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/x]sf jf aflx/ :jtGq ?kdf /x]/
lsgls ;+;b\jfbL bn cfk"mnfO{ r/d\ nf]stGqsf] qmflGt, kl/jt{g / cu|udgsf] lglDt w|j' Ls/0f / Pstf h?/L ePsf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs,
kIfkftL ePsf] 7f]sj' f u5{g\ t/ pgLx?sf] sfo{zn } L ;+3if{ ul//x]sf ;Rrf qmflGtsf/L / wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts / ef}uf]lns cflb ;a} lx;fan] b]zsf] pbf/Ls/0f /
hgjfbL–nf]stGqjfbLx?sf] Pp6}
lg/+sz' , /fi6«3ftL / hg3ftL x'g] u/]sf] st}, s;}af6 qmflGtsf/L lbzfdf w|'jLs/0f x'g' g} cf}klgj]zLs/0f :j?k lkmhLs/0f / l;lSsdLs/0f x'bF } hfFbf b]zsf] cl:tTj /
clxn]sf] Pp6f k/d\ cfjZostf
l5k]sf] 5}g . h;sf] k'li6 xfn}sf /fhgLlts 36gfqmdn] ePsf] 5 .
gfdlg;fg g} u'Dg] r/d vt/f ePsf] x'bF f /fli6«o d'lQmsf] lglDt x'g] /fli6«o
u/]sf] 5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf b]z / hgtfnfO{ jt{dfg o;/L g} s'g} klg b]zsf] qmflGtsf] qmflGtsf] nflu b]zsf ;a} /fi6«jfbL–b]zeQm zlQm / JolQmx?sf] /fli6«o w|j' Ls/0f
csf] { Pp6f d' V o kf6f] /fli6« o
;+s6af6 kf/ nufpg b]zdf s:tf] zf;g Joj:yf / qmflGtsf] kf6f] xf] . of] t xfd|f] b]zdf / Pstf klg clgjfo{ cfjZostf aGg uPsf] xf] .
ePs} 5}g a/fa/ ePsf] 5 . a?, g]kfndf klg rLgdf dfcf]n] /fhtGqfTds pRrhftLo lxGb' wfld{s uDeL/, ;+j]bgzLn / hl6n cj:yf
k|0ffnL nfu" ug]{ eGg] s'/fsf] l5gf]kmfgf] hgtfn] g} ug{ pN6} hgjfbL qmflGtsf] ljho / ug{e
' Ps} gofF hgjfbL qmflGt ;DkGg clw/fHosf] cGTo u/L ;+ 3 Lo pTkGg ePsf] 5 . To;} sf/0fn] ubf{
kfpg'k5{ . hgtfn] /f]h]sf] Joj:yfaf6 dfq b]z / ;kmntf;Fu} g]kfn /fi6« / o;sf] u/L 3/] n ' / j} b ] l zs zf] i f0f / nf]stflGqs u0ftGq (Federal g} cfh klg Psflt/ hgjfbL
/fli6« o tf, /fli6« o :jfwLgtf, pTkL8gaf6 hgtf / /fi6«nfO{ :jtGq Democratic Republic) sf] klg qmflGtnfO{ k"0f{tf lbg / xfnsf]
hgtfsf] eljio pHHjn x'g] kSsf 5 . jt{dfg ;+s6sf] :jfledfg, ;fj{ef}ldstf, cIIf'0ftf / d'Qm agfpg] eGg] dxfg\ p2]Zocg';f/ @)^% ;fnd} :yfkgf ul/Psf] xf] . g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bfg ul/Psf
/ cv08tfh:tf uj{ / uf}/jsf g} zflGtk"0f{ / ;z:q ;+3if{ ub}{ hfg] t/, b'Mvsf] s'/f s] eof] eg] g t ;Dk"0f{ hgjfbL clwsf/x? Jojxf/tM
lgsf;sf] nflu k|ultzLn /fli6«o ;/sf/ u7g u/]/ ljifox? emg\ kl5 emg\ ;+s6u|:t qmddf @))& ;fndf /fhtGqfTds clxn] klg hgtfsf ufF;, af;, skf;, k| f Kt ug{ tyf yk / pGgt
hgdt ;+ux| df hfg' g} b]z, hgtf / :jod\ ;+;b\jfbL aGb} w/fk / Wj+;sf] l:yltdf kb}{ ax'bnLo ;+;bLo k|hftGq cfof] . t/ lzIff, :jf:Yo / /f]huf/h:tf hgjfbL clwsf/x? kfpFb} hfgsf] nflu klg
cfPsf] Pp6f ckTofl/nf] lj8Dagf @)!& df k|ltqmflGt / k|ltudg e} xslxt;Fu ;DalGwt ;+ljwfg k|bQ qmflGtsf/Lx?sf] w|j' Ls/0f / Pstf
bnx?sf] nflu;d]t lxts/ 5 . cGoyf of] ;+;bLo pTkGg ePsf] 5 Û ;fob o;} lgb{nLo k+rfotL k|hftGqsf] ?kdf cfwf/e"t hgclwsf/x?sf] Jojxf/tM h?/L ePsf] 5 eg] csf{ l t/
lj8Dagf x'g] b]v]/ g} sd/]8 dfcf]n] lg/+sz' /fhtGq :yflkt eof] . clg pkof]u / pkef]u ug{ kfP/ hghLjg /fhgLlts, cfly{s, ;fdflhs, wfld{s,
Joj:yf / ;+;b\jfbL bnx?lj?4 b]zsf tdfd cfˆgf] gofF hgjfbL qmflGt;DaGwL To;sf lj?4df @)@* df ;z:q s]xL ;xh ePsf] 5 g t /fli6«otfsf] ;f+:s[lts / ef}uf]lns cflb ;a}
qmflGtsf/L / k|ultzLn nf]stGqjfbL bn, g]tfnufot y]l;;df ;+Zn]if0f :j?k ;fd|fHojfbL emfkf ljb|fx] x'bF } @)$^ df hgcfGbf]ng b[li6af6 b]z d'Qm e} :jfwLg, :jtGq lx;fan] b] z sf] pbf/Ls/0f /
o'udf hgjfbL qmflGtsf b'O{ d'Vo eof] / ;+jw} flgs /fhtGq;lxtsf] / ;d[4 x'g kfPsf] 5 . a? o:tf] cf}klgj]zLs/0f :j?k lkmhLs/0f /
cfdhgtf ;8sdf pqg] lglZrt 5 . hgtf ;8sdf sfo{ef/– hgjfbL (democratic) ax'bnLo ;+;bLo k|hftGq k'gj{xfnL ljlrq, lj8Dagf ePsf] 5 ls hgjfbL l;lSsdLs/0f x'bF } hfFbf b]zsf] cl:tTj
/ /fli6«o (national÷patriotic) eof] . tTkZrft klg hgtfsf qmflGtsf] ;kmntfsf] ;Fu;Fu} b]z t / gfdlg;fg g} u'Dg] r/d vt/f ePsf]
pq] s] x'G5, cfk"mnfO{ nf]stGqsf] 7]s]bf/ ;Demg], x'g] lgisif{ lgsfn]/ rLgdf ;f] k|of]u hgtflGqs xslxt / /fi6«sf :jfwLgtf emg\ kl5 emg\ j}b]lzs zf]if0f, x'bF f /fli6«o d'lQmsf] lglDt x'g] /fli6«o
;+;b\jfbL bn / g]tfnfO{ ;DemfO/xg' gknf{, r]tgf eof . u/]/ klg b]vfpg' eof] . o;/L g} / :jfledfgsf s'/fx? ;+/lIft / pTkL8g / x:tIf]ksf] emg\–emg\ a9L qmflGtsf] nflu b]zsf ;a} /fi6«jfbL–
dfcf]n] 3/]n' k|lts[ofjfbL ;fdGtL– ;Dal4{t x'g ;s]gg\ / lbgfg'lbg hl6n lzsf/ x'Fb} uPsf]n] b]z t k"/} b]zeQm zlQm / JolQmx?sf] /fli6«o
b"lift vfBj:t' laqmL ug]{ &^ sDkgLlj?4 d'2f btf{ k'FhLjfbL zf]if0f–bdgaf6 / j}b]lzs
;fd|fHojfbL–pklgj]zjfbL zf]if0f–
/ d' V otM @)%@ df dfcf] j fbL
hgo'4sf] :j?kdf ljb|fx] eO{ hgjfbL
k/lge{/, k/hLlj / k/d'vfk]IfL
ePsf] 5 . o;/L g]kfnsf] /fli6«o
w|'jLs/0f / Pstf klg clgjfo{
cfjZostf aGg uPsf] xf] .
sf7df8f}F . vfB k|ljlw tyf u'0f dx, bfndf]7 e'lhof / la:s'6 rf/–rf/

g]kfnsf] cfly{s j[l4b/ @=& k|ltzt /xg] ljZj a}s+ sf] k|If]k0f
lgoGq0f ljefun] sd;n u'0f:t/ tyf j6f pBf]ulj?4 klg d'2f btf{ ul/Psf]
b"lift vfB kbfy{ laqmL ljt/0f u/]sf] k|jQmf dx{hgn] atfP .

