N.C.C.C.C. and the lack of officers and N.'s to re-engage for extended service in order to provide men of the same class as the conscripts.'s were re-engaged men.C. but of greater experience and In short-service armies authority. The Russian soldier requires leading more than any soldier in the world. moreover. for each company. were made for the reservation of a large number of Government posts to provide for their comfortable livelihood on return to civil life. three of each class. the remainder being serving conscripts.'s of the first class serving in 1911 was estimated by the Austrian General Staff at 28.'s of extended service " was inaugurated.C. all the N. Press articles in 1913 pointed out that while the Russian company had only five N. The idea was to provide eventually six re-engaged N. squadron and It was hoped to attain an establishment of 24.000 of battery.C. Of the second class there were 18.'s.'s and 2. administration leading.O. they lacked the authority to lead. accomplished much.O.500 (Streffleur. one-seventh of the N.'s had.O.O.C. 1752). men In 1908 and subsequent years arrangements of thirteen years. In 1911 a " second class of N.O.O. p. felt . but not enough. of those of the French company were re-engaged men.O. and tactical The number of such men in the Russian army had long been At the commencement of the year 1904 only about insufficient.'s of quality was throughout the war.O. The conscript N. but this estimate was certainly an exaggeration. The number of N.xxx Introduction it is necessary to induce a number of N.C. the second class by the year 1915. In 1905 substantial inducements were to re-engage their pay was trebled. of course. 1911. whom.'s of the German and Japanese company and 75 per cent.O.'s of extended service.

could read and write. Owing to the rigour of the climate and the lower general civilisation. Frenchmen have freely acknowledged that the Russian army progress during the eight years 1906-1914 than their countrymen accomplished in a similar period following the disasters of 1870-71. The simple faith of the Russian soldier in God and the Emperor seemed to provide an overwhelmnig asset to the leader with sufficient imagination to realise its value. It believed that both these figures were grossly exaggerated. of town-bred men was less than elsewhere. They were lazy and . Of the 1903 contingent. but more time was required to recreate an army that reflected as the qualities of the nation.Introduction xxxi Previous to the war friendly observers had reason to hope that the rank and file of the Russian army might possess certain valuable qualities non-existent in other armies. of whom were drawn from the peasant class. durance. ceremonial parades and guards. was impossible to hope for individuality in recruits. only 39 per cent. among the reservists was said to be increasing. 75 per cent. but before the war the percentage was said to have risen to 50. but in any case such smattering of education as the recruit possessed had not in any way expanded his mind or made of him a civilised. The Tartar domination and serfdom seem to have robbed them of all natural It initiative. training. all administration had made more the faults as well The raw material of the army still suffered from want of The proportion of literates education and of individuality. which it was calculated left only one year out of the three years' officers but the company colour service for the actual training of the infantry soldier. the Russian soldier was more fitted to stand privation and should have been more fitted to stand nerve strain than the men of Central Europe. leaving only a wonderful capacity for patient enInitiative might have been fostered by individual were handicapped by the large number of official holidays. The men had the faults of their race. is thinking being. The relations between officers and men were far better than in Germany. servists The proportion Many of the re- had had experience of modern war.

French or It German Staffs. Russia possessed only about half a mile of railway to one . on their own weight of numbers in combination with the dash of the French to overcome the enemy. The strain of a long war. no more than the Austrian. The bulk of them went willingly to the war in the first instance. No one with any knowledge of Russia ever imagined that the decision could come in the Eastern theatre. owing to her lack of population. would be at a disadvantage. The Russian army worked with rare self-sacrifice and accomplished as much as we had any right to expect.xxxii Introduction happy-go-lucky. must have been evident to the more foreseeing members of the Russian General Staff that even at the first clash of arms the Russian forces. however. was immeasurably greater for Russia than for England. for it tested every fibre and muscle of the national frame. intelligent leading and lack of proper equipment. long war spelt for Russia inevitable disaster. chiefly because they had little idea what war meant. and essentially a war of machinery. As for the possibility of a long war. the incompetence of her Government and the absence of real self-sacrificing patriotism in the masses of the or Germany. The false hopes which our censorship allowed the man " " in the street to place on the Russian were mere steam-roller self-deception and were never shared by the well-informed. ever thought of it. doing nothing thoroughly unless driven to it. France communications. Such a victory was not gained because Germany's preparation for war was more thorough than France's. where numerically only equal to the German. the Russian General Staff. They calculated. The shortcomings of the army might have passed unnoticed if the Allies had gained A a decisive victory in the West in the first six months of war. the backwardness of her industry. They lacked the intelligent knowledge of the objects they were fighting for and the thinking patriotism to make their morale proof against the effects of heavy loss and heavy loss resulted from un. and because the politicians of Great Britain of all parties had been deaf to the soldiers' warnings and had refused to organise the national defence.

the first three years of war the average arrivals of ships in Russian served by only a single numbered 1. Out of the many Russian ports which normally served her import and export trade.200 weekly. with her 180 millions inhabitants. had roughly only one factory to Great Britain's 150. which should have relieved much of the pressure. It was jealous alike of the advice of the Allies and of Russian patriots outside the circle of the bureaucracy.250 annually. were undeveloped and mismanaged.000 miles. Arkhangel was immediately narrow-gauge line and was some 2. wise traffic and her magnificent inland waterways.000 Vladivostok was 8. where the Allies had already swamped the market. while the arrivals in ports of the United Kingdom numbered on an average 2. Great Britain had weakening of Russia's effort for the policy that had denied her an outlet on the open sea. to now pay in the but she received less benefit from our possession of that than any of her allies. But Russia. there remained at the outbreak of war only two Arkhangel and Vladivostok andArkhangel was closed for half the year. Even if shipped from America there remained the their initial stocks of shell : and materials of difficulty of their delivery at industrial centres in Russia. During miles from the battle-line. It C . It is true that Russia could not have fought on for more than twelve months if the command of the sea had been in the enemy's hands. The Government was hide-bound and did not rise to the emergency. With every desire to help ports their ally. Machinery and tools could only be obtained from America.Introduction xxxiii hundred square miles as compared with about twenty miles of She had practically no coastline to the same area in England. She had not the machinery or the tools or the trained personnel. Russia's friends were handicapped by the inadequacy of equipment of the ports that remained open and the poorness of the land communications that led from them to the front. France and England diverted their thousands of factories to war-work. Russia's main trade in peace had passed in and out through the now closed Baltic and Black Seas. Germany. command A very few weeks of war proved to all the combatants that war generally were insufficien to ensure a decision.

fight well if it would have continued to factories for the production of material of war. have been wiser from a purely selfish point of view to have pressed the Emperor to introduce some simple form of universal primary education on patriotic lines. A higher type of human animal was required to persevere to victory through the monotony of disaster. the Russian Government was largely to blame. but it soon lost trust in the Government and the leading. . believed in a long war. however. Many Russians were fully aware of their national shortcomings." had to pay dearly for the low mental development of the mass of the Russian population. The Russian peasant population is essentially pacific and the least Imperialistic in the world. any suggestion " regarding education would have been regarded as unjustifiable interference in the internal affairs of an allied and friendly nation. It never understood why it fought. and to develop the home moderate. From the very commencement of the war the Russians surrendered in thousands. No one. the system of a bureaucracy on the German model. imposed on a people without education and patriotism had produced a state edifice too rotten to resist any prolonged strain. and Russian prisoners freed hundreds of thousands of Germans from agriculture and industry to man the trenches in the West. for it had discouraged education and had allowed the brandy monopoly for many years to sap the character and grit The Government of the French Republic would of the people. had been early adopted by Germany and France.xxxiv Introduction which persistently refused to introduce industrial conscription. but without German honesty and efficiency. No doubt. It fought well on It many occasions when the leading was had had some measure of success. and the one idea was to speed up the Russian mobilisation by the construction of new railways and to increase the number of new cadres to enable Russia to bring her weight to bear as soon as possible. The division of classes. too. That the Russian type was so low. For a long war Russia was outclassed in every factor of success except in the number of her fighting men and in their molluscRussia's allies like quality of recovery after severe defeat.

if it came to making peace. if things went badly with Russia. Soon " " soldier deputy told the after the revolution of March. Anglichanka she was clever and would help . a writer that at the beginning of the war a fellow peasant from the Urals had said to " him that " he was glad that the ' ' was with Russia. 1917. . in reminiscence of the long reign of Queen Victoria." .Introduction There was universal joy when it xxxv was known that Great Britain had entered the war as Russia's ally Great Britain. who was Anglichanka. because first secondly." or the Englishalways called by the peasants woman. she was good and she would help thirdly. she was determined and would not give way.

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H. 37 . G. I CHAPTER I OUTBREAK OF WAR. REFERENCE MAP No. when I was appointed to Petrograd. used his motor-cars. AUGUST. provided his private plans fit in with the ideas of the Ambassador and the War Office. rode his horses. I got away at till the end of the month the end of June. and attended with him nightly performances at the local theatre we saw much . but the Ambassador had to remain without a day's leave till January. I had always gone home in June and returned at the end of July in time for the annual manoeuvres of the Petrograd Military District. martial spectacle but very little serious training for modern war In June. To these manoeuvres accredited foreign officers were always invited as the guests of the Emperor we lunched and dined at : his table. I ONE Attache delightful is thing about the appointment of Military that he can take his annual leave when he likes. Since 1911. 1918. 1914.Q.With the Russian Army 1914-1917 VOL. the Ambassador made me postpone my leave to be present during the official visit of our battle-cruiser squadron to Russian waters. AND THE 1914 SOUTH-WEST FRONT.

He was a fellow Ulsterman. where we were all too deeply engrossed in thoughts for our political future to consider possible European complications. Still. At breakfast on Monday. but one's At the War Office I could get no advice as to how to return to risk the journey across to Russia. I had believed contempt by the great and wise that we had begun to hope that we might after all prove to be the lunatics we were represented to be. did not seem necessarily to mean war. From the train no men could be seen at work in the fields. but in his mind. It was recognised. and we talked till late. and then knew that war was inevitable. The news of the Austrian I read this ultimatum to Serbia was more threatening. The big bridges at Dirshau and Marienburg were strongly guarded by infantry. of course. and that Germany might forbear from pushing matters to extremes. . This. a polite German porter said he helped to telegraph to the frontier to retain a coupe in the Russian express. July 27th. Like nine out of every ten officers. but in Ulster. Next morning at Victoria the booking-clerk Germany and had already booked several passengers to Petrograd. Ulster was uppermost. On the boat was a submarine officer who had also been recalled. too. but it had been critical in 1908 and 1912 and nothing had come of it. no troop trains were passed. on the other hand. for eighteen years in the reality of the German fears had been treated with such consistent menace. I played a round of golf that had been previously arranged and crossed that night from Belfast. that the situation was critical. yet. He put me a question or two about the Russian army.38 With the Russian Army. however. The journey indeed was most comfortable. but I made up my mind cancelled the passage taken provisionally from Hull to Helsingfors. Next day I said good-bye at Euston to poor Johnnie Gough. I received telegraphic orders from the War Office that the Ambassador wished me at once to return to my post. and more of Ulster than of the European situation. At Berlin we read in the German papers of Russia's partial mobilisation. 1914-1917 On my way home the German paper I bought in Berlin told of the murder of the Grand Duke Franz Ferdinand and his wife.

July 3ist. Prussian officers chatted nervously. Germany declared war on Russia at 6 p. 1914 most of 39 whom were in the old uniform along with a few in the grey. Patriotic crowds cheered nightly in front of the British and French . At Kovna at midnight we heard of the general Russian uniform ' ' ' ' mobilisation. A mass of a quarter of a million people uncovered in cried silently the Palace Square before the sacred eikons while the Emperor swore in the words of Alexander I. The war was undoubtedly popular with the middle classes.m. and one of them left his new " field pocket-book behind when he alighted from the train." In East Prussia generally there were more signs of excitement. Once safe across the Russian frontier the many Russian passengers. that he would never make peace as long as an enemy remained on Russian soil. All the wineshops were closed and there was no drunkenness a striking contrast to the scenes witnessed in 1904. the following day I Saturday. August ist. The spirit of the people appeared excellent. deferring the hour of parting. The mobilisation went smoothly and the number of men called up in comparison with the partial mobilisation of 1904 caused general astonishment. The men generally were quiet and grave. and even the strikers. The Warsaw Press summoned the Poles to rally to the defence of Slavdom. but parties cheered one another as they met in the street. and one saw cruel scenes.August. took no One of them lamented that ! He drew to drop on Dirshau bridge consolation from the fact that the bridge guards were not all in he had not had a field service bomb at pigs of Germans proving that those any rate were not ready to the last gaiter-button. but the women and there were no hysterics. Wives and mothers with children accompanied the reservists from point to point. arrived in Petrograd on the morning of Friday. who Russians believed had been subsidised with German money. at once on mobilisation returned to work. remarkably silent. who had hitherto been pains to conceal their sentiments.

when our Embassy was once more in danger from the fickle crowd because." and remarks in the streets and in tramcars on August 2nd and 3rd about the delay of our Government were unpleasant to hear. who had been appointed Commander-inGhief. the Naval Attache. He It assistant as long as Russia remained at proved the best of fellows and the most loyal of my was a lucky chance that found an officer of his and energy on language leave in Russia at the outbreak Information soon came that Sir John Hanbury Williams was being sent out from England to be attached to the Russian armies. of the Gordon Highlanders. There can be little doubt that if Great Britain had declared for neutrality the Embassy would have been stormed by the rabble.40 With the Russian Army. . and where the cure in a moving address called upon God to take to Himself the souls of those who were even now giving up their lives for their country and to protect all civilisation from Germany. ability of war. three and a half years later. Some of us were to live in Russia to see the day. she conquered/' I handed over my office Blair was to be war. The mass of the people had " taken it for granted that the English would come in. having taken up Russia's quarrel. I had naturally to give him my place at G. and prepared to leave Petrograd on the train of the Grand Duke Nikolas Nikolaievich. and took us to a service at the French church. we were determined to see the matter through. As he was much senior to me.H. ' who always sought to humiliate those whom The next few days passed quickly. in Petrograd to Captain James Blair. helps. But in those wonderful August days of 1914 our popularity was unbounded once the news came that the Government had taken up the challenge and joined in the great adventure.Q. 1914-1917 Embassies and the Serbian Legation. as was the German Embassy.. but the Ambassador decided that pending his arrival I must leave Petrograd as British representative in the Grand Duke's train with the French and Serbian Military Attaches. The morning the telegram arrived the Ambassador called for me with Grenf ell. where there were representatives of all the Allies.

He was a good colleague and a big gentleman." who had been with me for over three years and had served my two predecessors in the post of Military Attache. and that they would strike north-east from that line. It was thought that the Germans with five first-line corps and some reserve divisions forecast The would confine themselves to the defensive in the Eastern theatre pending the arrival of reinforcements after the decision in the West. 41 who had had been longer in Russia. and we always worked together and helped one Though I another all we could.10 train. proving himself an excellent servant and I took with me my civilian servant " friend in every way. 1914 General Marquis de Laguiche and Colonel Leonkevich. not been superseded by their Governments. as he had served in both countries as Military Attache before coming to Petrograd. the chief of the section. . and who remained with me till I left Russia. that their main concentration would be completed about August 2ist. Kalish and Bendin in South-west of first-line troops to .August. west from Eydkuhnen and north from Bialla it cut the railways between Soldau and Neidenburg. He had an excellent knowledge of the German and Austrian armies. probably on the line Tarnopol-Lemberg-Jaroslau. Russian cavalry penetrated a short distance into East Prussia. German infantry occupied Vrotslavsk. It was calculated that the Austrians would use ten corps form three armies against Russia. At the station I was joined by an orderly detailed by the General Staff one Ivan Gribkov who had been a ladies' tailor in civil life. Poland. The trans-frontier raids of the first few days were of little importance. Laguiche and Leonkevich travelled with me and we German joined old friends in Colonels Skalon. Laguiche had a stronger position before the war as the representative of Russia's ally. so had to leave Petrograd by the 9. We Maxim. of the Russian General Staff regarding the enemy's course of action was fairly accurate. were told to join the Grand Duke's train at Peterhof by midnight on the I3th.

Many wives had come to see us off. Samoilo was a little Russian with He a loud voice and a keen sense of humour. He had joined the secretariat of the Ministry of War.42 With the Russian Army. Madame Danilov had journeyed from Vinnitsa twenty-four hours in peace. Countess Mengden was helping her husband. He was a stern. Yanushkevich had seen no service in the field. 1914-1917 chief of and Samoilo. and employment there after passing the Academy. He is early returned to said to have attracted the Emperor's attention when on guard as a young captain at the Palace. He had commanded a company for a short time but never a battalion. the tion the Austrian section. and exacting chief. He was a man few words. in accordance with the plan of mobilisation. Chief of the Staff of the army in the field.> At Peterhof the Grand Duke Nikolas's Staff was assembling. Madame Samoilo was saying good-bye to her husband. and General Danilov. was the hardest worker and the strongest brain in the staff. He now holds an im- In politics before the war Samoilo was thought to be the most reactionary member of the General - command. disciplinarian man. Skalon was of They were German extracof from the Baltic Provinces. As Chief of the General Staff in peace. and his selection to be Comof the mandant Academy on in 1913 of the General Staff Jilinski's promotion to the Chief appointment to be Governor of his and Warsaw in the spring of 1914 excited general surprise. nicknamed host of other Danilovs. shot himself at Brest Litovsk in 1917 rather than take part in the Bolshevik betrayal. the Chief of the Staff. a great Throughout the war I was to silent . he became. the General Quartermaster. He gave the impression rather of a courtier than of a soldier. We met General Yanushkevich. " hear many complaints from Russian officers of his hide-bound strategy/' but no one ever suggested the name of an officer who could have done better. but now a five days' pilgrimage. In many years' service in the Supreme Directorate of the General Staff he had made a study of the strategy of the western frontier. " " to distinguish him from a the Black Danilov. . intimate friends before the war. portant Bolshevik Staff.

. one of the aides. He told me how fond he was of Sir Montague Gerard and Sir Ian Hamilton. 1914. who accompanied the brother to whom he is devoted.m. was there. for we would go in straight to dinner after our talk. To me he spoke of sport. and who had now succeeded to the command of the district which the Grand Duke had held before mobilisation. He told me how he hated the Germans because one could never trust them that this war had been forced upon us and that we must crush Germany once and for to go to . into his Sam Browne belt. The train started at midnight.Q. DIARY : GRAND DUKE'S TRAIN. At lunch the Grand Duke Peter sat at a small table with Laguiche on his right hand and the Serbian Military Attache and me opposite. the German Empire must cease to exist and be divided up into a group all of states. came to fetch me to the Grand Duke. We were presented to the Grand Duke Peter. a grand old soldier who had assisted at the capture of Tashkent in 1868.August. At the other side of the wagon the Grand Duke Nikolas spoke across to our table a good deal. moving very slowly and we only passed one train during the day that containing the personnel of the General Staff for G. to enable the nations to live in peace . each of which would be happy with its own little court. At 7 p. August 14^. Petersburg yesterday some hours before we did. He brought a message that I v/as to bring my pipe with me. Friday. After lunch he took Laguiche. which left St.H.C. Awoke to find myself on the Vitebsk line north of Dno. General Gulevich.D.'s. 1914 43 one of the Grand Duke's A. the Chief of the Staff of the Petrograd Military District. and said he was determined The train is England for shooting after the war. and he specially hoped I would smoke my pipe after dinner. Yanushkevich and Danilov with him to discuss military matters. and General Van der Fliet. Prince Kotsube.

as the Russians say. He said that he quite understood that I " did not want to sit. he became excited and gesticulated vehemently.Williams came I might be sent back to St. Petersburg. he. I I asked if He said he was keen on going to the front. Con- sequence is that we take fifty-seven hours to cover a . for his part. hear from Prince Golitzin. He is honest and shrewd and has evidently force of character. 1914. The Grand Duke said he was not a diplomat but always He hoped we would be said straight out what he thought. one of the aides. the Countess Portales. and he told me. that our We present destination is Baranovichi. GRAND DUKE'S TRAIN. to go forward. is running in accordance with the ordinary troop-train programme in order to avoid interference with the concentration.44 With the Russian Army. to ask him. reports from all parts of Russia proved the popularity of the war such a contrast to conditions prior to the war against Japan. good friends. by the Grand Duke's special order. on the contrary. the day before Germany's declaration of war and had found her packing. I mustered up courage as we were leaving to go out to dinner. When he spoke of the alleged barbarities committed by the Germans at Chenstokhov and Kalish. Saturday. Petersburg. there was danger. Countess Portales had said that she knew for a certainty that the day after the declaration of war both the Winter Palace and the Hermitage would be blown up. I said I wanted. August i$th. and told him how frightened I was that when General Hanbury. He Ambassador's wife. did not wish if Maxim to be killed and would rather return to St. with folded arms/' but that it was impossible for him to have two- British officers at Headquarters. On the contrary. when the time came. This was delightful and just what I wanted. and he promised I should go where wished. 1914-1917 spoke of the credulity of the Germans and of their A Russian lady had gone to see the German stupidity. The train.

We changed on to the Bologoe-Syedlets line in the night. commenced his service in the Chevalier Guard Regiment. for The meals on the We lunch at 12.m. three courses and dine at 7. going east. 1914 45 distance that the usual express would cover in twenty-five. the i6th. One train contained a battalion of Opolchenie in civilian clothes with the cross on the front of their caps. who with other naval officers We arrived at formed part of the headquarters staff. One of the latter. on Sunday. and were received on the platform by General Jilinski. claret or Madeira.. all of one hundred axles. The Grand Duke sat on till 10 p. He later commanded a cavalry . who had been appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the North." General Jilinski.30 train are well cooked but simple. He served on the staff of the Viceroy Alexyeev at the commence- ment of the Japanese war. and sweet. a glass of vodka. Large numbers of empty trains passed during the day. talking to Yanushkevich. and by a few representatives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Muraviev. Baranovichi at 9 a. but he told those who had work to do not to wait. remarked to Kotsube : You soldiers ought to be very pleased that we have arranged " : such a nice war for you. chiefly loaded with transport. Our train moves at only about eighteen versts an hour exclusive of stoppages. Skalon and Samoilo at once went out. by the Grand Duke Kiril. joint. when the frequent Imperial specials much interfered with the transport of troops to the Far East. but sometimes with intervals of only twenty minutes. like the Minister of War. which are long and frequent instance).West Front.m. General Sukhomlinov.30 : soup. and General Danilov. (five hours at Lida.August. We passed five trains running west. running irregularly. and a glass of cognac with our coffee. whom I afterwards got to know well. This is in striking contrast to the system in 1904." Kotsube said see whether it will be such a nice war after We must wait and all.

Baranovichi was in peace-time the headquarters of three railway battalions. ' : de service. but were gathered laboriously from various friends at odd times. anything less warlike than our surroundings it would be difficult to imagine. perhaps one or two officers. and we were glad to leave in the Grand Duke's train at midnight on the i8th to visit the Headquarters of the Southwestern Front at Rovno. We were in the midst of a charming fir-wood and everything was quiet and We were both astonished at the practical sense of the peaceful. two days of walks and rides in the fir-woods was enough. The staff all lived and fed in the trains. which comprised the Operations. entire and who went to work with complete calmness and an absence of However. The Major-General in charge of Military Communications had His staff was much smaller his office at some little distance. but the house of the Commander of the Railway Brigade was fitted up as an office for the division in Poland. He said Sections." In fact. . He was an official of the cut-and-dried type and was generally unpopular. and our train was shunted on to a siding which had been specially prepared in the midst of the fir-woods. place for their headquarters. Little news arrived and we had not much to do. It may be convenient to give here some account of the Russian though such details were neither at this time nor later communicated officially. Laguiche Pensez que moi au bout de 38 ans was in despair. apres avoir tant reve a la revanche dois rester ici quand 1'heure a sonne. The original Russian plan of campaign was to act on the defensive towards Germany and to assume the offensive against dispositions. Russians who had chosen such a quiet fuss. 1914-1917 and was appointed Chief of the General Staff In this position he had a share in the working out of the in 1910. This Depart" ment. most recent army reforms. use of the General-Quartermaster's Department.46 With the Russian Army. In the spring of 1914 he had succeeded General Skalon as Governor of Warsaw. Intelligence and General ' was manned by about twenty General Staff officers.

and the 8th Army under General Brusilov.Western Group consisted of the ist Army under General Rennenkampf. who had General Oranovski as his Chief of Staff. six armies were formed on the western frontier. As the gth Army under General Lechitski. and the 2nd Army. late second in command to General Ivanov in the Kiev Military District. late Governor-General of Turkistan. which was deployed in the Vilna Military District to operate west into East Prussia. which deployed on the Narev under General Samsonov. In the first instance. late commander of the Xllth Corps. late Commander of . The North. 47 To hold back Germany. The 3rd and 8th Armies were to take the offensive at once against the communications of the Austrian armies. of helping the Allies in the West. gathered round Proskurov. This plan was changed after mobilisation with the sole object The 2nd Army was sent north. therefore. They deployed facing south along the KholmLyublin-Novo Alexandriya railway. and the 5th under General Plehve. The South-Western Group contained four armies and was directed from Rovno by General Ivanov. Further south-east the 3rd Army under General Ruzski. and was replaced on the middle Vistula by the Qth Army from Petrograd. These were the 4th under Baron Salza.August. the ist Army under Ren- nenkampf was to be formed in the Vilna Military District. with General Alexyeev The two armies on the right had at first a as his Chief of Staff. which were known to be preparing to advance into Southern Poland. reserve to the southern armies and the gth Army was to be held in readiness at Petrograd for the defence of the capital against possible landings. These two armies were controlled from Byelostok by General Jilinski. 3rd and 8th Armies were to operate against The 2nd Army was to assemble opposite Warsaw as a Austria. the Commander of the Kazan Military District. while the 4th. the Commander of the Moscow Military District. formed about Dubno. 5th. 1914 Austria. passive task. to advance north into East Prussia and in co-operation with the ist Army to turn the Masurian Lakes.

General Dragomirov. Chief of Staff. ist. Xllth and XXIVth Corps. Illrd Caucasian and Grenadier Corps. and I5th Cavalry Divisions. . XlVth. Ist and XVIIIth from Petrograd. Xlllth. Baron Salza. These six armies took all the first-line corps of European Russia except the Guard. I2th Cavalry Division. moved forward from Petrograd. Xth and IXth Corps. . Commander. XVIth. Vlth. The troops left at Odessa were called the 7th supposed to watch the Black Sea coast. 4th. loth and nth Cavalry Divisions. XXIst. I3th and I4th Cavalry Divisions. General Ruzski. 9th. Illrd. Vlllth. XXth and IVth Corps. 1914-1917 the Pri-Amur Military District. . . Vth and XVIIth 3RD ARMY : Corps. General : : Samsonov. General Postovski. Chief of Staff. Army and were The composition of the frontier was as follows : six front-line armies on the western NORTH-WESTERN FRONT IST : ARMY ist : Commander. ist Don Cossack Cavalry Division. . Chief of Staff.48 With the Russian Army. consisting of the few troops that remained in or near the capital. and 2nd Guard Cavalry Divisions ' 2nd and 3rd Divisions of the Cavalry of the Line. it was replaced by the so-called 6th Army. XVth and XXIIIrd Corps. STH ARMY : General Miller. Ilnd. XlXth. Vllth. XXVth. 7th Cavalry Division . Xlth. General Plehve. 2ND ARMY Commander. 2nd Combined Cossack Cavalry Division : . Commander. General Rennenkampf. STH ARMY Commander. Chief of Staff. 6th SOUTH-WEST FRONT 4TH : ARMY : Commander. General Brusilov. General Miliant.

1914. where the train arrived at 9 a.30. Ilnd and Illrd Siberian Corps were already en route. He is simple and unis He pretentious in his manner a contrast to General Jilinski. in command of the armies of the South. August i8th. a Russian type of General beloved by his men.August. time we walked up and down or stood about the platform. who sat opposite me.m. imbibing lemonade of a . 49 XXI Ind. General Alexyeev. a thoroughly Russian type of meal. and his Chief of Staff. It was interesting to see Princes Dolgorouki and Karakin. I had met Ivanov in Kiev one and a half years before. He had worked his way up from humble beginnings by sheer merit. to be followed later by the Vth and IVth Siberian. The Grand Duke's train started back for Baranovichi at 11. The 1st Caucasian Corps remained in the Caucasus and was joined there by the Ilnd Turkistan Corps. 1st Turkistan and 1st. with whom he continually converses. Leonkevich and I remained with Colonel Assanovich. It was an especially kind thought. He had been Professor at the Staff College. and Laguiche. with shchi. : To continue the Diary TRAIN AT ROVNO. We had kasha. which From Trans-Caucasia. etc.West Front. We left Baranovichi soon after midnight and ran south to Rovno. and has a great reputation as a student of scientific war. Turkistan and Siberia the Ilnd Cau- casian. 1914 which were earmarked for the gth Army and the had been held back for a few days in Finland. Alexyeev I had not previously met. Ivanov allows no wine at his table till the war is over. and I did not really appreciate its meaning till we lunched with Ivanov at the station at i p. met the Grand Duke and were During this closeted with him for two and a half hours.m. Tuesday. bear-leader. of of the General Staff as flask The Grand Duke Peter gave me a large brandy just before the train started and told me to bring it back empty. General Ivanov.

who sat on his other side. Rifle Brigade. After first-class wagon to which our had been transferred. and I took a snapshot of him as he got out of our wagon. 1914-1917 Prince Bariatinski. As Ivanov says. His headquarters were for four days at Berdichev. attached to Ivanov. and he expects to spend ten days at Rovno. that he had left We a wife and five children. I talked Russian with Ivanov.West Front to the Armies of the He kissed us all once more before Allied Countries. over six feet high.50 With the Russian Army. a recruit from Kiev He was down on his luck and told us of the 1907 class." leaving. He sat down on my bed and from the General wrote out three copies of a greeting in Command of the South. We told him he : would come back " They say it is head and said a wide road that leads to the war and only but he shook his a narrow path that leads home again. these may be only Landwehr troops. The Russians have so far been successful in all their encounters with the Austrians. dirty and dusty. He proposed our healths and is now ." Rovno is a typical Russian frontier town. amidst cheers and then kissed us lunch we returned to the kit all three in turn. who served particularly sweet type. all right." and detailed the section of the frontier occupied at present by each of the Austrian cavalry divisions. and almost at once the General came over to call on us. the streets swarming with Jews who stare and gape at strangers. We saw a supply convoy with grain and hay for the . but he spoke French to Laguiche. He told us all that had happened so far on his " front. ten years in the 4th Regiment of the Guard. ' spoke to a fine fellow. Ivanov has got an acute intellect and a good memory. sat on my left. belonging to the 4th Heavy Artillery Division. but this initial success is having an exhilarating effect on the Russian morale. Ivanov seems to have a large staff one officer said but his personal staff only accounts for fifty-six officers eight of them.

M. in the triangle Lemberg- These cover the concentration of the in rear. as The drivers carried slung rifles. They Cer! stood for hours waiting the order to tainly the patience of the Russian move is forward. a valuable asset The troop stations. seem to stop unnecessarily long but there is no piling up of trains. but these were a very small minority.m. main enemy army Wednesday. followed by a The expression of most flag with the regimental number. Rovno. The the I27th Infantry Regiment on the way to weather was dreadful. On our way back from the town to the station we passed the 32nd Field Artillery Brigade a far better class of men than in the infantry.m. unreasoning misery. Arrived Dubno at 10 a. trains in the There are seven to eight Austrian Cavalry Divisions on the frontier from Volochisk by Sokal to Rawa Ruska backed by the Xth and XXth Corps Tarnopol-Brodi. Introduced to General Babikov. Some of younger men were singing and looked cheery enough. Started off in a motor to get lunch at Dubno town. about five miles distant. August iqth.Q. but now G. The pace was such as to kill any troops they were practically marking time. 1914 XXIst Corps on country carts 51 with tiny ponies. of acting as Chief of Staff during the absence through illness of General Dragomirov. Left at 8 a. but men usual. on guns and limbers did not. The Colonel rode at the head of the regiment. till lately commander of infantry brigade. Army and We passed Dubno. 1914 Slept comfortably in train at in carriage attached to General Ruzski's train. but the horses were. TRAIN AT DUBNO. rain in torrents. The regiment generally did not look like victory. too light. We found the 7th Railway Battalion hard at work at .August. of the the men was one of dull. The machine-gun detachment was well trained and manned by men who had evidently been picked.

of the division. who had won the St. However. but the men work On well.A.G. A beautiful sunny day. We started from Dubno at 9 a. The General invited us into his house. At 8. I32nd Regiment. of the R. There is an extraordinary calmness and absence of shouting.O. blocking the chaussee.O. From Mlinov on we passed an infantry regiment (the I29th). as invited. We then walked out to the bivouac. Thursday. to rest. The Russian has no very high ideal of efficiency to strive after. as indeed he probably is. and it will all shake down in a week or ten days. TRAIN AT DUBNO. This was scrupulously clean and very comfortable.30 instead. so he is content with a little. At Ostrov we were received with open arms by General Zegelov. the G. G. George's Cross . Just now they are fresh and difficult to manage.30 he did not turn up at all. The priest and his family had moved to another room and brought us in tea. 1914-1917 railway (narrow gauge) extension from Kremenets to the frontier. everyone remains good-humoured and quiet throughout. August 20th. of the 33rd Division by Colonel Chernov.52 With the Russian Army.C. We got ready to dine with General Ruzski. where we saw two batteries of . the priest's.S. the guns outside. and also of the abuse which we sometimes see in the management of our transport. Were told he would dine at 8. The transport seemed good. at 8.m. We were introduced to the commander artillery. and ran in a motor to within five miles of the frontier via Mlinov and Demidovka. which had been overtaken by ambulance transport and which was marching on a double front. The Colonel told me that he will later be em- ployed in broadening the Austrian railways. Division. O. and by Colonel Bredov. our way back we ran into the corps transport. 1914. the horses tethered by headropes to both sides of ropes tied taut between the ammunition wagons. and takes it for granted that everyone is doing his best. the horses remarkably so.

seems an excellent officer. One wonders whether the result of trust based on training. The General invited us to dine at 5. seven and a third miles. and few of General Zegelov is quiet and knowledgeable. and the men looked fresh and happy." fasting longer if the mobilisation had not intervened. 1914 at 53 and had distinguished himself more recently by fasting for thirty days. or simply slackness in allowing things to The XXIst Corps is advancing on the right of the 3rd Army. the staff whole time and attention to us during hours we were at Berestechko. Colonel Bredov. be well. Their foot-rags. They are a good lot in the I32nd. most of them in barns with a plentiful supply of straw.45 and had a good meal of chicken and stewed apples. Each is covered by its own outposts at night. We spread out to dry. Port Arthur. The advanced 1 guard was commanded by the brigade commander.August. The Division had a half-section of the Frontier Guard as divisional cavalry pending the arrival of the 2nd Category Cossacks. The march to-day was only eleven versts. mostly coming from the Government of Kursk. They are cer- tainly confident this is and devoid of worry. His Chief of Staff. 44th. We No drink." This officer was really second in command 1 available all the transport regiment of the division is . which were filthy. were visited one of the infantry bivouacs . tea. This latter diversion was to give He said that he would have gone on his inside a rest. every man was under cover. When a chaussee is marched along it. Though the enemy was only a march seemed to give the six its distant. mander. with its three divisions from right to left as follows 6gth. The Russian infantry division had in war-time only a single " brigade com" " of the division. that all must rip. As many roads as possible are made : use of. followed by the officers smoked. two to three squadrons of which will be allotted to each infantry division. 33rd. 5. in which time he only " took distilled water. sat down at " " cutlets bouillon.

1914. and then drove to the Grand Duke's train with Colonel Kotsub6. almost touching.54 With the Russian Army. Friday. side. Assanovich told us at 11. The reserve divisions with these three corps are moving forward with regular divisions. Corps. August 2ist. that the 3rd Army would not advance to-morrow (2ist). as time had to be allowed to General Brusilov to move forward from Pros- kurov into line. dined at the station. have each The Xlth Corps (Rovno) has not. spread out side by The IXth and Xth got a reserve division. He . like the XXIst. General Zegelov said that he thought the reserve divisions were only slightly inferior to the the regular ones. and found sixteen of the officers of a battalion their beds them including the priest. Saturday. To-morrow we return to Rovno en i route for Baranovichi. as it is quartered almost on the frontier. Laguiche is much worried offensive in the West.30 p.. arrived at Baranovichi at 8 p. 1914-1917 We sheltered during a shower in a small all room had in one of the farmhouses. by the delay of the French There are always so many people devoted to the principle of the offensive in peace who hesitate to risk it in war. BARANOVICHI. 1914. has had considerable losses. August 22nd.m.m. who had just arrived from carrying We despatches to Rennenkampf. Laguiche received despatches yesterday to the effect that several Austrian corps are on the left of the Germans on the Alsatian Puke represented to the Grand the importance of rapidity in the Russian offensive frontier. The Opolchenie has been ever uniforms the local regular regiment happens to have available for issue. It appears that the latter BARANOVICHI. so far simply used to keep It is clothed in whatlocal order and for local defence.

Rennenkampf has won an important action at binnen. Gumen- Russians think three German Corps were The enemy asked for leave to bury his dead and this was refused. Ruzski crosses the frontier to-day. sonov's right has reached Arys. how much shall we see ? left of The place to be Rennenkampf. after meeting Sir We left Hanbury. The question is. Only his advance on the line Stalluponen-Insterburg in combination with Samsonov's movement to the north can clear Eastern Prussia as a preparatory movement to the vital advance. The Ilnd Corps on Samterritory. He asked me where I wanted to go. Tilsit. He was quite cheery again when I went to say good-bye to him gaged.m. at lunch at the Grand Duke's table.Williams camp and all the good fellows there J. and if I wished to change later to send him a telegram direct and he would arrange it. After lunch General Danilov told us that we might go to-morrow to visit Samsonov's Army. I was reading the notice when the Grand Duke called me to come and talk to him. but these places have no great importance. Laguiche and I on return from a ride found General Ewarth. which he is doing. The Grand Duke said that he had sent orders to Brusilov to advance as rapidly as possible. it is reported. the Gommander of the Irkutsk Military District. . at present is right of Samsonov or Orders have been given to push the offensive enerBrusilov is two marches within Austrian getically. and said I might go to Samsonov now. at the station. at i a. Rennenkampf has taken Lyck and. 1914 55 in order to relieve pressure on the Allies in the Western theatre. Plehve and Salza are only slightly in rear.August.

Command at once changed the situation. II AS campaign General has been shown in Chapter was changed the original Russian plan of during mobilisation with the I. was withdrawn by road and rail to envelop and annihilate the Russian 2nd Army in one of the most striking victories of history. REFERENCE MAPS Nos. AND AUGUST. Jilinski. which crossed the southern frontier of East Prussia on the 2 ist and occupied Willenberg. energy of the new German 8th Army. who arrived with his Chief of Staff. . 1914 I. he ordered the withdrawal to the line of the River Passarge. The ist Army crossed the eastern frontier of East Prussia on August I7th and drove back the Germans at Stalluponen. Meanwhile the Commander of the 8th German Army. von Prittwitz. On the Russian right launched the ist Commander-in-Chief of the North. after a first panicky decision to abandon all East Prussia and to retire to the lower Vistula. became aware of the advance of the 2nd Russian Army. on August 23rd. He was superseded in command by General Hindenburg. Alarmed for the safety of his communications.West Front. Ortelsburg and Neidenburg on the following day. object of helping the Allies in the West.CHAPTER I' II THE DISASTER TO THE / 2ND ARMY. The The Gumbinnen. and 2nd Armies into the East Prussian salient with the task of concentrating in the neighbourhood of Allenstein and so turning the defences of the difficult lake and forest country of Masuria. which had been defeated at General Ludendorff. On the 20th it defeated them at Gumbinnen..

The XHIth Corps. but a very good fellow. south-east of Neidenburg. crossed the frontier at Khorjele and occupied Willenberg and Ortelsburg on the 22nd. and occupied the latter town on the afternoon of the 22nd. The Vlth Corps from Byelostok and Lomja crossed the frontier about Mishinets. the commander of the 2nd Division. whose strength is reported to have equalled three corps. the commander of the ist Division. and the baggage of the hotel officers. The XVth Corps from Ostrov and Warsaw crossed the frontier at Yanov. including staff maps. on the 2 ist. The ist and 2nd ist The Army Guard Cavalry Divisions and the 2nd Cavalry Division are operating on Khan right as one corps under General Nakhichevanski. three Sunday. August z^rd. The advance was apparently unexpected by the enemy. Laguiche. was pushed forward before its concentration was completed.Western Front is now something as follows It is : under General Rennenkampf on the right. are stated to-day to be in full retreat.m. On its right the Ilnd Corps from Grodna occupied the town of Lyck. has been continuously engaged in the neighbourhood of Stalluponen and Gumbinnen. its and the ist and 3rd Cavalry Divisions are working on its left under General Gurko. which had detrained at Ostrolenka. As the Cossack patrols were fired upon by civilians from houses. was ready before the 2nd Army and crossed the East Prussian frontier about the I7th. gathered from various sources that the situation on the North. but the This Army Germans. consisting mainly of troops from the Vilna Military District. Leonkevich and I are bear-led by Captain Anders. of the General Staff. under General Samsonov. a very fat fellow. reducing most of the houses in the centre square to ruins. Our train left Baranovichi at 8 a. General Martos bombarded the town. The 2nd Army. 1914. was found in .The Disaster to the 2nd Army We 57 TRAIN.

On another occasion a Cossack asking a woman for milk was shot dead. 1920. He told us that he had taken the Ilnd Corps from Samsonov to fill the Jilinski interval and to act as a sort of connection between the two armies by masking the fortress of Lotzen. A woman in East Prussia the other day. 64.m. We but we had decided to go on by a train at 7 p. reinforced by the 3rd Reserve Division (railed from Angerburg to Allenstein) to delay the enemy's centre. spoke of Rennenkampf's large losses and said that Samsonov was moving too slowly. p. . Article by Hermann Giehrl in Wissen und Wehr. many of them having Slav sympathies. and the XVIIth and 1st Reserve Corps approached his right by road. while the 1st Corps (railed from Insterburg to Deutsch-Eylau) arrived on the enemy's left.58 With the Russian Army. and called at once on General Jilinski. Mittler und Sohn. J3erlin. Luckily she missed. Ortelsburg and Neidenburg. and was at once cut down. It is true that Samsonov has occupied Johannisburg. if there were any Germans in a village." His plan was for the XXth Corps. He asked us to remain to dinner.m. It is a different matter with the Prussians. He occupies a bungalow belonging to one of the officers now at the front. the com- mander of the 4th Cavalry Division. on August 23rd. The Austrians surrender willingly. when asked by General Tolpigo.West Front. We were 1 the centre of an admiring crowd. but Jilinski thinks he should be by now at He repeated that he was dissatisfied with Allenstein. to Samsonov's headquarters at Ostrolenka. 1 The Commander-in-Ghief went on to point out the difficulty of his task compared with that set Ivanov on the South. drew a revolver and fired at him. 1914-1917 arrived at Byelostok at 3 p. Samsonov for moving too slowly. generally of Hindenburg and Ludendorff arrived at Marienburg at 2 p.m. Jilinski 's quarters are as peaceful as the Grand Duke's. That evening Hindenburg communicated to Supreme Headquarters his " plan to deploy the army on the XXth Corps by August 26th for an enveloping attack.

Look at the beard you have grown " Have you any children ? When I went to the war in 1904 I left a daughter one and a half years old. and when I came back she ran away from me. town. after a contretemps with the German officials. and Willenberg to Neidenburg. or rather. arrived at Ostrolenka early in the morning. we called on General Samsonov. At ii a. ascending the Narev from Pultusk through Rojan to Ostrolenka and Lomja. Many people thought that Rennenkampf was the more daring and that Samsonov had got out of touch ' chaffing questions. I had met him last year at the Turkistan manoeuvres. strike a All the fairly decent The only things that filth Westerner are the general squalid Jewish children. MLAVA. It is a typical Polish. whence. the men were standing round camp fires. 1914. houses are on the centre square. crossing the frontier at to Konigsberg. at Byelostok. your wife won't know you : ! ' . I rode north through Allenstein and Gutstadt to Konigsberg. we stood still for even a few minutes Monday. I Warsaw Lyck and turning west through Johannisburg. and then caught hold of the soldier standing nearest. and commenced a running fire of " Are you married ? when you get back.The Disaster to the 2nd if Army 59 several hundreds. Jewish. I It was late and distinctly remember the night he arrived. As the General first reached each group he exchanged greetings with the men in the ordinary Russian manner. such as " " " Where do you come from ? Well. or sometimes dived into the middle of a group. Ortelsburg." At that time opinion in Russia was divided as to whether Samsonov or Rennenkampf was the more capable soldier. I gathered a rough knowledge of the neighbouring country when I rode on a bicycle in the autumn of 1911 from and the swarms of had visited Ostrolenka and then followed Benigsen's route of 1806-7. August z^th.m. for three-fourths of We the population at least are Jews.

was bivouacking to-night at Orlau and Frankenau. We lunched with him in the infantry barracks near the town at i p. and his At the time he was much staff were all devoted to him. where he was on leave with his wife. grew to like him in the four days we spent together He was. 6th and I5th Cavalry Divisions. I engrossed by problems for the development of the rich provinces committed to his charge.60 With the Russian Army. having been summoned from the Caucasus. to report that he had captured two guns and two machine-guns and reserve near Soldau.. remarkwas to meet foreign attaches under present conditions. characterises the^ advance of the 2nd Army as It is .30 to drive by car via Rojan and Prasnish to Mlava. He arrived at Ostrolenka on the i6th. The general line occupied to-night will stretch from north of Ortelsburg to north of Neidenburg. and Samsonov's work since then has been but a poor preparation for the command of a large army in modern war. before leaving at 3. Samsonov is now fifty-five. and he confessed there was sometowards thing of thsamee feeling me in Turkistan last The to left : following troops are advancing north from right 4th Cavalry Division. Vlth. ing He how different it received us most kindly. 1914-1917 with military ideas in the four years he had spent in administration. of a simple. of distrust. The 1st Corps is in readiness as a general Just before lunch a telegram arrived from Martos.m. General Postovski. In the Russo-Japanese war the British attaches were always looked upon with a certain amount autumn. Neither Samsonov nor Rennenkampf commanded much more than a division of cavalry against the Japanese. kindly nature. XVth Corps and (2nd Division) XXIIIrd Corps. so many Russians are. north of Neidenburg. XHIth. Samsonov's Chief of the Staff. as in the mountains south-east of Samarkand. the commander of the XVth Corps. hoped to occupy Allenstein to-morrow.

but will soon active army. and they paid for what they took by paper receipts which were now of no value.ooo during their occupation of the town. The German troops had robbed her of Rs. Our hostess told us that her husband had gone to serve." the result of his I experiences in the Balkan Campaign." Sufficient to the 2nd Army 61 time has not been allowed for the mobilisation and the transport is not up. The population of the town was delighted when the Russian advance caused the Germans to retire. In fact. move forward to join the At Mlava we put up for the night in an hotel kept by a pretty Polish woman.M. The advance should have commenced on the 2oth instead of the i6th. It is said that as we advance in Masuria the Ger- population retires and the Poles remain.Q. the attitude of the Poles is all that could be desired. since the Grand Duke's proclamation. Samsonov's reserve divisions are now garrisoning fortresses. of the District for over four years. will expected to occupy Insterberg toreserve divisions to arrive on the front is be directed to Rennenkampf and the next lot to Samsonov. charge of the rear services is much worried regarding the difficulty of evacuating the wounded. who gave me a great " imitation of the Orchestra of Battle. The Russians are adding a third rail to the Warsawrolling- Mlava line in order to bring up the Warsaw.i.Vienna stock for use in East Prussia. Rennenkampf The first night. man occupied a room with the Serb. The first post on the line of communications of the XHIth . It will be the same in the Lyublin Government. General Postovski has spent nearly all his service in the Warsaw The officer in Military District and has acted as G.The Disaster adventure. He complains of the difficulty of assuming the offensive in a region which has been purposely left roadless in order to delay the expected German offensive. Each army corps forms its own line of communications.

and at Prasnish twenty to thirty automobiles. however. a small man with a grey beard and a great reputation as a disciplinarian. Samsonov had arranged to move from Ostrolenka to Ortelsburg to-day. was facing him. Martos in his telegram to-day reported that the XXth German Corps. NEIDENBURG. we did. but large parks of requisitioned transport. He had himself carried back in his motor little children that he found near the battlefield. The corps transport of the ist Corps arrived at versts. and drove by a grand chaussee to Neidenburg. when I was arrested by a gendarme on a charge of espionage. This happened on the afternoon of Saturday. We left Mlava at 9 a. Martos. 22nd. We drove on to see General Martos. after a march of thirty-five and started forward to Soldau at the same time as frontier. and described how uncomfortable he felt living in a house that the owners had left without taking time to pack their little belongings and photographs. He said : "At its the former frontier. in strength three divisions.m. the commander of the Neidenburg looks very different from XVth Corps. but was kept back by Jilinski pending the opening of a direct wire to Ortelsburg.62 With the Russian Army." appearance nearly three years ago. On the road to Mlava were few Government carts. As we passed the at said to Anders that I half-way to Neidenburg. Tuesday. 1914-1917 Corps was seen at Ostrolenka. He said that as his cavalry had been fired on by civilians on entering Neidenburg. I wanted to photograph our group the frontier barrier. Mlava in the night. Most of the houses in the main square have been shot about and burned down. he had given orders to bombard the town. August 2$th. Soon after we left we heard an . the Cossacks were fired upon by a military patrol of thirty men and not by civilians. According to one of the waitresses at the hotel. 1914. seems as kind-hearted as most Russians are.

who had taken it two days before. Torklus. The Russians had two divisions. I much doubt whether the Germans had more than a division. Probably the whole Russian force did not on the other hand. it is an extended position This position faced south and stretched from in said. The centre of the German position at the village of Lahna was weak. It was held by a line of riflemen supported by artillery and. The left flank at Orlau proved more difficult.m.30 p. escorted by Cossacks We to prevent mistakes as to our identity. the G. on the 23rd came upon the enemy about 5 p.G. The village was carried by the 3ist Regiment with the bayonet at 8. till been told to hold on strength is but all the dead Prisoners state that they had the last as they were to gain time for the concentration troops in rear. carried on the morning of the 24th. The attack of the 2nd Brigade of the 6th Division which . It appears that after occupying Neidenburg on the 22nd. without reserves. on the 23rd. however. Frankenau on the right or western flank by Lahna to Orlau. as the trenches had only a field of fire some three hundred yards on the left front. 6th Division. estimated at three divisions of the of I The German XXth Corps. and the right at Frankenau Both were. saw on the hills south of Frankenau belonged to the I5oth Regiment. We found ourselves the centre of a throng of cheering men. quite unharmed.G. and.000 metres. We then drove on to Lahna. moving north in three columns. He sent his A. occupied by the 3ist Regiment.O. the XVth Corps. we drove to Frankenau to visit General Torklus. come into action .D.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 63 outburst of firing at a German aeroplane which floated over us at a height of about 1. spoke German willingly. and an officer of the Intendance to show us over the right flank of the German position. the German left by the ist Brigade of the 8th Division and the trenches south of Frankenau by the 6th Division. who is a Lett. lunched at a wayside cottage.m.

They lay all night in their position and managed to creep forward another The hundred yards before dawn. The latter battery did remarkable execution. The Russian artillery quickly silenced the German General Martos complained that he received no help from the XHIth Corps on his right. .000 this is their loss in this action of the men and that of the Germans but mere guesswork at 6. which was covered by a barbed wire entanglement. The Russians used the spade freely in the attack. when they were ordered to carry the trenches at all costs. that the front of fourteen versts allotted to his corps was too wide to fight on.000. mowing down rows of Russians immediately they raised themselves in the potato-fields to fire or to ad- vance. The German machine-guns were deadly. The Russians estimate 23rd-24th at 4. also concealed. and the enemy in his retirement had not time to occupy a second trench just south of Frankenau.64 With the Russian Army. 3. attackers advanced to within about 700 yards before they were stopped by darkness.500 yards from the left rear of the attack. One Russian regiment had nine company commanders killed out of sixteen. guns. The Russian attack was also supported by howitzer fire. and the greater number of the German corpses seen were killed by shrapnel. I saw rifle trenches scooped out within 130 yards of the defenders' trenches. and by one battery from a position. 1914-1917 carried the batteries German right was supported by two field from a covered position at a range of about 5. The last 600 yards were carried in three rushes. and one company which went into action 190 strong lost all its officers and 120 men killed.400 yards directly south of the defenders' line. and that there was delay in getting through messages to and receiving replies from Army Headquarters. Few of the defenders waited for the bayonet. Two Russian companies detailed to turn the enemy's right did valuable work.

considering the circumstances under E . Things will have to move more quickly for the Russians to do any good in the preliminary campaign in East Prussia.C. should be able to advance rapidly by at once turning the flanks of The country the inferior enemy forces. All the German inhabitants have fled. Nothing is known of the position of the XHIth and Vlth The enemy are The XVth Corps Corps to-night.The Disaster The to the 2nd Army 65 was awful. was halting to-day.m. if they worked properly together. who. We saw German and Russian wounded being carried from a field on which they must have lain at least thirty-six hours. yesterday. While we were was rummaging through the German post-bag. General Martos received to-day the 2nd Division of the XXIIIrd Corps. but we are made comfortable enough at the hotel. which had been captured in Frahkenau thirty-six hours before. though firing ceased at 9 a. Poor Neidenburg is in darkness and without water owing to the bombardment. reported to be fortifying Hohenstein. and unfortunately there seems to be a lack of proper co-operation between the Russian corps commanders. and is to have the rest of the other division (the 3rd it Guard) of that corps placed under his orders as is difficult. his A.D. The war on the German sight of the corpses side will be a bitter one. arrives. This youth was simply satisfying his curiosity by prying into private letters to parents and visiting General Torklus. We were told of a German officer who was being carried wounded from the field and who drew his revolver and shot one of the stretcher-bearers. sweethearts that. There was an instance to-day of the want of businesslike method in the Russian character. The Russians seem to have treated the wounded humanely. when the Germans were driven back. the object of which should be to annihilate the two or three German corps here together with their reserve divisions before they can be reinforced.

: We You had young better do this at once. The position of the 2nd Army to-night is approximately 4th Cavalry Division and Vlth Corps north of Ortelsburg. He told us how delighted he was with their spirit." officer came up and saluted. Yes. As we went out.66 With the Russian Army. 2nd Division and Keksgolmski Regiment (of the 3rd Guard Infantry Division) Lippau. It is scholar of the regiment ' German extraordinary to think that a division should go forward without its Intelligence Officer earmarked. for he had spent much time watching them from the window of the little cottage where his headquarters were.G. Heaven knows how much longer the reading of the correspondence was deferred. and the General said to his " A. a and said that the was on outpost duty. should have been sacred from all examination except in the interests of the public service. I forgot to tell you to write a note to the Regiment to send over an officer to go through it. Orlau-Frankenau. : : Three regiments of 3rd Guard. : : North-west and XHIth Corps XVth Corps : : Gimmendorf-Kurken.D. 1914-1917 which they were written. and he could detect no trace of nerve-strain. but " a little that he knew a little German. . The General said German was not sufficient and that he would apply to another regiment. There seems to have been a great deal of sleeping after the position was carried yet the staff officer should never sleep ! Dear old Torklus seemed more interested in the psychology of his men and in the effect on them of their baptism of fire than in any preparations for a continuation of the advance. suggested that this correspondence might contain information of value. and yet it might have contained very vital information. 6th and I5th Cavalry Divisions and ist Corps Northwest and west of Usdau. Infantry Division : Detraining at Ilovo.

their The Vlth and XHIth Corps 2 also continue advance to the north. twelve battalions. going out behind the left ear. the G. Russians seem to muddle through in a happy-go-lucky way. so we went three miles on the wrong road.S. 1 On and the XVIIth Corps. p. who accompanies us. Officer. a delightful fellow to talk to to read a map. The G. but confessed casualties in he did not Colonel feel quite well ! There was bad staff work in starting. eight battalions and eight battalions. XVth Corps has ordered the advance of his three divisions direct to the north in five columns of strength from right to left of twelve battalions. refused to move out alone. Wednesday.O. The automobile company took back twenty wounded nine Germans and the ist Division eleven Russians an advance guard skirmish of the XHIth Corps on the 24th. after a 5O-kilometre march. 1914. Anders. Wissen und Wehr. 186. and the heavy cars had to turn to the right about on a The Automobile was quite unable sandy track. . Wissen und Wehr.G.The Disaster It is to the 2nd Army 67 reported that the enemy is preparing to offer battle on the line Miihlen-Nadrau-Lansk. The Russian orders for the advance on the 26th were picked up by the German wireless on the 25th. J NEIDENBURG. One of the men had had an extraordinary escape. eight battalions. a bullet entering on the right of his nose and traversing the head. where we were met by the divisional transport of (XHIth Army Corps). It did not occur to him that he should have reconnoitred the road in his light car while the transport Yet the cars were taking in petrol at Neidenburg. 3 the evening of the 25th the German Ist Reserve Corps reached Seeburg. as we had been nearly fired upon twice yesterday owing to Laguiche's red kepi. reached Bischofstein. We drove out to Grosz Nattaisch (north-east of Neidenburg). The man was sitting up in the cart. We went out with an automobile column. August 26th.

a colonel of the 30th Regiment. The man told me that the Cossacks had robbed him of everything. German paper. read the telegram. He said he was hotly engaged.68 With the Russian Army.O. where I had been searched nearly three years ago. He spoke of general com- Samsonov worried because he had not yet received a from his wife. remarking that he was an enemy's country and must go armed. and met General Samsonov. .C. but without effect. and said that the G. Chief of officer An Staff. that we heard nothing of them in Frankenau yesterday. so drove back to Neidenburg. he thought of sending me to the 1st Corps on his left " as things promised to be lively there/ He asked us all to dinner. of S. and left at once. When I asked him where his wife was. letter Army was making a wheel to the on the XVth Corps. Corps was not at Usdau.m. It appears that this attack unexpected. General Postovski put on his pince-nez. This corps is faced by a German corps which was reinforced to-day. he at Nattaisch to ask for a went into a house began to cry. said good-bye to the Commandant. and was known to be 1st on the A few of the local German inhabitants I are coming back. 1st Corps wished to speak on the telephone with the Army Commander or the. 1914-1917 were stopped in our attempt to get to the headquarters of the XHIth Corps at Kurken by the sand on the road. in the Governor's office. There was a dramatic incident in the middle of the meal. I tried to induce Anders to start off for the 1st Corps. The Chief of Staff said that the whole of the 2nd left pivoted It is curious plaints of the enemy's use of hand-grenades. who had He told me that just arrived by car from Ostrolenka. and he and General Samsonov buckled on their swords. now in We dined with the Town Commandant. and as we started sent back 1 Postovski to get his sword. brought in a telegram for the G. We reached We Neidenburg at 5 p..

but acknowledged that the Russians were now behaving well.Q. and goes by the name of the mad Mullah. hope Artamonov is entrenched. He told Artamonov to hold on till the last man. She said that none entirely of the local Germans wanted war. and he is preparing to attack it with infantry. of the local to the 2nd Army 69 with the women who is helping the Red Gross wounded asked me to-day what was the use of question ! A difficult I said that it was the fault of the Kaiser. (This was untrue. She said Willenberg had been similarly treated. Rennenkampf has lost . of the 1st Corps at Usdau is in occupation of a line west-north-west of that telephoned to Samsonov that he expected to be attacked by two to three divisions advancing from the north-west. was owing to that solely that a large part of Neidenburg had been destroyed. He another division advancing against him from Lautenburg." Samsonov I is content and satisfied. General Postovski is nervous he is generally nervous. that they cried when they went away and said they hoped there would soon be peace. Klyuev. with the XHIth Corps. has passed the defile of Lansk (south-east of Hohenstein). She complained of the Cossacks. but has advanced considerably to the west of Insterburg and his left has occupied Angerburg (south of Insterburg). and sent an officer in an automobile to turn back the 2nd Division from Martos' left to cover Artamonov's right flank. and and I told her that it told us something of the situation : General Artamonov with the H. He asked for the 2nd Division. Samsonov told him that the brigade of the 3rd Guard Division at Soldau would be under his orders. touch with the enemy.The Disaster One war.) Anders came back from the Army Staff at 9 p. and aerial reconnaissance had revealed village. " .m. She confessed that some young firebrand had fired on the Russian troops. which was only slightly defended. Martos reports that his Cossacks entered Hohenstein but were driven out.

of the Russian Vlth Corps was attacked in a cleverly entrenched position at Bossau by the XVIIth German Corps in front and by the 1st Reserve Corps in flank and rear. 26th. were holding the Russians' centre and right and perhaps pushing round their left to cut the line of communication He says the German guns in the leg. Anders. 1 The XXth Corps In general it is is supposed to be south of imagined that the German Hindenburg had ordered the 1st German Corps to storm Usdau by 10 a. on August 26th. Poiret. and was driven back at nightfall on the Wissen und Wehr. 1914. 188-190. which now on a line west-north-west of Soldau. Samsonov has moved the left of the XVth Corps south- west to Miihlen from Hohenstein. Things have developed rapidly. It looks as if they Prasnish-Mlava-Neidenburg. French airman. who has been doing yeoman work. and the attempt on Usdau failed. to-day that 2nd Division is near Jankowitz. 1914-1917 Samsonov has ordered destroyed l ! all beer in Neidenburg to be Thursday. At Headquarters it was thought that two to three is divisions were opposed to the 1st Corps. He was reconnoitring north-west from Neidenburg this morning. but the chief fighting is near the Jankowitz.m. told me to-night that he thought there must be three corps from the strength of their artillery. the when his observer was wounded by shrapnel are in pits. A Russian cavalry division penetrating to the rear of the German Corps caused some confusion in its transport. The 4th Division " " .70 With the Russian Army. but has instructed the Vlth and XHIth Corps to continue their move north on Allenstein. and that part of the XVIIth Corps and some Landwehr is opposed to the 2nd Division. after visiting Army Headquarters. and I only hope he has not under-estimated the strength of the German advance from the west and north-west. pp. Aitgust 2jth. brought back news at 10 a.m. facing the German main body at Gilgenburg. MLAVA. Allenstein. He sticks to his plan. Germans are also advancing from Lautenburg. All depends on that.

on the straw or on the floor. and learned that the train was twenty-eight kilometres further down the line. (XXth and German : The troops offensive are : actually in action against the Under General Martos. XVth Corps XVth Corps. G. regiment of the 3rd Guard Infantry Division and the 2nd Infantry Division. at 10 a. and I went too.m. rather had gone through to the frontier station at Ilovo.C. Under General Artamonov. horses and kit and return to him.. where I arrived at 7 p. to find that our train with Army Headquarters had not arrived We and no one knew where stopped all traffic it was. At Tysekhanov we dined at 3 p. General Artamonov had through. I said good-bye to Laguiche.m.O. as I could not go anywhere without the motor. Leonkevich and Anders. G. No beds had been collected. As we were leaving Neidenburg a man rushed up shouting that the German cavalry was on us.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 71 strength does not exceed two regular corps XVIIth) and one reserve corps. While we were at Mlava station part of the Keksgolmski to allow of the ist Rifle Brigade getting Of this brigade three regiments had arrived. Leonkevich and Anders. There are signs of nerves. or Regiment of the Guard was going through. Anders decided to drive down the line to find the train. was thought to be the Samsonov said I was to go to Mlava with Laguiche. The dangerous point line Miihlen-Jankowitz. I drove back to Mlava. We found very little sign of visited the hospital We forethought and organisation.O. (improvised from a school building) at Neidenburg before starting and enquired after the wounded airman. . drove to the station on arrival at Mlava. who climbed on to a train for Warsaw. The wounded were lying anywhere. many of them with the sun streaming in on their heads.m. 1st Corps : 1st Corps. and then get my servant.G.

told me that German shell was bursting five kilometres I I from Neidenburg when he left the town at p.m.m.m. disturbed by long convoys of wounded passing over the cobblestones below the hotel.72 With the Russian Army. with the idea of starting early in 8. She said there had been a panic among the transport and the drivers had run away. OSTROLENKA. leaving the A She stuck to her cart and load. whom I met again. I have decided to remain in Mlava for the night. the 1st Russian Soldau. and chiefly from artillery fire. the artillery fire of the Germans was awful. according to all accounts. and the Chief of Police sent someone with her to guide her to the temporary hospital in the Commercial School. the corps transport of the 1st Corps passed through the town in retreat. On the eastern flank the XVIIth and 1st Reserve Corps pursuing the Russian 1st The German Corps captured Usdau Vlth Corps reached Passenheim. enquiring about Samsonov's 1 Was train. long convoy of wounded has entered the town from the morning. Corps retiring through In the centre the XVth Russian Corps attacked and met with strong reThe XI Ilth Russian Corps reached Allenstein with little opposition. The Chief of Police told me that the same thing had happened at Ilovo. with Baron Stackleberg. sistance. plucky sister arrived from Soldau with a cartload of wounded. She said that wounded. at noon on the 27th. so it seems very doubtful if I could get through. but Hindenburg had as yet no cause evening of the 27th. the number of German guns exceeding the Russian. Poiret. of action for for the triumph on the . 1 Friday.30 p. Losses. some Cossacks being responsible in this case. Got up at 5 a.. August zSth. Rennenkampf's continued inactivity assured freedom German right wing. Spent an uncomfortable night at Mlava. and drove down to the station. have been dreadful. someone having said that the Germans were coming. 1914-1917 An officer told me that just before I arrived there had been a panic in the town. put up at the Victoria. At A the 2nd Division. 1914.

30 and found Samsonov had gone on. and it was with genuine delight that I heard it had been brought down and its crew captured. The loss was might have been Jedwabno. the 2nd Division . but he beckoned to me and took me aside. I passed one or two small detachments moving forward with advanced guards and flanking patrols thrown out. but he advised me " as my duty was to send in valuable duty to tell me that the His place and duty was with to return while there was time. The drive to Neidenburg was uneventful. The Zeppelin hovered round and finally sailed away. I arrived at Neidenburg at 8. but many of the men we saw to-day were certainly not Jews. the army. Infantry firing. He reports to my said that the 1st Corps. who always had the same story that they had lost their way through no fault of their own. I stood aside. ' Government. in quick succession. soon stopped. Samsonov said two days ago that Jewish soldiers skulked in the woods and so avoided fighting. looked so extrafour ordinarily peaceful Suddenly it threw one after the other. to see an enormous Zeppelin hovering at a height It ! about 900 to 1. though the line of bursting shells and burning villages had come much nearer than on the day before. Every few hundred yards we stopped to question stragglers.000 metres in the sun. I followed with a colonel of the General Staff along the route running north-east to bombs. Suddenly he stood up and ordered eight of the men of the sotnia of Cossacks that was with us to dismount and give up their animals. 73 started round the We ran of out. and a battery came into action. One was filled with impotent rage against the machine. He said that he considered position it his was very critical. I picked up a piece of one of the bombs. proving useless. six killed and fourteen wounded. We found Samsonov sitting on the ground poring over maps and surrounded with his staff. doing good work at once. but it far greater. I prepared to go off too. for the station was crowded.The Disaster when rifle-firing to the all 2nd Army station.

m. He was sending back all his automobiles via Willenberg to Ostrolenka. . He had just heard that the Vlth Corps had been driven back yesterday afternoon * in disorder on his right. Nearly three years afterwards I met an officer who had served on the staff He said that it had marched thirteen days without a halt. My 1 car was sixth and it was a curious According to German accounts. The 4th Division " wavered.30 a. and not of the 27th. as a bridge on that road had been destroyed.74 With the Russian Army. which was suffering from hunger as well as from heavy loss in a four-days' battle. We therefore decided to go back through in the long row. " " German heavy artillery made a bad impression on the Russian rank and file. was my duty to keep in touch with my Government. of the Vlth Corps. collect what he could to The eight or ten officers left then consulted. on the 28th. so critical I said good-bye. Though in the fighting only one regiment suffered severely. and I knew enough of the Russian character to underIt stand that the presence of a foreigner at a time so would increase the nerve-strain of the staff." The was attacked by a German corps and the i6th Division received an order to march on Allenstein but retreated through corps commander Ortelsburg when he should have fought. He concluded that he did not know what was going to happen. Samsonov only learned of it at 9. : he was going to the XVth Corps. as Neidenburg and the Neidenburg-Mlava route were no longer safe. but even if the worst happened. and Samsonov. 1914-1917 and the XVth Corps had been forced back on his left. the disaster to the Vlth Corps took place on the evening of the 26th. Both he and his staff " The enemy has were as calm as possible they said luck one day. and that he was going to drive the Germans back. and found that it was impossible to carry out the General's orders and drive straight to Willenberg. the corps was cut off from direct communication with the The Staff of the Army and had no idea what enemy forces were on its flanks. with his seven staff officers. Neidenburg. followed by the remainder of the squadron." They told me . without proper transport and most of the time without bread. we will have luck another. mounted the Cossack horses and rode north-west. it would not affect the ultimate result of the war.

