ELECTRONIC NOSE

Abstract:
The perception of volatile compounds by the human nose is of great importance in evaluating the quality of foods. Therefore, it is not surprising that repeated efforts have been made over the years to introduce instruments operating on a similar principle as the human nose: the electronic nose is an instrument that encloses the human sensitivity to the objectivity of the instrumental response and supplies results similar to the human nose and in short time. An electronic nose is an instrument which comprises an array of electronic chemical sensors with partial specificity and an appropriate pattern recognition system capable of recognizing simple or complex odours. It can be regarded as a modular system comprising a set of active materials which detect the odour, associated sensors which transduce the chemical quantity into electrical signals, followed by appropriate signal conditioning and processing to classify known odours or identify unknown odours. Research has been carried out into the use of thin and thick film semiconducting (inorganic and organic) materials for odour sensing. Research effort is now centered upon the use of arrays of metal oxide and conducting polymer odour sensors. The latter are particularly exciting because their molecular structure can be engineered for a particular odour-sensing application. The electronic nose finds wide applications in the food industry. Future developments in the use of hybrid micro sensor arrays and the development of adaptive artificial neural networking techniques will lead to superior electronic noses.

Introduction:
The "electronic nose" is a relatively new tool that may be used for safety, quality, or process monitoring, accomplishing in a few minutes procedures that may presently require days to complete. Therefore the main advantage of this instrument is that in a matter of seconds, it delivers objective, reproducible aroma discrimination with sensitivity comparable to the human nose for most applications. The term "electronic nose" was first used in a jocular sense with sensor arrays in the 1980's. As the technology developed, it became apparent that the animal and human olfactory systems operate on the same principle: A relatively small number of nonselective receptors allow the discrimination of thousands of different odours.

Research has been carried out into the use of thin and thick film semiconducting (inorganic and organic) materials for odour sensing. Research effort is now centered upon the use of arrays of metal oxide and conducting polymer odour sensors.

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it incorporates:  Chemical sensors (10 MOSFET and 5 MOS) as we have human olfactory receptors in our olfactory region. Due to the high operating temperature (300-400°C) the organic volatiles (such as saturated hydrocarbons. They respond exclusively to molecules that dissociate hydrogen on the catalytic metal surface (such as amines. NST Senstool software offers three methods for analyzing sensors input. CO etc. and thus the current flowing through the sensor. The recorded response corresponds to the change of voltage necessary to keep a constant present drain current.  A MOS sensor relies on change of conductivity induced by the adsorption of gases. By running many standard samples and storing results in computer memory. esthers. aldeids. the more data presented. It is a transformation in which many original dimensions are transformed into another coordinate system with fewer dimensions. the application of ANN enables the Electronic Nose to "understand" the significance of the sensor array outputs better and to use this information for 2 . ANN (Artificial neural networks) is the most powerful type of data processing technique being employed in Electronic Nose instruments. the electric fields.  A data-processing system (NST Sensor tool) as we have our brain. aromatics ed alchols) and they work at the temperature of 140-170°C. leading to a change in the resistance.Electronic Nose Instrumentation: An electronic nose like human sensory systems. chetons. PLS is a regression model which use Principal Components and in which we must give a property of the samples such as class or quantitative value. They are:  PCA: Principal Component Analysis  PLS: Partial Least Square Regression  ANN: Artificial Neural Network They enable to:  Get an overview of the data (PCA and PLS)  Predict properties of the samples (PLS and ANN) PCA is a rotation-projection method that helps visualizing the information contained in a large data set.  A MOSFET sensor relies on a change of electrostatic potential. When polar compounds interact with this metal gate.) transferred to the sensors are totally combusted to carbon dioxide and water on the surface of the metal oxide. are modified. the more discriminating the instrument becomes. NO. ANNs are self-learning.