sf7df8f}F . ljZj a}s + n] blIf0f df !=$ k|ltztsf] dfq j[l4b/ x'g] j[l4b/ dfOg; *=% k|ltzt /x]sf] r'gf}tLx? eg] clxn] klg sfod g}
Pl;ofnL e] u sf] s' n ufx{ : y cg'dfg hgj/Ldf ePsf] lyof] . t/, lyof] . o;df 7"nf] ;'wf/ x'bF } rfn' cfjd} /x]sf] ljZj a}s + sf] egfO 5 . o;
pTkfbgaf/] gofF k|If]k0f ;fj{hlgs ub}{ o;df ;'wf/ ub}{ ljZj a}s + n] ;f] cfjdf !)=! k|ltzt ;Dd cfly{s j[l4b/ e]usf s/f]8f}+ dflg;sf] /f]huf/L u'ds
] f]
rfn' cfly{s jif{ leq} cy{tGqdf #=( k|ltzt;Dd j[l4b/ /xg] cg'dfg k'Ug]5 . To;kl5sf b'O{ jif{df qmdzM 5 . cfly{s ultljlwx? k"0f{ ?kdf
…eL;]eÚsf] ;'wf/ b]lvg] pNn]v u/]sf] u/]sf] 5 . To;kl5sf] cfj @)&(–*) %=* k|ltzt / ^=% k|ltztsf] j[l4b/ ;~rfngdf cfpg] ;s]sf 5}gg\ . ;]jf
5 . cfly{s jif{ @)&^–&& df g]kfnsf] df eg] g]kfnn] %=! k|ltztsf] j[l4b/ sfod /xg] 5 . of] j[l4b/ cy{tGqsf If]qdf clxn] klg cGof}n / cj/f]w
cfly{s j[l4b/ dfOg; !=(( k|ltzt sfod ug{ ;Sg]5 . of] sl/a sf]/f]gf nflu lgs} ;Gt'lnt cj:yf dflgG5 . sfod 5g\ . o;n] ko{6gdf cfwfl/t
sfod ePsf] lyof] . o;df tLa| ultdf dxfdf/L eGbf cufl8s} cj:yf xf] . ljZj a}s + n] ef/tsf nflu ul/Psf] cy{tGq ePsf d'ns ' sf] hf]lvd eg]
;'wf/ x'g] ;+st] ub}{ ljZj a}s + n] of] g]kfnsf] cfly{s j[l4b/ ;sf/fTds k"jf{gd' fgsf tYof+s ;d]t ;RofPsf] 5 . sfod} /xg] ljZj a}s + sf] egfO 5 .
cf/f]kdf &^ pBf]ulj?4 lhNnf k|zf;g o:t} ld7fO, bxL, rfdn, lao/, jif{ @=& k|ltztsf] cfly{s j[l4b/ cj:yfdf /xg'df ljb]zaf6 g]kfnLx?n] gofF k|If]k0f cg';f/ ;g\ @)@! ko{6gdf cfwfl/t cy{tGq ePsf]
sfof{no sf7df8f}dF f d'2f btf{ u/]sf] 5 . u]8fu'8L, v';f{gLsf] w"nf] h:tf ljleGg sfod /xg] cg'dfg u/]sf] xf] . t/, k7fpg] /]ld6\ofG; d'Vo sf/0f dflgPsf] df blIf0f Pl;ofnL d'ns ' sf] ;du| dflNbE;n] ;g\ @)@) df dfOg;
ahf/ cg'udgsf qmddf ;+slnt gd'gf vfB kbfy{ pTkfbg tyf laqmL ljt/0f of] j[l4b/;d]t ;/sf/sf] cg'dfgeGbf 5 . ;+;f/e/ dxfdf/L tLj| ?kdf cfly{s j[l4b/d} ;'wf/sf] nx/ cfpg] @* k| l tztsf] g] u ] l 6e j[ l 4b/
tyf pkef]Qmfsf] ph'/Lsf cfwf/df rfn' pBf]ulj?4 klg d'2f btf{ ePsf] eg] lgs} sd xf] . sf]/f]gf dxfdf/Lsf km}ln/x]sf] ;dodf klg g]kndf 5 . o;df 7"nf] e"ldsf ef/tsf] /xg] ef]u]sf] lyof] . rfn' jif{ ;g\ @)@!
cfly{s jif{sf] cf7 dlxgfdf tL ljefun] hgfPsf] 5 . ljefun] bfo/ aLrdf ;d]t ;/sf/n] of] jif{ & /]ld6\ofG; cfpg] qmd /f]lsPsf] lyPg . 5 . ;g\ @)@) df dfOg; %=$ df of] d'n'ssf] j[l4b/ !&=! k|ltzt
pBf]ux?lj?4 d'2f bfo/ ul/Psf] ljefun] u/]sf d'2fx?dWo] #% yfg d'2fx? Go"g k|ltzt xf/fxf/Lsf] j[l4b/sf] k"jf{gd' fg o;aLrdf vf]k cleofg ;d]t g]kfndf k|ltztsf] gsf/fTds j[l4b/ ef]us ] f] /xg] 5 . >Ln+sf / g]kfn ;d]t
hgfPsf] 5 . bfo/ ul/Psf d'2fdWo] u'0f:t/sf, @# yfg d'2fx? n]jn u/]sf] 5 . ljZj a}s + n] ut hgj/L / k|efjsf/L ?kdf cufl8 a9\of] . o;n] of] e] u df ;g\ @)@! df &=@ ;]jf If]q / To;df klg ko{6saf6
;a}eGbf w]/} k|zf]lwt lkpg] kfgLsf] !!, nufotsf ljj/0f gldn]sf] / !@ j6f ;g\ @)@) sf] cS6f]j/df u/]sf ;d]t cfly{s ultljlwdf j[l4 b]lvPsf] k|ltztsf] j[l4b/ sfod x'g] k"jf{gd' fg x'g] cfDbfgLdf a9L lge{/ /x]sf d'ns '
tof/L rfprfpsf] &, d;nfsf] ^ / £o'sf] d'2fx? b"lift kbfy{sf] / afFsL ^ j6f k"jf{gd' fgdf ;d]t ;+zf]wg ub}{ g]kfnsf] ljZj a}s + sf] egfO 5 . ljZj a}s + sf] ljZj a}s + n] u/]sf] 5 . ;g\ @)@@ df x'g\ . ljZj a}+sn] ;fpy Pl;of
% j6f /x]sf] ljefusf k|jQmf df]xg s[lif d'2fx? vfB P]g lgod lgb]{lzsf cfly{s j[l4b/ cg'dfg u/]eGbf l56f] k|If]k0fcg';f/ of] aLrdf ef/tn] eg] o; e]udf $=$ k|ltztsf] j[l4b/ Osf] g f] l ds kmf] ; s l:k| ª @)@!
dx{hgåf/f hf/L lj1lKtdf pNn]v 5 . pNn+3g;DaGwL /x]sf] ljefusf k|jQmf k'g?Tyfgsf] af6f]df b]lvPsf] atfPsf] cy{tGqdf nf]enfUbf] ;'wf/ ug]{ ePsf] /xg] ePsf] 5 . oBlk sf]/f]gf efO/;n] gfds l/kf]{6 ;fj{hlgs ub}{ o:tf]
o:t} vfg] t]ndf kfFr, a]s/L, bfgf, ;;\, dx{hgn] atfP . 5 . cfufdL cfly{s jif{ @)&*–&( 5 . ut cfjdf ef/tsf] cfly{s l;h{gf u/]sf] kl/l:yltn] pTkGg atfPsf] xf] .
@)&& ;fn r}t @@ ut] cfOtaf/ 3
qmflGtdf wf]sf eP kmf“;L r9\g tof/ 5f}+ M ljifd
hgtfnfO{ km};nf ug{ b]pm
hgtf ;af]{k/L xf] . @) aif{;Dd
;+;bLo Aoa:yfsf] cEof; / o;}df
;+ux| x'gk' 5{ . t/, hgdt ;+ux| ub}d{ f
hgtfsf] /fo cfOxfN5 eGg ;lsFbg} .
k|ltudg la/f]wL gful/s k|ultzLn
x'g . sldzg / e|i6frf/df k|dfl0ft
klg t dfcf] n ] hfkfgL
;fd|fHojfbnfO{ lhTg Rof+sfO;]ssf]
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf s]Gb|Lo ;lrjfno ;b:o ;Gtf]if
a'9f du/ …ljifdÚ n] clxn] cfk"mx?n] g]tT[ j u/]sf] qmflGtdf wf]sf eP kmfF;L
r9\g tof/ ePsf] pb\3f]if u/]sf 5g\ . hgqmflGtsf dxfg\ ;lxb kl/jf/
;+u7g g]kfn / /fHoåf/f a]kQf of]4f kl/jf/ ;dfh g]kfn, s]Gb|Lo ;ldltåf/f
bfªsf] 3f]/fxLdf cfof]lht ;+o'Qm cGt/lqmof sfo{qmddf pgn] atfPsf
hf]l8Psf g]tfx?sf] rl/q hgtfn] lab]zLn] bnfndfkm{t\ g]kfn rnfPsf] ePsf AolQm cfof] u df a:g ;xfotf lnPsf] Oltxf; 5 . an x'g\ . cGt/lqmof sfo{qmdsf k|d'v cltly ;d]t /x]sf g]tf ljifdn] k|r08
k|ToIf b]lv;s]sf 5g\ . hgtfsf] 5 . Pd;L;L nfu" ug]{ p2]Zosf ;fy ;Sb}gg\ . j}1flgs ;dfjfb nfu" k|of]u lg/k]If ;To xf]Og . 7f]; afa'/fdn] qmflGtnfO{ a]r/] vfPsf]
hLjg :t/ emg\ kl5 emg\ v:s]sf] cd] l /sfn] j} 1 flgs ;dfhjfb ePdf g]kfn laZjdf rDsg] 5 . kl/l:yltsf] 7f]; laZn]if0f ug'{k5{ . eGb} cfk"mx? Odfgbfl/tfsf ;fy
qmflGtdf cl3 a9]sf] atfP .
clxn] ;+;bLo Aoa:yf c;kmn
emk]Gb|/fh j}B ePsf] cj:yfdf hgtf lgs}
g]kfnL qmflGtsf] gofF df]8]n
k|If]k0f u/]sf] atfpFb} pgn]
cfqmfGt ePsf 5g\ . ;+ ; bLo g] k fnL hgtfn] zf;g ;Qf
)^@.)^# sf] hgcfGbf]ngn] Aoa:yf lga{:q ePsf] 5 . o;
cj:yfdf hgtfn] cu|udgsf/L
km]l/Psf] dx;'; ug{ gkfPsf] pb\3f]if u/] . pgn] ;lxb a]kQf kl/jf/sf]
;d:of /fHo;Qfaf6} xn x'g] k|of; ug]{ olb ;d:ofsf] xn geP /fHo;Qf
Ph]08f j}1flgs ;dfhjfbnfO{ g}
klg caut ug{ ;lsG5 . lhtfpg] 5g\ . lhtfpg g;s]df
kl/jt{g ug{ ;a} Pstfa4 x'gk' g]d { f hf]8 lbP . pgn] eg], …clxn]sf] jftf{
cfTd;dk{0f jf s]kL;Fu ldNg uPsf] xf]Og, xfdL yfs]sf klg 5}gf}F / un]sf
km]l/ klg /fhg}lts cl:y/tf sfod} klg 5}gf} .Ú k|d'v cltly ljifdn] clxn] ;Qfdf b]lvPsf] ;+s6 s]kL–
hgdtsf] lgjf{rg cu|ufdL /xg] 5 . lab| f ] x x' g ] 5 . xfdLn] k|r08sf] c;kmntf geP/ ljZjdf c;kmnl;4 ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] c;kmntf
ePsf] lhls/ u/] . pgn] oxL ;Qfdf cg]sf}F cj;/x? cfPsf] t/ cfk"mx?
Dofgdf/sf] Oltxf; l;Sg'k5{ . r}q
zlQm / k|ltudgaLrdf x'g] !% ut] dfq DofGdf/df (% hgf
s'sf] la/f]wdf ;8sdf plqPsf
kb, k|lti7f / k};fsf nflu laqmL gePsf] ca Ps k6s Odfgbf/Ltfsf
;fy PsLs[t hgqmflGt ;DkGg u/L j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] ;'gf}nf] laxfgL
NofP/} 5f]8\g] pb\3f]if ;d]t u/] .
ePsf]n] cu|udgsf/Lx?n] k| b z{ g sf/L gful/s ;] g faf6
dfl/Psf lyP . cfh r} q !*
sfo{qmddf cfwf/kq k|:t't ub}{ hgqmflGtsf dxfg\ ;lxb kl/jf/ ;+u7g
g]kfnsf s]lGb|o cWoIf ;flaqf b"/f …cf:yfÚ n] ;lxb kl/jf/ a]kQf of]4fx?k|lt
k};f vr{ ug{ / afs; ;f6\g ut] ; Ddf !% lbg leqdf %))
k| b z{ g sf/Lx? dfl/Psf] b' M vb
/fHo lhDd]jf/ gePsf] atfOg\ . pgn] ;lxb kl/jf/ a]kQf kl/jf/k|lt
/fHo lhDd]jf/ geP g]kfndf csf]{ cfGbf]ngsf] cfFwLa]x/L ;[hgf ug]{
;dfrf/ 5 . slt 7"nf] ;f}o{ pT;fx
lbg] 5}gg\ . h'g;'s} /fd|f] rLh / la/tf 5 Dogdf/sf hgtfdf <
pb\3f]if ul/g\ . cGt/lqmof sfo{qmddf af]Nb} g]skf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf
/fKtL Ao'/f] OGrfh{ s]zaxfb'/ af7fdu/ …;'jf;Ú n] dxfg\ hgo'4sf] Oltxf;nfO{
g]kfn] To:tf] Iflt a]xf]g{ t kg]{ 5}g . dg{ glbg] atfP . pgn] eg], …h] hlt pknlAw eP To;sf] /Iff ub}{ afFsL
k|fKt ug{ r'gf}tL / lasNk x'G5g\ . clxn] Psyl/n] )^@.)^# sf] hgcfGbf]ngn] klg qmflGtsf sfo{ef/ k"/f ug]{ dxfg\ cleofgdf 5f}F .Ú
a]kQf of]4f kl/jf/ ;dfh g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf /fdaxfb'/ yfkf
caut ug{ ;lsG5 . hgdtsf]
hgdtnfO{ ;+sL0f{ gh/n] x]/] klg cflv/Ldf :ki6 x'bF } hfg] lgjf{ r g cu| u fdL zlQm /
k| l tudgaLrdf x' g ] ePsf] n ]
…;'Gb/Ú sf] cWoIftfdf ePsf] sfo{qmddf hgqmflGtsf ;lxb kl/jf/ ;+u7g
g]kfnsf k"js { G] b|Lo ;b:o cl;gf, ;lxb kl/jf/ ;+u7g g]kfn ljz]if sld6L
;b:o ;'Gb/ jnL, g]kfnL sfFu; ]| lhNnf kf6L{ ;lrjfno ;b:o 6]saxfb'/
5 . of] k"jfu|xsf] v]tL xf] . ca klg aL/ansf] lvr8L cu|udgsf/Lx?n] k};f vr{ ug{ /
afs; ;f6\g lbg] 5}gg\ . h'g;'s}
jnL, g]skf dfcf]jfbL s]Gb| % g+= k|bz ] ;lrjfno ;b:o g'dfsfGt Gof}kfg],
/fk|kf s]Gb|Lo sfo{;Dkfbg ;b:o ldgf :j0f{sf/, g]skf dfn]sf lhNnf
kfSb} hfg] xf] eg] hgtfsf] laZjf;af6 pgLx? 6fl9b} hfg] /fd|f] rLh k|fKt ug{ r'gf}tL / lasNk
x'G5g\ . clxn] Psyl/n] hgdtnfO{
;lrj g]q kf08], gful/s ;dfh bfªsf cWoIf s]aL d;fn, g]kfn kqsf/
dxf;+3 bfª ;lrj e'kG] b| jnL, hghfu/0f g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o d+un
;+sL0f{ gh/n] x]/] klg cflv/Ldf
5g\ . hgdt ;+ux| sf] k|:tfa PsLs[t qmflGtsf] ofqfdf :ki6 x'Fb} hfg] 5 . of] k"jfu|xsf]
rf}w/L, o'uaf]w klqsfsf ;b:o uf]laGb v8\sf, hgkqsf/ ;+u7g g]kfn
bfªsf ;+of]hs x]dGt k|sfz jnL, af/ Pzf]l;o;gsf k|ltlglw tyf clwjQmf
v]tL xf] . ca klg aL/ansf] lvr8L cf]deQm 8fFuL, dfgjclwsf/ ;~hfnsf ;+of]hs s]zj zdf{, g]skf -
lxFl8/x]sf] ljKnj g]skfsf] xf] . clxn] g} w]/} Iflt kfSb} hfg] xf] eg] hgtfsf] laZjf;af6 qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_ bfª lhNnf OGrfh{ Pjd\ s]Gb|Lo ;b:o ;dL/ s];L
lyP eg] dxfg\ hgo'4sf 3fOt] of]4f c;nn] cfˆgf] dGtJo /fv]sf lyP .
pgLx? 6fl9b} hfg] 5g\ . hgdt
Aoxf]ge{' Gbf of] ;do;fk]If 5 . ca ;a} b]zeQm / ;+u|xsf] k|:tfa PsLs[t qmflGtsf]
ofqfdf lxFl8/x]sf] ljKnj g]skfsf] xf] .
/}axfb'/ a:g]t …3tL{Ú sf] :jfut dGtJoaf6 ;'? ePsf] sfo{qmdsf] ;xhLs/0f
hgqmflGtsf ;lxb kl/jf/ ;+u7g g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf v'df ;'jb] Ln] u/]sL
lyOg\ . sfo{qmddf /}axfb'/ a:g]t …3tL{Ú sf] ;+of]hsTjdf ( ;b:oLo hgqmflGtsf
hgtflGqs zlQm Ps} 7fpFdf eP/ j}1flgs ;dfhjfbdf clxn] g} w]/} Iflt Aoxf]ge
;do;fk]If 5 . ca ;a} b]zeQm /
{' Gbf of]
;lxb kl/jf/ ;+u7g g]kfn /fKtL Ao'/f] ;ldlt u7g ul/Psf] 5 .

hfg'sf] lasNk 5}g . j}1flgs ;dfhjfb g} ;femf laifo hgtflGqs zlQm Ps} 7fpFdf eP/
j}1flgs ;dfhjfbdf hfg'sf] lasNk
g]skfåf/f /f]Nkfdf cGt/lqmof sfo{qmd ;DkGg
5}g . j}1flgs ;dfhjfb g} ;femf sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ /f]Nkfsf] cfof]hgfdf ;j{kIfLo cGt/lqmof
xf] . clxn] rf/ kf6L{sf] /0fgLlts df]rf{ x'g' ;dosf] dfu laifo xf] . clxn] rf/ kf6L{ s f] sfo{qmd lnafªdf ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . lhNnfl:yt ljleGg /fhg}lts bnsf
k|d'v tyf k|ltlglw kqsf/ a'l4hLljnufot ;xefuLaLr cGt/lqmof
/0fgLlts df]rf{ x'g' ;dosf] dfu xf] .
xf] . ca df]rf{ dfq xf]Og kf6L{ PsLs/0f ub}{ hfg'k5{ . ca df]rf{ dfq xf]Og kf6L{ PsLs/0f
ub}{ hfg'k5{ . ca klg ;fgf] r'Nxf]
sfo{qmddf g]skf /f]Nkfsf
k"jl{ hNnf OGrfh{ k|of;n]
kf6L{sf] wf/0ff, PsLs[t
ca klg ;fgf] r'Nxf] rf}sf agfO/fVg' dfS;{jfbnfO{ lasf; rf}sf agfO/fVg' dfS;{jfbnfO{ lasf;
ug{ glbg] ;f/;+If]kjfbL cawf/0ff xf] .
hgqmflGtsf] ljsf;qmd /
jftf{ k l5sf] kl/j] z sf
ug{ glbg] ;f/;+If]kjfbL cawf/0ff xf] . larf/ / l;4fGt ldn]sf] cj:yfdf
kb / k|lti7fsf] nflu cfkm\g} uf]?sf]
;jfndf ljifoj:t' /fv]sf
lyP . ;xefuL ljleGg
dfq xf] O g, g] k fn lab] z Lsf] c;kmn u/fpg rfxG5 . o;df oxfF Pp6f s'/f cfpF5 ls an k|of]u afx|} 6Ssf eGg' uf]n rSs/jfbL k|al[ Q JolQmTjx¿n] g]skfsf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzf ;fy} casf] kf6L{sf]
gjpklga]z e};s]sf] 5 . hgtfsf] cd]l/sfn] 7"nf] wg/fzL vr{ ug{ gul/sg klg j}1flgs ;dfhjfb xf] . kf6L{eGbf 7"nf] hgtf / larf/ ultljlwsf af/]df wf/0ff tyf ;'emfj k]z u/]sf 5g\ . k|fKt ;'emfj /
/fo a'‰g hgdt ;+u|x ug'{ /fd|f] ;S5 . j}1flgs ;dfhjfb nfu" ePdf cfpg ;S5 < an k| u f] u lagf tyf l;4fGt xf] . clxn] j}1flgs lh1f;fx¿nfO{ k"j{lhNnf OGrfh{ k|of; / lhNnf OGrfh{ lbg]zlaqmd rGb
s'/f xf] . hgtf ;af]R{ r ePsf] x'gfn] cd]l/sfsf] nflu g]kfn aGb x'G5 . ;+;f/df sxLF klg ;dfhjfb cfPsf] ;dfhjfbsf] gofF kl/l:ylt ag]sf]n] …dfgjÚ n] k|:6\ofPsf lyP . kf6L{ dflysf] k|ltaGw k'ms'jf kZrft\ ul/Psf]
hgtfsf] km};nfcg';f/ sfd ug'{ g]kfnsf bnfnx?sf] klg 3fF6L ;'S5 . Oltxf; 5}g . of] s'/f ;To xf] . ca l9nf gu/L o;}df Psh'6 x'g cGt/lqmofdf pkl:yt ;Dk"0f{nfO{ lhNnf ;]qm]6/L zf]ef/fd /fgfdu/ …lj:kmf]6Ú
k5{ . clxn] hgtf ;+ ; b\ j fbL Pp6f t pgLx?sf] sdfO /f]lsG5 . an k|of]u g} ug'{k5{ . t/, rLgdf h?/L 5 . n] wGojfb 1fkg u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 .