G.Q. worked in 1914-1915.House at Baranovichi which the Operations Department of the General Staff. To face page 74J [See page 50 . in [See page 46 18th August.. : Rovno. General Ivanov. Left to right General Marquis de Laguiche.H. 1914. Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armies of the South-West Front. French Military Representative.

1911. Sandomir. Russians collecting German wounded on battlefield of Orlau-Frankenau. [See page 103 .25th August. 1914. [See page 6"> 18th September.

Saturday.m. Every few miles along the road from the frontier there were groups of Polish girls singing their religious chants round the roadside shrines. stragglers and transport there.m. August 2gth. and we could see the shells bursting two or three miles to the north-west. Men bolted round corners as From Neidenburg our cars appeared. We found everything quiet though a heavy cannonade was in progress. I had been motoring eighteen hours. we reached Ostrolenka station at midnight.17 a. He was shrieking. Makov. 1914. A shot was fired just as we soldier left A the town. Wounded men. and changed half-way into a military train which was carrying two companies of the 235th Regiment a second-line regiment formed at Orel . but there we had to get horses to drag the heavy cars through the first three versts south of the frontier.. He had been caught pillaging a house. Several peasants were seen mounted. Rojan. and told us that shells were then falling on the town. He said that Samsonov's train had been ordered officer An back to Ostrolenka. was being flogged by Cossacks outside the Commandant's house.The Disaster sensation to it to the 2nd Army 75 drive still slowly into Neidenburg wondering whether was fallen into German occupied by our own people or had hands. overtook us at Khorjele who left Neidenburg at 3 p. priest.m. at Khorjele with the Catholic Driving via Prasnish. drivers were wandering aimlessly about. I had forgotten it was Friday. WARSAW. Left Ostrolenka at 6. We dined at 6 p. to Willenberg the civilian population was evidently in a state of great excitement. chaussee No Russian patrols were seen. as far as The was splendid Khorjele on the Russian frontier. and connected for the moment their prayers with the world-drama being played out a few miles as they knelt further north.

. fifteen men per company were the remainder of the officers and men were from the reserve. ' to fight. from Thorn and flank attack on Samsonov's Gulevich said he would be glad to see me when the time came for the 9th Army to advance. this wide front south of Lyublin was as yet undecided. I pray may be successful. though the army is not yet I went to see General Gulevich. If it is in time. Rodzianko. to lunch. We met General Bezobrazov and his " A. Gulevich was interested to account of Samsonov's position. the Chief of the morning. Things are going badly. WARSAW. Some of the Russian divisions had retired as much as several kilometres. and. 1914. 1914-1917 that had been five days in garrison at Osovets. their forces It ' ' hear the my appears that Germans had drawn all Graudenz to carry out the communications . He told me that the great battle raging on a Staff. Bezobrazov said yesterday.000 fresh. The two company commanders and first-line troops. He thought the Guard would be back from the southern expedition in eight days. I got our Consul. the Qth formed. on the other hand. to-day in The Guard Corps is leaving Warsaw an attempt to roll up the Austrian left. some of the Austrians had it also retired. I hope that this is true ! Common Sunday.. August ^oth. as men the impetus of the of the calibre of the Guard Corps. report is that the Germans were pushed back yesterday by a flank attack and that they suffered enormous loss. have put up at the Bristol Hotel.G. and found him preparing to start for Ivangorod. Lechitski and the staff of Army are here. clamouring should be irresistible. Grove. attack of 30.76 With the Russian Army. Bezobrazov said that his young I are simply thirsting to fight/' I drove to the Kovel and the Praga stations to try to find out the whereabouts of servant and horses. No men of the Guard my success so far. while.D.

preparations were Warsaw if necessary in the All made first for the evacuation of week of the mobilisation. 1914. I was told that the best thing could do would be to return to Ostro- lenka and would find out everything there. He said that we must come in and see the I officer. all traffic being stopped for three days on the new bridge while the preparations were in the neck of Poland at Suvalki .m. Our Consul. No one had any idea where Samsonov was. August ^ist. Petersburg and moved across the river there was general officials relief. who is were Cross. of the Guchkov. 2nd Army was at the St. he would not come out to us. Government were arrested by a policeman whom we asked where the Staff of the 3rd Guard Division was. and and tha. The 3rd Guard Infantry Division went north-east to guard bridges were prepared for demolition. Monday. I was in uniform. to say that the train of the G.000 men in forcing the passage Red of the Lower Vistula.t policeman who who was at once profuse in apologies. the Warsaw progress. and their wives packed up ready for departure at a moment's notice. said last night that the Russians prepared to lose 300. telephone message came at 8.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 77 The 28th and 2Qth Siberian Regiments from the Irkutsk Military District are here already. the Octobrist member here with the Duma.30 a.) Maxim has been three days at Naselsk on the Warsaw- .O. P. They took twenty-three days from the day they entrained in Siberia till their arrival at Warsaw. WARSAW. and he drove with us to the police offices. station. (He had been dead over thirty hours.G. I A went down and retrieved I I my servant Maxim. There we refused to alight. but another had more sense fetched out a junior officer. When the ist and 2nd Guard Infantry Divisions arrived from St. Grove. and told him to fetch an officer.

The ist Rifle Brigade is stated to have been in action yesterday in the neighbourhood Neidenburg. The Ist Corps is between Mlava and Soldau. The Vlth Corps is at Mishinets. and as I pressed for a reply. he drew his hand sigSamsonov has been routed nificantly across his throat. to find the staff train had gone to Ostrov..30 a.m. The Warsaw-Mlava line is still being adapted for Central European gauge. OSTROV. September I arrived at ist. Ostrolenka at 9. who is on the Staff of An the 2nd Army simply because he can draw caricatures. 1914. Most of the 59th Division. No one knows where the ist Rifle Brigade is. . ! He colours maps Tuesday. The Russian Press states that a German corps in 160 trains left the Belgian theatre for the Russian frontier on the night of August 28th.. Not a unit of the 2nd Army has been in Germany since Sunday evening. the son of a chocolate manufacturer of Warsaw. must be near Mlava now. down had to wait eccentric youth travelled with me. maximum badly-equipped line.78 With the Russian Army. and its working at high pressure to take troops forward This is a and bring wounded back is twenty pairs of trains in twenty-four hours. 1914-1917 Mlava line. It appears that the German attack from the west and north-west penetrated between the left of the XVth Corps and the right of the Ist Corps on Friday afternoon. which was pushed up from Warsaw in support. and has shot himself. I asked the railway transport officer if he could direct me to Samsonov. so drove twelve.m. He shook his head. Russians seem convinced that corps from the Western theatre took part in the attack on Samsonov. I of was told that the train for Ostrolenka at six to find I would start at till 7 p.

The Army Staff retreat. and at 2 a. Rennenkampf has been ordered to retire. Fighting all the way. corps who was known in action. found this impossible. the 30th. east. It retreated east through the woods towards Willenberg. but eventually disappeared during the She has probably been killed. man Muromski Regiment. at 8 a. who German and was disguised as a She jumped out of the car and went sixty versts on foot. hid in the woods. Jilinski for three days. he at length reached but the frontier and crossed at Zarembi. all on foot. this officer said. This is a disaster. It appears that Samsonov had been cut off from communication with everything. He was at Nadrau on Friday facing south-west. The main German attack from Gilgenburg on Neidenburg and Willenberg seems to have completely cut off the Xlllth as well as the XVth Corps. The danger that will make men lose confidence. On Saturday morning the division tried to fight its way through to the south by Neidenburg. He was accompanied at the time ' by Alexandra Alexandrovna.The Disaster the 28th. officers It will it will is delay Russian the maintain that make it no difference in the ultimate result. They speak of there . the to the 2nd Army 79 XVth captain of the 2ist Muromski Regiment of Corps whom I met at Ostrolenka told me that officer of his A he was so far the only to have escaped. on Sunday. General Martos was wounded by a shell which fell in his motor. All the guns and transport have been lost. General Postovski and the greater part of the seven officers of the Army Staff and seventeen men of his company crossed with him. on Saturday it retreated to Orlau. Only odd men of both corps are now coming into Ostrolenka." the wife of the of the second in command had a good knowledge of to act as interpreter. east of Khorjele. and General Postovski arrived at Ostrolenka last night.m. against German troops facing northWhile the Germans passed through to Neidenburg. a detachment turned the flank of his division.m.

The 5th Railway Battalion. which arrived at Ostrolenka a month ago. The XVth Corps with the 2nd Division and the Guards Regiment were retired to an extended position facing west from Waplitz by Witt- mansdorf to Frankenau." Rosog. the Russian forced back all left had been along the line. thinking there are so many soldiers that it does not matter how many of them are thrown to their evidently indecision at Headquarters. On Thursday. Left Ostrolenka at 7 p. Wednesday. had started laying a line by Mishinets to There is 2Qth they were sent to Lyublin. the General-Quartermaster of the 2nd Army.30. dined and slept in the Staff train Grand Duke's magic letter ! OSTROV. He headquarters from was superseded in the command . still Artamonov moved the his 1st Corps further back. On " arrival there they were sent back as there was nothing This they are now doing at Ostrolenka for them to do. It looks as if the Russians were too simple and good-natured to wage modern war. It On August is A XVth train passed through Ostrolenka with eight German officers and 370 men who had been taken prisoners by the This fine fighting corps has Corps at various times. the colonel reading a novel. transferring Soldau to Ilovo. September 2nd. 1914-1917 being something they cannot understand. hoped that the German losses were large. Rennenkampf will be in a very exposed position. the 27th. been sacrificed through bad organisation and generalship. I walked the one and a half versts to the Army Staff to visit General Postovski and General Philomonov. and arrived at Ostrov at 9. 1914.8o With the Russian Army.m. It was starving for the later days of the fight. of the Command death. of disagreements between Samsonov and the corps commanders. the day I had been sent south with Laguiche and Leonkevich.

24th and 27th. The enemy continually extended eventually Willenberg. several batteries and machine-guns on motor-cars. The 2nd Division and the Guards Regiment with of artillery it was overwhelmed. There was already a considerable interval between the right of the 1st Corps and the left of the 2nd Division. but took him at about n a. The Xlllth " Corps. Samsonov left Neidenburg at position was 8 a. and escorted by the Cossack squadron. An attempt was made to force a way south through Neidenburg. and moved south. rode to a point south of Nadrau and This corps.m. At 9. poured through the gap to reoccupy Neidenburg and so sever the most important line of communication. which had come up in the night. whose strength in rear of the XVth Corps. After a council of war the remains of the XVth Corps abandoned its position at 2 a. but this was abandoned when the heights north of the town were found to be occupied by the enemy's infantry. Most of the F . and the enemy's cavalry. After I left Samsonov and his seven staff officers on the Cossack horses. had been seriously reduced by the actions of the 23rd.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 81 Three regiments of rifles arrived at Ilovo from the south by the evening of the 27th. his right.m. The Xlllth Corps continued its advance to the north and arrived without opposition south of Allenstein. On the morning of the 28th the seriousness of the realised. arrived late and attacked without energy. 1. which had been recalled south. on Saturday.30 he received information VI th Corps.300 prisoners in a vigorous counter-attack. occupying The Xlllth Corps probably surrendered. the 2Qth. not only held its own all day. and motored in the direction of Nadrau to see for himself what it might be possible to do to save the of the disaster to the situation.m." The Vlth Corps continued its retreat through Ortelsburg.

and he confessed Unfortunately we have taken r : no note of the units opposed to us.. to shift for themselves. but all are convinced that he shot The Chief of Staff and the other officers managed himself. to reach Russian territory. moving hand in hand to avoid losing one another in the darkness.'.-. complained that the 1st Corps made no attempt to break through to the north from Mlava on the 28th. told Samsonov having They soon became the Cossack escort./. as Postovski I asked him if he says.82 With the Russian Army. who had suffered severely in charging a machine-gun party. when a strong movement It is might have saved the XVth Corps and possibly the . " me. munication Battalion of the XVth thought any troops had been moved from the Western theatre. Russian General Staff was madness to advance without properly organising and fortifying the lines of communication. were killed or captured in the woods north-east of Neidenburg. or on the morning of the 29th. The Staff of the Army followed the remnants of the XVth Corps in the retreat of the 29th." . having been cut off from all communication with the 1st Corps since the morning of the 28th. XHIth. Samsonov said repeatedly that the disgrace of such a defeat " The Emperor trusted was more than he could bear. All the night of the 29th-3Oth they stumbled through the woods that fringe the north of the railway from Neidenburg to Willenberg. They searched for his body without success. having covered forty miles on foot. Neidenburg had only a garrison of half a company of the Line of Comofficers point out that it Corps. same day. and with the Vlth and XHIth Corps since the evening of the isolated. 1914-1917 remaining men of the XVth Corps. far superior to the Russian. How can I face him after such a disaster ? He went aside and his staff heard a shot. The German Intelligence Service was. with their commander.

the commander of the 3rd Guard Infantry Division. I tried was told that he was ill. I it wrote my despatch for the I War Office myself to Petrograd. but for Graevo. Whole army corps advanced from . the Germans having entrained for the east immediately after A column consisting of the 1st Corps. but at length received permission from the Grand Duke to go to Petrograd and subsequently transfer I left Byelostok at 9 a. " and General Sirelius. as the 2nd Army obviously required a rest. and General Jilinski evidently thought that Russia's honour demanded that I should be prevented from informing I was kept three and a the Western Allies of the true position. as had no safe and means I telegraphed to G. AFTERNOTE At Byelostok resolved to take of sending it.G.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 83 I arrived at Byelostok at 12 midnight and went to the Palace Hotel. saw me for a few moments. General Oranovski.m. on September 6th. half days at Byelostok. were nervous. He was removed from his command.H. however. at A German the disaster is account of the events in the 2nd Army preceding worth quoting : Even in the period of the strategical advance things had gone wrong. His Chief of Staff.m. A few hours later an A. the disaster. The Russian troops. to ask permission to transfer to the Qth Army. having heard that the Germans were returning in force/' abandoned the town seven hours later 4 a. to the Qth Army.Q. The XXIInd Corps was passing through Byelostok en route to see General Jilinski. on August 3oth.D. of the Commander-in-Chief 's came to tell me that I must ask the Grand Duke's permission before returning to the I was the only foreign officer with any knowledge of capital. on the 3ist. and I told him that I was going to Petrograd.m. the 1st Rifle Brigade and the remains of the 3rd Guard Infantry Division under the command of General Sirelius. Samsonov's defeat. reoccupied Neidenburg at 9 p.

owing to lack of wire.. there. On the 27th the Russian XHIth Corps reached Allen- which many Russian soldiers characteristically believed to be Berlin. The Higher Gommand was ignorant of the enemy's movements. The Russian Army Staff remained for long ignorant of the disaster to the Vlth Corps on August 26th. and soon news was received of the defeat of the 1st Russian ." etc. and the German stations obtained in this manner copies of important Russian dispositions. of the task of times only at 10 a. . . As many staffs could not decipher. Communication between corps had to be maintained by wireless. some. Rennenkampf's army. they were told nothing. Even before the Narev the march discipline frontier was bad. Nerves were so shaky that the troops fired at every airman. When Corps by the scouts of the XHIth XHIth Corps reported on the 27th that there were columns of troops in movement near Wartenburg. for instance. messages were sent in clear. It was an unlucky chance for the Russians that on this day one of the few airmen who had flown over Wartenburg was shot down stein.m.84 With the Russian Army. . but in reality spirits were low. which in reality had The troops seen fled long before through Ortelsburg. and from that river to the Prussian the Russian columns had to wade through sand. so that troops could only march at The army was practically without telephones noon. A grandiloquent proclamation was posted in the town : "To you Prussians. Army Orders reached commanders much too late. 1914-1917 Byelostok without bread or oats. Owing to shortcomings in the communications service. and had to have recourse to their reserve rations. . . the representatives of Russia.. we. turn as the forecomers of united Slavdom.. and three times asked the wireless for information. Corps commanders were only informed of the immediate objectives of the neighbouring corps . occasionally even at their own automobiles. were those of Mackenzen's XVIIth Corps. etc. these were imagined to belong to the Vlth Russian Corps.

too. Telephones were constantly cut. Samsonov's all-prevailing idea was to try to see the battle with his own eyes. but also from half his command. but were handicapped by want of petrol." Diary show the inefficiency of the The service of Instances quoted in the The Intelligence Service. 193. ! by the 1 Wissen und Wehr. 1 Rennenkampf and Samsonov had made their reputation as commanders of cavalry divisions in the war against Japan. to send all such paraphernalia as wireless apparatus back to Russia. Hence the mad decision. The Russians were thankful that the town gave them bread and oats. airmen did their best. and to get on a Cossack saddle and ride forward to take his fortune in his hand under conditions resembling those to which he had been accustomed in Manchuria. and the bulk of the Xlllth Corps remained outside and south of the town. . taken in the early hours of the 28th. in view of the extreme fatigue of the troops. Success was no longer believed in. to cut himself off. The XVth Corps asked for help.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 85 Corps at Usdau. communications was hopeless. but a council of war decided. not only from his base. to postpone the march till the early morning of the 28th. however. part in these operations have " since admitted that the Russian army of those days did not officers Many Russian who took know how to wage modern war. by instructions from Byelostok. which was only occupied by a weak advanced guard. as cavalry leaders in the Far East was of no value as a preparation for the control of large armies in an essentially different theatre under totally dissimilar conditions. and the Army Staff ordered the immediate march of the Xlllth Corps from Allenstein on Hohenstein. p. Their experience. and the men sent to repair them were murdered Finally the Army Staff sent out the detail of the distribution of the army to the corps staffs in clear inhabitants. They had to contend with men who had made a lifelong study of war in this theatre and under the existing conditions. He was probably worried.

he woke it of whom there are many along the frontier. fighting with immense obstinacy. shell. The inmates were Poles and evidently smugglers. and while hesitating whether to declare himself or not.86 With the Russian Army. the Chief of his Intelligence. felt tired out. He stumbled on through the wood till he came to a cottage. " On the Nearly three years later one of Samsonov's staff." and Klyuev. They were discussing them was angry because a Russian patrol had 300 marks and had then outraged his daughter. of the XHIth Corps. Hindenburg reported Martos. When was broad daylight and he was hungry. dining with me in Petrograd. by his H. The morale was much affected by the number of the enemy's heavy guns. he overheard some scraps of conversation through the open door. surrendered with their staffs on the 30th. The Russians were just great big-hearted children who had thought out nothing and had stumbled half-asleep into a wasp's nest. the war. 1914-1917 The whole machine was inferior to the German machine. The men were worried by orders and counter-orders. who had spent the night digging a trench facing north. were towards daylight ordered to retire a short distance and to prepare at once another trench facing west. sonov's disappearance. Not long after Samselves. On the other hand. his machine-guns on motor-cars and in trees. my informant. They had a compass but no maps. but parties of Russians still fought on till the 3ist. There was no proper co-operation between corps commanders. At last the matches they struck to consult the compass gave out. Samsonov having told his Cossack escort to shift for them- This staff of an army must have been a pathetic sight.E. of the XVth Corps. The commander of a regiment of the ist Rifle Brigade has since told how his men. described how the Army Staff became finally isolated in the woods near Neidenburg. many of all ranks of the Russians fought with determination till : The enemy is evening of the 30th. My friend went . training. for people who did such things could never win. being a fat man in poor He sat down to rest and fell fast asleep. and his hand-grenades. and one of robbed him of He said that though the Russians were many they could not win. the end. He approached cautiously.

Corps found drink in Allenstein on the 27th. The same officer told me that it was General Postovski that suggested that I should be sent back when I arrived on the 28th. The latter led the regiment back. When it did come partly into action. it was also Postovski's idea to go north on the morning of the 28th to direct the fighting personally of the staff . replacing him by a young lieutenant-colonel of Engineers. The Poles played the I can only apologise for my comrades. The Russian Command altogether underestimated the German quickness of movement and initiative. but it once more gave way. the junior officers had suggested the withdrawal of Army Headquarters from Neidenburg to Yanov. but M. in his capacity as Plenipotentiary of the Russian Red Cross. who promptly superseded its commanding officer. Samsonov was . and this was partly the reason that it only turned out at 10 a." game. They gave him milk and bread.The Disaster in to the 2nd Army : 87 " and gave them all the money he had. but their advice was overruled. on the 28th instead of two hours earlier. There were rumours current for a long time that he had escaped. and he was seen after fruitless attempts to rally the men to take his revolver and shoot himself. visited the enemy's lines and satisfied himself that he was dead. Many Russian officers afterwards blamed Samsonov's staff for abandoning him. one of its regi- ments ran away in front of the Commander of the Army." According to this evidence. Guchkov. The idea was that the 2nd Division should move slightly south from Frankenau and the XVth and XHIth Corps moving south in its rear should come into action on its left. and it is not right that a He argued ' : foreigner should see the state we are in. in order to carry out Samsonov's instructions to strike south-west.m. They said that Samsonov. Samsonov held a council of war on the evening of the 28th. and decided after consultation with Martos to withdraw that night to fight his way through Neidenburg. and a few hours later led him across the frontier to a Russian cavalry patrol. could not really dead. who suffered from asthma. saying For the rest. as This officer stated that the XIHth ordered. The position is very serious.

They said that his staff at first helped him. smiling. Rennenkampf showed the " and said telegram to B Nothing will come of it. and. the Germans are retiring/' : had had any proper understanding of their task they would have recognised that the time when the Germans were retiring was precisely the time to exert every effort to keep in touch. but Rennenkampf.000. but finally abandoned him. and. for though Rennenkampf himself crossed the frontier on the lyth. who stood beside his bed.With the Russian Army. and was told he might. and advancing with his centre and drove the Germans back. the 2nd Army will not be ready to cross on the igth. held on. I met in Warsaw B an officer of Rennenkampf s staff. There was the usual half-panic in disaster. but that he should not undress. but they completely lost touch on the 2ist. The battle of very nearly lost the 28th Division on the right gave way. and said " You can take off your clothes now . the Russian transport. the Germans will throw their forces first against me and then against Samsonov. It was by the Russian ist Army. In November. . who was a fervent admirer of his chief. though urged by all his staff to retire in order to save an over- Gumbinnen was fought on August 20th. He lay down for an hour and was awakened by Rennenkampf. in the second place. : without waiting to complete its mobilisation. B asked the General if he might go to bed. Samsonov's army only crossed on the 2ist." This was prophetic. Rennenkampf received orders early in August to cross the East Prussia on August lyth and to carry out an energetic offensive in the direction of Insterburg. as we know. for three regiments of whelming left. In the first place. 1914-1917 walk and had to be helped along. . 1914. commander frontier of of a large force necessarily should. and certainly not the time to undress and go to bed If Rennenkampf and his staff ! The staff of the ist Army estimated the German loss at Gum- binnen at 40. stated that the 2nd Army would cross the frontier The orders on the line Khorjele-Mlava on August igth. as the . though he acknowledged that he showed a tendency to go too far forward and did not remain behind working by maps.

and Lotzen was summoned to surrender. an officer arrived in a car with instructions for the Lyck preparatory to joining the Qth Army. On the I2th the corps was ordered to retire to Mariampol. The Germans attacked on September 8th. but refused. and the corps was ordered to retire to Darkehmen. Johannisburg and Arys were occupied. when the staff was between Nordenburg and Angerburg. It retired leisurely. via Rastenburg. Though General Jilinski certainly said on August 23rd that he had " from Samsonov's army. that the service of was defective and the corps received few The Ilnd Corps completed its mobilisation at Grodna and moved forward to occupy an extended defensive position on the Avgustov marshes." this officer was taken the Ilnd Corps under the impression that the corps was originally under the ist Army. It turned and moved south. and owing to the boldness and rapidity of the enemy's advance. After severe fighting the 76th Division gave way. On the 26th. On the 27th orders arrived for it to move in conjunction with the IVth Corps (ist Army) corps to retrace its steps to It turned again south-west. and the difficult movement was rendered extremely . to assist Samsonov. On the 2Qth the staff arrived at Korschen. and that evening received orders to retire east owing to the disaster to the 2nd Army. In the autumn of 1916 1 met an officer who had served on the corps staff. acknowledged. The staff entered Angerburg on the 24th. The order arrived late. He communications orders. however. and since roads had not been assigned to corps to confusion with the transport of the IVth and XXth Corps. The corps advanced to the north-west and the staff entered Lyck on August igth. the Vlth Corps occupying a similar position on its left. helping neither.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 89 The Russian cavalry on the right flank had suffered severely on the 20th and marched 25 versts to the north to rest ! During these operations the Ilnd Corps wandered about between the two Russian wings.

000 men. increasing his of Then came the turn strength to about 175. 1914-1917 the staff arrived there on the I4th. The Germans claim to have killed. expressed his sympathy. were defeated at Avgustov.. according to German accounts. Hindenburg received reinforcements from the Western theatre. General Laguiche.000.000 casualties. By the igth the corps was withdrawn to rest east of the Nyeman.000 men killed. Samsonov's army crossed the East Prussian frontier on August 2 ist. He retired a short distance and took up an extended position from Wehlau through Allenburg. and one regiment of the 3rd Guard Infantry Division with their artillery and transport. who had despatched considerable to take part in the offensive in south-west Poland. the 2nd Infantry Division. later General Sievers). the Guard Reserve Corps and the 8th Cavalry Division. whose slowness to advance after the battle of Gumbinnen had been largely to blame for Samsonov's disaster. 27th the offensive was resumed in conjunction with the newly-formed loth Army (General Pflug." of course. 1914. cost the Russians practically the whole of the Xlllth and XVth Corps. of 60. was a raid altruistically undertaken with the sole object of relieving pressure news of the disaster French representative. Rennenkampf.Q. Gerdauen and Angerburg and waited. the whole Russian artillery and transport at a cost of 15. On September forces and the Germans. and the tels sacrifices On pour nos the other hand. He attacked the Russian ist Army on both flanks on September gth and rolled up its left. By the morning of the 30th it had been comThe ten days' offensive pletely defeated and he had shot himself. When the to the 2nd Army arrived at G. Russians claim that the invasion of East Prussia in August. " the Grand Duke replied Nous sommes heureux de faire de : on Russia's Allies in the West. wounded and taken prisoner. and of 150 guns. Rennenkampf evacuated East Prussia with a loss.go With the Russian Army. alliees. wounded and captured 170. the Russian Command did not . including the Xlth Corps.H.

the German Supreme Command telegraphed. They probably imagined that during the if Prussian railway system. wonderful capacity of the East They sent the 2nd Army forward campaign in Western Europe the enemy's opposition would be less serious than it actually proved. They took no count of the inferiority of the Russian machine to the German in command and armament and in power of manoeuvre. but with your energy you can prevent the worst from happening. imagining. which the Germans have named Tannenburg. with their sanguine temperament. wrote on August 2ist You may yet be able to save the situation in the East. It is evident from German accounts that the raid effected its strain of the object.. of a but the Russians. offering to transfer three corps from the Western theatre. . The reinforcements actually sent the Xlth Corps.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 91 deliberately send to the sacrifice some nine corps and eight cavalry divisions more than a quarter of the whole ^irmy. without field bakeries. Of course you will not be what has already happened. the Guard Reserve Corps and the 8th Cavalry Division were drawn from the German right in the Western theatre. They forgot the they thought of the soldiers' stomachs at all. but by the 23rd the date of the arrival of Hindenburg and Ludendorff had decided to defend the line of the River Passarge. The fugitives crowding into Berlin as they fled before the Russian threat made the German Government and the Higher Command nervous. underrated the difficulties and hoped for a permanent local success. that a large army could be fed in a region devoid of surplus supplies. They arrived too late to take part in the battle of Tannenburg. in notifying General Ludendorff of his appointment as Chief of Staff to the German 8th Army. which had been purposely left without railways and roads to delay an enemy's advance. At the commencement of the battle. but it was .. von : Stein. They forgot the miserable capacity of the Warsaw-Mlava railway and the alternate marsh and sand of Northern Poland." The 8th Army Command had proposed first to responsible for made evacuate the whole country east of the Vistula. The General Quartermaster. The two armies were launched with the primary idea raid.

and for this crippling the Allies generally. 1914-1917 owing to the Russian raid that they were absent from the battle of the Marne. They. They knew they could count on the co-operation with one another of the corps and subordinate leaders. they inflicted losses of upwards of a quarter of a million men. They forced back the Ist Corps from the left of the 2nd Army and frightened it into passivity while they enveloped and destroyed the greater part of the three and a half remaining corps. Hindenburg and Ludendorff took full advantage of the lack of communication between the two Russian armies. all. over 150. for they had no right to count on the supineness and lack of initiative of Rennenkampf and his numerous cavalry. who succeeded to command of the 2nd Army. and deprived the Russian little With an army that averaged army of a vast quantity They took enormous of very necessary material. They withdrew the German forces from before the Russian ist Army. and Russia most of suffer.West Front. They dealt a severe blow to Russian morale.92 solely With the Russian Army. and that they could patriotism of the men who Possibly the detachment from the Western theatre that the rely on the educated were defending their homes. were eventually to General Postovski remained Chief of Staff under General Scheidemann. risks. however. Eventually he returned to Petrograd suffering . No price could have been too great to pay for this relief in the West. knew their own machine and properly assessed the value of that of the enemy. leaving its whole nine infantry and five cavalry divisions masked from the 27th onwards by only two brigades of cavalry.000 in strength. but the price actually paid the crippling of the Russian army was greater than it need have been. till He then commanded a division on the after the battle of Lodz. Russian raid wrung from the German Supreme Command saved the Allies in the West and so turned the whole course of the war. South. The Germans are naturally proud of their work in this campaign. In about three weeks they cleared East Prussia of the enemy. who had all been trained in one school of military doctrine.

Summer Garden The Chief of the Staff of the North-West Front. It was commanded by General Torklus. It dismissed from the service Blagovyeshchenski and Kondratovich. late commander 1915. At the end of 1915 army.000 men of the corps had escaped from the debacle in 1914. General Oranovski. and he was at least twice later suspended from command. have not met him since. 1916. commanded a division. I said He could not reply. The General told me field in the loth Army at . and was surprised to hear that some 4. being succeeded by General Gulevich. of the 6th Division. took command of the 1st Cavalry Corps." : hand and passed on. the commander of the 3rd Guard Infantry Division. The subsequent court of enquiry acquitted Artamonov and also Sirelius. the he was appointed Russian representative with the French Till then I used sometimes to see him wandering idly in at Petrograd. 1917. General Jilinski was replaced in command of the NorthWest Front by General Ruzski from the 3rd Army. when Staff. Artamonov was frequently employed. but simply pressed my is a sad ending. I spent a day with him when his corps was on the line of the ist Army south of Dvinsk in the autumn of 1916. General Philomonov was I for some time Chief Later he of the Staff in the Fortress of Brest Litovsk. Three corps commanders Generals Blagovyeshchenski of the Vlth. held his post for two more months and then. though I was very near him during the offensive at Lake Naroch in March. but never again in the command of troops in the field. " This the Bolsheviks were arranging their betrayal. Kondratovich of the XXIIIrd and Artamonov of the 1st were relieved of their commands. 1917. He was foully murdered by the mutinous troops at Viborg in September. The feeling against General Klyuev of the XHIth Corps for surIt rendering without proper resistance is still bitter Steps were taken to reconstitute the XVth Corps at once. and was employed in the General I last saw him in the bad days of December. and also Komarov. The career of General Sirelius continued to be varied. reappeared in the Grodna in March.The Disaster to the 2nd Army 93 from nervous breakdown. the commander of the 4th Infantry Division.

94 With the Russian Army. when the order for having failed He blamed Samsonov I last to issue this order earlier.m. General Alexyeev. saw General Torklus when he came in Petrograd in 1917 to try to arrange a transfer for his son to the British army. I visited the corps on the Dvina west of Jacobstadt in 1916. Probably for this reason it was not reconstituted till later. till n p. when its former commander. on the 28th. to the Embassy The XHIth Corps was considered to have fought less well than the XVth. became Chief of Staff to the Emperor in 1915. . 1914-1917 that on August 26th the day after I had visited him the 6th Division advanced to Miihlen and was engaged continually with superior enemy forces was received to retire.

which was intended to cover the approaches to Lemberg from the east. about 200 battalions. They resolved to strike north at the Russian 4th (Ewarth vice Salza) and 5th (Plehve) Armies between the Bug and Vistula. This right wing was subdivided into the 2nd Army. consisting of. ist Army (Dankl).West Front by the beginning Russian armies had wrested the initiative instance Command.CHAPTER III WITH A CAVALRY DIVISION IN SOUTH-WEST POLAND. and on the bank of the Vistula a mixed detachment containing a German Landwehr Corps under General Woyrsch.. from right to left. and the 3rd Army (Von Brudermann). The Austrians had in the divisions to assist the first some thirty-six infantry divisions to hold German seventeen back Russia pending the decision in the Western theatre. For this purpose they detailed a Northern Group. 150 squadrons and 150 from the attack of the Russian 8th (Brusilov) and 3rd (Ruzski) Armies through Eastern Galicia. I. 1914 ' REFERENCE MAPS Nos. AND IV> September the from the Austrian of ON the South. III. which assembled between Stanislau and Stryj under General Kovess. The strength of this offensive wing was about 350 battalions. To guard its right flank The Russian 4th and 5th Armies completed on the 1 8th their and moved south from the general line andriya-Vladimir-Volinsk on August iQth. they formed a right defensive wing. left the 4th Army (Auffenberg). The Austrian orders for the advance of the Northern Group 95 deployment Novo-Alex- . 170 squadrons and 130 batteries strong. SEPTEMBER OCTOBER. batteries.

left of Meanwhile the arrival of the Guard and the XVIIIth Corps Lyublin-Kholm had enabled the Russians to take the On September 5th he was forced to offensive against Dankl. 1914-1917 were issued on August 22nd. Plehve having received orders to retire. with the Russian 8th Army. with its right north of Nemierow and its left east of Rawa Ruska. From August lyth till September 3rd Brusilov covered 220 versts. of the 2nd. By the evening of September ist. had crossed the frontier on a wide front west of Proskurov on August igth. crossed astride the BrodyLemberg railway. Komarov was occupied. and Woyrsch's German Landwehr Corps was transferred east to strengthen that flank. Brusilov. commenced to take effect. 3rd The counter-attacks . and on September 5th it faced south. Halicz. withdraw his right. The battle of centration. before the completion of the conThe advance was at first successful. and was held up for several days by Plehve's 5th Army on the general line Krilov-Dashov-KomarovGrabovets. Dankl had penetrated upwards of 100 kilometres into Russian territory. Ivanov's Chief of Staff. and was within a march of Lyublin. The Austrian Command wavered. Auffenberg captured Zamostie on the 27th. Two days Meanwhile the plan of with the 3rd Army. Auffenberg's Army had made less progress. On the latter date the 3rd Army took Lemberg and the 8th Army later Ruzski. Ruzski and Brusilov. From this position its right moved still further south to unite with the the defeated Austrian right wing in an attempt to withstand the enemy's continued pressure west of Lemberg. The progress of both armies was rapid. At length. Krasnik ended on the 25th with the retreat of the Russian 4th Army. the third city in the kingdom of Poland. Dankl held on for some days. on September ist. and the threat to the Austrian communications in Galicia became a very real one. campaign worked out by Alexyeev. The main body of Auffenberg's 4th Army was recalled. but on the gth pressure on both flanks forced him to on the line retire. and 4th Armies availed the Austrians nothing against the determined and continued At midday on pressure of Plehve.96 With the Russian Army.

by making a row I attracted sufficient attention to induce a clerk who could read to go through my letter. I arrived at WARSAW. as usual. of the Lines of Com- Warsaw the 8. On September 8th it was stated that four corps. However. to see my G . annoying everyone and exercising no discrimination The as to who should be allowed to go in and who not. the gth Russian Army Ivangorod. whole place was in an indescribable state of filth everyone appeared to be waiting and little progress seemed to be made with work. said to have been brought from France. were deon the loth that training on the line Krakau-Chenstokhov the Russian Military Attache* had telegraphed from Holland that he calculated only ten to twelve regular German corps remained in the Western Theatre. who spoke a little English. 1914 September its 97 nth the Austrian Command resolved to withdraw armies to refit behind the San. ensign. but the success was not decisive.30 a. 1914. instead of its In his opinion should have been sent due south from strength being employed in frontal in attacks between Lyublin and Kholm. I was sent to the stable with an . Drove to the Hotel for further journey. September i$th. Bristol. On the same day information was received that the Germans were detraining a corps at Sambor.m. Tuesday. . The Russian campaign on the South-West Front had opened The officer who was brilliantly. in charge of operations in the Staff of the Front at this time stated months later that the original Russian plan had been by a simultaneous advance to the south up both banks of the Vistula and in a westerly direction south of Lemberg to cut off the Austrian army from both Krakau and the Carpathians. a nice fellow. During the five days I spent Petrograd evening of the 7th till the morning of September 13th General Staff professed to be perturbed by reports of transfers from the the Russian from the Western Theatre.September -October. and spent the day arranging office of At the Commandant munication there were. armed sentries everywhere. south-west of Lemberg. These reports were all inaccurate.

The veterinary I surgeon says she will be able to march in a week. Luckily the man thrown out was not and was able to creep to a station and warn the authorities. September i6th. They had been brought with only two Russian other German prisoners. A non-commissioned officer had come from Lyublin direct to get horses for his battery. 1914-1917 horses.98 With the Russian Army. I saw two more pessimistic Englishmen. having reached Moseiska. heard there were one hundred German female prisoners who had been captured armed in East Prussia and many One wagon-load of thirty-five that arrived on Saturday from Mlava was to go to Minsk to be shot. Ruzski. Wednesday. Altogether. There were numbers of deserters and of convalescents waiting to be I sent on to their units. The Russian army is crossing the lower San unopposed. Turkistan last year. The mare has rheumatism. but doubt it. All seemed content to wait. They murdered one by ripping up his stomach with a penknife and beat and threw the other out of the train. guards in the wagon. . both of or less convinced that Warsaw is in it is whom were immediate danger because being fortified ! are being put up. I would prefer other jobs to that of Commandant tapes at Warsaw. indreadful scarecrows cluding the black that I remember walked so fast in . Apparently the unfortunate individual deals with the lines of communication in every direction. There It is a little of everything at the " Base tape. Petersburg is also LYUBLIN. killed. 1914." comprises a remount depot I saw a collection of also poor Samsonov's horses. and refused I perfectly agreed with him to take any of those he saw. is within a march east of Przemysl. There were people selling hay. being fortified and wire entanglements I told them that St.

whips freely that officers immediately they arrive at the bivouac look about for women and leave their who used horses and men to shift for themselves. Meanorganised while it was necessary to sleep somewhere. None of them had a corner to spare. advised ' after telephoning to the Commandant Town. He is full of that one corps bolted for tales of misconduct of troops miles from Krasnik and was only stopped by Cossacks.September -October. with his two assistants. for a train to carry me back to Ivangorod. It is the getting up in the morning one dreads. we started to walk the two miles to the town. Heavy Thursday. and drove in succession to seven hotels. for Ivangorod and Ostrovets. but the Station Commandant. I waited at Lyublin till IVANGOROD. to find that the staff of the 9th Army had left at 4 p. September ijth. n a. to go back to Ivangorod to-morrow to apply to the Commandant fitapes. and wished I had put up in the refreshment room. 99 of I met an English tutor who had seen something operations in the Lyublin Government. with no chance rain. so after waiting an hour for a cab. of a wash.. We drove back to the station and the Commandant Station most kindly turned out of his railway compartment to let me sleep there. without horses. I left Warsaw by n my It would be much better to drive there. a staff captain and an were kindness itself. I felt a brute. 1914. ensign. and arrived at Lyublin at p. The XVIIIth Corps has gone up the Vistula. ' We picked up a cab halfway. and most of the rooms had three to six occupants.m. who would send me by the me route probably up the Vistula.m. I noticed while in the office at the station . starting at a palace like the Ritz and ending with a Jewish hovel.m.m. and none coming. train at 4 p. 1914 N. The captain in command of the station at Lyublin. They do their work efficiently.

part of which was occupied with horses. and gave seats to two ladies who were dressed in black. The horse gunner told me of a remarkable piece of work by the i6th Narva Hussars. Mannerheim. I remember I saw his father and mother dining with the boy at a restaurant the night he returned to Warsaw. was badly in need of help. They told me of the death of young Bibikov. 1914-1917 was attended to sympathetically and rapidly without red tape. his General. and yet the general accompaniments of the office showed no signs of order. had come down to Lyublin to nurse her husband through an attack of typhoid. enemy's trenches at 10 p. I ! had some conversation with the colonel in charge of the advanced depot which the Guard Co-operative Society maintains for the convenience of the officers and men of The society has seven wagons on a the Guard Corps. and she found this fitting in the case of a boy like Bibikov. and a lieutenant in the horse artillery battery of the Guard from Warsaw. Poor Bibikov won all the prizes at the Concours Hippique at Vienna three years ago. Good temper and unbounded patience seemed to make in how everyone who came everything work. The elder lady had lost her son in the Preobrajenskis in the recent battle at Krasnik. I was given a coupe to myself to return to Ivangorod. who was very pretty and who spoke English well. The little lady told me to-day that the funeral service had been held in a huge stable.m.TOO With the Russian Army. The younger one. who belonged to the Lancers of Warsaw and was killed in a charge by the Independent Guard Cavalry Brigade against infantry in a wood. kissed the dead boy and said he would like to be in his place. which had three regiments in occupation of a The i6th charged the position. . Mannerheim is blamed for squandering lives. who was so devoted to the animals. The Guard Rifle Brigade.

1914 101 took siding at Lyublin. etc. then the field hospital.000 puds were sent by train to Ostrovets.. One can buy almost anything boots.000 on a steamer up the Vistula. etc.. I gather that the advanced hospital is the regimental hospital. Three bad cases were carried in a cart.000 wounded. just enough for an army corps for a day.000 puds. whence cases are sent to local hospitals (Myestnie) in school-houses. Yesterday 40. 6. as a rule. Then at the railhead. . is the collecting-point (Sborni-Punkt). or sent to the interior in trains if judged fit to travel. : never has time to get the range to Russian covered positions. etc. south of Sandomir on the right bank of the Vistula. The enemy fired through loopholes and the Russians were forced to attack without fire preparation. each with a capacity The ordinary military train takes 45. and as the enemy : . Each corps has a separate line of communications and is The gth Army organisation.000 by road up the right bank of the river. Sam Browne belts. and 16.000 puds. We The wagons are given at half-freight by Government. were brought into Lyublin." The Russians lost many men at Krasnik. and more often than not only two men were still alive when they arrived. etc. including Austrians.September -October. three or four at Ivangorod. The Russian artillery fire is wonderfully accurate. Probably as many as 40. but there " as officers say is absolutely no drinking to excess The war is too serious for that. They also sell brandy to officers. have four steamers. The Russians of 6. where the Austrians had semi-perm anently fortified a position. the Russian losses in gunners have been extraThe cavalry on this front has not ordinarily small. including forage. suffered much and the infantry has borne the brunt. They were carried many miles over bad roads in country carts. chocolate. with its chief supply base in Ivangorod. four on with us by the train in which we left for Ostrovets.

it's the St. The poor boys were all as keen as mustard. in a downpour. I arrived at Ostrovets at 9 a. Friday. September iSfh. and my one remaining horse did not reach Sandomir inspector found till 10 p. starting at midday. In the Pavlovski regiment. My servant Maxim." He said " They think they No. and was met by an order to detrain and carry bread seventy- At Lyublin I four versts. Similarly at Ivangorod there were recently-constructed trenches. 1914-1917 saw the 56th Supply Transport Battalion (country carts). out of eleven recently and seven wounded. 1914. They had been two years at artillery schools and had got their commissions early on account of the war. will all I said to the Colonel " : : be field-marshals. leaving Warsaw I noticed that one of the arches of the northern footbridge had been prepared for demolition. They were going to the gth Army to be appointed to batteries. recently-appointed subalterns came in. but war thirsts for the young. George's Cross that they dream of.m. the orderly Ivan. On and on the right bank of the Vistula there were emplacements ready prepared for a field battery. twenty young. and drove in a motor. and pointed towards Warsaw.m.m. via Ojarov and Zavikhost to Sandomir. SANDOMIR. joined. While we were dining at the hotel at Ivangorod. The police- town." boys were soon scribbling letters home. four killed have been The We left Ivangorod by train at 10 p. me . clean room in this very dirty crowded with troops. which had just arrived from Bobruisk. which is a nice.With the Russian Army. as the men at the front were said to be starving. where we arrived at five. and told me that their one fear was lest they might be employed till the end of the war against the Austrians and never have a dash at the Prussians.

1914 The Russians have a mass front. Her husband. of She told me that her husband had insisted on her leaving for her sister's house when Sandomir was occupied by the Austrians. My hostess. generally that I have seen here are not so worn-looking as those with poor Samsonov were. The town had been occupied for two and a half weeks by the Austrians. September igth. nearly great-coat. and Madame P. the excuse being that a shot had been fired from a group of houses in which his stood. We found the staff of the Qth Army a villa . wild-looking fifteen and men. to say nothing of Kuban. for she can hear nothing of him. gave us tea before we started to motor to Army Headquarters at Zolbnev. Terek. in unlikely to do for months to come. Saturday. talked a little There was fighting going on near by to-day and the sky was lit up to the south-west by burning villages at night. the I4th. Sandomir was taken on Monday. twelve versts south-east Sandomir. indeed.and third-category Don Cossack regiments. I saw a squadron of Ural Cossacks in Sandomir big. of cavalry 103 on the Austrian A Cossack officer told me that they had thirty- four second. who French. Ural. On the day the Russians re-took the town the Germans seized seventeen of the oldest men and carried them off. I had a good sleep in a comfortable bed. red-bearded. etc. the Tula The men regiment losing heavily. was one of them. an apothecary of fiftysix. 1914. is and. SANDOMIR. Orenburg Cossack regiments alone. all I with a waterproof coat over their military don't wonder that the Austrians are fright- ened by them. She is now in despair. told me that she had had Hungarians and Cossacks and every kind of person in the house.September -October.

She and her husband had spent two nights and a day in the cellar. as he could not speak either English or French. The house was oldish. spoke for some time with the Polish lady. The Ruzski Plehve and Ewarth are pushing them south. the floor with his feet in the It may have been a good armchair a hundred years ago. Gulevich explained carrier.104 With tlie Russian Army. that General Lechitski dreaded having me. and sat down which collapsed with him and deposited him on air. and will probably take Lechitski is making ground to the south and Jaroslau. The furniture was a lot Staff. and Brusilov are still pressing the Austrians west. It appears that the Austrians have retreated west from Baranow. remarking that it had evidently made wonderful progress I since the Japanese war. which was occupied by the Russians yesterday. perhaps dating from the seventeenth century. two howitzer shells of them making a hole five feet deep within ten yards of her house. the Chief of took me into a on a chair room apart to talk. Her two sons are fighting in the Austrian army and she has not had any news from them since the war commenced. I asked and obtained permission to go with this force. south-west. and she tried to find out what I thought of the Russian army. What an unhappy people the I hope one result of the war will be to produce Poles are a united people under Russia's protection. little General Gulevich. and are preparing to defend seriously the line of the River Wist oka. be attempted under General Novikov with the idea of cutting the Austrian raid A by five cavalry divisions is to communications with Krakau and forcing them to retire. but was not a weightI showed my credentials. The idea of ! She showed me the place where from the Russian guns had burst. He came in to see me and actually understood my Russian ! general situation was explained to me. one the possibility of such shell-craters in our garden in Ulster . of it good Empire. 1914-1917 surrounded by pretty gardens.

A pouring wet day and not a pleasant start for the raid.m. on his way from General Headquarters to join Lechitski's gth Army. September 20th.m." Colonel S.. of with whom the Administrative Staff of the gth Army. called for me at 9. but gives me the impression of talking too much. for the night. The division arrived about 3 p. and still more so when I told him that many people in England shaved twice a day. We drove further south to Rozwadow to see large quantities of supplies that had been captured from the I had an excellent meal of shchi l and black Austrians. brought the Grand Duke and the news that me ' greetings from a second British in conjunction Army has landed at Ostend and is moving with the Belgians against the German lines of communication. Each snore ends with a regular ring. He was astonished that I shaved every day. . having marched from Tarnobzeg. bread or so ! probably all the stuff I will have to eat for a week Little Durnovo. is a glorious snorer.30 a. who is in command of the I4th Division. KLIMONTOV. You could hear him at Vladivostok He tries to work ! hard in the day. The 8th Division passed through Sandomir moving northwest last night. We drove through a sea of mud to Klimontov. he is a kind-hearted soul.D. 1914 makes one willing to 105 for pay any income tax an over- whelming army. and his A. at 8 a. the Headquarters of the I4th Cavalry Division.m. General Erdeli..September -October. I have spent the last few days.. 1 Cabbage soup. south of the Vistula. 1914. However. Sunday. I lay awake imagining how his nostrils must shake and tingle. Prince Gantacuzene.G.

" the country and liked the people I " ! saw Novikov yesterday for the walking up and down a long room Dreyer." said that the heavy rain has flooded the Vistula and the " The possipossible crossing-places are carefully guarded. 1914. is It There seems some doubt regarding our task. He commenced his service in the Hussars of the Guard. The population of the town for forty kopeks (tenpence) ! We is almost entirely Jewish. in which capacity he was appointed to the gth Army. got almost a comfortable dinner. He is only and forty-four. He is of a more brainy and subtle type. I found a Jew who had been " " He liked at Toronto and talked broad American. Outwardly he appeared merely a tall. Petersburg Military District. including tea. first time. in which he served with the Emperor. 8th. STOPNITSA. He was in the Chateau at Zolbnev discussing plans with his Chief of Staff. He commanded the Dragoons of the Guard. Erdeli I had met before at St. Rode forty-three versts (thirty miles) with the division.io6 With the Russian Army. " tired. It has had many skirmishes with Germans and Austrians The doctor says it is between Radom and Ivangorod. 1914-1917 General Novikov's corps will be 140 squadrons strong. i4th and two Don Cossack divi- a Turkistan Cossack brigade and four sotnias of Frontier Guard. Monday. at the beginning of the war was General Quartermaster of the St. sions. The division has had a rough time since mobilisation. comprising the 5th. September 2ist. ." but horses and men look fit and hard. Petersburg. handsome man of the type of A young officer British cavalry officer. from Klimontov via Bogoriya to Stopnitsa. Colonel pointed him out as the foremost cavalry leader of the Russian army. bility of a turning movement west instead of east of Krakau is canvassed.

was anxious to see me. Sapojnikov. and We The for arrived at 6 p. with the special task of bringing exact information regarding his distribution An officer and strength. a very capable officer with plenty of initiative. followed us. at a Polish landowner's house. and ! had a very disturbed time. The four remaining squadrons of the leading regiment." An Liaison officers from neighbouring divisions.m. An officer and five men from each of the four regiments " " of the division. and two men from each regiment and the officers artillery of the division as orderlies. officers of the staff of the division are : Chief of Colonel Westphalen. one furnishing patrols and the other an advance party. hostess.September -October. most of which had been sent by Polish emigrants from America. who is also in charge of officer in officer interpreter. Captain of General Staff. flying post. Commandant of the Staff. These battle patrols are sent out im- mediately before an action when the enemy is only five versts off. Important messages are sent by the ordinary ones by the men. Two officers attached to the General Staff. a nice old lady with a comforting admiration England. The General Staff Captain . The officials are getting no salaries and the pensioners receive no pensions I occupied a room with Cantacuzene last night. One of these was at the Academy when war broke out. 1914 On the 107 march we had two squadrons in front. with a battery. An A the " charge of administration. She told me that the Russian Government had seized in the municipal funds all the balances and in the private banks. The Staff. She doubts the fulfilment of Russia's promises to Poland. as he has just recovered from a serious illness. who is aged forty-nine and looks more.

1914-1917 only brought orders from the Corps Staff at 2 a. 1914. Solets. were being written in the General's room next door. then there was much consultation while the divisional orders . September 22nd.m. 5th protect their right rear. Turkistan Cossack Brigade.m. patrols with battle and orderlies to carry out a short reconnaissance towards the Vistula. 8th Cavalry Division. Corps Commander. A cannonade was audible all morning from a south-easterly direction. The Austrians beyond the river are thought to be only Landwehr. Vistula). To move 23rd. Till the 4th and 5th Don Cossack Divisions have up. The 4th and 5th Don Cossacks will I4th. Our patrols are going as far as the Vistula. The position of our forces I4th Cavalry Division. The for and 8th Divisions have been detailed the southern raid. Billets.m. north-west to Myekhov. Billets. Moving 23rd. Billets. Busk.io8 With the Russian Army. his The Divisional Commander and They left again two General Staff Officers returned at i a. STOPNITSA. north-east of Stopnitsa. from a conference with the at 10 a. at a distance of about twenty-five versts from ^ Tuesday. now (morning Billets in of 22nd) is : Stopnitsa. north-west to Naglovitse. Korchin. Heaven only knows what they had to talk about ! To-night the 5th Division is on our left on the Vistula and the 8th on our right. Patrols to line neighbourhood of Korchin-Brjesko (on 5th Cavalry Division. Then the telephone which connects the divisional staff with the four regiments went continuously the whole night in the room on the other side. The enemy has a bridgehead south-east by south Stopnitsa. the task of reconnoitring west will fall come to the Turkistan .

. The former headquarters at Naglovitse (north-west of the will reconnoitre towards the line Lansberg-Sosnitse latter will continue the reconnaissance line from Sosnitse by Bendin to Krakau. The German lance is a few inches shorter. 109 have Andreev) and will . Every trooper in the Russian cavalry Officers ascribe the would now carry a lance if he were allowed. On nikov receipt of corps or calls up orders.September -October. a discovery which much pleased the Russians. The hour of start only is communicated to units or brigades by telephone. a front of upwards of three hundred miles for thirty-six squadrons. Captain Shapojthe orderly officers and dictates the divi- army which are then carried by the officers to units. Poland at the beginning discarded. of the war. Orders are never written before an sional orders. 1914 Brigade and the 5th Division. left unwillingness of the Austrian cavalry to meet the Russian cavalry to the absence in the former of the lance. The I4th Division say they have not yet had a man wounded by it. It is also laid down where and when they shall send in periodical reports. engagement against cavalry. German Uhlans carried pennons in West . but these were soon The Austrian carbine is poor. and fired to-day on our patrols from the southern bank of the Vistula. The Austrians have burnt the wooden bridge tempora arily erected north of Szczucin. The three squadrons of the i4th Division sent out yesterday morning were to deploy on the front Korchin-Pinchov and wheel to the to the Vistula on the line Korchin-Brjesko. The Russian cavalry practically follows the same tactics in reconnaissance as the German it rides to kill any hostile patrol cavalry is supposed to it meets. Officers in charge of patrols receive detailed instructions on the area to be reconnoitred and the subjects on which a report is required.

sale. We We rode in a cold wind over the most dreadful roads I have ever seen. after saying good-bye to and thanking our hosts of the last two days." ! 200 or Polish partisans not a very exciting affair got to a comfortable house at Zlota at 9. lost me some sandwiches. The excuse was. and some officers used the three. .versts map with hashured hill features. which is ten-verst is not on seems good. ZLOTA. for which I was heartily The Russians are far too kind-hearted. One son is married to an Orthodox girl and the other to a Catholic the girl is married to a Mohammedan. that such were found in which their ' maps had been left in the second-line transport. About ninety of them .m. Wednesday. September 2$rd.30 a. got up at 6. The The two-verst map.. and then wheeled left (south) in two columns and came into action against some " sokols. The supply of the two-verst map was not always a poor sufficient. generally in their hats. I should certainly have seized one of the local inhabitants and have made him come with me to show me the way. We had been practically fourteen hours out. Luckily Maxim We had made thankful. of course. He and his children are Lutherans. 1914-1917 The divisional medical officer tells me he has two sons and a daughter. 1914. and if I anything to do with it. Officers carry their maps maps are never mounted. Officers in command of " battle patrols repeatedly to be without maps of the district task lay. to Vislitza.45. of the I4th Division has received Each regiment 203 riding remounts since the war began. These were furnished by the reserve squadron. We our way had had several times on our return journey.m. and left at 8 a. The inaccurate and indistinct. even in Russia.no With the Russian Army.

Someone asked : " which side was that will win. and they are so soft that many of them have fallen out of the ranks already." " ours. The youth bore himself well and without bombast. the side In our skirmish with the Sokols this evening we burned the Charkov Manor House. young Count Palovski. The divisional doctor showed me the return of killed and wounded for the last month August I3th to September I3th in which the division had been continuously employed on essentially legitimate cavalry duties. One said Our win.200." and the other agreed. He was driven off under escort to Busk. but it was clear that he had harboured the Sokols till our arrival. This out of a total of 5. and his agent were brought in a country cart to where we stood. His elder brother is an Austrian subject and an officer in an Austrian cavalry regiment. and local evidence marked him out as their chief organiser. Others had been prepared for the six new cavalry regi- was proposed to raise this year. wounded 7. wounded killed o. a fine old chateau. who looked a cultured gentleman and rather a contrast to some of those crowding round him. ments which it : : 130. Most of these animals have been little trained. They have estates in Lithuania and a palace at Krakau. Another brother served as a short-time volunteer in the very regiment that he was captured by to-day." and both said " : Why. Officers Rank and file killed 32. . Two Jews side will were discussing the war.September -October. looking round every now and again at his burning home. 1914 in were the annual batch of remounts due a few months later. sick horses are every day replaced during the march by changing them for fit ones requisitioned on receipts from the civilian owners. I was sorry for the boy. Its owner. Apart from this. He had doubtless remained in his home in the hope that it might be spared.

It roughly located the enemy's trenches and had no casualties because it was opposed to irregulars. " battle was in by Captain Shapojnikov while the ' progress. In the latter case we may expect a hostile offensive here. is Brjesko. Verbal orders issued at midday allotted the brigades to The orders for the outposts were written rapidly villages. 1914-1917 saw to-day did not impress me. September 24th. only be opposed by 200 Sokols. we might have allowed one brigade to march straight to bivouac. is unlikely. 3 p.m. 1914 ZLOTA. I still very sorry for the Poles.ii2 With the Russian Army. there and the Pontoon Brigade to reconnoitre at It was reported that an Austrian battalion is I think. it would have quickly found the enemy's flanks and forced him to retire from his trenches and cut him up when application of the lava formation I retiring. hope we will cross. Captain Shapojnikov left at with a squadron and an officer of either destroying or building a bridge. had a very comfortable night at Count Veselovski's. If armed Sokols come they say they are powerless to resist them and the Russian troops hold them responsible. so as to weaken resistance to the gth Army and hasten its advance on Krakau. At I am . These poor people don't know whether to stay or to try to get away. I Thursday. an excellent supper and actually a bath in the morning. We heard to-day that Plehve has taken Jaroslau and so Przemysl is cut off from direct railway communication with Krakau. A squadron simply advanced in open order and when fired upon retired. The The orders for the march which were issued on the previous evening indicated the rayon of the bivouac. but this. If the other brigade had sent forward one regiment in lava formation. The tactics of the day seemed As we had previous information that we would feeble.

Glorious day. 1914 113 tea to-day the old lady of the house asked me who a very young officer at the table was. started at 9 a.m. a hunter." that he had bought ' We from our host for Rs. Their house was surrounded and both men wounded. and shuddered when I told She said that ten days ago at his estate in the neighbourhood her brother had fallen down dead from heart disease while giving a shawl to a Cossack who asked for a disguise. was shot dead by a Cossack. hard lines. as the horse " We some puller. I hope the settlement will bring this much-tried nation relief.September -October. In 1863 her grandfather and father had taken part in the Partisan movement. for Rs. after saying good-bye. The officers do not seem to understand that this spoils discipline. She told the Commandant of the Staff. Her grandmother. and that further north they have occupied Novoradomsk. I Friday. Rode " south to Dobyeslavitse. The poor woman ! horrified at the all..40o and was at once willing to sell He was evidently a confirmed got no offers over Rs. 1914. yesterday that her house was to be is is her he was a Cossack." It 5 p.75o." lunched in the house of a Polish landowner who had At lunch the General received information from the Corps that the Germans are advancing in two large groups based on Chenstokhov and Bendin. September 2$lh.300. thirsty Cornet who was always thirsting for the blood of the Boche) " rode on an Irish horse. fine old engravings. after there on their boots. no mat to clean them on orderlies carry in She complained to-day bitterly of the theft of apples by the men from a Jew who had bought the contents of her orchards. an old lady of eighty. but fancy nothing will come of it. mud the is but. Our hostess told me that she only heard at " invaded. WOODMAN'S HUT FIVE KILOMETRES SOUTH OF PINCHOV. but this cannot be helped. H . We are ordered to move north in the direction of Pinchov.m. The Blood(as we had christened a young officer.

Soon the Bloodthirsty Cornet returned to tell us that a German trooper had been wounded and captured. At 8 p. He carried his sword and helmet had was said he could not speak very well. but galloped straight at for nine Germans. the Turkistan Brigade on the the Caucasian Cavalry Division under General Charpentier. He did not hesitate. The Captain in comhis in the mouth. We will move north to-morrow with right and north of it. We had marched twentyfive versts in the morning. Rotmeister Nikolaev. stumbled on to the top of the German patrol to-day.30 p. and started at 3. He accounted It was fine evidence of the cavalry he had hesitated for a moment the patrol would probably have turned the tables on him. which was to have been carried out to-night. or at any rate would have got away.H4 With the Russian Army. pack-horses and all. in triumph. who was marching by the centre road with the pack transport. knocking us.m. We patrol on a connecting file of our were all halted in a hollow at the it The General ordered a squadron forward. spirit.m. Our task will be now to delay the German advance on Warsaw till an army in rear concentrates. division The moved in We in advance of the left brigade. as he been wounded by a lance in the mouth ! He An officer's patrol came in to say that the 8th Division in action against infantry near Myekhov. and streamed out in lava formation. shots were fired by men time. We reached a farmhouse at n p. a brigade rode on either flank and the transport in the centre. 1914-1917 and have to abandon the idea of crossing the Vistula. He lay all night on a sofa of the dining-room house we occupied and glared at The second . but there is little chance of seeing our transport to-night. teeth out..m. to march thirty-five more in exactly the opposite direction. for if it. All the wounded and killed in the skirmish were mand of the got a horrid by the wound lance. three parallel columns. of a German advanced guard.

It belonged to the Guard Dragoon Regiment. the room crowded with single flickering candle. I slept about three hours. and rode through Pinchov.'s and a few of the men are questioned Officers separately and their answers are compared. I rode into the town with Pinchov is . stated that the patrol had been despatched two days previously from one hour west of Myekhov. a and the prisoners. Only N. September 26th. men march south He did not reckon on us returning so quickly." unforgettable scene. Saturday. The roads here are sunken and conceal troop movements. one of the regiments of the Division. brought to the proper frame of mind.September -October. when ' his eyes are bound to fill with tears. otherwise he will be sent back as a tells lies we prisoner of war to Central Russia and will have a good time. His method is to tell the man that if he are in a position to disprove them. are not questioned. Maxim arrived at YASENN. about 3 a. the workman's hut with the transport Left at 9 a. Six VERSTS SOUTH-EAST OF ANDREEV. the peace station of the I4th Uhlans. and that he will be at once shot . the Russian theory being that the officer is a man of honour and must not be insulted by being pressed country.m. and we altogether killed or captured twenty-three out of twenty-six in the patrol.O. 1914 officer 115 was killed.O. The Commander's diary showed that he had seen us in the morning. The young lieutenant who acts as interpreter was quite efficient in extracting information from a captured German N. The collecting-point for reports was a village fifteen versts south-west of our present billet. to give information against his own The wounded N.C.m.O.G. and this point was occupied by infantry.C. and he is It was an officers. He then asks if the man has a wife and children. 1914.

They can only give us four rooms. army corps only. crossing the Nida at Motkovitse to Yasenn. I asked him what he had done. we should have some fun. The 8th Division is believed to be near Vodzislav their and the 5th near Myekhov. and was unarmed. asked me to recommend him for a St. but got away. comthe Guard and the IVth Corps. and later. energy. line. One of the Don Cossack divisions forced marches to-morrow at Kyeltsi to assist Loginov left. it is believed. from Vloshchova. He " " I yelled said Hurrah ' ' : ! . Their drawing-room is full of flowers it will look different to-morrow morning. though it we sent two im- squadrons after a pity. for this may spoil the pression of yesterday. He got me cigarettes through a friendly Jew and a meal in the town. A German patrol was sighted by one of our flank patrols as we crossed the Nida. He said it made a curious impression to ride in war through a wood where he had so often gathered mushrooms with his wife." as Shapojnikov says.n6 With the Russian Army. We rode on. where we stopped in a small country house inhabited by a bevy of women. George's Cross on account of the skirmish yesterday. seems the natural Maxim. 1914-1917 Staff Rotmeister Plotnikov. officers. was pushed back from Konetspol. Yesterday Loginov. south-east of Andreev. As he was on a cart with the centre column. with the Turkistan Cossack Brigade reconnoitring on too wide a front. and we are eighteen . with its marshy valley. but without arrives commanders are much by . The Nida. my civilian servant. the other will probably go on to the extreme Our role is to delay. and he was delighted to be once more in familiar surroundings. the Commander of the battle patrol furnished by that regiment. The Corps Staff estimates the front Ghenstokhov-Bendin at an German strength on the posed of reserve units of " If we can destroy their cavalry and so blind them.

