HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
ii HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

iv HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

vi HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

2.3.5.11. WIN 2000/XP. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative. LINUX running RH 7. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs.0 or 11. IBM running AIX 4.0. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. However. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4.23. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. 5.3. or information concerning future platforms. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. depending on their level of sophistication.5.0. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations.13 m. such as drawing a line on the screen.8. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms.1. or 5. In general.11 m and IRIX 6.3 or RH 8. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration.0 User’s Guide 1 .

cfg configuration file. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. To start HyperMesh: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX.cfg. see Start-up Files. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user .alias or . At the operating system prompt. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. For example.cshrc file in the user home directory.g. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.. For more information about the hm. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. 2 HyperMesh 8.alias or . 2.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8. Windows 2000. hm. add the following line in the . and Windows XP platforms. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. see Configuring HyperMesh. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file.

User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. To exit HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 3 . an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. click quit. you may wish to change this directory. 3. Since HyperMesh creates user files. To start HyperMesh: 1. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. 4. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 2. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. From the Start menu. By default. 5. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. click Start and choose Programs. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages.

if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. command. 5.set. Select Properties. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. 3. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. are created in this directory. Select the Shortcut tab. Click Apply. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. After Start in:. Select Properties. 2. For example. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Your user files. 4. Select the Shortcut tab. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. 4. 3.cmf and hmmenu. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh.To change the working directory: 1. To change/use startup options: 1. 2. 4 HyperMesh 8. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory.

0 User’s Guide 5 . hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. type hmbatch –ccommand. 3.cmf. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1. Append the option.) are ignored. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. At the operating system prompt. 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. plot. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. Select the programs tab. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. fit. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. –ccommand. 5. postscript.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. etc. Select Properties. Since this batch version does not have graphical display.cmf and press ENTER. create.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. 6.g. 2. Click Apply. After Cmd line:. 2. to this path. command.

Otherwise. or the specified file. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Always continue on error when processing a command file. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. These options include: fl.res). fl. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. pre-set export paths. Allows you to write a master hmmenu. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. res (-r alone specifies the file fl. nodes are not drawn. Sets the global template file to the specified file.msf file. Use the results file.res suffix.hm. Write the mouse commands to a mouse.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. Do not prompt via a pop-up box. Automatically run the specified command file. or to print messages.set. Print this message. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. change screen resolutions.cmf file.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file.set file to replace the installed hmmenu. Allows Templex within command files. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only).

A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. They may begin in any column.cfg file are acknowledged.cfg. The hm. If the hm.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm. Each of the hm. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory. The commands in the hm. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or all of the commands may be on one line. The following commands are an example of a partial hm. only on start -up.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site.cfg file exists in multiple directories. You can edit the commands in the hm. hm.0 User’s Guide 7 . with each command occupying one line.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config.cfg file to save your preferences.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.cfg.

mac file hmmenu. However.tcl.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm. Hmsettings. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update.ini files. iges.ini. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white.altair on Unix and Linux. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cfg file userpage.cfg file hmexec file feconfig. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. hmcustom.g.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8. tabs which are visible (e.ini. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. such as catia.cfg). recent files imported and recent files loaded. key bindings. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user. called hmsettings. However. model or include browser). or ug. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).cfg file hyperlaminate.ini Fatigue. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means.set file Cadreader. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm.

*boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. under Windows. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font.0 User’s Guide 9 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.

This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.00170778765. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file.00529684395.0.0. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.0.999937705) *quatrotate(-0. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization. In this case. HyperMesh does not respond to button input.000802068982. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations.00785649346.00228960797.0. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0.7397916e005. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster).0.000673180986.0. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu.0047803938. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.00994070323.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file.0. In this case.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8. but a lower frame rate (slower).999966514) *quatrotate(0.-5. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()). When mode is set to 1. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis.

*quatrotate(0. 0. 1 = on (default).00100703597.0 User’s Guide 11 .000327769044.964252.575689.0. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu.000000. 0.583235.000230328525.299006. 1. -8.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0. 8.00106667981. Otherwise. or a symbolic name for the translator.000395387048.485656.0. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'.612440.657815.621393) 5. When the mode is set to 1. -3.886445. the Utility menu is displayed. only the finial position is output.761037. 2. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file.0. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.00263644785.0.0.722177.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0.000000. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory.000000. Comments 0. reducing the size of the command file. 0. 0. 0. 0.623743.703590.0.030465. 0. By default. 0. 0 = off. -0.000000.213868.756111. -0. -3. 0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default. This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory. 12 HyperMesh 8.

element handles. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics.*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. under Windows. and legends in the graphics area.0 User’s Guide 13 . Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. style and curComp are not required. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. style. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel.

The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing.0. or khaki (210.G. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).175. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. The color must be between 1 and 64. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default.B). The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. To circumvent this.80). if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. For testing purposes. if this command is specified. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. The command requires one parameter. G. You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings.0. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily.80. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. For example. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. Green and Blue. a character string closed in double quotes "". Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . white (255.100).*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. and B are the intensity values for Red. however. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh.128). where R. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). This improves graphic performance.255. black (0. Other colors include: dark blue (0. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory.0).255). it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel.cfg file.

/non-HyperMesh) tasks. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file.dll"}.1"}. use *printfile("print_it junk"). *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. For testing purposes. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system.0 User’s Guide 15 . "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This command requires one parameter. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename")."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. In general. By default. "". you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. a character string closed in double quotes. For testing purposes. *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. Enable rapid menus. rapid menu functionality is enabled.S. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. O. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. This command is only used in the command file.g. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e."Hyper3Dwrite". Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus."Hyper3Dwrite". To circumvent this. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer.