b"w 9'jfgLsf ;fwg PDa'n]G;;/x Û o'jf ;+u7g dsjfgk'/sf] lhNnf ;Dd]ng ;DkGg
g]tfx?;Fu cfqmfGt 5g\ . sldzg bf];|f] bnfnx?sf] ;bfsf] nflu ;Qf
e|i6frf/, dflkmof / t:s/sf] ynf] u'Dg] x'G5 . pgLx?df ?jfaf;L x'G5 .
dlGqd08n ePsf] 5 . o;df k|d csf] { dxTjk" 0 f{ s' / f cd] l /sfn] sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ lgs6 o'jf ;+u7g g]kfn dsjfgk'/sf]
a9L lhDd]jf/ 5g\ . k|daf6 ;+;b g]kfnsf] 5ftLdf 6]s]/ rLgnfO{ sf7df8f}F . ;/sf/n] k|bfg ug]{ b"wsf] ahf/Ls/0f / laqmLdf o;n] lhNnf ;Dd]ng eJo ?kdf ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . ;Dd]ngaf6 ls/0f cof{nsf]
la36g x'G5 . ;af]{Rr cbfntn] lxsf{pg ;Sb}g . ef/tsf] cfkm\gf] ljz]if k|sf/sf] nf]uf] 6fFl;Psf To:tf ;xof]u ug]{ af]8{n] hgfPsf] 5 . cWoIftfdf, pkfWoIf >Lnfn an, ;lrj ;'lgn l;Gtfg, ;x;lrj lbndfof
;+ ; b k' g :yf{ k gf u5{ . o;af6 :jy{df e"sDk hfG5 . p;n] g]kfndf ;fwgnfO{ ;8sdf s;}n] klg cj/f]w lglZrt ;dodf lglZrt tfkqmddf uf]n,] sf]iffWoIf;lxt @% ;b:oLo lhNnf sld6L u7g ul/Psf] 5 . ;Dd]ngdf
k|deGbf cbfnt zlQmzfnL 5 eGg] c8\8f hdfpg kfpFbg} . g t g} ;Ldf ug{ gkfOg] / PDa' n ] G ;;/x g} b"w 9'jfgL ug{' kg]{ dfGotf /x] klg dsjfgk'/sf lhNnf OGrfh{ /fd 3nfg …jf6/Ú sf] k|d'v cfltYotfdf
k| f yldstf lbg' k g] { Joj:yf ljleGg ;dodf x'g] cj/f]wn] b"w gf/fo0fL Ao'/f] ;b:o Pjd\ ha;sf ˆ|ofS;g OGrfh{ ljsfz ljz]if cfltly
a'lemG5 . ;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgf eP klg ldRg kfpF5 . ;Ldf ldRg gkfpg] /x]sf lyP . ;fy} Ao'/f] ;b:o kfnu'ª, lhNnf ;]qm]6/L ;"o{ cof{n, o'jf
a}7s a:g g;s]sf] cj:yf 5 . dfq xf]Og ldlrPsf g]kfnsf] e"efu sfof{Gjogdf cfPsf] /fli6«o b'Uw lalu| g ] u/] s f] / To;sf] c;/
ljsf; af]8{n] hgfPsf] 5 . b"Uw ls;fgsf] e'QmfgLdf ;d]t k/]kl5 ;+u7g g]kfnsf gf/fo0fL Ao'/f] ;+of]hs aL/]Gb|, clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ sf
k"j{g]skf tLg ;d"xdf laeflht klg lkmtf{ ug'{k5{ . c;dfg Aofkf/ s]Gb|Lo ;b:o Pjd\
ePsf] 5 . Pp6f ;d"x k|d jnL]n] x'g kfpFb}g . ef/tn] g]kfnnfO{ 9'jfgLdf o:tf] ;'ljwf lbg] g]kfn o:tf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] af]8n { ] hgfPsf]
Ao'/f] ;+of]hs k|sfz,
cfk"m ;+:yfks ePsf] bfaL u/]sf k~rzLnsf] l;4fGtn] x] g ' { k 5{ . ljZjs} klxnf] / Ps dfq d'ns ' ePsf] 5 . b"Uw Joj;foLsf] klg ;dy{g clvn -qmflGtsf/L_ sf
5g\ eg] csf]{ 5 g]kfn ;d"x . b'a} ;xcl:tTj :jLsfg'{k5{ . e"uf]ndf bfaL af]8{sf] 5 . nf]uf]sf cfwf/df /x]sf] of] cleofgsf] nflu tof/ dsjfgk' / cWoIf
yl/n] cfk"m clwsfl/s ePsf] bfaL ef/t 7"nf] eP klg g]kfn ef/tsf] k|fyldstf lbOg'kg]{ o:tf uf8Ldf ul/Psf] nf]uf] af]8{sf] Ps ;o !! ljj]s 3nfg …clgnÚ
ul//x]sf 5g\ . k|dn] Psnf}6L ?kdf 5f]6]efO xf]Og . g t ef/t g]kfnsf] PDa'nG] ;df h:tf] ;fO/g eg] x'g] 5}g . cf}+ a}7saf6 kf; ePsf] / Ps ;o nufot kf6L{ lhNnf
;Qf rnfPsf] egL g]kfn ;d"xn] a8] efO xf] . b'a} ;dfg x'g\ . b] z e/sf em08} kfF r ;o b' U w !@ cf}+ a}7saf6 sfo{ljlw klg ag]sf] ;b:ox¿sf] cfltYotf
la/f]w ul//x]sf] 5 . o:t} k|r08 o; k|sf/ hgdt ;+u|xdf hfg 9'jfgLsf ;fwgn] k|fKt ug]{ nf]uf] / af]8{n] hgfPsf] 5 . b"w 9'jfgLsf] /x]sf] lyof] eg] sfo{qmd
g]tT[ jsf] dfs]n] klg s]kL jnLnfO{ r'gf}tL 5 . To;f] t g]kfnsf] x/]s To;sf] k|of]u;DaGwL sfo{ljlw :jLs[t ;a} ;jf/L ;fwgnfO{ clgjfo{ ul/Psf] ;~rfng nlnt
;Qf 5f]8\g bafa lbO/x]sf] cj:yf lgjf{rgdf cd]l/sf / ef/tn] laz]if eP;Fu} ca nf]uf] ljt/0f ;'? ePsf] of] lgodaf/] ;'/IffsdL{nfO{ klg 3nfgn] u/]sf lyP . ;Dd]ngsf k|dv ' cltly lhNnf OGrfh{ jf6/n] /fli6«o
af] 8 { s f sfo{ s f/L lgb] { z s 8f= hfgsf/L u/fpg] af]8{sf] tof/L 5 . /fhgLltsf] ljifodf, k|ltaGw / k|ltaGw km's'jf;DaGwL :ki6 kf/] . pgn]
5 . oL tLg ;d" x df ufO{ h fqf ?kn] x]l//x]sf x'G5g\ . pDd]bjf/ of] qmflGtdf nfUg o'jf ju{nfO{ cg'/f]w ug{s ' f ;fy} PsLs[t hgqmflGt g}
rln/x]sf] 5 . p7fpg] / lhtfpg] klg pg} x'G5g\ . /fh]Gb|k|;fb ofbjn] atfP . …b'Uw 8]/Lsf] c+u|]hL zAbsf] klxnf] cIf/
kbfy{sf] ljt/0f k|0ffnL alnof] agfpg …8LÚ, b"wsf] yf]Knf], ufO{nfO{ hgfpg] j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] ;xL af6f] /x]sf] JofVof u/] . gjul7t lhNnf sld6LnfO{
/fli6« o ?kdf ab\ l nbf] ca s] g]kfn lab]zL x:tIf]k ;x]/ awfO{;lxt ;kmn sfo{sfnsf] z'esfdgf klg JoQm u/] .
kl/l:yltcg' ; f/ casf] lasNk al;/xG5 t < cxF To;f] xf]Og . ;f/f xfdLn] gofF k|of]u u/]sf 5f}+, nf]uf] k|ltsfTds ;+s]t / cTofjZos
o;}u/L ;Dk"0f{ cltly u0fx?n] cf–cfˆgf] dGtAo /fVb} PsLs[t
;gdt ;+ux| xf] . j}1flgs ;dfhjfb g]kfnLsf] ann] lab]zL x:tIf]k ljt/0fsf] k|lqmof ;'? ePsf] 5 . of] hgfpg] /Ë lgnf] k|of]u u/]/ nf]uf] hgqmflGtdf nfUg o'jf ju{nfO{ cg'/f]w u/]sf lyP . dsjfgk'/ lhNnf
ls ;+;b\jfb < eGg] laifodf hgdt lakmn kfg'{k5{ . of] g]kfnL hgtfsf] ljZjsf] nflu gofF / klxnf] sfd xf],Ú agfOPsf] sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs ofbjn] ;]qm]6/L ;"o{ cof{nn] jt{dfg /fhgLlts kl/j]zsf] ljifodf :ki6 kfb}{ o'jf
ug'{ k5{ . laleGg laifodf hgdt xftdf 5 . ;flas lgjf{rg cfof]un] sfo{sf/L lgb]{zs ofbjn] eg] . atfP . k|ltsfTds pQm nf]uf] b'Uw ju{nfO{ of] cfGbf]ngdf xf]ldg clkn u/] . Ao'/f] ;b:o ljsfzn] hgo'4sf]
;+ux| x'g;S5 . clxn] c;kmn ePsf] xf]Og . k|ultzLn g]kfnLsf] cfof]un] cf}krfl/s k|0ffnLaf6 b]ze/ 9'jfgLsf x/]s uf8Ldf 6fF; ul/g] pknlAw / PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] pknlAw x'bF } uPsf] eGb} gjul7t lhNnf
;+;bLo Aoa:yfsf] lasNkdf hgdt lgjf{rg u/fpg'k5{ . ;fd|fHojfb / ljt/0f x'g] em08} !& nfv d]l6«s6g pgsf] egfO 5 . sld6LnfO{ awfO{;lxt ;kmn sfo{sfnsf] z'esfdgf JoQm u/]sf lyP .
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k|ltzt e'–efu cf]u6]sf] g]kfnsf] jg Joj:yfkg, s;}n] j}1flgs jg :jtGq /f]hfO{sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . ;+Vof ;d]t lgwf{/0f ul/Psf] x'G5_ k| l tzt dWo] sl/j !&k| l tzt_ Jofkf/af6 x'g] d'gfkmf sd x'g]5 .
jg If]qaf6 cfly{s ;d[l4 k'/f Joj:yfkg t s;}n] ;s[of jf ;3g l6gf km\ofS6/sf] k|of]u kl5Nnf] ;do df dfq s6fg sfo{ ul/G5 / ;fy jgnfO{ ;+/lIft If]q eg]/ 3f]if0ff lglZrt pd]/ k'lu;s]sf ?vn] sfj{g
xf]cf];\ . d'n'ssf] ;d[l4df jgsf] jg Joj:yfkg h:tf zAbx? k|of]udf ef/lto /fhgLltdf klg lgs} ePsf] ;fy} k'g?Tkfbg sfo{ ;d]tnfO{ ;Fu} ul/Ps} 5 . of] s] sf] nflu < d"ntM ;l~rltsf] dfqf a9fpg ;lsb}g,
e'ldsf a9f];\ . /f]huf/L >[hgf NofO{ /x]sf 5g\ . j}1flgs jg b]Vg ;lsG5 . ;g\ @)!( sf] ef/lto nluPsf] x'G5 . o;/L jflif{s ?kdf h}ljs ljljwtf ;+/If0fsf] nflu g} To;}n] a'9f ?v sf6\b} j[Iff/f]k0fsf]
xf] c f] ; \ . ;+ / If0fd' v L jg Joj:yfkg / lbuf] jg Joj:yfkgdf nf] s ;efsf] r' g fjdf jt{ d fg s6fg ubf{ *) jif{df k'gM s6fg xf] . clg $$=&$ k|ltzt dWo] afFsL s[ofsnfkdf hf]8 lbg' kb{5 .Ú k|f=8f=
Joj:yfkgaf6 Joj;fod'vL jg ug]{ sfd jg ;Da4{g k|0ffnLdf g} k|wfgdGqL g/]Gb| df]bLnfO{ efhkfn] rs| bf] x l/g] ePsf] n ] jgsf] /x]sf] sl/j @&k|ltzt jgdf klg /fh] z /fO{ s f cg' ; f/ …sfa{ g
Joj:yfkg xf]cf];\, h:tf cg]sg cfwfl/t xf] . jg ;Da4{g k|0ffnL - l6gf km\ofS6/sf] ?kdf k|:t't u/]sf] pTkfbsTjdf s'g} km/s gkg]{ x'G5 . ;+/If0fd'vL Joj:yfkg g} x'g' kg]x{ f]t < Jofkf/af6 d'gfkmf a9fpg lgjf{xd'vL
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dxTjsfFIffsf ljifox? jg Joj:yfkg j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkg ;Dej x'bg} . ;/sf/=====df]bL xL tf/0fxf/=====df]bL jif{df t km]/L plts} ?vx? e} sfo{ljwLsf cg';f/ t/fO{sf @) j6f jgsf] Joj:yfkgnfO{ hf]8 lbgfn]
sfo{af6 cfzf / ck]Iff ul/+b} cfPsf " ;g\ !((@ kZrft lbuf] ljsf;sf] gxL+ tf] sf]O{ gxL+=====x/ x/ df]bL 3/ xfN5g\ . clg ;a} ?vx? klg lhNnfdf /x]sf] sl/j $ nfv %) sfa{g ;l~rltsf] nflu nfUg] nufgL
5g\ . t/ of]\ p2]Zo s;/L k|fKtL ug]{ cjwf/0f z'? eP kl5 jgdf klg 3/ df]bL=====h:tf cg]sg r'gfjL sfl6+b}g, dfp ?vx? 5fl8G5, /fd|f xhf/ x]S6/ jg ;+/lIft If]q, /fli6«o sd x'g cfpF5 .Ú
t < eGg] s'/f] dxTjk'0f{ ;jfn xf] . lbuf] ljsf;sf] cjwf/0ff z'? ePsf] gf/fx?nfO{ l6gf km\ofS6/sf] ?kdf /fd|f ?vx? dfq} /flvG5, sf7 glbg] jg, ;fd'bflos jg / ;fem]bf/L jgsf] cGTodf, cgfjZos ;jfndf
• ef}uf]lns ljifdtfsf sf/0f jgsf] xf] . Joj:yfkg dfkgaf6 z'? x'G5 . k|of]u ePsf] lyof] / kmntM r'gfjL ?vx? sfl6G5 . ?vx? klg wfg ?kdf /x]sf] 5 . of] dWo] sl/j %) clNemb} cg'udg ug]{ x}l;ot g/fVg],
pTkfbg / pTkfbsTjdf ljljwtf jg Joj:yfkg klg o;}df cfwfl/t kl/df0f cg';f/ k'gM g/]Gb| df]bL ds} h:t} x'g\ lsgsL pd]/ k'Ug] k|ltzt If]qdf dfq j}1flgs jg ljsf;sf] gfddf x'g] u/]sf jg ljgfz
5 . o;sf/0f jg Joj:yfkgnfO{ 5 . lbuf] jg Joj:yfkg Pp6f k|so[ f ef/lto /fhgLltsf] l6gf km\ofS6/sf] lalts} sf6\g' k5{, xf]Og eg] ;do Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd nfu" ug]{ xf] eg] / e'–IfonfO{ gh/ cGbfh ug]{ t/
Jojl:yt ?kdf n}hfg jg If]qsf] xf] h;sf nflu jgdf s] slt / ?kdf :yflkt klg ePsf 5g\ . k'u]kl5 To;} v]/ hfG5 .Ú b]zsf] cy{tGqdf jflif{s !% ca{ ?k}ofF jg Joj:yfkg ul/bfF s f] ?v
hf]lgË ul/g' kb{5 . ;+/lIft If]q, s:tf ?v lj?jf 5g\ < s] sf nflu ljifo ;fGble{s g} xf]nf, cfk"m s] sf nflu j} 1 flgs jg cfpF5 . g]kfn ;/sf/n] xfn} dfq s6fgnfO{ e|i6frf/ b]Vg] k'jf{u|xL
pTkfbg If]q / ljz]if If]qx? jg Joj:yfkg ug]{ xf] < o;sf] nflu jg k|fljlws ePsf]n] g]kfnsf] jg Joj:yfkg ug]{ xf] egL lgSof}n { x'g' j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd k|jl[ Q /x'Gh]n ah]6, gLlt, dfu{bz{g,
l;dfF s g u/L Joj:yfkgsf s'g jg ;Da4{g sfo{ / k|0ffnL Joj:yfkgsf]] l6gf km\ofS6/ klxrfg kb{5, To;sf cfwf/df s[ofsnfkx? vf/]hL u/]sf sf/0f sfa{g Jofkf/af6 Zj]tkq, l:yltkqdf h] NofP klg
sfo{x?nfO{ cufl8 a9fpg' kb{5 . ckgfpg] xf] < oL ltg j6} sfo{x? ug'k{ g]{ cfjZostf dx;'; u/]sf] 5' . to x'G5g\ . k|f= cRo't/fh 1jfnL / d'n'sn] k|fKt ug]{ k|If]k0f ul/Psf] jgaf6 ;d[l4 xf]Og{ , jgsf] ;d[l4sf]
• jg Joj:yfkgsf] sfo{of]hgfnfO{ lj1fg / k| l jlw;Ddt ePsf] n ] ljut @% jif{bl] v jg If]qdf sfo{/t ;'dg e§/fO{sf cg';f/ "sf7hGo / cfDbfgLdf l;wf c;/ kg]{ b]lvG5 . nflu 7'nf] d'No r'sfpg' kg]{ x'G5 .
jg leq dfq} l;ldt g/fvL ahf/ j} 1 flgs jg Joj:yfkg eGg /xL/xFbf xfl;n u/]sf] jg lj1fg jg k}bfjf/sf nflu g} pTkfbglzn jg lj1 laho/fh ;'j]bLsf cg';f/ t/fO{sf dfq %) k|ltzt jg If]qsf]