The 4th Army is retiring to Ivangorod. probably against the flank of the gth Army. Sunday. but she could not get . but cloudy afternoon. 1914 Fine morning. Mean- while we have only a brigade of the 79th Division at Ivangorod and another brigade of the same division is The Staff of the Cavalry retiring north along the Vistula. The 5th Don Cossack Division arrives at Kyeltsi to-day. The old lady said she would like to leave. I am parthe only male of ticularly sorry for them. as the father the establishment is practically an imbecile. They had no idea till they While I heard the I firing that the Prussians were anywhere near. A column of his cavalry which was trying to get through to Andreev was thrown back by two of our squadrons last night.m. Vodzislav .e. The Turkistan Brigade has re-taken Vloshchova. Three railway bridges north-east and west and south-west of Andreev were destroyed this morning. the that two infantry regiments are advancing on the bulk of the Germans seem to be moving Naglovitse states . hope their nice garden and place escapes in the fighting that will probably take place to-morrow. They have this year's recruits in the ranks. was writing the above a cannonade started north-west of Andreev..September -October. accompanied by machine-gun fire. The enemy's infantry is five versts from Andreev from YASENN. Agent's information received at 10 a. generally on a radius of thirtyright to left west of Vlosh- chova-Shchekotsini-Jarnovets-Myekhov. i. who looked quite terrified. south-east towards Myekhov. 117 Frost last night. the 5th to Skalbmyer] . September 2jth. but it is doubtful. 4th Don Cossack Division may arrive at Busk to-day. Corps moves to Motkovitse on the river Nida south-east of Andreev to-day. SOUTH-EAST OF ANDREEV. The the 8th Division to I4th Division is to go to Andreev . 1914. We said good-bye to our hostess and her six daughters.

m. I had my first experience of the moral effect of gunThe enemy gunners were evidently attracted by the fire. 1914. Cantacuzene and I put up in the drawing-room I on a glorious sofa. as the C. Gurski. The Corps Staff is here as well. and he had been forced to retire. There is a long score to pay against Germany. We rode about a mile towards Andreev and remained there for the day. Monday. target offered by the Staff with orderlies and horses on the We had a hot see. 1914-1917 her money from the bank. Then we rode on to Motkovitse. . so had to cling to her little place. which was five versts from the Staff Headquarters and covered an arc of twelve versts. We " " bite the enemy.u8 With the Russian Army. We rode north-west towards Andreev through the outpost line of the night before.m. and opened fire with shrapnel. a splendid one.A. Then first one and then the other of our batteries came into action and the Germans ceased fire. The German guns fired deliberately at the Catholic church in Andreev and set it on fire. who has migrated to Warsaw while the war lasts. where she could be always certain of a livelihood by selling the apples from her orchards. with room for all of To-morrow should be an interesting day.. expressed advanced to it. the estate of M. A good breakfast and start at 6 a. The General. We got bread and cheese at a farmhouse at 2 p.R. A comfortable night on the sofa in M. In general the arrangement was : 1st Brigade right of the chaussee and 2nd Brigade left. It was is interesting to-day.m. September 28th. Gurski 's house at Motkovitse. then rode back to our hosts of the night before to dine at 6 p. company of cyclists but the house us. KHMYELNIK. with the Frontier Guard in the centre. but fog prevented us from seeing properly. An officer of Hussars told me that the fighting had started with an attack by a and two squadrons of cavalry on his piquet (a troop strong).

position of the day. strength on his right flank. within 1. covered by a scattered line of dismounted cavalrymen about two hundred yards in advance. Suddenly on the chaussee from the direction of all It developed with extraordinary rapidity along our short front.500 yards. Erdeli told him not to be excited but We went back to the main to go back and hold on." Few shells got the range. it eventually withdrew with a loss of only three wounded Our other battery came into action on the right of the road as if ! one ready for the enemy. Presently his guns came into action against our battery. However. A Frontier Guard orderly galloped up to ask for leave to retire as his squadron was in a dangerous position. He was without much effect. There was a short pause while the enemy no doubt detailed a column to move against us. and it seemed nothing could live under his fire.September-October. through our glasses the disorder in his column. one of which was badly wounded. when one of our batteries opened We could see fire from a covered position on our right. where the eight guns were brought into position north-west of the edge of a thick wood. This was our surprise we had withdrawing north-east by the chaussee to Kyeltsi. " unhealthy. The batteries had remained in action till the enemy's guns were to help. for he obviously could not continue his processional march along the chaussee to Kyeltsi and Radom with an enemy force of unknown rifle-fire we heard Andreev. asleep behind their shields saw the gunners two minutes before I actually fire opened. When. Casualties were again trifling. ten minutes later. the place became reached us two hundred yards further at the other side of the wood. The calmness of the Russians is wonderful. When the battery retired a captain of the Frontier Guard galloped up to say He took that one of the gun teams had been destroyed. minutes. A group of men carried a dead comrade. The . was the enemy's guns had men back and presently a gun came slowly down the road drawn by two horses. but the din was appalling. 1914 time for five 119 .

and was drawn into a combat with us in which he covered only twelve versts from Andreev to Motkovitse instead of the normal twenty versts' march. We missing. dismounted men to dispute the passage of the river. rifle- We stopped at Kai to write orders for the halt. and then rode the twelve versts to Khmyelnik at a walk. was prevented from marching to Kyeltsi. and six This was the second and the main position of the day. wounded and The bulk of them are Frontier Guard. Opposite to the entrance to the house we slept in last night at Motkovitse a Jew was hanging from a tree by the His cap was on his head. We then trotted back four versts through Motkovitse and over the Nida. 1914-1917 eight guns lost one man killed and six horses killed and twelve wounded. He will have to repair the bridges at Motkovitse or else return to Andreev. Our outpost line is on the edge of a wood about five versts west of Khmyelnik. lost . whose strength estimated at one brigade of infantry. as he evidently wished. and as we trotted rapidly past in the drifting rain I did not see the rope. The enemy's cyclists arrived too late to prevent the had prepared long lines of destruction of the bridge. wounded. As I roadside. He had been slung up by the Corps Staff for espionage. as a preliminary to a move north-east or south-east to find another crossing for his guns. where two bridges were prepared with straw and explosives for destruction. but the We enemy had probably had enough. * The net result of our action to-day is that the is enemy.120 With the Russian Army. have about sixty men killed. one regiment of cavalry and two six-gun batteries of artillery. A line of men had been told to hold on to the approach to Motkovitse till all that were in front had gone through. and was astonished to see a Jew who did not salute. and a few gun and shots ended the day. looked again I saw that his feet were some inches from the ground.

The German infantry advanced resolutely and the artillery shooting was good. particularly difficult for cavalry. as great. We started at nine and rode north-west to Petrokovitse. known. must have been very slackly blown up ! They Three reports received between 12. their horseholders came back without them. September 29^. strong wind and many showers.000 yards off. OTSYESENKI. for the thick to ride through comfortably with Erdeli was coolness itself. our rifle-fire can have caused him little damage. and that he had repaired the bridges by morning. confirmed the fact that the enemy was continuing his advance on Khmyelnik. where we awaited result of reconnaisance. completing a march of forty versts in all on . Khmyelnik and slept comThe weather throughout the day was awful fortably. 1914. for our lines had to commence retirement when his firing-line was over 1.30 and i p. It is said that they were destroyed by machine-gun fire. receiving reports and direct- ing the action with the utmost calm. the other On The terrain was woods were too the lance." but on what line. The German losses must be columns.September-October. for our guns got into their advancing hand.m. No news from Our task is "to delay the enemy's advance till October ist. PRIEST'S HOUSE. We had heard that the enemy had moved his outposts and five companies of infantry over the Nida late last night. Kyeltsi. got a good dinner at We ' Tuesday. 1914 sotnia of which 121 position after was left behind in the first the German infantry advance. when the 4th Army will be ready. it is not Staff The Corps here at Khmyelnik. At any rate. General situation : The 8th Cavalry Division is is said to be east of Pinchov and the 5th at Busk. We rode east in two columns to Otsyesenki.

30 last night. This was said quite naturally. south-east of in the neighbourhood of we would come out between Ostrovets and Opatov. September ^oth. It looks as if is Gnoino.. The 8th Division has moved north to Rakov and 5th Division is at and east of Stopnitsa.30 p. awful roads. LAGOV. rode through beautiful scenery to Lagov.m. move generally The Corps Staff is at Stashoy.122 With the Russian Army. one other man in a German patrol. The 8th Division is at Khmyelnik.. The Russians are extraordinarily good to their prisoners. 1914-1917 arrived at Otsyesenki at 8. . giving and bread that they are in want of themselves. and it was a pleasant surprise to find our baggage arrived and won't. without the slightest straining for A piquet to-day took two prisoners and killed effect. of the PRIEST'S HOUSE.m. 1914. things ready for us at the priest's house. however. The 8th Division had left three squadrons. two guns Kyeltsi. away tea Khmyelnik is now occupied by the outposts German column from Andreev Wednesday. His patrol of eleven men had killed two and taken three. We We rested this morning and only resumed our retreat at 3 p. the priest blessing us as we left. get dinner till p. He announced the fact by saying that he had had a slight unpleasantness. Last night while we were at dinner a Cossack officer brought in three prisoners. and the 5th Stopnitsa. but it No news from and two machine-guns to hold the passage at Pinchov. I understood that we are to continue to in a north-easterly direction.m. We We n seems probable that the Turkistan Brigade and the 5th Don Gossack Division have retired from there. due east the (nine versts only). but this was forced by the enemy's infantry at 11.

He ran advancing very great risk. October ist. ZVOLYA-SARNYA. the right about Busk. The 4th Don Cossack Division is north-east of Kyeltsi. On one occasion. are in three groups the northern at Kyeltsi. His sanitary arrangements are respectable. the : The Germans Turkistan Brigade with the 5th Don Cossack Division is east of Kyeltsi. He looks like a benevolent professor instead of a wild Cossack." asleep. 1914. and he has a stomach between two the and wears spectacles. house. We put up at a small farm- The division is armed with (lighter) type. and rode fifteen versts north-east to Zvolya-Sarnya by a pretty mountain road. moving to-day north-east to Ivaniska. the 5th at Stashov the Corps Staff . The Germans have the Xlth and XXth active Corps and the Guard Reserve Corps. of which he had carried out columns. FARMHOUSE. with the loss of two men only. he stumbled through the German outposts and came on a house in which a number of them were fast did not know his way did nothing. ONTARIO .September. new go with the advanced guard or rearguard. e. which is wonderful in Poland. He ' Thursday. the I4th Cavalry Division is at Lagov^ the 8th is at Rakov. selecting a position to delay a column that is reported to be advancing from is Kyeltsi in this direction. Erdeli spoke some winged words. This class of officer spoils for he saw no shoulder-straps. 1914 a two-days' 123 A Cossack squadron commander returned to-night from reconnaissance. They eight Maxims of the are used in pairs. Slept comfortably at the priest's house at Lagov." The information he brought amounts to nothing. in a village at midnight.g. " good men. The General examined the ground. the centre at Khmyelnik.October. We started at 2 p.. as he back. but has returned through a miracle.m.

who were told to hold on "as long as they could. With artillery that cannot fire at a much shorter range than 3. Friday. The squadron moves. one of which is generally commanded by an officer and the other two by N. VASNEV. " is carried out at the direction of the brigade naissance commanders to a distance of fifteen versts. Both batteries deployed in a field on the ground on the right of the road. The patrols may move another ten versts. and that was generally before the enemy's infantry reached 1. on the left.'s.000 yards' range. 147 men. of forty versts if not held Special officers' patrols are sent out to search sections " Close reconbetween the reconnoitring squadrons. October 2nd.124 With the Russian Army. The ground. 1914-1917 The strength 996 of the cavalry regiment is 44 officers and men . and the 2nd Brigade a similar position corps commander to delay the The ist Brigade as he debouched from the hills. 1914.O." I asked an officer what this meant in the case of dismounted cavalry as opposed to infantry. was hopeless as we occupied our it in the early morning. Generally three reconnoitring squadrons are out at a Each is given a strip of country. and he said that it meant that they should go before the horse-holders were in danger.15 on a dreadful morning cold wind and torrents of rain to ride west to Novaya Slunya. We started at 6.000 yards no ground was visible to more than 1. say thirty versts. some four hundred yards apart. PRIEST'S HOUSE. where we had been ordered by the enemy took up a position in readiness on the right of the OpatovNovaya Slunya road facing west. say eight to ten time. so the whole squadron searches to a distance up. A farmhouse on the extreme left was occupied by a dismounted squadron of Cossacks.000 yards. versts wide. of the squadron. owing to the for . Erdeli and his staff rode to a hut on the left flank some 400 yards in advance of the batteries. and sends out three patrols. purposes.C.

The position we would have had to occupy to-day was bad. for all the ground over which the enemy was expected to advance commanded that by which we should eventually have had to retreat. which had been sent east. was called back. They are always anxious that I should have all I can at Vasnev. We moved off at once and took up a flanking position to oppose the advance of this column. due north of where we were. and with a road to Vasnev. in which our eight guns are opposed to superior strength. I sober Polish peasant. bread. where we had arranged to sleep.15 received a message (with no time noted on it) we that a column of all arms was entering Khibitse. put up at the house of the priest. Two officers in command of reconnoitring parties reported enemy had entered Khibitse. He was a good type of the sturdy. but were cursed by the General because they had not waited to see whether he moved on. sending out battle patrols to ascertain whether the enemy had stopped for the night at Khibitse. hope . Finally it was decided that we should spend the night that the from the enemy's infantry. or was moving on. The cottage we spent the day in belonged to an old man of eighty-five. who had forgotten how many children he had had seven or eight. 1914 fog. and we had a scratch meal of ham. and the We transport. The kindness of the Russians is wonderful.September -October. To-morrow we should get behind our infantry. they are ready to wake up the Germans. and if so by what roads. 125 There is a feeling among officers that their attempts to delay infantry advances are futile. who entertained us with the best he had. butter and wine. six miles possibly require before they think of themselves. The dismounted cavalry hardly waits to exchange shots and the action resolves itself into an artillery duel. At 4. It cleared at twelve and we waited till at length a report came through that the column whose coming we awaited had turned off south towards Opatov.

October $rd. and occupied a strong position east of German The Germans soon appeared and moved in thick columns down the opposite slope to occupy Vasnev.A. west to the left We slept Vasnev. We rode rapidly through Ostrovets. not.R.126 With the Russian Army. but the depth of the sand made our at C. The three Cossack Divisions.20) that Kunov was occupied by infantry. The retreat is back from Rudniki. At Yanov we put up at a pleasant country house that . for the whole east side of the long village in which we were was crowded with horses and men in which the the Germans did not the shots were short. which fell short.m. and an hour after we had received a message (despatched 10.30 a. for the enemy's cyclists had been sighted very near the town. continued. 4th and 5th Don and the Ural (Kaufmann) have moved north and . to Syenno.'s heart bleed for his horses. flank of the enemy's Kyeltsi group. 1914.three versts north-east of Ostrovets. there being a wide interval between the left of the Kyeltsi group and the right of the German group further north. It was pleasant riding. but will probably spend the night south-east of that. and It is as well that they did would have created a panic. though our outposts must have been in touch with the outposts at Khibitse. We started at 8. quietly. cavalry and cyclists and that the latter were moving first shell towards Ostrovets. the 8th Division is ordered Saturday. They Our left battery fired fired a single shot. but all reply. The road lay through woods for the most part of the way. we stopped while the general dictated orders for the bivouac Yanov. twenty. when Vasnev had been already occupied by the enemy. No men were actually extended in the firing-line. but probably will not reach it the 5th Division from Midlov to Ostrovets. 1914-1917 COUNTRY HOUSE AT YANOV (NORTH-EAST OF OSTROVETS). where it spent last night. for a considerable time. our line of retreat. Clear of the town. We moved off at twelve.

I4th Cavalry Divisions) is to move north-east to Ivangorod and then to Warsaw. The I4th Cavalry Division with headquarters at . 1914 127 was well known to the I4th Division in its wanderings last month. It was rather a blow to hear that the 4th Army is only crossing at Nova Alexandriya and Yuzefov. where it will take part in the operations towards the west. Barley I only given when no had some conversation with Shapojnikov about The District Staff is in peace mainly Intelligence. In any case. it is said that the 4th and 9th Armies will both be across by the 6th. that we would see the New Year in in Petrograd. We heard to-day that the Commander-m-Ghief sent his thanks for the action near Andreev. The Guard Rifle Brigade and the Independent Guard Cavalry Brigade are at Opatov. and the corps (5th. 8th.September-October. one at Sandomir by fire-ships sent down by the Austrians and the others at Zavikhost and Annopol by flood. The Russian Peace io| - horse-rations are as follows : Ibs. hay. who was wounded. oats. Everyone is very confident that the war will be over in two months. straw War 14! is 4 oats are available. The 9th Army's crossing has been delayed by the destruction of bridges. and the battery commander. but the General Staff of each cavalry division in peace also works at it. The two Don Cossack divisions have been taken from the corps. 4 Ibs. Still. Erdeli said as we rode along to-day. io| 15 Ibs. has been awarded the gold sword. responsible for the collection of intelligence. if they do not cross they will certainly be able to stop the enemy on the Vistula. It will be a very near thing if they are in time.

never trusts him entirely and only tells him approximately where the division may be on a certain date. naturally is Shapojnikov." laid by the with divisional headquarters (a distance of about twenty versts).5o for each He was most valuable against the Austrians.128 With the Russian Army. working. The divisional commander calls out : . but trip. and they are now well in the enemy's rear. consulted continually by the General and he picked up to-day a band of 200 Don Cossacks who had been trying for nine days to join the 4th Don Cossack Division. The squadron in turn sends out two reconnoitring patrols. Generally three reconnoitring squadrons have a single collecting pivot for " information and this is connected by Flying Post. as his junior. Each squadron remains out " till further orders. Two of them have been out for five days. never. the Chief feels his position. The headquarters of each squadron " with the collecting connects by its own Flying Post division. We They are chiefly young men who had been excused service previously on account of family reasons.40 to Rs. is a Polish He received Rs. " on their own ' The method patrols is of sending out the battle reconnoitring this. who and drives about in a cart. Headquarters of squadrons are at about ten to twelve versts from the collecting pivot. Poor Colonel Westphalen. He changes Yet S his disguise continually.ioo of Staff. finds work more difficult against the Germans. reservist for German work and another is still One agent." and these orders are sent by Flying Post. 1914-1917 Chenstokhov had an agent for Austrian." There has been no possibility of communicating with two of the squadrons mentioned " above for three days. There are at present four reconnoitring squadrons out. Before the attack on Sandomir he brought exact information of the units and number of guns in the garrison. for his first task and now gets Rs. ' pivot.

I . a native of East Prussia. October ^th. He started with twenty-four men sixteen troopers and eight Cossacks. march east sixteen versts on the to My throat was hurting me and pretty rotten. was brought in. Sunday.30. He surprised the enemy's picquet of thirty-two men and killed or slept) burned (for he set fire to the enclosure where they twenty-eight and took one prisoner* As information came in at the same time that the us. the enemy's infantry had come close to to retire. burned. of 1st (or 2nd) Brigade for duty/* ' explains the task verbally and the officer gallops off Follow me the Uhlan (or Hussar or Dragoon calling out There are two battle R. It was not ready till and I turned in u at 10. tired to death. we were turned out and had in a torrent of rain to Soleika top of the thirty-five Volya we had done in the day.September-October. two orderly and two men) similarly for each FARMHOUSE > SITSINA. the prisoner. a boy of seventeen.P/s or Cossack) Battle R. At i a. Cantacuzene remarking that we would remember this against the Germans in the peace negotiations. While we were waiting for our baggage to get ahead. I felt as regimental paymaster. General decided We tumbled out of bed. He heard from local inhabitants that there was a picquet or reconnoitring party of the enemy two versts outside our outpost line and got leave to take a party to attack them.P. to gain some special war honour. who has been acting for the past year cornet. He was trembling and. as his friend told me. Last night was the second night that I was too tired to wait for supper." : for each brigade (one for each regiment) and parties (one officer brigade (one for each regiment). He had only joined five days before and it can be easily imagined the hell he must have lived through in this skirmish. as he said. 1914.P. 1914 " 129 Next battle R. We were disturbed owing to the ambitions of a young This youth.m.

m. which the I4th Divisional Staff proceeded to occupy for the The sixth time since the war started. matWe had a scratch tresses. the 5th Don Cossack Division fought a successful action. crossing had not been occupied and we arrived at 7. camp beds and on the floor. They can. meal at 12 noon and started at 2 p. The Germans burnt all the village this morning where their piquet was cut up last night. always retreat by Sandomir. The 8th Cavalry Division. It therefore looks as if the northern line of retreat of the 5th and 8th Divisions is cut off. Each day it is a different column. bearded Pole.30 p. was told by the Corps Staff to move to Syenno . Yesterday at Skarishev. but it was hard to sleep. his son and daughter listening with intense interest to all that was said the half-light of a flickering lamp. The I4th Division should and I believe does know the ground. our host. but there were sixteen officers in his drawing-room on sofas. at a large farmhouse at Sitsina.m. and the Guard Rifle Brigade which was at Opatov. however. I had our host's bed. a lot of good-natured The scene boy and sleepy Russians. chairs. 1914-1917 in the dining-room was striking this standing facing his enemies. marching sixteen versts over the crossing of a tributary of the Vistula by Tseplev to Sitsina. the Ural Cossack Divisions and the Turkistan Cossack Brigade. the heavy downpour and rough gusts of wind outside.130 With the Russian Army. which spent last night near Opatov. a handsome. south-east of Radom. back the enemy ten To-night again our outpost line will be in touch with his infantry outposts. and as we rode to our quarters to-night there was an enormous fire burning on the bank of the Vistula. and it is said that the 75th Division threw versts. At Soleika Volya we lay down for some hours. as we carry through our flank march to the north. There are apparently only two groups of Russian infantry west of the upper Vistula the 75th Division at Radom. which is in touch with the 4th and 5th Don Cossacks.

and the 5th Division from Midlov (south of Opatov) was told to move to Marushev. FARMHOUSE. In the latter part of September a civilian bakery was organised at Opatov to supply the Qth Army. When the regimental supply of tea. 1914 131 to-day. wherever possible purchased by squadron commanders and paid for in cash. though they received the meals often at unnecessarily of the I4th Division The men irregular times. On two occasions when it did not turn up. where Staff itself fired first The Corps was part of last night. and the safety of each division ultimately depend on the skill of its commander. It far these orders were on in Ossent orders to us to-day to hold Yanov. October tfh. south-east of Syenno. On these occasions fifty the kopeks are given to each he can I man and he purchases bread if When Government cattle are not available. It would be interesting to know how carried out. each squad- ron or battalion purchases meat locally. each army corps having its own. Black bread from this bakery was sent to the cavalry operating in south-west Poland. 1914. to the last. The situation has changed so rapidly owing to the rapid advance of the Germans that the corps has lost all power we spent the of co-ordinating will movement. is Bread as a rule supplied by Government bakeries. sugar and salt is exhausted it is replenished by the Intendance. the I4th Divisional Intendant purchased from local Jewish bakers and tributed to dis- For five regiments of the division. Forage is Monday. Similarly with cabbages. were well fed throughout. It was a lucky chance which prompted Erdeli to send a squadron and two machine-guns to Ostrovets from Vasnev . consecutive days the men of the etape company at Sandomir were without bread. LAGOV (EAST OF ZVOLEN). trovets.September-October.

132 With the Russian Army. The order was a remarkable one. The 75th Division Don Cossacks Divi- I said good-bye to my hostess and her little three-year-old daughter. We of his bed and generally upsetting We heard to-day that the Corps Staff had arrived at Novo." The 2nd Briposition gade was on the right of the chaitssee. Some of the Frontier Guard were thrown forward in the centre and the The two batteries. We it remained where we were left of guard the retreat very possible day at Sitsina to the 75th Division at Radom. where we took up a " to delay the German advance. Tuesday. for we had been informed by the Corps Staff the night before that the 2nd Rifle Brigade would be in Ostrovets." I thought that Zvolen might be occupied and our all " confined uncomfortably to the dreadful roads north-east from Sitsina. October 6th. and we started on our ride. the 5th sion was falling back north of Zvolen. was fine with almost a full moon. one on the ist Brigade was on the left. turning the poor landlord out his house. It was a relief to get on the good Radom-Novo Alexandriya It chaussee. one of which told us that Kunov was occupied by the enemy's cyclists. fifteen stopped for the night at Lagov. I went out for a walk at six. 1914. I heard him give the order when Shapojnikov came in with the reports that had been received in the night. after daylight NEAR Novo ALEXANDRIYA. Ostrovets was unoccupied and the cavalry only arrived a few minutes before the German cyclists and so were able to early ensure our passage six hours later. 1914-1917 * on the morning of the 3rd. As things turned out. Zvolen was not yet occupied.Alexandriya. and moved west to five and a half versts east of Zvolen. and for a wonder no wind. was falling back from Radom. and found everyone starting on my return. OSINI. about versts from the river. left We Lagov soon .

It rained incessantly all day a steady downpour but there was less wind than usual. The distance they versts. From about twelve on. The artillery did not fire. had covered was eighteen to twenty-one The enemy made no attempt to follow us . Erdeli was urged by his staff and by Colonel Sencha. as strongly as discipline would allow. Presently a patrol commander west of Zvolen reported that a company of cyclists with two squadrons of cavalry and some infantry were advancing and that he was There was some excitement retiring to the east of Zvolen. 133 and the other on the left. Once It was established on our flanks. He. At length. 1914 right of the chaussge single O.45. When we reached the bridge at Novo Alexandriya at 5 p.m. wanted to fire his guns and remained on in the hope of a target. caused by a glimpse of two squadrons on the edge of a wood three and a half versts off. as sure that they were not our own people. had a a wooden windmill on the left centre. we could not be clearly evident to everyone that the enemy was trying to work round our flanks . the whole of the ist Brigade was already there. he fired some shots. The got from the Corps Staff in the morning was to delay the enemy without allowing ourselves to become seriously engaged and to retire over the river into order which we bivouac east of Novo Alexandriya. We went off immediately afterwards. to retire. The 2nd was close at hand. with a crossing like the Vistula in rear this was a real danger. the enemy might have pierced our on automobiles and have front with his machine-guns pushed forward heavy guns to bombard the bridge. near which we took up our position. The brigade retired extraordinarily quickly and in perfect order. A report that a column of the enemy had turned north-east from Zvolen caused Erdeli to retire his right brigade three versts to another position. at the edge of a wood where there was thought to be infantry. we could hear rifle-shots in the village in front and on our left flank. however. at 1.September -October.P.

The Guard Corps is said to be at Yuzefov.134 With the Russian Army. it Will. If the German advance has failed strategically. at Lyublin. will corps it has fallen in the air and has failed. and has forward the Grenadier Corps to Novo Alexandriya The gth Army headquarters moved three days ago from Zolbnev to Krasnik. The Turkistan Cossack Brigade was from retiring east along the railway Radom to Ivangorod. The Grenadier Corps has one brigade in strong entrenchments west of the The corps is said to have arrived only three days river. north-east. ago. 1914-1917 probably because he was waiting for troops to come up from the rear. and touch anything vital ? It is thought that the enemy has the Guard Reserve Corps. morning when we took up our position east of Zvolenwas explained to me by Shapojnikov. in that case. which had spent the night at Polichna. If the blow has been struck with only four even if it does. The 5th Don Cossack Division. The Russians will hold the enemy in front with the 4th and gth Armies and will turn his left with a mass of cavalry thrown out on their right. the Russians were going to confine themselves for the present to the passive defensive on the It looks almost as if line of the upper Vistula. General Stegelman. with the 75th Division. north of Zvolen. was also retiring slowly Our division was on the extreme left. the German strength suffice to carry the offensive across the river. The 4th Army has headquarters thrown and the XVIth Corps to Ivangorod. accompanied by the 4th Don and the Ural Cossack Divisions. it has . and there is at all events one Austrian corps on his right. the XXth and Xlth Corps. had continued the retirement commenced on the morning of the 5th and had reached a line west and south-west of situation in the The Kozenitse.

m. north to Warsaw. I really believe these fellows were sorry that may n any rate. then rode eight versts through still pouring rain to the country house where we put up for the night. including tiny babies. I. Nothing had been heard of them for a week. was very sorry. but it is hoped that some of them may make their way back over other bridges. I had to wait five hours at the station at Novo-Alexandriya for a train. General Erdeli told me that the 2nd Army is in advance of 4th and Qth Armies are deployed The headquarters of the 4th Army All cavalry has been ordered to rest four days at Novo-Alexandriya and then to move by short marches Warsaw. It appears that the along the Vistula. The I4th Division had three reconnoitring squadrons still out when it crossed the river. to-day. At length I got a lift to Ivangorod and was lucky in getting on from there by a train which brought I left. WARSAW. Parents with their whole families. . at . huddled together with all their belongings in the long Polish carts and shivering in the cold and rain. 1914. Thursday. 1914 caused a lot of suffering. General Novikov was there with the requisite amount of cavalry swagger and moustache-pulling. We had a barbaric meal with long delays and hardly anything to drink but brandy. for I had made friends with them and felt at ease. October 8th. We dined at the same restaurant in Novo Alexandriya where I had dined two and a half years ago. me within three miles of Warsaw by 6. The people did not fly before the Austrian advance. are at Lyublin and of the Qth Army at Krasnik. in this theatre What I think will be the decisive battle begin in a week's time.30 a. cartloads of families It 135 see the was heartbreaking to east as moving we retired.m. I said good-bye to the I4th Division at a. yesterday and rode from our billets to the station at NovoAlexandriya.September-October.

of course. remained loyal long after many infantry divisions had succumbed. I therefore remained a couple of days in Warsaw to write a despatch and then returned to the Qth Army. and from this lack the Russian cause in general suffered. The division continued to do fine service till after the retreat from Poland ten months later. we marched thirteen days and halted two. There no doubt that the higher cavalry command lacked in many cases initiative and dash. or 280 miles an average of nearly twenty-two miles for each marching day. It was then allotted with other cavalry divisions to a passive sector of the Dvina between Dvinsk and Jacobstadt. and formed part of the column that was It sent to Petrograd in July> 1917. as in all armies.West Poland in the I autumn of 1914. This is what the staff rode. it was not the fault of the trooper or of his officers up to the rank of squadron leader. the nearer finds. In our marches we covered 424 versts.136 With the Russian Army. covered far more. for. I would like to have remained longer with the division or to have gone to an infantry that it division. however. for Erdeli was a fine divisional leader and Sencha a dashing brigadier. one gets to the front the better fellows one but I realised was my duty to go to some larger staff further in the rear whence I could get a wider view and obtain more accurate in- formation of the operations. The short time I spent with the I4th Cavalry Division left me with a whole-hearted admiration for the Russian cavalry soldier the Russian cavalry did not attain in the war the results that were hoped from its vast numerical fine staff of the a man well mounted. 1914-1917 AFTERNOTE Of the fifteen days I had spent with the I4th Cavalry Division. Erdeli was promoted to command the 2nd Guard Cavalry . This was. and the determination to push is through an enterprise to its logical conclusion regardless of loss. though I frequently came across officers that I had ridden with in South. not the case in the I4th Division. but the troops. If superiority over the enemy cavalry. and remained there for nearly two years. to quell the Bolshevik revolt. never met the I4th Division again.

and was killed at the head of his men in a grand charge on the Narev in August. and confined with the patriot Kornilov. I disagreed me that . he was given command of the right offensive army. he transferred to the command of an In the spring of 1917 he infantry division in the Carpathians. Poor Plotnikov. He was the same big handsome man. I never saw Sencha again. I often saw him then. 1917. was promoted to command the last XXXth Corps. who had ridden through Pinchov with me and had grown sentimental as we passed through the woods where he had gathered mushrooms with his wife. rolled in a trailing burkha. With his best to save the worked him he escaped and he has since fought in Southern Russia with Alexyeev. but was commencing to put on flesh. was shot through the heart a few months on reconnaissance. Talking over the days of 1914. but will always remember his fine. tiring of inaction. He was arrested in September. Poor Westphalen was appointed to the command of a regiment in the division. the nth. " martial figure. to the Emperor. 1915. and there I frequently saw him. he later while told he calculated that his Cavalry Corps had delayed the German advance on Warsaw no less than five days. Though an aristocrat and an A.D. in Galicia. and just before the Russian offensive in July. 1916. 1914 Division and passed 137 many months with it in the Pinsk marshes. Deniken and Wr angel. and I saw him there in February. accepting against his better judgment the crazy committee system.September -October. the dashing patrol-leader and fine horseman." He became chief of staff of a cavalry corps. he Russian army. Then. The Bolsheviks have now got the big German pistol to keep for him till the end of the war. He became he gave me later chief of staff of a his reputation Cossack cavalry division. He was a simple. General Novikov was appointed later to command the XLIIIrd Corps in the Riga bridgehead. Shapojnikov served for long in the Intelligence staff of the Western Front. He had a strange presentiment of his approaching death and had that morning ordered his kit to be packed and addressed to his wife. modest gentleman. He maintained everywhere as an especially able officer. 1917.G.

came to and after Chief of Staff some weeks of unemployment was appointed to an infantry division. carrying with him copies of the operation orders. but these were received too late. His division was an- nihilated in the disaster to the loth Army in February. General Novikov's Chief of Staff. 1 that he considered it his Colonel Dreyer. for it was already in action. 1914-1917 with him. for the enemy opposed to the i/jth Cavalry Division at all events marched fifteen versts a day regularly. grief. but he escaped. 1 See Chapter IV. Lechitski issued orders for the brigade to retire. Novikov told me that he had telegraphed to General Lechitski duty to warn him that the Guard Rifle Brigade was in a very dangerous position at Opatov.138 With the Russian Army. . 1915.

XVIIIth. on line Kreshov-Lezajsk-Sieniawa ON : . Illrd Caucasian. and men and horses were on short rations. which had consistently vetoed the construction of railways in the Government of Lyublin. AND V. They had out-marched their radius of supply. The Grodnapolicy had aimed at the formation of a Polish bastion ' : Osovets-Lomj a-Ostrolenka-Novo Georgievsk-I vangorod-LyublinKholm. 1914 REFERENCE MAPS Nos. .CHAPTER IV WITH THE IN SOUTH-WEST gin ARMY AND THE GUARD CORPS POLAND HINDENBURG'S FIRST OFFENSIVE AGAINST WARSAW. 4th Army (Ewarth). OCTOBER DECEMBER. They had had heavy losses and awaited reinforcements. . The line was continued to the south-east by the 3rd Army (Radko Dimitriev) and the 8th Army (Brusilov). and leaving the frontier beyond a 1 See Map No. on the line of the river Wistoka Guard Rifle Brigade. developing railway and road communications within this bastion to the utmost. III. on line Sieniawa-Jaroslau . XlXth. Vth and XVIIth.. September 2ist the Russian armies in Galicia lay as follows from right to left 1 gth Army (Lechitski). 5th Army (Plehve). Guard. XlVth Corps with XVIth Corps in reserve on the left. The Russian armies were now suffering from the policy of the Russian Govern" on strategical grounds ment. IV. 139 III. Grenadier. After reaching the San the Russians did not press the retreating Austrians with any vigour. XXVth.

The theatre had been prepared in peace for a defensive war . but was opposed by General Ivanov on It is said that the ground that his Intelligence showed the bulk of the Austrians to be concentrating south of PrzemysL The Russians had not yet learnt that the exact location of the Austrian concentration was only a minor matter and that the supreme factor in the Eastern theatre was the German railway system and the power it gave Hindenburg to concentrate superior German force suddenly and unexpectedly in any direction.G. owing to the crowded front. On September 22nd. the Commander-in-Chief of the South-West Front. Lechitski. Opatov. Zavikhost and to offer battle somewhere on the line safe to accept battle.O. the Supreme Command wished to withdraw a part of the forces to the north. regardless of all peace economic considerations. doubtful whether the Russians would have had time after the signalling of the German offensive to throw sufficient force across . 1914-1917 roadless glacis.140 With the Russian Army. far too many Russians had been thrown into Galicia. When it became evident to the Russian Command bulk of the enemy's forces were advancing from the line KrakauBendin-Chenstokhov and that a rapid change of front to the west had become necessary. One or two of the five armies should have been withdrawn either north or else thrown across the Vistula into south-west Poland to rest and refit on the railways. insisted on the whole wheel taking place in rear of the This was undoubtedly the safer course. wished to take his army across at Sandomir and it make Radom- Ivanov. the question arose whether it would be possible to effect this change in time to meet the German advance on the left bank of the Vistula and at a sufficient distance from that river to Qth Army. the G. On September information was received of the that the enemy advance in trans-Vistula-Poland. From the point of view of supply. it ill suited the Grand Duke's chivalrous wish to come as rapidly as possible to the aid of his Allies in the west. XVIth Corps received orders to to move The Guard was handed over by the 4th Army 23rd the first the gth Army. dier. for it is very Vistula. the Grenathe Illrd Caucasian and the north.

of Kyeltsi destroyed by the Germans.W. Cooking carts. S. 1914.30th September. [See page 170 . Lagov. 1014. Poland. T:>fce pnge 140] Railway bridge N. [See page 122 ?th November.

Western end of tunnel N. 1914. [Seepage 176 14th November. [See page 176 . 1914. Railway demolished near Myekhov. demolished by the Germans. of Myekhov.14th November.

as it turned out. 1914 141 the river to meet the enemy's advance at a safe distance. and further south was the 8oth Division. moved from Delsalle's left to his right when he heard that that flank was uncovered. that our retirement that day through Ostrovets would be secured by the 2nd Rifle Brigade. on October 4th.October-December. but there is also no doubt that Delsalle held on to his position dangerously long. and it entailed eventual heavy loss in forcing the passage of the Vistula in face of the enemy. had grave disadvantages. There was undoubtedly bad staff work. The course adopted. On its left was the 2nd Rifle Brigade. which. were attacked by overwhelming forces at 9 a. Rifle Brigade. It is said that General Delsalle. They retired at 3. however. in that division. on Sandomir and their large losses. with the idea apparently of delaying the enemy's advance. General Mannerheim. 25th the order was issued for the 9th and 5th Armies to follow the 4th in a general movement to the north. Though Lechitski was not allowed to carry out his idea in its entirety. The Guard blamed the staff of the 9th Army for the subsequent disaster. 9 guns and 21 machine-guns. however. 8. expected his the I4th Cavalry Division in the direction Guard to cover the right flank of the Rifles.m. wrongly.m. It necessitated the abandonment of all trans-Vistula Poland to the enemy. On September On that date. where supply arrangements were quite inadequate. he sent the Guard Rifle Brigade across the Vistula on September 30th to join the 2nd Rifle Brigade.000 rank and file. during the day retired to Sandomir. amounting to 100 officers. The Two regiments of the Guard Rifles lost about 80 per cent. with the Independent Cavalry Brigade of the Guard. it brought great hardship on the troops who had to retire over the few roads of the Lyublin Government.30 p. the commander of the right to be covered by So far from the I4th Division having been told of Ostrovets. On the morning of October 3rd the Guard Rifle Brigade was facing south-west at Opatov. we expected. were chiefly from gun-fire during the Rifles retreat. the gth Army occupied the same position as on the .

the Vth. and the men were . Guard Corps XVIIIth Corps . XVIth Corps and 75th Grenadier Corps Division . the XVIIIth and the XlVth Corps. Centre at Yuzefov. and also the Guard. XlVth . 1914-1917 Army but the Guard had come up on its left flank. the line of the River San was taken over by Radko Dimitriev's 3rd Army.. for the roads had been broken up. The Illrd Caucasian and the Grenadier Corps had moved via Krasnik and Lyublin. South of Zavikhost. . The Russians are justifiably proud of the great change of front they made to meet the German advance. With the Russian Army. . of the 5th Army. As the troops of the three armies moved north.. commenced their the right bank of the Vistula. On the 28th the remainder of the gth The whole viz. of the Army. were in reserve in rear of the XXVth Corps. same route. North of Ivangorod. By October 6th units of the three armies were aligned along the Vistula from north to south as follows retirement : V down Illrd Caucasian Corps . . . . . It had mostly cleared Lyublin by October I5th. was in worse case. Ivangorod. Alexandriya. following by the of supplies from the Vistula. XXVth The remaining corps . but the move was made at the cost of extreme privation to the troops. On the San. The distance was not great. as the miserable roads had been rendered. The 5th had advanced to the line Sokolow-Lancut-Jawornik. The XXVth Corps was handed over to the gth Army. . . The 4th Army in its retreat was able to draw a certain quantity The 5th Army. impassable by the incessant rain and did not admit of adequate and regular supply. XlXth and XVIIth. . . . . south of Warsaw. according to Western ideas. . It is said to have been six days without bread. . On October 7th the 5th Army commenced its further retirement by the same road to Lyublin and thence by rail to the neighbourhood of Gura Kalvarya. . . Centre at Annopol.142 2ist.. . . Novo . 5th Army moved north on September 25th.

They. All Russians are confident. Warsaw was in something of a panic. The 2nd already at Warsaw. All attempts by the Austrians to drive Radko Dimitriev back from the San proved unavailing. leaving its place on Army was the borders of East Prussia to the loth Army. but that proves nothing 1 . salient. The splendid Siberian troops were pouring in by rail. was the sum of the enemy's His attempts to cross the San and the Vistula failed. the Russian line in Galicia was retired to the San and the siege of Przemysl was raised. appears that the Russians are on a defensive line previously prepared and running from Sokhachev by Skernevitsi to Groitsi. the ist Army was concentrating in the neighbourhood from the north-east. The enemy was compelled to retreat from the Polish LYUBLIN. caused chiefly by It villagers crowding in from the area of operations. 1914 exhausted. the Bologoe-Syedlets strategical railway that had only run three pairs of trains in peace working up to fifty-two pairs. This. . its 143 The Qth Army in its move north drew supplies from depots previously established at Sandomir and Krasnik. The idea was a bold contempt his one. they are such optimists. but the Russians had now for once the best of the communications and their strength was gathering fast. Der Feldzug in Polen. however. The enemy forces were unequal to the task. Monday. but for the Russian fighting showed at once the enemy's power and the defectiveness of own Intelligence. 1914. Georg Huller. on October nth reached aline eleven versts from the capital. 1915. Baron von Ardenne. Munchen.Warsaw. success. October I2th.October-December. Meanwhile the enemy occupied all south-west Poland. and the Russians prepared to check his offensive by a counter directed in a southerly direction against his left flank from the line Novo-Georgievsk. indeed. According to offensive movement a German authority 1 the enemy Command then decided to move the point of his offensive north against Warsaw to meet the Russian attack.

The crowd at the station was awful. I left Warsaw by the 7 a." He said that the Russians had six to seven corps west of Warsaw." I had a comfortable journey on the nth as far as Lukov. but Russians talked of a local success for the enemy. the French flying man. in the evening. They are often in empty barracks. and one Russian pilot had eleven bullets I through the wings of his machine. the enemy's shell injured the railway between Ivangorod and Novo Alexandriya. I had a Polish doctor in with me. train for Lukov en route to Lyublin on Sunday the nth.. and I had to fight my way to my compartment. 1914-1917 saw Poiret. where I changed.m.m. doctors have too much to do . which are saturated with dirt . when we were turned out twelve versts from Lyublin and put in an unheated goods wagon with my horses. On the afternoon of the I2th communication set fire. wound leave. We reached a .144 With the Russian Army. The stronglyfortified bridgehead at Novo Alexandriya was abandoned the enemy's shell fell on the pontoon bridge. This was not a very auspicious commencement to the Russian offensive. on the gth.m. which was destroyed and many buildings in Novo Alexandriya were . on On the evening of the nth was re-established. I gather from various sources that the situation as follows : The Russians have assumed the offensive. The 4th Army commenced to cross the Vistula from Ivangorod and Novo Alexandriya at 3 a. his ten doctors have is to attend to 600 wounded. They were turned back by the enemy's heavy artillery. He was pessimistic and said that if the Russians allowed Warsaw to be taken it would show that they were " jolly well beaten. His pessimism may have been partly because he had been fired on during the day by Russians. I then went on in a filthy second-class it as merely " We carriage with six officers returning from travelled fairly comfortably till i a. He said that the sanitary state of the hospitals left much to be desired.

October-December. in the second by officers. as the Russians can stand hardship better than the town-bred Germans. units The building consists of four small rooms. but one of which he was evidently proud. returning from wound and sick leave. Lukov but if they cannot use their railways to better effect. 1914. The and days. October itfh. In the two inner rooms the work is carried on. the smell and filth are awful. but had a roof at all events. I got into an bitterly cold. but Russian officers say the rain a good thing. rained all day as it did which was empty private apartment. the Russians have the advantage in the present via situation. All the windows are shut. who has more than any one man could possibly do. It of yesterday. this will avail them little. The hotels were all full. in the first by clerks. Some off of crowded with men of them have been " waiting " is all arms for two that The Assistant Station Commandant told me twenty-six trains yesterday by the single line to Ivangorod and by the double line to the same place he had sent not a great feat. finally getting into an ambulance train. Each door has a sentry. The cations office of is the Commandant of the Line of Communi- crowded to suffocation with men of all units. Both men were hung. If the story is true the Jew must have had K . As far as communications are concerned. This department has to house direct and feed all odd men as well as to them to their units in the field. all trying to find their a task for which a very Sherlock Holmes is required. Wednesday. The bulk of the work is done apparently by the adjutant. sometimes two. and they stop everyone except officers. with rifles. most Many of the men is here look tired out. It is said that a Jew was caught carrying a German officer in a sack across the bridge at Ivangorod. station at Lyublin units. 1914 145 station seven versts from Lyublin and then waited four hours. KRASNIK. opening out of one another.

will go to Warsaw to support the 2nd Army. cannonade with big guns has been going on across the Vistula for three days. We saw a man going round with a bag collecting dead horses' The whole way the cannonade of big guns roared shoes. Originally a chaussec. The rain came down for ten miles south of The ground Lyublin to Krasnik was cut up with in torrents till i p. the 5th Army. but has not been renewed A The Germans are concentrating their main army west of Warsaw. 1914-1917 more muscle than most of his race. on the I4th. who was Military Attache at Berlin up to the outbreak of war. which is now between Warsaw and Ivangorod on the right of the 4th Army. They have the best of the road conditions. is the war may more pessimistic. The road was in a dreadful state. and owing to the recent rains the whole was covered with several inches of This made it impossible to see the holes and liquid mud. and Colonel Bazarov. My orderly said he simply could not look at them. The 4th Army will move north. etc.m. The whole road is littered with dead horses. the . Bazarov. and their whole line is moving north to that point. on Tuesday and reached Krasnik (thirty miles) at 5. be over by February.m.146 With the Russian Army. trenches. pontoons.m. I rode out of Lyublin at 9. According to orders received at 2 a. struggling along on the comparatively good going of the water-logged plough land.45. to-day. the Chief of General Gulevich thinks that Staff. occupying the line Warsaw (exclusive) -Ivangorod (inclusive). and the officer must have been specially chosen for his diminutive size. Carts had spread over the country to a distance of 300 yards on either side On the very outside one saw infantry of the road. for the roads west of the Vistula are far better than those on the east. quite dangerous to ride on the road.. it had been broken up by heavy artillery.30 a. along the Vistula. At dinner I sat between General Gulevich.

Corps. 1914. before daylight. but all the German Corps are of two divisions. who is any thing but a horseman. It is obvious that the 5th Warsaw by that date. the Commander-in-Chief of the Front. We reached Lyublin at noon and Lechitski had a con- They found after a ference with Ivanov. i. a Lieutenant Benkendorf.D.. Benkendorf few miles that the road was quite impassable. In four days. to General Gulevich.e. which crossed the river at Kozenitse. The danger is that the 2nd Army west of Warsaw five corps with the Ilnd Corps arriving to make a sixth may be crushed by superior forces before they can be reinforced. 2nd and 5th) and Ivanov's (4th. the 4th and Qth armies will have reached their new positions. LYUBLIN. a left bank tributary form the dividing line between the area of Ruzski's (loth. Thursday. 3rd and 8th armies) groups. 1 He had Embassy been lent in Berlin. We left Krasnik at 6 a.October-December. October 15^. The will river Pilitsa. Prince Cantacuzene was A. ist. very reluctantly. 1914 9th 147 (exclusive) - Army will take the line Ivangorod Zavikost. Gulevich. General Gulevich. north of Ivangorod.C. while several of the Russian Corps have three and the Austrian Corps are of Austrians fifteen (of inferior fighting power. The Germans are said to have sixteen corps and he which three are reserve). has been engaged with the The Illrd Caucasian enemy during the past two days. Army cannot concentrate west of of the Vistula. I rode. cuzene. . Ganta2 1 and Bazarov.. and Ewarth. gth. and had to join me on horseback. who had served in the Russian was in the Censor Department. the commander of the neighbouring 4th Army. to General Erdeli in a similar capacity.m. by the evening of the i8th. started in motors. The General with his Chief-of-Staff.

received orders to cross on the night pontoon train.148 With the Russian Army. cannot arrive before the 22nd. Great slaughter on both its sides. Suvorov. slept in a room with me He is now attached to the Army at the Victoria Hotel. having only finished four classes of a clerical school. An officer came in in the morning to say that all was quiet at Warsaw and there was no panic. before the war. which is now on its way back from the San. He said. jobs. and whom I knew before the war. the operation. in talking to me. which will be opposed by an enemy who has had time to fortify. all his previous services having been spent in the Far East. LYUBLIN. 1914. who was on the district staff at St. but has a firm will. He ended this campaign as a regiment commander. he made his Chief of Staff read him lectures on tactics for two hours every shy and a great grumbler." in other words. have been driven is He back to twenty-five. He pace to-day. October i6th. Later General Danilov. a personal friend of Lechitski 's. The Germans. procured through the Grand Duke Nikolaivich his appointment to the command of one of the divisions of the Guard and he then visited Petrograd practically for the first time. Petersburg. Military District. As Gulevich says. when in command of the Guard Corps. 1914-1917 Lechitski is a fine old took us at a great man and a good horseman. I wonder if it would be possible to leave but . Commander's he is Staff " for special service. The armies could not move sufficiently rapidly as it was impossible to victual them. will be a very dangerous one. Friday. who were at one time within eleven versts. The Qth Army has of the igth-20th. who uses him for odd He tells me that the General has little education. He went through the Chinese war. that the delay in finally squashing Austria was owing to Russia's miserable communications. and was a battalion commander at the commencement of the Japanese campaign. When he was in command of the Pri- Amur day.

Saturday. at Ivangorod. and piles of them.October-December. which Sandomir-Warsaw at not less halted in the neighbourhood of Ivangorod for six days. Ivanov has given Brusilov the two second-line corps that were used for the blockade of Przemysl so that he has now five army corps. 1914. LYUBLIN. had been unable them. The new development to-day the extreme Russian left. to get carts from the Governor to send A man like this should be hung when one remembers fellows at the front long for how poor He showed us the enormous bags. kerosene tank owing to the fire of the enemy's The Germans have succeeded in igniting a traffic. 1914. Both Generals . The enemy's strength is only estimated at most at three corps. have been able to defend itself. The Chief Chinovnik calmly explained that he had 2. October ijth." Either army with three corps would. I Yesterday Suvorov and see about the letters for ' ' went to the Post Office to the 9th Army. The gth Army is to get heavy guns from Ivangorod for the crossing on Sunday night. piles news from home. October i6th. He regrets that we did not hold tetes-de-pont on the left bank. 1914 a mere skeleton to 149 mask the Vistula front and to move an overwhelming force via Warsaw against his left and rear. Friday. is LYUBLIN. " The 9th Army should have held the line OstrovetsOpatov-Klimontov in force and the 4th Army. and on his left two Cossack cavalry divisions.000 puds His excuse was that he (thirty-two tons) of letters for us. but it may be greater in view of his weakness on our front. should have met the enemy at Radom. Gulevich estimates the German strength on the front than eleven corps. Radko-Dimitriev has five corps. he thinks. an Austrian advance on near the Carpathians. The railway between Ivangorod and Novo-Alexandriya is still closed for heavy guns.

October 2oth. The Illrd Caucasian Corps has lost 8. If the Germans have not something up their sleeve . sion. The Qth Army infantry and . LYUBLIN. slowly. retire. Apparently the 5th Army is not to go to Warsaw. and a half . consists at present of eleven three and a half cavalry divisions. north of The Illrd Caucasian and the XVTIth Corps Ivangorod. 1914. appear to make little progress. The 9th Army has handed over enemy's heavy artillery. \\ The Guard has two and a half infantry divisions and the XlVth. advance south and south-west from The advanced guards of the XlXth and Vth in its Corps of the 5th Army are crossing at Gura Kalvarya. pending a decision west of the Vistula. Tuesday. Sunday. expected to be attained by this evening will not be realised. all its pontoons to the 4th Army. the army has been " ordered to '* occupy the enemy in its front. There should be no cause for fear. XVIIIth and XXVth Corps have each a third The cavalry consists of the 3rd Divi(reserve) division.000 men in four days at Kozenitse from the distribution The converging fire of the XVIIth Corps on its The 9th Army will take over Ivangorod. The 2nd Army is to advance its left to-day to attempt to occupy Pyesechno. but is to attempt to cross the Vistula near Gura Kalvarya.150 With the Russian Army. if necessary. 1914. till We have asked the 23rd. the I3th Division. 1914-1917 have been told to disputing every inch of ground. (4th Army). Telegrams to-night reported that the 2nd Army met with only weak resistance Warsaw. and for permission to postpone our crossing should hear from Ivanov this evening. LYUBLIN. 3rd Caucasian Cossack Division and the Independent Guard Brigade. The right flank has also suffered severely. Pending their return. which have crossed the Vistula at Kozenitse. October iSth.

22nd.October -December. 1914 in the Thorn direction to throw against Warsaw when our 2nd Army has been drawn south. Instructions were received from Ivanov at 3 a. 1914. * LYUBLIN. of the Guard Corps. they would have concentrated sufficient force to crush the 2nd Army and occupy Warsaw. I leave by motor-car to-morrow morning to join the staff The XVIIIth Corps moves to Opole. Army have 1 See Map No. is The presence on Brusilov's of three more Austrian corps reported left centre. that the Guard is to march to-day to Ivangorod and cross to t the left of The by the Illrd Caucasian Corps to-morrow. The Guard Cavalry Brigade reached Ivangorod to-day and the Guard Corps is nearing that fortress. yesterday and to-day. part of the units of the 3rd been thrown across the San. This will probably be in two or three days. the whole of their movement must be a demonstration. Are they waiting for the heavy guns that took Antwerp . but on no account to reduce the number of ammunition wagons. ? Orders were received to-day from the Commander-inChief of the Front to reduce the establishment of guns in batteries in the event of shortage of horses. Circular instructions were issued to-night to units of the gth Army. Heavy artillery is being moved to cover the crossing. V. On our right the XVIIth Corps and the Illrd Caucasian Corps are advancing and the Ural (Cossack Cavalry) Division of the same army (4th) has crossed the river at Pavlovitse to pursue the enemy in the direction of Radom. On our left. We are to follow. for otherwise with the time we have allowed them. . The Germans have retired sixty versts from the Vistula on the line Warsaw-Ivangorod. Wednesday October 2 is/. pontoons sent up to the 4th Army are being returned rail and when they have been received the will cross at XXVth and XlVth Corps Novo Alexandriya.m.

The XVIIIth Corps is to cross as best it can. These orders were sent by telegraph. but higher up the river. for he in full retreat Lyublin by motor at twelve noon and arrived at Ivangorod at 4 p. based on a thick railway net to offer a prolonged resistance. south of the 23rd. but at a fine pace if not impeded by transport in . the Guard Corps crosses at Ivangorod and advances south of the railway. flying post and motor cyclists to all corps. I found the old man in I When splendid spirits. partly that of the Guard Corps. We drove through a large quantity of transport. IVANGOROD. XXVth The XlVth Corps will march from Opole and reach Novo Alexandriya in two days. The 1st Don Cossack Division will cross the river at Yanovets. will advance across the San. It is reported from the Front that the Germans have fortified the area Chenstokhov-Olkush-Myekhov. Novo Alexandriya. Thursday. and the whole left We Guard Infantry Division and Rifle Brigade. The Corps will cross by a pontoon bridge at Novo Alexandriya and advance by the chaussee on Zvolen. The 1 3th Cavalry Division will cross at Ivangorod and reconnoitre south and on the left of the Ural Division. by the night of will cross the The 3rd Caucasian Cossack Division San and reconnoitre in advance of the 46th and Both Divisions. 1914-1917 To-morrow. the 22nd. It is possible that they may have chosen this area. went to say good-bye to Lechitski before leaving to join the Guard Corps. October 22nd. in conjunction with the XXIst Corps.m. He said : "The enemy is has evidently ' ! heard you are coming. 1914. Russian infantry regiments on the march move regardless of the 1st of order. The Russians will have the usual disadvantage of bad communications to contend with.152 With the Russian Army. The 46th and 8oth Divisions.

of course. I walked There is across the bridge with Rodzianko. prisoners who gave themselves up west of Ivangorod stated that the Germans are concentrating at Radom. but it may. night in extreme comfort in a tiny room l l Rodzianko. morning to pay my respects to Count Nostitz.D. the Commander of the Corps. and that two Austrian corps have come to help Some Austrian them. . 153 no march discipline in our sense of the word. the Chief of Staff. I slept last ! IVANGOROD. and to General Bezobrazov. the General's A. 2nd Division in 1 Colonels attached to the staff of the Guard Corps. that the second-line transport of the Guard was too close up. All of this does not chime in with the idea that the enemy has retired sixty versts.C.October -December. Lovshin and Grabbe were in a by myself I went larger room next door and the servants beyond. To-day the 2nd Division of the Guard on our . who has been placed in charge of me.O. Friday. where we found the G. be only a farewell demonstration. for no interval and no formation is kept.. October z^rd. Luckily ist it was fine.C. for it crossed the river imIt struck me mediately in rear of the regiments. After lunch we rode out through the village of Klyashtorna Volya. The transport seemed enormous in quantity. Both are charming. 1914 front. The 2nd Division of the Guard and one brigade of the in the Division only succeeded in crossing the river last The other brigade of the ist Division and the night. 1914. the right was in touch with the Illrd Caucasian Corps ist Division had come up in line on its left and the Rifle Brigade was in reserve. Soon after we reached Ivangorod a cannonade was audible in the south-west and north-west. Guard Rifle Brigade bivouacked by the roadside. and we saw the enemy's shells bursting about three versts from the river and just south of the railway.

Colonel . Count Nostitz. following the sound of the firing till we found three batteries in action supporting some three battalions of the Findlandski and Pavlovski Regiments. The General Staff includes the Chief of Staff. the cooking carts moved out from difficulty in finding our way the nearest village to the men in the fighting line. soldier in the if When he has officers to lead there is no world like him. only keen to get back to the firing- We came back in complete darkness and had some over the awful roads. extended on a front of four versts on the line Vyes-ZavadaKotsiolki. Darkness brought no rest for the 2nd Division. The entrenchments of a that I saw were badly sited and badly made. He would be hard to beat the supply services only ensured his regular rations. Ivangorod had made preparations for a regular siege. beating back repeated Austrian attacks from the south. a large staff in the Guard Corps.30.154 With the Russian Army. The firing was very heavy and we met several wounded. line. versts west of the fortress. 1914-1917 touch by telephone with his regimental commanders. but There is failed. The Germans have been entrenched on the edge five left wood. We passed two columns of supports moving up silent and determined. He was in the cottage where he had slept the night before. I have an intense admiration for the Russian Guardsman. They are now occupied by a detachment of our Opolchenie and I saw fifteen of our dead who had remained unburied by the Germans for nine days with their eyes still open a gruesome sight. We heard the Austrians had attempted a night attack against the Moskovski Regiment. the guns and machine-guns were still at work and gunfire was almost continuous up to 10. fine fellows. for twelve days. As we rode back. Immediately it was dark. blocked by the parks carrying ammunition to the Front. We then rode on. and only on the night of the 20th-2ist.

This village and the wood south east of it were taken again at 5 p. rose- IVANGOROD. and this is now in touch with the right of the XXVth Corps. and transport. 1914 Domanevski 155 a worker. each of which are necessarily is under a brigade commander. It was interesting to watch the dif- which gives coloured smoke. and the German. but held its ground along most of the front. three batteries seen to-day were in echelon and in covered positions. have gone. Engelhardt thinks they have is. 1914. and is divided into two sections. October 24th. The 2nd Division was attacked eleven times during the The night. The Illrd Caucasian Corps on our right advanced considerably to-day. as the section held at first the Finlandski Regiment has been reinforced by the much mixed other three regiments. ference between the Austrian shell. relieved here by the Austrians. The right section has no local One battalion of the reserve. including Engelhardt. who was a member of the Duma and Reporter on the Military Budget. The line from the left of the 2nd Division is carried on by the ist Division. which gives white. Saturday. which completed its crossing at Novo Alexandriya yesterday and was joined on its left by the XlVth Corps to-day. where the Prussians. The question moved north to support the Warsaw group. In that case we shall push rapidly here to threaten their rear. to-day. The XXVth The Corps crossed the Vistula yesterday. and two battalions are in general Corps Reserve.October-December. line of seven versts is held by thirteen A battalions of the division. The front occupied by the 2nd Division of the Guard after forty-eight hours continuous fighting. enemy forced his way to Kotsiolki. division is on escort duty to artillery . and five captains. the left has one battalion. remains pretty much the same.m. The units by up.

XXVIIth of the 2nd Army and the Vth and XlXth of the 5th Army.single casualty. which presently opened with crushing effect.156 With the Russian Army. Guard. XXIIIrd. } IVANGOROD.G. Corps. We have six corps. the three Austrians opposed to them rapidly. wood south-west . Illrd Caucasian.O. and rode out to Setsekhov. officers said The concealed position in a wood had never been discovered. IVth. 1914-1917 Engelhardt. The ist Division was nearing the line Sarnov-Khekhli. and the Rifle Brigade was to follow. A German aeroplane had located their sister battery and dropped a flare on to it as a signal to his own artillery. the!7-g German Corps operating against our : Warsaw front will be forced to retire rapidly as they are opposed follows 1st by nine corps. Polichna had been occupied by the mrd Caucasian Corps. in addition to the 75th Reserve Division at Ivangorod. During the whole time they had been in action against German heavy artillery. Sunday. considers that the duration of the war largely depends on the result of the operation now in hand by the Qth Army in conjunction with the Illrd Caucasian and XVIIth XVIIth. but their against Polichna. We started before eight.e. where where we saw the G. visited to-day a battery of the Illrd Caucasian Howitzer Division in action from the north of Garbatka We they had crossed the river twelve days ago. as and Ilnd. We which had been captured by our fellows yesterday. which ensures our If these six corps can roll up line of communications.. and they had only had a . a scout. XXVth. Guard Rifle Brigade. and found the enemy had only of Kotsiolki. i. who explained the position to me to-night. He told us the Austrians had retired at daylight from in front of the 2nd Division. 1st and Ilnd Siberian. October 2$th 1914. killed. The Guard Cavalry Brigade was being sent through in that direction to operate against the enemy's rode to the left. XlVth and XVIIIth.

C. a distance of twenty-three versts. and Corps in Prince Alexandriya. the amount of spade work made seems to have been extraordinary. We lunched at Kotsiolki in a farm shed and four shrapnel burst unpleasantly close. Trenches were well concealed and usually in pairs. the Austrian trenches were in three tiers. or later. but they are certainly not hurrying themselves in their advance. As we returned after dark. 1914. At the top of the hill were underground shelters with narrow communication trenches. The whole way from Ivangorod Alexandriya. at noon yesterday.m. one in the groin and one in the leg. poor devils of the Moskovski Regiment were wounded close by. standing. the XXVth Corps on We started in a motor soon after 8 a. built on Fontainebleau with an avenue several miles college. The Rifle Brigade did not start till i p. I don't know what orders the Guard have got. about seventy yards apart. October 26th. Rodzianko and I went to our left. This was is now used as an agricultural the plan of long. 2nd Division remains in one hut. we to Novo guarded by outposts. and was of low profile. though the enemy has been driven some distance back from the left bank. is could see that this line also We found the staff of the XXVth Czartoriski's palace at Novo confiscated after the rebellion of 1863. Monday. The fighting to-day was almost entirely by artillery. It is . Two batteries came into action close to us Two and quickly silenced the enemy's fire. East of the wood which was taken by our men Each row provided cover about io-i2in. an enormous house. the right bank of the Vistula has been defended by field works. Altogether.m. 1914 157 retired to the northern outskirts of Berdzsja.October -December.O. visit IVANGOROD. This is the fourth night that the G.

1914-1917 General Ragoza. and is moving south on Zvolen.O. of the loth went into the trenches and told the men that Novo Alexandriya in their rear had been He led them personally. The Guard Rifle Brigade has occupied Polichna. The 7oth Division worked on the right of the road and de- and heavy field artillery livered a spirited attack across the open. explained that the XXVth consisting of the 3rd Grenadier and the 70th (Reserve) Divisions crossed on the night of the 22nd-23rd October. They were able to gain a footing on the left bank as the enemy was surprised.158 With the Russian Army. The two corps have taken 5.000 prisoners in four days. The XlVth Corps was on their left and rear. and personal leading burned As Galakin said. but during the first thirty-six hours after crossing they were counter-attacked. towards the Vistula. on the night three days' fighting 23rd-25th. The moral of all this is that the Austrians are being loss.C. it is true. Colonel Galkin. the same bridge on the night of October 23rd-24th. . The I3th Cavalry and the ist Don Cossack Divisions crossed last night near Yanovets. preceded by Mannerheim's Guard Cavalry Brigade. On the 25th progress was facilitated artillery by the fire of fortress from the right bank and by the progress of the ist Division of the Guard on the There were continual hand-to-hand right of the corps. This division officers in has lost 2. the bridge at ! they are more " " impressionable than the active divisions. is what the reserve divisions require. and his Chief of Staff. and will move forward to-morrow.C. the G.O. combats. The XXVth Corps had occupied the line Filipinov- Vulka Zamoiska by nightfall to-day. The ist and 2nd Divisions of the Guard between them have occupied the wood south of Berdzeja. pushed back with but they are escaping us. and the Austrians suffered enormously. and were unable to gain The XlVth Corps crossed by sufficient ground to deploy.700 rank and file and forty-seven the Its G.

This will mean that the Russians will require a month or six weeks to advance before they can get into touch with the fortified position at Chenstokhov-Myekhov-Olkush. October zjth. from their homes and dragged to a foreign country. However. to-day and their rearguard was attacked a couple of hours later by the Lancers of the Guard. as the XXVth Corps was eight versts east of Zvolen at nightfall yesterday. I found a hospital assistant who looked blank when I tried him in succession in German. The of place is infected with typhoid.m.m.October -December. I left Ivangorod at 3 p. The poor devils were no doubt quite healthy three months ago. The General went by train to Garbatka and rode from there with some of his staff. 1914 The letting slip of chances like this really decisive success. for he got hit and hit no one back These poor people have been without the smell in the anything to eat for two to three days church is dreadful. made . young Panchulidzev being wounded. ZVOLEN. the Austrians evacuated Zvolen at 5 a. The order was bold in the circumstances. but who spoke English. and our nearest troops were about the same distance to the north and north-east. Austrian wounded nearly all The church is full Magyars. Tuesday. Now they have been torn ! . and drove with Rodzianko via Novo Alexandriya to Zvolen. He said he hated war. who cannot speak much German. 1914. French and Russian. reported that the Germans are retiring southdestroying the Ivangorod-Radom railway and sweeping the country of all eatables. It is 159 of a makes one despair west. as he had been in America. Engelhardt came in and told me that the Germans were opposing Ewarth's advance on the line of the River Radonka. as the Corps Staff had received orders last night to move to that town. He estimates their strength on this front at about nine corps.

as they might get some more toThis is all an ordinary incident morrow. The Illrd Caucasian Corps is opposed by the XI th Austrian Corps. Some regiments from Bosnia are offering slight opposition to the progress of the XVIIIth ! : Corps. towards Radom. The corps of the 4th Army lie as follows from north to south on the left bank of the Vistula Grenadiers. 1914-1917 1 to stand their ! up before the enemy's bullets. which town is strongly fortified. When his servants came. who are being continually forced back by the 2nd Army. Slept comfortably in We put up at the priest's house. Some Red Cross doctors were in the room on one side. and finally left by is own people. and on the other Lovchin. so they must wait. Grabbe and Greighton. October zSth. giving all of them cigarettes and chocolate. dress these men's wounds to-night. XVIth. the Guard and the XXVth and XlVth by the 1st and Vlth Corps. The latest idea of the Staff of the gth Army seems to be that we are opposed on the line Warsaw-Novo Alexandriya by seven German and three Austrian corps. The XVIIIth Corps of the gth Army is crossing with slight opposition at Solets and another point further south. the window actually open. 1914. ZVOLEN. Wednesday.160 With the Russian Army. like the good fellow he is. to die of starvation. Another report describes great preparations at Chenstokhov. The Germans. Good fellows It is no one's business to of war and no one is to blame. This war Rodzianko went round. they at once said that they would give all the bread they had. mutilated. XVIIth and Illrd Caucasian Corps. and it is expected that the enemy will retreat to that line before offering serious battle. are reported to be concentrating on the Their heavy guns are moving line Radom-Petrokov. a room with Rodzianko. had a stand-up breakfast in the mess kitchen and We .

without food and unable to stir themselves. who intoned the service before the open grave. He had lost his way and stumbled on to the enemy's trenches. He is the brother of the Vansovich in the same regiment who was Lyublin. whom he charged and forced to surrender. who has just joined the days. was of picked men. been shot through the spine and probably killed at once. and first of all met twenty Austrians. all over six feet in height. as they had been four days shut up there with the corpses of two comrades. The Austrians had then riddled his body with bullets fired at such close range as to singe the flesh. Rodzianko entered a hut last night where two severely The wounded men implored to be carried out. He Preobrajenski. 220 strong. was drawn up. and they had slashed his body with their bayonets. He had L . While we were at the headquarters of the division. two officers and forty-six men prisoners with a detachment of six men. General Olukhov spoke with enthusiasm of the work of the Semenovski and Preobrajenski Regiments in the fighting of the past few One youth. while his six men searched the village and brought out two officers and twenty-six more men. rode to the village where this occurred and arrived just in time for the burial service. The man's company. south-west of Zvolen.October-December. the Emperor's. He had been sent to find out if a village was occupied. which was being held in a firwood near at hand. a report came in that the body of a drummer of the PreobraWe jenskis had been mutilated on the preceding night. 1914 then rode out to visit 161 the Staff of the ist Division of the Guard. The company. killed near story and the state of the wounded found at Zvolen proves the disorganisation of the Austrian Army. forming a square round the priest. The doctor and the company officers explained that the drummer had been sent with a message to a neighbouring piquet in the outpost line on the preceding night. Vansovich. took kept these twenty men quiet with his revolver.

considering that we tend their wounded better than they do themselves We overtook the Preobrajenskis on the march. Everything points to the rapid retreat of the Germans to Kalish-Chenstokhov-Bendin. has been occupied by the Cossacks. The danger is that they will use their communications once more to hurl their seven corps 1 See Map No. XVIIth and the Illrd Caucasian Corps.m. The XlVth Corps has been . Baron Tornau and ! others. line of the 5th Army * is held by the ist XlXth and Vth The line is Corps. directed to assist the crossing of the XVIIIth Corps (General Zaionchkovski. . V.O. Guard has directed his advanced troops to occupy the chausee Radom-Skarishev to-night. was continued last night to the left by the Rifle Brigade.G. 1914-1917 Savage treatment. The G. what will the Germans do in this time. 2nd and ist Divisions of the Guard. according to the state of the weather and its effect We hear (8 p. The general Siberian. XVIth. continued to the south by the 4th Army last Grenadiers. 8oth and 46th.162 With the Russian Army. It is too much to hope that their seven corps will require so long to recoup and to reorganise. It will take us that three weeks to reach this line. The last-named corps bivouacked night well in advance of Zvolen in the angle between the IvangorodRadom railway and the Zvolen-Radom chaussee. The question is.) Radom on the roads and to the amount of damage the Germans have done to the railways. His three divisions are the 23rd (lately in XVIIIth Corps). 37th and 83rd Divisions) General Kruzenstern has taken over command of three divisions on the San and has been told to occupy Sandomir. The XXVth Corps has cleared the Austrians from the The line north of the river Iljanka. Count Ignatiev. and spoke to the Commander. perhaps a little more or a little less.

this officer is Colonel Under the general supervision of the Chief of Staff the General Staff includes a colonel. 163 convenient for us Belgium or East are said to have strongly fortified the frontier of East Prussia in order to render a Russian The Germans invasion impossible. He nurses a gouty leg and reads Francois Coppee while guns are booming. with our huge force of cavalry. leaves things to Domanevski. rumoured to-night that we have lost touch with the enemy. The most capable man on the Staff. Intelligence. October 2<)th t 1914. supposed to write orders and attend generally to operations. Count Nostitz. SKARISHEV. It is Thursday. but this is really done by Colonel Domanevski. who is not happy unless working twenty-two hours a day. In the Staff of the Guard much on Domanevski.October-December. Their work is allotted as follows : Colonel of General Staff : General supervision of Colonel Domanevski. an American. If this is true it is unpardonable. 1914 in the spot least Prussia. Engelhardt. gave me a list of the General Staff officers with the Guard Corps. quite absorbed in letters to his wife. three captains and two attached officers. Retired from army six years ago : and has since taken a prominent military interest in matters in the Duma. The division of duties on a corps staff depends very the personal ideas of the member of the staff with the strongest character. who was starting this morning to carry dispatches to the Grand Duke. Captain of General Staff Captain Engelhardt. The Chief of Staff. who is supposed to direct everything. ist Assistant to Colonel work in General Domanevski Staff : Captain of General Staff . He is always to be found while Domanevski is dictating orders. .