The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument. one for the solver executable. By default."{home}\ {solver}". The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values.out". The solver field can be of type value or file. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. A character string that is of type file or value.sdp is created by HyperMesh. "value:memory in MB". after substituting the user-input parameters. This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. optistruct. one for the input file name. On UNIX platforms. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. one for the memory in MB.fem.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value.fem *memory in MB. "*solver *input."outfile:output file".out)."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. > *output.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . "file:input". *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . and one for the output file name. The name of the solver executable file. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel. depending on the expected input."infile:input file". contact your systems administrator. 16 HyperMesh 8. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver."*solver *input file *output file *options". This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. Functionally. A file named sliden. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . which is a value. the colors representing black and white should be reversed. Each character string represents an input field.

the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. For example. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1. When *screensize(14. On UNIX platforms. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. height. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Functionally. *screensize(1200.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. height).g. width). measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. After you press CTRL-F2. The units used are not important but must be consistent.0 User’s Guide 17 . thus. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. On the PC. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. To determine this value.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). Note: in some cases. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. red. contact your system administrator. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component.30) is implemented. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen.75. Syntax *setcolor(index.8. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. To find this value. the proportions of the objects is corrected.6). HyperMesh generates a *. Circles may look like ovals.sdf is created by HyperMesh. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height. A file named sliden. In such cases. green. (0 through 255) The color’s green component. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width.

0-9. Place the real number here. . Z axis location.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here. Place the element coordinate system number here. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. 1. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. 18 HyperMesh 8.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . vertical direction of screen. : ‘ / ? . horizontal direction of screen.0. The default setting is 0. Place the material number here. Y axis location. This command may be used in either the hm.0. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command.0. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh. and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in/out of screen. Currently. spaces. z) x y z Comments X axis location. a-z. 0.cfg file or from a command file. y. Syntax *setlightsource(x. Place the section ID number here.

cfg file.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable.0) The shininess value.0. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm. green.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.0 – 1. Syntax *setspecularity(red. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm.0.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint.7.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10.5. Note.1.5. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.7.0 User’s Guide 19 .0. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality. but small in another direction. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. 5 is the default).0.0.1. blue. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1. *setspecularity(0.0 – 1.5. The higher the value.0. however.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.7.0.0 – 1. or from a command file.

characters in the name. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. This string may contain wild card. This command requires two parameters. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. *. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). This program. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. On some platforms. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. With a shared colormap. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. 20 HyperMesh 8. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. However. A non-shared colormap can be used. This parameter may range from 1 to 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or a similar one. the *xfontname() command must be modified. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. In general.

double click the System folder. 4. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file.cmf to the file name particular to your system. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. or delete the start-up file commands in command.cmf. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. the directory where HyperMesh is installed.cmf file. Select the Environment tab. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. Click the TMP line under User variables for . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. Start HyperMesh. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1.cmf before you run it.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. 3. To create a start-up file: 1. Click OK. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created.. On the Control panel.. 5. If the environment variable is set. To avoid this problem. When HyperMesh is invoked. Rename command. including those generated by your start-up file. if it exists.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. 2.cmf file. 5. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens. 3. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file.hmexec or hmexec. . 2. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. If you rerun the command. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. quit HyperMesh. 4.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. HOME). and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked.0 User’s Guide 21 . The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . After you have generated all of the necessary commands. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially. Delete the command. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up).

or group. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". The automesher always places nodes at fixed points.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. are organized within collectors." 22 HyperMesh 8. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database. loads. points. elements. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. vector. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. lines. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. and systems. All HyperMesh entities. at Altair we use the extension . Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. The original database does not change until you save the model. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. or are referenced by a card image. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. including nodes.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. if the current database has been modified but not saved. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . However.

auto1. and surfaces that belong to the component. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. Entities can belong to only one collector. In this case. or deleted. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated.0 User’s Guide 23 . Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. If you have not created a component first. lines. Lines. assigned colors. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. line.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. elements. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. and surface data. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. rotated. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. see the organize panel. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. for example. For more information about reorganizing collectors. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. for those entities. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters.

Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. 2-D or 3-D. the components in the assembly are not deleted. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. including its walls and cells. For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . After an assembly is created. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. then the model should have at least one material collector. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. if you delete an assembly. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. Properties for all other element types. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. Components can belong to more than one assembly. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly.

nodes. cylinders. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. simulating a system loading condition. groups. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. and planes. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Typically. and mbjoints entities. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A system collector can hold any number of systems. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. or materials. elements. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. Typically. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. which can be composed of specified elements. A system can belong to only one system collector. components. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. which allows you to access them as a unit. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads.0 User’s Guide 25 . Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. mbplanes. A load can belong to only one load collector. systems. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads.

location of the center of gravity. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. y=. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. and z= entry fields. 26 HyperMesh 8. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. select a node on in the model window. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. and the body’s local coordinate system. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. Define. and z. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. y. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". change. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. card image type. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. Review. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. To modify the name of a multibody collector. release the mouse button. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. Change. review and reset the multibody collector type. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. To define a center of gravity location. center of gravity. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity.

store.e. and work with the element. quads. i. hex) of the element. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. trias..0 User’s Guide 27 . Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. quad..Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes. If a model uses only the basic element types. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw.e. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes. and rigids. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). offsets. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or orientation node. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220).Element Type Defines the category of the element. refer to Template Design. 2-. and pin flags (configuration 60). 28 HyperMesh 8. which allows the template. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). local vector. or orientation node. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). offsets. or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. or output translator. (Must be Type 1. For example. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). 4-. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). local vector. The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured.) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). 3-noded bar element with property reference. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. to distinguish between the different types. and pin flags (configuration 63). Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). (Must be Type 1. A joint element does not allow types other than specified below.

Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes.Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). and a property reference (configuration 21).0 User’s Guide 29 . Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. (Must be Type 1.) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes.) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). (Must be Type 1. 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). an orientation vector. 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3).

