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Date:

PRACTICAL:-1

AIM: Study of Peripheral Devices.

Peripheral Devices:
-A peripheral is a device attached to a host computer but not part of it whose primary
functionality is dependent upon the host, and can therefore be considered as expanding
the host's capabilities, while not forming part of the system's core architecture.

-A device that is outside the computer's system unit, such as a printer or a scanner

Types of Peripheral Devices:

- Keyboard
- Mouse
- Printer
- Moniter
- Scaner
- Modem
- Sound Card
- CD Drive

Keyboards:-
A 'keyboard' is a human interface device which is represented as a layout of
buttons. Each button, or key, can be used to either input a linguistic character to a
computer, or to call upon a particular function of the computer. Traditional keyboards use
spring-based buttons, though newer variations employ virtual keys, or even projected
keyboards.

Types of Keyboards:

- Wireless Keyboards
- Wired Keyboards
- Internet Keyboards
- Multimedia and Gaming Keyboards
- Standard
- Laptop-size
- Thumb-sized

1. Wireless Keyboards
The wireless keyboards use three basic types of connections, viz.

• Bluetooth Keyboards
• Infrared (IR) Keyboards
• Radio Frequency Keyboards

The radio frequency keyboards get the required power from batteries or has a USB cable
to charge the keyboard. The infrared keyboard are to be kept in the line of sight of the
receiver. On the other hand, the radio frequency keyboards provides a greater range than
the infrared keyboards.

2.Wired Keyboards
The PS/2 and USB are the two wired connections that connect the keyboards to your
desktop computers. The PS/2 keyboards are very commonly used and they are called so
because they use the PS/2 connection. They are one of the cheapest keyboards that are
available in the market.

3.Internet Keyboards
The internet keyboards are designed to increase the comfort level of the internet user.
The internet keyboards have hot-keys for the home page of the web browser, inbox and
the favorites menu on your computer.
4.Multimedia and Gaming Keyboards
The multimedia and gaming keyboards are designed for playing audio and has hot-keys
for volume control, play, stop and mute operations. The gaming keyboards are designed
for the convenience of the gamers and these types of keyboards provide the required
controls on the keyboards like backlighting.

5.Virtual Keyboards
The virtual keyboards are not actually physical keyboards, but they are simulated using a
software. Usually, the virtual keyboards are used in the PDA.

Working of Keyboard:

Whenever a key is pressed, a specific signal is transmitted to the computer. The keyboard
uses a crossbar network to identify every key based on its row and column

When a key is pressed, an electrical contact is formed between the row and column. The
electric signals are transmitted to a microcontroller, which sends a code (BCD, ASCII or
Unicode) to the computer describing the character which corresponds to that key.

Computer keyboard key:

F1 - F12 Information about the F1 through F12 keyboard keys.


Tab Tab key
Capslock Caps lock key
Shift Shift key
Ctrl Ctrl key
Alt Alt key (PC Only; Mac users have Option key)
Back Space Back space key
Delete Delete or Del key
Enter Enter key

Printer:-

A printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a computer and
transfers the information to paper, usually to standard size sheets of paper. Printers are
sometimes sold with computers, but more frequently are purchased separately. Printers
vary in size, speed, sophistication, and cost. In general, more expensive printers are used
for higher-resolution color printing.
OR
A printer is an output device that produces text and graphics on paper.

Types of Printer:-

DOT Matrix Printer


Inkjet Printer
Laser Printer
Plotters
Thermal printer
LED/LCD printers

Working of Printers:

1. Ink-jets(bubble-jets) printers:-Printer developed by Canon which forms letters and


images on the paper by spraying small streams of quick-drying ink. The ink is stored
in a disposable ink cartridge.

2. Laser printers:-Laser printers are Printer that uses laser technology to print images
on the paper. The laser recreates the image on a negatively charged drum which will
then collect ink that is positively charged to attract to the areas of the image.