Some of them have all their autos. " to assist in gathering the crops. only a single officer in excess of establishment as far as the General Staff is concerned .164 With the Russian Army. and to he had heard. We have no divisional cavalry in the Guard Corps. by train. Really maids-of-all-work. The General insists on maintaining Mannerheim's In- dependent Guard Cavalry Brigade intact. and some as I their carriages. The people loathe them. 1914-1917 Communications. I am bound to say that we saw no trace of their exactions when we drove through Radom to-day. He was taken prisoner by the Germans some eight days ago. and a screen of ten will be placed towards Thorn to cover Warsaw. The latter have systematically robbed the country. the 26th. They acknowledged to a loss of 50.000. It is said that there is but there are a mass of others. The Germans eat enough for five men each. women and children of the neighbourhood. etc. He says the Germans left Radom on Friday. work in the factories/' He was released on Monday. together with fifty men. perhaps twenty. The rest were sent to Germany. with no " defined duties qui voyagent" as Domanevski says. General Bezobrazov thinks that fourteen corps will be directed towards Krakau. but he could easily apply for . The Austrians evacuated Radom on Monday night. We had an interesting visit last night from the priest of a village a few versts west of Ivangorod. The Austrian organisation is pitiable and the men have nothing to eat. sending corn and potatoes by train to Germany. Captain of General Staff Two officers attached to the General Staff. the 23rd. It is true that this particular brigade is of too good cavalry to split up between infantry divisions. and carried to Radom. but they are in the way as much am. and maintained that the Russian gun-fire was so accurate that it could only be directed by Japanese. and they have less excuse. Special : service. for they should be with their regiments.

and a Rode with Rodzianko sixteen versts. its Staff advancing along the line of the Radom-Kyeltsi It is thought possible that the Germans make a diversion on our right to save the Austrians. The general idea is to pursue the 1st. i. The gth Army is moving south-west by south. Vth and Xth Austrian Corps and to facilitate Radko's advance west. are fairly The Germans had good news to-day. Vth and Xth Austrian Corps. If there is fight it will be to-morrow. Ilja is a prettily situated place. the left bank of the Vistula.D. 1914. October 30^. where we spend the night. ILJA. after the twelve o'clock dinner to My Ilja. moving south the left of the Guard Corps through Ilja. bitterly cold day. running from Poland. are The order to-night shows that we Friday. may My any idea is that the Austrians will escape. railway. . In the three and a half days' fighting west of Ivangorod last week the 2nd Artillery Brigade of the Guard used 13. the right. said to date from 1004 A. There is an unconfirmed report that the Xlth and XXth German Corps retired through Radom on Kyeltsi on the 27th and 28th. The idea seems to be to make the Austrians evacuate Sandomir without a Presumably we will then turn right and go along fight. We have to do on our left and front with the remnants of the 1st. up the right bank. Lodz We has been reoccupied. an average of over 270 rounds per gun. with an old ruined castle. again. 1914 Cossacks. forty-fourth birthday. The 4th Army is on our right. It is really disgraceful that 165 lost we have touch The men were crying aloud for cavalry when they got the Austrians on the run. We Kruzenstern is trying to cross the Vistula below Sandomir.October -December.e. the Guard on is Radko Dimitriev slightly west of the San. put up at the priest's.000 rounds.. but there was none forth- coming.

) Saturday. where we fed . over a good road. dragging heavy guns. the I3th Division and the ist Don Cossack Division seem to be doing nothing. which they perfectly well knew were of no value : ! whatsoever. " here are twenty marks They paid for cattle. An escaped ensign says that officer prisoners at Radom were made to work with the men. There was a strong wind and snowstorm. the " General said What shall I pay you for the food ? Well.m. Even to-day the Guard Brigade. October ^ist. on the ninety-five versts to Warsaw. 1914-1917 on the 27th arose from a General Irman (Illrd Caucasian misunderstanding. then We ran through Skarishev to Radom. off to Warsaw this morning ostensibly to get three motor-cars repaired really to see his wife so I went with him to get my dispatch through to Petrograd. Corps) maintained that Polichna was already occupied by our people. When going. 50. The uxorious Rodzianko was WARSAW.i'4o. as the cars had to convey the staff in relays to the next halt at Virjbnik (for some reason many officers have a strong objection to riding).166 With the Russian Army. rate of exchange at (Pre-war rate was Mark i = R. officers for He put up a General and two other two days and fed them. the chief fruit of the victory was lost through A good deal of the delay the timid handling of the cavalry. etc. arriving at 8 p. When they arrived they priest at Ilja said The ordered food. Mark i = They proclaimed the R. but we had a . 1914. and so the Guard artillery did not fire on it. by receipts. One hears stories of the conduct of the Germans. he was delighted to see us the only pity was that we had not come earlier.m.. The were stripped to the waist and paraded on horseback round the village priest at Skarishev says that officer prisoners square. The Germans and Austrians had been four weeks less one day with them. We could not start till 2 p. and had robbed everyone. However.

No one knows whether Turkey has declared war on Russia. and he said. V. 1914 closed car. a naval officer tells us that three ships of the Black Sea fleet united have a heavier broadside than the Goeben. He tells me that trace has been lost of the German corps that took part in the recent offensive against Warsaw. However. . The Austrians are thought to have still sixteen regular and five reserve corps in the field. Turkey.. There is an eight knots impression that the German crew of the Goeben simply acted on their own initiative. renewed the lease of his house Laguiche and Hanbury-Williams are here on a visit from G. only the latter steams twenty- and they only seventeen. We asked an " officer where they were going. but they are mere skeletons. and young Neilson only left to-day to rejoin Rennenkampf. impertinence to bombard Novorossisk and had sunk a ship of the Black Sea fleet. cursing the chauffeur every now and then for going too At Warsaw we heard that the Goeben had had the slowly. where the Polish part of the population is prepared to welcome us. the Germans having brought up heavy guns from Konigsberg. but Rodzianko would think of nothing except the chance of seeing his wife. the Austrian army will have to decide whether it will 1. succeed in driving a wedge into South Silesia. and.Q. for the Turkish Ambassador at Petrograd has only just for a year.000 prisoners. It 167 was a shock to see a large body of artillery moving north. who really knows things. Czechs ? What 1 will be the attitude of the being fiercely attacked in the neighbourhood of Suvalki.000 guns and over Are the Austrians beaten ? If we defend Berlin or Vienna. it (Sievers) is 1 The loth Army now See Map No.October-December." This gave me furiously to think.H. thirty miles out of Warsaw. I had a long talk with Laguiche. The Russians have taken 200.

but many are being obtained from Japan. Till then the 4th. The Vistula above Sandomir is a poor line of supply. The men had to drag the guns for several days. as this will make the Lemberg-Krakau railway available. *** Miss D tells me that the Poles have been treated . Everything goes to show that the Russians in pressing back the Austrians from the Government of Lyublin marched beyond the effective radius of their supply columns. Our position in South-West Poland will improve when Przemysl and Krakau are taken. the gth Army (Lechitski) and the 3rd Army (Radko Dimitriev) of the South-West Front will advance to the south-west. troops to enable them to advance sufficiently rapidly. 9th and 3rd Armies will have to depend for supply on the two double lines. The railways have been thoroughly destroyed by the Germans and will require three weeks to repair. as of the 8th (Brusilov) on the extreme Russian left. and then to provide supply depots in the neighbourhood of the frontier to make possible the subsequent advance to Breslau and further north-west. There is a shortage of rifles. and only the extraordinary disorganisation of the Austrians and their consequent inability to counter-attack saved the Russian army from disintegration. and the Vistula.is to be one of active defence. The role of these two armies. and the 2nd Army (Scheidemann) and the 5th Army (Plehve) will said.168 is With the Russian Army. The problem we have to solve is chiefly one of communications and supply.f or the present at all events. The result was that horses died in harness. Warsaw-Ghenstokhov (European gauge). Meanwhile the 4th Army (Ewarth). 1914-1917 from Posen. and the Russians have The first task will be to feed the insufficient steamers.500 horses were sent to a single corps. be allotted the task of turning the enemy's left. The 1st Army (Rennenkampf) is to advance to the frontier beyond Mlava. and Radom-Kyeltsi (Russian gauge). No less than endurance of the men and the 1.

We have retaken Sandomir. 1914 in the 169 officers most disgraceful manner. and was captured by the farm hands setting alight his host's haystacks. says that Prince Eitel Friedrich was at the Hotel de Rome at Radom during recent operations. The Austrian Commander-in-Ghief sister-in-law Her stayed with her other brother-in-law near Zamostie during the operations in the Government of Lyublin. but Radko-Dimitriev making very little progress further south. and had German officers with her for five " nights. . when leaving. Sievers. bedding. Others committed wanton damage. they When remained behind. November tyh. Warsaw rumours state that the Germans are concentrating north of Mlava. We have occupied Mlava. and then handed him over to the farm hands to do what they liked with him. so we may hear something in a day or two.October -December. German who had been entertained for days stole cushions. Madame - was left alone by her husband in a house near Radom. and our patrols are well to the north. and when enemy retired they took him with them. landowner near Grodzisk. is entering East Prussia west of Suvalki." the latter stood him against a wall and spat in his face. 1914. retired one officer A of Warsaw. The railway versts beyond said to be open to Radom and to sixty Skernevitsi. etc. slashing pictures and furniture. with the loth Army. so we will run in that direction to-morrow. When " he was brought before the master. WARSAW. Kyeltsi has been occupied. The Guard Corps was in action yesterday south-east of Kyeltsi. he had seen and knew too much.. is but the repair of the line from Radom to Kyeltsi is expected to take three weeks. to cover the Austrian rearguards are trying is enemy retirement." the " as they said Thursday." and she is nearly off her head. They tried to make love to her. south-west entertained German officers for a week.

" treating He because their losses said that the Allies were re" " had been colossal greater than any figure the doctor could possibly imagine. to Radom. but we had the luck to stumble on a comfortable and clean private flat.170 With the Russian Army. under which the reserve units are only formed on mobilisa- on cadres then detailed from regular units. have been destroyed by exTrains now run plosives placed at a few yards interval. I left Warsaw by car at 3 p. and he insisted on paying for the use of the flat. Engelhardt prefers the present system. a Polish doctor. yesterday. all the points. slept at Radom and arrived at Pinchov (Guard Corps) at 7 p. A high German official had been billeted on him. is He me that Rennenkampf of opinion that the old system of reserve troops with cadres already formed and existing in peace is better than the present system. The owner. All the water-supply arrangements. but thinks the cadres should be stronger.m. The difficulty in Russia unfortunately is that there is no patriotic middle class as tion in other countries. and optimists promise the opening of the line . where we slept in luxury. Saturday. 1914. All the hotels at Radom were full. to-day. November yth. Russian opinion is that only three and a half to four German corps took part in the movement against Warsaw. Engelhardt tells made an interesting companion. had remained in the town throughout the enemy occupation. and that there are only Laguiche tells me that the official one and a half German corps in East Prussia ! PJNCHOV. and that the whole level and quality of training of the officers of reserve should be raised to the equal of what it is in Germany.m. Between Radom and Pinchov the railway has been thoroughly destroyed. but " his attitude was most correct. 1914-1917 The Russians cover Warsaw are throwing up elaborate defences to a useful precaution. besides every bridge and long stretches of embankment.

with the 45th and i8th Divisions and the 2nd Rifle Brigade. and we had to drag the car out of mud several times. by the A glorious. and it was at one time was thought that he would have to retire from Galicia. In rear of the XlVth Corps is the XVIIIth. the 83rd and 37th. however. On the left of the Guard the XXVth Corps will send its two divisions. We remain here to-day to allow the Illrd 8th. frosty day. November PINCHOV. counterattacked one of the columns sent against him. 1914 to Kyeltsi 171 I2th. and the Illrd Caucasian Corps was accordingly despatched south with the idea of turning the Austrian left. He.October -December. The road bridges have also been destroyed. sunny. Kruzenstern's advance has caused the Austrians opposed to Radko-Dimitriev to retire. on the left Of Kruzenstern's three bank of the Vistula. is the XlVth Corps. with two divisions. Caucasian Corps to clear our front. across the Nida to-night. abandoning Lemberg. 1914. Sunday. The Staff of the Guard Corps occupies here a house which the Marquis of Vilapolski had handed over for use as a school. but this seems very doubtful. It is said that Brusilov's position difficult. and near the Vistula. The General told me to-day that he had hung three Jews for attacking a Cossack. The Jews here are in consequence very polite ! received orders to-night to advance two marches and to take up a position just out of range of the guns of We Krakau. the 75th and the 3rd Grenadier. divisions on the right bank the 23rd has reached the Wistoka and the 46th and 8oth are echeloned about a march and two marches in rear. Further south. The XXVth and XlVth Corps will line up on . our left. It was imagined that the Nida was strongly fortified. and our extreme left is now considered out of danger.

having been twelve hours on the road. I am in a room The Duke of the schoolhouse with Lovchin and Grabbe. for the road was a fair one. We were more comfortable at the last place.. We rode the twelve versts here from Dzyaloshitse this afternoon. and others are in the next room." If we are to ' waste the country as they retire. versts from Pinchov. MARKHOTSITSE Tuesday. but should accumulate supply magazines. my luggage only arrived at 10 p. There seems to have been some confusion in the orders. November qth. Though this place is only twenty DZYALOSHITSE. The place is provisioned for three mont hs. The large staff of the corps 100 officers and very crowded in the village. The Austrians have abandoned the line of the Wistoka. but the General objected to the Jews. for the Germans will lay repaired as far as Kyeltsi. We heard from prisoners last night that all the Germans have gone followed north-west from Krakau. 1914-1917 1 Monday. It by moving on. officials is Mecklenburg. The XVIIIth Corps is to cross the Vistula to hel elp Kruzenstern. It is thought that we will be in a position to move on as soon as the railway is depends what is meant make a serious invasion of German territory we should not only have the railway right up to our rear units. General Potocki. It is said that 3en there is a panic in Krakau and the inhabitants have been ordered to leave.m. the Inspector of ArThe corps may tillery. have to halt here for ten days to await the arrival of the of 3rd Army. . November nth. and have been by the Austrian active troops. Wednesday. 1914. The enemy has occupied certain points a few versts outside his line of forts.172 With the Russian Army. 1914. and has sent out a brigade to occupy some high ground inside our border and north-east of Krakau. MARKHOTSITSE. 1914. November loth.

having each sent a squadron to carry out reconnaissance in advance of the infantry of the Guard and the Corps. There are of fire has German 420. the whole under the superintendence of the officers of the engineer companies who had selected the sites for the trenches. November I2th.October -December. guns. soon after 7 a. The Staff of the South. wounded and Everything now points to the concentration is He of the Allies in the area Bendin-Olkush. 1914 173 A field it is been cleared in front of the forts. heavy guns. Thursday. I rode out with the General to see the right flank of the position which we are taking up to await the arrival in line of the 3rd Army now three marches in rear. and retired towards the line of forts. The Staff of the 4th Army arrived at Kyeltsi on the 6th.m. MARKHOTSITSE. The whole line will be seventeen versts. I am helpless and hopeless in such weather. 1914. Agents report that the XXVth enemy is preparing to evacuate Chenstokhov. to Kholm Radom on Saturday The railway to Kyeltsi will not be repaired till between the i8th and 2ist. The Russians have a great advantage in their insensibility to cold. rain and a wind that cut one in two. and it will be occupied by the 2nd and ist Division of the Guard. sending back sick. The men were everywhere busy trenching and cutting down trees for overhead cover.West Front moved forward from the 7th. The Independent Guard Cavalry Brigade and Don Cossack Cavalry Division are now resting the ist east of Myekhov. Instructions have been received that Radko-Dimitriev . The cavalry and mounted scouts report that the enemy yesterday evacuated the advanced line he had taken up on our territory. The weather was awful when we started. and of the gth Army at Busk from Ostrovets on the 8th. and reported that large areas have been mined.

4th and gth Armies will move on to the west. so the reports to that effect were quite untrue. both gun and rifle. The Austrians evacuated Myekhov exactly a week Our landlord tells me that the Germans when here ago. November i^th. The first train was expected to reach Ostrovets to-day. They turned on all the local inhabitants to repair the roads. 1914. is General Potocki. 5th. 1914-1917 on arrival take charge of the blockade of Krakau.West Front at midnight to-night. in reserve to our corps. The shortage causing anxiety.174 With the Russian Army. had no less than 2. The Guard is Rifle Brigade. The railway has been repaired to Skorjisk. MARKHOTSITSE. I wish we would do the same. and the 2nd. The 4th Army. by to support in every way possible the 4th covering its left flank pending the arrival of is Radko-Dimitriev. who is now halfway between the San Saturday. and Wistoka. of which 300 were repaired in a garage in a single day. We left Markhotsitse at 12 noon and versts MYEKHOV. half-way between Radom and Kyeltsi. of ammunition. 5th and 4th Armies offensive are ordered to take the to-morrow to prevent the initiative from passing into the hands of the enemy. I rode the ten to Myekhov. tells me that we have ammunition . The 5th and 4th Armies will face will south-west till relieved The 9th Army by the 3rd Army. 1914. passes from the SouthWest Front to the North. but it seems to be nobody's business. There is no sign of fortification The here. will Friday. November i^th. The 2nd.000 motors. Guard Staff occupies the southern part of the town to- night and the Staff of the XlVth Corps which is the northern area. also here. on our right." Our task in the 9th " Army Army. the Inspector of Artillery of the corps. face due west. when it wheel to a position facing west.

" or bread. and many of the men looked ill.. often one for each corps. It apparently consists of the XXIst. occasion a brigade of artillery of the Grenadier Corps fired 4. IXth and Xth Corps. fighting at Ivangorod was and this was greater than in any four days' fighting in September in the Government of Lyublin but on one ^ . The 3rd Army is still considerably in rear. and their expression was monotonous in its hopeless depression. for these men would die like flies. viz. etc. The parks will of the Xllth. 1914 for seven days' ' 175 normal expenditure. ammunition wagons. be transferred when the Radom-Kyeltsi-Olkush railway has been repaired. The Austrians retreating from before these armies are throwing away transport. and spiritless. while the remainder of the Guard and the XXVth Corps ist Brigade. The 4th Army will continue its offensive to-morrow. with one division of the Vllth Corps. ' Myekhov to-day." The average per rounds per gun per day as diem per gun in the 2nd Guard Brigade in the four days' or sixty-seven rounds. or eighty-three rounds per gun. I hope no epidemic will break out. Not a smile anywhere. " " are mobilised at the fortresses so Local parks many One local for each army. the XlVth Corps and the 2nd Guard Infantry Division. A He said . will assist. I am told they do not get enough kasha. He had consented to act as spy for the Austrians in order to escape. XXIVth and Vllth. park is at Ostrovets. He calculates fifty normal. while the 8th consists way from Ostrovets. The right of the gth Army.000 rounds in one day. where it is fed from Annopol and the Ammunition has to be carried by road the whole Vistula. saw some of the infantry of the 45th Division (now with the XlVth Corps) coming through and they impressed me unfavourably. VHIth.October -December. stand I fast. Xlth. They seemed tired Frenchman appeared to-night with the story that he had been a teacher in Lemberg and had been arrested at the commencement of the war.

16. and that the shortage of 9.000 under strength. owing to the whole of the men available in the battalions being required for the 3rd Guard Division. the officer in charge of the administrative service in the Guard Corps. Sunday. but no one has com- curved rail menced clearing away the rubbish be considered skilled labour. The depot battalions of a corps formed a depot brigade. 1914-1917 he had been told to ascertain how far our railways had been mended and how many trains a day were running. but only some forty yards The tunnel of straight rail on either side of the tunnel. Every has been destroyed.000 men were telegraphed for from the depot brigade (September 9th). as it was thought desirable to enlist only ex-Guardsmen. and was told that it was preferred to have no men rather than men half trained. Engelhardt gave him food and lodging. MYEKHOV.000 strong at its peace station. Up to date. Rifle brigades formed two depot battalions each. The arrangement at the commencement of the campaign was that each regiment formed a depot battalion 2. I regarding the system of replacing casualties.000 officers in men and now the corps made it impossible to have the full strength. For Instance. the it is Guard has received altogether 5. At the commencement of the Lyublin operations drafts of 2. These could not be sent for a considerable time. After lunch to-day I rode with my orderly ten versts to see the destroyed tunnel north of Myekhov. The Guard Corps had ten battalions for its three divisions. They did not arrive till September 25th.000 had been telegraphed for.176 With the Russian Army. I asked why. was destroyed on Tuesday 3rd. The Guard depot battalions took longer to form.000 strong. 1914. although this cannot had some conversation with Ushakov. and before their arrival 8. which lost heavily in the Samsonov disaster. yet. November i$th. the Moskovski Regiment lost .

this number about twenty-one Again. to postpone their military service on account of educational reasons have been ordered to go through a course of four months' instruction and on its conclusion to join as officers .000 officers.October -December. 8oth and Sard (XVIII). During the past ten days the Qth Army. (23rd and 37th Divisions) will move opened to Kyeltsi. 1914 fifty officers 177 out of its establishment of seventy-eight in the operations south of Lyublin. all students who had been permitted in who average arrangement will provide an additional 15. which becomes railhead. leaving the XXVth Corps to organise the blockade of Krakau. The gih Army is to cover the left flank from direction of Krakau. Of course the controlling factor in the strength of the army at present is the number of officers. has been is The railway actually provisioned from Annopol on the Vistula by horse transport over 120 miles of road. as men so pro- moted might remain with them after the war ! All corps are short of establishment. The Guard had permission to draw its supplies from the magazines at Warsaw. The XVIIIth Corps north. and the 5th and 4th Armies against the German group near Chenstokhov. with the exception of the Guard Corps. on. per regiment. The 2nd Army has been ordered to move against the line Kalish-Velyun.000 young officers by February I4th. for which the following enemy attempts from the The Guard moves divisions have been detailed : 6ist (XVII). and arranged for trains to be delivered at railhead on the M . 7oth (XXV). which has already provided an additional contingent of 3. The Guard regiments have so far refused to promote ensigns. Apart from the shortening of the course of instruction at military schools. line regiments have been authorised to promote their eighteen ensigns and all their short- time volunteers.

I could not induce Rodzianko to start from Myekhov nearly 10. The enemy was holding Yangrot in trenches. but transport thence has been by STSIBORJITSE. in the went forward to the O. Slight firing latter direction. The attack was supported by two batteries in a covered position on the right and one battery on the left. of one of the batteries from which we could see the firing-line. They were being reinforced from the support by some hundred men moving up at a walk. I wandered into the fine library and took down a volume of Byron. and our men.178 With the Russian Army. He rode his orderly's horse. We are to spend the night here in a huge block of a house belonging to an Austrian The Cossacks have Pole. November ijth. who left the place in July. 1914-1917 Radom-Kyeltsi country cart. 1914. were in occupation of a captured trench. west. so we rode. Tuesday. but found it was a German translation. at a walk. rummaging. Just before dark our infantry ran forward and carried the position. some 400 yards nearer us. was audible from Skala and heavy still firing from Yangrot. While he had been in Warsaw his orderlies had allowed his horses to fight. It was so bitterly cold that walking was pleasanter than riding. line. firing at about 1. so we had to stop to get shipi" screwed into our horses' feet by the smith of a transport column we passed. and that discouraged further back. so that the best is now laid till up with swollen legs and the other sore is in for several weeks' which soon proved to be dead lame. but all the same it must have been cold work well The guns were dug in . It had frozen hard the night " before and was slippery. We r and shelter-holes had been prepared for both officers and men to pass the night.800 yards. These had been lined with straw from the neighbouring village. ransacked one room.P.

came to my room and gave me the general situation in outline. I had a touch of lumbago. My groom has gone sick. so gave my horses a rest. at Kalish The XVIIth and Xllth have not yet been located. which don't know where our parks are. be intended to base a mobile column on Thorn to operate against the right flank of our line of may communications in the event of our penetrating into Germany. the 1st. 179 Very gun ammunition was used. They have one corps at Kalish. one of the General's orderly officers. Guard Reserve and the Ilnd Landwehr near Ghenstokhov. takes an interest in the operations. 1914 without blankets and with several degrees of frost. The Ausopposite the XI Vth Corps. STSIBORJITSE. to be towards It The general German movement appears the north. The Germans have pushed forward a newly-formed XXVth Corps to the neighbourhood of Vlotslavsk. while the XXVth Corps blockades it from the north. now on our right.October -December. trian XlVth and Vlth Corps are reported to be at Krakau. Radko-Dimitriev has reached a line halfway between the Wist oka and the Dunajec. but probably the corps is one of these. Wednesday. On arrival his army will invest Krakau from the south-east and south. The loth Army has advanced some miles into East Prussia and occupies the line Stalluponen-Goldap-Lyck. 1914. and the Xlth near Velyun. but I got another 1 who seems better value. for I Little who Gershelman. While we were at lunch a report came in is 1 that the enemy nth holding a strongly fortified position covered by barbed The German offensive from Thorn had actually commenced on November six days earlier 1 . The Guard took prisoners to-day from three Austrian The Ilnd Austrian Corps is corps. little is as well. " " A soft day. the VI th Landwehr. Vth and Xth. the XXth. November iSth.

which has not received its drafts and is probably 9. Thursday.O. It has been established from the questioning of prisoners that the Guard Corps has in its immediate front five divisions of the Vth and Xth Austrian Corps. 1914. It appears that two corps have been forced to retire before a German offensive from the line Vreshen-Thorn. to form front to the north to deal with the German offensive. Much . The enemy is attacking all along the line and we cover a front of twenty-five versts. Chief Veterinary Officer.000. In the ist Division the Semenovski and Yegerski Regiments have been hard pressed. It and the 9th Army have been ordered to attack the Austrians in their immediate front Staff received The Corps to prevent further enemy transfers to the north. and have even gained some ground. and the enemy is evidently trying to turn our right by pushing a column through this wood. 1914-1917 wire north-east of Mikhalovka. The 2nd Division has not been able to occupy Mikhalovka. It was expected for some time that the 9th Army would be ordered to retire. as otherwise the position could only be captured with great loss. was to-day driving into an unfortunate Austrian The Do prisoner the misfortunes of his country. but have held their own. has been forced to retire from the wood north of Yangrot. bad news at i a.O." He was a student ! STSIBORJITSE." The ragged individual " Tempora mutantur. He said you know that there is not a single Austrian soldier in ' : Serbia ? tenegrins replied : The Serbs have taken Semlin and the Monhave invaded Bosnia. who is proud of his German.m. 2nd Division asked for heavy guns. The G.000 strong instead of 14. on the i8th.i8o With the Russian Army. November iQth. Our situation is not brilliant. The left of the 45th Division on its right. and the 4th Army has been once more returned to the South-West Front. but other councils have apparently The 2nd and 5th Armies have been ordered prevailed.

1914 181 depends on the strength of the German offensive.150..m. The Division only had 180 rounds per rifle left this morning. but " it too . The 2nd and 5th Armies are carrying out a laborious wheel to the north. off with the thermometer several degrees below zero. as shell too is but these are lacking. and they cannot be here for four days. without cartridges to shoot the enemy down. We met the regimental ammunition carts returning to search for the parks yesterday at 2 p. even seven enemy corps should have a bad time between the Vistula." Radko Ditnitriev arrived yesterday within two marches of the eastern to oppose the 4th Army. i. We have an overof little whelming preponderance use to us. This is especially serious in the 2nd Guard There is Division. now filling learn that they are at Stopnitsa. of guns. Rodzianko has gone with Gershelman to organise its transport by motor from Skorjisk to Myekhov and thence by cart.October-December. general anxiety regarding the shortage of ammunition. As a train is said to be unloading ammunition at Skorjisk. Meanwhile one would have thought there could be little left only advanced yesterday with difficulty. where they are from the local parks. on the morning of the 24th. if the Russians play their cards well. Novo Georgievsk. The 37th Division (XVIIIth Gorps) to-day relieved the ist Division of the Guard in front line. which has used 2. The drivers asked us where the parks were and we could not I tell them. Still.e. There are signs that the Guard Reserve and the Ilnd Landwehr Corps have been relieved by Austrian troops. and the ist. 2nd and 5th Armies.000 rounds of small arms ammunition in the fighting of the last three days. The General tells me that the Germans are advancing " " in great force up the left bank of the Vistula. It is cruel to think of the men in the trenches on a day like this. trying to hold their own against a superior attacking force.

attack was about to end in a fiasco. position. is STSIBORJITSE. 1914-1917 Krakau." the General Staff strategists should have consulted the administrative services to see whether their plan was pracIt looks to me as if the Russian strategical counter ticable.G. which has lost 50 per cent. tion with General LechitskL Lechitski asked to be in' formed of what steps Bezobrazov was taking to help the in its XlVth Corps replied that he " critical . freedom of action. Of course if we can get cartridges to-morrow to enable us really to forts of take the offensive. November zoth. of its strength. The dear old General full of anecdotes about Suvorov and Napoleon.182 With the Russian Army. He was reading a Blue Book on the causes of the war yesterday. but he had only two corps with him. and especially the 45th Division.m." I had a bet yesterday about said that every foreigner had left Russian I " 1'anee soil by Christmas Day. 1914." . it may change everything.m. Dolgoruki and 12. Friday. He ended that what is required is energetic reserves : had no " action and cartridges. but was persuaded there would be no catastrophe. having used the others to block passes in the Carpathians. " Before this offensive was ordered in order to prevent the initiative from passing into the enemy's hands.m. till 2 a. Lechitski said Cartridges you I wish you success and give you complete will have. Latter is well read and reads widely now when one would think that the Chief of Staff of a corps would have enough to do to attend to his own work. to decide on the best manner of helping the XlVth Corps on our right. A conference of the Chiefs of Staff of divisions and the and the Corps Staff sat last night from 9 p. Bezobrazov he acknowledged that the position was serious. Nostitz confirmed my guess. to-day General Bezobrazov had a conversaRifle Brigade with our G. It is a mystery to me how Radko is going to cut off Krakau from the south and west with only two corps. At ii a.O.

in the priest's house on a hill with a wide view to the south. I doubt if we killed many of them. The view from the hill was splendid. west and north- Rozanov. While we ago. Rozanov's position was uncomfortable. the At Poremba Gorna we Commander of the left brigade of the 45th Division. and we walked a good part of village four versts south of the way found to keep our feet Colonel Rozanov. Our howitzers opened upon them and soon the whole stretch of ground over which they had been advancing was blotched with great black masses where the earth thrown up by the explosions covered the snow. and which is apparently the enemy's immediate objective. weak . He had west. warm. apparently. were there he had to send his last reserve of 300 men to help to meet the main attack along the railway on his He then telephoned to ask for a battalion of the right. tion. to hold four versts of front. He had only 150 cartridges per rifle in the mornhis force of 3. The Austrians had only a single battery. two light howitzer batteries and two field batteries and was further supported by the Guard Heavy Artillery Division from his left. It was bitterly cold. Rifles at Sukha to be sent to form a reserve. who speaks English.15 I found Engelhardt starting too. There had been a hard frost and the ground was covered with light snow. a Volbrom. but we produced a useful moral effect.000 tired-out men was ing and few shell . explained the situaHis brigade had been reduced to under 3.October-December. and we could clearly see the considerable strength in guns Austrian infantry advancing at the run. as the greater part of its right had been cut off and made prisoners on the railway six versts to the west three days His men occupied a front of four versts. for they stayed quiet in their trenches as long as we watched. far too Engelhardt sent off a report and sketch recommending that a brigade of the ist Guard Division should be sent in support. though the distance was four versts. 1914 When 183 We starting at 9.000 men. rode eleven versts north-west to Poremba Gorna.

1914. Owing to Gershelmann and Rodzianko's expedition yesterday. Rode to Poremba Gorna I would drive and found the Preobrajenskis about to take over from Colonel Rozanov. ammunition has been brought from Skorjisk to Myekhov by motor-car.184 With the Russian Army. Hence which happens to occupy entrenchments when the frost comes and disinclination of both All country roads become passable. The first echelons of our parks filled up there to-day and arrived at the front at about 2 p. The Austrians are advancing all along the front from Volbrom to Sukha. the railway there having been opened meanwhile. Their artillery was much more active to-day in shelling our advanced trenches. A fine. but had been repulsed by our artillery. and when they arrived they were told that there was no ammunition I there and no one chance of it had ever heard that there was any being there. STSIBORJITSE. except Dolgoruki. who offered to come Too cold.m. frost. but I fancy their movement is not a very serious one. facilitating the problem of supply for the Russians. is intense. November 2ist. sunny day to if ! with a hard Gould get no one come with me. 1914-1917 understand that the rear echelons of our parks went to Annopol on the Vistula to fetch ammunition. suffer On the other hand. Points about this winter warfare are practically advantage of the side It is : impossible to entrench. thus sides to attack. Ammunition was picked up on their return at Ostrovets. The enemy had made three separate attempts to advance along the railway. and some men have been The Finlandski Regi- ment's trenches are at a distance of sixty yards from those of the Austrians at Yangrot. The of the cold in the trenches at night frostbitten. Saturday. the wounded from the cold and from . The other echelons are following. The parks are now at Stopnitsa.

2nd and 5th Armies (thirteen corps against five !). to the intense cold. XVIIth. 10 p.October-December. The Germans Guard Reserve and Landwehr neighbourhood of move north as soon as in the Corps and the Breslau garrison Velyun and Ghenstokhov. Gun-fire went on all night. will relieved by Austrians. the XXth and XXVth (Reserve) Corps. The idea is that we can hold our own in south-west Poland.m. If it goes far enough the Russians might score a great victory with the ist. On the two lines they have from right to left. Position according to a summary of information received from the south-west Front to-night. Staff of the Qth The Army flatters itself that it was its rapid advance that forced the 4th Austrian Army (originally designed for Chenstokhov) to deploy further south to cover the north-east section of the Krakau defences. Owing. Xlth. gth Army. (6 of frost is but there Reausaid to be no change in the general position this morning. Another bright morning. 1914. an airman can only cover about twenty-five versts at a stretch. and to-day at daybreak relieved the right brigade of the same division north of the railway ist The and west of Volbrom. Guard Division relieved the left brigade of the 45th Division yesterday. but colder mur). to-night I met a long line of ambulance cars arriving to carry off the seriously wounded men in the brigade of the 45th Division. covered in front by five cavalry first divisions : the IXth. 1914 185 the jolting on the rough roads. Coming away from Poremba Gorna Sunday. dated . STSIBORJITSE. points regarding the general situation are gleaned from a summary sent yesterday by the staff. Strategical aerial reconnaissance is impossible. The German advance up the left bank of the Vistula seems a very risky move. November 22nd. The Germans are advancing in two groups the : The following on Lodz and the second on Lovich.

To fill the gap between the left of the 5th Army and the right of the 4th occasioned by the former's move northward. and the Xth Corps with the 74th Division on Tuesday. November z^rd. 1914. . know Army is bank of Vistula to strengthen our The 8th Army is to cover the 3rd Army's left as far as possible. much mutiny. Of course. and who had walked the seventy-five versts to railhead at Kyeltsi. to-morrow. It is the obvious duty of the General in charge of the civil movement till governor he of troops at Kyeltsi to worry the has set apart proper accommodation. Sovorov 1 tells me that there is abundance of rifle ammunition in Russia. 1914-1917 November " regular gachis. The two corps of the 3rd Army to cross are the XXIst. Monday. because they do not complain. The 3rd to send two corps to the left left." will 2ist. only to find that no train was ready to take him and no waiting-room was ready to accommodate him till one arrived. General Alexyeev said the other day that he had no more shrapnel to send ! Rodzianko gives a heartrending account tion of the of the condi- wounded crowding the streets at Myekhov and Kyeltsi. the dearth of proper communications 1 less is more Staff of the Qth Army. It is another Russian superstition that their wounded are stronger than the wounded of other nations. the 24th. Transport to to be ready to move in any direction. Rodzianko saw an unfortunate man who had been shot through the body in three places. but the difficulty is to get it to the front owing to the miserable railway service. On the other hand. a We rear is the result in a few days. the Guard Cavalry Divisions and Tumanov's Cavalry Corps are being sent west to Petrokov. it is feared that there is a shortage of shell. STSIBORJITSE. with no place to go to where they might get food or even warmth. is extraordinary as Nostitz says.i86 With the Russian Army.

Golovin did not know of them till daylight. are only advancing by route march from Novo Alexandriya. one of them asleep. without completing to strength by drafts and without fitting railways are men with winter clothing.October-December. The staff was in a small hut. was furnished by two squadrons of the Grodna Hussars. In the second room there were five officers. The Illrd Caucasian Corps has only 6. the orderlies. like those of other corps. There was a table and two chairs.500 rank and file left. I drove with Rodzianko to Myekhov. Its escort. The now blocked with warm clothing. and the . November 24th. as the western half of the village is still in the hands of the Austrians. to collect supplies of food and of ammunition. and its drafts. STSIBORJITSE. that cannot at present be delivered. There was general depression this morning owing to the receipt of orders to prepare for retreat in case of necessity.M." and that the G. then went on to the 5th Field Artillery Battery of the 2nd Division of the Guard. and the Commander sent an orderly with me to show me the way to the staff of the Finlandski Regiment in the village of Yangrot. I of frost. in the first room. The gth Army has received orders to attack. It was a grand sunny day I after a night of eight degrees rode out alone to the 3rd Heavy Artillery Division near Sukha. but found bullets whistling down the street and the men running doubled up. but the staff of the army threw no light on the situation. 1914 to 187 blame than even slackness in organisation. for lack of infantry. It is said that they were issued " by Lechitski.m. Tuesday. are passed on to the front. on his own. 1914. After the Vistula battles we advanced without waiting to organise our rear services. but no beds. and amout our munition trains have to wait while trains with Imperial gifts for the troops.Q. with the exception of the telephonists. I had been told that all Yangrot was in our hands. The orders arrived at 2 a.

back occasionally to warm themselves.O. . The Adjutant of the regiment took me out and explained the position. Only two companies out of the sixteen in the Finlandski night. was in the house. or the observation point on its immediate right. The Austrians are in great force and our attack. To-day was the ninth day that these poor permission. of the Preo- brajenski who knew me took me to the priest's house and pointed out the damage that a shell had done four or five had fallen between two rooms. and in the opinion of the officers it is impossible for the regiment to advance with its present strength. and not the church which was just behind it. 1 " return the battery gave me tea in their Mess a comfortable dugout. for it. The cold in the trenches. and it is a miracle that only a single man was contusioned. Spies must certainly have given information that Count Ignatiev. is The enemy fellows had been in this miserable hut. 1914-1917 floor was I littered with straw on which the officers sleep at was told not to stand or sit near the window. One officer had been killed to-day and another yesterday. but the danger of doing so is so great that few avail themselves of the strongly entrenched with machine-guns in trees. the Commander of the Regiment. Regiment are in reserve . It dently fired at by the Austrian gunners. A N.000 yards. The left of the regiment had advanced some 1. the remaining fourteen are continually in the trenches. moved up reserves to meet . men who had got to the end of their nerve- On my House/ officers. They gave me the impression of resistance.i88 With the Russian Army. both of which were crowded with orderlies". had been evihours earlier. but with loss. The men are allowed to go especially at night.O. I took a snapshot of the I then rode to Poremba Gorna. as bullets might come in two horses had been killed just beside the house a few hours earlier. is intense.

000 rank and file. and 3. November 2$th. and one forms the reserve of the 2nd Division. He said we would wait for Radko Dimitriev. It was warmer this morning with Rodzianko to Zadroje. The Semenovski Regiment has lost ten officers killed and twenty wounded since the beginning of the war. The front occupied from somewhat south of the railway to northwest of Sukha is just under four versts. Austrians will attempt any very serious attack. " " I heard on return that the offensive had had even worse luck in other parts of the field. but the The strength of the regiment did not admit of attack. The Preobrajenski Regiment has STSIBORJITSE. and has now only nine officers and 500 men. 1914. No more news from the north. 1914 The Preobrajenski Regiment has now in firing-line 189 three battalions and supports and one battalion in Kehlm in regimental reserve. difficulty now is that it is impossible to entrench when advancing. The three battalions have four companies in support and eight in firing-line. Wednesday. I told him what I that we had not sufficient weight to carry an thought division : offensive through as we are situated at present. The Grenadierski Regiment in advancing stumbled on to a whole hostile and a battalion was practically wiped out.October-December. The General thought we should be in a very dangerous I don't think the position for the next three or four days. The Grenaderski Regiment yesterday lost very heavily. I rode out . and I fear that in this case no news cannot be good news. where we lunched with General Etter of the Semenovski Regiment. General Bezobrazov sent for me after supper and asked me my opinion on what I had seen. so hard is the ground. The Moskovski Regiment has only sixteen officers left. This will take time. Three battalions of this regiment are in corps reserve. The officer considered that the front was not too long for defence. about zero.

The 30.000 drafts for the gth Army. has only 6. will be only a drop in the bucket. The 4th Army is slightly superior on paper. the Illrd Caucasian. I heard afterwards that he had been deprived of his command. our losses will be three times as lost forty-eight officers killed great. which are said to be on their way. infantry is much of it excellent. There are apparently nine divisions opposed to the 4th Army four German and five Austrian. but the 3rd Army has moved five divisions across the Vistula to strengthen our left. STSIBORJITSE. being blamed for the failure of his regiment on the 24th. 1914. and he seemed very worried. lost sight of in Russia.500 rank left. The necessity for rapid refilling of casualties owing to the enormous losses of modern war has been. These two causes do not so much affect the artillery. fact that one officer and six men in his frozen to death in a single night. We have lost several men frozen to death in the trenches A captured Austrian officer's diary revealed the at night.With the Russian Army. and if we have to advance in the winter. and to have reached Kyeltsi. 1914-1917 and wounded out of seventy. Saturday. November 2$th. The Commander of the Grenaderski Regiment came in to supper last night. I fear. but he thinks little of our infantry. and There are eighteen Austrian divisions opposed to the fourteen very weak divisions of the gth Army. We may have 15 captured Austrian officer says that our artillery is I think the splendid. which has few losses and can generally sleep comparatively comfortably. He told me he had been sent for by the Corps Commander. I rode with Rodzianko to Myekhov and lunched with . but it suffers from the rotten arrangements for replacing casualties and from A want of cartridges and warm clothing. but it is known that one of its file corps. company had been The coldest night has ! been 9 Reaumur.

000.000.000 Army on November under strength. and to-day a telegram was sent asking that this number should be made up to 100. who are not sent of back to their regiments quick enough. where I found the staff of the Preobrajenskis had been forced to abandon the priest's house in favour of less exposed quarters further down the village. and the Army is therefore 103. marched south-west from Brezini towards Petrokov. Yesterday it was said that eighteen trains had been ordered to carry away the prisoners we hoped to take There is no fear of a catastrophe to the Russian armies ! in the north. It here being taken over was a fine day and I rode out at 10 a. our quarters by the staff of the XVIIIth Corps. to Poremba Gorna. It had first off.000.000 drafts are on their way. that it was hoped to cut The German corps near Lodz. An officer gave the number of bayonets in the gth 23rd as 93. Taking the division at 14. 1914. has escaped. in the direction of the gap left by the move north of the 5th Army. m. 1914 the staff of the gth Army. then north-east and finally escaped north-west. An officer returning from sick leave said that is full of Petrograd convalescent officers. for in this area we have only is on the other hand there cavalry to oppose them.October -December. the fourteen divisions of the army should contain 196. November 30^.000 bayonets. Monday. this house. of three cavalry and six infantry regiments towards Petrokov. but no chance of a An uncomfortable feature is the advance decisive victory. . We have been a whole fortnight in STSIBORJITSE. The Austrian heavy guns were shelling the village while I was there. " " side shows to get away on and very many whom try such as automobile machineis gun companies. General Gulevich told me that 65. The staff of the 4th Army at Vloshchova. but move north to-morrow.

! Staff of the course. which they have since held. but difficult to carry out. The first line is covered by scouts thrown forward to the neighbourhood of the Austrian trenches.With the Russian Army. which released him Division. A dog running back without any message attached for is the signal an alarm. The battalion in reserve is now changed nightly. This was was a little too hot when the Commander of this unit reported that the individual wanted to go still further left. 1914-1917 The Preobrajenskis gained a little ground on the 24th.M." The Adjutant spoke of the prevalence of espionage. so as to give the Staff of the Army less ! opportunity of exercising its high-minded generosity . of Army. These men have dogs which they use for carrying back messages to the trenches. him for a note for the unit it on their left. which equals in strength our brigade." he said. easy to write. to be a special Intelligence officer with the regiment. attaching the message to the collar. in view of the frequency of cases of frost-bite. He was arrested and sent to the Staff of the given him. that. steps must be taken to keep the men's feet warm. when not a day passes without one of the orderlies who carry the officers' lunches to the trenches being wounded. and blamed the Army Staff. I found poor old Ignatiev wringing his hands over instructions from the Corps P. rest in four little so that each battalion has one night's ! narrow the front The new arrangements will allotted to the army and so allow the men enough more rest. are supplied with hot tea. and they must be constantly " " Such orders. but The Division passed him to the There ought. He said that dangerous to pass through the Preobrajenski lines. He would enquire into cases of espionage and would send on a proper report with the individual charged.O. A man who had been passed on from the regiment on the right appeared with an order permitting it was and asked to pass through the lines.

retired The right before German of from Myekhov with our line on the north has pressure.Q.October -December. since our Governments have decided with diabolical cunning that Russia must waste her strength. He says we shall have some. we could welcome the German attempt to turn the flanks of the 2nd and 5th Armies. but in view of this report and the remarkable progress made by Radko-Dimitriev. 1914. Meanwhile the G.M. Some Russians think that not emerge too strong from the war It is a fatal weakness of this eternal line formation that ! ! it each of our armies had now a single corps in reserve. He showed me the translation of a German Army Order. at all events. Ivanov had already ordered the 9th Army to withdraw. Wednesday.D. so that she may it is he permitted it to remain. the Grand Duke's A.C. who has pushed on south of Krakau. warning the artillery to be sparing in their use of shell. N . 1914. YELCHA. to fire The battery commanders were told not at any targets unless well marked. Golovin agreed to the idea when I spoke to him of it. I drove to-day with Kotsube*. could strike the turning column in flank and overwhelm it. for we gives If no power of manoeuvre. Golovin has had agents' information that the Austrians will not defend Krakau. The Grand Duke is much is excited that Joffre has not taken the offensive . of the 65.. At lunch to-day General Bezobrazov waxed eloquent on the necessity of attacking the Austrians in our front and of invading Silesia within a week. December 2nd.000 drafts in a few days. last night Rodzianko came back grave news. December ist. and some more cartridges. our Western diplomacy that prevents the commencement of the French offensive. as the productive resources of the country would not admit of waste. he convinced that the Germans have transferred largely from the Western theatre. 1914 Tuesday. 193 YELCHA.

We found several men of the 45th Division with rifles equipped with old sights. which will be relieved to-night by the 2nd Guard Infantry Division. 1914. Battalions are commanded by ensigns. The Director of supply works badly ! YELCHA. and indeed they could not be otherwise. are being sufficiently fed.194 With the Russian Army. A General Staff Division has the i8th Division told me that his now only forty left out of the 350 with which it commenced the war. has been losing as many as seven men per day in desertions to the enemy. It is simply dried black bread packed loose in sacks. I tasted " Sukhari. talion There are now 1. 1914-1917 to visit the XlVth Corps and the 45th Division. and in consequence cannot hope One regiment to control expenditure of ammunition. The losses among officer of officers have been very great. as the present ration of 2 Ibs. generally in a dreadful state.West Front arrived a day or two ago to take his son's body back to Petrograd. Some have warm Boots are vests. but some of the absent are sick and wounded who will no doubt return.000 men of the railway bat- and 500 hired labourers. The men are tried beyond their strength by having to remain in the trenches without relief. considering the distances that the men have covered and the fact that there have been no re-issues The men say they since the commencement of the war. At present a single officer has often a verst of trench to watch. I rode with Rodzianko to see the tunnel north of Myekhov." the Russian substitute for biscuit. Thursday. Kotsub has been sent by the Grand Duke to report on equipment. He was formerly Chief of the Department of It is no wonder that the service of Military Education. but would like more bread. but the railway battalion has only been there one week. is not enough. but they are without warm drawers. . December $rd. Equipment on the South. The repair work has been going on for over two weeks.

all their People say that under the management of the Ministry of The Corps Engineer Ways twenty pairs could be run has very little to do. Myekhov. ap- parently handing over functions to the railway staff officers.O. I asked if we would move within the next ten days. It may be finished in three weeks. 1914 195 The eastern end was the more thoroughly destroyed. i. I think I can go to Warsaw and perhaps to Petrograd without the risk of missing anything. appealing to " brave the Russians to respect the last resting-place of men who had died in defending the approaches to their Some distance west of the tunnel we came upon a appears that in a collision between two trains which took place just after the demolition of the country. Only one of the two tunnels is being cleared. and the work appears to be going on very slowly..C. and is apparently waiting to increase its estimated strength of two German and two Austrian corps by drawing troops from further south. which in turn blew up two wagons full of dynamite and seventy-six men were killed.October-December. The enemy column advancing from the west against Petrokov has not yet developed its movement.e. it may The railway officials do nothing in war-time. and he would be usefully employed ! ." It tunnel. gth Army to select defensive positions in case be necessary to retire. by December 24th. How inefficiently the latter work is evident from the fact that only six trains a day now run to Andreev. and he We " rode on to the Army Staff at said." but he could not give any reason for his opinion. Meanwhile the permanent way and bridges have been repaired as far as Volbrom the farthest point occupied by our troops. Probably much sooner. I could not find out from Golovin how soon we would move. a spark from one of the engines ignited some kerosine. large grave with a cross erected by the Austrians. Meanwhile Ivanov has ordered the G.

His Chief of ' Staff.5 was stated that the sums would be paid during a period up to one month after the date of order. 1914-1917 As it in superintending the repair of roads and railways.m. which is naturally is rendered hostile. We will start at 8.196 With the Russian Army. They are supposed to feed all details on the road to and from the front. YELCHA. Unfortunately the order was not distributed for and in any case no arrangements had been made to provide the ready money. is. is in front. profitable business. 1 positive that we could our front if we were ordered to . There is no great Austrian strength Boldirev. and try to motor through to Warsaw in one day. and Rs. Friday.30 a. squash the Austrians on If Bezobrazov had ordered a flank attack advance. An for instance of bad administration It the order offering rifle rewards of Rs. The work of the etapes leaves much to be desired. Their failure to do this results in the robbing of the local population.6 for the return of a Russian an Austrian. Rode out with Rodzianko to see Dragomirov x at the Headquarters of the 2nd Guard Division at PorembaDjerjna. December tyh. by the Semenovski Regiment on the 24th. 1914. so the local population soon gave up rifle-hunting as an una whole month after its date. he only advises on fortification of positions and is vaguely responsible for engineer material. Afterwards Chief of Staff of the South-West Front and commander of a corps. He tells me that he can now organise reliefs in six days in the trenches and three days in his trenches reserve. eldest son of the famous General. the Grenadierski Regiment would have been saved. is unlikely to be any important move in this area during the next ten days I told him I would go to Warsaw and perhaps Petrograd As General Bezobrazov says there to-morrow with Staff-Captain Chertkov." Vladimir Dragomirov.

15. The latter has made good progress. no ammunition depot advance of Andreev.000 men are expected in the ! Army by December 7th.000 drafts between Myekhov and Radom. We stopped at Myekhov for fifteen minutes and at Radom to dine for seventy minutes. being no longer able to bear the rigour of the trenches. with few officers. the older ones It was had a hopeless expression. but to-day was bright. 1914.000 and wounded in these opera- WARSAW. The whole yesterday. most of the men straggling anyhow. and arrived at Warsaw at 7. interesting to note the expressions of the the young looked keen and happy. We men .000 killed and 100. passed about 9.October -December. There is Men over thirty are. useless at the front. prisoners tions. the IXth Corps on his left penetrating a fortified position south-west of that town yesterday. 1914 Brusilov assist is 197 Radko sending the XXIVth and Vlllth Corps to south of Krakau. with few in exceptions. fifteen to the enemy. It is said that drafts of 32. and it was appreciably warmer as we neared Warsaw. occupying Wieliezka.30 a wonderful performance for 150 miles on roads crowded with transport. in one regiment officers and 1. U It was 6 of Reaumur last night. December tyh. Saturday. Perhaps An officer who had been specially detailed to examine the condition of the men in the trenches in the gth Army stated to-night that. .000 men deserted ment was left in a single night. The The General is me only danger now of the flank attack towards Petrokov. It is the 5th Army was heavily engaged said that the Germans have lost 12. The ! regi- with only tells five officers and 850 men to-night that the German attack in the Lovich direction is supposed to have failed. in a 2nd category division of the gth XVIIIth Corps. Chertkov and I got off at 10.

m. The from Tsyekhanov on I German aeroplanes throw bombs daily on Warsaw. Warsaw is full of rumours as usual. He has been right through Neilson has just come in. Tuesday. the Military Governor. and will be able to give a connected account of them. We will go to Petrograd together to- morrow. He has no fears for the safety of two prepared defensive lines.m.m. Those returning had the two-wheeled small arms ammunition carts piled with extra boxes. It is arrest all found necessary now for the Warsaw police to rank and file in the streets after 9 p. one seventy kilometres long and the other thirty. for Germans in the north have retired Mlava. as he tells me there are ! . 6 a.. I had only I talked till 2 a. on Sunday. He estimates the German strength between the Vistula and Lask at thirteen corps The Russians have taken 15. 1914. so many stragglers from the front having been found. 1914-1917 which is railhead. had to go to the the first time.With the Russian Army. General Staff officers examine all officers' papers. All the hotels are full. and that the movements of the battle will perhaps remain for ever a military secret. December Neilson and PETROGRAD. on Sunday morning. these operations.000 Warsaw. and this. I noticed the parks going and coming. just got to sleep when Maxim rang me up to say he had been arrested and was in the Citadel. has been found very necessary. and Warsaw is once more crowded with fugitives. I went to see General Turbin. He was released at 8th. but who can underlast battle ! stand the movements of this Russians say that Russians and Germans were fighting in concentric circles. and Europe instead of the Bristol. The Germans who broke through are terrorising the countryside. too.

and we passed several troop trains on our way to by December I4th. and he told me that he was now left without troops. and is estimated at 950. I understand that this means that the 4th and 9th Armies will move back. and have been training for two to three months.m. but failed Poland relieved pressure on the in its more ambitious attempt . and he estimates the total German loss 120.October-December.. It is said that 270.000. He wounded.e.000. Ten thousand Opolchenie yesterday. The new men belong to the Opolchenie. Lodz and Lovich are stated to-night to have The Ambassador thinks me very pessimistic ! AFTERNOTE Hindenburg's first offensive in Austrians in Galicia. the 5 p.000 training and 73.000 reservists. acknowledges a Russian loss of 53. 1914 German at 199 prisoners. and they have all been sent to the front. This year's contingent should join in from three to five weeks. He had at one time nine divisions. Tuesday the 8th.30 a.e. all losses will be filled up in eight days. who looked excellent material. He is sending off large reinforcements left now almost has still daily. i. the Commander of the left We Warsaw on Sunday by Petrograd Military District.000 probably with killed 70.m. He here 67. at 8.000. I met General Van der Fliet.000 men are now on their way to the front and that i.. Rennenkampf has been succeeded in command of the ist Army by Litvinov. I saw a lot at Warsaw. fallen. Byelostok.000 (and with prisoners 100. concentrating south of Krakau with the idea evidently of turning our left. The com- The Austrians are munique states that on this account the Ghenstokhov region has for the time being lost its importance. train and reached Petrograd to-day. as Rodzianko told me). this morning. four regular and five reserve.

. as the offensive group advanced. With the extreme wings holding back.000. should have been sufficient time to enable the Austrians to gain a decision on the San. This may be exaggeration. and the German 8th Army in East Prussia. but the losses were certainly considerable. 1914-1917 Warsaw. though in very of that province inferior strength. 4th and Qth should have moved forward in more compact formation. became more and more extended.200 against With the Russian Army. In Galicia the 3rd and 8th Armies were to advance to secure the left. Some Russians consider that after the defeat of the first attempt on Warsaw the Russian Supreme Command should have fortified the Bzura and Ravka in advance of Warsaw. in his opinion. made good practically unscathed. and that the armies of the group in that case the 5th. However. The ist and 2nd Armies guarded the immediate right of the offensive group. Unfortunately the progress made by Radko Dimitriev and Brusilov was slow. while General Sievers with the loth Army once more invaded East Prussia from the east.000 to 70. covering the right of the offensive group with cavalry only. and finally to compel their retreat on the night of the iSth-igth October. The whole movement assumed the character of an eccentric advance. Army The enemy. the Russian front. Radko Dimitriev and Brusilov held fast. however. and invited another counterstroke from an enemy who had all the best of the communications. prevented the second invasion from becoming a real danger. Then the Grand Duke launched the 5th. and the Russian Command was able to concentrate sufficient force before Warsaw to turn the German left. his further retreat to the frontier of though pursued by overwhelming forces Russian cavalry. 4th and Qth Armies through South.West Poland with the idea of invading Silesia and moving by the valley of the Oder on Breslau. The Russian Governor of Warsaw estimated the losses of the 9th an before the fortress at 60. retaining each at least one corps in reserve. fulfilled its Army Ludendorff considers that the German gih task by drawing the bulk of the Russians north and holding them on the Vistula for what.

and the Russian armies stumbled slowly As in August in on. hoping for something to turn up.October-December. the Grand Duke's plans were governed by a chivalrous desire to help the Allies in the West. as it were. 1914 The lowness of the 201 remaining stocks of ammunition and the temporary weakness of the Russian effectives rendered the ambitious movement a gigantic bluff. East Prussia. The enemy had destroyed the railways thoroughly. .cost what the effort might to Russia.

Upper Silesia 3rd Ludendorff suggested to Hindenburg the concentration of the gth Army under Mackenzen in the neighbour- On November of Thorn and its advance up the left bank of the Vistula to deal the Russians such a blow as would not only bring their armies in the bend of the Vistula to a standstill once and for all. but crush them decisively. " The exact date on which the Russians received their first information of the concentration near Thorn is not known. Certain of the mines were destroyed. and the Russian advance towards Silesia was regarded as a real danger which demanded in serious precautionary measures. Staff. and so put an end to their offensive. 103. It is possible that the ist Army had commenced a day or two earlier 1 Ludendorff.V :> CHAPTER V HINDENBURG'S SECOND OFFENSIVE IN POLAND THE OPERATION OF LODZ NOVEMBER-DECEMBER. AND SKETCHES A AND B He retained ON November 1st Hindenburg was appointed Commander-inforces in the East. Chief of the German Ludendorff as his Chief of The German Command was apparently without accurate information of the weakness of the Russian army. 1914 REFERENCE MAP No." l By November loth five and a half army corps and five cavalry divisions were assembled. first to overwhelm the left of the ist Russian Army and then to turn the right of the 2nd Army and so roll up the whole Russian hood offensive. 203 . The idea was to advance rapidly. and youths of serving age were evacuated to the West. V. p.

Mackenzen began his advance on November nth. commenced to change front to the right. including the Ilnd. taking 12. Rennenkampf threw the Vlth Siberian Corps across to the left bank of the Vistula at Plotsk. and occupied Vlotslavsk. The 1st Army had on that date two corps on the left bank of the Vistula. Rennenkampf 's Vlth Corps was attacked on the right bank of the river. but passed some units over to the left or southern bank. 203 but up to the night of November I3th no corresponding move had been made by the other armies. 25. His idea On was apparently to deploy his army on a line from Strikov to the west of Lenchitsa.West Front had under-estimated the German strength and His army narrowly escaped being cut to rapidity of movement.November-December. the Commander of the Russian 2nd Army. The 2nd Army was on the Varta. in spite of its hard according to hands. German claims. which had been handed over from the 2nd Army some days previously. On the 1 2th his left corps drove back the Vth Siberian Corps (1st Army). and the Ilnd Siberian and XXIIIrd Corps of the 2nd Army. the Germans attacked in overwhelming strength the Ilnd Corps (left corps. pieces in detail. Scheidemann.000 prisoners.000 prisoners in the enemy's The remains of the Ilnd Siberian Corps retreated from Lenchitsa to Lodz the XXIIIrd Corps took up a line west of Lodz . . marching and fighting. with the 5th Army two marches in rear in echelon on its left. He and the Staff of the North. the I4th. Further south the 4th and Qth Armies were waiting for the 3rd Army (Radko-Dimitriev) to come forward from the San in order to storm the Austrian trenches and invade Silesia. on the I4th. 2nd Army). . facing north-east. On the I5th l and i6th the Vth Siberian. and flanking the German advance up the left bank of the Vistula. were all engaged and lost heavily. Vlth Siberian and Ilnd Corps of the ist Army. 1914 to concentrate to its left. 1 See Sketch A. ist Army) and the XXIIIrd Corps (right corps. leaving. Further south.

only reached a line a short distance north of Lodz. The enemy's XXVth the 6th Reserve Corps and 3rd Guard Division. for the remains of the Vlth. 2 to a victory on a par with Cannae. cavalry soldier. of families German by origin.204 With the Russian Army. Little help was to be hoped for from the 1st Army. XVIIth and XXth Corps. the Commander of the ist Army. of the type that z fills the eye See Sketch B. The Breslau Corps was already turning his left near Kazimerj. The success of the plans depended upon their intelligent translation into action by Rennenkampf. i . p. 1 Scheidemann's position became critical. In the previous three days he had frittered away much of his army in trying to stem the German advance. reached practically the position he had occupied four days previously on the line Belkhatov-Kamensk. Die Schlacht bei Lodz. The arrangements for the rescue of the 2nd Army were worked out by General Ruzski at the Headquarters of the North. marching north. with Cavalry Division. were of very different type. the Commander of the 5th. and on the I7th. continued his march to the west and touched the Varta on the i6th. On the 17th. the Commander of the 2nd Army. Vth Siberian and Vlth Siberian Corps were driven further up the left bank of the Vistula and further apart from the 2nd Army by the 1st Reserve Corps on the I7th and i8th. the 1st Corps was forced back to the south-east of Lodz. and by Plehve. These two men. were working round his right flank. 1914-1917 the IVth Corps. His front was being forced back south on Lodz by the attack of the XI th. like Scheidemann. occupying Velyun with his cavalry. 33. about twenty-five versts west and south-west of Petrokov. with the 5th Army. but long of Russian citizenRennenkampf was the dashing ship. Sedan or But the Grand Duke's counter-measures were not bad/'. the evening of the i8th the German Command thought it had the whole 2nd Army in its grasp. He was then ordered to retire. after a forced march. It looked forward by On November 20th " Tannenberg. Meanwhile Plehve. personally brave.West Front.

" [See page 1 94 . Officers of the 5th Battery. of Yangrot.W. 1914. Poland.24th November. To face page 204] Yelcha Rodzianko and telephone " sentry. S. 1914. E. 2nd Guard Artillery Brigade [See page 188 2nd December.

1915. In Prince Lyubomirski's chateau at Mala Vyes.January. 1915. [See page 234 . Headquarters 5th Army [See page 227 25th January. Mogilnitsa. The Operations Section of the Staff of the 5th Army.

detail. while Rennenkampf is Staff. before the war. generally blamed for failing to take full advantage of the turn in the tide and for allowing the Germans to escape. but remember. He was unpopular. or I place ' : you under arrest. Further south the 4th and gth Armies were directed to attack the enemy in their front in order to prevent at Five cavalry divisions were sent to fill the gap between the 5th and 4th Armies. ' ' " " could not bear the sight of it any longer. Plehve was more of the Moltke school. and he finally told him one day off instructions." Plehve looked at the youngster for a second or two from under his thick eyebrows. twentieth century he was an anachronism and a danger. Plehve lost no time. The loth Division (Vth Corps) was all costs further transfers to the north.November -December. and sometimes in the middle of the night was known to send changing or modifying those issued by the Miliant seems to have got on Chief of Staff a few hours earlier. make it to the Chief of Staff. and weak Rennenkampf had been personally popular in Vilna men. had the reputation of interfering too much in except with his immediate associates. . with a logical mind and an iron will. Miliant. 1914 as a leader of 205 in health. and then said Have you come." Orders were received for the 5th Army to move north to the assistance of the 2nd. Miller. Little Father. to play a tragedy or to make a report ? If you have a report to make. though he worked his men and horses hard. Plehve was small and old and bent. no tragedy-playing. the 2nd Army is surrounded and will be forced to surrender. Months later admirers of liked to describe how Plehve on the Staff of the 5th Army an orderly officer from Scheidemann rode : up to the General on the march and called out in a state of breathless excitement Your Excellency. popular. to take his his nerves badly. It is natural that it was Plehve with the 5th Army that saved the 2nd Army from overwhelming disaster." as he snout away Plehve worked in complete unison with his brilliant Chief of Rennenkampf might have been a Murat if he had In command of an army in the lived a hundred years earlier. Plehve. for he was very exacting and took no pains to make himself Rennenkampf was on bad terms with his Chief of Staff. in Moscow.

