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Manoj Kumar__ Course Tutor(if applicable) :_____Nil___________________ Date of Allotment :________20/2/2011_______________ Date of submission : _______2/2/2011__________________ Student’s Roll No. :____A56____ Section No. :_C27T1__ Declaration : I declare that this assignment is my individual work. I have not copied from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due acknowledgement is made explicitly in the text,nor has any part been written for me by another person. Student’s Signature :_Harjeet singh_ Evaluator’s comments : ___________________________________________________________________________ Marks obtained :______________________ out of _________________________ Content of Homework should start from this page only:

PART-A

Write the design principle of Block cipher. These are as follows: Electronic Codebook (ECB) Mode: ECB is the simplest mode of operation for a block cipher. Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode . broken into a integer number of blocks.Q1. Decryption is similar: the decryption algorithm takes. The input data is padded out to a multiple of the block size. and yields the original 128-bit block of plaintext. Ans: Block Ciphers: Basically a particular block cipher just like a Hill cipher treats a n letter block of plain text and produce the cipher text block of same length. The exact transformation is controlled using a second input — the secret key. Any block cipher can be operated in one of several modes. In addition to simplicity. in this example. ECB has the advantage of allowing any block to be decrypted independently of the others. lost data blocks do not affect the decryption of other blocks. a 128-bit block of ciphertext together with the secret key. each of which is encrypted independently using the key. the two resulting blocks of ciphertext will be the same. A block cipher encryption algorithm might take (for example) a 128-bit block of plaintext as input. The disadvantage of ECB is that it aids known-plaintext attacks. If the same block of plaintext is encrypted twice with ECB. and output a corresponding 128-bit block of ciphertext. Thus.

CBC is run repeatedly on the input data. and all the ciphertext is discarded except for the last block. which is usually a block of random bits transmitted in the clear. To do this. After decryption. This last block becomes the output of the hash function. which will depend on all the data blocks in the message. The Block Cipher Principle: Block Cipher Principles As block cipher have different modes of operation (we will discuss this topic later in this lecture) and . Prior to encryption. The first block of plaintext is XOR-ed with an initialization vector (IV). CBC is more secure than ECB because it effectively scrambles the plaintext prior to each encryption step. CBC can be used to convert a block cipher into a hash algorithm. the output of the cipher must then be XOR-ed with the previous ciphertext to recover the original plaintext. Since the ciphertext is constantly changing. each block of plaintext is XOR-ed with the prior block of ciphertext.CBC is the most commonly used mode of operation for a block cipher. two identical blocks of plaintext will encrypt to two different blocks of ciphertext.

n = 1 gives a monoalphabetic cipher.e. each key specifies such a mapping. For the alphabet with 26 letters. The purpose of the proposed approach is to generate the random S-boxes changing for every change of the secret key. Q2. each plaintext block must be mapped to a unique ciphertext block). such mapping needs to be one-to-one (i. there are 26n possible different plaintext blocks. In a cipher. However. A block cipher transform a plaintext block of n letters into an encrypted block. k § n × 26n!. For example. Let’s consider the problem of specifying a mapping of all possible n-letter blocks. What is the purpose of S-boxes in DES? Ans: . A nonlinear substitution operation is the main factor of the AES cipher system strength. For decryption to be possible. Such schemes. i. we will focus on its design principles in this lecture. Then for a n-letter arbitrary substitution block cipher. are vulnerable to frequency analysis and brute-force attacks.. The most general way of encrypting a n-letter block is to take each of the plaintext blocks and map it to a cipher block (arbitrary n-letter substitution cipher). as we have seen. The length of block n can not be too short in order to secure the cryptographic scheme. an arbitrary reversible substitution cipher for a large block size n is not practical.applies to a broader range of applications than stream cipher. The fact .Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher system is widely used in cryptographic applications. the key size needs to satisfy 26k § (26n)!.. Let’s assume the key consists of a block of k letters.e. Then the number of all possible keys is 26k. The number of different one-to-one mappings among n-letter blocks is (26n)!.