3. LED/LCD printers :-are types of electro photographic printers that are identical to
laser printers in most ways. Both LCD (liquid crystal display) and LED (light-emitting
diode) printers use a light source instead of a laser to create an image on a drum. In
most contexts, "laser printer" covers LCD and LED printers as w
4. DOT Matrix Printer: - Type of printer that employs movable print heads
with
pins or wires that shoot and strike the ribbon placing a dot on the paper with
hundreds of dots forming images or text.

5. Plotters :- These printers use a pen to draw the image on the paper. Usually,
plotters
are Friction Feed but occasionally can be Tractor Feed as well.

6. Thermal printer :- A printer that uses heated pins to "burn" images onto heat-
sensitive paper. The pins are electrically heated and brought into contact with the
specially treated paper easily, instead of with great impact. The coating on the
paper
discolors when heated in this way.

Mouse:-
- A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen.
A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard, flat surface. Its name is
derived from its shape, which looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that
one can imagine to be the mouse's tail, and the fact that one must make it scurry
along a surface. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves
in the same direction.

Types of Mouse:

- Mechanical mouse
- Optical mouse
- Infrared (IR) or radio frequency cordless mouse
- A mouse with many buttons
- Trackball mouse
- Stylus mouse
- Cordless 3-D mouse
• Mechanical mouse: Houses a hard rubber ball that rolls as the mouse is
moved. Sensors inside the mouse body detect the movement and translate it
into information that the computer interprets.
• Optical mouse: Uses an LED sensor to detect tabletop movement and then
sends off that information to the computer for merry munching.
• Infrared (IR) or radio frequency cordless mouse: With both these types,
the mouse relays a signal to a base station wired to the computer's mouse port.
The cordless mouse requires power, which comes in the form of batteries.
• A mouse with many buttons: The extra buttons can be programmed to do
specific things, such as navigate the Web or turn pages when you’re reading a
document. The typical button-ified mouse has about five buttons.
• Trackball mouse: Like an upside-down mouse. Rather than roll the mouse
around, you use your thumb or index finger to roll a ball on top of the mouse.
The whole contraption stays stationary, so it doesn’t need a lot of room, and
its cord never gets tangled.
• Stylus mouse: Another mouse mutation enjoyed by the artistic type is the
stylus mouse, which looks like a pen and draws on a special pad.
• Cordless 3-D mouse: This kind of mouse can be pointed at the computer
screen like a TV remote.

Mouse Functions

Action Result
Click Left mouse button – moves the cursor, highlights an object, pulls
down a menu, or chooses a menu command

Right mouse button – displays a shortcut pop-up menu


Double click Left mouse button – highlights a word or edits an embedded
object
Drag Left mouse button – moves an object, resizes an object,
highlights test, or highlights multiple objects
Highlight By use of the left mouse button, you can drag the cursor over
word, paragraphs, or pages.
Triple click Left mouse button - Highlights a paragraph

Moniter:
A computer monitor is an electronic device that shows pictures. A
monitor is usually used to see programs on a computer. The main difference
between a monitor and a television is that a monitor does not have a television
tuner to change channels. A monitor may be used to watch television if it is
connected to a device that has a television tuner. Some models of monitor can be
used as a television, and some televisions are used with computers. A monitor has
a better display resolution than a television to make it easier to see smaller letters
and graphics on.
Types of monitors:

• The CRT monitor: which is big and heavy. It is the oldest technology used
by monitors. It looks like a television, but has a bigger display resolution and
often a higher frequency. CRT stands for cathode-ray tube.
• The LCD monitor, :which is thin, flat, and lightweight. It is a newer
technology than CRTs. The quality can be the same or even better than a
CRT, but this type of monitor usually costs more than a CRT.

• Cathode Ray Tube Monitors (CRT): The Cathode Ray Tube Monitors are
the types of monitors that were used in many personal computers for the past
many years. This is the conventional type of monitors that are used to view
the computer data.
• Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitors: The Liquid Crystal Display as the
name indicates has a wonderful display that is very good to look at because of
the very high resolution that is present on the screen.

• The TFT screen: The thin film transistor or the TFT screen is commonly
used interchangeably with the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitors, but
there is a difference between the two.