On that night the 1st Siberian Corps relieved Scheide- by driving back a division of the German Xlth Corps with the bayonet. It was supported on the left by the XlXth Corps. units before enemy forces . The 7th Division (Vth Corps) moved to Lask in reserve. the Commander of the XXVth Reserve Corps. twenty-five kilometres south-east of Lodz. rail before the line was cut by the The remaining three regiments of troops at Tushin on the iQth. but had caught up the main body by marches averaging fifty kilometres a day. the division engaged German ordered to Skernevitsi on the ijih. so that by nightfall they had completely turned Scheidemann's flank and faced Lodz from the south. and to him was allotted the bold task of enveloping the right flank of the 2nd Russian Army.206 With the Russian Army. the i8th he stormed Brezini and bivouacked that night south of the town. but troops of the XXVth Corps reached Bendkov. 1914-1917 One regiment got through by German cavalry at Kolyushki. succeeded in fighting their way further west. On the igth the advance was continued to the south and west. while the 6th Cavalry Division reconnoitring in advance reached twelve kilometres north of Petrokov. Schaffer was also given the 6th Cavalry Division. On the other hand. the 6th Cavalry Division had been forced to withdraw marching north from Petrokov. and if Schaffer had been aware of the failure of the right flank of the gth German Army he must have realised that little hope remained of surrounding the 2nd Army. but the mann's left greater danger lay on the right or eastern flank. a point the following day the Guard and one division of the XXVth Corps. had been joined by the 3rd Guard Division. which had detrained after Mackenzen's advance had commenced. with little opposition. The left of the 2nd Army was temporarily secured. which had On come through from the north. together with the Qth Cavalry Division. On the morning of the 2ist. On western flank of The 3rd Guard Division on the right or the penetrating force was severely engaged. There General Schaffer. The whole of the remainder of the 5th Army marched north on the 1 8th. which routed the Breslau Corps on the igth.

which was very weak. probably of the 1st bent back facing south. now Major.November-December. 1914 of the 207 were Corps. and from Skernevitsi on the 2ist. and did not even know whether the 2nd Army was still in being. All supplies had to be Skernevitsi. the ist Army launched two forces from the neighbourhood of Lovich on the 20th. was replaced by General Count Shuvalov. Captain. but only advanced five miles Its original orders that day as the Ilnd Corps was held back by pressure from the north-west. Neilson. with the exception of the 43rd Division. accompanied the Lovich Force.m. a retired cavalry officer and friend of General The Force had been staff. the 63rd Division and the 6th Siberian Division. : counter-attacks. late of the loth Hussars. Many of the wounded were . frozen to death. In some cases half of the guns of a heavy division faced south and the other half north. To save the situation. It effected nothing. which Guard reached the southern suburbs of Lodz. and there was deep snow on the ground. Its units were up to strength. The cold was intense 10 to 15 of frost (Reaumur). were to advance with all possible speed in close contact with the Ilnd Corps on its right. and in consequence the All intercommunication was carried out by mounted orderly. The Lovich Force consisted of four columns from right to left. The Staff at the time the Force started was completely in the dark regarding the general situation. which had been railed forward from Warsaw. The Skernevitsi Force consisted of one regiment of the loth Division and the 55th Division. hastily Rennenkampf formed and was without proper . the Commander of the Force. It started on November 20th. conveyed by road from troops were irregularly fed. transport or medical services. Its right wing was now confined to a narrow strip about seven miles wide. About 6 p. but driven back was now The 2nd Russian Army was being constantly pressed from the north. the 43rd Division. and on no account to halt till it reached the 2nd Army. by the ist Turkistan Brigade. General^ Slyusarenko.

while the two left columns. and the 43rd Division halted four miles to the south of that town. and Count Shuvalov gave place to General Vasiliev. probably owing to orders received from the Staff of the North. and among them were many telegraphists from the German XXth.West Front. The Commander of the Force was changed for the second time in thirty-six hours. That day the right and left columns of the Lovich Force had captured Strikov and Brezini after severe house-to-house fighting. 1914-1917 the 2 ist the four columns advanced twelve to thirteen On miles. On the same day the German Ist Reserve Corps failed in an attempt to take Lovich. At 7 p. who brought with him Colonel Menshukov as his Chief of Staff. reported to be in Strikov and Brezini. men but liberated 600 Russian prisoners. and the Turkistan Brigade lost heavily. the Commander of the Vlth Siberian Corps. The attack on Strikov took place in a thick mist. were ordered to move southeast of the right (or eastern) flank of the 2nd Army and along the Skernevitsi-Lodz railway. the ist Turkistan Brigade and the 43rd Division.m.208 With the Russian Army. The Staff of the Force moved to Volya Tsirusova in rear of the the In . The two right columns. The 63rd and 6th Siberian progress. and the leading units halted for the night on a front of ten miles from one mile north-east of Strikov to five miles north-east So far no opposition had been met. Late in the evening about 100 prisoners were captured by the 43rd Division. On the 22nd the ist Siberian Division (Ist Siberian Corps) was moved east and flung back Schaffer's advanced troops. The staff spent the night at Glovno. XXVth and Guard Corps who had lost their units. the 63rd and 6th Siberian Divisions. The original orders were modified. At nightfall the ist Turkistan Brigade billeted with the Ilnd Corps in and north-east of Strikov. the latter reaching the village of Kolyushki four miles south of Brezini. were now directed to march through to the 2nd Army. Schaffer received orders from the Army Command to retire north and re-establish his line of communications by driving the Russians from Brezini. but the enemy was of Brezini. Divisions made good 6th Siberian lost 700 taking Brezini especially in officers.

reported that three German columns. but very reluctantly and much too late. which was occupied by the troops of the 1st Corps. As the advance of the right and left columns was likely to be further delayed. a small semi-circle. or possibly only he and his Staff. reserves. the centre columns the 43rd and 63rd Divisions were ordered to march through to join the 2nd Army. an unpleasantly exciting drive through forests in the dark. and Lodz was found to be still in Russian hands. Captain Neilson motored with two officers in the morning from Volya Tsirusova to the Headquarters of the 1st Corps south-east He found the corps " in a most unpleasant situation. but he and his troops had been badly hustled.November-December. The enemy strength opposing each column was estimated at about a brigade. The Commander of the 1st Corps was implored to move. The Commander of the 63rd Division consented to move. heavy and field guns in artillery. Staff. Touch was established with the 2nd Army. of Lodz.m. estimated at three divisions.m. The 43rd and 63rd Divisions reached the lines of the 1st Corps (2nd and 3 p. and had been cowed into He and they. and asked for help. lacked passivity. which was now isolated in a position facing south on the railway west of Kolyushki." O . to the nearest units of the 6th Siberian Division cannot at this time have exceeded four miles ! Captain Neilson left the Staff of the 1st Corps and motored " after to Brezini. At 5 from the south.m. all mixed and pointing in all directions. The right column remained at Strikov with the Ilnd Corps. 1914 209 63rd Division. Yet the distance from Andrjespol. huddled together. the 6th Siberian Division. and finally decided to ask the Army Commander. were marching against it latter did nothing. respectively. and was visited there in the afternoon by General Rennenkampf. He hesiThe tated. to Brezini. where he rejoined the Staff of the Lovich Force. On the 23rd the Staff of the Force moved at 10 a.m. the reserve of stamina necessary for renewed effort. Army) at 4 p." p. blindly evading enemy columns. all transport.

marching every night. and the Staff. and the 63rd Division was in the neighbourhood of Andrjespol. escaped with some difficulty. and also Novikov's Cavalry Corps. nothing to eat for three days. on the 24th he was awakened by shooting in the streets. Each Two short extracts from Captain Neilson's diary of this night are : interesting Prisoners state that the Germans know they are surrounded. and at 5 a.West Front and the ist Army. But why was this not known The information might have been conveyed through in time ? the 5th Army.m. They continuous fighting. Neilson At . fatigue. the Staff of the North.m. and certainly the terrible climatic conditions conduced to pessimism. 300 prisoners and a number of machine-guns. went to sleep at Brezini on the floor of the hut occupied by the Staff. The motor-cars were frozen. or it might have been obtained directly on the spot by ordinary reconnaisance by the numerous Russian cavalry Kaznakov's and Gharpentier's divisions which were in touch with It the Staff of the Lovich Force. was not known till the following day that in rear of the German columns and only a very short distance from them were the ist Siberian Division and the loth Division of the 5th Army. XXVth and Guard Reserve it is thought that the German main body of the strength of three corps is marching north against the 6th Siberian Division. which was without escort. To-day was extremely cold very hard cold frost. At nightfall the Division was entrenched on the line Yanovka-Galkov. considerably have had ten days' Again : As the prisoners have been taken from all three corps XXth.210 With the Russian Army. side exaggerated the difficulties of its own position. It eventually assembled in an armoured train at the station of i a. 1914-1917 The 6th Siberian Division fought well all day and captured two batteries complete with teams and wagons. Their spirits have fallen and hunger.

He eventually rejoined the gth German Army.m.m. the division retired to the north. The Caucasian Cavalry Division (Charpentier). abandoned by everyone. power of endurance and intelligence of all ranks. for the Ilnd Russian Corps was that day outflanked and driven back to the north-east. though Strikov and Glovno. the exploits of this penetrating force of three infantry and two cavalry divisions afforded remarkable proof of the wonderful efficiency of the units concerned. The Russian Command had expected to make a large capture. It seems on the whole probable that the details of the instructions to the Lovich Force . apparently un- noticed by the Russians. the genius for bold leadership of the command.500 making It their way eventually to Skernevitsi.. who did not pursue till daylight.m. and the training.November-December. enfiladed from both flanks and attacked in front. costs. After his destruction of the 6th Siberian Division on the 24th.000 prisoners had been captured. had lost touch with all columns and remained a helpless spectator Siberian Division. on the 22nd. and the Germans claim that he not only lost no guns and few wounded. retired at once. of the destruction of the 6th The enemy worked round both flanks had been ordered to hold its ground at all relieve its right it of the division. dispersed. can have been no easy task for Schaffer to withdraw troops that were in close contact with the enemy. Whether the German official claim be well founded or not. 1914 Kolyushki. all his columns were in movement five hours later. which was supposed to guard its left or eastern flank. but. In the gth Army. then near Krakau. though he had only received the order to retire at 7 p. which An attempt to can only have been a half-hearted attempt by the 63rd Division failed about 9 a. his line of retreat was clear. it was actually stated that 26. Finally at n a.000 prisoners and sixtyfour captured enemy guns. but carried with him in his retirement 16. It 211 of the Force. They had ordered eighteen trains to take the captives away. and finding Brezini occupied. some of the men filtering through west to the 2nd Army and about 1.

. This line was occupied from right to came into line between the XXth Corps left by the following units Vth Siberian Corps. he failed entirely to appreciate the situation. " The Russian armies fell back to the river line/' Bzura-RavkaNida-Dunajec. and the the gth Army. 5th The Germans received large reinforcements. ist Army). after a fortnight of such strenuous fighting units on both sides were much mixed up. The Russian Command detailed two corps from the 4th and Qth Armies and moved them north. from Gombin. but it was too late. i4th Cavalry Division (Ist Cavalry Corps). 6th Siberian Division (Vth Siberian Corps. 4th Division (Vlth Corps). ist Army). 43rd Division (Ilnd Corps. The German Ilnd Corps advanced with success. 5th Army). prove to be the most interesting from the military psychological point of view of any in the war. and the German Qth Army formed once more a continuous It opposed the Russian ist. the ist and 2nd Guard Cavalry Divisions. On the I5th Lovich was lost. 67th Division (lately arrived from Petrograd). 5th Army). Guard Cossack Brigade. Tumanov's Cavalry Corps. if the Russian official records are ever published. The Russians evacuated Lodz on December 6th. badly served by his cavalry and misled by the wireless appeals from Scheidemann. Vlth Siberian Corps. 48th Reserve Division reinforced the Breslau Corps further south. to . 2nd Siberian Division (Ist Siberian Corps. I Vth Corps and XXIIIrd Corps (both of the 2nd Army). The above is a brief record of the main movements of an operation that will probably. Naturally.212 were With the Russian Army. XlXth Corps (5th Army). 1914-1917 left entirely Rennenkampf and that. The Illrd Reserve Corps and the XHIth Corps were placed on the left of The Ilnd Corps was sent to Syeradz. Caucasian Cavalry Division. 2nd and 5th Armies on a line front. Army). in advance of Lovich and north of Brezini and Lodz. which they were to hold for some seven months. The German penetrating forces and the 1st Reserve Corps. 53rd : Division. ist Siberian Division (Ist Siberian Corps. south-east of Plotsk. loth Division (Vth Corps.

He pushed the two armies apart and turned the right flank of the Russian offensive. and disorganisation of the lines of communication they were incapable of a serious offensive. to launch its lightning This was a fifteen days later. 1914 213 Throughout probably most of the eight days. This army retreated rapidly over some 200 kilometres to the German frontier without losing morale. which finally compelled the Russian retreat. in spite of its severe defeat before Warsaw and cavalry. The German Supreme Command might have done bet:er to have delayed the commencement of the offensive till the arrival of the reinforcements from France. Owing to shortage of rifles and gun ammunition. and Mackenzen's army had then been launched from the region of Mlava. no German Corps have hesitated. it would . by overwhelming Russian munications as it the subsequent pursuit It destroyed the com- went. The final order for the retreat of the German gth Army on the abandonment of Hindenburg's first offensive had been issued on October 26th. about sending help to the hard-pressed 6th Siberian Division. division and regiment leaders self-sacrificing co-operation has inestimable advantages. and concentrated further north. as the Commander of the 1st Russian Corps hesitated on the evening of the 23rd. The Russian armies might have been allowed to waste themselves for another week or two against the German and Austrian positions with little danger to the Central Powers. i8th to 25th. which allowed the Russian 5th Army to be moved north to save the situation. Then he failed. the German and Russian Supreme and Army Commands must have " been enveloped in a fog of war." In such cases the side whose have been trained in peace to corps. offensive on November nth masterpiece of organisation. If they had been allowed to stumble on to the Posen and Silesian frontier. owing to the weakness and bad timing of the German offensive further south. It replaced all losses in personnel and equipment.November-December. weakness of the effectives. He severely defeated amounting to about half of the strength of the ist and 2nd Russian Armies before those armies had time to concentrate. If commander would placed in a similar position. At units first all went well with Mackenzen.

the move north of the Russian 5th Army to the rescue of the 2nd approximates to an example of the grand tactics of the so-called French school. on the lyth. Only the knowledge that further German echelons were preparing to advance its from Velyun prevented the XlXth Corps from driving home attack against the inferior troops of the Breslau Corps. on the igth north-west of Lask. and drove the Xlth German Corps back with the bayonet on the night of the i8th. It is difficult to understand the orders . started XlXth n covered an equal distance. and without ammunition and largely without warm clothing they would have been compelled to surrender. based in comparative security on the best communications in the Empire. where. and of its strength when it advanced. which was generally good. on the a. seems to have been to blame for failing to obtain timely information of the concentration of the Qth German Army in the neighbourhood of Thorn. The work of the 5th Army was brilliant. at Prasnish. the German offensive lapsed to a merely attack and forced the Russians back to the river line. The Ist Siberian Corps started at about the same time. their armies were able to re-form. five days after the launching of the German offensive.m. marched thirty-three miles by 2 a.m. 1914-1917 have occupied Warsaw and the middle Vistula long before the Russian armies could have been recalled. 1915. Mackenzen's operation against the 2nd Army was a typical German enveloping movement. similar to the tactics at Tannenberg and to the attempt made in February.m.214 With the Russian Army. On the i6th. the 5th Army was calmly advancing ta the Varta. frontal As it was. Both of them gravely risked the defeat of their armies in detail through under-rating the German strength and rapidity of movement. The effort of the ist Army to relieve pressure on the 2nd Army was less effective. 1 8th. The Corps started on its return march from the Varta at 6 a. The Russians would have been cut off from their base.m. only to retrace its steps by forced If march the following day. and marched thirty-seven again that day at miles more. The Russian Intelligence. We can only ascribe the action of the commanders of the ist and 2nd Russian Armies to their ignorance of the situation. going into action at 7 a.

The Commanders of the two fronts were allowed much latitude.West and the South. fast to his own plan project the invasion of Silesia. It is not known whether was considered. It is evident that the division of the whole army into two fronts the North. German The risk . like the 2nd.West Front at midnight on November I3th. 2nd and 5th Armies. sufficient force from the Austrians was not great. and Ivanov naturally held fast to the Silesian idea. and there were no railways. for the 2nd Army was throughout in touch through the 5th Army with the Headquarters of the North. seems to have been for the time morally dominated by the boldness of the German It is leadership. which had been handed over from the South. It is an interesting fact that the 4th Army. . with which Rennenkampf was in direct telegraphic communication. a question whether the Grand Duke might not have detached from the front of the 4th and Qth Armies on the i6th or I7th. and the Grand Duke preferred to hold to have overwhelmed the offensive. and Ruzski was left to work out his salvation with the ist.West to the North. 1914 issued to the Lovich Force 215 by the Staff of the ist Army and the ignorance of the general situation which made the issue of such orders possible. when the situation was becoming evident. and Radko-Dimitriev might have temporarily retired to the Dunajec. when the magnitude of the German effort must have been known. Of course there were difficulties the roads for such a lateral movement were few.West militated against the conception of such a manoeuvre. The ist Army.November -December. was returned to the South-West this Front on the i8th.West Front at Syedlets.

and on the fourteenth day of mobilisation dispatched Colonel Federov of his instructions to purchase. 1915 REFERENCE MAPS Nos. The " " Dragoon. The Western Allies had already been in the market and had tapped all possible sources.." " and Carbine. remained in Petrograd from December 8th at the Ambassador's request. and then. if only succeeded in obtaining 200. VIII. till the 23rd.400 threechief deficiencies were in " rifles the aged Chief of the Artillery Department. In spite of this large stock. I2TH. department to Japan with Federov possible. ' and gun ammunition." and 362. On mobilisation there are said to have been 4.H. from the 24th till the 30th in order to consult with the Allied representatives there regarding the shortage of NEILSON munitions. an extra million.000 rifles a month. Apart from the Japanese rifles. at once realised that more would be required. though an army of commercial adventurers with more or less attractive proposals descended on Russia.019 Berdans.Q. JANUARY TO MARCH. visited G.000. which were now being gendarmerie and frontier guards. I heard some months later that General Kusmin-Karavaev. 216 . and I VII. Russian factories were said to be producing 45. line rifles of the four types.- : V CHAPTER VI WAR OF POSITION WEST OF THE VISTULA. there was little ' hope of obtaining large supplies from abroad. AND IST ARMIES IN ADVANCE OF THE NAREV. OPERATIONS OF THE IOTH. AND IX. THE GERMAN ATTACK ON THE RUSSIAN IOTH ARMY.275. received and distributed to police. releasing an equal number of three-line rifles for use at the front." Cossack Infantry.

and the moment required.414).O.000 rounds per gun. with prisoners. the stores The daily expenditure of war averaged 45. it is extremely difficult to account for a shortage after about It was ascribed. pre-war swindling or war-time slackness. 6th Army at Petrograd said on December Qth that he had to train drafts for the front with only one rifle to three men.000 out of the proper total of 5. Whatever the cause of the shortage. A proclamation offering Rs. The G. for discipline was far too slack. or altogether 5. shell in the first hundred days of . of the rifles of wounded men during retirements. and remained unpunished. and the officers and the forward area imagined that the supply in the The commanders of units did not interior was inexhaustible.G. and the men fighting had ceased. and of wounded men even during an advance. The Commander of the stated that the only obstacle to the dispatch in the next few weeks of some two million drafts was the impossibility of arming them. officially. for the comman- dants of posts on the lines of communication who were charged with the duty of their collection were already overworked.000 rounds.400.5 for each Austrian rifle had no useful result. officials in care to burden their transport with rifles which were not at that Guard Corps told me that on one occasion his corps. that the shortage existed was now evident.200.000 (3. are said to have contained 5.January -March. seen rifles lying on the battlefield two and three days after There had been many panics. Assistant Minister of War The initial reserve of artillery culated at 1. to the loss of rifles four months of war. found that Russian rifles had been used in the conI had myself on several occasions struction of overhead cover. 1915 If 217 there really were upwards of five million rifles on mobilisation.6 for each Russian rifle and Rs.824 second-line guns. The need for care in the collection of first rifles drafts arrived at the front fully had been overlooked. on taking over trenches from units of the line.590 first-line and 1. when running away threw their rifles away. The armed. ammunition had been calAs a matter of fact. Units at the front were now only half strength.

but no foreign order was expected to substantiate before March. but it was calculated that on December 3rd there could not have been more than one million Russian three-inch shell remaining in all echelons of supply.Q. could not have produced more than 300.000 a day in December and to 20. and as a matter of fact none of them pioduced anything till daily output of home factories 8. instructions had been issued for the reduction of all eight-gun batteries to an establishment of six guns.000..218 With the Russian Army. the Chief of Staff told Laguiche that a real offensive could not be undertaken till the end of July if Russia had to depend on her own I On December and resources. in consequence of the losses of guns in East Prussia. 1915. Orders had been placed for 4.000 to 2.000.000 new shell. on his appointment to be Chief of the General Staff in the The spring of 1914. Vickers had taken a contract for 2. explained that. he had recommended that the initial stocks should be raised from 1. owing to his great losses and the shortage of rifles and shell. but the Grand Duke. In November. Contracts for the delivery of 8. 1914-1917 factories. This meant that the guns of the infantry division were reduced from fortyeight to thirty-six a serious matter in consequence..Q.000 a The much later. preferred the more forward line of the Bzura-Ravka-Nida. The home was expected to rise to day by July.000 abroad. which had been engaged chiefly since mobilisation in filling shrapnel.000.000 rounds by November I5th.H.000. he was forced to retreat. had been placed in the home market. It itself. but now of no become the governing was on December i6th that the Grand Duke explained to Laguiche that. Chief of Staff at G. with soldierly instinct. as the shortage of shell had factor. General Yanushkevich. The same day Yanushkevich said that he had counselled retirement to the Vistula. The possibility of taking the offensive sooner de- pended on the supplies of shell received from abroad. Of the latter. It was impossible to obtain details.H. but war had intervened before the necessary credits had passed the Duma. while Neilson were at G. 26th.500. The . 1914.

The following is an instance. but he could do no more.January -March. especially those of Imperial from representing to the Grand rank may have in Duke matters responsible Russian officials and their suicidal desire to represent the situation in a falsely favoursecretiveness of The many able light made it at all times exceedingly difficult for allied representatives in Russia to keep their Governments posted with timely and accurate information. there is every probability that we would have suffered a great disaster. Under these regulations. still in manuscript on the first day of and were consequently known only to the officers and officials of high rank who had spent some five years in their compilation." Now we knew how things stood. it could only be regarded as a matter of congratulation that before the munitions difficulty became apparent our advance had been stopped by the German If the enemy had offensive up the left bank of the Vistula.West Front by a General who had been previous to mobilisation the Chief of the Office of the Minister of War. On September 25th General Joffre had enquired by telegram whether the resources of the British and Russian Governments permitted of the indefinite continuance of the war at the then . an interesting question whether the Grand Duke really knew of the depletion of the reserves of rifles and shell c when he telegraphed to the Allies giving a date for the occupation of Breslau. responded direct with the Ministry of War at Petrograd. the services of Equipment and Supply including Ordnance were controlled by individuals at the Headquarters of the Gommanders-in-Ghief of Fronts in the case of the North. however. These besides being little fitted by peace training for the duties they were now called upon to perform. It is possible that General Sukhomlinov's optimism and his intense desire to please prevented him their true light. The organisation of the rear services was based on regulations that were mobilisation. allowed us to enter Silesia be ore he counter-attacked.West Front by a General who had been in peace the Director-General of Military Education. and in the South. They corofficers. had no direct representative at the Grand Duke's Headquarters. 1915 Grand Duke wished to do all 219 he could. It is.

whose nerves had been shaken by his immense responsibilities as Chief of the Artillery Department." : essential to replace the almost exhausted supplies of " On most difficult conditions.West Front had telegraphed to the Artillery Department : known that the "It is October 26th Ivanov had telegraphed Supplies If not replenished. in 1909 after holding for three Originally an months the post of Chief of the General Staff.220 With the Russian Army. Unfortunately. an honourable old man. they did not. officials at Petrograd received ample warning." How strange it is that orders were not then placed abroad ! Sukhomlinov was at this time been appointed Minister of War He had sixty-six years of age. they must have If known months It that the initial stock only provided shell for two more of war. At the same time the French Military Attache* learned from an what date did the supply suffice. and they should then difficulty at once measures to cope with the subsequently became have taken adequate by ordering from abroad. . went to Sukhomlinov. General Sukhomlinov and his Staff had worried to appreciate the situation at the end of September.000 shell a month. and. he had unofficial source that the no means of ascertaining that the rate of expenditure at the front then averaged 45. and that the Ministry of War was taking all necessary steps to provide everything required." Over a year later I learned on unimpeachable authority that in the middle of October General Kuzmin Karavaev. weeping. The Minister of War told him to "go to the devil and quiet himself. output of factories in Russia then amounted to only 35. up to The French Ambassador at Petrograd passed on the question to the Russian Government in an official letter. On September Qth the Staff of the South. operations will have to be broken off and the troops retired under shell. and said that Russia would have to make peace owing to the shortage of artillery ammunition. and he believed that the initial stock on mobilisation was more than twice as large as it really was.000 a day. The Minister of War replied on September 28th that the question of the supply of ammunition in the Russian army gave no cause for anxiety. of ammunition are entirely exhausted. 1914-1917 if rate of expenditure of ammunition.

were forged. and Sukhomlinov himself tried to make both ends meet by the travelling allowance he earned on long journeys of inspection. in fact. and not. wife of an inspector of schools. as Madame Butovich. and that the papers on which the defence relied were conveniently lost while in charge of a Government Department. charac- by his enemies as a buffoon. in 1906. he had spent much time as Instructor and Commandant of the Officers' Cavalry School. Butovich was divorced. in turn. as in other countries. He was a General of the evergreen type. was much under the influence of his fourth wife." and if the exposure did not shake the Emperor's confidence in his Minister. In these articles he asserted that the Kiev Secret Police had been used freely by the Governor to procure evidence against him. it tion to Siberia. then Governor of Kiev. The opposition evening paper took the part of the Minister. a time the tedium of pre-war Petrograd. to save the tax- He had lived very much above payer's pocket for the moment. much against his will. and retaliated six years later by attacking his supplanter in a Petrograd evening paper. As a Minister was entitled to draw for the hire per verst of twentyfour horses. three when. that the signatures to the relieved for Sukhomlinov was a courtier and an official of the autocratic type who never took kindly to parliamentary interference in matters of national defence." whose influence over the Emperor was ascribed to his fund of excellent stories. she attracted. a light-hearted man. though the main object of that interference had been in Russia to force expenditure in order to secure efficiency. 27. said to have been only twentyyears his junior. a lady many terised " She is. and the journey was of course done by rail. 1915 officer of 221 the Cavalry of the Guard. on the strength of which the divorce was finally declared. that he had had to flee the country. his emoluments of Rs.000 a The Emperor is said to year. and " described the life of his wife with her former husband as a family hell.January -March. as he was threatened with detention in a madhouse or with transporta- documentary evidence." Both parties forgot the Russian proverb which warns " people to keep their own dirt at home. the . have paid his debts at least once from his private purse. the attention of the amorous General. He.

000 versts to income derived from a trip back was considerable. the annual expenditure of the couple amounted to at least Rs. reserve columns maps in rear of the Russian front gave an entirely false impression. 1 Vladivostok and The Assistant Minister of War was General Vernander. It was stated that his bank balance when he was transferred to serve at Petrograd was Rs. that appeared in Times The thick far. when I became Minister of War.ooo to Rs. avoid German outflanking movements. 20. 270.75. 702. 1914-1917 of 12.222 With the Russian Army." This was a gross misstatement of fact. a patriarchal figurehead of seventy years of age. the Germans have been preparing for this war since 1870.000 recruits would join the colours in January. We never commenced preparation till five years We have done a lot since ago. In the while fighting was in a corps. and the rifles did not begin to arrive in any numbers till eighteen months later ' ' wanting as they ! time the optimism of the Military Correspondent of the Times proved very trying to readers in Russia who were this At acquainted with the real situation. and seldom even a division. 5 7.000. I had never known to be in reserve. advance after the Vistula battles So 2nd. but I wanted two years more/ I interviewed : 1 He had been ordered and were on their way from America.400. and that rifles would not be Sukhomlinov in Petrograd on December i6th to ascertain his views regarding rifles and shell.5o. " " said that the 1914 contingent of 1. His first remark was "As you know. When the ist and 2nd Armies got into 1 difficulties. then. At the . troops to re-establish the position had trial of General Sukhomlinov in 1917 for having failed to take before and during the war to increase the supply of arms and amtimely steps munition and on other charges the prosecution made some startling revelations regarding his pecuniary affairs. progress.ooo. 5th. with whom he had quarrelled. The contract for the American rifles had not then been signed. and. whom Sukhomlinov had nominated in 1912 to replace General Polivanov.000. and that in six years he paid in no less than Rs.000 given by the Khan of Khiva for the purchase of a present for Madame Sukhomlinov though his total emoluments during the period only amounted to Rs. 4th and 9th Armies had been drawn out from near Ostrolenka to Sandomir in a pathetic attempt to the front of the ist. owing to Madame Sukhomlinov's extravagance. 737 and 26 kopeks including a sum of Rs.

asking us what part of the front we had visited. 5th. 4th and gth Armies. Christmas sent On Day he me only saw the Emperor for five minutes on the 28th.Williams for the trouble he had taken. 1914.200. the total number of combatants actually on the front certainly cannot have exceeded 1. but seemed much worn and worried. and continued for five minutes. and that he wished Neilson and me to remain till he left. His train was drawn up on a siding in the woods near the train of the Grand We Duke. He was as nice as ever. it is on the front thirty-two regular corps and the equivalent of fifteen second-line corps. Vladimir.200. Of course. He spoke to us for a few minutes. In December.000 combatants. then dismounted Cossacks. 1915 to be 223 drawn from the front of the loth. till many people in the room called out " " Enough ! . which on December 5th had an effective rifle strength of only about a third of establishment. He was returning with some of his staff from one of the long walks which he constantly took. then would have been difficult for the most enterprising revolutionary to have got through. he thanked General Hanbury. On the Sunday the Emperor and most officers attended a cinema performance of scenes from the front. the Military Cor" Russian steam-roller respondent's constant references to the ' may have been so many morale of the enemy conscious endeavours to depress the and to raise our own. and assured him that he would see in future that red-tapism did not interfere with gendarmes.January -March. mounted Cossacks outside. This should have meant 2. The Grand Duke decorated Neilson and me with the 4th Class of the Order of St. Before the Emperor left. and the whole area was encircled by three rows of sentries. calculated that there were nominally but on the analogy of the Qth Army.000. It the provision of adequate supplies. One picture of the burial of hundreds of bodies in a common grave was particularly gruesome. Our time at Baranovichi was spent in conferences about munitions. a message that the Emperor was expected at Baranovichi on the 26th.

were arrested and taken Tea-shops and restaurants were not allowed to serve soldiers. The distribution of the three armies between the Vistula Pilitsa and the was : .224 With the Russian Army. Government papers. though to keep up appearances champagne was served in a teapot and drunk from cups. the gates. Even with the enemy at delightfully light-hearted city. the Bristol Hotel especially being a rendezvous for officers on leave from various armies at the I front. and were now extraIt was pleasant to meet old friends every ordinarily confident. Such. The Grand Duke Boris told me that he carried more than one flask. was the attraction of Warsaw measures were required to prevent straggling from the front. 1914-1917 He left Army on the Warsaw on the afternoon of December on January 2nd to join Radko Dimitriev with the Neilson and I arrived in 30th. therefore. Dunajec. ficates. to suit his changing fancy and still beaten back when they were to ease the strain of war. which was always a clearing-house for information. Alcohol was prohibited.m. indeed. which was now holding the Bzura due west of Warsaw. had been reinforced from the 2nd and 5th Armies. day. so it was best for us to separate. spent the next few days in Warsaw. obtain citadel. He and I were the only two forward observing officers of the British Army. Warsaw remained a The Poles had seen the Germans nearer. Surprise hotels. but this regulation was winked at in the Bristol at all events. officers that special and others from visits were often made to and to all officers Any men the were made to show their leave certiin the streets after 8 p. much as I would have liked to have kept him with me. When I dined at other restaurants I took a flask with me. who could only. and to get these they had to show their The ist Army. who all arrived in good humour at the prospect of a few days' release from the tedium of the front. 3rd He speaks Russian well and had become very popular with all Russians. among whom he had established quite a reputation for gallantry. rations.

the Commander of the 1st Cavalry Corps. Chief of Staff : General Miller. and General Erdeli.-. . could arrange " O h&. Fritz ! He was told that there was no objection if he it. I asked Erdeli why the Russian " He said the reason Cavalry seemed never to pull its weight. lunched at the Bristol with Count Nostitz. Commander: General Plehve.January -March. when taken prisoner. : Vth Corps. he called out " Bring : : mein Handgepack " ! After some half an hour Fritz came trotting across with his master's portmanteau. the Commander I One day Cavalry Division. XXVIth Corps. Vth Siberian Corps.: . Vlth Corps. 225 Chief of Staff: Commander: General Lit vino v. 5TH ARMY.. XXIIIrd c ' XlXth Corps. 2ND ARMY.. IVth Corps. . Ilnd Siberian Corps. Corps. 1st Siberian Corps. Ilnd Caucasian Corps. General Odishelidze. did so little of the 1 4th to worry the Germans in their retreat from before Warsaw was that the Russian cavalry had been held too far back while the P .-: Fighting Austrians was throughout the war a relaxation toRussian officers after service on the German front. Commander: General Smirnov. the Chief of Staff of the Guard Corps.:. . 1915 1ST ARMY. VI th Siberian Corps. .. asked that he might be allowed to call his of soldier servant. The following is an anecdote told at this time illustrative of the domestic type warfare then carried on before Przemysl. An Austrian officer.. He called out from the Russian trenches " When Fritz replied." Novikov. Chief of Staff: General Kvyetsinski. 1st Corps. .

he recommended that a cavalry brigade should be attached to each corps. so that it should always be at hand when required for the pursuit of shaken infantry. The men had their horses well under cover and had allowed the enemy's infantry to come within 200 yards. and held that two-squadron regiments would do better work. and it is worth remembering that in both the cases he quoted the enemy was Austrian and not German. He later I condemned the organisation of the regiment in six squadrons. who effectively prevented any attempt on the lines of communica- then it found all tion. and even the crossings of the river higher up. Of course. to use cavalry. Some days Prjetski. on the same subject. he replied that the Independent Guard Cavalry Brigade had held up the Austrian advance at Krasnik in August for six hours by dismounted fire. to my assertion that Novikov's cavalry did not delay the German advance on Warsaw a single day. matters differ according to the ground. Erdeli related with pride that the I4th Cavalry Division had been sufficiently far west to bombard Kalish. the present raid on our extreme Otherwise cavalry divisions should be attached left in Hungary. of had a talk with a junior officer. and in such operations success is Erdeli said that the Higher Command did not know how difficult. the Russian^cavalry . The I4th Cavalry Division had been continually used in frontal operations against the enemy. Prjetski said that it was difficult for cavalry to achieve much " Each squadron and brigade was allotted its own in pursuit. Count the Lancers of the Guard. In fact. should be saved for launching on legitimate It should only be formed in corps for definite It temporary objects for instance. and at Klimontov in October it had delayed the Austrians a whole day. cavalry tasks.226 With the Russian Army. corridor to pursue in. As regards the delaying power of cavalry. to each army. as it is impossible for one colonel to control six squadrons. and could not make wide detours to ' ' turn the retreating infantry's flank. and the roads leading across the numerous marshes were held by enemy infantry. cross the lower Bzura and so reach the enemy's flank. 1914-1917 It required about a week to infantry battle was in progress. Still.

IX. so I General Sievers. viz. and the General Quartermaster." This was not very convincing." Either name might have suited the place." In- The Army Commander and priest's house. General Miller's house came next." but it really means It might mean the fogs. 1915 had worried the Austrians considerably battles at Ivangorod." consisting of General Plehve and his personal staff.January -March. snow and in a narrow. the best in the village. I slept and worked in the front room. I See Map No." telligence ' " " Operations. Indeed. The cottage was very clean. . It consists of a single street of cottages The weather was atrocious. 1915. " " the place of a little tomb. As the Guard Corps had been withdrawn to reserve. Army Staff. though I slept in the first eighteen months of war on occasion in the poorest Polish peasant's never suffered from the pests that made night uncomfortable when we were driven back later into Russian cottages. and then a two-roomed cottage. the Chief of Staff. first to secure quiet for the midday meal and again to secure rest at night. and the family and my servant and orderly occupied the room in This rear room accommodated every night eight or nine people. in one bed the mother and one or two grown-up the rear. " and General. damp valley. with his three sections. The accommodation whole of the village was too small to house the " found there only the so-called 1st Echelon. I obtained permission to visit the 5th Army on the Ravka. and left Warsaw by automobile on January 6th for the village of Mogilnitsa. in another bed the father and a son. Ivan (my orderly) and two farm-labourers. his personal staff lodged in the which was. and on the floor Maxim (my servant). : daughters. which was assigned to me. where the Staff of the army had been since December i8th. as it ap- peared in January. General Miller. of course. thaw alternating so as to make the roads almost impassable. 227 in the pursuit after the Austrian prisoners said that they had been compelled to entrench twice a day.* " " The name Mogilnitsa has an unpleasant sound in Russian.

The took a child's delight in the whole proceedings as we sat round drinking tea and eating bonbons. who was taller and of a somewhat heavier build. went to a Christmas-tree which had been arranged for the men Plehve. and they were all nice. such as the silver paper from chocolates. 1914-1917 Our peasant itself.228 territory. The entertainment had not been designed for children. a bag of tobacco of the Staff of sweets. On other evenings I took tea with General Miller. General Sievers. and then the the ally I " Each present thanked the Army Commander. gradu- diminuendo.m. for there were no children there. and then during my stay at Mogilnitsa. At midday the following day I went to lunch with General grown-up officers to lunch and sup with him every day supped at 6 p. fancy biscuits. more timid and less drilled. letters man first as he received his show man thunder. were very popular with junior officers.. The men past and each was given a roll of white bread." I Staff always lunched his personal staff. and there drank tea while our host sang Russian songs to his guitar. The tree had been decked out by the orderlies with lighted candles. Plehve sat and blinked impassively. and was hung with everything that could possibly serve as an ornament. and found with beard and long brown moustache. and Miller invited me to a Christmas-tree in his quarters. I adjourned " Nikolai Nikolaievich. alert It man him a small." the genial with them to the quarters of Commandant of the Staff. kindness always politeness and though we must have been a sore trial to hosts were them. roaring out the set phrase in a voice of others. With the Russian Army. One of them spoke English. etc. and a parcel written by " children in The bags of tobacco contained Moscow to the unknown recipients. The Chief of Commander and " messes. and he asked me We odd men filed and drafts en route for the front. and I am . innocent little girls. Both he and was the Russian Christmas Eve. and dined with the Army The other officers fed in two reported on arrival to General Miller. was introduced to several nurses from a Moscow Red Cross hospital which had just arrived at the front.

or information of to my approached such risky topics as the present strength and distribution and armament of the Russian forces or the plans for the future of the Russian Command. because. his strong prejudices on occasion regarding individuals. the Russians trusted me more. that He expected at the front were merely pawns. I found a copy of the previous night's operation order lying under a hedge. did. it must be confessed. who found the incident highly amusing. though I generally managed " by one means or another to get more or less there. grasping the situation with extraordinary quickness and giving his decision rapidly and firmly. constantly interfering in detail and worrying over trifles." first it Though the Russians took an allied liaison officer little into were of so happy-go-lucky a nature that the task of enemy spies must have been easy. I carried it back in triumph to my friend on the Staff. chiefly. when taking my early morning walk. Plehve was at this time nearly sixty-five. Later. dry character. In the Guard Corps I had been refused on one pretext or another their confidence. their commander. too. made Plehve before very unpopular with senior Russian officers. He never. when they got to know me better. but that in war he was quite different. as he. to him the men His strong. and as long as he remained a member of that particular Staff I had no further difficulty. he was too infirm for walking. 1915 afraid bored 229 him with my constant thirst for information. but it was evident that they feared as much as they loved him. I imagine. till one day. At the enemy. His Staff spoke of him with admiration. everyone there to do his duty. and also. to my knowledge. by issuing strong and clear instructions from the Staff in rear.January -March. In appearance he was a little wizened-up rat. the officers in general copies of the daily operation orders. visited the trenches. who were . but his intelligence was keen and he had an indomitable will. it when was exceedingly up-hill work. no doubt. They said he had been a nuisance in peace. They always tried to switch the conversation on to the subject of past operations. He and other Russians were so kind-hearted that they positively suffered when they considered it their duty to give evasive replies leading questions. though he rode well.

230 With the Russian Army. 1914-1917 everything human. unlike all other Russian army commanders. who had only the usual double sentry at their door. uniform success of the Plehve-Miller combination. killed one soldier and wounded two men and two horses. which he feared might be destroyed. Every afternoon he went out for a ride with an escort of twelve Cossacks. At Mogilnitsa Plehve had seven sentries round his house. He had piquets dug in on all the roads approaching the village. We were all at lunch in Plehve's quarters. Within fifteen seconds of the first bomb all Plehve's Staff had disappeared to issue orders. and if the airman were brought down he would at once hang him up to the highest tree in the village. but though Miller was a first-rate Chief of Staff. On more than one occasion I have heard Plehve dictating orders to his Chief of In order to see something of the troops I Staff. when the sentries round the house commenced firing.D. however. but really to get away from Plehve. and then to tell them to fire. and he always rode east. Presently the priest appeared from his kitchen and increased the General's wrath by petitioning that the sentries should be told to stop firing as they gave away the position of the house. and another blew an unfortunate Polish workman to pieces. first to tell the men not to fire. I think Plehve. The airman was no doubt aiming at our house. got less Miller got of the credit for the much credit than was his due. and could forgive mistakes in strategy sooner than a lack of geniality. he waxing more and more indignant as each bomb fell. who has a trying temper. January i8th was one of the few fine. and threw a dozen bombs. sunny days I saw while at Mogilnitsa. An A. but did not hit it. A big German biplane flew slowly three times backwards and forwards over the village. and most of the bombs fell harmlessly. One. He said such conduct was a scandalous breach of the customs of war.G. had just remarked that we would probably have a visitor. owing to his unpopularity. paid visits of three . The old man and I were left alone. All the windows in the Chief of Staff's house and the two windows of my room were smashed.

' It therefore ! Commander other ' : devolved on us youngsters to educate the Corps At first we had our work cut out for us. The General is a fine old soldier of the hard fighting type. It Well. He said that Gorbatovski was when he took comquite unprepared I ' ' ' At Kalen mand of the corps. as elsewhere. that of the XlXth Corps at Kalen and that of the IVth Corps. a reputation that it maintained till the Revolution. The description of him given by "Victor Ivanovich." one of the junior officers of the General Staff of the Corps. Both of the corps had done well the XlXth in particular had already earned . and we quarrels. and General Gorbatovski and his Staff made me at once welcome. The Staffs of both corps were quartered in Polish landowners' houses. when quartered in peace at Brest Kholm and Kovel had 163 men in each company. 1915 231 or four days each to two corps in the 5th Army. but after a had constant we have trained The XlXth Corps. further north at Volya Penkoshevskaya. officers I of Warsaw but always professed to regard the Poles as inferior think this is pure prejudice. ! month we could say " him now ' to each Litovsk. who had defended one of the sectors at Port Arthur. Russian fighters. was lodged in a room with three other officers. filled up on mobilisation with Poles from the neighbourhood and with Russians from Volhynia. that he used to try to command companies in the firing-line instead of directing the whole from the rear. which completed to war strength from local Polish reservists. This was in spite of the fact that the former contained necessarily a larger percentage of Jews. Warsaw which drew many reservists from manufacturing centres. and it was exhilarating if unconvincing to hear him maintain that we would thrash the Germans in the spring when we had got shell and filled up our ranks. was interesting. At Kalen.January -March. gave throughout a better account of themselves than corps from the Moscow Military District. which had just been handed over from the 2nd Army. there were at once apparent the usual . He was a strong optimist in January. 1915. the XlXth and the IVth. The Chief of Staff was too old and weak in character to effect anything. The corps quartered in peace in the Military District.

but a committee after impartial enquiry. their fighting-men forced by both sides to fight against their their civilian population bearing the brunt of all the suffering consequent on military operations on their home brothers. damage done hostess one night said that after the war she would no longer go to German watering-places. Another landowner not far from Kalen had claimed Rs. and 75 kopeks for hay instead of the usual 30. already busy in trying to corrupt Its methods. I When indeed. but only to French and English ones. the habitual disregard of the ordinary rules of decent sanitation by the Russian orderlies and Cossacks . He comI had a long talk one night with our Polish host.ooo. this man ran upstairs and came back with a parcel of apples as a present from his little daughter. and was riding away at the end of my visit. plained that the Germans in their offensive had taken from him forty out of his sixty horses and had paid him only in bills on He said that there had never been the Russian Government differences ! such a tragedy in history as that of the Poles in the present war. His wife looked ill. By it was a bottle of wine. with whom I had made friends. assessed the sum due at Rs.232 With the Russian Army. In one instance a German flag was planted halfway between the opposing trenches. She told me she had only been out once since territory. German propaganda was the Russian rank and file. Russian officer remarked afterwards that Our A the lady seemed to have forgotten the existence of the Caucasian resorts. were not always distinguished by intelligence. however. the Russians maintained that the Polish for the lady to landowners made a very good thing out of supply to the troops. 175.000 got 50 kopeks per for to his forests. a loaf of bread and a piece of bacon. They said that our host now pud for straw instead of the 25 he would have got in peace. the other hand. Each side seemed to irritate the other more than was necessary. 1914-1917 between the Russian Staff and their Polish hosts. the Staff arrived made it difficult On walk about her own grounds.39. with a proclamation calling on all Mohammedans to join the Holy War . and that they were never satisfied. Russians are always annoyed that Poles regard them as foreigners.

including some unit in the trenches.000 men Durham and wounded.January-March. and that the Russian soldiers were being sacrificed by the Grand Duke. The opposing lines were generally about 1. In the iyth Division I visited the 68th Borodino Regiment. and 3. and asked me to send a suitable reply on his behalf. pointed out that the Tsar had not wanted war. The men were usually two days in the trenches and two in reserve. remaining five battalions had been lent temporarily to another The eastern bank of the Ravka commands the western bank. There were no shell-proof dug-outs. considering that the troops had been thirty-five days on the same position. however. and. The river is marshy and only fordable in places. One day. there were no Tartars in the XlXth Corps. the commander of which had just received a message of good wishes from the 68th Light Infantry. sent forward at night to be near the line. as it had made itself comfortable. evident what efforts it had made in killed twenty-four days to make itself either comfortable or safe. the construction of the trenches left much to be desired. who had been bribed by France and England Each day while with the Corps Staffs ! I rode out to visit one of the divisions. 1915 " 233 which Turkey had proclaimed in alliance with the oft-tried The German arguments friends of Islam Germany and Austria." It was not. moreover." were as little likely to appeal to the Russian Tartar as the wine and bacon forbidden by the Prophet. Three other battalions of the division were at the disposal of the Divisional Commander and were The division. which was occupied by the enemy. It was . Similarly in the IVth Corps. but the company I saw had volunteered to remain in the " trenches for twenty-four days. found it had four battalions of two regiments in line with the remaining four battalions in regimental reserve. The communication trenches were far too shallow.000 yards apart. Another proclamation. This regiment had lost up to date nine officers killed and forty-five wounded. which was accompanied by wine and cigarettes. for I instance. I visited the I7th Division of the XlXth Corps.

and had suffered practically no it use for at the front casualties. A regiment was divisional reserve in each division. so I returned to nothing doing on the following day. a Mohammedan from the Caucasus. but both being retained at the disposal of the corps commander.234 With the Russian Army. I therefore telegraphed to General Danilov. but my servant. There was very evidently Warsaw I in the 5th Army. the General " I ask for permission to go for a Quartermaster at G. 1914-1917 the same story everywhere ." and had been succeeded in command of the 5th Army by General Churin." On the 2Qth came the . heard from a gendarme that he had gone to form a new " gathered from a Serb officer that this army was intended to operate in the direction of and beyond Mlava.Q. one regiment being placed in rear of each division.H. was now commanded by General Aliev. They forgot that nothing breeds discontent like idleness. A third of the artillery was lying in reserve. While with the IVth Corps I heard that Plehve had received another appointment.Q. the 1 2th Army.H. and the arrangement was that four regiments (sixteen battalions) held the front line with supports and reserves. Russian officers maintained a desperate secrecy regarding Plehve's new task. They said they got permission from G. in order to try to arrange to be ' ' attached to Plehve. a large house belonging to Prince Lyubomirski. there being no owing to the shortage of shell. This corps contained two divisions. found him and Miller in a train at Warsaw station. which is Skobelev's old corps. one division of sixteen battalions having only six versts of front. though they had occupied the same positions for over a month. and two regiments formed the corps reserve. The IVth Corps. Batteries in action were well concealed. On January 25th I returned to the Staff. In the IVth Corps the line was strongly held. which had moved east to Mala Ves. I infantry being used as a mobile base to support a large force of cavalry sent forward to raid in East Prussia. if I : would be delighted to take me time to the Staff of the I2th Army. Maxim. many officers were too lazy to make the men work.

It is said that he was present when the telegram informing him of his new appointment was deciphered. My cynical informant added that few officers attended this service.West Front at this time were . The Russian forces on the South. but how was I to tell that the formation a new army. was regarded as a secret in the fir-woods at Baranovichi ? I heard later that the innocent Staff of the 5th Army Meanwhile having given the matter away I decided to return to the Guard. 1915 reply of : 235 your request is at present impossible. was reprimanded for ! General Oranovski. he held his head with his hands in despair." I had made a blunder. for ' ' ' ' were deciphered. fat man. was now appointed to command a cavalry corps in the I2th Army. This was prepared by preliminary attacks. for he had a horror of the comparatively active life he would have been forced to lead as the commander of a division. " " " in chief chief of the staff Russians use the same word for commander of a and for commander instance. and never took any exercise." " When the words " Gulevich is appointed Comman- when the context revealed the nature of his new appointment. for they had all rushed off to scribble memoranda for the General's guidance of the honours and rewards they wished to receive. which was common property in Warsaw and at of The granting Petrograd. in. for he rested in bed daily from 2 to 5 p. He was succeeded on General Ruzski's Staff by General Gulevich." who had put on much flesh since the in fact. He was der greatly relieved division. " " war started. and at once gave orders for a thanksgiving service. and rejoined it on February 6th. who had been Chief of the Staff of the North-West Front since the beginning of the war. but lazy " a gross.January -March. and it was for some time thought that the m ain enemy offensive was there. who had been Chief of Staff of the Petrograd Military District before the war and since mobilisation Chief of Staff of the gth Army. The German Command was now about against the Russian loth to launch its offensive Army in East Prussia. Gulevich was very clever and a man of charming manners. when its Staff reached Warsaw.m. First there was severe fighting in the Carpathians.

The Russians. 4th. and this corps passed through Lvov to join the 8th Army at the beginning of February." The XXIInd Corps was followed by the XVth. and caused them to give ground. The Commander. Two divisions of the 7th Army from Odessa " which were to have carried out the invasion of Transylvania had also been forced back. 1914-1917 from right to left in five distributed armies. the enemy's forces attacking the detachments of the nth Army which held the debouches from the Uzsok. So the Pilitsa did not freeze and both Generals slept in peace. The 8th Army had assumed an offensive and gained some success on the line of the Dukla and Mezo-Laborcz Passes. but excluding the Army . had been ordered by General Ivanov Ewarth sent a party to retire from the Pilitsa if the river froze. From the middle Pilitsa to Gorlice along the front of the 4th. Apparently they lived in terror of a Russian advance in this sector^ of the front. This party was at work at night preparing the lodge- ments for the explosives when it was alarmed by suspicious noises on the opposite bank. foreseeing the danger. and soon to return to the North. gth. but the men of the corps on arrival in the Carpathians found placards in the German trenches ' Corps.Vistula Poland. and also wished to prevent the Pilitsa from freezing. despatched the XXI Ind Corps from the loth Army. On the other hand. but reconnaissance revealed the fact that the enemy was at the same game. Alftan and Webel. The following anecdote came from the 4th Army. Munkacs and Yasinya Passes considerably outnumbered the columns of Generals Ecke. Tools were thrown down and rifles seized.236 With the Russian Army. To this section from Uzsok to Kirlebaba Hindenburg sent reinforcements from his centre in Trans. The transfer was supposed to be kept a secret. 9th and 3rd Armies things were comparatively quiet. General Ewarth.West Front to join the loth Army. 8th and nth. It is said that both sides blew up sections after dawn. of sappers to destroy a long dam which made freezing more probable. originally intended to form part of the new I2th Army. : inscribed " Welcome to the XXIInd Including the XXIInd Corps. 3rd.

Our troops are retiring fighting from the Masurian Lakes to the region of our frontiers.m. By noon on the I4th the ist Division only had arrived at Lomja. The The Guard commenced two and a by half divisions completed their concentration at the night of the i6th. including about eight and a half German.West Front. for the Russian Command had no idea of the danger impending in East Prussia. of gas. - Ludendorff claims that this attack was a demonstration in order to tie true. the Russians had forty-five divisions on the whole front from Pilitsa to the frontier of Rumania. Strong German reconnaissances west of Warsaw on January agth and 30th developed on the following three days into a real attack on a ten-verst front at the junction of the ist and 2nd Armies. the down the Russian ist and 2nd Armies. chiefly in the Ist Siberian and Vlth Corps." entraining at 6 p. fifty-two enemy divisions.000. but they counter-attacked at dawn on February 3rd and won back all the ground previously lost. The mainly in the counter-attack. but the " " in fact. it was calculated. They are taking the offensive The principally in the direction of Vilkovishki and Lyck. twelve versts in advance of the point of detrainment." battle was characterised as Russian losses. the German losses were also spoken of as enormous " a regular Borodino. The Germans columns collected 400 guns and attacked in dense seven divisions on a front of six and two-thirds miles. If this is demonstration was quite unnecessary.January -March. The attack was prepared by the use and the Russians were at first forced back. on February loth. and were opposed by. were estimated at 40. presence of new formations transported from Central Germany is noted. The Guard Corps was ordered to concentrate at Warsaw on the night of February 8th. " The The official communique of February nth stated concentration of very considerable German forces in East Prussia : has been definitely established. and by him ordered to entrain for Lomja. The following night it was handed over to the Commander-in-Chief of the North. 1915 237 blockading Przemysl. Lomja .

was not a good step-mother. 53rd and 28th Divisions) east of Darkehmen. but though Lomja is only forty-five versts from the frontier. February I4th was a gloriously sunny day. 29th. 1914-1917 motored from Warsaw with the Staff of the corps on the Rodzianko and I were allotted an excellent room in the I3th. VII. after much fussing.238 I With the Russian Army. The front held by units was extended. the bank had left for Vladimir on the Volga in the first days of mobilisation. so were hopelessly ignorant of the situation in our front and even in the loth Army. got the beds The personnel of of the director and his wife. however. been the nursery. the XXVIth Corps (84th and 64th Divisions) east of Angerburg and Lotzen. for instance. and this officer returned on the morning of the i5th with some account of the disaster that had befallen the loth Army. The army was commanded by General Sievers. it had not yet been touched by the enemy. His story as repeated to me was vague. Gradually something like the truth filtered out. The Staff was at Grodna. with Baron Budberg as his Chief of Staff. This room had. The Illrd Siberian Corps (7th Siberian and 8th Siberian Divisions) continued the line to opposite Nikolaiken. east of Darkehmen. Imperial Bank. The Illrd Corps (73rd and 56th Divisions) lay north-east of Gumbinnen. 1 With the exception of a small detachment north-east of Tilsit. The 57th Division was detached at Johannisburg. Map No. and I have pieced the following narrative together from extracts from my Diary. but Rodzianko. which were clean. unfortunately for us. who. The beds were alive with bugs. the loth Army in Eastern Prussia occupied on February 7th a long-drawn-out line from west of Pillkallen. The Corps Commander sent a General Staff officer to Osovets to obtain what news he could. The XXth Corps (27th. each i See . and the director of the bank had married a second wife. and an enemy airman flew over Lomj a and dropped a few bombs. east of Angerburg and east of Lotzen to Nikolaiken. We had no aeroplanes. by east of Gumbinnen.

January-March. It made a stand at Raigrod and suffered heavily. The 7th the 57th Division was driven back from Johannisburg by a force estimated at one and a half corps. 1915 239 division of the Illrd Corps held nineteen versts (twelve and twothirds miles) The position. wheeling to their right in the retreat to the general line GrodnaDombrova. . losing its guns. and first struck the Illrd Corps. and there was a secondary position running through first Goldap. however. leaving only two battalions on the right of the XXth Corps. The Illrd Siberian Corps was protected in its retreat by the lakes. On February The remnants of the division cut their way through with the bayonet to Osovets. The 56th Division reached Olita comparatively unscathed. which was then actually carrying out an extended outflanking movement with the object of turning the defences of Gumbinnen from the north and north-west. but the other two corps suffered severely from the superior mobility and enterprise of the Germans. had been prepared for defence. The XXth. It fell to the lot of the XXth Corps to cover the retirement through the Avgustov woods. The heavy guns from Osovets which had been moved forward to bombard Lotzen were information of the at once retired. The main attack by Eichhorn's German loth Army commenced on the afternoon of February 8th. German concentration in East Prussia was received on February 4th. The pursuing Germans captured two troop trains east of the frontier town of Verjbolovo. It is at all It is said events certain that this corps was suddenly and unexpectedly fired upon from the rear. The 73rd Division lost heavily probably all guns and transport in its retreat towards Kovna. XXVIth and Illrd Siberian Corps retired from the line Darkehmen-Nikolaiken through Suvalki and Avgustov. that the two battalions of the Illrd Corps retired without warning the Commander of the XXth Corps. The Illrd Corps retired rapidly. While the remains of the XXVIth and Illrd Siberian Corps had cleared the wood by February I5th.

000 prisoners. north of Dombrova. there was long doubt regarding the fate of the XXth Corps. and in this respect the Russians would have had an enormous advantage if only all their troops had shown fight. was dismissed. The line selected for the retreat of Sievers' Army showed how thoroughly it had been beaten. throwing meanwhile cavalry out on their left flank towards the Nyeman.240 With the Russian Army. It was said that the Russian columns in retreating trampled down the snow and so made matters easier for the pursuing Germans. Everything was withdrawn from the 120 versts stretch of railway from Vilna to Grodna. The great mass of the Germans estimated at first at six corps. Its right was to rest on the defences of the fortress of Grodna and its left on the Bobr marshes. 27th Division and three regiments of the 53rd Division. 1914-1917 and had reached the line Grodna-Dombrova by February I7th. German cavalry. pursued the loth The when between Goldap and Suvalki. It claimed that the Russian loth Army had been all their as far as Lipsk. but this was unconfirmed.000 other prisoners and 150 guns. lost touch with the remainder of the Army. A German news-sheet captured on a prisoner on March 6th estimated the enemy booty at one corps commander. was carried through in terrible weather. There was a report that German cavalry was passing the Nyeman. Still. and there is no reason to think that even this is an exaggeration. 300 guns and 200 machine-guns. with the exception of the units of the Illrd Corps at Olita. the enemy must have had great difficulty in feeding his guns with ammunition. but later at three and a half corps had wheeled to the right in a crushing pursuit of the Russian corps. the Commander. Later enemy accounts raised the estimate to 110. two division commanders and four other generals. Under the weather conditions the offensive The German . violent snowstorms alternating with thaws that made the roads most difficult. 100. They fought in the Avgustov Forest till February ammunition being exhausted. annihilated. however." " The in the rapidity of retreat of the Illrd Corps pointed to a panic 2nd Line divisions. Army 22nd and then surrendered. Yepanchin.

which was detached from the Ilnd Caucasian Corps and had detrained on January I2th. General Sievers and his Chief of Staff. then beginning to concentrate. and the staff work must have been execrable. On its left the 76th Division (XXVIIth 1 Corps) in the neighbourhood of No. The Russian Command can have had no prepared scheme for covering the retreat. While the loth Army was still fighting its way back. General Bezobrazov often said that Russia could never be beaten unless her army was destroyed. The other three regiments with their two mountain batteries had marched north-west to Kolno. and further west the 4th Cavalry Division reconnoitred as far as the River Rifle The 5th Orjits. a Bulgarian whom I had known before the war. as the as follows 1 : Guard was arriving at Lomja. the situation further west. replaced by General Radkevich from the XXVIth Corps with General Popov as Chief of Staff. This was the worst thing since Tannenburg. South-west of Kolno. blocking the approaches from Mlava. 1915 German advance would have been impossible of if 241 large quantities Russian food supplies had not been captured.January -March. IX. See Map Q . Here we had lost two or more corps and Baron Budberg. The Ist Turkistan Corps had been since the beginning of December in occupation of an extended line through Prasnish and Tsyekhanov. held an extended line facing north-west. Brigade was north of Ostrolenka. soon to be reinforced by a regiment of the Ilnd Corps. the ist Independent Cavalry Brigade under General Benderev. were irreplaceable guns and rifles. A line left of drawn through Shchuchin and Byelostok separated the the loth Army from the right of the 12th Army. was Osovets was defended by Opolchenie and the remains of the 57th Division. At Vizna the passage over the Narev was held by a regiment of the ist Caucasian Rifle Brigade.

Both during the advance into action and in action of. itself the echelon formation was to be made frequent use In action formations in depth were a distance of recommended. Those at Lomja. Oranovski's Cavalry Corps (i5th. A defensive position was selected and prepared at . Osovets was in a strong natural position. and eventually. both of its flanks being defended by marshes. and Novo Georgievsk was considered a first-class fortress. Further south-west. Its task was understood to be to cover the defences of the Narev. As a the permanent works at these places were valueless. with the possible exception of corps commanders. In order to follow with their own eyes the course of the operations. though of comparatively recent construction 1900-1903 were so near the bridgehead as to be useless. and thence to Lomja on the 27th. Rojan and Pultusk. 6th and 8th Divisions) supported by the 77th Division (XXVIIth Corps). were to be present on the field in action instead of remaining in houses where the situation could only be judged of from reports and maps. all commanders. He laid down that in the operations about to com- mence the troops were on no account to be scattered in small groups. the 4th Brithe 8th guarded the passages at Vizna and Lomja gade was at Ostrolenka and Rojan and the i8th was at Pultusk . when force permitted. Lomja.242 With the Russian Army. During the war fieldworks had been constructed along the Narev at Ostrolenka. Attacks were to be carried out by brigades or by divisions. was in touch with the enemy. . 1914-1917 Drobin was in support of Erdeli's cavalry (i4th Division and 4th Don Cossack Division). " Ludendorf writes of the Fortress of Lomja. to embark on a decisive offensive in conjunction with the loth Army. in advance of Plotsk. Ostrolenka and Rojan." and all German maps show fortresses at matter of fact. The staff of the I2th Army moved from Naselsk to Ostrov on February I5th. There were three Opolchenie brigades on the line of the Narev . On the 1 5th Plehve issued some tactical instructions by telegram. and Serotsk.

l north-west of Prasnish. importance came from the front.. halted there two hours and then continued his advance to the north. some days.30 a. The 2nd Guard Infantry Division moved forward on its right. he dismounted his of the men. General Khimets with the Cavalry School Division received orders to raid into East Prussia. only lost seven received that the He men guns and commenced an attack according wasted his time in this attack though he till 1. we were told that he could not find a way through the barbed wire. He left five squadrons of Cossacks at Laz to cover his retreat and crossed the frontier east of Khorjele. four guns and twelve machine-guns. called up drill his to the book. When fired on from trenches south of Montvitz.30 p. when information was enemy had moved infantry from Khorjele and 1 See Map. but after expecting great things No news however. about three versts north of the frontier. He reached Ednorojets at II p. dispersing a for " German piquet. at 8 a. with the remainder of his force. three squadrons of Cossacks. three squadrons Cavalry School Regiment. . at 8.m. He arrived at Montvitz. consisting of five squadrons of Finland Dragoons.m. and covering the approaches from Shchuchin and Kolno.m. No. 1915 243 twelve versts to the north-east of Lomja. on February I2th. and on the I7th the Guard of Rifle Brigade moved into billets in reserve south-west of the ist Division. The IVth Siberian Corps completed its concentration at Ostrolenka on the night of the 1/j. The ist Guard Infantry Division occupied Staviski north-east of Lomja with an advanced guard. bank. There was no barbed wire whatsoever." Eighteen months later in Bukovina I was " " given another account of this raid by an officer who had taken part in it. to be throwing troops across the Vistula at Plotsk from the left or southern to the right or northern He was stated.January -March. VIII. The enemy was reported to have only small stopping detachments of the three arms blocking roads of possible advance to the north from the Narev..m. Khimets left his billets at Shumsk.th.

1914-1917 Zarembe to cut his line of retreat. Bezobrazov holds that the invasion of Silesia is an absolute necessity. He said to me on February i5th "I call you to witness that I say it is folly to advance into East Prussia unless all our armies are moving forward simultaneously on all . but there can be no arguments for the double divergent line. have had far more effect than the taking of Przemysl. Erdeli and Oranovski were in a cul-de-sac. There may be arguments for the German line of advance and arguments for the Austrian line of attack. army definitely out. but should have placed a screen against Austria and have concentrated all our strength " The taking of Konigsberg would against East Prussia. : fronts. General Bezobrazov was opposed to any idea of an advance into East Prussia. .244 With the Russian Army. If they could have disengaged and moved north they might have effected something. if he were Gommander-in-Chief bring Radko back from the Dunajec to the Wist oca and would transfer the 4th Army to attack the Germans in the Suvalki Government." He would now. Nostitz is strongly of opinion that we should never have wandered towards Silesia. He cut his way back with the loss of two officers and forty-five more men and two ammunition wagons that were overturned." My Diary of this date contains the following The views of : Bezobrazov and Nostitz on the strategy of the campaign are amusingly at variance. I am convinced that we will never be . Khimets' task was to keep moving. With such leaders it was not surprising that with all our mass of splendid cavalry we were unable to cut a single line in East Prussia. and he deliberately wasted five hours he could easily have ridden round Montvitz and have reached Willenberg. Of course. The Russian proverb says "If you pursue two hares you won't catch either." Of course it is the fault of Ivanov and Alexyeev that we pursue the Austrian hare so persistently they think that we can knock the Austrian : .

1915 with 245 able to do so as long as the East Prussian salient remains its highly-developed railway system on our right. 8th and I5th Cavalry Divisions). the Ist Turkistan Corps (ist and 3rd Turkistan Brigades. the ist Independent Cavalry Brigade. which comof the Vistula at Novo Geor- XlXth gievsk on the I7th. all five and a half infantry The menced ist Army was to include the crossing to the right bank Corps.Q. IX. On February The I2th Army from Rojan to the lower Vistula. 5th Rifle Brigade.West Front. ist Caucasian Rifle Brigade.January -March. but at the moment there was much indecision regarding the plan of operations. The i2th Army was to contain the Guard Corps. were to be reinforced by several corps drawn from the trans. the Guard Cossack Cavalry Brigade." i6th orders were received for a general regroupment of the troops on the North. Erdeli's Cavalry Detachment (i4th Division and 4th Don Cossack Division). I learned later that G. fearing that the Germans would cross the upper Nyeman and cut our main line of communications. in and three cavalry divisions.H. l (Plehve) to occupy the front from the line the ist Army Shchuchin-Byelostok to Rojan on the Narev .Vistula armies. seven infantry These armies. IVth Siberian (Lit vino v) Corps. At lunch on the i6th Count Nostitz told me that orders had Map No. This indecision in the seats of the mighty naturally caused confusion in humbler spheres. Khimets' Cavalry Division. The 2nd Army (Smirnov) and the 5th Army (Ghurin) to divide the front from the lower Vistula to the Pilitsa. while General Ruzski and the staff of the North. nth Siberian Division. the Ussuri Cavalry Division. the 2nd and 4th Cavalry Divisions. in and seven cavalry divisions. . and 77th Division).West Front insisted on the adequacy of the reinforcement of the line of the Narev. and Oranovski's Cavalry all Corps (6th. the XXVIIth Corps (63rd and 76th Divisions). as well as the loth Army. then straggling back to the defences of Grodna. favoured the transfer of reinforcements to the area east of Grodna..