Used to represent conics such as a circle. or parabola. you can use surface edges as free lines. However. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. A joint is the common point between two line segments. An edge is a trim line of a surface. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. and their color is determined by the status of the component. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. as well as many other types of curves. In general. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. ellipse. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. or line drag panels.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. but are then less efficient. Under certain conditions. such as when you are working within the spline .Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. ruled. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. In general. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). Each surface type is referred to as a face. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Used to represent a spherical surface.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. When a surface has several faces. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Used to represent a toroidal surface.

as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. or spherical. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. loads. When a reference system is deleted. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. concentrated forces. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. If a system does exist. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. Several systems may be nested. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. cylindrical. or both. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. In HyperMesh. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and mass elements. After a constraint has been applied. If you delete a system. concentrated moments. velocities. nodal points. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. When you delete an analysis system. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. accelerations. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. and pressures are currently supported. Entities that have a reference system are systems. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. Note: A system may be a reference system. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. applied at a node. By default.0 User’s Guide 33 . HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom.Systems The system entity. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. A constraint. an analysis system. may be rectangular. Constraints. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. temperatures. concentrated fluxes. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. commonly called a coordinate system. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. For example. Additionally.

the color of the title. and the text displayed in the title. 34 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Title Title collectors contain title information. including the name of the title.

hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar. A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (.0 User’s Guide 35 . Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session. this displays the current HyperMesh version. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no .

Tab Location sub-menu. right. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. this area may contain one toolbar. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. Located just under the graphics area. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. in a tabbed format. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. Located across the bottom of the window. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or two toolbars stacked vertically.Tab Area Located on the left. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. and model status information. or both sides of the graphics area. these sidebars display additional tools. such as changing display options.

Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. When clicked. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long.0 User’s Guide 37 . Each menu contains many different options. located just beneath the title bar. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. This approach sub-groups similar features together. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars.

Rotate. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. and contact surfaces. Change the angle of view on the model. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). connectors. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. press the alt key to activate the menu area. First. among other options. Tools for creating and renaming collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . tetramesh. or constraints. Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. 38 HyperMesh 8. including element check settings. such as OptiStruct. and export models and other files.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. etc. Meshing tools. deleting. Model properties such as materials. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. use import. Note: To work with only one model at a time. or visibility and location of tab area items. such as automesh. among other options. Model quality checks. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. moments. or Scale entities. pressures. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. import. Translate. To import multiple files. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. use load. and keyboard configuration. Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. solid map. or finding entities. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. To add extra models to your workspace. etc. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. save. Access the on-line Help system. Boundary Conditions such as forces. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. Morph. and press enter to select a highlighted option. element edit. for example). global options. Reflect. lighting. assemblies.

Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. geometry. and plots are displayed in this area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. Models.0 User’s Guide 39 .

but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons.0. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. the two-row configuration is shown above. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. Access the collectors panel. set global modeling parameters. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. save. and edit solver-specific data. For example. Edit solver-specific data in card format. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. etc) is assigned directly to the element. the property (PBEAM. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. Create or update property collectors. This accesses the files panel. or import files. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. For example. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. Turn the display of collectors on and off. Selects the element color style.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. if you select "by comp". Create or update load collectors. Access the visual attributes panel. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. This button accesses the display panel.

quad. trias etc. bar. automesh). By 3D Topo: In this mode. etc. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. 3-dimensional geometry (i. Some exceptions apply. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. geometry is colored based on topology. etc. surface edit. In most cases. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). if you select "by component". etc. By 2D Topo: In this mode. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. feature lines. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. are colored according to the components that they belong to. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. materials are assigned to elements via their components.g. Determines how geometry features are colored. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. internal partition faces in yellow. By Comp: Surfaces. 2D and 3D elements differently. If geometry shading is turned on. . The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). use the colors panel to change the colors of materials.0 User’s Guide 41 . surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology.e. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. 2-dimensional geometry (i. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. All the 1D elements are colored in green. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. Note: • • . suppressed edges in blue. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. and no lines. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. . This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete).• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. For example.e. free edges in red. lines. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. By Topo: In this mode. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines.

Modal Zoom. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. . Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. left-click to zoom in. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. 42 HyperMesh 8. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Draws model geometry in shaded mode. Left-click to deactivate. Once active. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. .• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology.) In addition. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. Once active. Once active. Once active. Once active. Right -click to activate center mode. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. right-click to zoom out. Returns to the previous view. etc. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Left-click to deactivate. (shared edges in green. Zoom incrementally. free edges in red. Right -click to deactivate. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. Right-click to deactivate. or to alternate between two different views. Left-click to deactivate. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. See Keyboard for more information. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views.0 User’s Guide 43 . Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. and the right button to rotate it rightward.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard.

44 HyperMesh 8. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you access a panel by using a function key. When you are in a panel.. Geometry) are displayed. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status.e. along with the current menu page name (i. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type.. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar.Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area.g. the current include and current component (comp). comp:) in the message bar. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar.

0 User’s Guide 45 . Miscellaneous messages. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. such as status updates or completed operations.Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages.

set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed). To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. coordinate system. and informational functions. such as bars. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. Model editing.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. masses. 46 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. lines. and then start HyperMesh once again. delete the file hmmenu. model checking functions.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. To correct this condition. or surfaces 1-D element creation. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. and load creation functions. The page menu. quit HyperMesh. utility functions. each containing a list of panels and modules. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels.

such as the utility menu. multiple features are organized onto tabs. and/or the solver browser.0 User’s Guide 47 . click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. However. both. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. To maximize available space. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu. each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. model browser. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. right side.

multibodies. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . materials. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. groups. vector collectors. 48 HyperMesh 8. properties. load collectors. components. system collectors. entity sets. The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars.

properties. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. Colors Assemblies. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. and System Collectors can all be colored individually.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. therefore it does not have a check box. multibodies. groups. unchecked entities are hidden.) display. Properties. The currently assigned color displays in the column. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. and click the desired color from the palette. An empty assembly never displays. system cols. Note: When the color picker palette appears. for example. right-click on the current color in the model browser. Materials. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. To change an entity’s color. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. etc. load cols.0 User’s Guide 49 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. In this instance. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. Components. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. Materials. groups. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. Load Collectors. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. When appropriate. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. vector cols. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. entity sets. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy.