/ /f]huf/L;Fu hf]8g' kb{5 . vf]lhPsf] xf] . To;}n] of] lbuf] sfd ;DaGwL k| f ljlws 1fg, jg jgdf j}1flgs Joj:yfkg ul/g] xf], …t/fO{ tyf dWo kxf8df j}1flgs j}1flgs Joj:yfkg ug{ ;s] jflif{s
• s'n ;Defjgfsf] !) k|ltzt eGbf nfUg] / j}1flgs sfd gnfUg] eGg] Joj:yfkgsf] If]qdf ef}uf]lns cg'ej hxfF lhjhGt' -h}ljs ljljwtf_ jg Joj:yfkg sfo{qmd ;+rfng ubf{( !% cj{ ?k}of b]zsf] cy{tGqdf k|fKt
klg sd pkef] u eO{ /x] s f] s'/fdf ljjfb ug'{ plrt x'bF g} . lbuf] tyf xfn k|of]udf /x]sf ljleGg jg ;+/If0fsf] k|dv
' ljifo x'g] u/]sf] 5}g, s/f]8 b]lv !@ s/f]8 So'lkm6 sf7 x'G5 eGg] sfuhL l6kf]6 kmut lbjf
g] k fnsf] jg ;| f ] t sf] k' 0 f{ jg Joj:yfkgsf] nflu j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkg k4tLx?sf] Joj:yfksLo cGo b]zdf klg To:tf] e]l6+b}g . pTkfbg x'G5 . o;nfO{ afof]df;df ;kgf x'g]5 . ctM j}1flgs jg
pkof] l utfsf] nflu cfw' l gs Joj:yfkg ug'{k5{ eGg] lx;fjn] k|efjsf/Ltf P+j Joj;foLs Ifdtfsf] xfn;Dd cjnDag ul/Psf] cEof; ?kfGt/0f ubf{ @& nfv b]lv #^ nfv Joj:yfkg sfo{ q md vf/] h ug] {
k|ljwLsf] k|of]unfO{ a9fjf lbO{ d'No j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkgnfO{ cfTd;fy ljZn]if0f ubf{ jg ;Da4{g k|0ffnLdf cg';f/ ;Da]bglzn hgfj/ e]l6P 6g;Dd afof]df; pTkfbg x'G5 / of] ;/sf/sf] lg0f{o tTsfn} ;RofP/
>[vnfsf] k|a4{g u/L cfoftdf ul/Psf] xf] . lbuf] jg Joj:yfkg cfwfl/t jg Joj:yfkg k4tL g} s]xL ;hutf ckgfpg] ul/Psf] x'G5 afof]df;sf] ^) k|ltztn] sfj{gsf] j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkg k4tLnfO{ jg
lge{/ /fi6«sf] Jofkf/3f6fnfO{ sd x'gsf nflu j}1flgs cfwf/ g} jgsf] g]kfnsf] jg Joj:yfkgsf] l6gf / xfn;Dd ul/Psf] j}1flgs jg lx;fj ubf{ jflif{s !^ nfv @) xhf/ Joj:yfkgsf] l6gf -TINA_ km\ofS6/sf]
ug]{ lsl;dn] jg Joj:yfkg ul/g' jflif{s a[lå eGbf sd s6fg, ;tt\ km\ofS6/ /x]sf] cg'el" t ug{ ;lsG5 . Joj:yfkgsf] k|s[ltn] Tolt c;/ t 6g b]lv @! nfv ^) xhf/ 6g;Dd ?kdf cFlusf/ ul/P ;j{yf lxts/
kb{5 . jg k}bfjf/ cfk'lt{sf nflu ;tt\ jg Joj:yfkgsf] l6gf (TINA) kfb}g{ , lsgsL oxfF O{/u] n
' / ;]N6/p8 sfa{g ;l~rtL x'g] b]lvG5 . g]kfnn] x'g]5 . -dxtf] dw]zsf nflu jgsf
• sfo{of]hgf cg';f/ Joj:yfkg x'g] pTkfbg Tolta]nf dfq ;Dej x'G5 km\ o fS6/ = j} 1 flgs jg l;:6d cjnDjg ul/Psf] 5, hf] ljZj j}s + ;Fu sl/j k|lt 6g ?= %)) /fli6«o ;+of]hs x'g\ . _ -dw]z bk{0f
u/L lghL jgsf] cEof;nfO{ k"0f{ ha;Dd jgdf ljleGg pd]/ / rflxg] Joj:yfkg o' l gkmd{ ;] N 6/p8 tyf ;/k6 df sfa{g vl/b ;Demf}tf u/]sf] 5 . lkmr/ ;] j f_
:jtGqtf lbg' kb{5 . lghL jgdf k|hfltsf ?v, vfFjf, aNnfaNnL, nfy|f k/Dk/fut ?kn] jg Joj:yfkg s6fgsf] t' n gfdf w] / } xb;Dd
klg clGtd s6fg kZrft
k'g?Tkfbgsf] Joj:yfnfO{ cfjZos
/ lj?jfx? plrt cg'kftdf x'G5g\ .
jg Joj:yfkgsf] gLltut
ul/Psf] jg If]qdf jgsf] x}l;ot
lauF|b} uPsf] 5 . hFunsf ?vx?
jGohGt' s f] kIfdf 5 . clt
;Da]bglzn jGohGt'sf] jf;:yfg
gof“ k|hfltsf] r/f e]l6of] Û
ul/g' kb{5 . Joj:yf a'9f ePsf 5g\, wf]bf| ] x'bF } uPsf 5g\ . /x]sf] 5 eg] jfof]nf]lhsn x6:k6sf] sf7df8f}F . lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hsf] gbL t6Lo If]qdf …nfdk'R5|]
• jg Joj:yfkgsf] df]8fln6L cg';f/ ljutsf] jg gLlt, /0fgLlt, gofF lj?jfx? pd|g ;s]sf 5}gg\ . ?sdf klxrfg u/L ;+/lIft If]qsf] rfFr/Ú gfdsf] gofF k|hfltsf] r/f km]nf k/]sf] 5 . lrtjgdf klxnf]k6s
cufl8 a9\g jg Joj:yfkgnfO{ of]hgf, P]g, lgoddf lbuf] Pj+ cWoogn] hgfP cg';f/ t/fO{ / dWo ?kdf klg :yflkt ug{ ;lsG5 / o; r/fsf] kmf]6f] ldng tfdfªn] lvRsf] ly . /f/f, dsfn' j?0f, nfª6fª
pTkfbg;Fu hf]8/] /f]huf/L >[hgf j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkg af/] pNn]v kxf8sf] jgdfq j}1flgs l;4fGtdf ub}{ cfO{Psf] klg 5, / yk o:tf /fli6«o lgs'~h, cGgk"0f{ / s~rghËf ;+/If0f If]qdf e]l6g] …nfdk'R5|]
ul/g' kb{ 5 . jg k} b fjf/sf] ePsf] 5 . /fli6«o jg of]hgfdf Joj:yfkg ubf{ ( b]lv !@ s/f]8 dxTjk'0f{ / cem} k|ltlglwTj x'g rfFr/Ú lrtjgdf klg b]lvPsf] a8{ Pzf]l;Pzg ;f];fO6L ;f}/fxf lrtjgsf
laqmLljt/0f tyf kof{ko{6g ljsf; jgsf] j}1flgs Joj:yfkg af/] So'ljs lkm6 sf7 pTkfbg ug{ g;s]sf dWo kxf8L e]usf o:tf cWoIf /d]z rf}w/Ln] hfgsf/L lbg'eof] . Ps xhf/ %)) ld6/b]lv rf/
u/]/ ljlQo cfDbfgL a9\g] u/L pNn]v lyof] . @)$% ;fndf jgsf] ;lsG5 . t/ clxn] g]kfnn] ! s/f]8 If]qx?sf] klxrfg u/L 5'6o\ fpFb} hfg xhf/ ld6/ prfOdf kfOg] of] r/f clxn];Dd lrtjgdf b]lvPsf] lyPg .
jg Joj:yfkg ul/g' kb{5 . u' ? of] h gfdf klg lbuf] jg So'ljs lkm6 sf7 klg pTkfbg ug{ klg ;lsG5 . Pp6} jgdf g'g b]lv lzjk'/L gfufh{'g /fli6«o lgs'~hdf of] r/f cfuGt'ssf ¿kdf btf{ ePsf]
• t/fO{ If]qdf sf7 pTkfbg, kxf8L Joj:yfkgsf] nflu j}1flgs jg ;s]sf] 5}g . aflx/L b]zaf6 sf7 ;' g ;Dd kmnfpg -sf7, bfp/f, 5 . of] r/f;lxt ca lrtjgdf ^%& k|hfltsf r/f kfOG5g\ . …nfdk'R5|]
If]qdf dWod ;fO{hsf sf7, bfp/f Joj:yfkg ug],{ kl/dflh{t jg gLlt pTkfbg ug' { k /] s f] cj:yf 5 . jGohGt' To;df klg sldnf b]lv rfFr/Ú r/f e'6fg, rLg, nfj; Dofgdf/, yfONof08, letotgfdf kfOg]
tyf u}/ sfi7 jg k}bfjf/ pTkfbg @)%& df lbuf] Pj+ j}1flgs jg g]kfndf jif]{gL @ s/f]8 %) nfv xflQ ;Dd ;+/If0f ug{_ TotL ;xh u/]sf] 5 . lrtjg /fli6«o lgs'~hdf r/f x]g{sf nflu klg w]/} ko{6s
tyf tt\ ;DalGwt pBd ljsf; Joj:yfkg ug],{ lj=;+= @)^( df hf/L So'lkm6 sf7 OG8f]g]l;of, dn]l;of t x'Fb}g . tyflk;du| ?kdfh}ljs cfpg] u5{g\ . ljleGg b]zaf6 nfdf] b"/L to ub}{ r/f hf8f] 5Ngsf nflu
/ lxdfnL If]qdf u}/ sfi7 jg ;d[l4sf nflu jg eGg] cjwf/0ff nufotsf b]zx?af6 cfpF5 . sf7 ljljwtf ;+/If0f x'gk' b{5 eGg] s'/fdf oxfF cfpg] u5{g\ .
k}bfjf/ / r/0f Joj:yfkgdf hf]8 kqdf lbuf] Pj+ j} 1 flgs jg lgof{tdf dfq} jif]{gL c/jf}+ ?k}of
lbg' kb{5 . Joj:yfkg ug],{ j}1flgs jg ljsf; ljb]lz+b} cfPsf] 5 . xfdL sxfF k|z:t udL{ df};ddf x'g;Sg] cfunfuLsf 36gfx¿ / ;f]af6 x'g;Sg] hgwgsf] Iflt
• ;fd' b flos jgsf] xsdf eg] sfo{ljlw, @)&! sf] k[i7e"dLdf dfqfdf sf7 5, h'g ;b'kof]u x'g
pkef]Qmf ;d"xsf] cfsf/ / jgsf] lbuf]÷j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkg pNn]v ;s]sf] 5}g . To;}n] jif]g{ L nfvf}+ So"lkm6
Go"gLs/0f ug{ lgDgfg';f/ ug]{ u/f}+ .
If]qkmn cg';f/ sfo{of]hgf lgdf{0f 5 . !$cf}+ of]hgfsf] p2]Zodf lbuf] sf7 To;} v]/ uO{/x]sf] 5 . To;df • ;nfO{, nfO6/h:tf cfuf] afNg] ;fdu|Lx? afnaflnsf tyf dfgl;s ;Gt'ng 7Ls
tyf gjLs/0fsf] k|fjwfg ul/g' jg Joj:yfkgåf/f jg If] q sf] klg a'9f] ?vx? w]/} 5g\ . n8]sf gePsf JolQmx¿n] ge]6g\ ] 7fpFdf /fvf}F .
kb{5 . pTkfbsTj / jg k}bfjf/ pTkfbg ?vx? dfq sf6\g,] v8f ?vx? sf6\g
• jg gLltnfO{ cy{ gLlt;Fu ;dGjo a[ l 4 ug{ ] tyf ;f] x L of] h gfsf] gkfpg] Joj:yfn] ubf{ w]/} a'9f ?vx? • vfgf ksfO;s]kl5 cfuf] /fd|f; ] uF lgefcf},F vfgf ksfpg] UofF; k|ofustf{n] r'nf],
u/L jg Joj:yfkg ul/g' kb{5 . /0fgLltdf ;xeflutfd'ns lbuf] Pj+ dlSsP/ wf]lb|P/ To;} v]/ hfg] u/]sf /]un
' 6] / tyf nfO6/ cflb ;do ;dodf lg/LIf0f u/f}F .
• xfn aGb cj:yfdf /x]sf] jg j}1flgs Joj:yfkg ug]{ pNn]v 5 . 5g\ . ;dfGotof &)÷*) jif{df ?v • r'/f]6 laF8Lh:tf j:t'x¿ k|of]ukZrft\ hyfefjL gkmfnf}F / cfuf] /fd|f] ;Fu lgefcf}F .
k}bfj/sf] ;+sng, laqmL ljt/0f o;} u /L g] k fn ;/sf/sf] cf=j= sf6\g pko'Qm x'G5 . t/ xfdL sxfF
tTsfn v'nfpg' kb{5 . @)&%–)&^ sf nflu hf/L ah]6 Tof] k|rng 5}g . To;}n] ubf{ Psflt/ • k]6f« n
] , l8h]n, UofF; :6];gsf] jl/kl/ ;nfO{, nfO6/h:tf ;fdu|Lsf] a]rlavg tyf
• pTkfbgd'vL jg Joj:yfkg k4tL jStJodf jgsf] j}1flgs Joj:yfkg jif]{gL s/f]8f}+ So'lkm6 sf7 ljb]zaf6 k|of]u gu/f}F .
cjnDjg ul/g' kb{5 . sf7sf] ul/g] sfo{qmd /x]sf] s'/f pNn]v cfpg] / csf]l{ t/ cfkm\g} b]zdf ePsf]
cfjZostf ;xh?kdf kl/k'lt{ x'g] ePsf] lyof] . lj=;+= @)^) df sf7sf] ;b'kof]u x'g g;Sbf /fHonfO{ • cfunfuLsf 36gf ePdf bdsn, ;'/IffsdL{ / ;~rf/dfWoddf va/ u/f}F .
vfnsf] x'g' kb{5 . jg If]qsf] pBd ;fem]bf/L jgsf] cjwf/0ff z'? eof] . 3f6f 5 . 7'nf ?vx?sf sf/0f • ;Dej eP;Dd 3/ tyf sfof{nodf cUgL lgoGqs pks/0f /fvf}F .
k|j4{g x'g] lsl;dsf] Joj:yfkg TotL j]nf klg ;xeflutfd"ns k'g?Tkfbgdf klg ;d:of b]lvPsf] • cfunfuLsf 36gf 36]df dlxnf, afnaflnsf, j[4j[4f tyf czQmx¿sf] ;'/Iffdf
x'g' kb{5 . tl/sfn] lbuf] Pj+ j}1flgs jg 5 . ;fgf ?vx? plrt jftfj/0fsf]
• h'g lsl;dsf] jg Joj:yfkg eP Joj:yfkg ug]{ eGg] pNn]v 5 . cefjn] ubf{ ga9\g] ePsf 5g\ . ljz]if Wofg lbcf}F .
klg g]kfnsf] jgnfO{ cfly{s klxn]sf gLlt, lgod, sfg'gx?df klg otf j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkgsf] • cfunfuLsf] 36gf s'g} klg a]nf 36\g] ePsf] x'bF f kfgLsf ;|ft] x? rfn" cj:yfdf
;d[l4sf ?kdf k|of]u ul/g' kb{5 . j}1flgs / lbuf] jg Joj:yfkg b'a} s'/f] ug]{ xf] eg] g]kfndf of] sfo{qmd
vfnL ;+/If0f u/]/ dfq xF'b}g . zAbsf] k|of]u ePsf] b]lvG5 . nfu" ePsf] sl/j Ps bzs e} ;s]sf]
/fvf}F .
cfGtl/s cfjZostfnfO{ ;Djf]wg s] x' g ;S5 jg Joj:yfkgsf] 5 . k"0f{?kdf jg Joj:yfkgsf]
ub}{ jgaf6 cfly{s kmfO{bf x'g] u/L l6gf (TINA) km\ o fS6/ < j}1flgs d'No / dfGotfdf cfwfl/t
lgof{tdf hf]8 lbO{g' kb{5 . l6gf (TINA) km\ofS6/ M TINA eO{ Joj:yfklso sfo{x? ;~rfng
• jg If]qsf] ;'zf;gsf] cfwf/ tyf = There Is No Alternative x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . jg Joj:yfkgsf]
;'rsx? lgwf{/0f ul/g' kb{5 . sGh/e]l6e a]nfotL k|wfgdGqL j}1flgs l;4fGtM jg Joj:yfkgsf]
zAbhfn dfu{/]6 Yofr/n] Pp6f gf/f cS;/ p2]Zo cg';f/ clxn] pd|s ] f lj?jfx?
jg Joj:yfkgsf] d'Vo cfwf/ k|of]u ug]{ ub{yM] (TINA), dtnj sf6\g nfos ?v x'gsf] nflu slt g] k fn ;/sf/
eg]s} jg ;Da4{g k|0ffnLsf] k|of]u
xf] . clxn] j}1flgs jg Joj:yfkg
"There Is No Alternative" .
pgsf cg' ; f/ ahf/sf] nflu
jif{ nfU5 -dfgf}+ *) jif{_ < eGg]
cfwf/df To;sf] lgwf{/0f ul/G5 . ;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
sL lbuf] jg Joj:yfkg eGg] b'O{
zAbhfndf ax;x? ;'Gg ;lsG5 .
8f= gfu]Gb| k|;fb ofbjsf cg';f/
cy{Joj:yf dfq sfd ug]{ k|0ffnL xf] .
ToxfF cGo ljsNkx?sf] s' g }
k|efjsf/Ltf x'bg} . ahf/df ljsNksf]
jflif{s ?kdf slt ?v sf6\g] / slt
lj?jf pdfg]{ To;sf] k"0f{ lx;fj u/L
jflif{s ?kdf tf]lsPsf] km]lnË s'k -
;"rgf tyf k|;f/0f ljefu
@)&& ;fn r}t @@ ut] cfOtaf/ 5