ANNs allow the Electronic Nose to function in the way a brain functions when it interprets responses from olfactory sensors in the human nose. one employing an array of metal oxide sensors. when has milk turned sour? Or. ENT correlates exceedingly well with both sensory and tradition analytical techniques and ENT can combine both elements in a single analysis.future analysis. "Learning" is achieved by varying the emphasis. This relationship could represent good or bad. There are several laboratory-based instruments. However. These patterns need to be further processed. Although the ENose is also effective for pure chemicals. sensors can degrade with prolonged use and the output can vary. and another employing an array of conducting polymer sensors. The E-Nose is especially useful where consistent product quality has to be maintained over long periods of time. floral or spoiled. This research has led to the production of two desk-top sized electronic nose instruments. These include a 4-element tin oxide electronic nose. or how an odour relates to other odours. Ideally. Electronic Nose Technology (ENT): As the organic vapors pass over the sensor array each sensor responds with a certain selectivity. Several portable instruments have also been designed and built. a 6element tin oxide electronic nose. The E-Nose is best suited for matching complex samples with subjective endpoints such as odor or flavor. or weight. ANNs can correct for this problem. Electronic Nose Technology (ENT) is the combination of sensor arrays linked with advanced statistical and neural network software that provides a visual image of an odour. a sensor array would respond to a specific sample with the same precision over a long period of time. or the system can be trained to recognize attributes such as green. fruity. when is a batch of coffee beans optimally roasted? The E-Nose can match a set of sensor responses to a calibration set produced by the human taste panel or olfactory panel routinely used in food science. 3 . A number of prototype electronic noses have been developed by the electronic nose research group. or where repeated exposure to a sample poses a health risk to the human olfactory panel. new or old. The ANN's processing elements (or nodes) can be compared to the neurons in the brain. ANNs also can be trained to compensate for small response changes that occur when sensors degrade over time. that is placed on the output of one sensor versus another. pass or fail. For example. conventional methods are often more practical. and four 12-element polymer electronic noses.

This usually involves the selection of the appropriate active material. Monitoring of roasting process. Coast Guard).  It is used in the process control of cheese. Future developments in the use of hybrid microsensor arrays and the development of adaptive artificial neural networking techniques will lead to superior electronic noses. France) and another employing conducting polymer sensors (NOSE. beer. Thus taking into consideration all these cases we can say that electronic nose is highly efficient than human sniffer. this requires the developments of application-specific electronic nose technology that is electronic noses that have been designed for a particular application. Alpha MOS. The work has led to several commercial instruments.g. 4 .Advantages over human sniffers: The human sniffers are costly when compared to electronic nose. UK). sensor type and pattern recognition scheme. Detection of hazardous or poisonous gas is not possible with a human sniffer. Now for the confirmation of the values obtained from a sniffer the result obtained from the sniffer has to be compared with some other sniffer¶s value.  It can be used to test the freshness of fish. TB or pneumonia). sausage. It is because these people have to be trained. Detection and diagnosis of pulmonary infections (e. Plant and medical pathology.. Other applications include:        Identification of spilled chemicals in commerce (for U. This is a time consuming that a construction of an electronic nose. Future Developments: There are numerous potential applications of electronic noses from the product and process control to the environmental monitoring of pollutants and diagnosis of medical complaints. Neotronics Ltd. and bread manufacture. Diagnosis of ulcers by breath tests.  It is used to detect the bacterial growth on foods such as meat and fresh vegetables. However. Quality classification of stored grain. one employing commercial tin oxide sensors (Fox 2000. And here there are great chances of difference in the values got by each individual. Identification of source and quality of coffee. Applications: The electronic nose finds wide applications in the food industry.S.

 Identification of infections such as tuberculosis in noninvasive specimens (sputum. easy to use etc. objectivity.com 2. versatility.  Identification of microorganisms to the strain level in a number of matrices.org 5 . The only way of doing this reliably at the moment is to use a bronchoscope to look directly at the insides of the lungs for signs of cancer. Their tests.  Improvement in sensitivity of the E-Nose for lower levels of organisms or smaller samples. non requirement for the sample to be pretreatment. References: 1.half with lung cancer pinpointed every single cancer patient. which. Conclusion: Advantages of the electronic nose can be attributed to its rapidity.com 3.sciencemag. and evaluation of unexploited sensors.alpha-mos. http://www. on a group of 60 people .The major areas of research being carried out in this field are:  Improved sensitivity for use with water quality and sensitive microorganism detection applications. including food. they claim. They suggested that an 'e-nose' could one day form the basis of a screening test for smokers and others at risk of lung disease. http://www.  Development of sensors suitable for electronic nose use. breath). can detect those chemicals flowing out of a cancerous lung. And now scientists at the University of Rome have developed a sensor. http://news.mdpi.

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