Display Mode Components. and vector cols shown in the tree. system cols.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. 50 HyperMesh 8. Depending on which option you select. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. Display None . or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. and vector cols. Global Switches The Display All . and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). components. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. multibodies. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. load cols. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. groups. system cols. Click a second time to remove them. groups. and load cols have several display states. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. Multibodies. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. or load collector. In either case. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. groups. multibodies (not assemblies). only the items displayed in the tree are affected. Click a second time to remove them. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. assemblies. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. load cols. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. but no mesh. assembly. geometry entities. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. system cols. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. Include geometry entities in tree structure.

the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. in this case they are used for Select All. For example. . Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. and Reverse Selection. For example. Select None. Otherwise. including upper/lower case letters. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. In addition. composed of a combination text/list Find: box.0 User’s Guide 51 . a down-arrow button. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). an up-arrow button. click OK to close the list. with the same buttons for Display All. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. For example. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. However. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Display None. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In this way. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar.

In this way. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. for example. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again.To find an entity. To deactivate the option. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. it is highlighted in the model browser. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. rather than only part of the name. select it again to remove the checkbox. 52 HyperMesh 8. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. To find entities matching your specified string and options. for instance. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. clicking third time finds match #3. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. For example. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. In this way you can combine the search options. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. or “RearChassis1”. For instance. In other words. Drag and Drop Components. type a search string into the combination box. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). clicking again finds match #2. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. “FrontChassis”. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). Since this function works in combination with the filters. with this option active. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. If an assembly is moved or copied. So. finding match #1 again. multibodies. such as searching for whole names with matching case. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). Option New Available for: Assemblies. vector col. The new name must be unique. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. material. group. load col. Once created. Properties. properties. A new assembly. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. multibody. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model.0 User’s Guide 53 . system col.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. component. load cols. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. beamsectcols. Components. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. sets. property. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. Folders that contain materials. component. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. Most items can be deleted. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Materials. Plots. vector cols. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. set. and groups cannot be renamed. Description A new assembly. Load Collectors. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. system cols.

plots. all groups. exposing every item nested at every level. load collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and properties. etc. load collectors. components. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. Assemblies. properties. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. In such cases. components. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. components. groups. all materials.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. In such cases. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. card. load collectors. materials. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area.g.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. plots. so that only the top-most level of items displays. load collectors. Display the item in the graphics area. multibody. system collectors.g. materials. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. components. The current component is designated with bold font. system collectors. all groups. and properties.) Make Current components. materials. properties. etc. materials. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. properties. materials. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. plots. groups. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. A component. materials. components. system collectors. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. all materials. components. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. cards. and properties. load collectors. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. plots. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. Assemblies. plots. multibody. groups. load collectors. In such cases. plots.

You can also use the select all. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. To select entity types manually. select none.0 User’s Guide 55 . and select reverse buttons in this mode. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. click the Entity types: radio button.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type.

click the Column types: radio button. and select reverse buttons in this mode. select none. 56 HyperMesh 8. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. You can also use the select all. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. To select columns manually.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. etc. review. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. For example. It allows you create. 55 systems. edit. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. in the above example. Data.0 User’s Guide 57 . 116 sets. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. which does not have any references to an include file.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 296 properties. the include named dummy. 55 system collectors.dyn contains 55 vectors. and update the contents of a model into various include files. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. organize. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. is stored in the master model.

and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). groups. an up-arrow button. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. . However. and Reverse Selection. For example. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. Display None . Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. click OK to close the list. 58 HyperMesh 8. system cols. and vector cols. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. and vector cols shown in the tree. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. In addition. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. load cols. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. with the same buttons for Display All. Display None. Otherwise. load cols. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. a down-arrow button. In this way. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. system cols.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . multibodies (not assemblies). Select None. groups. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. in this case they are used for Select All. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. components.Global Switches The Display All . and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. multibodies.

clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. In other words. with this option active. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity.To find an entity. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). clicking third time finds match #3. For example. clicking again finds match #2. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. finding match #1 again. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In this way. To deactivate the option. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. for example. So. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. select it again to remove the checkbox. for instance.0 User’s Guide 59 . Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. In this way you can combine the search options. rather than only part of the name. To find entities matching your specified string and options. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. Since this function works in combination with the filters. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. it is highlighted in the include browser. such as searching for whole names with matching case. “FrontChassis”. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). or “RearChassis1”. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. type a search string into the combination box. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. For instance. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again.

Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. components. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. Makes the selected include "current". the new include is created within it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If a specific include is selected (highlighted). contacts. are automatically placed in the current include. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. etc. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. Deletes the selected include.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities.

Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. etc. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include.. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). or Case Control. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Executive Control. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). etc. the entire set of entities of a specific type. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics.). mats. Nastran. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include.0 User’s Guide 61 .

Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default). 62 HyperMesh 8. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser.Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh.

For example. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels. the module. To select a module. xy plots located on the Post page. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. and scale the axis of plots. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages.0 User’s Guide 63 . The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. contains panels that allow you to read curves. perform simple math on curves. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. edit curves. locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules.

For help specific to each profile. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. Each control has its own function: Select all. it can be turned on and off. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. To alleviate this. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. select none. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. For large models. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. Instead. When activated. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control.0SR1 release. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. Note: For the 8. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. the settings apply only to the current display. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. 64 HyperMesh 8. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. and then sync the browser with one click. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. This button acts as a toggle. When inactive. but may not be active by default. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps.