dfS;{jfbsf tLg ;|ft] / tLg ;+36s c·sf ;Gbe{df


ædfS;{jfb dfS;{sf ljrf/x? / /x]sf] 5 . dfS;{jfb k'FhLjfbsf] åGåjfbL /x]sf] k'li6 x'g', k|s[ltsf s_ bz{ g zf:q dfS;{jfbsf] hGd ePsf] xf] . åGåfTds 5 . lsgeg] cfhsf] ;fd|fHojfb /
pgsf] lzIffsf] Jojl:yt z[ªv
\ nf xf] . k|f/lDes cj:yfdf ljsl;t ePsf] cg] s k| l qmofx?af/] kl/slNkt dfS;{jfbsf] klxnf] ;+36s c+u tyf P]ltxfl;s ef}ltsjfb dfS;{jfbL ;j{xf/fju{aLrsf] eLif0f ;+3if{sf] o'u
pGgfO;f}+ ztfAbLdf dfS;{jfbsf tLg xf] . åGåfTds tyf P] l txfl;s cGtM;DaGwsf 7fpFdf jf:tljs bz{gzf:q xf] . o;n] k|s[lt, ;dfh bz{g xf] / of] g} ;j{xf/fju{sf] xf] . cfh dfS;{ j fbn] klxnf] d f
;+ u 7s tTjx?sf] pNn] v ub} { ef}ltsjfb, cltl/Qm d"Nosf] l;4fGt, cGtM;DaGwsf] :yfkgf / / ljrf/wf/fTds ljsf;sf clt ljZjb[li6sf]0f xf] . dfS;{jfb / dfS;{jfbL dfS;{ j fbsf] ljsf; u/] 5 eg]
ju{;3+ if{ tyf Oltxf;df an k|of]usf] ef}ltsjfbsf] k'li6 x'g k'Uof] . To; ;fdfGo lgodx?sf] cWoog ub{5 . bz{g ljZj ;j{xf/fju{sf] d'lQmsf] dfS;{jfbsf] u'0ffTds ljsf;sf] bf];f| ]
e"ldsf / j}1flgs ;dfhjfb tyf kl/l:yltdf tyfslyt k|sl[ t bz{gsf]
;fDojfb o;sf cfwf/e"t dfGotf cGTo eO{ k|s[lt lj1fgsf ljljw
x'g\ . x/]s j:t'sf] hGd / ljsf;sf zfvfx?n] :jtGq lj1fg aGgsf nflu
cfwf/ / ;|ft] x? x'G5g\ . of] lj1fgsf] j}1flgs cfwf/ tof/ eof] .
;fj{ef}d lgod xf] . dfS;{jfbsf hGdsf #_ ;} 4 flGts ;| f ] t
klg lglZrt j}1flgs cfwf/ / ;|ft] x? dfS;{jfbsf ;}4flGts ;|ft] tLg
/x]sf 5g\, hf] lgDg k|sf/ 5g\– k|sf/sf /x]sf 5g\, tL x'g\ M zf:qLo
!_ ;fdflhs – cfly{ s ;| f ] t hd{g bz{g, zf:qLo c+uh ]| L /fhgLlts
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/ o;sf] k4lt åGåjfb xf] . dfS;{jfb k|sl[ t lj1fgdf ljBdfg oflGqs tyf bz{gzf:q, /fhgLlts cy{zf:q rnfpFb} j}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] lj1fgnfO{ ;a} 3/ Ps} l8hfOgsf 5g\ . w]/} sf]7fx? 5g\ . b]Vgdf oL 3/ s'g} xf]6n
;j{ x f/f qmflGtsf] lj1fg xf] . clwe" t jfbL lrGtgsf lj?4 / j}1flgs ;dfhjfb dfS;{jfbsf :yflkt ug{' eof] . o;/L pTkfbg ;+3if{, eGbf sd 5}gg\ . @)!! df ufpFsf dflg;n] o; ufpFsf] %) cf}+ jif{ufF7 Ps
dfS;{jfb qmflGtsf/L / cfnf]rs åGåjfbsf] :yfkgf, k|s[lt lj1fg tLg ;+36s c+u x'g\ . ju{;3+ if{ / j}1flgs k|of]usf aLraf6 cUnf] uugr'DaL ejg agfP/ dgfPsf lyP .
6 @)&& ;fn r}t @@ ut] cfOtaf/