Scanner:-
A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters,
magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display.A
computer scanner optically scans an object such as a document and converts the
information into a digital image. Every scanner has a variety of specifications,
including resolution, color depth and speed.

Types of Scanners:

• Flatbed Scanner
A flatbed scanner is made up of a glass pane and a moving optical CIS or
CCD array. The pane is illuminated with the help of bright light planted
underneath it.

• Sheetfed Scanner
In sheetfed scanners, the document that is supposed to be scanned is fed into
the horizontal or vertical slot provided in the scanner. The vital components of
sheetfed scanner are the sheet-feeder, scanning module and calibration sheet.
• Handheld Scanner
A handheld scanner is a small manual scanning device which is moved over
the object that need to be scanned. For instance, if a document needs to be
scanned, the handheld scanner has to be dragged over the document
• Photo Scanner
Photo scanners are mostly used to scan photographs. High resolution and
color depth are the most vital requirements for scanning photographs, and
photo scanner provides the same.

• Film Scanner
A film scanner is utilized to scan photographic films directly into a computer.
The photographer has direct control over certain aspects, such as cropping,
ratio original image on the film, etc.

Applications of Scanner

1. Applications vary according to the type of scanner used. Flatbed scanners are
mostly used for scanning documents. But, for large format documents a
mechanical scanner will have to be used.
2. Scanners also find high end application in field like bio-medical research.
High resolution scanners with a resolution of almost 1 µm/ pixel are used to
detect DNA microarrays. Here also, the charge coupled devices are used for
detection.

Working of Flatbed Scanner

The main difference in the old scanners and modern scanners is the type of image
sensor used. In old scanners, a photomultiplier tube [PMT] was used. For modern
scanners a Charge-coupled device [CCD] is used. A CCD sensor is used to capture
the light from the scanner and then convert it into the proportional electrons.

Work a scanner to convert a hard copy or document into a digital image that can be
viewed, manipulated or transmitted from a computer. It's very common for artists to
scan images created by hand into a computer. Scanning sketches is one way
cartoonists create computer-assisted animation. Scanners can also convert photos,
slides and film into digital frames. Documents also scan for digital reproduction

Modem:-

Modem is actually an odd acronym for Modulator-Demodulator. A modem takes a


digital signal from your computer and converts to an analog signal so that it can be
transferred through a phone line. This conversion is necessary because modems make
use of regular phone lines which are analog. Newer technologies don't require this
conversion, but more often than not, the term modem is still used.
Types of Modem:

• Internal computer modems:- An internal modem is a device installed inside


a desktop or laptop computer, allowing the computer to communicate over a
network with other connected computers.
• dial-up and WiFi® (wireless):- The former operates over a telephone line
and requires a network access phone number and logon credentials to make a
connection. Some computers have an internal modem which can be a built-in
modem or a PC card modem.
• External modems:- An External modem can be used to the same purpose and
in the same conditions as internal computer modem. However external
modem is a small box that uses other kind of interfaces to be connected to the
computer.
• Cable modem:- The cable modem uses a coaxial cable television lines to
provide a greater bandwidth than the dial-up comuter modem. An extremely
fast access to the Web is providing by the cable modem with downstream
transmission up to 38 Mbits/s and an upstream transmission up to 1 Mbits/s.
• DSL modem:- DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) modem is exclusively used for
connections from a telephone switching office to the user. DSL modem is a
device used to connect a single computer or router to a DSL phone line, in
order to use an ADSL service.

Working of Modem:

A computer sends information in the form of digital signals. But the information over
the telephone lines needs to be transmitted in the form of analog signals. To solve this
problem, the functionality of a modem comes into play. It converts the digital signals
into analog signals. These analog signals are carried over the telephone lines. When
these signals reach another computer, the analog signals are converted back to the
digital form by its modem.