MLOAD. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. Rename the selected entity. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. Delete the selected entity or entities. LOAD. Depending on the entity selected. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. There are many functions available. This loadstep will not be exported. Renumber the selected entity. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. This loadstep will be exported. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. OptiStruct In addition. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. or all folders if none are selected. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. organized into folders.0 User’s Guide 65 . either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. MOTION. or all folders if none are selected. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state.

the list will change accordingly. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. To add a loadcol to the load reference. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. To activate an option. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. When importing a model into HyperMesh. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. 3. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. • • • • 4. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. allowing you to: • • 2. and select Edit options. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. Depending on the Subcase Type. a warning message appears to notify you. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. 5. A pop-up window opens. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. a warning message appears to notify you. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined.To create a new subcase: 1. allowing you to edit the subcase. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. To edit a subcase: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. allowing you to edit the subcase. Click create. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. In order to support this. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. When this option is active. Another pop-up window opens. 2. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference.

To select multiple loadcols. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. renumber. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. 8. Note: To rename. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. To display a subcase: 1. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to.6. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. 7. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. For renaming and renumbering. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. Select the desired option from the popup menu. Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 67 . 9. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. 2. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. delete. 2. 1.

the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI. This option does the following: 1. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. Inside the Edit options popup. Inside the Edit options popup. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. nor are they always aware of their existence. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI).) • 2. In HyperMesh. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. MLOAD. To satisfy both types of users. However.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. LOAD. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. when appropriate.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”. it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. For example. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. However. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. assigning the appropriate card image. and selecting the appropriate loadcols. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. the Auto-manage load references option is available. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. MOTION.

Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. Release the mouse button to access the panel. thus reducing mouse movement. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). a message is displayed stating the error. This behavior is called rapid menu. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. and continue selecting or complete the operation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To select a panel. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data.0 User’s Guide 69 . hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Note: Once a panel is active. advance to the next selection.

on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. 70 HyperMesh 8.card image sub-panel.update sub-panel. Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. For example. Collectors . Collectors . click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Collectors .create sub-panel. and card image or dictionary. To select a sub-panel. update.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. a list of options is displayed. and function buttons. data entry fields. When you click a switch. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. Each panel contains input collectors.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 71 . plane collectors. the menu item following it alternates between choices. toggle switch In some cases. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. When you click a toggle. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list.

if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. click the reset to deselect all selected entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . displaying a list of available selection methods. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. show node order. Extended entity selection window. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). Input Collector To change the data type. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. and select the type you want to use. a data type button. Therefore. To access the options: • Click the data type button. The extended entity selection window opens. this function does not apply. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. Note: If the data type is a line list. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. or by window. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. and a reset (|< ) button. If the data type is a node list.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. See The Mouse for more details). If you want to reset the entity selections. by path. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen.

For example. and z-axis to define the first. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. or plane (N1. Double-click a node’s button (N1. Note. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. cylindrical or spherical. N3 to define a vector (N1. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector.0 User’s Guide 73 . Local systems may be rectangular. y-axis.N2). the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. however. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. The options available are: • Use x-axis. N2. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel).N2. that not every item appears at all times. This selector is broken down into the following items. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. and loads as well. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or N3. N2. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system.N3). Use N1. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). When defining a plane. If you select two free (red) edges.

74 HyperMesh 8. Select the x-. N1.e.N2. Select a model vector (i. Note that when using the N1. 2. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. For example.. To define a plane: 1. Select three nodes.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. 4. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector.N3 and base). N1. or z-axis and a base node. Select two nodes. y-. N1 and N2. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). N3. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. 2. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. N1 (or the base node. Select two nodes.e. but serve a different purpose. Select a model vector (i. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. or z-axis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The resulting plane is normal to the vector. if selected). N2. For example. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. To define a vector: 1. 4.. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. y-. N2. N3 option. N1. 3. N1 and N2. Select three nodes. and N3. Select the x-. 3. N2. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. A base node provides the extra information.

0 User’s Guide 75 . select another menu item. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. and press CTRL-v. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. title =). respectively. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. A description of the type of input precedes the field. After you click either the input field or the description.e. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. Character String Input To enter a character string. press CTRL-c. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. If you want to edit the existing data. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). To cut and paste character strings. The first character in a string cannot be a space. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field.. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. comp =. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field.). Input field. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. After positioning the cursor in the input field. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. press the ENTER key. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. In edit mode. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. or press a function key. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. plot =. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value.

). click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. To enter numeric data. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. and click exit to close the calculator. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. If the pop-up does not have a border. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. and press CTRL-v. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. you must make a selection before you can proceed. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. the second click gives you access to the calculator). If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. 76 HyperMesh 8. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. When the pop-up menu appears.45. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. For example. To cut and paste numeric data. If the pop-up menu has a border. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. In edit mode. if you type 123e+1q1. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. Calculator pop-up. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. For example.000. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. To use the calculator. press CTRL-c.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can open new directories from this list.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. load…. write as…. etc.. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. Creates a new folder within the current directory. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate.. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. you use the standard Windows file browser. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box.. retrieve…. as well as the contents of the open directory. Click Cancel to close the file browser. and last date modified. browse…. import…. Lists only the file name. Lists the file name. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. type. based on the search criteria used.0 User’s Guide 77 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For Look in/ Save in. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate.To search for a particular file extension: 1. Or For Files of Type. select the file type from the drop-down menu.* to search for all files in the directory. To search for a particular filename: 1. For Look in/Save in.hm extension) in the specified directory.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. In the File name field. 2. *. specify the search directory. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. specify the directory to search. Press ENTER. hm6. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. etc. 78 HyperMesh 8. For File name. type *. Press ENTER.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . You can also type *. 3. hm5. 3. 2. For example. Type *.