Nostitz ordered the ist Division of the Guard to send forward one regiment from Staviski towards Kolno. When I went into his room strange noises were issuing from his bed.246 With the Russian Army. but soon discovered that it was only his gruntling little dog. These orders had been almost immediately counter- manded and General Bezobrazov had been summoned to confer with Plehve.m. and at first I thought that he was seriously ill. by car. 1914-1917 been received on the previous night for the Guard Corps to advance. It was evident that it would not be an easy operation to withdraw from immediate contact with the enemy. Diary of I morning with a cold." Nostitz was studying a book which gave the comparative strength of the British and German navies. telephoned that he was Caucasian rifle being attacked by superior forces and asked for help. where his right was continued by the Izmailovski and Yegerski Regiments. on return from Ostrov. and I found it very hard to make him take an interest in what was going on around us. When he retired. during the General's absence at Ostrov. The General. and the Preobrajenski Regiment in echelon at Staviski on the right of the Yegerski. General Benderev. any reference to which " he always prefaces with the remark J'adore mon this : February iyth found Nostitz in bed : chien. its place at Lomja to be taken by the IVth Siberian Corps. told me that the Guard was to concentrate at Byelostok by road. afternoon. we once more resumed our discussion on the . Benderev retired from Kolno on the i6th and took up a line further south. to Ostrov He left at i p. He got up later for lunch. We were interrupted by a staff officer who came in to announce that the commander of the Izmailovski Regiment had been wounded. with the Semenovski Regiment in echelon on the left of the Izmailovski. who was directing the operations of the three The same regiments at Kolno in addition to commanding the ist Independent Cavalry Brigade.

and fired through the window of the The Grand Duke Konthe same cottage." a very kind-hearted and charming man of the world. This when the guns were distinctly audible. Quelques Pages de la Vie d'une Diplomate d Teheran. He said One day we discussed the causes of war and the best ' : means of preventing war in future. 247 Nostitz said that finding Russia in alliance with Great Britain Russia with a poor puny made him. but he is out of place as Chief of Staff of a Corps. Warfare against the Austrians is a bad school. He writes everything to his wife. a Russian.January -March. He said that immediately following a declaration of war the Prime Ministers and Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the belligerent " countries should be compelled to join the army. He is The Commander in the left of the Izmailovski Regiment was shot elbow and right hand by explosive bullets this morning. stantin Konstantinovich was in the line of piquets. but he has other relaxations. not staffs but infantry regiments at the front. and his left arm has been amputated. as well as a man of wide reading. . a very interesting character. last to his feet and seized a stool to fling at It looks as if the regiment had arrived late night and had not troubled to put out piquets. Nostitz's suggestion was simple and I doubt if the united wisdom of the world's statesmen will ever produce anything more effective. feel like a poor provincial gentleman who awoke and Great Britain with an immense one ** one day to the realisation of the possession of enormous wealth." future campaign. It is said that 100 Germans made their way round or through house in which he was sleeping. I told Engelhardt that I was glad to have met Nostitz. 1915 strength of the fleet fleets. One day I found him reading a Nostitz is French book. The commander sprang the Germans. for no staff officer of such a type would appear in any And thank God for that. Generally he is writing to her.

but must first drive back the flank enemy by attacking him in front and and pursue him it was not to worry about being . all was being done that was possible. it would be a poor country where the women were not right Inside the hospital. as the enemy had first to be driven back. After all. got volunteers to help to carry. but it did not occur to them till that they might help by fetching tea and bread. and a strong column with forty heavy guns is advancing along the road from Shchuchin to Osovets. order was reported by wire to Plehve. who ordered that the ist Division was not to retire a yard.248 With the Russian Army. I saw her crying as she took the it we suggested shawl from her head to wrap round a wounded man who complained of the cold.G. relieved. with clean blankets. but the hospital had only two stretchers. found a young officer by way of . the Government Police at heart Court. and girls brought cigarettes and apples to the men in the hospital. R. The local Jews crowded round with gaping curiosity. Rodzianko raised Cain this afternoon when in the course of a walk we came on a long line of carts full of wounded. Later in the Staff R. and the rooms were well heated. An old Polish woman behaved like a brick. Bezobrazov sent off a galloper to order the G.O. Later some women came to volunteer to help. The 2nd Guard Infantry Division and the Guard Rifle Brigade have started to march to Byelostok. who were freezing in the bitter cold while they waited their turn to be carried into hospital. It is is said to be billeted to-night at Shchuchin. ist Division to retire to the previously prepared position north This of the junction of the Kolno and Shchuchin roads. They all worked Jew and Gentile when shown how they could ! help. 1914-1917 thought that the troops advancing from Kolno and Shchuchin against our ist Division and the Caucasian Another division Rifles are a division of the XXth Corps. The men were lying crowded but on clean mattresses.

for their country. placed the troops he would assume A telegram received from between the Bobr and the Pissa under Bezobrazov's orders. " : Bezobrazov this morning quoted Ordre. as " gress in the next room and always strolled in and tried his German on the prisoner. being conducted haphazard. while the cause rear.m. contre- said that in a single hour he had received four contradictory orders from the Staff of the ordre. Bridge was in pro' Dummy R. being sacrificed by such childishness in People in the staff are nervous to-night. LOMJA. said. 1915. their health is and their limbs.Q. Plehve at i a. was. Engelhardt's work as Corps Intelligence Officer during the The crosslatter's absence at the Imperial Duma. 1915 ' ' 249 He was doing prisoners. which should be carried out by a good German scholar with a barrister's acuteness. He thinks this is not so much the fault of the Army It as of Danilov at G. February iSth. position at Sipnevo merely temporarily as a preliminary to the resumption of The from Byelostok to is to be occupied the offensive. The unfortunate 2nd Division which marched fifty-two . I imagine Domanevski's temper is proving a thorn to some of the junior officers. As usual. the same questions being asked many times. that the movement was full actually being carried out and that responsibility for his action. desordre. examining three German examination. it makes one furious a favourite expression of his to think of the poor devils in the hospitals who have given their all.H. Thursday.January -March. These people play at war. and directed him to order the return of the 2nd Guard Division and the Guard Rifle Brigade Lomja." He Army. appears that at eleven last night Bezobrazov replied to Plehve that he had already ordered the retirement of the ist Guard Division on the prepared position at Sipnevo.

which crossed at Novogrod and relieved the On Caucasian Brigade on the night of the i8th. not by an officer ! but by a Cossack. owing to the mist.250 With the Russian Army. There seems to be a good deal of slackness and want of . Rodzianko and I rode at LOMJA.. while the Guard Brigade returned to its former billets north of Lomja. 1914-1917 versts yesterday and the Rifle Brigade. 1915. February zoth. forty-five. 9 a.. script A manu- copy was sent.m. whom managed The to lose it en route Divisional Orders are dated 5 a. but their issue had been delayed by the failure of the 9th Siberian Division to report. whose strength was estimated at two divisions only.42 a. The 2nd Division moved north-east to near Yedvabno. are to retrace their steps to-day. stood.m. but an attempt to turn his left flank was forestalled by the gth Siberian Division. and this officer did not return till A copy of Corps Orders was despatched by telegraph 1. As he had two corps cf firstclass troops engaged it the IVth Siberian Corps had not yet been actively was hoped that he would punish the Germans. The Corps Orders were simple and to the point. but is at stated by the divisional staff of the ist Division to have been received only at 3 a.m. a telephone message having been received earlier to send an officer to fetch them. which covered the afternoon of the i8th.m. Rifle General Bezobrazov prepared to carry out his orders to attack on the morning of the 20th. up the Shchuchin road Artillery fire to the centre of our front to see the attack.. It had been found necessary to send a General Staff officer to the left flank to see how matters late. The 2nd Guard Division and the Guard Rifle Brigade returned through Lomja on the morning of the igth.m. but in the staff of the Preobrajenski Regiment I was told that they were received at 7.15 a. was impossible till noon. Benderev retired still further.

It seems impossible that the Germans had time to render this place impregnable in a single night. 2 battalions. i section of sappers. In this case the delay was of no importance as regards the ist Guard Division. half company of sappers. each section being commanded by a regiment commander (1) : 2 battalions. The loss ii officers and 360 men in the Grenaderski Regiment should not have frightened the G. I enemy will play managed ist Division. (2) (3) 4 battalions. half company of sappers. The Germans will use to-night to dig themselves in.O. as that Division had been told to delay its advance pending the development Division on its right. The Russian regiment is equal in bayonets to the British infantry brigade. 2nd Division. i. the with us and retire when he thinks good. The village of Yedvabno.e. i company of sappers. As the cemetery " in this village was found to be strongly fortified. 16 guns. 16 guns. and the adjutant requires time to write his orders. which had been abandoned somewhat hurriedly by the Guard Cossacks on the previous evening. in which to advance. 8 guns. We will probably repeat here movement then to be taken the performance of Ivangorod. 4 battalions. and we will only eventually drive them back at heavy cost.." the " " whole advance was delayed and the attack came to nothing.January -March. unless the brigade has a separate task assigned to it. to get a copy of the orders issued by the The front of the Division was divided into four sections of the following strength. " Each section commander was allotted a corridor. The Divisional Orders go straight to the regiment and not to a brigade.G. The divisional reserve was grouped in two detachments ." or (4) zone. 1915 251 bundobust here. 6 guns. if not to bring up reinforcements. of the attack of the 2nd Guard In the Corps Orders the general idea was for the 2nd Division to attack the enemy's left and for the forward up all along the line. was the 2nd Division's first objective.

G. He at once expended his whole divisional though the remaining three regiments of the division had hardly been under fire. The G. He was driven back. Regimental headquarters were linked with battalions. losing practically two whole battalions. Reserve Division. probably more telephone material than any regiment in the Russian army. The Caucasian Brigade has been sent back to form a reserve to the Corps. and each battalion commander was linked with his company com- manders. On the 2ist a new German brigade Von Einem's was West of this lay in succession the 3rd identified on our right. (six and two-thirds miles) of the regiment now possesses forty instruments and right fifty-four versts (thirty-six miles) of line. but the attempt at attack had been a We miserable failure. reserve.600 (about 800) on apparatus out of regimental funds. The Preobrajenski Regiment has. 8. of Domanevski suggested sending two regiments our general .O. Jacobi's Landwehr Division and the 4ist Division of the XXth Corps. We found the O. 1914-1917 respectively four and two versts in rear of the right and left centre. The General had long conversations with engineers regarding positions for passive defence.252 With the Russian Army. to attack the village of Mali Plotsk. The a day had hoped for situation grew uncomfortable again. of its strength. The I2th Army was to remain on its present line for over five months. Each regiment retained in sectional reserve about 25 per cent. Instead of the Government allowance of nine instruments and ten versts line. for since the beginning of the war it has spent Rs. Preobrajenski Regiment had moved forward to an artillery observation point immediately in rear of the line of trenches.G. This point was linked by telephone with the regimental headquarters in rear. or two of initiative. however.m. gih Siberian Division moved his regiment forward at 4 p.

The recoil mechanism of the guns was worn. Half the XXth. the Caucasian Rifles. The German shell falls right into our trenches.G. Ilnd. while the enemy moved units east from The Russians continually Thorn. no doubt by the state of the roads. The shortage of shell caused anxiety. and the guns did not make as good shooting as formerly. Guard. XXVIIth. Half the Illrd." general reserve and was in a On the 23rd the General told me that both our flanks were in The G. IVth Siberian. ist Turkistan. " difficult position. and there is an extraordinary amount of it. and telephoned that he had no danger. the 24th I rode with Rodzianko to the Headquarters of the 2nd Guard Infantry Division. Illrd Caucasian.January -March. IOTH ARMY. Army to advance north transferred troops from the transVistula front to the Narev. Ist Siberian. gth Siberian Division soon exhausted his new corps reserve. from crossing the Nyeman. he severely defeated an attempt of the loth on the 2 ist. Illrd Siberian. XlXth. The mess was in a miserable hut in . Ilnd Siberian. XVth. XXVIIth.O. I2TH ARMY. Vth. Officers said Fighting the Germans is quite a different matter from fighting the Austrians. The infantry suffered from want of proper artillery support. fifteen was calculated that there were German corps on the front from Thorn to Suvalki opposed 23rd it On February by fifteen Russian corps distributed as follows : IST ARMY." ' : Though the enemy in the Suvalki Government was prevented. We found the Staff at lunch On and anything but cheerful. but the General would it. 1915 not hear of 253 reserve to attack in extension of our right. ist Caucasian Rifle Brigade. Guard Rifle Brigade.

Army considered that a real offensive would be impossible for some six weeks pending the accumulation of shell. Illrd Caucasian. He spoke of the Grenaderski Regiment. a miserable It were concentrating north-west of Yedvabno to attack. not 1st Siberian. Vth. and our guns were said to be unable to bombard him owing to the nearness of our men.m. killing men and horses and breaking all the windows. relief Some From February loth till the 25th the following nine corps : had been transferred to the Narev front Siberian. mendation. The enemy was firmly settled in Yedvabno cemetery. in lack of men. Finally. 1914-1917 village. It Guard. 1st. On the morning of the 24th they only got to bed at 5 a. and by the news that it was to be followed by the 1st Still. the staff of the I2th Corps. on Bezobrazov's recomcommand and was suc- was brought by the arrival of the Vth Corps at Lomja and Novogrod on the 25th and 26th. The Commander of the gth Siberian Division twice asked for the support staff of the The of the Guard Rifle Brigade. as they were refused ammunition/ He " added We can fight all right. had been at a village further north the day before. The division occupied fourteen versts of front.254 With the Russian Army. to fill 1 : The battery wagons which went said quietly You have just to tell the artillery to use shell as sparingly as possible. returned from the telephone. XVth. While we were there. Hnd XlXth. Ilnd. so it had moved back." The you. the Chief of Staff of the DiviHe said that the Germans sion. They : . lie was evident that our difficulty did Diary of February 25th In tactics the Germans win against anything like equal numbers if the Russians have not time to entrench. he was removed from his ceeded by the Brigade Commander. but the Germans had sent over thirty heavy shell. but not without shell. and " I have an unpleasant piece of news for then went on to say : up have returned from the parks empty. Boldirev." Divisional Commander " : Lomja Group was even more anxious about the enemy's pressure down the Pissa on the left flank. which had lost half its strength.

February.ice N.. 1915. ifi.E. Peasant women at work on a position. Second line defences. of Lomja. North of Lomja. 1915. [See page 252 February. [See page 252 page 254] .

Three figures on After lunch at Headquarters of the 2nd left General Potocki.E. Division of the Guard._ T- ~^-** March. : [See page 261 . Colonel Boldirev. Bridging under difficulties. North Poland. of Lomja. [See page 254 16th March. Novogrod. 1915. 1915. N. General Bezobrazov.

1915 255 manoeuvre more boldly and are not nervous about their flanks. Plehve and the Staff of the I2th Army arrived at Lomja from sion. Units do not trust one another. the plan being to send the 1st Corps forward up the right bank of the Bobr to turn the German left.January -March. The corps had only three-battalion regiments and only about twenty officers per regiment. This prevents all dash and initiative. of brutally stupid type. and of course consequently generally is. The number of these machine-guns makes the capture of a trench once lost a very costly business. heard of a battery commander to-day who was told that he would be court-martialled if he fired more than I three rounds per gun per diem without special orders. and the officers rode or else slouched along without making any attempt to enforce march discipline. and each is constantly nervous regarding its flanks. and gradually to wheel him out of his fortified positions. The Russians suffer from the lack of shell. of poor physique and stamina. Orders were received for an attack on March 2nd. It is believed that the Germans have four machine- guns per battalion. and they do not spare shell. keeping up a deadly fire in front from a group of machine-guns while the infantry works round one or both flanks. The Russians have less idea of manoeuvre. They use their machine-guns to form pivots for manoeuvre. of heavy artillery and of machineguns. The march of the 1st Corps through Lomj a on the 28th was not an inspiriting spectacle. The men crowded all over the pavements. The bulk of the men had never been under fire. and they looked quite untrained. They made a bad impression. having a wonderful mutual trust in the command. the 27th I saw some of the men of the 7th Division of the Vth Corps as they went forward to relieve the gth Siberian Divi- On them seemed listless. It was arranged for the 22nd Division of this Corps to relieve two regiments of the 2nd Division of the Guard on our extreme . Most of Ostrov on the 27th. Every commander expects to be let down by his neighbour.

000 to 30. With the Russian Army.256 right. verst front west of the Bobr. permitting these regiments to move into reserve in rear of their Division. 1914-1917 north of Vizna. formed a general reserve at the disposition of the The 22nd Division reached its The other division of the 1st Army Commander. Unfortunately the enemy had been allowed far too long to entrench. eight battalions of the Guard Six regiments of the Illrd Caucasian the other two regiments had been sent to Osovets were due to arrive at Vizna on the evening of March 2nd. and that if a thaw set in it would be impossible to attack it on any other face. first attack was made by the 22nd Division without proper artillery preparation on the night of March 2nd on a sixIt was repulsed. the 24th. while Plehve wanted a frontal attack to be combined with the flank attack. but " shook that the i6|" guns commenced firing on the 28th and the cement in the defences/' Junior officers. the Russians had seven divisions and a brigade of cavalry on a front of forty versts (twenty-seven miles). The question as to whether the attack should be carried out with the existing inadequate supplies of shell or postponed till more shell had been accumulated depended very much on the risk of the fall of Osovets in the event of the adoption of the latter Bezobrazov considered that the fortress was untakeable from the north. and we had only Bezobrazov told till me three heavy batteries. however. . The Commandant of the fortress reported that the enemy had fired 25. George. that his plan was to hold back the front the Ist Corps had turned the enemy's flank. The other division the 24th attacked on the following night. Even with- Corps out the Illrd Caucasian Corps. appointed position on March ist. with only trifling result.000 shell in the three days 25th to 27th. alternative. Corps. The Guard Corps had the whole Rifle Brigade in reserve." Some would of the Staff of the Guard Corps thought that the enemy only attacked before the arrival of reinforcements which he was believed to be transferring from the retire rapidly if Nyeman The front. said that " the Commandant was only playing up for the Cross of St.

January -March, 1915
It

257

took two

villages,

but most of the

officers
left

wounded in the

assault,

and the men,

were either killed or without leaders, like the

children they are, scattered to loot the German officers' mess and to catch stray transport horses. The ground, too, was frozen to

and rapid entrenching was out of the question. The Germans counter-attacked and drove the Russians back. The following night the remains of the two divisions, supported
a depth of two
feet,

a brigade of the Illrd Caucasian Corps, attacked a third time, >ut again without success.
>y

The
[st

losses in the three days' fighting
;

were reported to be

:

Guard Corps, 5,000. Plehve was much blamed for making these attacks piecemeal. Bezobrazov raged. He told me he had written to the Grand Duke
Corps, 16,000
to complain of Plehve's

"

obstinate waste of life."
lost

about 55 per cent, of its strength, was relieved in front line by the Illrd Caucasian Corps. Of the Guard, the Finlandski, Grenadierski and Semenovski Regiments
1st Corps,

The

having

suffered most, the first-named being reduced to a single battalion. The Guard had now a front of twenty-two versts, which was

considered too wide to attack on.

Our

reserves

had melted.

badly-shattered 1st Corps, and Bezobrazov had only two regiments of the Guard Rifle
Brigade.

Plehve had

now

only the remains

of the

supplied by Messrs. Austin suffered severely in one of the attacks of the 1st Corps. They advanced up a poor road north-east of Vizna, the engines
cars

Two armoured

and seven men in the two cars, and out of the total of ten, seven were killed or wounded. The armoured plating, which had been supplied by Vickers of a specified thickness, was considered after delivery in Russia to be too thin, and was replaced by other plating made at the Putilov Works. These latter plates were badly fitted between the bonnet and the screen, and a bullet penetrating the brass hinge in the interval between the plates killed one driver. The officer who took his place was instantly killed by another bullet. In the other car the driver was killed by a bullet which came through the window. These were the only three men with any knowledge of
leading.

There were three

officers

R

258

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917
two
cars

had to remain where they were till dusk, when one of the surviving officers ran back and got a squad of infantry to pull them back to safety.
driving, so the

In the latter part of February the 1st Army was engaged in some interesting operations in the neighbourhood of Prasnish, 1

where the Germans displayed their usual daring in an attempt to repeat the manoeuvre of Lodz. The 63rd Division in occupation of Prasnish was engaged with the enemy in its front when its right was turned on February 22nd by Sommer's Landwehr Division, which had arrived from Mishinets, and, followed by the 1st Reserve Corps, penetrated south between Prasnish and the river Orjits. On the following day the enemy continued his advance to the
south, severing the communications of the 63rd Division cutting the Prasnish-Makov chaussee.

by

The Russian Command took prompt counter-measures. The Ilnd Siberian Corps, which had detrained at Ostrov, reached Krasnoselts on the night of the 23rd and commenced crossing to the right bank of the Orjits on the 24th. On the same day the 1st
Siberian Corps advanced north from Pultusk.

The enemy's penetrating column was soon attacked on
sides,

all

co-operating finely with the ist. Savich with the loth Siberian Division and the 5th Rifle Brigade cut the

the I2th

Army

Further west, Vannovski, with the 4th Cavalry Division, advanced north between the Ormulev and the The Ilnd Siberian Orjits to cut the enemy's line of retreat.
Mishinets-Prasnish road.
Corps, having crossed the Orjits, moved west on Prasnish. The enemy's further progress south was barred by the Ist Siberian

was attacked from the south-west by the ist Turkistan Brigade and the 38th Division of the XlXth Corps. On the 26th the German column was reported to be fighting to get out, and it seemed that we were about to make large captures of
Corps, while he

In the event, however, the 63rd Division gave way, and the bulk of the Germans escaped to the north, taking six battalions and all the artillery of the Division with them. The
prisoners.
1

See

Map

No. VIII.

January -March, 1915

259

Ilnd Siberian Corps then retook the town of Prasnish, capturing
3,600 prisoners and eight guns. On my way to Warsaw on March 2nd I passed these prisoners, fine strapping men, well enough clothed and nourished, and contrasting very favourably with the men I had seen lately in the Russian 1st and

Vth Corps.

On March 5th
bardment
Nostitz

at

Lomja we

received the

first

news

of the

bom:

of the Dardanelles.
is

My Diary contains the following
news

in great excitement over the first
of the Dardanelles.

of our

bombardment

The news came

in just

kept on asking me whether I thought we would be at Constantinople this week. He says
before dinner to-night.

He

Constantinople

is

doomed.

He made two
"

speeches at

dinner, drinking to the health of

the glorious British

army and fleet." Bezobrazov was very angry with him " for making a fool of himself." Of course, I have been
told nothing about this attempt on the Dardanelles, but I think it is a much more serious operation than Nostitz

imagines, and

it

will

be very

difficult

without

the co-

operation of a Russian landing from the north.

was visiting the 1st Guard Infantry Division on March 7th the Germans commenced an artillery bombardment. It was cruel to see our batteries standing idle and helpless while the enemy threw some 1,200 heavy shell into our trenches. At length our couple of 4-2" guns opened and fired about thirty rounds, but their efforts had naturally not the slightest effect on
While
I

the

enemy

batteries.

On

our

way back we

called

on the Staff

of the division.

The

prevailing spirit Staff said that it

was pessimistic. The Captain of the General " " was heavy work on the North- West Front, and that few of us would " return alive." The Germans having retired from in front of the loth Army, Radkevich advanced and at first made good progress, the XXVIth and Illrd Siberian Corps reaching a line south of Avgustov by March 8th. His Army consisted, however, of four weak corps

260

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917
make matters
worse, his advance

only, and, to

was carried out

eccentrically

on a front

of 100 versts.

A German counter-attack
to the comparative security

very soon drove the loth of the Grodna defences.

Army back

gth Bezobrazov told me that the Guard had lost 10,173 officers and men in the fighting of the previous three weeks, and he estimated the total losses north of Lomja in that

On March

period at o ver 35,000.

Once more he blamed Plehve very strongly

for dashing troops against the

German

trenches in frontal attacks

without proper artillery preparation. The enemy forces which had been driven back from Prasnish
did not rest long, and on March gth they were reported to be once more advancing, this time down both banks of the Orjits in the general direction of the line Prasnish-Ostrolenka. x They, as usual, struck at the point of junction of the
armies.

two

Their projects were once more defeated by the efficient co-operation of the two Russian staffs.
the night of March loth, the G.O.C ist Army ordered The Ilnd Siberian Corps, with the Ist Siberian Corps on its left,
. :

On

to defend the northern approaches to Prasnish. Further southwest, the Ist Turkistan Corps to continue the line facing north.

The XlXth Corps to concentrate south-east and south
nish.

of Pras-

Oranovski's Cavalry Corps (three and a half divisions) to maintain touch between the right of the ist Army and the left
of the

I2th Army. The G.O.C. I2th

Army

ordered

:

The 4th Cavalry Division to oppose and delay the enemy's advance down the left bank of the Orjits. The XXIIIrd Corps
to advance from Ostrolenka on the morning of the nth to Krasnoselts in order to attack the enemy's left flank if he should

attempt to turn the right of the ist Army. The Illrd Caucasian Corps to relieve the Qth Siberian Division and the left units

The gth Siberian Division to rejoin its other division, the loth, which had lost two battalions on March Qth in an attack by the Germans north of
of

the

Guard the same

night.

1

See

Map

No.-

IX.

January -March, 1915
Kadzilo.

261

The Vth Corps, with the units attached the 3rd Turkistan Rifle Brigade, 2nd Cavalry Division and ist Independent Cavalry Brigade to persevere in the task already ordered, i.e., to move north with a view to turning the right flank of the enemy operating from the north against Lomja.
cautiously, and the Siberian and Turkistan Corps retired slowly to allow time for the arrival of enforcements. By the I3th a general battle was in progress on

The Germans advanced

oth banks of the Orjits.

The Russians took the

offensive, the

XlXth
Corps.

Corps advancing north on the right of the Ilnd Siberian

The XXIIIrd Corps crossed the Orjits at Ednorojets (twenty versts north of Krasnoselts), and attacked the enemy's The XVth Corps, which had been transferred from the left. loth Army, moved north from Ostrolenka between the Ormulev and the Orjits to protect the right flank of the XXIIIrd Corps. On the i6th the tired-out Ilnd Siberian Corps was relieved in
first line

All

by the Ilnd Caucasian Corps. danger was now passed, but severe

fighting continued for

some days, the Russians taking prisoners and guns, but losing heavily in wading through marshes to attack villages defended by machine-guns.
Diary,

March

i6th, 1915

:

To-day General Bezobrazov took me in an automobile to see two regiments of the 2nd Division, or as much of them as it was possible to see without going to the trenches. He always makes a habit of going to thank units that have
" suffered severely, with the idea of bucking them up." started at 9 a.m., the General and I in a limousine,

We

Rodzianko following in an open car with the A.D.O. on duty. It was bitterly cold. Twelve degrees of frost Reaumur. We drove to the Headquarters of the 2nd Division and started riding from there, or, rather, the others rode and I walked most of the way, for the wind seemed to cut my hands and feet nearly off. We saw the remnant of the Finlandski Regiment one battalion and the Pavlovski Regiment and a battery, and then returned to lunch with

262

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917
General Potocki.
in reserve,

After lunch

we

visited another battery.

Then we saw a battalion of the Moskovski Regiment, which
is

and the

officers invited

us into their dug-out

to take tea.

was drawn up in line, and the General, after greeting the men, thanked them in the name of the Emperor and the country for their gallant services, and added he was sure they would continue to gather fresh

Each

unit

laurels for the
It

good name

of their corps.

was touching to see how the men were moved by his They are evidently very fond of simple words of praise. both Bezobrazov and Potocki, the Division Commander. The latter leaned over and chucked men here and there
Pauvres gens," Bezounder the chin as he rode along. " ils sont prts a brazov said to me as we drove away, donner leur vie pour un sourire."
"

Each place we stopped at the General gave a little lecture
to the officers explanatory of the general situation, of which people in the trenches are very ignorant, owing to the poorness of the Russian papers and the time they require

Here, again, I was much struck by the wonderful simplicity of the Russian officers as well as
to reach the front.

men. When we were in the underground hut of the Moskovski Regiment, the conversation ran on the tactics of the Germans and how best to circumvent them. The General discussed the possibility of a break in our line of
of the

said that in case this occurred, the only thing to do was to counter-attack at once, but before counter-attacking a hurricane fire must be opened, and
defence.

He

while the counter-attack progresses this fire must be Then in the simplest lifted to the enemy's reserves. possible way, without any change of voice or hypocritical "
flourish,

he added

:

You must always remember,

too,

the value of prayer

with prayer you can do anything."

So sudden a transition from professional technicalities to simple primary truths seemed incongruous, and gave me almost a shock, but was taken quite naturally by the

January-March, 1915
officers
little

263

crowding round, with serious bearded faces, in the dug-out. This religious belief is a power in the
;

the pity of it is that it is not turned to " more practical account. Grom well's creed made poor " " fit to meet men of honour," tapsters and serving-men

Russian army

was not a very elevating one. Here, of course, we have not got the men of iron to preach and to force the best qualities in the rank and file to the front. The priests are splendidly self-sacrificing, but their
and
his creed

initiative has

been affected,

like everyone's,

by generations

of bureaucratic

government.

the I5th Bezobrazov gave a gala dinner to General Irmanov, the Commander of the Illrd Caucasian Corps, and his The chief bond of sympathy Chief of Staff, General Rozanov.

On

was a common

dislike of Plehve, the

Army Commander, whose

headquarters were in the town but who was not invited. Irmanov was a fine-looking old man, who had spent most of his service in
Siberia.

Caucasian.
at the

He changed his name from " Irman " to " Irmanov " beginning of the war. He was a strict disciplinarian, and

His father was of German family and his mother a

his corps consistently distinguished itself.

Engelhardt returned from attending the Imperial Duma at Petrograd in optimistic mood. He told me that he thought the

war would end in four months, Austria
months' time.
the alliance.
I

falling to pieces in

two

ventured to disagree on the ground that the Germans were too intelligent ever to allow Austria to lapse from

Engelhardt, like practically everyone, except Nostitz, was a strong advocate of the superior strategic importance of the SouthWest Front. He said he could understand Rennenkampf's and

Samsonov's invasion of East Prussia as being done to relieve pressure on France, but he considered Sievers's renewal of the
invasion last December to be indefensible.
Russia, in his opinion,

should have held the river line of the Nyeman-Bobr-Narev with seven corps and Opolchenie. This line should have been as

264

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917
Our cavalry should have been
of,

strongly fortified as possible.

thrown forward
destroy
all

to,

and

the

German

possible in advance railways it could.
if

the frontier, to

Bezobrazov thought our defensive
south as the
I
Pilitsa.

line

should run as far

doubted whether seven Russian corps would be enough to hold an enemy as enterprising as the Germans, with the railway system of East Prussia at his back, on a front of 250 miles (Kovna to Novo Georgievsk), which would, moreover, increase as we advanced, unless we had a central strategic reserve of several
corps at, say, Syedlets. On the other hand, I agreed with Engelhardt that his plan was infinitely preferable to the plan so far followed of tentative invasions of East Prussia, followed by
tentative invasions of Galicia. " Russia's strength is in the Engelhardt said population and in the extent of her territory.
:

Germans did cut the Vilna-Grodna-Warsaw
Bologoe-Syedlets.
Russia's strategy
ideas,
is

line,

number of her Even if the we still have the

rotten, for her Generals

have not even got
practice."

much

less

the ability to put ideas into

agreed with me that there were many excellent officers in the Russian army up to the rank of company and squadron com-

He

mander, but considered that the peace training of officers of higher rank had been conducted on false principles. The company and squadron commanders were the only individuals that practised continually in peace the duties that they would have
to carry out in war, i.e., to command their companies or squadrons. Even the battalion commander spent the greater part of his time
criticising or instructing his

easier to criticise

than to

company commanders. It is much command oneself. Commanders of all

grades should teach themselves by war games, staff rides, etc. Criticism is, of course, necessary as a guide for the junior ranks,

but the duty of commanders should be always to teach themselves
before teaching others. He blamed the Staff for issuing orders which they should know it is quite impossible for the troops to carry out, and he instanced

the order given to the Illrd Caucasian Corps on the night of

West Front. 40 divisions.Chief North. On March ijih the Intelligence of the I2th Army estimated the German strength in the Eastern theatre at the following number of artillery . for instance. Trans-Vistula Front . . . . filled replace casualties For instance. The fortress had proved itself equal to the German siege artillery the enemy had found the garrison in good heart and the place not to be carried by a coup de main. . in the number of his machine-guns. Carpathians . . . The loth. ist. corps : Nyeman Front Bobr-Narev Front Opposing : . 1915 March loth to march thirty-six versts 265 the gth Siberian Division in front line on the nth and to relieve on that night. . Osovets was considered to be out of danger. . and started back in one or two days. continue the fortification of 2nd and 5th Armies were directed to their front. keeping at the same time a careful watch for any weakening of the enemy opposed to them. 47 or 48 corps fifty-two corps.West Front. 4 or 5 corps 20 corps Total . . above all. . When one of our corps. . as. and was ordered to Syedlets. in his supply of shell. Austrians. . . 4 corps 1 2tli Opposing ist Army Army 5 corps 6 corps ii corps 8 corps . defeated at Prasnish at the frontier. equivalent to . and. . . The Ist Siberian Corps was to form a general reserve at the disposal of the Gommander-in. but the enemy's advantage lay in his railways. I2th. Late on the night of the i6th orders were received which " " amounted practically to a stand fast all along the North. . . in the rational organisation which allowed him to We had rapidly. the German corps end of February marched to the up.January -March. . . as we learned from prisoners.

" which I always wear. took me had been brought in as prisoners. drafts arrived. Russia has no interests opposed to the interests of Germany. The English could find fleet is afraid to attack the German fleet. and the war will only stop when England has had enough of it. The Russians turned the conversa- on to England. a journey of seventeen hours in peace ! .. where I got a train on the morning of the On igth that took me to Petrograd in forty-two hours. I had on the Russian " officer's shuba. the I7th I received a telegram from the Ambassador asking me to return to Petrograd. Scarborough it is well known to be a fortified base. Both Russia and France were entirely dependent on England. 1915. I left Lomja on the i8th and motored to Warsaw. and I do not think they had any idea I was a Britisher. practically out of action. March ijth. but her interests clash everywhere with British interests for instance. England only caused the tion war. It any day if it came to Heligoland. till it had to wait for weeks. lost over 50 per cent. to prevent Russian sentries from firing at me. Germany will win. LOMJA. of the who Guard. in Persia and England's object in the war is to destroy a " a natural idea to their mind. parently. The Germans are very sure of them" selves and full of argument. apcommercial rival China.266 the With the Russian Army. 1914-1917 1st. in charge of the rear services to talk to some German officers who is Colonel Nadzimov.

the evacuations were for sickness. SUMMER OF 1915 the exception of a short visit to Moscow in April.000. 267 . of course.e.899 officers.000 did not include men who had recovered and returned to the front.900. and those men who had been permanently evacuated from the front on account of wounds and sickness. The casualty total was. receipt of Government rations.300. The Chief of the General Staff at Petrograd. for the 1. enquiring into the organisation of the rear services and especially the arrangements for the supply of men and munitions.. during the first five months of war were. but had since fallen to 25 per cent. greater. General Byelyaev. Captain Blair visited the Qth Army on the extreme left.000 represented the killed and prisoners. No less than 50 per cent. 482. and saw something of its offensive in May. in one month. Presumably the difference 1. " " and that the feeding strength was then 6. of . I spent the four months from the middle of March till the July at Petrograd. in April stated that altogether 8.900. the Russian losses up till January I3th i. he stated that the proportion of the evacuated that returned to the front was very small it had risen to 40 per cent.CHAPTER VII I REAR SERVICES AND WITH middle of INTERNAL SITUATION.000 men had been called up.200. 319 officials.162 rank and file. exclusive of prisoners and of wounded who returned to the front Staff stated that The General 13. or the wounded who were still in hospital and in However. Captain Neilson accompanied the Russian 3rd pathians and Army in its April offensive in the Western Carin its retreat during May and June in Galicia.

and at the present rate of wastage. even if we were to continue for two years more. Reserve . Went Recruits of January and February. . to train the men of the Opolchenie at a distance from their " homes. being sent to . . . in order to avoid desertions. ist Ban. Now . So strong was this feeling that eventually it was found desirable. which few of the recruits had as yet contracted. . . allowing for exemptions on account of special employment 4. men of 20-21. say Recruits of 1914 Conscription.000 army. 1914-1917 8. .200. 1915. . . .000 8. . Opolchenie. men of 21-22.200.000 Total .262.268 With the Russian Army. The General supply of men. 1915 1915 Conscription. . The 2nd Ban of the Opolchenie had not been touched.000 : The men already called up were drawn from the following classes Active and Cossacks. The men of the Opolchenie always joined with a grievance. The young men of the annual recruit contingents were throughout the war found to be of far more reliable material. they had most of them family ties. To meet the enormous wastage the depot battalions was from 192 to 237. to provide reserves more or less on the spot. 700. ." Up to this time no men of over thirty-nine had been called up. we would have no difficulty in finding the men. The Opolchenie of either ban had only previously been twice called up in 1812 and in 1854.000 7th. and their number was increased . for they considered that they had been originally freed from the obligation of active service once and for all. Besides. 1914.000 up on October to . the front in . in the infantry the strength of raised. 2. though the wastage had no war had exceeded anything previously dreamed of. called I4th. in the present Staff fear for the future as regards the General Byelyaev said that. the front . . and. called up on February 700.538.

The remount committees. when sufficiently trained. mobilisation five depot artillery divisions. but also bought for more immediate use were trained as rapidly as possible by the reservist rough-riders. and even that was subject to reduction. IThe The retreat in spite of their period of training was.Summer of 1915 269 60 of the total number of 237 were allotted to the frontal area 30 to the North-West Front and 30 to the South. purchased three-and-a-half -year-olds. who took them in draft squadrons to the front. infantry drafts were sent to the front who had never fired a shot and did not even know how to handle their rifles. the draft system worked well. five-to twelve-year-olds. were handed over to reservists or trained recruits. The remaining 177 battalions were distributed to empty barracks The Moscow Military in the populous centres of the interior. On These of were mass artillery found inadequate for dealing with the three depot reservists. principle was to train raw recruits for four weeks and men the Opolchenie for six weeks. had been formed. The the sixty-five depot training of young squadrons which existed in peace for remounts continued their work after mobilisation. District had 71 battalions and had despatched 2. So far almost all the men despatched to the front had been previously trained cavalry reservists.000 draft companies. 1915.West Front. who returned to work in the depot squadrons on mobilisation. required longer to discipline. In the other arms. assuming responsibility for the training of men as well as of horses. or half a million of men. the idea being that the older men.course. The latter Each depot squadron was strictly affiliated to its parent regiment and supplied it only with men and horses. of . previous training. as before. and in addition . quite inadequate. Up till the beginning of May on an average each depot squadron had sent forward three draft squadrons. where the percentage of casualties had been less. to prepare artillery drafts for the front. which were put through the ordinary long course of training. During the emergency of the from Poland in 1915. to the front by April I4th. The horses. They deserted en masse. each of two batteries.

but there was no chance of their materialising before the end of the On June 23rd I telegraphed that Russia would not be year.000 men in nine trained in May. armed men had comrades were greatest lack was still of rifles. were formed. depot divisions and brigades did not train horses. This represented a puny effort compared with that of France. while enforcing strict discipline. however. had and a half months of war. They were not affiliated to units at the front. and it had 60 officers and 3. Large orders had been placed with American firms. General Yanushkevich stated in March that he had mobilised 106 infantry and 33 cavalry divisions for work on the Western frontier.800 men under instruction at the time. Delcasse pointed out. killed or wounded and their rifles . a good deal required besides mere to make the infantry drafts of any real use the front.000. the situation on the front since the first realisation in November of the shortage of rifles and shell had not permitted of the accumulation of any reserve. men under He said he could place the infantry field every month if only he had rifles There was. each of six batteries. which were prepared in special artillery horse depots. a burden on the economic life of the country that might be compared to 17. and leading that inspired confidence. shell to support them in attack and defence. a proper organisation of the supply and transport services. Unto be sent into the trenches to wait till their The became available. officers.000 of arms. the normal monthly wastage exceeded in quantity the supplies received from the rear. Unfortunately. " " over 400 officers and 30.000. Apart from the large quantities of material lost in the disaster to the loth Army. of three new corps in the rifles. would look properly after the comfort of their men.270 artillery With the Russian Army. which.000 in Russia. 1914-1917 These brigades. when they arrived at The men required longer training and energetic who. General Byelyaev always maintained that the difficulty was solely one of armament. as M. ' ' ' ' but sent drafts on demand to the One division the 1st which was seen headquarters of fronts. had 4.

The Grand Duke Sergei Mikhailovich left his post of Inspector of Artillery to undertake the superintendence of production. but they were handicapped by the difficulty producing fuse. and toiled all day in his Palace on the Millionnaya. It thought that shell was being wasted. appointed to the Artillery Committee. He was always accessible and answered the telephone himself. The average number of guns per 1. a figure which it was difficult for the factories to reach owing to lack of propellant. Guchkov. did not believe in the need for shell on the scale that the Allies in the West had found to be necessary. were members who had served on the Committee for forty-two of who were out years. The Department received at first with little sympathy the cry from the front for shell. It had come to consist largely of technical experts touch with the life and the Officers practical requirements of their comrades in the field. As a . however.000 a month. man of over six feet five and a good artillery officer.Summer rifles. for its red tapism and for its slowness in spending funds allotted by the Duma. The Artillery Department had been constantly attacked in pre-war days by patriotic members of the Duma. of 1915 271 able to undertake any offensive for eight months owing to lack of In December I ammunition to ' ' had been told that there was enough small arms Its supply now began throw out of the window. making a great of effort. No The Russian factories were shell had yet come from abroad. generally remained there till they died. and took months to awaken to its need in quantities hitherto undreamed of. for the expenditure rose to over 100. which decided all technical In 1913 there questions. though he suffered from very indifferent health. and many guns required retubing.000 bayonets was only 2' 12. the number and the quality of the guns was a secondary matter as compared with the urgent necessity for the increase of the supply of shell. Still. He.000. such as M. he A was inspired only by patriotic motives. ' ' to give anxiety.

" under the proviso that the work should . a reply that made the French officers not a little indignant." 3. after enquiry into the local situation.E. he mistrusted foreign experts. The engineers Donetz Basin objected that such a measure would be equivalent to a relapse to serfdom. 1914-1917 patriotic Russian.272 With the Russian Army. That the rules of should be made less inspection useless formality generally should be abolished. The reply was " No. Unfortunately for Russia and her Allies. which consisted of able experts. who were without any technical knowledge. That labour in the mines should be militarised in order to of the secure a constant supply of coal. " " 2. That in order to increase the supply of artillery : rigorous. and it was only after some three months that the mission obtained from the Grand Duke permission to manufacture a million H. practical suggestions 1. delayed a whole fortnight before receiving a French technical mission which had arrived in Petrograd at the end of January with the object of assisting the Russians to develop their This mission. " Nous Francais sommes done des esclaves ? " 4. an artist by inclination. On one occasion an officer told me his " " brother had gone to England to take over big guns. and thought that Russian experts were as good as any in the world. That a constant supply of both coal and raw material should be ensured by introducing proper methods for the use and organisation of the railway rolling-stock. ammunition. put forward four He production of shell. shell with the " fusee a retard. the first of these suggestions was the only one that was partially approved. I asked if he knew anything of gunnery. shell with delayed action fuse instead of the more complicated shrapnel. and and were therefore obliged to follow the specification pedantically and without intelligence. production should be simplified by manufacturing H. The Russians objected on the ground that the French fuse would be ineffective in marshy ground. The Artillery Department was in the habit of sending men abroad as inspectors. and a cavalry officer : by occupation.E. He is a lawyer by education.

I have been at his works twice. It is ridiculous for him to say that he can make no better attempt to keep his contracts. S . Ellershaw carried out his mission with success. however. strongly recommending the contract. They argued that " if Vickers. arrived with a letter for the Grand Duke Nikolas. were particularly bitter regarding the failure of the firm of Vickers to supply shrapnel and fuses as soon as officers expected. urging the placing of additional orders for shell abroad.000 of August to the 550. there was nothing to be hoped for from other foreign firms on whom Russia had no claim.Q. On May I3th the Grand Duke Serge said " Vickers cares only for money. and know their size. brought with him a letter from the Chief of Staff to General Manikovski. who replied by confirming Russian his previous refusal. He said that the Artillery Department did not intend to place any more orders for shell abroad. and returning to Petrograd from G. but required propellant and fuses. I read the message to the Grand Duke.4. Lord Kitchener. Colonel Ellershaw.000 of April. when we in Russia have : increased our output of shell from the 42.ooo. who had grown rich on Russian orders/' failed them. Lord Kitchener's idea was to induce the Russian Government to increase their orders for material from abroad. on May i6th. where the factories were occupied with the production of shrapnel. and has put it in his pocket and done nothing. and it was only a waste of money to pay the large advance which such firms demanded before accepting an order. and in early May an able and energetic artillery officer.H.Summer of 1915 273 not be carried out at Petrograd or in the Donetz Basin." Lord Kitchener determined to appeal to the Commander-inChief. the Governor of the Fortress of Kronstadt. and asking for a definite reply by 12 noon on the 1 5th. and the Assistant of the Grand Duke Serge on the committee which had been specially formed to take in hand the supply of shell.ooo from us. On April loth I handed the Grand Duke a telegram offering a contract for shell with the American Locomotive Combine. repeated his offer. He has got an advance of Rs.

he had used only 1*2 millions. with a bluff manner. Of course it was more than doubtful whether the supply from all sources would really reach 1. but that he had never " Department and all its though he knows all the time that she is a bad lot.000 in August." Next day we visited the Grand Duke Serge. lot of shell Will you take a bet that we get anything in the next six months ? He added that he wanted shell at the ? ' present not in six months' time.500.274 . The Grand Duke depended on large deliveries from the French Government. and that even in the first month of the war. The Grand Duke asked " When will Lord Kitchener deliver his first : smelt powder. but since it was a question whether Russia " we will spit on the law/' should be victorious or defeated. in the nine months August. pleaded Lord Kitchener's point of view. and on this This was my first occasion in a voice loud enough to be heard by a whole regiment. 1914-1917 obtained an interview with Manikovski that day and handed him the letter. He spoke only Russian. without any practical assistance from the Allies. whom I was afterwards to get to know well. He read us extracts. though a fortress-gunner all his life. and the Canadian Car and Foundry Company. With the Russian Army. Yanushkevich We wrote that the Commander-in-Chief had appointed Lord Kitchener as his agent for the purchase of shell. He was a small. was.300 per cent." and he loved the Artillery " ways. taking into consideration . We pointed out that the Russian artillery was so good that it could not fire enough to please the infantry. like a man will still love a woman.000 shell in August. We soon found that. that he would have 1. The Grand Duke said that the guns would burst. that the giving of such powers to a foreign General was not in accordance with Russian law. The increase of the monthly production of shell in Russia by 1. Obviously the better plan was to develop home production. speaking English. he took the infantry point of view that we could not have too much shell. thick-set man. when expert artillerists thought that 50 per cent. and Ellershaw. of the moment and rounds had been wasted. interview with Manikovski. rifles and ammunition. He said that the Grand Duke Serge was a man of great ability.April.500.

"Two March million shell were ordered : from Vickers. 250. April to September " . Sazonov sent the following Notice of hurrying up deliveries ' to the Embassy " : orders placed in England by the Imperial Government. .000. with the consent of the British Government. The Grand Duke Serge went to Baranovichi and then proceeded on sick leave to the Crimea. and on April I5th a contract for 5. it but reminding the Russian Government that had refused two very important on March gth a contract for 5. 60. and a quick worker. and retained that position till the end of He proved himself to be a man of remarkable energy the war. Sazonov a telegram received from the Foreign Office stating that Lord Kitchener Artillery would do offers his best to obtain shell for Russia. At " the beginning of June M. . and to these. . 240.000 per month.000 rounds with the Bethlehem Steel Company. On May 26th the Ambassador handed to M. Manikovski succeeded Kuzmin Karavaev at the head of the Department. As the British Government had so far only helped with suggestions. . Ellershaw returned to England.000 per month. and organising ability. at least as fine a performance as the increase in Great Britain in a similar period by 1.900 per cent. Among the a certain number were of an urgent character.000 rounds complete with the exception of propellant with the American Locomotive Combine. October and November One million fuses were ordered : from the same firm to be delivered as follows . but had given no practical assistance in the essential matter on the contracts placed by its advice. it was only natural that this communication provoked a retort.000.Summer of 1915 275 the backward state of Russian industrial development. the Russian Government invited the special attention of the British Embassy at Petrograd. to be delivered as follows . as well as that of General Williams and General Paget.000. on that account.

The Chief of the Russian Red Cross. Lord Kitchener. in describing the attack. the Duke of Oldenburg. the French plan of sending out experts to expand the home Russian industries was the best. who was Patron of the Law School. As the Russians mistrusted the foreign expert.000 respirators. . 1915.600 " So far there has been no delivery on either of these orders.276 With the Russian Army. they also mistrusted any foreign new-fangled article till they had had practical proof of its value. . stated that the Russians " " " transpired later that the necessary measures consisted of urinating on handkerchiefs and tying them round the face. On ment had given these experts anything like a free hand. . that nobody in Russia believed in.000 March and monthly till com. saw clearly that the orders were the whole. The Russian Government wanted to see some return from its foreign orders before placing new ones. 1914-1917 February . pletion of contract 138. The delivery should have commenced It is in April." easy to understand and to sympathise with the different points of view. On June ist gas was used for the first time on a large scale on the Bzura and lower Ravka. . but nothing has been received yet. took up the matter energetically. . The Press. The British General Staff had sent out a specimen gas-mask. however." It Warsaw and had not been distributed to thousand men died from gas-poisoning. even in May. Rumour said that the outbreak . and kept the law students back for three weeks from their summer holidays till they had completed the manufacture of 100. who foresaw the long war. and would have borne most fruit if the Russian Governquite insufficient. Over one In the second week of June there were riots in Moscow. at the troops. " Five million shell were ordered through the British Government from Canada. 30. for the respirators sent from Petrograd were still lying had time to take the necessary measures. . which caused considerable damage.

a man of more liberal tendencies. who liked Sukhomlinov and disliked Polivanov. and instanced the prohibition of vodka as a more thorough-going reform than had been produced by a century of chatter in other assemblies. the President of the Duma. Maklakov (Interior). which made use of popular dissatisfaction at the inefficiency of the present GovernHe said that the Russian Government was " very bad. and Sukhomlinov (War). expressing his sorrow at parting with him after such long years of work. and that the secret police had cleverly turned the movement into anti-German channels. Sukhomlinov. which had amused the j Imperial children when depressed by the murder of Stolypin/ After the Moscow riots he was replaced by Prince in 1911. He had told Sukhomlinov in an audience at Tsarskoe Selo on June 23rd that he would retain his portfolio. and leaving to history the task of estimating the value of the work he had accomplished for Russia. was only induced to make this change by the pressure of the Grand Duke Nikolas and the Constitutionalists. procured his dismissal on the ground that he had been intriguing against him.Summer of 1915 277 was the result of discontent owing to the proposed calling up of the 2nd Ban of the Opolchenie. Shcheglovitov (Justice). It was supposed as Minister of War by General Polivanov. but on the following day at Baranovichi he was persuaded by the Grand Duke that a change was necessary in order to soothe popular discontent. He wrote a letter to Sukhomlinov with his own hand. and was succeeded ! The Emperor. when his chief." ment I suggested that it had redeeming features. at the time that the " " intrigue consisted of his communicating to members of the Duma the details of final Sukhomlinov's employment of the traitor a fatal Myasoyedov. maintained that the riots were the result of German intrigue. People said that Maklakov owed his place as Minister of the \ Interior to his knack of imitating animals. On June 25th Sukhomlinov was dismissed. The blow to Sukhomlinov. Rodzianko. exposure of the latter proved . M. Polivanov had been Assistant Minister of War from 1906 to 1912. Shcherbatov. There was a general demand for the removal of the three Ministers.

but were really in a pre-arranged code. transmitted the messages Myasoyedov gave away to the of the loth Russian He enemy the exact position and strength army. It appears that he sent his information through an individual who traded at Petrograd as an advertising This agent conagent. It is said that the first enemy evidence of his activities in this war was the discovery of a list of names on the body of a German staff officer killed in France. and that investigations were in progress with a view to bringing similar charges against several other individuals. In 1912 Guchkov.278 With the Russian Army. attacked Sukhomlinov for employing Myasoyedov to shadow Russian officers. sub-letting hoardings at railway stations. 1914-1917 bulletin on April 2nd had announced that Colonel Myasoyedov. The peasants had at this time no economic cause for discontent. There was as yet manufactured products. he obtained a special post at the Ministry of War. whose wife was a friend of Madame Mya" " soyedov. It was in that capacity. He was dismissed on a charge of smuggling. However. that he was attached to the Staff of the loth Army. for several years the officer in charge of the gendarmerie at the frontier station of Verjbolovo. he worked for the rather than for his own country. The industrial population of the towns was in worse of no famine case. "lately interpreter on the Staff of the loth Army. and roundly accused Myasoyedov of being a spy in the service of a foreign power. Like Redl in Austria. for . through Sweden to Germany. and Guchkov and Myasoyedov fought a duel. the Octobrist leader. They were getting good prices for their grain. and not as a mere interpreter. Myasoyedov had powerful friends in the Minister of War and other members of the Extreme Right. and were saving the money they had formerly spent on vodka. and so ensured the initial success of their February offensive. and he continued to be employed in counter-espionage." had been hung for betraying official secrets. but through the influence of The Grand Duke's Myasoyedov had been General Sukhomlinov. The matter caused much scandal at the time. stantly received telegrams which appeared innocent.

The men on The leave spread stories of the slaughter and the suffering. average Russian to persevere long in an uphill task.. how long I thought the war would last. Meat and .Summer of 1915 279 the working-men's budget of expenditure had risen upwards of 40 per cent. ." have often wondered how that poor fellow has lived through the years since. sugar were often unobtainable by the poor in Petrograd. It was constantly asked what the Allies in the West were doing. and adding. " fed to with the usual expressive Russian gesture. 1914. and when the British army would be to mistrust the Government ^W***^^^^^ -^^WWIW^B^^I^W******* ready. I . suggestion began to be whispered that Russia had been enticed into a war for a quarrel that was not her own. The public and the higher leading. Black bread. All classes were already beginning to weary of the war. was kopeks meat was 30 kopeks instead of 24 tea 180 160 sugar 16 to 25 instead of 12 to 15. that he was the teeth with it. without a corresponding increase in wages. I remember a young cavalry officer asking me in Poland in the early days of October. commenced Treachery at the top was a comfortable explanation of continual defeat. which now 4 to 5 instead of had been 2 to 3 kopeks a pound before the war. . There was no strong patriotism as in Great Britain to weld all It is unfortunately not in the character of the classes together. or whether he soon found a refuge in death from a life that had proved too boring.

It careful watch for any weakening of the opposing was decided to leave East Prussia severely alone. numerically half. but it was considered that the systematic conquest of that province. would require far greater force than Russia could withdraw from Western Poland and the Carpathians. keeping at the AS same time a enemy. APRIL AUGUST.West Front with an offensive on the South.- . of the Russian Army. even supposing such conquest to be successful. explained in Chapter VI. It was further pointed out that. The policy of combining the defensive on the North. Unfortunately the defence of the North. X.West Front from raids into East Prussia to the Pilitsa absorbed in the spring of 1915 fifty-two infantry and at least sixteen cavalry divisions. since they withdrew pressure from France. 2nd and 5th all along the line. standfast Armies were told to continue to fortify their front. I2th. while the Russian right on the Baltic would always be open to attack. large forces would still be required to mask the fortress of Konigsberg and the bridgeheads on the lower Vistula. CHAPTER VIII THE GERMAN OFFENSIVE ON THE DUNAJEC AND THE RUSSIAN RETREAT FROM POLAND. 1915 REFERENCE MAP No. 1st.. Kovna and in quality the better half. on March i8th orders were issued to the North-West Front which provided for a " " The loth.West Front was regarded by the vast majority of the officers of the Russian General Staff as offering the greatest chance of success. It was conceded that the initial had been of use. besides opening a direct 280 . together with West Prussia. The surrender of Przemysl on March 22nd freed the besieging Russian army for more active operations.

these six corps came to a halt on April i8th " to await the arrival of drafts and new supplies of ammunition. the two corps of the 3rd Army (the Xllth and XXIXth) and by the 8th Army. and was replaced by General Alexyeev. It was generally considered that with proper organisation the resistance of the fortress might have been considerably prolonged. It is curious that exactly two weeks later on May 2nd Mackenzen struck at the centre of the 3rd Army and at once changed the whole situation. XVIIth. In February the XVIIth and XVIIIth Corps. with 117. Though some of the defending troops were half-starved. together with the Staff of the 9th Army. The advance . for it had lessened the power of resistance of the 3rd Army.West Front. the right of this Army had been weakened by the transfer of the Xlth Corps to the 9th Army on succeeded by the middle of April in fighting their way through about a fifth of the distance to their objective.500 junior officers. the corps of which lay from right to left as follows Vlllth. in early April endeavoured to carry out an offensive in a southerly direction across the Carpathians with the The Russians idea of occupying the Hungarian railways running south of and The movement was carried out by parallel to the main range. left : At the price of terrible sufferings from the cold. The garrison which surrendered included 9 generals. General Ruzski was retired from the command of the North- West Front on account of illness." Russian officers said at the time that the halt would be for two weeks only. Russians. who had hitherto acted as Chief of Staff to General Ivanov on the South. 1915 \ 281 double line of railway for the supply of the 3rd Army on the Dunajec. on entering the town. XXVIIIth and Vllth. found that the Jews had hidden away large stores of food. had been transferred from the transVistula Front to the extreme Russian left north of Stanislau. Even before the offensive.April-August. the 93 field and 2.000 rank and file. It was then recognised that the Carpathian offensive had been a mistake.

the hero of Lodz. It is believed that there were not more than three medium-calibre batteries in the whole of the 3rd Army. The turn of the IXth Corps on . the IXth and Xth. and on a great part of the front only a single line. The Russian General Staff at Petrograd issued later a sort of official apology for the retirement. The majority of the Russian batteries seem to have occupied the same position all the winter. and as a natural result all the Russians in the danger zone who were not killed or wounded were stunned or contusioned. against the right of the 3rd Army. On May 2nd the 145 miles of front of the 3rd Army was held by corps from right to left in the following order IXth. even the Austrians could not Help marking down the position of every gun and getting its range.500 guns. XXIVth.000 shell in the four hours preceding the attack. The Austrians shot so badly that there seemed no reason why they should trouble to move. Xllth. 1914-1917 left. The Russians had nothing with which to reply. The Austrians did the spadework. So much for the Xth Corps. only two lines of defence had been prepared. XXIst. Radko Dimitriev had been opposed throughout the winter by the Austrian army of the Archduke of the : hood Joseph. Though there had been ample time to construct several successive lines of fieldworks. of which many were of fired medium calibre. Xth. which contained only a single German division. The two right corps. and when the Germans arrived under Mackenzen. However. This document stated that the Germans concentrated upwards of 1. They 700. the extreme Russian last It was still further weakened in the days of April by the move of the XXIst Corps from its position west of Tarnow in an easterly direction to the neighbour- Mezo-Laborcz Pass. It was calculated that they used ten medium-calibre shell for every pace and a half of front. had been sitting inactive on the Dunajec for over four months. XXIXth.282 With the Russian Army. they found themselves at once at home. The German phalanx drove forward over the silent Russian trenches between Gorlice and Tuchow and swarmed along the railway towards Rzeszow and Jaroslau.

effect anything. failed to the San. The German troops reached the latter town on the fourteenth day of their offensive. . for if the German wedge had succeeded in penetrating further east they would have been forced to abandon the whole line of the San. forced to abandon the lower Dunajec and to retire east. and the enemy's phalanx. During the retreat he did his best as a gallant fighter. The supply of gun ammunition failed everywhere. overwhelmed the XXIVth Corps at the crossings of but this. German phalanx was too weak to and all the ground won in the April offensive was abandoned. losing heavily. this Radko Dimitriev attempted another time through Krosno. there was a shortage of small-arms ammunition. On On its extending east. The distance from Gorlice to Jaroslau is ninety-three miles. for before attacking them the Germans would have had to have moved up their heavy guns and to have got the range. It it 283 was was now that Radko Dimitriev suffered If rear pivots of for his lack of fore- sight in the winter. was now in full retreat from the Carpathians.April-August. repairing the railway as they advanced. owing to faulty organisation. with the XXIst Corps. 1915 the right followed. In trans-Vistula Poland the 4th Army had moved back from the Nida in conforrnance to the retreat of the 3rd Army. having covered the distance at the rate of six and a half miles a day. it was only this position critical for The became had gained any great success. The left of the 3rd Army as well as the right. defence had been prepared. however. and also in many places. sweeping on. He first tried to restore the battle by directing the Illrd Caucasian Corps. against the right of the in a counter-attack The corps through Jaslo. and was swept aside. too. the I7th this advanced force developed its success. " " Mackenzen wedge that Fortunately. the following day they forced the passage of the San and occupied about eight miles of the right bank down-stream from Jaroslau. counter-attack. his only reserve. stem the tide. and the whole of the 8th Army. After suffering heavy bombardment. left to Sieniawa and moving some five miles further the Russians. their delaying effect would have far exceeded that of the first line.

.000 prisoners.. but Here are a few details more. They confessed over 100. and there is no reason to believe that the estimate was exaggerated. . . inextricable jumble. drove them back in a vigorous counter-stroke. then Austrians take their place and the Germans rest till they are required again. him. and then turning on Voyrsch and Dankl's pursuing troops. In the .000 men remain men . In the retreat Radko has fought every yard. they are very sore. up to now. Captain to " Their losses have been colossal. Neilson's letter continued : " An airman tells that the Germans that he reported for three weeks were concentrating. making 4. I The fancy the men have had very little to eat. but no precautions were taken. having been opposed . . . however.. To-day is the eighteenth day of uninterrupted battle and retreat.284 It With the Russian Army. The 3rd Army was. . fighting stubbornly but has no strength left. . . . . but no one believed me Spies also reported this.000 remain/' The Vienna communique of the first half of May i8th stated that the captures were 170. . army had been spoiled by..000 on the i6th. The army is still firing-line . Similarly on the igth they had to reinforce their right to resist the offensive of the gth reached the Army. which had been launched on May gth. Germans do the work. ..000 prisoners. in the other only 900. Neilson wrote on May igth : in a pitiable condition. Local reinforcements have caused this Army to become an . The Germans on May 20th had to transfer troops to the left bank of the Vistula to support Dankl. 1914-1917 line Novemyasto-west of Radom-Ilja-Opatov. say they have absolutely no direction from above units advance and retire at will. 128 guns and 368 of May machine-guns. correct : I think they have lost which I know to be " Xth Corps : in one division 1. I2th Siberian Division : only 2. pouring in reinforcements like lead into a furnace.

eight miles north-east of Sambor. . the Ilnd Caucasian Corps and the 77th Division from the ist Army. The XlVth Corps was sent across the Vistula from the 4th Army. by the XXIInd Corps against determined and now held a line from Drohobucz north-west of Stryj to Sokolow.. It 285 know what real fighting meant. who had succeeded Alexyeev as Chief of Staff to Ivanov at the Headquarters of the South. the XXIIIrd Corps. which had been practising embarkation and disembarkation at Odessa with a view to co-operation with our Dardanelles Expedition in a descent on the Bosphorus.West Front. the Commander of the IVth Siberian Corps. Further east the gth Army in a counter-offensive had crossed the Pruth. the XVth Corps was transferred from the I2th Army.April-August. Galicia is doomed beyond all doubt. 1915 by Austrians." did not The Headquarters of the 3rd Army were now at Tomashov. and its front ran for eighty miles from Tarnobrzeg on the Vistula by Nisko up the right bank of the San to Sieniawa. had been forced to abandon the Koziowa positions so long held enemy attacks. The Russian Supreme Command hurried to the danger-point such reinforcements as could be spared from all parts of the theatre of war. The choice was hardly a happy one. now under General Shcherbachev. and most of his appointments had been in connection with military communications. but had so far failed to take either Kolomea or Czernowitz. . lost his nerve under the strain of directing the retreat. then along a loop to the east and back to the San south of Jaroslau and along the river to Radymno. The 8th Army carried the The nth Army (XXIInd and XVIIIth Corps). I personally fear a blow on Warsaw from the direction of Lyublin.. line south to Przemysl and then south-east to the Dniester marshes. The Vth Caucasian Corps. and was replaced by Savich. the I3th Siberian Division from the 2nd Army. Vladimir Dragomirov. for Savich had had no war service previous to the present war.

had to acknowledge that it was too weak to continue its offensive. The 8th Army was forced back. but in the firing-line they are pretty fed up. Spirits of Staff have risen. The Grand Duke has still a task on the western frontier that will require every man he can . . attacking his northern flank. 1914-1917 off to was hurried the San about General Staff at Petrograd assured had been replaced immediately by another. he was already by the 28th in a less than fifteen bridges across position to threaten the Przemysl-Lemberg railway. developing his attack to the south-east on the 24th. and then pressed south up the right bank of the San. however. ' the San. capturing 9 guns and 6. Meanwhile the Headquarters of the 3rd Army moved back from Tomashov to Zamostie.000 men. 1914. . . and even its iron-willed . . This gallant corps was. and. The Hlrd Caucasian Corps.286 With the Russian Army. re-entering Russian territory for the first time since August. and Przemysl. but days later that : May 8th." The pause in the German offensive which caused the " easier situation was merely occasioned by Mackenzen's change of He had thrown no front from the north-east to the south-east. was abandoned on the night of June 2nd. Lesh had made rifle. with one round per gun and 75 rounds per commander. He wrote : Situation easier. arm till things take a decided change in the Western theatre. The corps which is said to be forming at It " be drawn into the fighting-line on the western frontier long before the Russians decide to embark it Odessa will for the Bosphorus." On May " 2ist Neilson got another letter through. The Chief of the me on June 6th that this corps I reported two should be clearly understood that no help from Russia is likely to be forthcoming in the forcing of the passage to the Black Sea. Irmanov. stormed Sieniawa. reduced to 4. Radko Dimitriev was replaced in command by General Lesh from the Xllth Corps. left in a salient.000 prisoners. .

After the had a short breathing-space.000 men. yet the movement was only opposed by Austrians. . XXI Xth The three divisions together. was held in readiness in rear of the IXth The latter corps. under Gillenschmidt. Xth Corps. Xth and XlVth in the Vistula-San triangle with the idea of advancing south against the enemy's communications in the neighbourhood of Rzeszow. The Cavalry Corps actually broke through. The 3rd and 8th Armies required a longer rest to re-establish their morale. Neilson. Xllth Corps. cool and daring. He afterwards commanded in succession the Guard Rifle Brigade. finally stopped by orders received from the Commander-in-Chief of the South-West Front. Lesh massed four corps the XVth. strong. arrived since May I4th at the rate of 2.000 : 1 2th Siberian Division. Here are some of the strengths even after reinforcements have .500 men . under its new commander. Dragomirov. which is the strongest in the Army. Corps.000 to 4.000 a day eighteen officers and 3. Abram Corps. men . retiring once more behind the infantry. leaving the latter corps in Transcaspia at the outbreak of war to relieve Brusilov in command of the Previous to the war he had the reputation of being the greatest authority in Russia on infantry tactics. 1915 his 287 of the ist Siberian name in the Japanese war in command Rifle Brigade. has all 20. and during the war he had proved himself to be a capable corps commander. strength in The XXIIIrd Corps lost more than half its an attack. and the 3rd Army. which no longer blocked the direct route to Lemberg.000 men. The IVth Cavalry Corps. writing on June 6th from the 3rd Army. distinguished itself. and some little progress was at first made. 14.April -August. but only went five The offensive was miles. The IXth Corps lost 3. fall of Przemysl the enemy's efforts in Galicia were for some days directed against the 8th and nth Armies. said : "This army is now a harmless mob. IXth. who are unlikely to have been in superior strength. . the 2nd Guard Infantry Division and the Ilnd Turkistan Corps.