hGdaf/cg';f/ dflg;sf] eljio / cfr/0f Û


dflg;sf] hGd]sf] ;do / p;sf] lbg'x'G5 / tkfO{+sf] ;'Gb/tfn] *= tkfO{+x?nfO{ w]/} l/; t p7\b}g x'gx' g' 5 ] .
kl08t ohdfg ;+jfb Û
an/fd ltdlN;gf
jftfj/0fn] p;sf] eljio lgwf{/0f ug]{ w]/h} ;f]nfO{ cfslif{t klg u/]sf] t/ Psrf] 6 L l/;fO;s] k l5 ^= olb tkfO{+ k'?if x'g'x'G5 eg]
ub{5 . s'g afns s'g af/ / ;dodf x'G5 . tkfO{s + f] l/; zfGt x'g lgs} ;do dlxnfx?df / dlxnf x'gx' G' 5 eg] kl08t afh],
hGd]sf x'g\, pgLx?sf] pQm ;fOtn] !)= x'g t tkfO{+ ;a}nfO{ ;Ddfg nfUg] ub{5 . k'?ifx?df nf]slk|o x'gx' G' 5 . s]xL s'/f ;f]Wg' lyof]
:jfefj / rl/q lgwf{ / 0f ug] { ug{ ' x ' G 5 t/ tkfO{ + s f] d' 8 L (= tkfO{+x? s;}nfO{ klg ;lhn} &= tkfO{+ cfˆgf] ;DaGwdf lgs} v;v; v;v; nflu/x]sf] 5
Hof]ltifx?n] atfpg] u/]sf 5g\ . :jefjn] tkfO{n + fO{ tgfj lbg] dfkmL lbg'xG' g . s'g} klg JolQm ;hs x'gx' G' 5 t/ slxn]sfFxL olx
To;}n] s'g af/ hGd]sf dflg;x? ub{5 . Ps k6s dggk/] d f tL ;hstf g} ;DaGwdf ef/L kg]{ emsf]{ gdfGg] eP ;f]W5' Û
s:tf x'G5g\ / pgLx?sf] hLjgsf] d+ u naf/ JolQmx?n] h] u/] klg tkfO{n + fO{ ub{5 . n eg s] v;v; nfu]sf] 5 Û
ljsf;qmd s;/L cufl8 a9]sf] != d+unaf/ hGd]sf JolQmx? lgs} k|efljt t'Nofpg ;Sb}gg\ . *= tkfO{s + f lgs} w]/} ;fyL x'G5g\
x'G5 . To;nfO{ xfdLn] oxfF k|:t't axfb'/, :df6{ / PlS6e x'g] !)= tkfO{+x? vlr{nf] :jfefjsf] t/ ;fFrf] ldq lgs} sd .
xfd|f] 3/df v/sf] 5fgf] 5
u/]sf 5f} . ub{5g\ . x'g'x'G5 / cfˆgf] lg0f{o cfkm}F (= tkfO{n + fO{ l/; lgs} sd cfpFb5 eujfg\s \ f] 3/df ;'gsf] 5fgf] 5
cfOtaf/ @= oL JolQmx? c? dflg;x?nfO{ lng'xG' 5 . t/ ha cfpF5 glhs ePsf eujfg\\ xfdLeGbf wgL 5g\ xf] <
!= cfOtaf/ hGd] s f JolQm ;xof]u ug{ ;w}F tTk/ /xG5g\, !!= tkfO{+sf] j}jflxs hLjg lgs} JolQmsf] xfnt v/fa x'G5 .
;sf/fTds ;f] r sf dflns pgLx?sf] :jefj k/f]ksf/L ;'vL x'G5 lsgeg] tkfO{+ cfˆgf] !)= tkfO{s + f] /fd|f u'0fx? g} tkfO{s + f olt wgL aGgsf] nflu
x'G5g\ / lgs} ljZj;gLo x'G5g\ . lsl;dsf] x'g] ub{5 . kf6{ g /sf] lgs} x] / larf/ nflu g/fd|f] ;flat x'G5 . eujfg\n] s] sfd u5{g\ kl08t afh] <
@= tkfO{+x? cGt{d'vL x'g] ePsf #= oL JolQmx? cfˆgf] x/]s sfd ug{x' G' 5 . !!= tkfO{; + uF wgsf] sdL x'bF g} t/ /fd /fd /fd Û
sf/0f yf]/} ;fyLx? x'G5g\ . lgs} uDeL/tfsf ;fy ug] { !@= tLa| a'l4 x'g] ePsf sf/0f tkfO{ + To;nfO{ art ug{
#= lgs} ;+jb] gzLn x'g] ePsf sf/0f ub{5g\ . a'waf/ hlGdPsf dflg;x? k|foM ;Sg'xG' g . t]/f] d'vdf ls/f k/f];\
tkfO{+x? s;}n] eg]sf] s'/fnfO{ $= d+unaf/ hGdg] JolQmx? unt z}lIfs If]qdf b]lvG5g\ . !@= tkfO{n + ] k|To]s s'/fx?df ;kmntf of] klg s'g} k|Zg xf] kfkL <
w]/} lbg;Dd dgdf lnO /xg' s'/fx? ;xg g;Sg] ePsf sf/0f lalxaf/ lgs} l9nf] kfpg'xG' 5 t/ ha
x'G5 . pgLx?nfO{ l/; klg w]/} g} p7\g] != lalxaf/ hGd]sf JolQm lgs} kfpg'xG' 5 :yfoL ?kdf kfpg'xG' 5
of] t eujfg\nfO{ ufnL xf] ufnL Û
$= tkfO{x+ ?df lrGtg zlQm lgs} ub{5 . d]wfjL, zfGt / lgs} ;dembf/ csf]{ zAbdf eGg'kbf{ tkfO{+ clg lg kl08t afh],
w]/} x'g] ePsf sf/0f n]vg cyjf %= pgLx?nfO{ ljnfl;tfsf] hLjg x'g] ub{5g\ . d]xgtL x'g'x'G5 / ;+3if{ ug{ xfd|f] 3/df ;fgf] aRrfn] klg
jsfntsf] If]qdf x'gx' g' 5 ] . afFRg dgkg]{ x'bF f oL JolQmx?;Fu @= tkfO{+ dflg;x?nfO{ lgs} OHht ;Sg'xG' 5 .
%= tkfO{x+ ? c?nfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ;w}F lgs} w]/} n'uf, uf8L, 3/nufot ug{x' G' 5 To;sf/0f dflg;x?sf zlgaf/ slxn} b"w lkpg kfpFbg}
tTk/ t x'g'x'G5 g} t/ tkfO{+sf] ljnfl;tfsf ;a} ;fdu|Lx? x'g] nflu cfbz{ klg x'g'x'G5 . != zlgaf/ hGd]sf JolQm lgs} eujfg\ ;Fw} b"wn] g'xfpF5g
rfF8} l/;fpg] afgLn] tkfO{+n] ub{5 . #= tkfO{+ ;kmf / :jR5 larf/wf/fsf uDeL/ / lhDd]jf/ x'g] ub{5g\ . ld7fO{ kmnk"mn / vL/ vfG5g\
;xof]u ug]{ JolQmx? tkfO{+;Fu ^= o:tf JolQmx? OdfGbf/ x'g] dflns x'gx' G' 5 . @= tkfO{+ lgs} d]wfjL, a'l4dfg /
l/;fpg] ub{5g\ . ub{5g\ / ;fFrf] s'/f af]Ng] ub{5g\ $= tkfO{s + f] leq g]tT[ j ug]{ u'0f x'G5 lahg]; dfOG8sf x'gx' G' 5 . csf]{ ;'g} ;'gsf uxgf nufpF5g\
^= tkfO{+ k};fjfn x'gx' G' 5 / cfˆgf] h;sf/0f cfˆgf] ana'Ftfdf g} To;sf/0f tkfO{+ h'g If]qdf sfd zAbdf eGg] xf] eg] tkfO{+ x/]s kl08t afh],
ana' F t fdf g} k} ; f sdfpg] ;kmntf xfFl;n ug]{ ub{5g\ . ug{x' G' 5 ToxfFsf] pRr kb cjZo s'/fdf k/km]S6 x'g'x'G5 .
sf]l;; ug{x' G' 5 . &= logLx? ;fdflhs x'Fb}gg\ / xfFl;n ug{x' G' 5 . #= tkfO{ + xfO Snf; j:t' x ?
eujfg\ cN5L, P]of;L / ld7f;] 5g xf] <
&= tkfO{+ sg} klg s'/fdf ;Demf}tf eujfgdfly ljZjf; /fVg] %= tkfO{+ lgs} d]xgt ug{x' G' 5 / dgk/fpg'xG' 5 . tkfO{n + ] nufpg] gf/fo0f gf/fo0f gf/fo0f Û
ug{x' G' g . ub{5g\ . cfˆgf ;fdfgx? cfk"mn] eg] s} n'ufb]lv h'Qf;Ddn] tkfO{s + f] xfO{ t]/f] g/sdf af; xf];\
*= tkfO{+ ;f}Gbo{nfO{ dg k/fpg'xG' 5 *= o:tf JolQmx? ;lhn} ; F u 7fpFdf xf];\ eGg] rfxg'xG' 5 . Snf; k;{gfln6L emNsfpF5 .
To;sf/0f cfOtaf/ hGd]sf s;}nfO{ dfkmL lbFbg} g\ . ^= :jtGqtf tkfO{+nfO{ dg kg]{ $= tkfO{+ x'g t ;kmf dgsf] x'g' rf}/f;L nfv h'gL
JolQmx? w]/} h;f] k|d] ljjfx ug]{ (= oL JolQmx? lgs} vlr{nf x'g] ePsf sf/0f aGwgdf a:g x'G5 t/ slxn] sfFxL :ki6 t}n
F ] u'x] ls/f x'g' k/f];\ Û
ub{5g\ . ub{5g\ / cfˆgf] lg0f{o cfkm}F lng] rfxg'xG' g . jQmfsf] ?kdf tkfO{s + f] cfnf]rgf kl08t afh],
(= tkfO{s + f] ?k/+udf tkfO{n + ] cfk"mn] ub{5g\ . &= tkfO{+ rfF8} g} dflg;x?nfO{ klg x'g] ub{5 .
cfkm} n fO{ efUodfgL g} !)= pgLx?sf] j}jflxs hLjg lgs} ljZjf; ug{x' G' 5 h;sf] k|ltkmn %= tkfO{s + f] nflu s'g} klg ;DaGw d]/f af lhpFbf x'bF f
;Demg'kg]5 { . ;'vdo tl/sfn] JotLt x'g] tkfO{+n] ef]Ug k5{ . lgs} dxTjk"0f{ x'g] ub{5 / sf]bfsf] /f]6L klg vfGy]
!)= tkfO{+ cfˆgf] ;DaGwnfO{ lgs} ub{5 / pgLx?n] lgs} /fd|f] *= tkfO{+sf] w]/} ;fyL x'G5g\ t/ ;fyLx?sf] nflu h] klg ug{
;Ddfg ug{ ' x ' G 5 To;sf/0f hLjg;fyL kfpg] ub{5g\ . ;fFrf] ldq lgs} sd . tof/ x'g'x'G5 . af;L eft v'j ld7f] dfGy]
dflg;x? tkfO{ + s f] emgSs !!= s'g} klg s'/fdf l5§} dg el/g] (= tkfO{+ :6«6] km/jf8{ x'gx' G' 5 / ^= tkfO{+ k};fjfnf x'gx' G' 5 t/ tkfO{+ xfdLnfO{ 5SofP/
l/;fpg] afgL eOsg klg s'/f oL JolQmx?sf] gsf/fTds ;'Gb/tfsf] lk|o x'g'x'G5 . l5§} k};f vr{ ug{x' G' g . ;fOnLsf] x'6n ] df /S;L klg wf]Sy]
dflg;;x? tkfO{+nfO{ 5f]8\g kIf xf] . !)= lalxaf/ hGd]sf JolQm cfsif{s &= tkfO{+nfO{ ;+uLt / v]ndf ?rL
rfxGgg\ . !@= :6«6] km/jf8{ x'g] ePsf sf/0f / cG6]G;g lk|o x'g] ePsf sf/0f x'G5 . af d/]kl5
;f] d af/ w]/}h;f] dflg;x?n] pgLx?sf] w]/}h;f] lolgx? k|]d ljjfx *= tkfO{n + fO{ l/; p7]kl5 g/fd|f] ;Fu afnfO{ bfg ug{ eGb}
!= ;f]daf/ hGd]sf JolQmx?sf] af/]df unt wf/0ff agfpg] u5{g\ . pgLx?sf] j}jflxs hLjg p7\5 eg] unt s'/fx?nfO{ ;xg xh'/ of] s'/f r9f eGg' x'G5
:d/0f zlQm lgs} t]h x'G5 . ub{5g\ t/ oL JolQmx?sf] dg ;'vdo x'g] ub{5 . ;Sg'xG' g .
@= tkfO{+ d[be ' fifL x'gx' G5 t/ tkfO{+ lgs} sf]dn x'g] ub{5 . !!= :jf:Yosf] b[li6sf]0fn] lalxaf/ (= tkfO{+ lhl2 x'g'x'G5 / cfk"mn] Tof] s'/f r9f eGg' x'G5
lgs} d'8L x'g'x'G5 . a' w af/ hGd]sf JolQmx? w]/h } ;f] ;fgf]– eg]sf] h:t} x'gk' 5{ eGg] larf/ d]/f afnfO{ dg kg]{
#= tkfO{+ lgs} ;+jb] gzLn x'gx' G' 5 != a'waf/ hGd]sf JolQmx? zfGt, ltgf] /f]usf] lzsf/ x'g] ub{5g\ /fVg'xG' 5 .
To;sf/0f lgs} rfF8} ge{; ljb'ifL / lahg]z dfOG8sf x'g] h:t} Hj/f], k]6 b'vfO{ cyjf !)= tkfO{+ s;}nfO{ klg 7]; k'of{pg Pp6} s'/f dfUg' x'Gg
x'gx' G' 5 . ub{5g\ . 6fpsf] b'vfO{ . rfxg'xG' g . Pp6} s'/f ;f]Wg' x'Gg
$= tkfO{n + fO{ cfˆgf] kl/jf/;Fu ;do @= tkfO{+sf] hLjgdf of]hgfx?sf] !@= lalxaf/ hGd]sf JolQmx? w]/} !!= tkfO{s + f] j}jflxs hLjg ;'vdo d/]kl5 d]/f af klg
latfpg lgs} /dfOnf] nfU5 . s'g} :yfg geP klg tkfO{+ lgs} k};f sdfpg] ub{5g\ / dg vf]n/] x' G 5 lsgeg] tkfO{ + cfˆgf]
%= tkfO{s + f nflu ;DaGw lgs} dxTj ;'Jojl:yt tl/sfn] sfd ug{ vr{ klg u5{g\ . kf6{g/nfO{ lgs} s]o/ ug{'x'G5 . eujfg\ ag] xf] afh] <
/fVg]5 . rfxg'xG' 5 . z' q maf/ gq lsg d]/f afnfO{
^= tkfO{+ k9fO{df ltI0f x'gx' G' 5 /
cfˆgf] sl/o/df lgs} dfly
#= tkfO{+ ;kmf / :jR5 ljrf/wf/fsf
dflns x'gx' G' 5 .
!= z'qmaf/ hGd]sf JolQmsf] dg,
lbdfu / zl// lgs} /fd|f] x'g]
af6f] sf6\bf eujfg\nfO{ dg kg]{ s'/f r9f eg]sf] <
k'Ug'xG' 5 . $= tkfO{n + fO{ gofF–gofF s'/fx? hfGg ub{5 . xl/ xl/ xl/ Û
&= ;f] d af/ hGdg] dlxnfx?
eljiodf lgs} dfof / s]o/ ug]{
lgs} dg nfU5 .
%= tkfO{+sf] s'/f ug]{ tl/sf lgs}
@= tkfO{+x? w]/}h;f] /rgfTds
If]qdf b]lvg'x'G5 .
h]af| xl/ xl/ xl/ Û Û
t]/f ;ft k':tf g/s k?g
>LdtLsf] ?kdf kl/lrt
x'lG5g\ .
*= ;f]daf/ hGd]sf k'?ifx? lgs}
k|efjzfnL 5 .
^= tkfO{+x? s'g} klg s'/fdf Tolt
tgfjdf gx'g] ePsf sf/0f
#= tkfO{n + fO{ ;+uLt, lkmNdL If]q,
ldl8of, v]nh:tf s'/fx?n]
cfslif{t ug]{ ub{5 .
qml;ªaf6 kfkL, gfl:ts ck/fwL
o:tf] c;t af]Ng ;Sg] tF <
dfof ug]{ :jefjsf x'G5g\ t/
cln nf]eL x'g] ePsf sf/0f
tkfO{x+ ? hLjgdf lgs} ;Gt'i6
x'G5 .
$= tkfO{+ dw'/ :j/df af]Ng'xG' 5 /
dgdf]xs d':sfgsf dflns dfq af6f] kl08t afh],
pgLx?n] k| f oh;f] cfˆgL &= ;sf/fTds ;f]r ;Fu} hLjgdf x'gx' G' 5 . tkfO{n] t
>LdtLsf] ufnL ;'Gg'kg]{ x'G5 .
(= tkfO{+ cfˆgf] ;f}Gbo{df lgs} Wofg
cl3 a9\ g ] tkfO{ + x ?n] lgs}
;kmntf xft kfg{' x'G5 .
%= tkfO{+ lgs} efj's x'gx' G' 5 h;sf
sf/0f slxn]sfFxL tkfO{+ b'vL klg
sf6f}+ . d}n] ;f]ws ] f s]xL s'/fsf] hjfkm lbg' ePg
vfnL l/;fpg' dfq eof]