Functions of the Modem:

• Error Correction:- In this process the modem checks if the information they
receive is undamaged. The modems involved in error correction divide the
information into packets called frames
• Compressing the Data: For compressing the data, it is sent together in many
bits. The bits are grouped together by the modem, in order to compress them.
• Flow Control: Different modems vary in their speed of sending signals. Thus,
it creates problems in receiving the signals if either one of the modems is
slow.

CD Drive:
compact disc (CD), a small plastic disc used for the storage of digital data.a
drive that reads a compact disc and that is connected to an audio system

Types of CD Drive:

CD-ROM:- CD-ROM stands for (Compact Disc Read Only Memory), and it is
mainly used to mass produce audio CD's and computer games. Computer users
can only read data and music from the discs, but they cannot burn their own
information onto the discs, from their personal computers.

CD-R:- CD-R also known as (Compact Disc Recordable) and WORM (Write Once
Read Many) is a blank disc that users can put into a CD-ROM drive to burn or
make a copy of their personal data, music, videos and information.

CD-RW:- Unlike a CD-R, the CD-RW (Compact Disc Rewritable) can be erased and
returned to its original blank state. New files can then be copied onto the
rewritable disk. CD-RW never became as popular as the CD-R's because they
are not compatible with most disc players to listen to music. They are primarily
used to move data from one computer to another, or to copy files that are only
needed a few times.

Function of CD Drive:-

Data Storage on a CD:- CDs, or compact discs, are composed of four


layers of material. From bottom to top, the layers are a polycarbonate layer, a
reflective layer, a surface of lacquer and a screen layer to place artwork or
lettering for the CD cover.

Reading the Data:- The main components of a CD/DVD ROM drive are a
small drive motor, a tracking mechanism and a laser/lens assembly, all of
which connect to the motherboard of the computer via a 40-pin ribbon cable.

Interpreting the Data:- The laser lens, after receiving the light from the
laser, reads it as a digital signal.
Sound Card:-
The sound card is a component inside the computer that provides audio input
and output capabilities. Most sound cards have at least one analog line input and one
stereo line output connection. The connectors are typically 3.5 mm minijacks, which
are the size most headphones use. Some sound cards also support digital audio input
and output, either through a standard TRS (tip-ring-sleeve) connection or via an
optical audio port, such as Toslink connector.

Types of Sound Cards

Motherboard Sound Chips:- When sound cards were first introduced, they
were expensive add-on cards that cost hundreds of dollars. As computer sound
technology began to come down in price, miniaturization technology enabled
computer hardware manufacturers to condense all of the technology required
to produce sound into a single chip.

Standard Sound Cards:- A standard sound card is an expansion card that


connects to one of the slots inside the computer.

External Sound Adapters:- An external sound adapter is a small box that


contains all of the features of a standard sound card, but connects to the
computer via a USB or FireWire port rather than an internal expansion slot

Function:

The sound card functions as an audio processor for your computer. Analog or
digital signals come into the input of the card and are digitally interpreted as
algorithms which are in turn interpreted as waveforms and produce a sonic
signal in the output of the computer sound card. The sound card is an
installed, running device on your computers system, with programmed
hardware properties and separate device drivers. The sound card controls all
audio on the computer.

Storage Device:
A data storage device is a device for recording (storing) information (data).
Recording can be done using virtually any form of energy, spanning from manual
muscle power in handwriting, to acoustic vibrations in phonographic recording, to
electromagnetic energy modulating magnetic tape and optical discs.

A storage device is a hardware device capable of storing information. There are two
storage devices used in computers; a primary storage device such as computer RAM
and a secondary storage device such as a computer hard disk drive. In the picture to
the right, is an example of a Drobo external secondary storage device.

The two primary storage technologies are magnetic and optical.

The primary types of magnetic storage are:

• Disketes (floppy disks)

• Hard disks

• High-capacity floppy disks

• Disk cartridges

• Magnetic tape

The primary types of optical storage are:

• Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)

• Digital Video Disk Read-Only Memory (DVD-ROM)

o CD-Recordable (CD-R)

• CD-Rewritable (CD-RW)

• PhotoCD
Page No.:
Date:

PRACTICAL:-2

AIM : Study of Peripheral Devices.