1914-1917 in three days. . the XXXIst.288 With the Russian Army.O. they with their artillery and we with ours/ . but 1 . Neilson wrote on June nth " : All the late advances have been pure murder. nothing enemy has occupied a position be driven by artillery fire. They say of his ' orders He puts more in five lines than Radko Dimitriev : put in If five pages/ the Russian Command had quantity of heavy artillery able to restore the infantry's lost morale.. asked the neighbouring corps of the 4th Army. having no heavy artillery. as we artil- attacked against a large quantity of field and heavy lery without adequate artillery preparation. so the artillery is unable to develop an effective fire.. . ." : On another day " loss : As we are forced to save 1 shell." In the same letter he gave a few extracts from telegrams despatched from the Staff of the 3rd Army to the Headquarters of the Front at Kholm. he added : "The Germans are losing heavily. On June ist "A shortage of ammunition is feared. to help him from the left bank of the Vistula. the enemy can inflict unpunished/ " Again : The G. XVth Corps. All realise the futility of sending men against the enemy. been able to place a large in the field they might have been As it was. imperturbable. utterly devoid of all wish to advertise.C. In front of the 4th Rifle Division the being done/ The detail of the composition of the corps of the 3rd and 8th Armies about June loth shows the extent to which the Russian is from which he could easily as ammunition has to be saved. . determined. . 1 We On the other hand. . are very short of ammunition and guns. Leshhasmadea very good impression cool.

STH ARMY. 4gth : and 74th 45th and 77th Divisions. Cieszanow by Jaworow and the Grodek Lakes to the Dniester marshes south of Komarno.April. were available to up the 3RD ARMY. : : Caucasian Grenadier and 5ist XXIIIrd Corps 3rd Guard and 62nd Divisions. Tarnobrzeg on the Vistula to Cieszanow. Vth Caucasian Corps 3rd Caucasian Rifle Division. 3rd Don Cossack Cavalry Division and 2nd Composite Cossack Cavalry Division. three drujini of 54th Opolchenie Brigade. 2ist. i6th Cavalry Division. 7th Cavalry Division. 3ist and 6ist Divisions . Divisions. Ilnd Caucasian Corps Divisions. XlVth Corps Xth Corps : : i8th and yoth Divisions and two regiments of the 8oth Division. Headquarters : Lemberg. 52nd and 8ist Divisions. Commander : Brusilov. and 2nd Kuban Cossack Infantry Brigades. Headquarters : Zamostie. 27th Brigade of Opolchenie. IXth Corps 5th and 42nd Divisions. XXIVth Corps XXIXth Corps : 48th. artillery : One division of heavy IVth Cavalry Corps from Ivangorod. north-east of Jaroslau. 3rd Caucasian Cossack Cavalry Division. Commander : Lesh. gth. 7th and 8th Trans-Amur Regiments. T : ist . On the right bank of the San Illrd Caucasian Corps : : 2ist. 25th and 26th Brigades of Opolchenie and four drujini of the 8ist Brigade.August. On the left bank : of the San : XVth Corps : 8th Division. 1915 289 fill Command had seized whatever units gaps in the firing-line.

: 3rd Rifle Division . sent a cavalry division across the Russian frontier to . : : XVIIth Corps : 3rd Division. and especially by the efforts of the Orthodox Archbishop of Lemberg to proseletise the Polish population. futile affair. I5th and 55th Divisions. but the enemy's advance on the Russian extreme right in Kurland attention. Mackenzen's thrust had set up a running sore that was draining the vital force of the Russian defence. now also called for serious During the first eight months of war the enemy had made no attempt in this direction. but the population was now found to be It had been irritated by various mistakes made bitterly hostile. 33rd and 44th Divi. ARMY RESERVE In the received first : invasion of Galicia the Russians had been well Poles. by the by the Russian civil Governor. Vllth Corps two regiments of the 34th Division.290 With the Russian Army. The Russian occupation of Memel on March i8th seems to have drawn the attention of the German Supreme Command to the advantages to be gained by an invasion The Russian Expedition was a very of the Baltic Provinces. 4th Rifle Division. 25gth. The nth and gth Armies of the Dniester. A Russian General said that this cleric's activities had been worth four additional army corps to retired fighting to the bridgeheads the Austrians. I37th and 230th Regiments. and the Opolchenie was driven out again on March 23rd. 1914-1917 XXIst Corps sions . VHIth Corps I3th. one brigade of the 6oth Division. always nervous of any invasion of the home territory. Xllth Corps igth Division two regiments of the I4th and two of the 6oth Division. 232nd and 23ist Regiments. Count Bobrinski. XXVIIIth Corps : 23rd Division (less one regiment). gist and I40th Regiments . the Orenburg Cossack Cavalry Division. The Germans. 258th : Regiment . nth Cavalry Division.

Kurland was found to be rich in supplies. A committee was appointed to arrange for the evacuation of the civilian population and of such material as was likely to be of use to the enemy. was soon fortified as a base and linked by narrow-gauge line with Memel. the rest vegetating in rear of the infantry in the various armies. Libau. trenches. compelling the Russians to detach troops from their loth. the centre of the Russian steel industry. and " the General Quartermaster said that the Grand Duke was perfectly calm on the subject. In the latter half of May it was acknowledged that the German force in this area amounted to five divisions of infantry and seven and a half of cavalry. I2th and 1st Armies to oppose the advance. The banks were removed. All the important factories removed their plant to the east. cavalry was directed against the enemy's right rear. In early June there was something like a panic in Riga. The importance of the new German move was for a long time underrated. and by its threat to Riga. and. The general line occupied by the invading detachments ran from a point on the coast north of Libau in a south-easterly direction to west of Shavli and along the Dubisa to its junction with the Nyeman.April-August. 1915 291 prevent its recurrence. it weakened the long-drawn-out Russian front. and an army corps was brought round by rail from the NorthWest Front to Riga. was always a justifiable detachment." The Russians had at first only weak detachments of Opolchenie Their cavalry was all elsewhere. Strong forces of Opolchenie were sent from Petrograd and Moscow. increased the confusion in the Russian rear organisation. and the German force was gradually increased. some of it in the in this area. owing to shortage of suitable of accommodation elsewhere and defective organisation. The German Army of the Nyeman. At the beginning of May the Chief of the General Staff at Petrograd still thought it was merely a foraging raid. halfway between Kovna and the German frontier." for it occupied an enemy force superior to its own strength. as it " came to be called. many . which had been abandoned by the Russians with scarcely a struggle.

new 5th Army whose front ran of the Dubisa and Nyeman. where defensive lines had been prepared. Unfortunately .292 With the Russian Army. and there was placed at his disposal a force of over four corps and six cavalry divisions. In spite of the desperate situation in Galicia. Plehve's place at Lomja was taken by General Churin. which now held the line of well as of the Bzura. This detachment was at first commanded by General Olukhov from the XXIIIrd Corps. Hnd and XXIIIrd Corps. who moved with his staff from the command of the former 5th Army at Mala Vyes on the Trans. being obliged to defend the left rear of the Trans. but was afterwards formed . had to retire due north towards the Lyublin-Kholm railway. the 4th Army. the Russian Command was forced to transfer Siberian and I3th Siberian) from Plehve was moved from the command of the I2th divisions (i2th Galicia to the north. Lemberg was occupied After a pause to fill on the 22nd. A detachment formed of troops drawn from the left of the 3rd and the right of the 8th Armies the XXIXth. the Russian 8th Army retiring east to the Western Bug and the Gnila Lipa. 1914-1917 satisfactorily during the war. Vth Caucasian. Mackenzen's advance on Zolkiew and Rawa Ruska turned the right of the 8th Army and forced the 3rd and 8th Armies on to divergent lines of retreat. The Dniester above Halicz was abandoned. as before. the enemy resumed his advance in Galicia on June nth. continuing the front from the Pilitsa to the Vistula. where every bayonet was necessary to help in the defence of Lemberg. with the IVth Cavalry Corps difficult Caucasian was set the task of manoeuvring to maintain touch between the two armies. Meanwhile the 3rd Army. He the Ravka as up with men and munitions.Vistula front. General two Army at Lomja to Mitau to take command of a from the Baltic to the junction arrived at Riga on June loth. fully recognised that the loss of Riga would be a them were unable It to re-start work was now greater loss materially than the loss of Warsaw.the mere threat to Riga deprived the great manufacturing town of all usefulness for the national defence. The corps of the former 5th Army were incorporated with the 2nd Army.Vistula armies.

with its wealth and its art treasures and its importance in the eyes of the Poles. the Russian . It In spite of Russia's population of 180. and that if the Allies in the West were able to provide for its re-armament. but any success in this direction made itself at once felt from the Pilitsa to the frontier of Rumania. It was foreseen that in this area.H. late Commander XlXth The main German advance was now directed against the line Vladimir Volinski-Kholm. For this reason the 3rd Army was handed over from the South- West to the North.. 8th. 1915 into the i3th of the 293 Army Corps.000.West Front. The event proved that these fears were ungrounded.000. was evident that the mere occupation of Poland as long as the Russian army remained in being could not force Russia to her knees. The main problem of the next six to eight months seemed to be the re-armament of Russia.e. the Austrians merely filling in the gaps in the general front. Though the abandonment of Warsaw. The influence of the great Pripyat marsh already commenced to affect the Russian conduct of operations. the Russian army would once more take the offensive in the spring of 1916. and that the Russian force as they retired would be divided by it into two groups. The real work continued to be done by the Germans with their heavy guns. it was evident that the possession of the city was not a vital factor in the eventual success of the Russian arms. and the 4th. nth and gth Armies were compelled to conform to each retirement. and I reported on July 4th that the whole Vistula line would be necessarily abandoned within a month. was from every point of view lamentable. but the official optimism was too obvious. and the greater danger to the military observer seemed to be that the Russian Command might delay the disagreeable decision so long as to risk the cutting off of the Trans-Vistula armies. 3rd. considered that Warsaw would not be in danger for two months.April -August. i. under General Gorbatovski.Q. M. which is also called Polyesie. against the isth Army. the movement of armies would be exceedingly difficult. Sazonov told the Ambassador that G.

consisting of four regiments different divisions.000 in killed. 8th the 4th Army administered a useful check to the Austrian army of the Archduke Joseph Ferdinand. As a last resort three corps were transferred from the North- The Guard was taken from the I2th Army at Lomja.West Front. It travelled by the direct double line from Byelostok by Brest Litovsk. Guchkov estimated Russia's losses up to the beginning of July at 3. which was moving north on the Zamostie-Krasnostav-Kholm road. the calling up of the 1916 Class. rary success delayed the advance of the enemy. As in the Vistula battles in October. taking 17. The transfer of this corps of two and a half infantry divisions and one cavalry brigade took eleven days. which had been proposed for June. while that to the south was under the South. The Ilnd Siberian Corps from the ist Army in the neighbourhood of Tsyekhanov moved via Malkin and Syedlets.West Front. our allies had now the best of the communications. while the Russian strategic railways should have made the transfer of their troops from north to south an easy matter. On July on their flank when Ewarth drawn from from the north-west and drove them back This temposeveral versts.294 With the Russian Army. for the enemy advanced troops had behind them the roadless glacis of the Polish salient. threw his reserve. and both corps were detrained between Lyublin and Kholm. 1914-1917 frontier outnumbered in everything except the cavalry arm. The Russian Command determined to make a supreme effort to check the progress of the Mackenzen phalanx. was postponed. to confusion arising from the fact that the railway north of Brest was under the administrative staff of the North. for less than 100 very weak infantry divisions opposed sixty-six German and forty-five and a half Austrian divisions. The Austrians were advancing from Krasnik on Lyublin. who were indeed . chiefly owing West Front. Owing to lack of rifles.800. wounded and was at this time army on the western missing. and the Vlth Siberian Corps from the 2nd Army on the Bzura railed by Ivangorod.000 prisoners. and completed its detrainment at Kholm on July 7th. M.

" They were suffering heavy losses. My Diary of July I2th contains the remark : It is said that Lesh will commence an offensive on or Thursday (the I4th or I5th). however. General Turbin.West Front at Syedlets to try to get some idea of the general situation. was as jovial and I suggested to him that the 2nd Army had optimistic as ever. the Military Commandant. . 1915 295 only kept in movement by the German troops. Two divisions had been cut to pieces on the South. and grew sentimental as I walked for the last time in the Lazienki Gardens and tried to imagine what they would look like in occupation. but so were we from their heavy artillery. I personally think that the Russians will delay. professed to believe that the Germans had already left the Lyublin Government to commence some other operation ! On the I5th menced their offensive we learned that the Germans had comon the Narev on the I3th. that Warsaw was doomed. " C'est le He said the Germans were combat general. . The general population seemed to have little knowledge of the actual situation. Prince Engalichev. and that the this Russians had retired to a second line of defence between the rivers Orjits and Lidinya. General Gulevich. been dangerously weakened. the Chief of Staff." The civil Governor. inserted at this time in no less than eighteen different places from the Pilitsa to the Rumanian frontier. I was indiscreet enough to ask whether it attacking everywhere. I spent the night of July i6th at the Headquarters of the North. and an acquaintance Command had I said that the Russian actually hoped that the Germans were going to attack on the Narev front. and it will be a German Wednesday offensive.April-August. was convinced. but he replied that it had no one in " front of it but hooligans with gases.West Front the companies were over war strength and now they numbered twenty men each. left On July i6th I Warsaw for the last time. was naturally worried German and nervous. yet even made no impression.

for the time was naturally one of great tension. : and 3rd. but whom he consulted in everything General Palitsin. Headquarters : Syedlets.296 With the Russian Army. He kept by him two aged mentors. I dined with Neilson at the Staff of the 3rd Army. 1914-1917 : had been decided yet to abandon Warsaw. and sat next Lesh. columns of poor refugees of both sexes and every age. Chief of Staff : General Gulevich. Front : Baltic to Kholm. Front : Gulf of Riga to Kovna. but slowly. as most of the men of serving age had been evacuated to the east. The composition of the Russian armies is believed to have been as follows at the middle of July : NORTH-WEST FRONT. loth. The harvest was being got in. and said he was going to attack. Miller. which I found in a large girls' The whole road from Vlodava to Kholm was covered by school." I felt very much de trop. ist. 5TH ARMY. an authority on the Napoleonic wars. I asked him on what line he was going to retreat. 2nd. and a certain General Borisov. who had been forced by the Russians to leave their homes before the German advance. who as Chief of Staff had to direct the operations of no less than seven armies from the Baltic to South-East Poland the 5th. He was to control three armies with the object of defending the approaches to Riga and Dvinsk. 4th ' as Chief of Staff to Ivanov. General Plehve. especially for Gulevich. Commander : General Alexyeev. . he lacked sufficient confidence in his own judgment to be a good commander-in-chief. " It was rumoured in Syedlets that a new Northern Front was to be created and that the command was to be given to General Ruzski. I but he would not hear of retreat. who had been Chief of the General Staff five years previously. but he replied simply " Nous luttons. motored from Syedlets to Kholm on July I7th and joined the Staff of the Guard Corps. They held that while Alexyeev had done excellent work I2th. : Chief of Staff: General Headquarters Riga. who had no official position. Certain members of the Staff at Syedlets keenly regretted Ruzski's departure.

Front : Kovna XXXI Vth Corps. . XHIth Corps. 1st Turkistan Corps. 3rd Cavalry Division. 1915 297 Tukhum Detachment. XXth Corps. Ussuri Cavalry Brigade. Opolchenie Detachments. General Lit vino v. Headquarters : Chief of Staff: General : Zambrov. Vth Corps.April -August. I2TH ARMY. Kuban Cossack Cavalry IOTH ARMY. IST ARMY. XlXth Corps (near Shavli). I5th Cavalry Division. 5th and 3rd Cavalry Divisions. Division. Sievers. Cavalry School Brigade. 3rd Turkistan Division. Headquarters : Yablonna (north of Front : River Orjits to lower Vistula. IVth Siberian Corps. 1st Siberian Corps. 1st Corps. Warsaw). XXXVIIth 1st One brigade of the Corps. Grodna. Illrd Siberian Corps. Front Oso- vets to River Orjits. Illrd Corps. Ilnd Corps. Headquarters : to Osovets (exclusive). General Radke vich. XXVIth Corps. 57th Division (garrison of Osovets). 4th Don Cossack Cavalry Division. Guard Cavalry Division. I2th and I3th Siberian Divisions. 5th Rifle Division. General Churin. Chief of Staff: General Odishelidze. Chief of Staff : General Popov.

Front : v Corps. Lower Vistula to Gura Kalvariya. : Headquarters : Warsaw. south of Kholm. Illrd Caucasian Corps. 2ND ARMY. XXVth XVth Corps. Savich. Front General Smirnov. Baiov. Corps. Corps. SOUTH-WEST FRONT: General Ivanov." < Grenadier Corps. and 6th Cavalry Divisions. General Ewarth.. Front : Headquarters : Voislavitse to north-east of Sokal. Vlth Siberian Corps. North-west of Ivangorod-Kasimerj-Opole to ten versts south of Lyublin. Corps. . to the Headquarters: Rovno. . : Vth Siberian Corps. XXVIIth I4th. IXth Corps. : XXIVth sion . Corps. of General Lesh. XXXVth XXXVIth 4TH ARMY. eral General Gorbatovski. ' XVIth Corps. -. Front South Lyublin to Voislavitse. . 8th Corps. Chief of Staff: Front: Voislavitse Rumanian frontier. Chief of Staff : GenKovel. Xth XlVth Corps. I3TH ARMY. '.298 With the Russian Army. 1914-1917 IVth Corps. Ilnd Caucasian Corps. Byelyaev. 3RD ARMY. Headquarters : Ivangorod. In Reserve Guard Corps. : Chief of Staff : General : Headquarters Kholm. Ilnd Siberian Corps. With Cavalry : 2nd Combined Cossack Cavalry Divi- 3rd Caucasian Cossack Cavalry Division..

XXVIIIth Corps. The opinion was strongly held in the Staff of the 3rd Army that if the Ilnd Siberian and Guard Corps. General Shcherbachev. Corps. Gusyatin. : Chief of Staff: General Golovin. XVIIIth Corps. XVIIth Corps.April-August. XXXVIIIth Corps. XXIInd QTH ARMY. had been launched at once. Headquarters Nizniow to Khotin. i. Vlllth Corps. 3rd Don Cossack Cavalry Division. IITH ARMY. Corps. 2nd Guard Cavalry Division. Headquarters West of Zloczow to Nizniow. STH ARMY. XXIIIrd Corps. Corps. Xllth Corps. Ilnd Cavalry Corps. Front : Vlth Corps. Tarnopol. XXXIst Corps.. XXXIInd Corps. Front : General Headquarters : Brody. they would have carried the remnants of the 3rd Army with them . North-east of Sokal to west of Zloczow. Vllth Corps. 299 XXIXth Corps. about July gth or loth. both of which were considerably over war strength. Illrd Cavalry Corps. against the head of Mackenzen's army. Brusilov. Xlth XXXth XXXIIIrd Corps. i6th Cavalry Division. 1915 Vth Caucasian Corps.e. General Lechitski. : Chief of Staff: General Front : Sanikov.

40. : Rifle Brigade . . . 1914-1917 and a general success would have been scored. . . . divisions. though the enemy divisions had suffered considerable losses. . . . To oppose Mackenzen the 3rd Army had : in line : BAYONETS. .000 . .000 bayonets.000 to I20. . .e. . 2nd Prussian Guard 22nd German 3gth Austrian I2th Austrian four eight German and Austrian divisions. . i. The enemy had naturally fortified his position during the halt to await reinforcements. .. . . : . 6. . fourteen and a half divisions of infantry containing nominally 232 battalions.000 Guard Corps ist and 2nd Guard Divisions and Guard : . it was an additional German and an additional Austrian division in rear..000 7. or 115. I think this is doubtful.ooobayonets. The following divisions lay from left to right against the 3rd Russian Army : 45th Austrian nth Austrian 44th German ist Prussian Guard German German ngth German 43rd German igth 20th i. . but really only 97. : .000 and two and a half divisions of Cossack cavalry.000 2. .300 With the Russian Army. . . their strength was never allowed to drop to the dangerously anaemic condition that had become chronic in Russian believed.000 : . Ilnd Siberian Corps 4th and 5th Siberian Divisions 32. .e. . with. The Russian General Staff credited this force with a total of 155 to 160 battalions. and in second line : BAYONETS. IXth Corps 5th and 42nd Divisions Xth Corps gth and 66th Divisions Illrd Caucasian Corps 2ist and 52nd Divisions XlVth Corps i8th and 70th Divisions XXIVth Corps 48th and 4gth Divisions . but it must be remembered that. 8.. . : . . This estimate was probably exaggerated.000 2..

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General Bezobrazov thanking the 3rd and 4th Guard Rifle Regiments for their services.Polish chateau at Reiovets. 1915. Staff of the Guard Corps 18th-31st July. [See page 301 22nd July. [See page 302 .

Lesh telegraphed three times in a single On On the i6th the in. that Danilov. Whether such a counterstroke had any real chance of success or not. who commanded it. On the i8th the Staff of the Guard Corps moved from Kholm southwest to Reiovets. after advancing a short distance. driven the Illrd Caucasian Corps were and the Ilnd Siberian Corps was at last placed at Lesh's Xth Corps and Dimitriev. and went into action on the left of that army day imploring Alexyeev to give him the Ilnd Siberian and Guard Corps. was forced back. who. the higher authorities had no intention of risking everything on what they evidently considered a desperate venture. The staff was lodged at Reiovets in a fine Polish chateau. Count Nostitz. and threw a division into the line to stop a gap north of Krasnostav.. The Vlth Siberian Corps was first assigned to the 4th Army. Radko to incorporate the I7th. and only dealt out units shell sparingly as local palliatives. Radko. for that able staff officer had gone to command a regiment in the I4th Cavalry Division. was at any rate . though he did little work.Q.April-August. but Alexyeev refused. and the Russian trenches were soon destroyed by heavy gun-fire. and their morale had been severely shaken by two and a half months of constant retreat. considered it useless to commence an offensive which lack of It is said " prevented from being fought out to a conclusion. received orders Xth Corps with his own and to attack on the Guard took over the line previously held A brigade by the Illrd Caucasian Corps. a report on July ijth from one corps stated that superhuman efforts were required to keep the men in the trenches/' The enemy was overwhelmingly superior in number of guns and in ammunition supply. to defend the approaches to Lyublin. For instance. Its work was poor. 1915 301 The Russian formations in front line were merely skeletons. of the disposal. Alexyeev tried to retain the corps transferred from the north as long as possible under his personal control. the afternoon of the I5th Mackenzen once more advanced. General Bezobrazov had no longer Colonel Domanevski to lean on.H. the General Quartermaster at G.

four 6" howitzers and four 6' Schneider guns. on the other hand. influence and he therefore gave free rein to a somewhat insubordinate disposition. where he remained till the end of the war employed by the General Staff to count the casualties in the His successor. orders were issued for the whole Russian line to retire from six to eleven versts to the north. Lesh refused. quarrelled with every army commander with whom he had come in contact. and he had no influence with his chief. On the i8th he asked Lesh by telephone to give him back the 2nd Guard Infantry Division. On this day for the first time in history the Russian Guard and seventy rounds refusal. first with He resented the idea of serving Lechitski and then with Plehve. eight 4*2* guns. as had the Ilnd Siberian The Guard had but the other corps dominated the situation. Bezobrazov had. met the Prussian Guard. under Lesh. no adviser of sufficiently strong character to make his . in fact. to enable him to take the offensive. Beloved by those who served under him. The refusal. twelve 4-8" howitzers. At 10 p. was less intelligent his energy was only devoted to meddling. but on its right the Hlrd Caucasian Corps and on its left the XlVth Corps gave way. had little. The Hlrd Caucasian Corps and the Xth Corps were withdrawn from the line to re-form. and the fact that at this left of moment the XlVth and XXIVth Corps on the rifle the army had only ten rounds per per gun left seems sufficient reason for his however. started the inevitable quarrel. In the next few days the enemy contented himself with pounding in turn with his heavy artillery different sections of the line. he had. 1914-1917 intelligent and tactful.302 With the Russian Army. had been stelleribosched to Petrograd. On . Corps. who in peace had commanded a division of the Guard felt. It had a sufficiency of shell. The Russian Guard held its own. The German guns the 22nd I accompanied General Bezobrazov when he rode to the support line to thank the Izmailovski Regiment and the 3rd and 4th Regiments of the Rifle Brigade of the Guard for The Izmailovski had lost their services in the recent fighting. under his orders.m. General Antipov. German army. at this time ninety field guns. then held as Army Reserve.

he would understand 25th. and the two rifle regiments about 60 per cent.April-August. leaving behind matters." and that he could attack at i a. but were forced eventually to The XlVth and XXIVth Corps on the retire with heavy loss.m. and wisely refrained for the present from disturbing the Staff. That evening at 7 p. on the 23rd. Siberian Corps on the right of the Guard advanced several miles and took fourteen enemy guns. so the General asked me to dine in his room. While dining he be collected.. Such disobedience of orders in the face of the enemy was more than could be stood even from the Commander of the Guard. considered that the moment for attack had now passed. and Engelhardt interposed with the remark that he might have attacked without asking permission at all. and. Bezobrazov received a telegram from " Lesh that he was glad to be able to grant his request." and allow irregularities to continue. We complained of Lesh's refusal to allow him to attack on the i8th.m. left had been ordered to await the development of the attack of the Guard. Bezobrazov." The result was attack was intended or only a The IXth Corps and the Ilnd as might have been expected. before the new Commander had had time to . He issued no orders till 12. as the Guard had by this time lost a considerable number of men. 1915 303 about 30 per cent. him the overgrown Staff very nervous as to whether it would be pruned down to establishment. characterising the order to attack in the night as an " " absurd one that would cause useless waste of life. but hopeful " that as Olukhov had served in the Guard. and Bezobrazov was removed from his command to give place to General Olukhov. He sent an insubordinate reply to his Army Commander. General Olukhov arrived on the 28th. however. from the XXIIIrd He drove away from Reiovets on the morning of the Corps. as that never really developed at all.30 a. On the 30th. and then of so undecided a character that one of the divisional commanders telephoned to ask if a real " make-believe.m. they did not move. The General said a few words of warm praise to such men as could returned to the Staff late for the mess meal.

had been 5th Siberian Division. orders were received from the Staff of the Army for army to retire at 3 a.30 a message reached the Guard Staff from Radko Dimitriev that the " in spite of heroic resistance. Their advance north was checked by the Xth Corps. and continued to draw up a table of work for the members of the Staff.30 a. I occupied a room at the top of the house with three other officers. and not flurried. and some hours later their move east. At 6 p. about 3 p. 1914-1917 appreciate the incompetence of his Chief of Staff. and he listened but did nothing. Only at 5. which consisted of two weak composite regiments. The Cossack Brigade in the trenches on the immediate left of by the seven battalions of the Guard Reserve. on the 3ist. of the German which was the Siberians. and saw the Xth Corps going forward to reinforce the Siberians. He was in a towering . At I p. and the Guard made no attempt to help. remained serious. for little reliance could be placed on the power of resistance of the Xth Corps. motoring along the chaussee from Lyublin. their advice. he received a report from the Army Staff to the effect that the Germans had crossed the Vyeprj. seems to have sent in no reports. fifteen versts to the north.304 With the Russian Army. came under heavy shrapnel fire. who were retreating in disorder. which threatened to outflank the Guard.m. They had penetrated north through Travnik. north-west of Krasnostav.. the Chief of Staff said that the Siberians were holding As a matter of fact. forced to retire. their position. they were then in full retreat. The shelling continued from 2 a. The situation..m.m. About 2. severing the Kholm-Lyublin railway and chaussee.m." General Antipov even then failed to realise the seriousness of the situation. Second lieutenants offered At last. at 1. and was preparing to turn in when Rodzianko came up the whole to tell me that it was of no use to go to bed. the Germans commenced bombarding the 5th Siberian Division on his immediate right.m. Considerably later in the afternoon the Army Staff n knew nothing of the Guard.m. Antipov was much blamed for the defectiveness of the communications by for his failure to co-operate with the Siberians in time He was striking at the right flank of the pursuing Germans. Captain Neilson. however. was checked penetration. only quietly incapable.m.m.30 p. till a.

who thought their last hour had come when told to stop. and drawn by a took a photograph of three Jews. the brutally. without an officer to direct them. but leaving the crops untouched. The captive balloon was almost was remembered by a junior officer at the last moment.m. When we .April-August. The wily Pole. Eight large barrels of copper parts from the machinery of a local factory had been collected with infinite U . him that he remained spoke to him would simply prove sympathy with the enemy. Many officers sympathised with the poor landowner who had been our host. who hailed Colonel L from the Baltic Provinces. to see something of the retirement. there was everywhere evidence of misdirected or undirected effort. Another of my stable companions. He wanted to remain behind. exclaiming that the Guard could only die where it stood but could never retreat." and asserted that in the troublous times were left of 1905 the Russians themselves to burn his chateau.m. I . however. ran about setting fire to piles of dry straw. one family driving a cow a poor old man and his wife each with a huge bundle of rubbish tied up in a sheet and slung on the back. but Colonel Lallin. The gendarmes. had incited his Lettish tenantry Most of the Staff went off by car at 3 a. I remained behind till 6 a. As usual. remained. tied together single miserable horse . Nearly all the poorer inhabitants left with the troops. " who alone he burst into invective against the Russians. but forgotten. 1915 rage. 305 and cursed the Chief of Staff freely. We saw the most pathetic sights whole families with all their little worldly belongings piled on carts two carts . old a retired officer of the Guard cavalry. to Army Head- quarters in order to maintain touch with the neighbouring corps pending the opening up of telephonic communication from oui next halting-place. The troops went back in good order and the Germans did not press. and indeed it was the only possible way of saving his property. telling that he was in Commandant if of the it Staff. could never be trusted. saying that things were going on in the Staff of the Guard Corps that were a disgrace to the Russian army. called aloud for his sabre in fluent French with a slight German accent.

They were occasion" " of shell. in a tele- gram addressed to the Commanders of the Guard and Xth Corps " I must ask corps commanders to refrain from disturbing one another with panic reports. I overtook a young artillery officer and rode with him got hungry and stopped in a village to forage. RANK AND I FILE.m. and telegraphed at i p. they so feared the coming of the Germans. . and even the telegraph. . . We tea and ate eggs and bread in a clean cottage. was anxious to avoid similar risks in future. but they were characteristically left behind owing to a doubt as to whose duty it was to remove them. so would be forced to retire if attacked. Other corps in the army were in much worse case. The losses in the two and a half divisions of the Guard in the fighting from the i8th till the 28th (inclusive) were : OFFICERS.480 150 shell per field gun. Our hostesses were three old sisters we drank weak till and the daughter of one of them.m. 109 3 still 6. . 500 per 4*2" gun. The corps are not to retire on any : account a yard from the line they now occupy. Killed . The Guard Corps. Lesh replied at 7 p. and it is very unlikely that any demolition was carried out later. the whole of the 3rd Army was ordered to commence retiring at i a.306 With the Russian Army. three hours later at 10 p.. on August ist to the Army Staff that the Xth Corps was short of rifle cartridges and only had two rounds per heavy gun. but they certainly did not get as ally sent a present much as the Guard. I heard two small explosions on the railway.m. 1914-1917 trouble.' However. were untouched at the point where I rode across the line. .. and they cried the whole time. 28 A9 Wounded Missing .409 1. but the curves. having had its flank turned on the 30th On August ist the Guard had through the giving way of the Ilnd Siberian Corps. on the 2nd. 500 per 6" howitzer and 800 per 6" gun.m. . who had a duke as Inspector of Artillery. as 1 the enemy had penetrated between the Ilnd and Vth Caucasian Corps on the right of the I3th Army. .

were never completed in time for the occupation of the troops.. and when he failed to turn up at midNext day he exnight was discovered dead drunk in the stable. and several lines of entrenchments had been prepared to delay the enemy pending the retreat of the troops from the trans-Vistula front. This wheel had been planned beforehand. The Russian advanced left wing. and guarded during the process by numerous sentries with fixed bayonets. they potatoes. Organisation had failed to calculate the time available and to provide the necessary men and labour for the completion of the . Unfortunately. who was with me most of the war. At Khilin. the spirit was run along a channel to a marsh. so we all unpacked and slept comfortably till 7 a. Lyublin was abandoned by the 4th Army on the night of July 3ist and Kholm by the 3rd Army on August ist. while idle men looked on thirstily. a young and intelligent second time. and I did not have him punished. My orderly was one of these. though in some cases they were more up to date than any defences yet seen in Russia.April-August. " His head plained that he had been affected by some strong tea. which is distilled on every estate from A At each halting-place during the retreat we destroyed the spirit. This false alarm was unlucky for my mounted orderly. 1915 307 As the troops were to move at i a. The positions had been prepared by local and prisoner labour. a fine Cuirassier of the Guard. and certain adventurous individuals found a hole in the wall at the other side of the distillery and drank some of the raw spirit from their forage caps. 3rd and I3th Armies. which comprised the 4th. He assented. which would have proved too dangerous a temptation to the retreating troops. large part of the revenues of the Polish landowners is derived from alcohol.m. was now engaged in a great wheel to the east preliminary to the evacuation of the Polish salient..m." must have been^sufftcient lesson. lieutenant suggested to him that there was nothing to be gained by the Staff moving at night. the sentries were posted without much intelligence. when we rode north to Gansk. As usual. where we were on August ist. the Chief of Staff ordered the Staff to pack up to be ready to move at the same When we had all packed. The Staffs moved back to Radin and Vlodava respectively.

1914-1917 asked General Podimov. Mackenzen had taken seventeen days to advance twenty-five miles north-east by north from Krasnostav. and there It 1 We This fine regiment retained its spirit and its ate from a camp-table covered with a clean lost. I therefore applied for and obtained permission to ist move to the Staff of the Army. the Commander of the Preobrajenski Regiment. I With the Russian Army. and they certainly looked it. was only " intelligent anticipation coming events. was rumoured that Mitau and Lomja x had been this but As regards Lomja. cloth. stem the German advance chiefly owing to lack of shell. of was certainly no sign of depression. organisation. which certainly did not exceed the equivalent of seven and a half divisions in bayonets. the Corps Engineer of the Guard. On the other hand.3o8 work. my last day with the Guard. The want of really good We had officers to keep the men in the trenches was being felt. why we could not make use of the hundreds of transport drivers and others who were attached to the corps. for corps had been constantly withdrawn to be filled up and sent once more into the line. little danger that the enemy would penetrate this part of the front and so endanger the general withdrawal from Poland. I lunched with Count Ignatiev.000 yards from the firing-line. on the other hand. there seemed. at the mess of a battalion in support in a wood about 1. The Russian losses in men had been German and very heavy. and most of the large marshes were passable for infantry in open order. German prisoners complained that they were over-tired. While the deplorable state of our armament made a prolonged defensive impossible." dry." . but it must be confessed that any chance we had was lessened by the lack of intelligent co-operation between corps commanders. On August 5th. and it was only by an enormous expenditure of shell that he was failed to enabled to move forward at all. but he said : " You might as well offer me an inch of cloth when my breeches are torn right across. On August 4th the Staff calculated that the enemy had The summer had been unfortunately fourteen four Austrian divisions against the 3rd Army.

April -August, 1915
:

309

" We will retire to the Russians were quite happy. They said the Urals, and when we get there the enemy's pursuing army will have dwindled to a single German and a single Austrian the
;

according to custom, give himself up as a prisoner, and we will kill the German." The first part of the remark was Honest soldiers had confidence in Russia's strangely prophetic.

Austrian

will,

immense pathless spaces
internal crash.

they never dreamt of the coming

At the
that

Staff of the 3rd

Army at Vlodava on

the 6th

I

learned

Warsaw had been abandoned on

the night of the 4th and

Ivangorod on the night of the 5th. The 2nd Army had been ordered to move on the night of the 6th to the line Radimin-Novi
Minsk-Garvolin, whence the 4th right of the 3rd Army.

Army

continued the line to the

On August 7th I drove across to join the Staff of the 1st Army On the way I stopped for lunch with the Staff of at Sokolov. the 4th Army at Radin. I found it in an enormous Polish
chateau.
Russians.
hall.

The

were more depressed than I had ever seen There was dead silence as I walked up the huge diningofficers

was up against a certain hostile feeling, partly as a foreigner and unbidden witness of Russia's difficulty, and partly as the representative of the Western Allies, who, to many Russian minds, seemed by their inaction to be poorly repaying the Grand
I felt I

Duke's

sacrifices to serve us

a year

earlier.

Ewarth, the Com-

mander, who was a

reminded me that we had last met at Kyeltsi at the time of the November advance as he put it, " He said "It is all a matter of shell. A in happier times."
fine soldier,
:

Russian corps

will beat

a

German corps any day, given

equality of

armament." The Staff of the 2nd Army was arriving at Syedlets from Novi Minsk as I passed through. The stations at both Novi Minsk and Syedlets had been bombarded by a Zeppelin on the previous night and several casualties had been caused in the train of the General Staff of the North- West Front, which had been about to
leave the latter station for Volkovisk.

I

The Staff of the 1st Army was in a factory at Sokolov, and there met for the first time the Commander, General Litvinov, who

310

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917

had been promoted from the command of the Vth Corps in November to succeed Rennenkampf. He was in poor health, and had the reputation of leaving all decisions to his Chief of Staff. This, however, was not altogether true, for he kept himself thoroughly informed of everything in his arm}/, and nothing was done without his sanction. The Chief of Staff was the Georgian Odishelidze, and the General Quartermaster Richkov, by birth half an Armenian. They were close personal friends, and I had met both in Turkistan in 1913. Richkov was then Chief of Staff I had lunched with Odishelidze, of a brigade at manoeuvres. who was Governor of Samarkand, where he had a ten-acre garden He was a close friend of Samin the centre of the cantonment. sonov, who had a high opinion of his ability. He was exceptionally clever and really directed operations, but was not altogether
cunning." popular with Russians, who spoke of him as Since the beginning of March the 1st Army, with Headquarters at Yablonna, north of Warsaw, had held a front from Ednorojets on the river Orjits to the lower Vistula. It was the
staff of this

"

directed the Prasnish operation in March, the most brilliant Russian performance so far in the war. Its strength had since then been much weakened. The Ilnd

army that had

Caucasian Corps and the XXIIIrd Corps had gone south to the 3rd Army in June, and in July, about ten days before the German attack, they had been followed by the Ilnd Siberian Corps.
Previous to the weakening of his army by these transfers, Litvinov had asked for permission to take the offensive. He was
told that he would best serve the Russian cause

by remaining still

and economising
In the
first

shell.

part of July the 1st Army occupied a line from the north-east of Prasnish by the north of Tsyekhanov and ten

Drobin to the Vistula, about twenty versts southeast of Plotsk, with the following troops from right to left
versts south of
:

ist Siberian

Corps (Plyeshkov)

:

ist Siberian

and 2nd Siberian

Divisions,
ist

Turkistan Corps (Scheidemann)
Rifle Brigades
;

:

ist

and 2nd Turkistan

nth

Siberian Division.

31st July, 1915.

Jewish fugitives, escaping from Reiovets.
[See page 305

1st August, 1915.
To face page 310]

Khilim, South Poland.

Col. L., a Baltic

Baron.
[See page 305

27th July, 1915.

Typical faces,

II. Siberian Corps.
[See page 304

12th August, 1915.

General Balanin,

Commander

of the

XXVIIth

Corps.
[See page 330

April-August, 1915
XXVIIth
Ist

311
;

Corps (Balanin)

:

2nd and 76th Divisions
:

ist

Rifle Brigade.

Cavalry Corps (Oranovski)
Divisions.

6th, 8th

and I4th Cavalry

The troops had entrenched the
the Vistula in rear of the

they occupied. There were in addition certain detachments echeloned along
left flank.

line

The German

offensive

was expected,

for information

received that the frontier stations of

had been Willenberg, Soldau and

Neidenburg were being enlarged.
After a feint along the Vistula, the Germans commenced their usual hurricane bombardment on the line north of Prasnish and

ammunition supply with their long train of automobiles, for the weather had been dry and the roads were at their best. The ist Army was hopelessly weak in heavy artillery. For instance, north of Tsyekhanov the Ist Turkistan Corps had to fight forty-two enemy guns of big calibre with only two. As a result the nth Siberian Division was practically destroyed. The enemy was in greatly
I2th.
difficulty in

Tsyekhanov on July

They had no

superior strength, concentrating eight divisions against the line

Prasnish-Tsyekhanov.

The German preponderance in heavy artillery caused something of a panic. The attack was delivered on July I3th, and on
that night the Russians retired without pausing to defend a second defensive line that had been prepared by engineers im-

mediately north of Prasnish and Tsyekhanov by Plonsk to Chervinsk. During the retirement the enemy's cavalry broke through east of Tsyekhanov and fell upon the transport.
the i6th the line Makov-Naselsk-Novo Georgievsk was reached. The IVth Corps began to arrive by rail from Warsaw,

On

and units were pushed into the battle as they detrained. Though this line had been fortified in advance, the Russians were comOn the pelled to retire on the night of the i8th to the Narev.
right of the ist

Army the

left of

the I2th

Army similarly

retired.

The Vth Corps was

in action north of

Corps at Ostrolenka bridgehead.

Novogrod, the IVth Siberian The XXIst Corps, which had

312

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917

been re-forming in rear after its destruction on the San, arrived, and was detrained to defend the Rojan bridgehead. The 1st Siberian Corps continued the line to the left, and the IVth Corps, together with the remains of the 1st Turkistan Corps, defended
the bridgehead at Pultusk and the Serotsk re-entrant. An immense amount of labour had been expended on these

The Rojan bridgehead, in particular, was considered very strong. The crossing was covered on a radius of three and a half versts by three permanent works of modern were linked up by field-trench. Three profile, and these versts further in advance there was an advanced line of fieldworks in the spring.
works.

delay was gained by a fine charge by the 8th and I4th Cavalry Divisions, who had been brought round from the left

A

and who forded the Narev in the re-entrant between Rojan and Pultusk and drove three enemy columns some distance north
flank
in disorder.

forced a passage south of Pultusk and advanced to the Serotsk works at the confluence of the Bug and the
first

The enemy

His heavy artillery, with six shots, reduced Dembe, a fort on the river halfway from Serotsk to Novo Georgievsk that
Narev.
the Russians had considered exceptionally strong. His progress was delayed by the arrival of the XXVIIth Corps, which the

shortening of his front had enabled Litvinov to bring up from his left by rail through Warsaw. The corps succeeded in defending

some days the approaches to Vishkov, an important road centre on the Bug. The forcing of the bridgeheads at Ostrolenka and Rojan was, however, from the enemy's point of view, of greater importance, Ostrov for excellent chaussees lead from both towns to Ostrov. once gained, the so-called Cherboni Bor position, a line of wooded heights which had been reconnoitred in peace with a view to defence, as well as the river Bug, would have to be turned as a
for

necessary preliminary to an advance further east. The defences of Rojan were quickly swept away by the enemy's heavy artillery, and the XXIst Corps retired to the

southern bank, losing heavily in

its

further retreat from the

April- August, 1915
enemy's
field

313

guns, which had been at once carried forward to the

commanding right bank. The Narev had now been forced, but the enemy's offensive on this flank, successful as it had proved, was, according to Gulevich, the Chief of Staff of the North- West Front, only a contributing, and not the immediate, cause of the evacuation of Warsaw. After the whole of the 4th Army had withdrawn to the right bank of the Vistula the enemy succeeded in effecting a crossing halfway between Gura Kalvariya and Ivangorod. He at first threw a division across, and the 2nd Army countered by crossing The enemy's its left corps, the XXXVIth, at Gura Kalvariya. force on the right bank was increased to three divisions, and the XXXVth Corps followed the XXXVIth. The XXXVIth Corps had completed its crossing by July 3ist and the XXXVth by August 3rd. Gulevich told me that it was only when the enemy had four whole divisions on the right bank that the decision to evacuate Warsaw was finally taken. It was high time, for the 2nd Army had only a single corps the Vth Siberian left on the left bank in occupation of a rearguard position some four miles in
the night of the 4th this corps retired to the right bank, and the bridges were blown up at 3 a.m. on the The German scouts reached the left bank at 6 a.m. The 5th.
of the city.

advance

On

three corps of the 2nd

Army had
of

suffered

little.

The abandonment
night, the 4th

Ivangorod was effected on the following

Army

destroying the bridges, and levelling even, as

The Staff of this Army had moved from Novo Alexandriya to Radin on July 2ist. The Staff of the ist Army moved from Yablonna to Lokhov.
they told me, the fieldworks.

On August
joined
it

4th

it

moved

further south-east to Sokolov, where I

on August 7th. The situation was then as follows
at

:

The I2th Army, with
Osovets-north of

Headquarters

Zambrov, held the front

Lomja-south-east of Novogrod-east of Ostrolenka-east of Rojan, with the Ist, Vth, IVth Siberian and XXIst Corps. The ist

Army, with Headquarters
the

at Sokolov, continued the line along

Bug to XXVIIIth

the west of Vishkov with the IVth, Ist Siberian and Corps. The Ist Turkistan Corps had been left

314

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917

behind in the re-entrant of the Bug-Narev north of Zegrj to cover the final provisioning of Novo Georgievsk. Its left flank was covered towards the Vistula by Oranovski, with the 1st Cavalry
Corps.

2nd Army was arriving at Syedlets, and its troopsthe Vth Siberian, XXXVth and XXXVIth Corps held the line Radimin-Novi Minsk-Garvolin. The 4th Army, with Headquarters at Radin, continued the
Staff of the
line to the south-east of

The

Lyubartov with the XVIth, Grenadier,
Siberian Corps.

XXVth, XVth and Vlth

Further east the 3rd Army, with Headquarters at Vlodava, carried the line to the south-east of that town with the IXth,

XXIVth, Xth, Ilnd
Corps.

Siberian, Guard,

XlVth and

Illrd Caucasian

The Russians had therefore twenty-three corps on a front from Lorn j a to Vlodava of under 200 miles, but corps did not average more than 12,000 bayonets, with a total average of shell in battery, park and reserve of 150 to 200 rounds per gun. In the I2th Army the IVth Siberian Corps and the XXIst Corps had suffered severely in the fighting about Ostrolenka and Rojan. The XXIst Corps had been brought up to the front before it had time to assimilate the drafts that had replaced its losses in Galicia, and its Commander, Skinski, had a poor reputation. In the ist Army the XXVIIth Corps had 27,000 men, but the
Chief of Staff told

bayonets each. while the cadres of the enemy in our front had been refilled three " " times. The Army Reserve of shell was reduced to 60 H.E.
Batteries averaged 200 rounds per gun, but individual batteries had been repeatedly compelled to withdraw owing to

me that the other corps averaged only 5,000 No drafts had arrived during the recent fighting,

rounds.

lack of ammunition.

The 2nd Army had not been recently seriously engaged. Of the corps in the 4th Army, the XVIth and the Grenadier had
suffered most.

The Turkistan Corps commenced its retirement on the night of the 7th. Novo Georgievsk was left with a garrison of nominally

The Germans forced their way through. on the left of That day the Germans captured Lomja from the south-west. The infantry included two second-line divisions the 58th and 6yd and Opolchenie. and to fill this the XXVIIth Corps was sent north. while Ivangorod had been abandoned. when the conversation turned on fortresses. The XXIst Corps retired east. The Vth Corps was now the only one in the I2th Army that retained any fighting value. and by the morning of the nth occupied a general line from Zambrov . The main enemy effort was directed on the junction of the I2th and ist Armies at Ostrov. The 63rd had an unfortunate record. but had been cut to pieces by Mackenzen on the Dunajec in early May. leaving a gap between its right and the left of the IVth Siberian Corps. 4th and 3rd had retired to the general line Lomja-OstrovVengrov-Lyubartov-Vlodava. under the terms of which Russia engaged within ten years of the conclusion of the Japanese war to destroy all the fortresses in Poland considerable losses. The ist Army extended its right flank to the north in order to relieve pressure on its neighbour. but that he had an idea that a secret agreement had been made with Germany.April-August. ist. The Staff of the ist Army did not expect it to hold out for more than ten days. Novo Georgievsk had been provisioned for six months. It was always a mystery to me why Novo Georgievsk had. of the 2nd to Kleshcheli. Its failure to hold out a few hours longer at Prasnish in February had saved the Germans It had then been re-formed. I had asked General Bezobrazov his opinion. ! the morning of August gth the five armies I2th. 1915 315 four divisions in addition to the six battalions of artillery and other fortress technical troops. One night in the Guard Corps. of the 4th to Byela. turning in a single effort the defences of the Cherboni Bor and the middle Bug. that of the I2th Army to near Byelostok. previous to the war. of the ist Army to Byelsk. but of course had shell for nothing like that period. He said that the truth had yet to be told. the Ist Corps retiring east. 2nd. the Turkistan Corps coming into By line the ist Army. been strengthened and retained as a fortress. The Staffs moved back.

By your soldierly exploits you will guarantee the happiness of your native land. We have now the opportunity to stroke. No. '-'zSthJuly. with Baron Budberg. of which he was very proud. The enemy has come close to us. tenacity and self-denying bravery. 1914-1917 The 2nd and 4th Armies had by running to ten versts north of Sokolov. and found the Staffs in the usual wonderful spirits. He gave me as a souvenir a copy of an order he had issued in the previous month. This His Majesty the Emperor demands of us for the good of our country. self-sacrificing Russian soldier risen in defence of his native land. ran as follows : Village ORDER TO THE XXVIITH CORPS. so transferred his forces from the front of the gain I2th to that of the ist Army. . On the 1 2th. with heartfelt greeting and a warm summons to stand firm to protect the interests of our beloved this fateful I At moment Fatherland and to gladden the heart of our adored Emperor and the Supreme Commander-in-Ghief by your strength. I visited the XXVIIth Corps and Balanin talked incessantly at lunch. 1915- of Vyeshkov. We will fight to the last drop of blood to conquer the bold and wicked enemy who We must conquer whatever the cost. who had been killed in the Guard at Lomja. deliver turn to you. The enemy had nothing to the Bobr and into the angle of Narev. We will exert all our strength to fulfil our holy duty and to show to the world of what stuff is made the brave. General Staff. making his main effort to reach Byelostok through Mazovyetsk. who was attached to the Army the 76th Division. and also a memoir of his son. The order. The battle will be decisive. worthy of the gallant him a powerful Russian Army. 295. glorious units of my Corps.316 With the Russian Army. has invaded our territory. moved back correspondingly.

I am confident that this will be done ! I hope that the units laurels of the XXVI I th Corps will earn new for their standards. and in 317 " we. the ist Army had retired seventyOur five corps were three miles from the Vistula to the Bug. In the nine days August 5th to I3th. This brought no relief. but our artillery. the I2th. GENERAL OF INFANTRY. The men were tired out from retiring every night and digging trenches in the morning. they will strike a blow for the happiness of our great Fatherland. regarding the IVth Corps " Our artillery. The situation was critical on the following days.April-August. Long God our Emperor be with us live ! ! (Signed) COMMANDER OF THE CORPS. without a thought of self-preservation. in one division there only remained 890 bayonets out of sixteen battalions. is The same Summary says. and by the following afternoon the ist Army was once more in action all along its front. 1915 God will help us. only to be shelled in the afternoon by an artillery to which they could hardly reply." must do everything that our conscience and our oath demands of us for the triumph of our holy and righteous cause. hopelessly under strength. BALANIN." : is unable to . unable to develop a shell. and that honourably. but keep your powder dry. mindful of the saying." owing been repulsed. ist and 2nd Armies retired an average of fifteen miles to a general line east of Vizna-Sokoli- On Tsyekhanovets-Drogichin-Lositsi. The Official Summary of Operations of the I4th says of an attack on the 76th Division north of the Warsaw-Byelostok railway " : The attack has so to far shortage of sufficiently intense fire. They were opposed by fourteen divisions which had been filled up for the fourth time. owing to shortage of shell. the night of the I2th. stop the enemy's continuous attacks. Trust God. For instance.

1914-1917 I2th the XXIst Corps (33rd. in charge of battalions. . if it could have been managed. when we had had no inaction of the Allies. . 44th and 78th Divisions. nominally sixty-eight battalions) mustered only 6. In the Turkistan Corps all the rifle ammunition was exhausted in repelling an attack. and surplus transport and guns for which there was no ammunition were sent on ahead. but was found possible at 6 p. He went on to say that he was certain that Russia would never reconquer Poland by force that the Russian soldier did not want to fight that he was at best only raw material . for the troops to have retired longer distances at a time to previously prepared The staff-work of the retreat was. a brigade of the 4ist Division. Naturally the lack of armament was commencing to have a disastrous effect on the morale of the troops. I asked an officer who had got a paper what . very positions. for the reserve officers were quite unfit to command companies. to stop the retreating units. Any army would in time become demoralised by constant short retirements with an enemy on its heels that it could never shake off. that the officers of reserve were hopelessly ignorant and could not even read a map that it was not enough to have regular officers I . as at present. post for a fortnight. It would have been far better. so that the roads were never blocked. however.000 shell per gun. only. . " Feeling among other Russian officers was bitter regarding the " On one occasion. efficiently managed breaks-through were promptly dealt with. was struck by a conversation I had with a young airman on August I5th in the garden at Byelsk.m." In one corps that day even the limber ammunition was exhausted. a brigade of the 6th Siberian Division and two Turkistan rifle regiments. it the I5th there was a panic in the XXIst Corps. ' On August men with thirty-one ' On and the batteries were reduced to silence. He commenced as usual " " with an attempt to draw me by the remark that he supposed the Western Allies were very angry with Russia on account of her failure.318 With the Russian Army. Two thousand shell were begged and obtained from the I2th Army.

S CO M i i & rn ll is CO O s co O 60 fi C <M (M 00 c> CO a cs 60 c o ^5 tf 60 + 3 o 2 Q o 5 I O to bJO ^ -77 ^ -M O X1 "S 'c jg < r- S ai ^ 'w VI O O 3 Q .

i +- C O 4) C Si c (M (M Hi 'C 0) tc - ffl . a bo <S c x C c so 03 O. f- ^ P ^ s I ^o 5: r" (?i u . 5= > C S -c c/: K I a.~ '&>. 8 3 T.

thought it was their duty to give me an optimistic view of the situation and to try to make me believe that things were far It was only months later that better than they really were. Is it true what they tell us. had the remnants of their fine corps constantly in hand and kept things going. said Doing ? They are lost in admiration ' : 319 He laughed and for the Russian army and its marvellous valour. how they some" times asked.April-August. standing 1. An officer who commanded an artillery division in the XXIst Corps during the retreat of the ist Army from the Narev was given fifty rounds a day for his eighteen guns. when The Germans turned the Russian helpless through want of shell. IVth Corps. 1915 the Allies were doing in the Western theatre. and was told that his career would suffer if he fired more. and fought their way back yard by yard without losing heart themselves or allowing their men to despair. Another officer who commanded a battery in the Guard Rifle in the retreat infantry officers used to come " " to him to implore him to fire to help just one or two shots them in their difficulties. His division was in drafts of 1.600 of these unarmed drafts churned into gruel by the enemy's guns. that you have no shell " left ? and he had to lie and say that it was not true. artillery officers told me of the terrible moral strain they suffered like Aliev of the ! through their powerlessness to help the infantry. as usual. How poorly have their services been rewarded During the retreat itself most Russian officers. but that Brigade told me how he was keeping the ammunition for a critical moment. The regular officers of the Russian army and the best of the temporary officers. Abram Dragomirov of the IXth. ' ' ' right. Men of strong will. and he had seen.800 infantry arrived and were distributed to support trenches to wait unarmed till casualties in the firing-line should make rifles available. Then . and he had to refuse . action between Rojan and Ostrov. who worked with their units throughout this great retreat. and Irmanov of the Illrd Caucasian Corps. were citizens of whom any country should be proud." The fighting value of corps and divisions now more than ever depended on the quality of the command.

the danger on the Dvina on the extreme right called for the transfer of additional force. took charge of the phantom 6th Army. which gave the on the following day. the I2th. General Gorbatovski. The Russians claimed that the storming of the works cost the Germans immense casualties. as a German Cavalry regiment had broken through our line in the night and had penetrated to the rear of the corps staffs. three weeks. life. The Staff of the I2th Army was ordered to hand over its troops to the ist Army and to return to Petrograd.320 With the Russian Army. There was the usual cry of " treachery. ist Army took control of the front of the former I2th Army at midnight on the igth. so the forecast of the ist Army Staff. and others were railed to the north. / The fell fortress of Kovna fell on August Its i8th. ist and 2nd Armies retired to the general line of the Bobr and Narev and the Byelostok-Brest Litovsk railway. ventured to suggest On the morning of the i6th the Staff had to retire hurriedly to Berestovitsa. We remained eight days. with the Staff of the I3th Army. The last message received spoke of an explosion in the citadel. On August i6th and I7th. Some of the units of the 13th Army were handed over to the neighbouring 3rd and 8th Armies. The abandonment of the Polish salient had the one advantage that it shortened the general Russian front. was moved from the neighbourhood of Kovel to Riga to take over a new I2th Army. On the I7th this railway ceased working. with General Sievers as his Chief The Staff of the of Staff. but they used to say. Novo Georgievsk investment had been only completed on the gth. At the same time. where General Churin. be if not now ? ' when will that critical moment I had been told when we arrived at Byelsk that I we would probably remain there three months." It was stated that two fortress engineers had motored out towards the enemy's lines and had been captured . fortress only ten days' wireless was astonishingly accurate. On the night of August i5th orders were issued for a regroupment. 1914-1917 " All right.

000 to 230. There is. judging all calibres up from the Press at on the forts. Under cover of a mist I visited the defences a few hours prior to their destruction. as short resistance can have had no delaying than the abandonment of the line of the Vistula. Its effect on the enemy's advance.000.000 fire The German rounds of to i6J". I learned later the this story. the fortress might have held out for months if the general situation had admitted of the continuance of the defence. the Commandant. The fall of Kovna was in a military sense a more serious blow he was misinformed. had not had the terrible As far as could be judged. effects that reports led one to believe. and had indeed been captured with plans.000. We can only imagine that it calculated that Przemysl had. estimated that the Germans had fired from 200. no ground whatsoever for accusing these men of treachery. siege. with the Germans definitely established in possession of the main Trans-Nyeman railway. he was probably right. Osovets was therefore abandoned on the night of the 22nd. and.000.000 rounds of all He calibres up to 6" in the six and a half months' defence. and wonders why the Grand Duke left a garrison behind to defend the fortress. knowing Brjozovski. he said that. the afternoon of the 22nd only twenty-two field and three antiquated fortress guns remained at Osovets. There is no doubt. Ludendorff comments on the poor construction of the works. When I repeated this statement to Odishelidze.April -August. who had removed to some barracks eight miles to the south. Some two weeks before the commencement visit two engineers had motored out to the front. and could stand a siege of several months. They were only grossly stupid and exceedingly rash. We lunched with General Brjozovski. he would estimate the actual German expenditure at 30. for Vilna was now immediately threatened. 1915 with full 321 foundation of of the plans of the fortress. too. The Russian hurled into the time estimated the number of rounds results ' ' the heroic fortress ' at over 2. that the Germans had complete plans long before this incident. The fifty-seven On X . and. Brjozovski said that he had expended 55. however. retirement from the Bobr and Narev became inevitable.

had been ordered from all who remained of all cattle. and who were now formed into a combined corps in the ist Army under Brjozovski. This. and so saved the forts. was always the to leave. dynamite and guncotton. and it was impossible for the people to remain behind said that they did unless their villages were likely to be The Russians when deprived civil staff of their means first of livelihood. The if authorities in rear were put to it to cope with a movement that had assumed the dimensions of a national migration. Even trains had been available. 1914. Near Byelsk I passed twenty continuous miles of such fugitives. tea and sugar. It was Schulman. about seven versts in length and two versts in advance of the fortress. As a fortress. the three old guns and the defences were blown up. The whole of the Polish peasantry seemed to migrate from the districts east of the Vistula.m. in October. whose only wealth was of too bulky a nature. . the explosive used amounting to ninety-two tons of gunpowder. and it Unfortunately the was left to the Corps Intendance to carry out the requisitions.322 field With the Russian Army. who. however. Osovets had not played a very important part. The requisition. having no proper staff for the purpose. a line of trenches on the right bank of the Bobr. carried out its task in a slipshod manner. mth At ii p. bacon. the father driving and the mother sitting on the top of the family belongings in a cluster of her younger children. thought it would be no harm to occupy the spare time of the garrison by the fortification of the so-called Sosna position. They travelled in their long Polish carts drawn generally by two horses. a former commandant. A strikingly pathetic feature of the retreat was the mass of fugitives that blocked all the roads as the Russian troops retired. horses. This position prevented the German gunners from properly observing the results of the fire of their heavy artillery. The elder sons and daughters drove flocks of cows or geese or pigs along the roadside. who had defended the fortress. 1914-1917 guns were withdrawn as mobile artillery for the 57th and Divisions. they would have been of no use to the peasantry. not compel them to move the scene of fighting.

for " Germans took everything. who had died of exposure on the road. 1915 Some of 323 and had been on the road a month. and there were many faces of absolute despair. ' them had come from as ' ' ' The Red Gross opened feeding-stations at intervals to provide tea and bread free." they did not know. it will never be known how many of these poor people died on their In the following year I found the main roads further pilgrimage.April-August. but there was no bad temper and never a complaint. Some Polish refugees struggled even beyond the Urals. The Russian soldiers treated the fugitives with The Russian Intendance was ordered to buy all real kindness." and Russia will at any rate not allow If asked where they were going. . I left the Staff of the ist Army at Grodna on the evening of August 25th. far as Plotsk. The Polish peasantry is one of the finest in the world sober. east over their cattle at a fair price. I saw one peasant stoically driving a cart on which. The women were often quietly crying. her. There were Poles living in dugouts at Omsk four years later. they replied that us to starve. propped up on the top. was the body of his wife. in spite of everything. If asked why they left their homes they would " the say that if they had stayed they would have starved. and travelled to Petrograd. her children lying on the bedding around He was carrying on till he got to a Catholic cemetery. hard-working and religious. Yet. The self-control with which these poor people met their trouble made one's heart go out to them. which the tide of fugitives had passed studded every few hundred yards with rough crosses to mark the general graves where cholera victims had been buried.

The loss might have been expected to improve matters by increasing the number of engines. This disorganisation of the railways immensely increased the 3*4 . The need for transverse railways made itself felt at once. in the operations in the Advanced Theatre. X. Wagons with evacuated machinery and guns. when the Byelostok-Brest railway ceased working." the Russian Command had profited by the use of the elaborate system of railways and chaussees that had been prepared in the eighties. however. was deplorable. but the retreating Russian army had to cover 120 miles more in an easterly direction from Brest Litovsk before ON it reached a sixth line. August 17th. Up to that date. that from Vilna to Sarni. occupied valuable sidings for weeks. In the 100 miles due east from Warsaw there were five tracks parallel to the front. regarding the destination of which no orders had been issued. since the stations that remained were unable to cope with the volume of traffic.CHAPTER IX EVENTS ON THE NORTHERN AND WESTERN FRONTS FROM THE MIDDLE OF AUGUST TILL THE MIDDLE OF OCTOBER. In future the Russian armies were to operate in territory. The control of the rolling-stock. 1915. Such advantages. Before the evacuation of Poland the shortage of rolling-stock was often blamed for delays in the transfer of troops. 1915 REFERENCE MAP No. wagons and personnel per verst for the verstage that remained.000 versts of line several well-equipped stations. too. the war in the Eastern theatre entered on " another phase. were entirely neutralised by the loss of of 12. the equipment of which in roads and railways was as inferior to that of Poland as the railway system of Poland was inferior to that of East Prussia.

They had then been given rifles and told that they were Opolchenie. of which he was as sorely in need as the Russians.000. immediately after their attack on the 1st Army on the Narev. Not only was Riga now threatened. However. but were captured on July 23rd and August 1st. enemy captured neighbouring Army of General Eichhorn opened through Vilna a still shorter line of attack on this vital artery of Russian supply. Shavli and Mitau were stoutly de- fended by the Russians. while the defence was entrusted to the fortress troops. 1915 difficulties of 325 strategical situation called urgently for the transfer of large forces from the the Russian Command at a time when the centre and On to the right flank.000 worth of 1 leather. but also Dvinsk. issued 38.August -October. that flank Plehve. who had left moved his headquarters first from Mitau to Riga and then east to Kreuzburg. The German preparations before Kovna had been long making. which was the chief centre of the tanning industry. but the attack on the advanced field works in the menced on August 5th. By the capture of Windau and Tukhum they were able by July i8th to shorten their front by advancing their left flank to the Gulf of Riga. the Germans developed a new offensive in Kurland. each 13. the capture of Kovna on August i8th by the railway. had up till the middle of July prevented the further advance of Below's Nyeman Army. the day Warsaw Germans were supposed to have about three corps at their disposal. The Russian Intendance thirteen months of war. the 400.000 strong. These divisions were composed of units that had been working battalions up till April. The company of sappers and a telegraph company. In the former town. one only comwas evacuated. the capture of which would have severed the Petrograd-Warsaw However. consisting of twenty-four companies of artillery.000 pairs of boots in the first . which had been sent to the fortress a week before the 1 regulars. together with the I04th and I24th Divisions of Infantry. A few weeks later the cross the badge of the Opolchenie was taken from their caps and they were informed that they were now There were also four depot battalions.

The defences were not completed. completion in 1914. With the Russian Army. The so-called Yanov Column. Staff seems to have regarded the preparations of the enemy as merely a demonstration till it was too late. and the year 1920 was fixed for the completion of a revised programme which provided for a to its greater thickness of cement. fifteen miles north-east of the fortress. an ex-general of cavalry. There was only a single ring of forts. were built. The garrison probably totalled 90. never advanced much beyond The Russian General Yanov. but was driven back by a counter-attack.000 men. and the units available for It actually the anything. who before the war had been unfavourably reported on by Rennenkampf the District Commander. fought its way to the railway. The relief columns organised from units of the loth Army advanced very slowly and were easily contained by the enemy's covering troops. south-west of the fortress. 1914-1917 and four Frontier Guard regiments. each designed for the accommodation of a company. The Grand Duke Nikolai's comment on the defences during a " visit previous to the war was that the name Kovna " should be " " Govno changed to (dung). but it was already too late. The increasing power of siege artillery made this programme out of date. There were no works of cement construction at Kovna at the beginning of the war. while the calibres enemy is said to have made use of all up to 16%". The Commandant was Grigoriev. was directed against the right of the German troops operating against the defences of the First Sector.326 attack. composed of units of the XXXIVth Corps. There were no guns of larger calibre than 10". On the morning of August I5th the enemy carried the advanced works in the First Sector. The 4th Finland Rifle Division from . Troops to make a serious attempt at relief began to arrive. The Russian programme of fortress construction had been originally drawn up with a view . composed of part of the Illrd Siberian Corps. but the Illrd Siberian Corps had in addition a considerable front to defend towards the west. and during the war only thirteen shelters. That night relief were too weak to effect he attempted to storm the forts in this sector. The other column.

He had been drafted with four depot battalions from near Baranovichi to Kovna a week before the commencement of the German advance. wheeled to the left in rear of the forts of the Second Sector. whether or not it was as devastat- ing in result as eye-witnesses report. still in the hands of the Russians. On Thus a of fortress which had cost many hundreds of thousands pounds was captured after forty-eight hours' serious attack. left by motor-car for the Hotel Bristol at Vilna. He was consingle 16" shell destroyed three whole sections.. Over a year later an ensign whom I met in the Carpathians gave me an account of his experiences in the defence. the concentrated the enemy's heavy guns.August. the Russians retiring from all the defences. and. however. General tusioned and went to hospital. of the First Sector. accompanied only by a priest. ! emplacement The only concrete by the Commandant. but defences were beneath contempt. the 327 dis- XXI Ind While still in the fieldworks in advance of the permanent defences. On the i6th the enemy captured Fort I. His Chief of Staff did On not for some time know that he had gone. The bridge was not blown up. the He said was that there were many guns in the fortress. That night the whole of the defences of the First Sector were captured.October. where he consoled himself with the reflection that at all events the bridge over the Nyeman would be blown up and he would have time to escape. supported by the guns of the forts in their rear. and III. the 1 8th the Germans occupied the town. fire of Once these works were abandoned. who never left it except at night that in his company of 250 men he had only sixty-eight rifles. occupied A " This youth said Grigoriev. had inflicted considerable damage on the enemy. 1915 Corps of the nth Army was brought up and tributed right and left to the relieving columns. proved at all events too much for the nerves of the half-trained and under-officered defenders. and he only escaped in dressing-gown and slippers on . One fort of the Second Sector and the whole of the defences on the right or eastern bank of the Nyeman remained. penetrating between Forts II. the Russian infantry. the I7th Grigoriev.