The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Single click and release. Single click and release. If you release the mouse. Selects a new center of rotation. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. CTRL Single click and release. Single click and hold. Single click and release. Aborts intensive processes. Click and move. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels.0 User’s Guide 79 . Performs selection operations on single entities. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). Aborts graphics operations. Click and move. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. such as Penetration Checks. If you release the mouse.

quick window deselection of entities. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. Dynamically rotates the model. SHIFT Single click and release.CTRL Click and move. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities. Single click and release. Click and move. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. Zooms into an area of the model. Click and move. 80 HyperMesh 8. In entity selection mode . In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release. Pans the model. Click and move.

if you pick two nodes. In these panels. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. In such cases. In some panels. rapid menu advances to the next collector. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. In most panels. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. N2. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. return is assigned to the rapid menu. For example in the ruled panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. resulting in an error message. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. For example. thus reducing "mouse miles". HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. For example. For example. when you enter the lines panel. But once you pick a node to create the line. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. N3 vector option in the translate panel. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black.0 User’s Guide 81 . Since you do not have N1. when you try to move nodes using the N1. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. an error message results. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. in the replace panel. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. For example. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. create becomes the rapid menu function.

or arrow keys. and CTRL key to access panels. clockwise.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . -. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. In addition. it opens the Help’s table of contents. but simply + on the numeric keypad. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. this opens help for that panel. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. from the main page menu. and reverse view Zoom by increments. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. When a panel is active. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. SHIFT key. +. global panel Open the Help. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area.

The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display.0 User’s Guide 83 .Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. when pressed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu.

esc.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. such as tab. ctrl. Notes • • Some special-function keys. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. alt. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys.Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. Generates a *. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel.jpg screen capture or animation file. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. up. shift. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. For example. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. Next. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. and down respectively. 84 HyperMesh 8. backspace etc. cannot be mapped. right. The selected key highlights in blue. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation.

tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps.0 User’s Guide 85 . enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K".tcl file. To call the same macro. "".7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. 1. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. 1). *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel.shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model. enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. "none". enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *deletemark elements 1.

The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. 86 HyperMesh 8. to continue using the initial panel.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. and upon completion. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you use the secondary menu.

with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages.mac userpage. Only one button can be depressed at a time. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. A userpage. A macro file (hm. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. The default hm. so that you can group the macros by type of operation.mac file in their home directory.mac in the current directory.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. radio options. by using the arguments $1. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands.mac globalpage. When HyperMesh starts. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu.mac geommeshpage. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. it looks for a macro file named hm.mac qamodelpage.0 User’s Guide 87 .mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. passed to them from a control. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. although only one displays at a time. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). When HyperMesh starts.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. Populates the User page of the utility menu. $2. Macros may accept variable arguments. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. each dedicated to different tasks. it first looks for the userpage. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used. HOME directory (UNIX only). similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. or the application’s base directory. Thus it is actually a group of menus. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. If it finds this macro.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. Macros may contain any valid command file command. etc.

The Geom/Mesh. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps.cfg file. if you wish. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model.By default. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. QA/Model. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. and save additional model views. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. Then. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. in the Tab area pane. 88 HyperMesh 8. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. Note. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. however. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. you must remember that once a macro is executed. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. To restore the utility menu. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . simply check it in the view menu. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. if that pane is open. By combining these features. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. and a macro may not be called recursively. For example. with the current page’s button depressed. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane.

such as elements or geometry. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. So. such as 2-D elements or lines. followed by 2-3 buttons. control an array of several related entities (such as points. or 3-D elements. lines. For example. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. surfs. 1. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. for example. Broad categories. For example. slot 2. even within the same broad category. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. but does not affect the display of 0.2. such as geometry. or slot 3. but does not affect the display of 0. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. regardless of entity type. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. Smaller sub-types of entity. For example. 3) Save Scene (1. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. such as elements or geometry. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. 2.0 User’s Guide 89 . or 3-D elements. including its boundary conditions. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. are more restrictive. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. These views function in addition to the user views. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. and solids). These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. such as 2-D elements or lines. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. In other words. Scene (1. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. For example. 3) save macros. 1. clicking none hides the entire model. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. or isolate the display of an entity type. 2. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. however. if you turn off the display of lines. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model.

so that only the specified entity type remains visible.) displaying. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. Like the display controls. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. however. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. for this reason. Labels (located under the BC’s category). Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. Note that these functions are accumulative. etc. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. as well as removing temporary nodes. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. Similarly. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. hide. or press the <esc> key. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. For example. Note. however. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. turning off all geometry.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. then turning on lines. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. For example. To exit the macro. boundary conditions. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. such as rbe3 elements. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session.

You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. You select a node along the hole. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. with ribs (T junctions). Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. the macro determines the radius of the hole. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements.0 User’s Guide 91 . Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. creating a higher quality mesh. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. etc. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. and then projects those points to a concentric line. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. Depending on the tolerance you specify. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size.5 times its original size. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. Projects free points to surface edges. points may even project to multiple edges. and then trims this new line into the surface. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts.

If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. If any elements fail the warpage test. if necessary. If any elements fail the criteria.

two. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. They only affect the report. two. and uses the mixed element type. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. If any elements fail the criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. The remesh uses the current size. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. This macro displays the component name.0 User’s Guide 93 . The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. number of elements in that component and their ID range. If any elements fail the criteria. does not break connectivity.

these elements are un-masked. If masked. these loads are un-masked. If masked. while 3 is the largest. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. 94 HyperMesh 8. including forces. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. If masked. If masked. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. pressures.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. constraints. these comps are un-masked. Since these buttons affect all loads. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and so on. these elements are un-masked. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes.

One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. model comparison. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. property assignments. LS-Dyna.0 User’s Guide 95 . A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. the formats and content of the BOM can vary.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. Radioss-Block. and Abaqus user profiles. assembly. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. Contains options for metadata management. 96 HyperMesh 8. Contains master column selection. part of the tree section. This section controls most tool functions. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids.

Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. and Gauge. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. Material Id. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. or type a new header into it and Add them.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. If any are missing. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. If all are found. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. click Continue to generate the new file. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below).0 User’s Guide 97 . Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. If the corresponding model contains the missing data. Part Id. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. You can select additional items from a combo box. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. Material.

In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. Same function as File > Show Failed. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. Same function as File >Save and Export.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. Same function as Edit > Check Model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. 98 HyperMesh 8. • • • Same function as File > Open. Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Same function as Edit > Update Model.

and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. appended with part ids. You can enter a string in the combo box.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. It then displays the part names. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. select the desired header in the options menu. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records.0 User’s Guide 99 . The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool.

The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. and Comparison.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. part name and part number. i. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. columns containing part id. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. This section allows you to select the desired master column option.e. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns.

In the Different category. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. remaining columns display the BOM info.Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode.0 User’s Guide 101 . Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table.

the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. First row corresponds to BOM info. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table. 102 HyperMesh 8. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records.

this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. Removes all lines from the preservation list. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When active. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge. Saves the preservation state. When you click the preserve edges button. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. However. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved.0 User’s Guide 103 . Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Thus. The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing.

using the same units as your model. Type a value into this field. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. The lines remain preserved. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. 104 HyperMesh 8. have thickness information stored in their definition. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. The Midsurf thickness macro. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. HyperMesh displays a target element size field.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed.

the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). (For example. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers.. check the Z-offset values checkbox. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers.0 User’s Guide 105 . The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. In order to execute this mode.. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. 2. a base component named t0 must be defined. For each User profile. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. 3. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. (For example. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below.

The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. Close 106 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. it is a review/display function only. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. Closes the tab. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. 2. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. If the Assigned Value is not specified. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes.

2. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 3. 3. 10. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 5. assign the base property card image. Change to your preferred User Profile. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 3. 6. 2. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. Change to your preferred User Profile. 6. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select the Components option. Change to your preferred User Profile. 5. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 8. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. Load the desired model file. 7. 11. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 4. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values.0 User’s Guide 107 . Select the Nodes/Elements option. 5. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 2.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. 6. Pick the desired nodes. Load the desired model file. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 7. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 8. Load the desired model file. Create the base component “t0”. 4. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. and enter any default values for this card. Click the Proceed button. 9. Select a Thickness Calculation method. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. 7. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel.

Load the desired model file. 5. 5. 6. Select the desired elements. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Select the Components option. 108 HyperMesh 8. 3. 8. 3. 6. Select the desired elements. 5. 2. 8. 4. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the desired nodes. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. 10. Load the desired model file. Click Proceed. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the desired nodes. Select the Components option. 9. Click the Proceed button. 4. 8. Change to your preferred User Profile. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 7. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 4. Select the desired nodes. 2. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 6. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 7. 10. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. 3. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Load the desired model file. 9. 11. Click the Proceed button. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 7.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1.

1 0. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.15 0.0 User’s Guide 109 . Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.15 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.0 0. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.05 0.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.05 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.15 End 0.1 0.2 Assigned Value 0.05 0. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0. 3.1 0.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. • • • • • 3. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. 110 HyperMesh 8.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. 3. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. 1. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.

• • • • • 3. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. • • • • • 3. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. • • • 3.Ls-Dyna 1.0 User’s Guide 111 . Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nodes/Elements • 2.

Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. helping to better maintain the geometry.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). For example. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. During the process of quick tetramesh. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. Click proceed to finalize the selection. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. To alleviate this.

splitting of elements. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. With the Mixed mesh type. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. but only for the elements selected as sacred. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. Choose between automesh and batch.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. correction of sliver elements. ignores/replaces existing elements. or the one used by the batch mesher. Minimum allowable area for any element. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. or fixed. Choose floating. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. and projections onto the original geometry. Average element size of the mesh to be created. and edges to improve accuracy. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. but requires more computing time. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. feature lines. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. When this option is checked. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. and always uses uniform density. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. both trias and quads may be created.0 User’s Guide 113 . Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. even if doing so would improve element quality. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged.

Locate T-connections in the model. Identify problem areas. 5. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. if any (e. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). however.g. Locate entities attached to the selected components. any surfaces edges that were ignored. manually mesh using chordal deviation. As a part of the cleanup. After making adjustments. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). this persists until you exit HyperMesh. Closes the tab. In addition. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. manually mesh problem areas. and Maximum angle. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. Select these elements as sacred elements. 6. 2. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. 3. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. the tool heals small cracks in the model. Load the geometry. 4. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. Run with the desired mesh size. 114 HyperMesh 8. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. These sacred elements need to be trias. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model.

0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . Click proceed. nd Order Midnodes window. From that point onward. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). and using that panel’s save failed option. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. but no greater than 1. nd The Fix 2 4. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. HyperMesh 8. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. so a value of 0.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. 2. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. 3. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. Remember that this is a minimum length. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges.

5. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. When you click Apply. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8.

Trim Hole Macro This macro. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius.0 User’s Guide 117 . or to vary from one another. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. Otherwise. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. The number of a specific washer layer. then click proceed. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. measured from the node. If you chose varying width for the layers. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. No. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values.

5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. evenly spaced around its circumference. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. if necessary. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. For example. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). Click this button to create the new hole(s). Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. click this button to undo it.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. use “0. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu.

Split the model along global Y=0. and X=xmin and X=value.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. 4.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. 2. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. Split the model along global Y=0. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. Click proceed in t he panel area. Click this button to perform the fill operation.0. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. For example. and X=value and X=xmax. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 119 . and X=xmin and X=value. Click the yellow Select Nodes button. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. 3.0 and X=value (selected value). Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. and X=value and X=xmax. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). and attempt to fill them with mesh.0 and Y=ymax. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. The window temporarily minimzes. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill.0 and Y=ymax. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. Split the model along global Y=0. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. click this button to undo it. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle.

e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 120 HyperMesh 8.This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry.