Q3. let's walk through a concrete example of AES encryption using the data shown below. The AES algorithm is based on permutations and substitutions. and substitutions replace one unit of data with another. . Permutations are rearrangements of data. AES performs permutations and substitutions using several different techniques. Explain briefly AES.that the S-boxes are randomly key-dependent and unknown is the main strength of the new approach. The following is the 128-bit value that you will encrypt with the indexes array: 00 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 aa bb cc dd ee ff 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 The 192-bit key value is: 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0d 0e 0f 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 . since both linear and differential cryptanalysis requires known Sboxes. To illustrate these techniques.

Good algorithm performance includes speed for the encryption and decryption process as well as the key schedule. but with significantly improved efficiency. and keys sizes of 128. contrary to conventional wisdom. 3DES encrypts the message three times with three different keys. simple design. Give an overview of working principle of triple DES. the AES algorithm design would need to satisfy a number of criteria: strong security. Widespread market adoption will require reasonably good performance on a variety of platforms. good performance. How strength of DES can be calculated? Ans: In the late 1990s. by trying possible key values. 192 and 256 bits (at least). with a block size of 128 bits. and so on. They want an algorithm whose security is at least as good as Triple-DES. Assuming that one could build a machine that could recover a DES key in a second (i.e. try 255 keys per second). ranging from easy-to-crack smart cards to the largest servers. Q5. should be simple so that it can be successfully cryptanalyzed. this is DES Backwards compatibility . In other words. Security obviously holds the top priority for the AES algorithm. DES keys are 56 bits long.Ans: To be a successful replacement to DES. Ans: Triple DES (3DES) was developed as an improvement to DES. the algorithm must account for future resiliency -. It is specified that proposed algorithms must implement a symmetric block cipher. To put that into perspective. Run DES three times: ECB mode: If K2 = K3. Part B: Q4.the algorithm's designed-in ability to withstand future attacks. the hardware could determine which key was used to encrypt a message. the universe is believed to be less than 20 billion years old. Next on the AES criteria list: good performance. specialized “DES Cracker” machines were built that could recover a DES key after a few hours. then it would take that machine approximately 149 thousand-billion (149 trillion) years to crack a 128-bit AES key. Moreover. the algorithm design.. With security in mind.

In each case the middle operation is the reverse of the first and last. we would expect to achieve a yet greater level of security. The encryption algorithm is: ciphertext = EK3(DK2(EK1(plaintext))) I. decrypt with K3. For instance. cascade ciphering. However. And by using three encryptions. triple-encryption is the point at which multiple encryption gives substantial improvements in security. not 3 56 = 168 Triple DES uses a "key bundle" which comprises three DES keys. either using the same or a different algorithm. this is pretty much the case. Intuitively. While there are some more complicated issues to consider (see Question 61). we might expect that by encrypting a message twice with some block cipher.Known not to be just DES with K4 (1992) Has 112 bits of security.e. . there are some surprising results when we consider exactly how much additional protection is provided by using double and triple encryption. Each triple encryption encrypts one block of 64 bits of data. each of 56 bits (excluding parity bits). encrypt with K2. Decryption is the reverse: plaintext = DK1(EK2(DK3(ciphertext))) I. and it cannot be recommended as a good alternative. then we would expect the resultant encryption to be stronger in all but some exceptional circumstances. Instead.. multiple ciphering is the process of encrypting an already encrypted message one or more times. then DES encrypt with K3. K2 and K3. K1. either with the same key or by using two different keys. This improves the strength of the algorithm when using keying option 2.. What is multiple Encryption and where it is used? Ans: The technique of Multiple encryption which is also known as cascade encryption.e. and triple-DES has been used for a considerable time as a more secure cipher for protecting the keys used with single-DES. then decrypt with K1. DES decrypt with K2. and provides backward compatibility with DES with keying option 3 Q6. the use of double encryption does not provide the expected increase in security [MH81] when compared with the increased implementation requirements. DES encrypt with K1.

. A good example of multiple encryption is Triple DES. Set how many time you want to encrypt you data. Multiple encryption provides good protection from plaintext attacks making ciphering stronger.The reson why it is used: For more information security and to prevent Brute Force attacks you can encrypt the same text or file multiple times.

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