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+ vfnL ufnL ug{' eof]


vfnL >fk lbg' eof]
xh'/nfO{ hjfkm cfPg xf] <
-sfg y'Gb}_

OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ tF t g/s kl/; kl/;


tF c;tLn] dnfO{ klg g/s n}hfg] eO;
eujfg\sf] oqf] lgGbf
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 d]/f sfgn] ;'g] cfh
dnfO{ dfkm u/ eujfg\
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
dnfO{ g/s hfgaf6 arfpm Û
@)&& ;fn r}t @@ ut] cfOtaf/ 7

sDo'lg:6 ;dfh, j}1flgs ;dfhjfb / o;sf ljz]iftfx¿


sDo'lgHd Pp6f o:tf] cfGbf]ng / 5 . hd{g cfOl8of]nf]hLdf dfS;{ jf:tljs cfwf/ xf] , oBlk a'hj'{ f clwsf/sf] ;+sL0f{ IfLlthnfO{ s'g} klg leGgtfnfO{ ;+st] ub}g{ . cfjZostfx?dfly ljho kfpF5g\ .
xf], h;df eljiosf] ;dfhsf nflu / P+ u ] N ;n] eGg' e of] – ;fDojfb jf:tljstf JolQmsf] cGt/lqmofsf] k"/} kf/ ug{ ;lsG5 / ;dfhn] cfˆgf sDo' l g:6 ;dfhsf] cj:yfn] sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] x/]s If]qdf dfgj
ckgfOg] l;4fGtx¿ / klxn]sf ;a} cfGbf]ngx?eGbf leGg pkh dfq xf] . Aofg/x¿df n]Vg ;Sg]5– k|To]saf6 dflg;sf ;a} ;fdYo{x¿sf] k"mn km'N5 r] t gfn] Ps lglZrt e" l dsf
sfo{qmdx¿af/] 5nkmn, ax; / 5 lsgls o;n] pTkfbg / ;+;u{sf uf]yf sfo{qmdsf] cfnf]rgfdf cfˆgf] Ifdtfcg';f/, k|To]snfO{ cfˆgf] / o;}n] >dn] p;sf] Ifdtfsf] k"0f{ v]Ng'k5{ . of] cToGt dxTjk"0f{ 5
lg0f{o ul/G5 . ;dfh hlxn] klg ;a} ;DaGwx?sf] cfwf/nfO{ dfS;{n] sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] k|sl[ tnfO{ cfjZostfcg';f/ . ;a} k|sf/sf] dfkgnfO{ cem kmnbfoL agfpF5 . ls sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] :yfkgf lagf
ultzLn 5 / ;fDojfb klg . pN6fOlbG5 / klxnf] k6s lgDg zAbx¿df j0f{g ug{e ' Psf] 5– bf;Tjaf6 JolQmsf] d'lQm eg]sf] o;afx]s, sDo'lg:6 ;dfhn] k|To]s of] l:ylt k|fKt x'g ;Sb}g . sDo'lg:6
;fDojfbsf] k|fylds / Psdfq p2]Zo JolQmnfO{ cfˆgf] l:ylt h:tf];s ' } eP ;dfhsf] /fhgLlts ;+ u 7gsf]
lqmz cof{n xf] . sf]nfsf]J:sLsf] ljrf/df dfS;{sf] klg cfjZostfcg';f/ k|fKt ug]{ jf:tljs k|sl[ t s:tf] x'g] eGg] s'/f
p2] Z o JolQmnfO{ cefju| : t cfZjf;g lbG5 . oxfF tYo of] 5 ls dxTjk"0f{ 5 . ;fDojfbn] ju{ljxLg
sDo'lg:6 g}ltstf, ul/aLaf6 prfNg' / cdfgjLs/0fnfO{ dflg;sf cfjZostfx¿ p;sf] ;dfhsf] kl/sNkgf u/]sf]n] /fHosf]
/f]Sg' xf], h;af6 dflg; kLl8t 5 . l:ylt jf af}l4s k|flKtdf lge{/ x'bF g} . cfjZostf kg] { 5} g eGg] s' / f
j}rfl/s, /fhgLlts / >d ljefhgsf] pGd"ngn] g}lts / To;sf/0f sfd ug{' / >dsf] ;§fdf pNn]vgLo 5 . /fHo cGttM ljnf]k
af}l4s ktgsf] cGTo ug]{ ;'lglZrt p;nfO{ rflxg] s' / f k| f Kt ug{ ' x'g5 ] . ;a} a'hj'{ ftTjx¿ k"0f{ ¿kdf
g}lts Pstfsf] cleJolQm ub{5 eg] olb cdfgjLs/0f /f]lsof]
/ k|z:t wg–;DklQ pTkfbg eof]
sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] cfwf/e"t l;4fGt
xf] . dfusf] lj:tf/ / af} l 4s
;dfKt x'g]5g\ . dfG5]n] cfˆgf]
cfjZostf, OR5f / 5gf}6cg';f/
xf] . of] ;fdflhs eg] JolQmsf] rf}tkmL{ ljsf; :jrflnt
¿kdf b]vf kg]{5 .
Ifdtfsf] ljsf; b'j} ;Fu;Fu} cufl8
a9\g]5g\ . csf]{ sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf]
cfˆg} ;fdflhs ;+u7g u7g ug]5
bdg jf ha/h:tL :yfoL ¿kdf
{ .

Ps¿ktfsf] cu|;/tf xf] . sDo' l g:6 ;dfhsf ljz] i ftfx?


n] l ggsf] kl/efiffcg' ; f/
p2]Zo xf], Ifdtfx? kQf nufpg' /
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;dfhaf6 ljbf x'g5 ] . s]xL dflg;sf]
ljz]if jf pRr clwsf/ / c¿sf]
g}lts d"Nox? lagf sDo'lg:6 ;dfh Pp6f o:tf] ;dfh
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k/fwLgtfnfO{ gi6 ul/g]5 . sDo'lg:6
;dfhn] k"0f{ :jtGqtf / nf]stGqsf]
dfG5]df Odfgbf/L / sf/vfgfx¿ ;femf :jfldTjdf x'G5g\
/ dflg;x¿ ;femf sfd u5{g\ .
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sfdsf 306f 5f]6\ofP/ gofF / pRr
;'lglZrttf k|bfg ub{5 . s]jn sDo'lg:6
;dfhdf JolQmn] jf:tljs k|hftGqsf]
st{Josf] efjgf ljsl;t sDo' l g:6 ;dfhdf pTkfbgsf
;fwgx¿ dfq ;femf x'Fb}gg\, a¿
d]l;g/Lsf] k|of]u u/]/ JolQmnfO{
sfdsf] lbSs nfUg] cj:yfaf6 d'Qm
:jfb lng ;Sb5 . ju{;lxtsf] /
ha/h:tL yf]kl/Psf] nf]stGq :jtGqtfsf
x'g ;Sb}g . sDo'lg:6 pTkflbt ;a} j:t'x¿ ;d]t sDo'lg:6
;dfhsf ;b:ox¿sf]
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nflu cg'sn" x'bF g} g\ .
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;dfhaf/] sg{kmf]ys { f] ljrf/ 5, Tof] ;dfh h;df dfgj r]tgfn] gofF cfjZostfcg';f/ ljt/0f ul/G5 .
o;}n] lghL pTkfbgaf6 :jtGq eO{
k|z:t cj;/ kfpg]5 . ;fDojfbL
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JolQmsf] Jojxf/df w]/} k|ltaGw
nufpFb5 . ToxfF /fHosf] ultljlwdf
/ ljsl;t e"ldsfaf6 ;dfhsf] ljsf; lgb]l{ zt x'G5 / dflg;x?sf pTkfbg / ljt/0f ug]{ b'an } fO{ ;dfg
nfe x'g]5 . ;fDojfbaf6 alxisf/
cf/f]k unt / k"jf{u|xL tyf å]ifk"0f{
5 . oL JolQmx¿nfO{ sDo'lg:6
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cfˆgf cfjZostfx?dfly ljho kfpF5g\ . sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] x/]s ul/Psf] klxnf] rLh lje]b xf] . of]
sDo' l g:6 ;dfhsf] cfwf/e" t
;dfhsf] k|sl[ t / sfdsfaf/] yfxf
5}g . a? ;fDojfbn] JolQmnfO{ pRr
dflg;x?;Fu :jtGqtf x'G5 ha ls
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of]Uotfcg';f/ cfˆgf st{Jox¿ k"/f
dxTj lbG5 . oxfF eGg'kg]{ s'/f 5 ls
sDo'lg:6 ;dfhdf lj1fg / k|ljlwsf]
:jtGqtfsf ;fy k" 0 f{ ;Gt' l i6
kfpF5g\ . ToxfF /fd|f] ;DaGw / efOrf/f
dxTjk"0f{ 5 ls sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] :yfkgf lagf of] l:ylt k|fKt x'g ug{'kb{5 . of] sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf]
Psbd dxTjk"0f{ ljz]iftf xf] . k|To]s
k|ult JolQmsf] af}l4stfsf] ;j{>i] 7
ljsf;sf nflu lrlgPsf] 5, g ls
;fdflhs hLjgsf] ;a} kIfdf xfjL
x'G5 . sDo'lg:6 ;dfhn] ;x/ / ufpF
;Sb}g . sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] /fhgLlts ;+u7gsf] jf:tljs k|sl[ t JolQmn] s]xL k|sf/sf] st{Jo lgaf{x
ug{'kb{5 . ToxfF s'g} afWotf 5}g ls
s]xL JolQmsf] gfkmf / ?lrdf a9]sf] .
sDo'lg:6 ;+:s[lt klg k'hF LjfbL
aLr s'g} leGgtf /fVb}g . of] dfq
xf]Og, ;a} s[lqd leGgtfx¿ sDo'lg:6
k|To]s JolQm lglZrt st{Jo ug{k' 5{ . ;+:s[lteGbf km/s 5 . e|ft[Tj, ;dfhaf6 x6fOG5 .
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cfˆgf] Ifdtfcg';f/ x'g5 ] . s'g} klg ljsf;n] sDo'lg:6 ;+:s[lt lgdf{0f hflt / wd{sf] ljljwtf /xg]5 t/
kl/sNkgf u/]sf]n] /fHosf] cfjZostf kg]{ 5}g eGg] s'/f pNn]vgLo sfd gug]{ dflg;;Fu /f]6L vfg] x'G5 . b}lgs >d dflg;sf] Psntf ltgLx¿n] s'¿k cfsf/ lng] 5}g /
clwsf/ 5}g . of] sDo'lg:6sf] cfbz{ / :jfy{af6 :jtGq eP/ cfˆgf] ;do ;dfhsf] ljsf;df afwf Nofpg] 5}gg\ .
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kfpFb}g . sDo'lg:6 ;dfh lgsDdf u'0fx¿sf] ljsf;df ;dlk{t ub{5 . kof{Kt / ;dfg cj;/x¿ kfpg]5g\ .
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;dfKt ug{ rfxG5 . sfd clgjfo{ Ps lx:;f xf] . ;fDojfbn] dflg;nfO{ dw]zL, d'l:nd / dWod ju{sf] clwsf/
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sfd ug{ afWo x'g]5g\ eGg] xf]Og . ljZjJofkL b[ l i6sf] 0 f agfpg ug}{ k5{ . To; sf/0f ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL
;dfhaf6 ljbf x'g5] . s]xL dflg;sf] ljz]if jf pRr clwsf/ / n] l ggn] eg] s f 5g\ , xfdL o; l;sfpF5 . s;}nfO{ cfˆg} b]z jf hgtfnfO{ /ftf dfG5]x?sf] qmflGtsf]
k|0ffnLnfO{ gfd sDo'lgHd lbG5f}F, jftfj/0fdf ;Lldt /fVb} g . ofqf df ;fy lbFb,} xfdLk|lt cf:yf,
c¿sf] k/fwLgtfnfO{ gi6 ul/g]5 . sDo'lg:6 ;dfhn] k"0f{ :jtGqtf / h;cGtu{t dflg;x¿nfO{ kl/rflnt ;fdfGotof elgG5 ls sDo'lg:6 e/f];f ug{ xflb{s cg'/f]w ub{5f} . olb
ul/G5, s'g} ljz]if ha/h:tL lagf . ;dfhn] g}ltstfsf] cg'df]bg ub}g{ . o;/L g} cfˆgf] :jfy{ k"/f ug{ k|wfgdGqL
nf]stGqsf] ;'lglZrttf k|bfg ub{5 . s]jn sDo'lg:6 ;dfhdf ;fDojfbn] ha/h:tL ug]{ s'g} klg ;DklQ k|0ffnL gi6 x'G5 . s]xL tyf kbsf] nflu r'gfa x'g] xf] eg] ca
;DefjgfnfO{ c:jLsf/ ub{5 / k'?ifx¿ cj}wflgs / ha/h:tL r'gfadf dtbfg gu/L, dt alx:sf/
JolQmn] jf:tljs k|hftGqsf] :jfb lng ;Sb5 . ju{;lxtsf] / :jtGqtfdf hf]8 lbG5 . JolQmx¿n] pgLx¿sf] hfoh] y faf6 jl~rt ub}{ xfd|f ljsfzsf ;Demf}tfx?
cfˆgf] ;fdflhs st{Jo :j]R5fn] ul/G5g\ . To;}n] ;fDojfb g}ltsxLg ;/sf/;+u ;Demf}tf ug]{ ;dosf]
ha/h:tL yf]kl/Psf] nf]stGq :jtGqtfsf nflu cg'sn " x'bF g} g\ . ug]5 { g\ . oxLF k'h
F Ljfb / ;fDojfb xf] . t/, dfS;{ / pgsf cg'ofoLx¿n] cfjZostf 5 . dfggLo ;f+;bx?n]
;fDojfbnfO{ efjL ;dfhsf] l;4fGt ;r]tg¿kdf ;Dk"0f{ k|fs[lts kl/j]z sDo'lg:6 ;dfhsf] dflyNnf] r/0fdf aLrsf] leGgtf 5 . ;fDojfb g}lts / of] lg/fwf/ ljrf/ :jLsf/ ub}{gg\ . cf]nL ;/sf/sf] /hfOdf ag]sf] cWofb]z
klg eGg ;lsG5 . To;sf/0f o;df -j:t'_ x¿nfO{ xfn cl:tTjdfg dfgj ha >d ljefhgdfly JolQmsf] dfgl;s pTyfgsf] cleJolQm xf], sDo'lg:6 g}ltstf, j}rfl/s, c:jLsf/ / ;+;bdf la/f]w k|bz{g .
qmflGtsf] k|Zg klg hf]l8Psf] 5 . /rgfsf] ?kdf Jojxf/ ub{5, ltgsf] bf;tfk"0f{ lge{/tf n'Kt x'G5, ha r]tgfsf] pRr ¿k xf], hxfF dflg;x¿n] /fhgLlts / g} l ts Pstfsf] c;+aw} flgs /x]sf] dfggLox?sf] k'l:6 .
;j{xf/f qmflGtdfkm{t\ ;dfhjfbsf] k|fs[lts ljz]iftfx¿nfO{ p3fl/lbG5 o;sf] ;fy;fy} dfgl;s / zf/Ll/s sfdlagf afFRg dg k/fpFb}gg\ . cleJolQm xf] . of] ;fdflhs o;l/ kb, dfg / s';L{sf] df]xn] efUg]
:yfkgf cGTo xf]Og, of] t ;'?jft / ltgnfO{ dflg; -JolQm_ x¿sf] >dsf aLrsf] cGt/lj/f]w n'Kt x'G5, ltgLx¿ sfd ug{ dg k/fpF5g\ . Ps¿ktfsf] cu|;/tf xf] . g}lts 6«G] 8n] b]zsf] ljsfzdf lgs} g} 7"nf]
xf] . ;dfhjfbL qmflGtkl5 qmflGt ;fd"lxs zlQmsf] cwLg:y ub{5 . ha >d hLljsf]kfh{gsf] Ps ;fwg sDo'lg:6 ;dfhn] k|To]saf6 d"Nox? lagf dfG5]df Odfgbf/L / Iflt k'/fPsf] 5 . ;+;bLo Joj:yf
hf/L /xg] 5 . sDo' l g:6 ;dfh t;y{, o;sf] ;+u7g / To; Pstfsf dfq geP/ hLjgsf] k|dv ' rfxgf p;sf] Ifdtfcg' ; f/sf] sfd / st{Josf] efjgf ljsl;t x'g ;Sb}g . c;kmn /x]sf] oxLaf6 k'l:6 x'G5 .
:yfkgf ePkl5 eg] qmflGtsf] 68\sf/f] ;t{x¿sf] ef}lts pTkfbg d"ntM aGb5, ha JolQmsf] ;jf{ Ë L0f k|To]snfO{ cfˆgf] cfjZostfcg';f/ sDo'lg:6 ;dfhaf/] sg{kmf]y{sf] To;y{ , clxn] b] z df j} 1 flgs
cfjZostf kb}{g . t/, dhb'/ ju{ cfly{s xf] . sDo'lgHdn] l;h{gf u/]sf] ljsf;sf ;fy;fy} pTkfbs zlQmx¿ 3f]if0ff ub{5 . o;sf nflu ljsf; ljrf/ 5, Tof] ;dfh h;df dfgj ;dfhjfbsf] cfjZostf 5 .
;ts{ /xg]5 tfls k|ltqmflGtsf/L jf:tljstf eg]sf] JolQmsf] :jtGq klg a9\ b } hfG5g\ , ;xsf/L - cfjZos 5 . dfS;{jfb :jLsf5{ ls r]tgfn] gofF / ljsl;t e"ldsfaf6 -n]vs M o'jf ;+u7g g]kfn,
zlQmx¿n] k' g ¿Tyfgsf] cj;/ ¿kdf s]xL klg cl:tTjdf /xg' ;fdflhs_ ;d[l4sf ;a} ;|ft] x¿ k"0f{ af}l4s Ifdtfdf leGgtfn] k]6 / ;dfhsf] ljsf; lgb]{lzt x'G5 / sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfsf
gkfcf];\ . of] ;ts{tf cfjZos lyof] c;Dej s' / f eg] / k| : t' t ug] { ¿kn] k|jflxt x'G5g\, To;}an] f dfq} zf/Ll/s cfjZostfx¿sf] k|s[ltdf dflg;x?sf cfˆgf ;+of]hs x'g\ ._
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sf= lh=;fn r}t b=@@g+ut]
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g]= s= kf= =====