328

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917
In his opinion the Russian guns had and the place might have been held if the Com-

the last crowded train.
sufficient shell,

mandant had not been a coward. At the very beginning of the attack he had created a half panic by telling officers who had no " the first man to bolt would be intention of running away that
shot
"
!

Two hours after his arrival at Vilna, Grigoriev was placed under He was court-martialled on two main arrest by the Grand Duke.
charges
1.
:

That he

failed

to

make proper

artillery

preparation for the defence of the fortress of massed his guns in too small an area, and that he failed to clear
the field of
2.
fire.

and engineer Kovna, in that he

That he abandoned the

fortress to report to the

Army

instead of sending a staff officer to report, as he might easily have done, and that he failed to return to the

Command,

fortress.

The Court was much
failure to

influenced in

its

decision

by

Grigoriev's

blow up the tunnel east of Kovna, the only tunnel between Ostend and Petrograd. It is said that the officer detailed to prepare the tunnel for demolition had been told to do nothing till specially ordered, and as he received no orders he left
the tunnel intact.
Grigoriev was sentenced to eight years' imprisonment with hard labour.

The enemy captured many
Kovna, and

million tins of preserved meat at these were of the greatest value to him in the

operations of the following month. It is said that soon afterwards he captured 1,000 tons of sugar at Grodna and 35,000 head of cattle at Kobrin, further south.

The shortening of the Russian front owing to the abandonment
and the prospect of its further contraction as the retreating armies arrived on the line of the Pinsk marshes, permitted of the transfer of corps from the left centre to the extreme right. At the same time, the necessity of assuring the defences of the lower Dvina in order to guarantee the safety
of the line of the Vistula,

August -October, 1915
of

329

the right flank during the continued retreat of the main Russian armies was increasingly urgent. On August 30th a new group of armies the Northern Front

was formed under General Ruzski, with Headquarters
to include three armies

at Pskov,

the 6th at Petrograd, the I2th under Gorbatovski and the 5th under Plehve. It was at first contemplated to make Gorbatovski's army the
strongest of the group, with the idea that he might take the offensive south from Riga and west from Jacobstadt. However, the
fall of

Kovna, and the consequent pressing danger to the important

railway centre of Vilna, caused the diversion of the first reinforcements from the south to the loth Army, and the retention of that

army

in the

Western Front, whose right flank

it

was

its

duty to

guard during the continued retirement. When Gorbatovski, with his Staff, arrived in several trooptrains on August 22nd at Wenden, north-east of Riga, he took
over
the

command

of the right half of Plehve's

VHth

Siberian and the

XXXVIIth

army, consisting of Corps, the ist Caucasian

Rifle Brigade, the ist,

Cavalry

School

2nd and 4th Cavalry Divisions and the The XXVIIIth Corps (17,000 Division.

completed its detrainment at Kreuzburg by August 3oth, but was too late. Before its arrival the XXXVIIth Corps, which had been attacked east of Riga, was

bayonets) from the 8th

Army

driven across to the right or northern bank of the Dvina, and the XXVIIIth Corps lost a whole regiment in a vain attempt to defend

town of Friedrichstadt. The XXVIIIth Corps was itself driven back to the angle of the Dvina west of Jacobstadt, and by September loth had been reduced to 7,000 bayonets. The Commander of the XXVIIIth, Kashtalinski, was a fine old man and a hard fighter, who had taken a leading part at the Yalu and at Laioyang. I found him at 7 p.m. on September
the

loth with part of his Staff in a cottage a mile from the firing-line, in line with his divisional and regimental staffs, and with the
explained that it was important that his men should feel that he was close at hand, since he had only 4,500 of them on the left bank to resist the
shell flying overhead.

German and Russian

He

German

pressure,

and

it

was necessary

for

him

to hold out at

330
all

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917
till

come up on his left. The Ilnd Siberian Corps (15,000 bayonets) had arrived by September 3rd to take over the defence of the northern bank of the Dvina between Riga and Jacobstadt, and the arrival of the XXIIIrd Corps, which completed its detrainment at Kreuzburg by the evening of the I2th and moved forward to relieve the
costs

the

XXIIIrd Corps had time

to

cavalry on the left of the XXVIIIth Corps, rendered the line of the lower Dvina comparatively safe. By the middle of Sep-

tember Gorbatovski had at his disposal forces certainly equal to those of the enemy, but all idea of an offensive was now postponed, and he devoted himself to the fortification of the Riga and
Jacobstadt bridgeheads.

5th the Emperor assumed Army, announcing the fact in an Army Order
"
I

On September

command

of the

:

have to-day taken supreme command of all the forces of the sea and land armies operating in the theatre of war. With firm faith in the clemency of God, with unshakable
assurance of final victory, we shall defend our country to the last.
the Russian land."
fulfil

We

our sacred duty to will not dishonour

days later the Grand Duke Nikolai, accompanied by his Chief of Staff, Yanushkevich, left G.H.Q. at Mogilev for his new post of Viceroy and Commander-in-Chief in the Caucasus.

Two

The
of the

late General Quartermaster, Danilov, received
'

command

XXVth

"

Corps.

General Alexyeev, from the command of the Western (late North- Western) Front, was promoted to be Chief of Staff to the Emperor at Mogilev. He took with him as General Quartermaster, General Pustovoitenko.

Alexyeev was succeeded in command of the Western Front by General Ewarth from the 4th Army. General Ragoza, from the XXVth Corps, was promoted to command the 4th Army. Ewarth very soon came to loggerheads with his Chief of Staff,
placed at the disposition of the Northern Front," where he was appointed to the command of
Gulevich, and the latter was
"

5th August, 1915. Gansk. Grand Duke Dimitri Pavlovich distributing crosses on behalf of the Emperor. General Lesh, Commander of the 3rd Army, is the stout man with heavy moustache in the centre of picture.
[See page 310

1-Ath

September, 1915.

N.W.

of Dvinsk.

up to
To face page 330]

fly

with eight children packing before German advance.
[See page 337

Widow

13th September,^1915.

about to go into

Group of Kharkov Opolchenie, armed with Berdans, action for the first time on the Dvinsk defences.
[See page 337

13th September, 1915.

South-west of Dvinsk.
Rifle Brigade

Tired-out

men

of the 5th
[See page 337

August -October, 1915
the

331

XXIst

was Lebedev as General Quartermaster. The change in the Supreme Command may have been considered necessary in order to satisfy public opinion, which had been naturally excited by the recent reverses, but it was received with mixed feelings by the army. There was a strong feeling, it is true, against Yanushkevich and Danilov, both in Duma circles and in the army. The former was looked on as merely a Court nominee, as indeed he was. He had served very little with troops. Up till 1913, when he was suddenly selected as Chief of the Academy, his whole career had been passed in office work in the Ministry of War. He occupied his post at the Academy for a year, and in that time dismissed five of the best professors because they had ventured to preach the importance of fire
Yanushkevich, under Sukhomlinov's instructions, was a firm believer in the Suvorov tradition of the bayonet.
tactics, while

General Kvyetsinski, from the 2nd Army, Corps. appointed Chief of Staff to Ewarth, with General P. P.

Against Danilov the feeling was stronger, for his was rightly regarded as the directing brain at G.H.Q., and the swarms of old
military, knowledge, laid at his door

women,

civil

and

who

chatter of military affairs without

doubt he had made
retreating

No for every Russian disaster. mistakes, such as the eccentric pursuit of the
blame

attempt on Warsaw in October, 1914, and the futile offensive by the 3rd and 8th Armies in the Carpathians in April, 1915 yet he had only the moving and direction of the forces placed at his disposal with such means as

Germans

after the first

;

were available, and it is difficult to name a Russian general who would have done better. While relief at the removal of Yanushkevich and Danilov

was general, Alexyeev had few champions among those who had worked with him on the Staff of the Western Front, and the assumption of command by the Emperor was generally condemned. Mikhail Vasilevich Alexyeev had commenced his service in " interest.' the Line and had pushed his way to the front without He was at this time a man of fifty-eight years of age, of simple, unassuming manners and a tremendous worker. A large part of his service had been spent as a teacher at the Academy and in the
1

332

With the Russian Army, 1914-1917

General Quartermaster's Branch (Military Operations Directorate) at Army Headquarters. He had been General Quartermaster of
the 3rd Manchurian Army from November, 1904, and Chief of the Staff of the Kiev Military District from 1908 to 1912, when he
received

command

of the

XIHth

Corps.

He

is

said to have been

an ideal commander

right-hand man the first months of the war.

a corps in peace, and he was Ivanov's as Chief of the Staff of the South-West Front in
of

Alexyeev's faults were that he tried to do everything himself and that he lacked the necessary self-reliance to enable him to

take decisions quickly.

An

officer

who
"

conversation, compared him to a could decide nothing." Another officer
told

served under him, in second Kuropatkin, who

an army commander

commencement of the war there was quite a dispute in the Staff of the South- West Front as to who should open
at the

me that

the Commander-in-Chief, Ivanov, or his Chief " The matter was at length settled by typing of Staff, Alexyeev. two copies, one of which Ivanov tore open and the other Alexyeev.
official

telegrams

But matters then became worse, for each pencilled his instructions on the messages, and the Staff did not know where the devil they
were."

At G.H.Q. Alexyeev did not show much power
work.

of delegating

looked out places on the map himself. It was said that when things went badly he used to go into his bedroom
still

He

to pray while his subordinates awaited decisions. It was reported that the Grand Duke Nikolai had been asked

to take Alexyeev as his Chief of Staff, but he refused to abandon Yanushkevich, so there remained no alternative to the solution

adopted.

army regretted the Grand Duke's dismissal, for they regarded him as an honest man who stood apart from Court intrigue. They would have been content to pay that
Most
officers of

the

dismissal as the price of the much-desired removal of Yanushkevich andDanilov, many of them thinking, with Bezobrazov, that " the Grand Duke was completely in the hands of those men."

Misgiving, however, was almost universal regarding the Emperor's assumption of the Supreme Command.

August -October, 1915
I

333

Radko Dimitriev thought the change less mad tha/i I imagined.
spent the night of September gth with his Staff at a Baltic baron's chateau north of Friedrichstadt. Next morning he talked for

over an hour as
that
it

the grounds. His argument was had been evident that the Grand Duke did not direct

we walked about

and that those to whom he had committed the task of direction had shown themselves wanting in decision. His particular instance was the refusal to allow him (Radko) to invade Hungary with the 3rd Army in March, 1915. He had then six cavalry divisions, and if he had been given the three additional " launched the whole on corps for which he asked he would have Buda-Pesth, when the Hungarians would have been forced to sue for a separate peace." This argument was not convincing. At supper on the preceding night with a group of the senior
himself,
officers of

change was

the Staff of the I2th " "

Army the one opinion regarding the
It

Plokho

!

(bad).

was

felt

that the

new

appoint-

ment would produce a crop

of intrigues, that

advancement would

be given to Court favourites, and only men of strong independent character, of whom there were few in the Russian army, would be
able to resist the temptation of intriguing to catch the Imperial
eye.

The only remark I heard that the soldiers made was the childish one Now the Emperor is going to fight, soon the Empress will come too, and then all the women of Russia will follow." In Petrograd, where the Empress's unpopularity was great, the Emperor's decision was ascribed to her influence acting on the suggestion of the impostor Rasputin. The conversation that took place, even in official circles and in the presence of a foreigner, showed the extent to which mistrust in the Government and the autocracy had gone. I was present in the drawing-room of a very highly-placed military official, when a lady said that though common rumour reported that the Archangel Gabriel had appeared to the Empress in a vision in the night and had announced
'

:

that the armies of Russia would continue to be beaten

till

their

Emperor placed himself at their head, she for her part thought that if anyone had appeared it was Rasputin, and not the ArchIt was certain, at all events, that an arrangement angel Gabriel.

to save the dynasty. "If there has ever been a reported Government that richly deserved a revolution. The mistrust of authority was penetrating all classes of \ . was ascribed translated : " to representations they ventured to make regarding Rasputin and the indecency of permitting a man of his type to visit the Court. and of Prince Orlov. Junkovski." leaders of political thought were indeed doing their best. the officers of the line would lend no hand in its suppression." The dismissal of the Assistant Minister of the Interior. I'll hang you. which may be Yes. The retention of this Minister. do come. 1914-1917 that withdrew the head of the Government to a distance of twenty-four hours by rail from his responsible ministers at a time It of grave national danger can have had no very serious origin." More than one officer assured me in September. Nikolai Nikolaievich had replied in two Russian words. since he had cause to fear its debates. and though the Guard might remain loyal. but that the Government was bringing it upon itself. that there would certainly be a revolution if the enemy approached " Petrograd. the Chief of the Emperor's Military Chancery. the patriotic Duma was dismissed. was ascribed by a high authority to the influence of the Empress. If it escapes. was related regretfully of the Grand Duke Nikolai that when on one occasion Rasputin had the impertinence to telegraph to him for permission to go to the front to bless the troops. They said that such a movement at such a time would be deplorable. whose dismissal all Russia demanded.334 With the Russian Army. At the suggestion of the Prime Minister. It was constantly stated in Petrograd probably without a shred of foundation that if Gorimikin flattered the necessary. 1915. A message of the Zemstvo Alliance to the army and the Government told the army to fight it out to a finish. to advocate a Empress by protesting separate peace in order his readiness. and called on the Emperor to change the Government and to summon once more the Duma. it is the present one in Russia. Gorimikin. it will only be because the members igth I : On September of the Duma The are too patriotic to agitate in this time of crisis.

poor fellow. The whole of its population. The Russian. When master a a train came into a station officials to it was the duty of the subordinate list compile and hand over to the stationThese inof the wagons with their numbers." criminal for and he ends by frankly sympathising with the the mental worry he must have undergone before of the rolling-stock after his crime. he says. were now convinced that Russia had been sold to her enemies by the Ministry yet there was no calling out for peace. retaining the remaining 25 per cent. he applied to the . I 335 heard of one village near Luga where cheap papers were received describing mythical victories. ' dividuals habitually entered only 75 per cent. The officer in charge of the motor transport of the Guard Corps told me that on one occasion when he wanted to send five cars through from Minsk to Vitebsk for repair. his position was very and difficult. Sugar and meat would have been available throughout the towns of Russia. old men. Officials of the Department of Military Justice worked hard at the preparation of charges against many highly-placed individuals. if it had been possible to obtain transport for private merchandise without bribing at least one. There was much corruption. 1915 society. women and children. but no one was ever publicly disgraced by exemplary punishment. learning only some days later from a more reliable paper that the whole report was a fabrication. This village had lost twenty-four men killed out of twenty-six called up. of the wagons on the list. on the railways and the dishonesty of many of the railway officials had a direct influence on the rise in prices. rail- The mismanagement way employes. . with his deep human sympathy and vivid imagination.August -October. generally several. always imagines himself in the guilty person's place. up their sleeve ' for private speculation with traders. and the poor people went in procession to beg the priest to celebrate a service of thanksgiving. Such people were indeed never punished in Russia as they ought to have been. and if the latter happens to have an extravagant wife or an extravagant number of children. " After all. and at reasonable prices.

O. 77. and very soon found an employe* who pointed out the wagons in exchange for the brandy. while the German cavalry. west of Grodna. supported by infantry detachments. Eichhorn was opposed by the loth Russian Army. was to 1 Hans Niemann. and told him not to worry/' as everything had been satisfactorily arranged. and he placed the right group of his army under the command of General Olukhov. Eichhorn had occupied Olita on August 26th. Eichhorn. pressed forward in order to occupy Vilna and so sever the direct line of supply and retreat of the ist Russian Army.T. Hindenburg's Siegeszug gegen Ruszland. 1914-1917 of the Station (corresponding to our R.). who had advanced to a distance of eighteen versts from Vilna. Schultz and Gallwitz were to attack to pin the Russians down to their front. and to this the Russians transferred troops from their centre up to the utmost carrying capacity of their railways. who had been ordered to wheel to their up be protected by left.336 With the Russian Army. giving him the task the enemy's front. Olukhov's right flank was to the Russian cavalry. After capturing Kovna on August i8th. the Commander of the of striking south-west to roll Guard Corps. He " then returned to the Commandant. While the Russian move was in preparation the enemy struck. . The German Command had formed the ambitious project of x surrounding and destroying the Russian loth and ist Armies. and the Germans. with the loth German Army. and Eichhorn. were again driven back to a distance of thirty versts. which opposed the armies of Scholtz and Gallwitz. Commandant but was told that there were no wagons. with Headquarters at Vileisk. Radkevich prepared a counterstroke. p. Below's Nyeman Army was to cover the German left by a vigorous offensive towards Dvinsk. under General Radkevich. but an attempt to force back the left of the loth Army at Orani failed. By the end of August the Guard had arrived from the 3rd Army and the Vth Corps from the ist Army. He got a bottle of brandy and walked down the sidings. He moved the IHrd Siberian Corps up to a position in echelon in rear of the right flank of the Guard.

in the neighbourhood of Avgustov in September. Both corps were attacked forestall the enemy at the by the pursuing enemy on September His cavalry having been driven I4th. Radkevich pondered for a minute. Radkevich received the Gross of St. and the Germans were 1 beaten at Avgustov. who showed it to his Chief. I won't retire.' effect. in. had retired before the war. Pfiug. the enemy found a man worthy to surrender. This corps covered about fifty miles on the night of the nth and the day and I saw it arrive on the first line of the Dvinsk night of the I2th. which had consistently distinguished under his leadership. returning on mobilisation to take command of the Illrd Siberian Corps. 1915 337 penetrate between the Russian 5th and loth Armies. 1915. 1914. however. George. and to cut the communications of the latter by severing the Vilna-Dvinsk and Vilna-Minsk railways. defences early on the I3th. actually threw proclamations in Minsk fixing September 23rd as the date on which Radkevich would be forced In him. and Pflug was superseded in command of the loth Army. 3rd. His decision turned out correct. I He had served in the Guard and possessor of a strong character. and the Russian Illrd Corps had to retire by forced marches to of the ist. where I lunched with his Staff on October 3rd. German airmen only met him once in the course of the war at Izyaslavl. and then brought his clenched fist down on the table " He drafted a reply to that with an emphatic. 4th. The second telegram pointing out that a continued disobedience of orders would render him liable to trial by court-martial. The Russian cavalry on the left of the 5th Army and on the right of the loth Army was driven in on September 8th by parts 9th and Bavarian Cavalry Divisions. evidently the of their mettle. Below's infantry advanced rapidly along the Vilkomir-Dvinsk chaussee. Dvinsk bridgehead. Many months later an officer who had served on his Staff related itself how.August -October. then in command of the loth Army. north-west of Minsk. twice ordered Radkevich to retire. was opened by arrived during dinner and the Chief of Staff. Further north the XlXth Corps managed to slip away unperceived. He was a fine-looking old man. Olukhov moved the 2nd Y .

skirmishing. and cutting the loth Army's main line of supply. On September station of I2th the German raiding force occupied the Svyentsyani. with two field batteries and one heavy battery. immediately supported by cyclists and followed by three infantry regiments.338 With the Russian Army. The unfortunate peasants in the district raided had no time to to Army. cutting the Bologoe-Lida railway. 1914-1917 Finland Division and the Illrd Siberian Corps to prolong his right flank to the east. When the German guns opened fire the infantry retired south from Krivichi. The German save their It cattle. moved rapidly south-east up the right bank of the Viliya and occupied Smorgoni on the I4th. Another body of six cavalry regiments. together with more than one field hospital and field bakery. and its squadrons south-west and west of that station topk the divisional transport of the Ilnd Caucasian Corps and almost all the transport of the Illrd Siberian Corps. while the telegraph company retired from Vileika on Molodechno. the loth Army's secondary line of supply. Novo Contact squadrons were sent north-east in the direction of Disna and Drissa. Six trains had already passed the danger-zone. happened that the XXVIIth Corps was being moved by train from Lida to Dvinsk via Molodechno and Polotsk. on the little right of the loth impede the progress of cavalry had indeed so far had it all its own way. . and a telegraph company was at Vileika. and sent out squadron to reconnoitre ! From Vileika or Krivichi four German squadrons moved Luckily south-east to attack the Berezina bridge at Borisov. occupied Vileika and Krivichi on the I5th. and the column. had done the German raid. on which the ist Army depended. probably passing between lakes Svir and Naroch. its escort but moved back prudently towards Lida. cutting the Vilna-Molodechno-Minsk railway. but three trains with infantry and transport were in the station at Krivichi. It captured 3. severing communication between Dvinsk and Vilna. The train with the Staff of the ist Army arrived at Molodechno. The Kuban Cossacks.000 head of cattle at Smorgoni.

It of attacking to the north-west on the had been calculated quite incorrectly that the advanced troops would be deployed in sufficient force by September i6th. On September I5th a few German squadrons with two guns moved from Smorgoni on the important railway junction of Molodechno. The ist Army was already in process of transfer to the right of the loth. with blowing up a near Jodino. and enquired eagerly if she had any news.August-October. She told me that her husband's orderly had arrived that very morning. retired. bringing with him an Empire grand piano which the colonel.Smorgoni. as a matter of by no means perturbed. had found time to buy in a Polish chateau and his orderly had been clever enough to escort through to the capital. and itself They were opposed by the ist Independent Cavalry Brigade. On the I5th Radkevich issued an order in the Napoleonic style : pleasure that all the brave units of the loth Army be informed that the steadfastness and tenacity of which they have given proof in a difficult situation are is "It my already earning their reward. a great collector. On the morning of the 2Oth I met a lady whose husband was in the Staff of the Guard Corps. 1915 the Russians 339 managed to get a battalion to Borisov in time. Army and of the Western Front were. which happened to be on the march across the rear of the loth Army and by the infantry echelons of the XXVIIth Corps. . for the destruction of a bridge of this size would have interrupted traffic on the Moscow-Minsk line for at least a fortnight or three weeks. west of Borisov. The enemy cavalry contented few yards of the permanent way the damage only caused a few hours' delay. The Staffs of the loth fact. which crowded the station. and orders were now issued for the formation of a new 2nd Army between the ist and loth to carry out the task line Vileika. After firing a few shots they As the news trickled through to Petrograd it seemed that the loth Army must inevitably be lost. The incident seemed to indicate that things could not be as bad as we imagined.

a useless expenditure of ammunition the enemy becomes accustomed to the noise of the explosions and awaits the infantry attack with increased confidence. When a hurri- accompanied simultaneously by a reckless infantry assault. 1914-1917 To-morrow. "The arrival of these new reinforcements will be the advance against the barbarian foe. a corps arrives on our right flank.340 With the Russian Army. as the Guard proved in its recent short offensive. Remember that the Germans are ever nervous for their flanks and rear. The attack must be commenced by a widely-extended enemy are secured supported by strong reserves. the firingline must pursue its advantage. This advance must be carried out with determination and signal for a general without looking back. and soon there will be no . and the day after a second corps. following up the enemy to right and left. " Shell is in " coming every day. Further to our right a third corps is coming up. while the reserves press on to destroy his fire is cane artillery reserves in rear. reserves firing-line and batteries.longer a shortage. A prolonged artillery preparation is merely . of the glorious deeds of their ancestors. movement as if at home as its example the energy.' should be sufficient to remind our cavalry. the courage . the i6th. the artillery at the same time thundering on the enemy's firing-line. Let everyone learn that the loth Army has no fear of turning movements. no German will hold his ground. and that the flanks of an army that takes the offensive with the determination to beat the " by its own boldness. Bold reconnaissance in the enemy's front and bolder still in his rear. When the enemy's front has been penetrated. and especially the Cossacks and their leaders. " It mind for the present for the cavalry to bear in the instructions received to-day from the Comis sufficient ' : mander-in-Ghief of the Front Our cavalry must take and the boundless I think this remark activity of the German cavalry. and if we only strike hard enough they will fly.

as Olukhov told me later. and. ! " advance of Vilna. always had an attack of nerves.August -October. in flank. on the I3th. and to the foe a terror in front. which may be literally The Outraged Hare" Radkevich had taken the precaution. parks and transport columns. An officer of Olukhov's Staff asked him one insulting night " what he thought " of the situation. Olukhov asked for permission to withdraw his group. dashes his infantry stragglers. Arise from your slumbers. It would have been madness for Radkevich to have waited any longer with his right flank in . and it became evident that the 2nd Army would not be up in time. in rear cavalry is ! ! companies. by " " him. Horsemen all. squadrons." Antipov was very unpopular. above all. When one was calm the other was flurried. and had by now earned an expressive Russian nickname. Antipov. the right of the loth Army. to commence the movement of two of his corps from his left to prolong his threatened On the i6th he agreed to Olukhov's suggestion. and betake you to your work Become once more the eyes so pregnant with import and ears of the army. only put his trust in God. but Radkevich replied." " This order is to be read in all The confidence of the Army Commander was hardly shared to the same degree by those further in advance. Large bodies of German infantry were now attempting to turn the right flank of the army. such is the activity that every leader can illustrate by brilliant examples from the past history of the Russian cavalry. and right. and such is the I activity the Germans are now so successfully imitating. and was told that he must friends in the Guard Corps said later that Olukhov or his Chief of Staff. batteries." either In fact. will never believe that the heroic spirit of the Russian and flank on dormant or that our brave troopers have forgotten the prowess of their glorious past. moved his right group back to a line of fortifications prepared in translated. 1915 among his batteries 341 from rear and his transport. as soon as the object of the German Command became evident.

as usual. however. rained on the night of the I7th. which had come up to the north of Soli. That night the town was abandoned. but it failed in execution. and it managed Hindenburg's plan was bold. but they saved their armies. On the I7th he retired his whole army. On the igth the centre only was withdrawn. On the On the following night the whole of the army retired once more. i Qth and 20th the XXXVIth Corps arrived by road and drove the enemy from Smorgoni with the bayonet. drove the enemy's infantry from Vileika on the 26th and from Krivichi on the 27th. but after that the weather was fortunately fine. Radkevich's salvation lay in the continual extension of his right by the constant withdrawal of force from his left or western The contraction of his front admitted of the Guard Corps being drawn into reserve. as his penetrating attacks at Lodz and Prasnish had failed. but this came to nothing. and soon the XXVIIth All danger of the loth Army Corps. having concentrated. kevich had probably very accurate information of the enemy's infantry movements and strength. being surrounded and cut off was now. at an end. The retreat the night of was continued on the night of the i8th. The enemy's cavalry was to save very few of its horses. The latter corps made an attempt to take the offensive. the decision to do so having. flank. Oranovski's 1st Cavalry Corps. The Russians escaped from a difficult situation with comparatively small material loss. the right contracting to a position about seven versts in advance of Vilna. been kept such a profound secret that several officers were left behind in cafes. owing to the smallness of the force at his disposal and the calm nerve of the Russian General Staff. and the Vth and Ilnd Corps were transferred across from the west to the east. for the IVth Siberian Corps was arriving on the right of the XXXVIth. for the Russians had to retire over a pracIt tically roadless country. so he was able to judge the . was relieved by the Guard. utterly exhausted. 1914-1917 1 the air in the hope of saving Vilna.342 With the Russian Army. They were forced to abandon a Radlarge slice more territory.

barding the station at Molodechno and burning those at Vileika and Krivichi. 1915 exact hour 343 when retirement became a grand nerve. Nine and a half divisions of cavalry had been conStaff centrated on Litvinov's right with the object of raiding on Svyent"yani. blowing up seven bridges. for its advanced units arrived in Smorgoni and Vileika three days after the cavalry. but he showed the staff arrangements in his army must have fine self-sacrifice. south of Glubokoe. the Army Staff of the ist The Army arrived moving to the small station of Krulevshchizna.August -October. The two iron pipes in the tower at resumption of traffic three Krivichi were cut. but the upper one was left intact. Practically all the The tower at stations had water-towers. The Germans evidently expected to remain in permanent occupation of the Polotsk-Molodechno railway. The German infantry must have made some wonderful marches. bom1914. The Russian infantry . of which the largest were two of 245 feet and 105 feet span. raid necessity. and been excellent. Its corps came up gradually. for even allowing for the small amount of explosives carried by mounted troops. but these were easily replaced . The bridges were repaired in seven days. each with two cisterns. and traffic was reopened from Polotsk to Molodechno on October 3rd. he would have delayed the times as long. by rail via Minsk at Polotsk on September 3oth. destruction of two consecutive towers was necessary to render traffic impossible. but the German machine-guns defeated all attempts to force a passage through the lake defiles. the demolitions they effected were of only a temporary character. and very different from those on the railways beyond the Vistula in Altogether they damaged 100 versts of line from Molodechno to south-east of Glubokoe. and it took the offensive in a westerly direction on October 4th and 5th. a hole was blown The in the lower cistern. If the enemy had used half the explosive he expended on the bridges on the destruction of the water supply. Vileika was untouched. it The German cavalry advanced with but its would never have penetrated to the depth did if it had had to deal with Russian regular cavalry instead of with Oossacks.

From the third week in September the German Command transferred its attention to other theatres. They are simply engaged in a vast frontal drive against the Russian army. against this On September 8th I wrote in my Diary while on supposition. General Chief of Staff: General Bonch-Bruevich. however. proves that they have not yet definitely formulated the idea of an advance on Petrograd. 1914-1917 very heavily. and moved large forces to France and Serbia. On September 5th General Ruzski said at Pskov that was very probable that this was the intention. setting a pace that will strain the power of endurance of the Russian soldier to the Their hope to be able to cut off and destroy whole formations has so far come to nothing. The Vilna Operation. taken up the general line which it occupied throughout the winter of 19151916. 1915. its attacks on the Dvinsk bridgehead with a persistency that gave colour to the belief that it It wished to take both Dvinsk and Riga and to fortify bridgeheads on the right bank of the Dvina as bases for a further advance in the spring. . but they are reaping a rich harvest in tired-out prisoners and rifles.344 lost With the Russian Army. was the last great strategical move of the year in the Russian theatre. however. Commander-in-Chief : General Ruzski. and by October 7th the offensive was for the time being abandoned. it the Northern Front I : think the weakness of the German force on their extreme left three and a half divisions against the Russian I2th Army and their hesitation to renew the attempt on Riga from the sea. when they know that less than three months remain during which their superiority in the Baltic could be brought to bear. Corps were in the first instance distributed to armies as of By the middle October the Russian Army had follows : NORTHERN FRONT. utmost. German offensive of September. The balance of evidence seemed. as the Russians call the continued.

XLIst and XLIInd XLIIIrd Corps. . 79. Cavalry Column ist : ist Caucasian Rifle Brigade. 73. Corps in formation. ARMY : General Plehve. Head: quarters Minsk. Commander-in-Chief : General Ewarth. 78. Cavalry Division. Chief of Staff: 6TH ARMY : General Ghurin. XXIX. General Chief of Staff: Quartermaster : General P. 60. 3rd Trubetskoi's Rifle Division. Headquarters : General Sievers. 2nd Cavalry I5th Cavalry Division. Chief of Staff: Dvinsk. 44. 53- XXIII. io8th and logth Divisions. Lebedev. 1915 Quartermaster quarters : : 345 Head- General Kiyanovski. XXVIII. north- east of Riga. : In reserve of Front. 17. Vllth Siberian Corps Divisions. XLth. 38. ARMY eral : General Gorbatovski. WESTERN FRONT. 3rd Caucasian Rifle. Southern line of demarcation of the Northern Front : Davgeli. Shlok Column of all arms. : I2th Siberian and 13 th Siberian 4th Cavalry Division. 33. Headquarters : General Miller. south-west of Dvinsk to Drissa. Pskov. Ilnd Siberian 4th Siberian. I2TH Petrograd. XIX. P. Division. Division. Brigade of Xlllth Corps. Byelyaev.August -October. General Kvyetsinski. 5th Siberian. 20. at Ryejitsa XXI. 5th Rifle Division. Ill. east of Dvinsk. noth ist Rifle. Chief of Staff: GenHeadquarters : Wenden. : XXXVIIth 5TH Corps .

68. General Radkevich.. Headquarters : Stavrov. 24. : 6th and I3th Cavalry 1st Kaznakov's Cavalry Corps sion. 25.70. Headqiiarters : XXVI. 2nd Siberian. : Osovets Corps 57.. 59> 22. north-west of IOTHARMY: Popov. In Reserve re-forming Ist Guard : 2nd Guard Infantry. 30.. gade. 104. 61. : 7th Siberian. XXXIV. : General Smirnov. 18. 3rd Siberian. Chief of Staff: Minsk. 43. I. : Illrd Siberian II. 45. 7. Gossack Cavalry Division. ist Siberian.. : 2ND ARMY XX. 8th Siberian. : Two Siberian Gossack Potapov's Cavalry Column and one Don Gossack cavalry regiments. Ilnd Caucasian Caucasian Grenadier. : Don Tumanov's Cavalry Corps Divisions. 29. I4th Siberian. General V. Guard Infantry. in... Chief of Staff: General Izyaslavl. 69. 64. 1st Siberian. 51. 28. Reserve Vlth Siberian. XXXVI. XIV. 1914-1917 IST ARMY: 4th 1st General Lit vino v. 76. IV.346 With the Russian Army. 84. Minsk. Chief of Staff : General Headquarters : Krulevshchizna. Odishelidze. 10.. Cavalry Corps 8th and I4th Cavalry Divisions. 62. XXXVIIL. 40. 56... Ilnd Guard 3rd Guard : ist : . 3rd Don Cossack Cavalry Division. : In Reserve IVth Siberian : 9th Siberian. : Guard Cavalry DiviUssuri Cavalry Bri- 5th Cavalry Division. 26.. loth Siberian. XXVII.

48.. : In Reserve : 8ist Division. XVI. SOUTH-WESTERN General Commander-in-Chief : Ivanov. Chief of Staff: General Sukhomlin. 75.. 47. 1915 Infantry. XXXV.. 31. i6th Cavalry Division. . STH ARMY : General Brusilov. XXIV. 52. : Vth Siberian 6th Siberian. 83. XXV. : IVth Cavalry Corps Division. X.. 50. 2nd Grenadier. 2nd Guard Cavalry Division. Illrd Caucasian. 50. General Baiov. 8. 3RD ARMY IX. XV. 42. 5. 3rd 77th Division. Headquarters : Chief of Staff: Slutsk. General : Quartermaster : General Dietrikhs.August -October. Trans-Baikal Gossack Brigade. 9. 21. Grenadier ist Grenadier. Chief of Staff: : Yunakov. 41. 347 i Guard Rifle Brigade. 3rd Caucasian Gossack Cavalry Cavalry Division. Southern line of demarcation of the Western Front : Rafalovka-Gorodnaya. Orlov's Cavalry Division. 2nd and 4th Finland Rifle Vth Caucasian Divisions. 67. Turkistan Gossack Brigade. : General Lesh. and 2nd Turkistan nth Siberian Division. 2nd Composite Cossack Cavalry Division. 49. General 4THARMY: 1st General Ragoza. 2nd Division.. Headquarters FRONT: Berdichev. 27. 6. Turkistan : Headquarters ist Nesvij. 46.. Rifle Brigades. 3rd Grenadier. XXXL. Chief of Staff : General Savich..

: Sanikov. It was impossible for the moment for the Russians to bring their divisions up to establishment. 1st Finland Rifle Division.. first . n. QTH ARMY : General Lechitski. I estimated the total strength of the Russian army on the Western Frontier at the commencement of This the winter of 1915-1916 at only 650. 3. Unfortunately in strength it was only a third of war establishment. ist Don Cossack Cavalry Divi- loth Cavalry Division. 80. 14.. ist and 2nd Plastun Brigades. 16. General IITH ARMY : Shcherbachev. XXXIX. 34. 125. Chief of Staff: General Golovin. 37XXII. 12... VII.. 13. Arriving on transfer from the gth Division.. XVII. 1914-1917 XXX.348 With the Russian Army. From calculations made at the time. 35. 2.. : Chief of Staff : General Twenty-five miles south XL. 23. Caucasian Native Division. Six hundred and fifty thousand rifles to defend a front that from Reval to Czernowitz was not far short of one thousand miles were little enough. : 74... ist and 2nd Trans-Amur Divisions. 103. 101. 15. XXXII. 32. Headquarters of Proskurov. Army : 2nd Rifle 82nd Division. 4th Rifle Division. Trans-Amur Cavalry Brigade. Ilnd Cavalry Corps 9th and I2th Cavalry Divisions.000 3" field guns.000 rifles.590 machine-guns and 4. VI. army was formidable on paper. 3rd Finland Rifle Division. XVIII. 71. 102. VIIL. XXXIII. 4. Illrd Cavalry Corps sion. XII.

The morale of the army had come through a severe It trial. weak ~vi units still retained establishment of more than 12 to 20 per cent. the Commanderin-Chief of the Front. The prospect of the army being rifles. There will be no Ewarth. however. The number of officers of every kind in the normal division of sixteen battalions and six batteries had fallen to an average of no. but unhealthy. Colonel Rodzianko. anything/' This was natural. Among the rank and file there had been very many desertions to the enemy as well as to the rear.August-October. was approached at almost every station by deputations of peasants. with the result that soldier deserters broke into the shops and took what they wanted without Rodzianko went to General Ewarth. of their original The number of guns of a professional officers.D. and. - calibre of over 3" per army corps of thirty-two to forty-eight battalions was on an average only fourteen. and three-quarters of these were light howitzers. the A. able to resume the offensive in the spring with any chance of success depended primarily on the balance-sheet of in other ways. when travelling from Molodechno to Minsk about September 26th. many of whom had thrown their rifles down wells. there were no rifles to arm them. said paying. : revolution here. In Minsk. to the Commander of the Guard Corps. who was a strong Conservative. and the steps taken to capture the latter. and their one that would have been fatal to most armies. who complained that swarms of Russian deserters. 1915 349 because the depots had been drained dry. the Governor allowed the Jews to close their shops on three successive Jewish holidays.G. were hiding in the woods and maintaining themselves by robbery. Few infantry The army was. It is your uncle in the Duma that arranges . and told him frankly that if these things were not put down there was grave danger of a revolution. ' ' punishment when captured. and was impossible to avoid being struck by the respect with which the more intelligent commanders regarded the determination of the Germans and their skill in manoeuvre as well as their superiority There was a belief that the Germans could do in technique. were alike inadequate. secondly. because even if trained men had been available.

Commanding officers of regiments must be selected more For instance. The officers night before. Western for information/' This officer wrote that if Russia was Front " " certain things must be put to win the war as win she must right. looked quite a useful lot. whose name he carefully. however. He said " : No. he is only a slightly superior . 1914-1917 He. Staff of the and by him had been sent from G." Commandant of the Town for the preservation of order. placed troops at the disposal of the ' ' revolutions. sick was enormous. were seen arriving in the trenches of the Dvinsk bridgehead. " they seldom did. German cavalry had come along it could have collected hundreds with scarcely an were making no attempt to prevent straggling. and for this reason the men no gave. The number of men who reported Any excuse was good enough to get away from the front. as they were always beaten. who had had a few hours rest the effort. his commanding officer. by a young company commander in one of the Siberian regiments to General Alexyeev. but he had an after a prolonged strain. and was pushed right forward to shell the Russian trenches. excellent fellow. the men of the 28Qth Regiment of the same corps. spending the whole time while fighting was going on with his brigade commander at least six versts from the firing-line. often extraordinary power of rapid On September I3th some men of the Illrd Corps recuperation. On the other hand. never ' "though an longer attacked willingly. They said there was no good in their fighting.Q. The German artillery was used with the utmost boldness. Russian attacks were almost always made without artillery preparation.H. They If the straggled in singly or in small groups at long intervals. though the writer had often asked our guns to reply. when seen stuff.350 With the Russian Army. It had been addressed. A letter seen at the Staff of the early October threw a queer light Western Front at Minsk in on discipline." His only object seemed to be to find a house as far as possible removed from the enemy's shells. to the " went near the front. The Russian looked poor soldier. evidently from patriotic motives. I asked Odishelidze if he thought the morale of the Russian soldier would suffer permanently from the retreat. and.

like Ewarth and Polivanov. He commanded the 3rd Army brilliantly at the commencement of the Great War. 1 . it is a different matter. seemed a very good description of the Russian soldier. as is generally the case in action against the Germans. i. appointments in close connection with the troops. He was idolised by his Staff. He agreed to this at and the possession of this pass made my work much easier. to obtain such information as I required. Unfortunately he suffered from indifferent health. 1915 351 animal without nerves. and had spent most once. Nikolai Vladimirovich Ruzski was at this time sixty-one three and a half years older than Alexyeev and Ewarth. and he soon forgets things. and. he had been wounded in the Turkish war. who asserted that Alexyeev and Danilov were jealous of him. He was a close friend of General Polivanov.August -October. and for that reason had delayed sending the necessary strength to the Northern Front Ruzski was reputed to be a clear thinker. 1915. the able Commander of the 3rd Rifle Division. He had commenced his service in the infantry of the Guard.Q. in succession to Alexyeev.. I ventured to ask the Emperor for a pass to enable me. he had taken part in both the 1877 of it in Staff and the 1904-1905 campaigns. and so always had time at his disposal. in a successful attack or in trenches on the defensive. who considered him the ablest general in the Russian army.H.e.H. He well. when he knows : said ' He is an guns supporting him. and at the Headquarters of the Northern Front at Pskov and of the where his officers are and hears his Western Front at Minsk. as the representative of an Allied Power. General Ewarth. and excellent soldier as long as all goes marches according to programme. He had the faculty of making others work." The opinion held by General Novitski. with a rapid grasp of problems." In September and October I spent a few days at G. At Pskov I met General Ruzski for the first time. 1914. who had been promoted to command the Western Front in early September. and succeeded Jilinski in command of the North-West Front in September. After lunch at G. Like Alexyeev and Ewarth.Q. but when the unexpected happens.

for " " Arkhangel and even Vladivostok would have been blockaded. As regards France. Of course I disputed this. Ewarth's MINSK. he had been successful without being brilliant. and his manner had nothing of the delightful Slav charm of Ruzski's.000 men. a very good fellow. and another staff officer.000 to our 45. 1914-1917 a very different type to Ruzski. 1915. and he was in the habit of writing or dictating his orders himself. I repeated Delcasse's remark that if Russia were to make an effort equivalent to that of France. bowing ceremoniously to right and left. as a little present to sup with him in his The conversation turned to a discussion of the share of the common burden borne by each of the Allies. In command of the 4th Army. At Minsk he dined always with the Staff of the Western Front at midday. and pointed out that Russia would have been forced to conclude peace by the spring of 1915 if it had not been for England. who had a population of 180. His family was of Swedish He was a stern origin. and little Lebedev. He was at this time fifty-eight. we now had nearly as many bayonets in the firing-line as Russia. leaving the whole burden of the war to be borne by Russia. All officers had to assemble before he arrived. but he belonged to the Orthodox faith. with whom I made friends. . let himself go. she would have to mobilise 17. though we had had only a very small army before the war. I took a bottle of this Alexyeev.000. I reminded him that. disciplinarian. General October jth. the same age as Quartermaster was Pavel Pavlovich Lebedev. He said that history would despise England and France for having sat still like rabbits month after month in the Western theatre. Officers who knew him complained that he insisted on going into the pettiest details.000. who is a most ardent patriot.352 was of With the Russian Army.000. and he asked me quarters with Samoila (my old friend and his assistant). and they bowed low as he walked stiffly up the hall. in order to celebrate the occasion. vodka to Lebedev morning.000.

England was waging the war as if it were an ordinary war. it would be easiest for Russia to make a separate peace. but in twenty years she would be strong again. She might have to pay an indemnity. Do you think on those carts will die before the winter is out. England gave money of freely but grudged men The number only limited men that Russia would willingly offer was of arming and equipping them. was restricted. I only hope that I talked no more foolishly than some of our statesmen. 1915 353 Lebedev replied that he did not wish to make comparisons between what the various armies had actually done. Russia was. She grudged nothing. On the other hand. He " repeated : We are playing the game We easy for us to look on those long columns of fugitives flying before the German advance ? We know that all the children crowded it is are giving everything. and that. No doubt England was doing a good deal. she would in twenty years have a fleet three times as strong as by her power England's. Of all the Allies.August -October. if Germany were allowed by England to win. for I had a more critical audience ! . Nothing could be of greater value to her than the lives of her sons. and those she was squandering freely. She might lose Poland." I What of could say to all of this I who knew that much what he said was only the truth ? I said what I could. but he complained that England did not realise that the present war was one for her very existence. as I knew. but she was not doing all that she could. but Poland was nothing to her. but it was not.

XIII. Lyubomirov was an amusing fellow who enjoyed to the full " the good things of life." the Admiral's trusted adviser. Major-General Savrimovich of the Military Technical Department. having ments in war material. been recalled by the Ambassador to accompany a Delegation to France and England in order to represent Russia's require- I REACHED Petrograd on the morning of October nth. left Petrograd on Sunday evening. Chief of the Naval General Staff. He unfortunately lacked the experience and personality necessary to enable him to compete on equal terms with men of the calibre of Mr.262 1915. Lloyd George and M. LieutenantCommander Romanov of the Naval General Staff. Albert Thomas. Tarne. tons.CHAPTER X WITH A RUSSIAN DELEGATION TO ENGLAND AND FRANCE REFERENCE MAP No. It was joined later in London by Colonel Kelchevski of the General Staff. The Delegation. who travelled through Sweden. and arrived at Arkhangel two days later. he told me that there had been in Russian fortresses on mobilisation 13. that up till the end of September. Colonel Federov of the Artillery Department. had supplied an additional 18. Admiral Russin had been selected to head the Delegation on account of his knowledge of English. Russian factories tons. whose chief work during the war was apparently to place orders for barbed wire. Of this article.476 354 . in charge of Admiral Russin. the I7th. Savrimovich was a dear old gentleman. and M. but nursed a deadly jealousy of that dog Romanov. It consisted of the Admiral's Flag-Lieutenant (Lieutenant Lyubomirov). an official of the Ministry of War.

telegraph and telephone material. He was as honest as the daylight. than 69. the jEgusa. The following also accompanied the party on its journey to England Captain Oobban of the Indian Army. an excellent automatic rifle. Kelchevski was a capable staff officer who had been at one time an instructor at the Military Academy. and was afterwards to rise to the command of the Qth Army. slept We On of the the 2Oth we lunched with the Governor. and spent the and in the rest day in official visits collection of information regarding the situation at Arkhangel. two nights at Arkhangel on board H.A Russian Delegation to England and France 355 less and that no abroad. among other things. Tarne carried a portfolio full of elaborate tables showing the monthly expenditure of each article in the past and the estimated total expenditure till the end of 1916. and enjoyed a keen sense of humour. The members of the Delegation were one and all good fellows. and it would have been impossible to choose a pleasanter set of companions for the varied experiences on which we were about to embark. Some months when I met him in the street at Petrograd. Federov was a very efficient artillery officer who had invented. commanded by a fine type of naval officer who had retired before the " war as an admiral. : the wife of my assistant at Petrograd. Muraviev and Vassiliev of the Russian Diplomatic Service. He was pleasant and good-tempered. Blair. formerly Sir Thomas Lipton's yacht the Erin. aeroplanes and wireless equipment. but who had returned to "do his bit in a humbler capacity. he wanted ! me from the Western Allies automobiles. MM. and Mrs. The narrow-gauge line from Arkhangel to Vologda was being . and played the piano. His main task was to obtain rifles and heavy guns. searchlights. entrenching tools. he told with pride that he calculated that he had by then placed sufficient orders to join the earth with the moon by a cable an inch thick In addition to barbed wire.S.016 tons had reached Russia from later. the most important port of entry for foreign supplies.M.

first as private and later as official flax-buyer. and no less than 700 automobiles in wooden packing-cases. Wednesday. having been dried at the hot-air apparatus in my cabin. which was improbable. when the ice usually packs in the mouth of the White Sea. 1915. but we were assured that it would all be cleared forward in the winter.S. The great personality in Arkhangel was Captain Proctor of the Scottish Horse a Scot of the Scots. but it is now fairly right again. and it was calculated that the work would be completed by the beginning of the New Year. the Kola-Kandalaksha line We was said that the PetrozavodskSerotka section of this Murmansk line would be opened for traffic early in the New Year but though Messrs. It always a complete compendium of information regarding everything at Arkhangel. to despatch 375 sixteen-ton wagons per diem. Most of this material was lying out in the open. In the autumn of 1915 only 170 ten-ton wagons left Arkhangel daily. has been floating down the White Sea. H. who did fine work throughout the war. but it was hoped. Arlanza. and he enjoyed great popularity among Russians. He was finished was by then.M. We have gone through a lot since I wrote the last entry (October 20th). the British firm had a very difficult task before it. 1914-1917 converted to normal gauge. We left Arkhangel in the . SVYATOI Nos (HOLY CAPE). amongst other things in my dispatch-case. After a few hours' steam we transhipped. on the completion of the conversion of gauge.356 With the Russian Army.000 worth of platinum. October 2jth. There appeared to be an enormous accumulation of stores at the port copper and lead and aluminium. This Diary. Pawlings had commenced work on the northern or Kola section. when deliveries from overseas would cease for a time. unless. Government steamer Bakhan last Thursday six days ago. together with 160. were warned that we would have to be prepared for the practical stoppage of imports in the months of February and March. rubber and coal.

private dining-room that during the commercial " Ladies' Boudoir. started with five British trawlers working ahead of us and sweeping for mines.50 p. but there was no ! British naval officer. Muraviev and I got into a boat on the starboard side.m. an enormous hulk of over 15. were glued to the side of the ship. We ran to our cabins on the next deck above to get our fur I got my shuba on and came back with Mrs. standing high out of the water. the captain of the Arlanza. minutes after the explosion when we reached the boatdeck. Blair. on the second day of the voyage the officer in charge of the trawlers had just been on board to wish the Admiral a pleasant journey and to tell him that The Captain. It was arranged that all my party should have separate the Captain Norres. All the same. and I was surprised to find the boats already full and Mrs. coats. No one said a word.S. to take charge. Arlanza. or apparently even a petty officer.M. It can't have been five Blair. and Lyubomirov added to the confusion by trying to direct matters in incomprehensible English. anchored at night when The We We sweeping was impossible. invited most of them to have their meals with him in a cabins." ship had been the life of ship has a good cook. for we all knew exactly what it was. Admiral. Luckily there was only a very slight swell on. I looked up and We saw that the boat originally next to ours was being lowered . unpleasant experience to be lowered from an immense height. trusting to the nerves of the people above holding out We reached the water safely. The Admiral was " saying that he thought we were not yet out of the wood/' when there was a sudden explosion at the bows which shook the whole ship and brought down on the table a all was now clear. Romanov and I were in the Boudoir. it was an about to be lowered. Lyubomirov." having tea. At 4.000 tons. ' shower of the ornamental moulding from the ceiling. who was wonderfully calm.A Russian Delegation to England and France 357 to H.

I got half a dozen volunteers to row us back. calling out slip. Lyubomirov. the men working well as soon as I had discovered a quartermaster who had been blushing unseen in the bottom of the boat and who took command vice out of it. We only remained two minutes on the trawler. It was evident that the Arlanza was not going to sink immediately. and we pulled to the nearest trawler. Take the lady boat. much against my will.358 With the Russian Army. While we waited they saw the trawler. one of the davits having been allowed to The boat was bang over our heads. but took the blow with It philosophic British calm. Lyubomirov and I transhipped and sent our boat back. manned by a petty officer and two seamen. I met the Captain. : out. and the two trawler men were only half-clothed. A third boat came alongside. We paddled round to the other side of the Arlanza before we found a rope. who whined and refused. by which Lyubomirov and the petty officer climbed up. At last our men got out their oars. everybody coming willingly except my Russian servant Maxim. At length a gangway was lowered and I was able to get on board. who had remained on board throughout. and as our boat was taking water badly. and the midshipman in charge took Mrs. and it looked as if the other davit was about to be slipped too. 1914-1917 perpendicularly. and he told me that the ship was not . Lyubomirov kept me waiting over half an hour while he got and lowered his attache case. in which case we were all deaders. was very cold in the gig. which fell into the sea. A sailor was just falling I When and was pulled into another boat near at hand. sink. Blair from our " That boat is sinking. and Lyubomirov wanted to return to her to get his papers. with all their belongings." looked up again a few seconds later we had already drifted several yards and the perpendicular boat was no longer hanging over us. and. my attache case. On our way we met a small gig from one of the trawlers.

and he took with him some of Mrs. . We had drifted over ten miles south before casting anchor after the explosion on Friday. A new cable was being attached at the time. Lyubomirov and I decided to remain on the Arlanza. Blair's belongings. One poor devil of a stoker had got caught in a night. tugged stern ahead by the Wilson liner Novo. and that he was going to try to make Svyatoi Nos with the help of the Wilson liner Novo. At 8. so we were of the quartermasters in standing were really mines. with the trawlers once more sweeping in advance.A Russian Delegation to England and France 359 in immediate danger. Just before lunch we must have reached the place we had struck on Friday. which we packed together. on Saturday. and progress was constantly interrupted by the snapping of the cable. God was very good to us. While Lyubomirov and I were discussing an excellent lunch.m. no one knew that the ship might not suddenly go down.30 p. We started at 7 a. and the thing we saw bobbing on the water certainly looked like one. The Novo had her work cut out to pull us. still. He went off to collect the remainder of the party from their various trawlers and to take them to the Novo. which. if a little more risky. Norres and I had some sandwiches The crew came tumbling back up till midtogether. I slept only by fits and starts. was decidedly more comfortable. a three-thousand tonner which was standing by. and were in time to see four slept in our clothes. one of the stewards calmly remarked that a man had just come down to say that there was a mine about seven feet from the ship We ran on deck. as ! We a melancholy group watching another mine floating quietly away under our stern. We got some seven miles further and so that it then anchored for the night. If these was probably the same unhealthy spot that we struck on Saturday. watertight compartment door.m. for the trawlers caught up a mine and exploded it after some firing. but had had a wonderful escape.

but are not downhearted. We all attended a thanksgiving service. who nearly broke down from the reaction after the tremendous strain he had undergone in the past four days. were towed once more without a single snap of the hawser up till 4 p.360 With the Russian Army. Savrimovich and Romanov having spent ten minutes in the water on Friday. The passengers returned from the Novo. when we were approaching Svyatoi Nos. to whose stouthearted energy we all owe our safety. We spent the time on the crippled Arlanza comfortably ." and later " ing : It Your port bow has fallen off. and the escorting " trawlers signalled " : Your starboard bow gone. The Novo passed through the narrow channel to the inner anchorage. was taking his measures. He had parties working all day and that night moving ballast to shore up the bulkhead. The Captain then manoeuvred the ship." is impossible to describe the relief it was to reach at : length the safety of the inner anchorage. The Novo came out and sailed round us. returning once more to the inner refuge. the prayers being read by Norres. and balancing the ship by pumping water aft and removing 6* shell in the same direction. The remains is of our original bow fell off under the strain. However. in which we narrowly escaped running ashore. 1914-1917 On Sunday we . till about midnight we reached an anchorage in lea of the Point and north of the Yukanskie Islands.. The wind dropped on Tuesday. and blew a half-gale on Monday. began to blow in the night. It was providential that this shell in the forward magazine had not been detonated by the explosion." Norres replyWe know it. They had had an uncomfortable time. and after one failure.m. Norres. the Captain It managed to take us in running first bow ahead. so that we could not attempt the narrow passage. though much of it had fallen out into the sea. and in our helpless condition did not weigh anchor. first with bow and then with stern ahead.

ooo (1. November 2ist. we went ashore at Greenock and travelled luxuriously in a special saloon to St. morning. to have a chance of taking part in a real naval battle. Then he looked at me.io. laughing with his kind : " " so old eyes. Poor old Savrimovich told me that he would willingly give Rs. and Romanov amused himself by telling the soldiers of the party how lucky they were. The constant practice alarms were disconcerting. One night he was convinced that someone on at ' ' ! the ship was signalling to a night. till The Arlanza remained sufficiently patched up by Russian en- gineers to attempt the journey home in the summer of 1916. where we arrived at 6. which was despatched from England to bring home the Russian Delegation and the surplus crew Before of the Arlanza. especially when one was awakened from one's afternoon doze by a stentorian command outside the " " Our nerves. Asquith was . German submarine. he was much exercised because we were running with lights. indeed. and worried so much that I finally lost patience. five weeks and a day after our departure On Monday from Petrograd.. One or two days it was very rough. November 22nd.m. we left. the ice in the bay had crept quite close. cabin door to Prepare to abandon ship were no longer what they had been. what a cross man you are that I was ashamed of myself. and arrived We Greenock in a dense fog on Sunday night.A Russian Delegation to England and France 361 enough. and suggested that he should go up on the bridge and take command.000) to find himself safely back in his Petrograd flat and the trip to Western Europe a thing of the past. and said My God. The doors continually banged in a way that re" minded one of an artillery action. the conclusion was at once ! jumped to that they were coming to attack us. the I3th. When two German cruisers were reported by wireless to have left Kiel. sending the captain below as a passenger. Pancras. Lord Kitchener was in the Middle East and Mr. but absolutely cut off from all communication from the outer world till we were rescued by the Orotava. On another when we were passing through the Northern Patrol. sailed in the Orotava on Saturday.40 p. The voyage is not a pleasant memory. mere landsmen.

Kelchevski and Romanov frequently afterwards remarking to me " on his wonderfully penetrating eyes. had. 25. O'Beirne. HOTEL CRILLON. and At Boulogne several French soldiers Paris.000.000 in June. thus delaying progress and worrying Eller- shaw. the whole the British have met the requirements Lloyd George has promised 15. We left crossed to saluted. Lloyd George. and 45. Ellershaw is working wonders. and more recently British Minister at Sofia. " one of them remarking You see." The failure of some of our men to salute had evidently been remarked in London. and Sir Edward Grey had come over with Mr. poor Admiral Russin was at a distinct disadvantage in having to speak for Russia in a foreign language. Lloyd George and M. the 8th. the French salute. also 300 4-5 howitzers. Lord Kitchener was in Paris. more to do with Mr. however.000 in July and the succeeding months . but we have been much delayed in our work by the fact that although the list ot requirements has been sent according to Lyubomirov " to all corners of the earth. as Minister of Munitions. 1915. but .362 With the Russian Army. Continuation of Diary I : was going to see Cyrano de Bergerac last night. while Mr. On well.000 Japanese small-arms ammunition to be delivered in Russia in May.000. PARIS. who had been our counsellor for many years in Petrograd. December loth. at London on Wednesday morning. : which the Russians were evidently pleased. Friday.000." At the Inter-allied Munitions Conference. Albert Thomas spoke English and French. and his We magnetic personality at once impressed the Russian delegates. 1914-1917 in temporary charge of the War Office." nevertheless the Admiral has to telegraph to Petrograd in each case for authority to place orders.

m. and said that the actual proportion was three to two. He thinks the war not be ended by preponderance of artillery or by lack of men on one side or the other. and found there Lord K. for the 20. I tried to point out that it was impossible to expect the Russians. I went up at 9 p. He said I had an hour's talk with him this morning. They were sitting at a round table. We have to take a fortress. but by the higher rulers He says that the failures on the Western getting sick of it. Sir William Robertson. were unable to break the enemy front. We have . on the Russian requirements of small-arms ammunition. subjects on which Russian officers.000." and promised to speak to Joffre and Galieni on the subject 4 Then Robertson. who were commencing to doubt their own powers.. who advised me to come to play bridge with Sir Edward Grey and him in order to have an opportunity for a talk with Lord K. had said good-night. He denied that the Allies in the West had two to one.000 just finished dinner. to the big salon on the first floor of the Orillon overlooking the Place de la Concorde. Sir Edward Grey. who themselves outnumbered the Germans by the same proportion. who were now outnumbered by two to one. O'Beirne and Colonels Fitzgerald and Buckley. After Lord K. that some of my dispatches were too pessimistic. asked when : the Russians were going to take the offensive again.A Russian Delegation to England and France 363 met O'Beirne. whom I met for the first time. to take the offensive with any chance of success when the Allies in France. were constantly pressing me for information. Robertson asked me to come to see him this morning at 9 a. Gras ammunition that the Russians required in order to enable them to place all their Gras rifles on the front. will Front are easy to explain. " K. I would not allow this. I tried to get his general view of the situation and of our chances of success. said We must get them from the French.m. having I pressed Lord K. though I agree with his remark that the Russians had managed their retreat from Poland skilfully. and a fortress that we cannot circumvent.

m. 1914-1917 hitherto put in too lines. and one that and its would not therefore tax the internal structure of the various I asked him if it were not possible to have a countries. many men two and accredited to. Russia is the main problem of the winter months. instead of as in the past. " could not place a British army under foreign for that had never been done in history.30 a. Kelchevski and Federov in We two and Lyubomirov and I in a third. merely on the army organisation and training. single West. .'' He said that we did all that the French asked us to do. He thinks Rumania will never come in with us remain neutral. he only hopes she may AMIENS. Gallipoli and East Africa and concentrate on the main theatres. He asked numberless questions regarding the remaining capabilities He agreed that the re-armament of of the Russian army.. We saw Joffre at Ghantilly. that we attacked where and when they asked. and the Admiral pressed the Russian claim for more Gras ammunition and for more cars. and when the Germans have had time to prepare large fresh forces He thinks we will win the war if for their counter-attack. the Admiral. we avoid wild-cat schemes like Baghdad. I was surprised to hear him say that Gallipoli was feasible if the operation had been properly undertaken. 1915. He said that in future military attache's would have to report on the manufacturing capabilities of the countries they are in rushing the first this has been done all is in disorder. . I pointed out that military attaches had erred in good company in imagining that the Great War would be a short war.364 With the Russian Army. Ignatiev (the Russian Military Attache). left Paris at 7. pointing out the extraordinary advantages that had accrued to the enemy allies in the Eastern theatre through one of them being in the command indisputably top dog. command. and if they wanted us to postpone our attack we agreed that we could not do more than that we . Saturday. December nth.

As the French . I told him all about Russia. held up his hands in horror when he heard that Federov had been given by the Artillery Department the detail guns in the Russian army. where we dined.30 p. the Army Commander. Pol with General D' Urban.D. he asked me to return later to speak to him. but Ignatiev. with a French officer. and number of the heavy Henry Wilson.Q.A. Federov and I. on the I3th. explaining as well as I could the necessity for us to get Gras S. He Paris. left Ghantilly in two cars at 3. Foch spoke of tenance of cordial relations. understands the situation and will do his best.m. very forcibly. it I don't think he did Kelchevski. The French arrangements for the comfort of the Russians had throughout been excellent. lunching with General Neudon in command of the We 70th Division and dining at St. and said that with those long legs of his he was running about between the two armies and was doing work as valuable as any army commander in helping the main" " When I was saying good-night. It had been arranged that we were to see something of the British front G. so after and afterwards in sent a car to the Hotel du Rhin. the Russian Military Representative. spent December I2th in visiting the front of the French loth Army. for Foch's Headquarters west of Amiens. He wrote this down. and to spend the night at British Omer before returning to England. with Joffre. who seems to be on good terms with Joffre.H. and I hope will impress Joffre. convinced that we will break through in the Western theatre as soon as we get enough guns and enough Foch is says that the next offensive will be simultaneous with one in the Eastern theatre. I He was amused to hear that General Jilinski.G. at St. in 1910.A Russian heavy Delegation to England and France 365 artillery. A. and I returned with the A. and I was about to follow them out. gas. I had met Foch at manoeuvres in Russia he had spoken for some time to the Russians.

H. with whom we lunched. at which people laughed.Q. he " It is possible replied My dear sir.H. my own Generals Snow and Frank Lyon. communications and power of organisation. that it was not contemplated that the British Commander-m-Ghief should personally receive the Russian visitors. would have been very differently treated. G. and it was a shock when a young officer turned up on the morning of the I3th with open cars.Q. without taking into consideration the limitations imposed by actual conditions of armament. we had left our furs in Paris. without visiting British G. of the 4th Division. saw Sir Henry Wilson for a moment that the pessimism of my dispatches. Competent authorities in the West seemed to expect This type of question made me think from Russia a continued effort based on the size of her population.H. too. He said that the Anglo French armies would not be able to break through till Russia had drawn off thirty divisions to the East. Kelchevski took a great fancy " the pleasantest recollection to Lyon. accompanied us round his trenches and showed us everything that we asked to see. ' to dine alone at a very indifferent hotel. had not been deep enough.366 With the Russian Army. at all. and he asked me when I thought this could be done. left At Omer we were Russian G. for Sir John French left for England on the I4th. and often said later that " he had of the British front in France was General Lyon/' against the bitterly cold wind. Such an omission would have made a disastrous impression. so I said that if the Commander-in-Ohief was unable to receive them it would be better for me to take them on responsibility straight to Boulogne. I learned. fitted us out with warm clothing as a protection General Lambton. 1914-1917 had given us closed cars. of the Vllth Corps. On Friday the I7th I accompanied Admiral Russin and .Q. soon I after he had received the Russian at officers. When next morning I mentioned to the young officer who had accompanied us at the front that British officers visiting St. we are running a war ' : ! that the reason of this seeming lack of attention was the change in the British Command then in progress.

The Admiral asked Lord K. in which Some months position he died." Lord K. On Saturday the Delegation was received by the King at Buckingham Palace. Altfater. the i gth. resigned his appointment as Chief of the Naval General Staff very soon after the revolution of 1917. had evidently not What howitzers ? heard of any such promise and said bluntly I explained that this had been arranged at the Inter-allied Munitions Conference in the preceding month. wholeheartedly welcomed the First Revolution." and then he would instance some supposedly parallel phase . : my dear fellow. at Berlin. in 1919. and he took an angry The Russians saw that he was not over-pleased. He used to say But. I used to go to see him sometimes in his room at the Naval General Staff at Petrograd. I saw it off at the station on Sunday night. who was a Liberal. it was said in reprisal for the murder of Liebknecht and Rosa Luxembourg left . Admiral Russin. while his immediate assistant. earlier Russin had been judicially murdered by the Bolsheviks at Petrograd at the same time as the Grand Duke Paul. continued in the service. partly to vent my rage and partly to try to get some " gleam of hope from an honest Russian. who was a strong Monarchist. Romanov. and was promoted by the Bolsheviks to be Minister of Marine. As order gave way to anarchy. The Russians were most touching in their thanks they said that I had fought their battle as if I had been a Russian myself. you forget that we are passing through a revolution. it is said by his own hand. ' : England with the impression that Mr. and they note. if he would continue in June and " the monthly gift of 100 4-5 howitzers that subsequent months had been promised to Russia. Lloyd George at the House of Commons. I soon found when I returned to Russia that I was regarded with greater confidence. These were not empty words. a man of more flexible opinions.A Russian Delegation to England and France 367 Lieutenant-Commander Romanov to bid farewell to Lord Kitchener at the War Office and to Mr. Lloyd George rather than Lord Kitchener was their friend. Lyubomirov acted for a time in the summer of 1917 as Naval Aide-de-Camp to Kerenski. and that they would never forget my help.

I. being a German war-product. PRINTED BY THE ANCHOK PRESS. ENGLAND.368 With the Russian Army. LTD. a history of which always lay on his table. 1914-1917 in the French Revolution. 1918 he came to me to say good-bye. confessing that he had never imagined that things would go as far as they had and that his country would stoop to the negotiation of a separate peace. for the His theory was that BolAllies had abandoned his country. K88BX. He was captured by the Bolsheviks at Krasnoyarsk. the Allies were in duty bound to destroy it. and broke down.. The day before we left the Embassy in Petrograd on January 6th. and he told me there that he had no longer cause for shame on Russia's behalf in talking to an ally. TIFTRHE. In the autumn of the following year he came out to Siberia by the northern route to join Admiral Omsk. He was a fine fellow and a patriot. Kolchak at shevism. . END OF VOL.

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