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blnt d'lQm df]rf{sf] /fli6«o ;Dd]ng j}zfv !% b]lv
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atfOPsf] 5 . b'O{ kf6L{aLrsf] ;f] sfo{qmddf cfufdL r}t @% ut] x'g eGg'ePsf] 5– qmflGtsf/L, k|ultzLn, ;+;bLo uf]n rSs/af6 d'lQm lbg] 5 . æ;fdflhs bnfn k'h F Ljfbsf] cfw'lgs lje]bsf lj?4 ;zQm blnt cfGbf]ng,
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sfo{ e f/, b' j } kf6L{ n ] cËLsf/ cfˆgf pDd]bjf/x? 3f]if0ff u/]sf] xf] . gful/s ;d"xx?sf] ;xeflutfdf k]; u/]sf] Joj:yf 5fGg] clwsf/
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ul//x] s f ;} 4 flGts, j} r fl/s, h'g o; k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 – cfwfl/t /fHoJoj:yf x' g ] 5 . hgtfnfO{ b]p eGg] k|:tfj ;j{:jLsfo{
Ps j[xt ;efdfkm{t\ ;DkGg ul/g] 5 . b]zsf && j6} lhNnf / k|jf; af6
/fhgLlts / ;Ë7g;Fu ;DalGwt w]/} cWoIfsf pDd]bjf/– lgd{nf zdf{, hgcg'df]lbt /fHoJoj:yfdf hgtfn] / cu| u fdL 5 . ca pGgt ;d]t k|ltlglw–ko{jI] fs ;xefuL x'g] ;f] ;Dd]ngsf] pb\3f6g g]kfn sDo'lg:6
ljifodf lgs6tf b]lvPsf] / sltko jl/i7pkfWoIf– dfwj g]kfn, pkfWoIf :jefljs ?kdf ckgTj u|x0f ug]5 { g\ . ljrf/wf/fsf] cfwf/df k|lt:kwf{ u/f}+ . kf6L{sf s]Gb|Lo g]tT[ jaf6 x'g5
] . juL{o d'lQmlagf pTkLl8t hflt / ;d'bfosf]
ljifodf ;femf a' e mfO;lxtsf] -dlxnf_– bfgf s];L ;'jb] L, pkfWoIf b]z agfpgsf nflu hgtf cfkm}n + ] ;fj{ef}d;Qf jf:tljs cy{df hgtfdf
d'lQm c;Dej /x]sf] dfGotf /fVb} PsLs[t hgqmflGtnfO cfˆgf] ;fy / ;xof]u
;dembf/L;d]t sfod ePsf] tyf -;dfj]zL_– cjw]z emf, dxf;lrj– hfu?s / lqmofzLn x'g5 ] g\ . cfhsf] lglxt u/f}+ . cfhsf] dfgj r]tgfnfO{
ub}{ cfPsf] o; df]rf{n] bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;+;bLo Joj:yfsf] ljsNkdf j}1flgs
b'O{ kf6L{aLrsf] Pstf / ;xsfo{nfO{ afns[i0f a:g]t, ;lrj -v'Nnf_– k'FhLjfbL Joj:yfdf hgtfx? jf lkm6 x'g] /fhgLlts k|0ffnL / bz{gsf] ;dfhjfbaf6 dfq blnt ;d'bfo nufot ;Dk"0f{ pTkLl8t ju{, hflt /
cufl8 a9fpg dxTjk"0f{ 5nkmn /fds[i0f 1jfnL, ;lrj -dlxnf_– lgdf cfddfG5]x? s]jn uf;, af;, skf; ljsf; u/f}+ . Pp6f pRr /fhgLlts ;d'bfosf] k"0f{ d'lQm x'g] wf/0ff /fVb} cfPsf] 5 . /fli6«o ;Dd]ngsf] tof/Lsf
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cGo Joj:yfkg / k|rf/–k|;f/sf sfdx? e}/x]sf 5g\ . o; P]ltxfl;s ;Dd]ngsf]
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tof/Ldf ;lqmo ;xefuL x'g tyf cf–cfˆgf] 7fpFaf6 ;fy / ;xof]u ug{ df]rf{n]
;xdltdf k'Ug] ;dembf/L ;d]t ;lrj -Pzf]lzo6_– /fd]Zj/ sfsL{, agfPsf] 5 . j}1flgs ;dfhjfbdf ;fdflhs ;EotfnfO{ ;d]t Wj:t
;Dk"0f{ b]zeQm, k|ultzLn k|hftGqjfbL, jfdkGyL, sDo'lg:6 qmflGtsf/L, ;r]t
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k|0ffnLnfO{ ljsf; ub}{ gofF prfOdf b[li6sf]0fdf hgtfnfO{ clwsf/ lbg'sf] pTkL8g, lje]b / cGofosf] bfz{lgs / clGtd 7fGg] e"n ug'x{ bF' g} . cfh
laZjsdf{sf] cWoIftf / g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o Pj+ df]rf{
lqmofzLn agfpg] ;xdlt ;d]t cy{ dtbfgsf] clwsf/ xf] . To;sf/0f jf j}rfl/s ;|f]t k'FhLjfbsf] xf] . ;+ ; bjfbL bnx?sf] n8fO{ F x] b f{
s]Gb|Lo ˆ|ofS;g OGrfh{ zLtnsf] k|dv ' cfltYodf a;]sf] a}7sn] pk/f]Qm ;a}
ePsf] 5 . hgtfnfO{ s;/L jf:tljs clwsf/ hxfF;Dd k|fs[lts Gofosf] s'/f 5, pgLx?sf] r]tgfk|lt bof nfu]/ cfpF5 .
lg0f{o u/]sf] xf] .
a}7sdf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] lbg] eGg] ljifodf ax;x? s]lGb|t ToxfF;Dd k'h F Ljfb 7Ls 5 . hgfj/x? cfh jnL 9Nb}df s]xL eOxfN5 t <
cf7f}F dxflwj]zgaf6 cl3 ;f/]sf]
ljrf/, gLlt, sfo{lbzf / sfo{qmd
5g\ . cfh;Ddsf] cEof;df
;dfhjfbL b[li6sf]0fn] a9L uf;, af;,
h;/L afFrs
k'h
] f 5g\ To;}u/L afFRg] s'/f
F LjfbL b[li6sf]0f x'G5 . t/, dfgjLo
JolQmut n8fO{aF f6 ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg
x'bF g} . ;d:of ljlw jf Joj:yfdf 5,
;fpbL c/adf ‘;e]{G6’ / ‘d]8’ eGg aGb]h Û
;DaGwdf g] s kf -qmflGtsf/L skf;, lzIff, :jf:Yo / /f]huf/Ldf ;dfgtfsf] l;4fGtnfO{ k'FhLjfbn] To;af6 xn gvf]Hg] vfnL JolQmut sf7df8f}F . ;fpbL c/a ;/sf/n] 3/]n' >ldsnfO{ …;e]{G6Ú tyf …d]8Ú
dfcf]jfbL_ sf tkm{af6 /flvPsf Wofg lbg] b[li6sf]0f agfof] . cfh c:jLsf/ ub{5 . cfhsf] ;+;f/df 6s/fjaf6 xn vf]Hg] k|jl[ Q slxn];Dd eGg] zAb k|of]u ug{ aGb]h nufPsf] 5 . oL b'O{ zAbn] cfk|jf;L >ldssf]
lh1f;faf/] :ki6 kfb}{ k|jQmf k|sf08n] cfP/ j}1flgs ;dfhjfbnfO{ s;/L Pp6f c/aklt jf v/aklt / csf]{ hf/L /xg] < s';L{sf] n8fO{aF f6 hgtf :jfledfgdf wSsf nfu]sf] eGb} ;fpbL c/asf] jfl0fHo dGqfnon] 3/]n'
qmflGtsf/L cfGbf]ngsf] ljsf; / gofF >]i7 / pGgt Joj:yf agfpg] eGg] ;'sD' af;LaLrsf] c;dfgtfnfO{ s;n] jfSslbSs eO;s]sf 5g\ eg]/ xfdLn] >lds;DjGwL lj1fkgdf …;e]G{ 6 / …d]8Ú eGg] zJb /fVg aGb]h nufPsf] xf] .
kxnsb\ d Lsf nflu Pstf / ljifodf g]kfnaf6 Tof] gofF ax;sf] lgofNg] . cfhsf k'h F Lkltx?n] >lds slxn] a'‰g] < To;sf/0f ca xn ljrf/, ;fpbL ;/sf/sf cg';f/ oL b'O{ zJbsf] 7fpFdf >lds jf dlxnf >lds eGg]
w|'jLs/0fsf] cfjZostfaf/] cfˆgf] k|f/De ul/Psf] 5 . hgtfnfO{ e]8F fafv|f 7fG5g\ . To;sf/0f ljlw / b[li6sf]0faf6 vf]hf}+ . hgtf / zJb k|of]u ug{'kg]{5 . xfn dWok"j{ tyf vf8Lsf d'n'sx?df sfd ug]{ 3/]n'
wf/0ff /fv]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . @= hgpQ/bfoL g]t[Tjsf] ax; of] dfgj ;Eotfsf] ljgfzsf] af6f] /fi6«nfO{ s]Gb|df /fVg] /fhgLlt u/f}+ . >lds dlxnfnfO{ …;e]{G6Ú / …d]8Ú eGg] rng 5 . To;f] t o;cl3b]lv g} oL
/fHon] = ==== ljKnjn] eGg'ePsf] 5– Joj:yf;Fu} xf] . To;sf/0f hgtfnfO{ ;fj{ef}d / ^= ;+ ; bLo Joj:yfsf] ljsNk zAbn] cfk|jf;L >ldssf] :jfledfgdf wSsf kf/]sf] eGb} o;sf] cfnf]rgf x'bF }
;a}vfn] ;d:ofx?sf] ;dfwfg x'g] eGb} g]tT[ jsf] klg ax; ug'k{ b{5 . xfdLn] clwsf/ ;DkGg agfpg] af6f] g} j} 1 flgs ;dfhjfb cfPsf] lyof] . ljz]ifu/L >ldssf] lxtdf sfd ug]{ cGt/f{li6«o ;+3;+u7gx?n]
af:tf]nfn] casf] b]zsf] ljsNk b]Vof}+ lg t g]tfx? g} ;a}eGbf a9L j}1flgs ;dfhjfb xf] . zf]if0f, ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 o;sf] s8f lj/f]w ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . log} s'/fnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ ca s'g} klg
cfˆgf] kf6L{n] cl3 ;f/]sf] j}1flgs lalu| g ] vt/f /x] 5 . k| r 08 / pTkL8g / cGofosf] cGTo x'gf;fy kf6L{n] NofPsf] k|:tfj ;xL 5– hgdt lj1fkgdf s'g} klg cfk|jf;L >ldssf] tl:a/, kl/rokq jf JolQmut klxrfgsf]
;dfhjfbL Joj:yf dfq ePsf] afa'/fdsf] ktg / ljrngaf6 xfdLn] ;dfgtf k|s6 x'G5 . To;sf/0f ;+ux| åf/f /fHoJoj:yfsf] lg0f{o u/f}+ . sfuhftsf] k|of]u ug{ ;fpbL ;/sf/n] aGb]h nufPsf] 5 . 3/]n' >ldsnfO{
atfP . o;sf] laifodf g] t f lng] lzIff oxL g} xf] . k|sf08n] /fHo;QfnfO{ hgtfsf] k'h F Lsf] ?kdf cfh ;+;bLo Joj:yf 5 / of] cfkm}+ cdfgjLo Jojxf/ ug]{ d'ns ' sf ?kdf kl/lrt ;fpbL c/an] >d If]q ;'wf/tkm{
af:tf] n fn] cfk" m x?n] hgdt eGg'ePsf] 5, ;xL ljrf/ / b[li6sf]0f ljsf; ug]{ b[li6sf]0fsf] cfjZostf ktg ePsf] 5 . t;y{, casf] ljsNk pGd'v eO/x]sf] 5 . s]xL ;docl3 vf8L d'ns ' stf/n] skmnf k|0ffnL x6fpFb}
;+ u | x dfkm{ t \ hgtfsf] aLraf6} agfpg r'Sof}+ eg] hfgL–ghfgL xfdL 5. j}1flgs ;dfhjfbnfO{ /f]hf}+ . ;+;bLo Go"gtd Hofnf ;d]t tf]ls;s]sf] 5 .
l5gf]kmfgf] ug{ rfx]sf] atfP . klg lalu|g] vt/f /xG5 . pxfFn] $= ;+ ; bjfbL bnx?sf] ;+ s L0f{ Joj:yf of j}1flgs ;dfhjfb eg]/ o;/L ;fpbL c/adf 3/]n' >ldsdfly ;Ddfgsf] Jojxf/sf] yfngL
sfo{qmdnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ g]kfn eGg'ePsf] 5, …g]tfn] cfˆgf] xf]Og, lrGtg 5fGg] clwsf/ hgtfnfO{ lbg tof/ eP;Fu} ;fpbLdf ca …gofF o'u z'? ePsf]Ú / …P]ltxfl;s 36gfÚ eg]/ klg
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf hgtfsf] hLjgnfO{ b]Vg'k5{ .Ú k|r08 ha k|wfgdGqL s]kL jnLn] ;+;b\ x'gk' 5{ . hgdt ;+ux| af6 of] d'2fsf] eGg yflnPsf] 5 . t/, clxn] g} pQm sfo{ sfof{Gjogdf cfOg;s]sfn] gofF
;/sf/ g]skfaLr xfn} ePsf] jftf{ zflGtk|lqmofdf cfpgf;fy tfdemfd lj36gsf] k|:tfj u/] ta k'iksdn xn vf]hf}+ eGg] k|:tfj ;a}eGbf sfg'gL Joj:yf k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjogdf cfpg]df cem} klg cfz+sf eg]
6f]nLsf ;b:o pboaxfb'/ rnfpg] / /+uLg hLjgaf6 k|efljt x'ge ' of] . bfxfn, dfwj g]kfn / emngfy nf]stflGqs / hglk|o 5 . ;a}n] of] oyfjt g} 5 .
…lbksÚn] ;/sf/ / g]skfaLr ePsf]
aftf{nufotsf ljifodf k|:6 kf/]sf
ljKnjn] x]lnsK6/ OGsf/ ug'e { of],
/fHon] lbPsf] ;'/IffsdL{ lkmtf{ ug'e{ of]
/ hgtf;Fu} hgtfsf sfddf ;xefuL
vgfnsf] d'2f ;+;b\ k'g:yf{kgf eof] .
ha ;jf]R{ r cbfntsf] km};nfaf6
;+;b k'g:yf{kgf eof] bfxfn–g]kfn
k|:tfjnfO{ :jLsf/ ug'{ plrt / b"/bzL{
x'g5 ] .
qmflGt=====
hgfj/sf nflu sf]/f]gf efO/;lj?4sf] vf]k tof/ Û
lyP . sfo{qmddf ;lxb tyf j]kQf sf7df8f}F . sf]/f]gf efO/;lj?4 hgfj/sf nflu klg vf]k agfOPsf] 5 .
of]4fx?sf] tkm{af6 g]skfsL s]Gb|Lo x'ge' of] . x'g t cfk"m k|wfgdGqL x'bF f ;d"xsf] bLkfjnL;lxt lj36g eof] . g]tf, sfo{stf{n] cfˆgf] sfo{If]qdf hgfj/sf nflu agfOPsf] klxnf] vf]ksf] ljsf; ?;n] u/]sf] ;/sf/L pRr
;b:o tyf ;lxb tyf j]kQf kl/jf/ 8f= afa'/fd e§/fO{n] g]kfnd} ag]sf] ha g]skf gfdsf] ljjfbaf/] ;jf]R{ rn] lhDd]jf/ eP/ nfUg lgb]z { g;d]t lbP . clwsf/Lx¿n] hfgsf/L lbPsf 5g\ . ?;sf] s[lif;DaGwL lgofds lgsfon]
;dfh g]kfnsf k|mØfS;g OGrfh{ Pp6f ;fdfGo uf8L r9]/ rrf{ sdfpg' km};nf ;'gfof] ta bfxfn–g]kfn ;d"xsf] ;f] k|lzIf0f sfo{qmddf g]skfsf a'waf/ of] vf]k k|of]usf nflu pko'Qm /x]sf] lgisif{ ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] xf] .
;fljqf b'/f…cf:yfÚn] sfo{kq k|:t't ePsf] lyof] . t/, kl5 To;df l6Sg klg ;DaGw ljR5]b eof] . cl:t dfq ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldltsf cWoIf c;f/] vf]ksf] ljsf; u/]sf] ;+:yfn] ut cS6f]a/b]lv o;sf] k/LIf0f ul//x]sf]
u/]sL lyOg\ . sfo{qmddf g]skfsf ;Sg'ePg . /, Tof] kfv08df kl/0ft ljlIfKt k| r 08sf] Goflos sfsf, PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf 3fOt] of]4f lyof] . pgLx¿n] s's/' , la/fnf]nufotsf hgfj/df of] vf]ksf] k/LIf0f u/]sf
s]Gb|Lo ;b:o tyf e]/L–s0ff{nL Ao'/f] eof] . k|r08n] a]nf–a]nfdf eGg] u/]sf k'g/fjnf]sgsf] lgj]bg p/f7nfUbf] / ;'/] Gb| dxh{gn] klg kl/jlt{t /fhg}lts lyP . k/LIf0fn] of] vf]k hgfj/x¿sf nflu xflgsf/s g/x]sf] k'li6 ePsf]
OGrfh{ P6d la;L, s]Gb|Lo ;b:o 5g\– ljKnj klg d]/} af6f]df cfP . l67nfUbf] aGof] . cfh bfxfn ;d"xsf] cj:yf / kf6L{sf] lhDd]jf/Laf/] cf– k/LIf0fdf ;+nUg clwsf/Lx¿n] hgfPsf 5g\ . …of] vf]kn] hgfj/sf] z/L/df
Pj+ ;lxb tyf j]kQf kl/jf/ ;dfh d]/f] k|Zg 5– k|r08sf] af6f] s'g xf] < d'Vo Ph]08f h;/L klg s]kL jnLnfO{ cfˆgf] wf/0ff /fv]sf lyP . g]skfsf PG6La8L pTkfbg u/]/ sf]/f]gfefO/;lj?4 n8\g ;xof]u ug]{ ePsfn] of]
g]kfnsf k|mofS;g OGrfh{ ;fljqf b'/f d]/f] ljrf/df k|r08sf] s'g} af6f], ;QfRo"t ug]{ eGg]df s]lGb|t 5 eg] pkTosf OGrfh{ ldngsf] cWoIftfdf ztk|ltzt pkof]uL / k|efjsf/L b]lvPsf] 5,Ú Ps :jf:Yo clwsf/Ln] eg] .
…cf:yfÚ, sf]xnk'/ gu/kflnsfsf uGtJo / ljrf/ 5}g . k|r08nfO{ jnLsf] n8fO{F h;/L klg ;Qfdf l6Sg] ;DkGg sfo{qmddf g]skf sf7df8f}F ;a} hgfj/nfO{ nufpg] u/L cfufdL clk|nb]lv o;sf] k|of]u klg ;'? x'g]
d] o / n' 6 axfb' / /fjt, g] k fnL TofUg' qmflGtsf/Lx?sf] /x/ jf pQ]hgf eGg]df s]lGb|t 5 . ;Qfsf] n8fO{dF f OGrfh{ z/b /;fOnLn] :jfut / g]skf clwsf/Lx¿sf] egfO 5 . To;kl5 c¿ b]zx¿nfO{ klg cfjZostfg';f/
sfFu; ]| sf s]Gb|Lo dxflwj]zg k|ltlglw xf]Og . afWotf / ljjztf lyof] . bfxfn, g]kfn / vgfnx? g/fd|/L g'jfsf]6 OGrfh{ ;ljtf tfdfªn] vf]k pknAw u/fpg ;lsg] pgLx¿n] atfPsf 5g\ . vf]ksf] ljsf; ?;sf]
ldgf l;Ub]n, /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ ljrf/lagfsf] k|r08 / hLjglagfsf] k5fl/P/ 3fOt] ag]sf 5g\ . 3fOt] ;~rfng u/]sL lyOg . ;‹Lo kz' :jf:Yo s]Gb|n] u/]sf] xf] .
z/L/ p:t}–p:t} x'g\ . hlt g} dfof ag]sf bfxfn, g]kfn / vgfnx? km]l/
cfof]usf bof/fd kf7s, OG;]ssf
ef] n f dxt, ;lxb tyf a] k Qf
kl/jf/x?, ljleGg /fhgLlts bn;Fu
cfa4 AolQmTjx?, a' l 4hLla,
nfu] klg hLjglagfsf] z/L/nfO{ labfO{
ug'{sf] ljsNk gx'Fbf]/x]5 . cfh
g]tT[ jsf] af/]df sfkmL ax; ;'? ePsf]
afa'/fd e§/fO{, z]/axfb'/ b]pjf,
/fdrGb| kf}8n ] / dxGt 7fs'/sf] km]/f]
;dfP/ jnLnfO{ k5fg{ vf]Hb}5g\ .
qm]l86 / 8]la6 sf8{ s] xf] / s;/L k|of]u ug]{ <
sf7df8f}F . clxn] xfd|f clwsf+z olb tkfO{+sf] 8]la6 sf8{df lehf h'g tkfO{s + f] a}s+ n] lgwf{/0f ub{5 .
;dfh;]jL, kqsf/ / ljBfyL{x?sf] 5 . k|sf08n] eGg' ePsf] 5– j}1flgs hgtfsf] k|Zg 5– of] 3l6of n8fO{F e' Q mfgL k| 0 ffnLx? l8lh6fOh sf8{sf] nf]uf] 5 eg] lehf sf8{ o;df klg df:6/ sf8{ / lehf sf8{sf]
;xeflutf /x]sf] lyof] . ;dfhjfbdf dGqLx? klg hgtfaf6 lsg < s] :j:y / ;Eo k|lt:kwf{ ug{ eO;s]sf 5g\ . xfdLdWo] sltkon] rnfpg] a}+ssf] P6LPddf tkfO{+n] nf]uf] x'g] x'bF f cgnfOg zlkªx? tyf
a] k Qf of] 4 f kl/jf/ ;dfh, lgjf{lrt x'g'kb{5 . pxfFn] cufl8 ;lsG5 < kf6L{ ljefhgnfO{ klg ;Eo df]afOn a}+lsª, df]afOn jfn]6 tyf cfˆgf] 8] l a6 sf8{ k| o f] u ug{ sf8{ :jfOk ug]{ 7fpFx?df tkfO{n + ]
g]kfnsf cWoIf /fdaxfb'/ yfkfsf] eGg'ePsf] 5– >d;Fu ghf]l8g] JolQm / :j:y agfpg ;lsFbg} t < hgtfsf] ljleGg kLP;kLsf ;]jf lnO/x]sf ;Sg'x'G5 . o:t} df:6/ sf8{nfO{ o;nfO{ k|of]u ug{ ;Sg'xG' 5 .
;efkltTjdf ePsf] sfo{qmdsf] g]tf aGg] u'~hfo; /xFbg} . sDo'lgi6 k|Zg 5, of] Pdfn] gfdsf] ljjfb x'G5f}+ . df]afOn tyf OG6/g]6 a}lͪ :jLsf/f]lQm -PS;]K6]G;_ lbg] dr]G{ 6sxfF s] xf] t df:6/ sf8{ / lehf
;Grfng hgqmflGtsf dxfg\ ;lxb eGg] zAb qf; / cft+ssf] gfd x'g slxn];Dd < ;"o{ lrGxsf] ljjfb k|of]u gug]{x? klg cfhsn k};f df:6/ sf8{ klg k|of]u ug{ ;Sg'xG' 5 . sf8{ <
kl/jf/ ;+u7g, g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo ;Sb}g . ljKnjn] ;dfhjfbL jf slxn];Dd < cflwsfl/stfsf] ljjfb lgsfNg a}+s wfpFb}gg\ . ;a}h;f]n] 8]la8 sf8{ P6LPd dl;gdf klg jf:tjdf oL k]dG] 6 u]6j] x'g\ .
cWoIf v'df ;'j]bLn] u/]sL lyOg\ . sDo'lgi6 cfb{z, ;+:sf/ / ;Eotfsf] slxn];Dd < d]/f] ljrf/df dfcf]jfbL Knfl:6s sf8{ g} k|of]u u5{g\, h:t}– k| o f] u x' G 5 . o;nfO{ cgnfOg tkfO{;+ uF s'g} klg a}s + sf] 8]la6 jf
lgdf{0faf/] sfkmL lrGtg ug'e{ Psf] 5 . s]Gb| sAhf u/]/ s]kL jnL cWoIf aGg] P6LPd, 8]la6, qm]l86, df:6/ tyf k] d ] G 6afx] s lehf sf8{ , df:6/ qm]l86 sf8{ 5 eg] tkfO{n + ] vr{ ug]{
k| u ltzLn===== pxfF n ] eGg' klg ePsf] 5, / Pdfn] sAhf u/]/ k|r08 cWoIf lehf sf8{ . sf8{x? klg olt w]/} sf8{nfO{ k|of]u ug]{ ;a} lsl;dsf 7fpFn] cs}{ a}s + af6 sf/f]af/ ug{ ;S5 .
Kofgnsf ;a} pDd] b jf/x?nfO{ aGg] b'j} s'/f cGofok"0f{ x'GYof] / 5g\ ls s;sf] sfd s] xf] / s;n] dr]G{ 6x?df uP/ k|of]u ug{ ;Sg'xG' 5 . o:tf] a]nf tkfO{+n] cfˆgf] a}+ssf]
;kmntfsf] z'esfdgf lbP . o:t} …sDo'lgi6x?sf] hLjgn] ;dfhnfO{
cfbz{ agfpg' kb{5 .’ k|sf08n] cbfntn] 7Ls} lg0f{o u¥of] . cbfntsf] s] ;]jf lbG5 eGg] s'/fd} w]/}hgf of] klg tkfO{s + f] a}s
+ csfpG6;Fu} sf8{af6 e'QmfgL u/]/ csf]{ a}s + df
sfo{qmddf k|;
] rf}tf/Lsf k"j{ cWoIf lg0f{onfO{ jnLn] hLtsf ?kdf / cndndf kl//x]sf x'G5g\ . t/ lrGtf lnÍ x'G5 . qm]l86 sf8{ eg] 5'§} k7fpg'kg]{ x'G5 . jf Pp6f a}s + sf]
/fh]Gb| cof{n, hgkqsf/ ;+u7g eg]h:t} lghL hLjg / lghL :jfy{nfO{
s]Gb| agfpg]x? xfd|f] kf6L{df cl8g bfxfnn] xf/sf ?kdf lng'sf] sf/0f glng'xf];\, cfh xfdL tkfO{+n] k|of]u lsl;dsf] sf8{ xf] . of] ;a};Fu gx'g P6LPd dl;gaf6 csf]{ a}s + sf] sf8{n]
g]kfnsf ;+of]hs ljZjsdf{, jl/i7 s] xf] < xf/ ePsf] 5 eg] dfwj g]kfn ug]{ sf8{x¿af/] lj:t[t?kdf a'emfpg] ;S5 . jf:tjdf g]kfnLdf ;/n ¿kn] k};f lgsfNg'kg]{ x'G5 . o; lsl;dsf]
kqsf/x? s' G bg cof{ n , lty{ ;Sb}gg\ . jf:tjdf efjL ;dfhjfbL
sDo'gsf] ?k/]vf af/]df klg sfkmL ;d"xsf] ePsf] 5 . xf/ s:tf] x'G5, 5f}+ . P6LPd sf8{ eg]sf] ;fdfGo sf8{ a'‰bf of] Pp6f pwf/ sf8{ xf] . of] sf8{af6 x'g] cGt/a}l+ sª sf/f]af/nfO{
sf]O/fnf, ozf]bf ltldlN;gf, kqsf/ dfwj g]kfnnfO{ ;f]Wg' . lgif]wsf] xf], h;sf] ;xof]uaf6 cfˆgf] k};f x]bf{ 8]la8 sf8{ h:t} b]lvG5 . of] Rofgnsf] ?kdf ;xhLs/0f ul/lbg]
dxf;+3sf k"j{ dxf;lrj plh/ du/, lrGtg dgg\ ePsf 5g\ . ;f/df eGbf
Joj:yf;Fu;Fu} g]tT[ jnfO{ klg gofF /fhgLltsf] kl/0ffd o:t} x'G5 . of t ePsf] a}s + sf] P6LPd dl;gaf6 dfq a}s+ csfpG6;Fu lnÍ x'bF g} . Pp6f sDkgLx? x'g\ df:6/ sf8{ / lehf
;~rfl/sf ;d" x sL l/t' emf, s]kL jnL k5fl/g' kb{Yof] of t bfxfn– k};f lgsfNg ;lsG5 . ca o;f] lglZrt dfkb08 k'/f ul/;s]kl5 sf8{ . oL sDkgLx?n] aLrdf a;]/
Joj;flos kqsf/ dxf;+3sf cWoIf agfpg] kxn ePsf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs /
lghL hLjgsf] cGt/;DaGwsf af/]df g]kfn . t/, la8Dagf g]kfn dfq elg/xFbf sltsf] dgdf k|Zg p7\g a}s + n] tkfO{n+ fO{ qm]l86 sf8{ lbG5 . sf/f] a f/nfO{ ;DkGg ul/lbG5g\ ,
s]zj b]jsf]6f, lkk'N; ef]lnlG6P/ k5fl/P . jnLnfO{ k|wfgdGqL / kf6L{ ;S5 ls, d]/f] P6LPd sf8{af6 t qm]l86 sf8{ k|of]ustf{;uF a}s + df /sd h;af6 s]xL k};f pgLx?n] sld;gsf]
hgf{ln:6sf gf/fo0fk|;fb zdf{, ckf+u klg gofF b[li6sf]0f agfpg] cEof;
rln/xf];\ . g]tT[ jsf] kl/sNkgfnfO{ cWoIf b'j} kbaf6 x6fpF5' eGg] cltl/Qm z'Ns lt/]/ csf]{ a}+ssf] x'g cfjZos 5}g . lsgeg] tkfO{+ ?kdf lng] ub{5g\ . df:6/ / lehf
kqsf/ ;+3sf of]u]Gb|k|tfk zfx k|ltzf]wsf] kl/0ffd o:tf] eof] . lgif]w P6LPd dl;gaf6 klg k};f lgsfNg a}s + af6 pwf/f] lnO{ /xg'ePsf] x'G5 . sf8{ Unf]an sDkgL x'g\, h;n]
nufotn] af]n]sf lyP . ;fsf/ agfpg ;lsPdf hgtf /
g]tT[ jaLrsf] hLjGt ;DaGw aGg] 5 . / k|ltzf]wsf] /fhgLlt unt lyof] . ;lsG5 . qm]l86 sf8{af6 vr{ ul/;s]kl5 ljZje/ g} o; lsl;dsf sf/f]af/nfO{
k|]; rf}tf/Lsf cWoIf u0f]z To;sf/0f ;+ ; bjfbL bnx? / jf:tjdf P6LPd / 8] l a6 lglZrt ;dokl5 tkfO{n + ] ;DalGwt ;xhLs/0f ul/lbG5g\ . df:6/ sf8{
a:g] t sf] cWoIftfdf ePsf] g]kfnL qmflGtsf] Oltxf;df of] gofF
b[li6sf]0f x'g5] . g]tfx?df cu|ufdL r]tsf] ;Defjgf sf8{aLr oxL km/s 5 . 8]la8 sf8{ a}s
+ nfO{ k};f ltg{k' g]{ x'G5 . olb tkfO{n+ ] / lehf sf8{df vf;} 7"nf] km/s 5}g .
sfo{ q mddf :jfut dGtJo k| ] ; 5}g . pgLx?sf] r]tgf ;+;bjfbsf] klg x] b f{ t P6LPd sf8{ h :t} k};f ltg{e ' Pg eg] a}s + n] tkfO{n+ fO{ oL b'Od{ f km/s eg]sf] s'g} a}s + n] lehf
d~rsf lgd]z s0f{n] /fv]sf lyP #= cfdhg;xeflutfdf
cfwfl/t /fHok| 0 ffnL jl/k/L dfq s]lGb|t 5 . b]lvG5 . t/ o;df cufl8 df:6/ Aofh;lxt C0f c;'npk/ ub{5 . sf8{ k|of]u u5{ eg] s'gn } ] df:6/ sf8{ .
eg] ;~rfng k|; ] rf}tf/Lsf pkfWoIf %= pGgt, ;Eo / >]i7 ljrf/sf] sf8{, lehf h:tf nf]uf] b]Vg ;lsG5 . qm]l86 sf8{sf] dfl;s vr{ lnld6 x'G5, – 6]skfgfaf6
ljKnjn] kl/sNkgf u/]sf] efjL
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|åf/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
| M lwDn] ckm;]6 k|;
] , b]jLgu/, kmf]gM %!&@^%%

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