. You can also specify a Box collector. 2. 4. (Reject will undo all the above. all displayed elements are selected.) 5. If no load collector is specified. Then enter Delta X.0 User’s Guide 121 . From the Box Trim dialog. select the node/enter value for trim location. click Box Trim. click the icon. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. . the constraints are created in the current load collector. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). 6. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. 3. and select the center node. If you select Corners. If you select custom. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector).To box trim a model: 1. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. Click Trim. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. If you select a standard type. Y and Z directions. Using the extended entity selection. Y and Z bounds of the box. If no elements are selected. click the icon. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. the outer X. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu.

The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File. refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog .cfg file) in the Fe type field. This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.cfg file.0 User’s Guide 123 . The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig. The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.25: 3. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts. see Spotweld Interface Overview.99. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file.0:: 0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For additional supported formats. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget.25:: 3.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.9 3.4 2. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. A format example is shown below.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld.4 to 1.0 for the thickness range of 1. Diameter vs.exe feinput translator. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7.25:: Z 1. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.05:: Y 2. Minimum thickness 1.0 Maximum thickness 1.

The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 125 .0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods. ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2.

Click realize. 3. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. If no DvsT file is selected. 6. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. 2. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. meshless elements. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. Select a DvsT file. 9. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. 7. 8. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value.0. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. 4. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. 126 HyperMesh 8. Once a connector is created. 5.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. For CWELD elements. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element.

A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. or renaming panel options. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Actran. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. however. Radioss. and an interface customized for CFD uses. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . Nastran. Moldflow. They include Abaqus. The hmmenu. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. They may. Ansys. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile).they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. loading a specific Utility menu. Once you choose a standard user profile. LsDyna. Madymo. The current user profile displays on the header bar. renaming panels. HyperMesh. Permas. The configuration can include loading a specific template.0 User’s Guide 127 . moving.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. removing unused panels or sub-panels. and removing.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. Pamcrash. OptiStruct.

HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template. the template remains the same. If a template file exists before loading the profile. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. the template remains the same. Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded.mac) is loaded. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template. If a template file exists before loading the profile. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.

. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. select a path and file name. Next. and click Open. Save... select a file using the Open file. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button.0 User’s Guide 129 . or type in a name for the file to be saved.. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. click retrieve. Using the Files Panel However.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To save a database. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database.. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. click save. and then select the hm file sub-panel.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open. dialog. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. Next. Save simply saves the current model under its current name.. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. and click Save. If the file being saved already exists. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7.0 and earlier.. and then select the hm file sub-panel. You can also click save as.

line. To select a node. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. see Entity Selection.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. A component can be selected by picking an element. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. Components do not have pick handles.cfg command file. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element." If there are many pick handles. Note: For more information about picking entities. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. or surface within that component. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user.

or loads. To select a system collector. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location).System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 131 . elements. simply select a load within that system collector. To select a load collector. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. simply select a system within that system collector. A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. Blocks do not have pick handles. Load collectors do not have pick handles. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar).

they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. . 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). To select new nodes on elements: 1. 3. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. edges. Release the left mouse button. 3. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. 132 HyperMesh 8. release the left mouse button to select it. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. 2. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. While the line/surface is highlighted. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. When you are in a node collection mode. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button.

0 User’s Guide 133 . and points by collector. When you select all. loads. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. Allows you to select entities by assembly. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. When you select by collector. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. With all other entities. surfaces. click the data type button on the current input collector. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. equations.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. When you select by assems. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. When you select by adjacent. You may select multiple collectors from this list. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. To access the extended selection menu. coordinate systems. vectors. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. lines. Allows you to select elements. When you select by attached. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements.

elements.10. When you select by include. When you select by output block. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. groups and mats within an outputblock. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. 4. 5. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. Allows you to select entities by group. 8 . loads. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. that belong to selected include.2000 by 100 1000 . HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. 77. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. The standard format is: <start number> . 800. "thru". You may select multiple groups from this list. When you select by config. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. Allows you to select entities by surface face. 100 3. 134 HyperMesh 8. comps. Attached. When you select by id. 3. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When you select by group. groups etc. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. 5. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. 850 1 . systs.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 .<end number> by <increment value> "through".100 by 2. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select.

Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Similarly. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. Once the surfaces have been selected. When you select by surface. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. When you select duplicate. When you select by sets. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. as shown in the global panel. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. or points. Selecting by window activates the build window panel.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. lines. Allows you to select surfaces by width. Allows you to select the entities within a set. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. When disp is selected. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. surfaces. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. Alternatively. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel.0 User’s Guide 135 . Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When reverse is selected. all selected elements are removed from the mark. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. for example. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. Some collectors. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. 136 HyperMesh 8. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. If you select two free (red) edges.

• • • Use the left. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). Hold down the ctrl key. up. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. and restore different views of your model. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. and refresh the screen.0 User’s Guide 137 . reverse the view. specify an area to see in closer detail. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. right. fill the window with the model. Slide zoom. View pop-up menu. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. identify. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. The save and restore options allow you to save. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views.

Release the mouse button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. 2. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. To drag the model: 1. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in.CTRL . Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. With the mouse button still depressed. To perform a circle zoom: 1. 3. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. Slide the mouse: or 4. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. Press Z on the keyboard. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. 3. Click and hold the mouse button. 2.right click allows you to drag the model. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. 2. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. Press . If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. Press the s key. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. 138 HyperMesh 8.

Press C on the keyboard. 2. Move the mouse into the graphics area. 3. or other viewing manipulation was performed. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To change the screen center: 1. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. center.0 User’s Guide 139 . Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. by clicking the right mouse button. or by pressing any key. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. zoom. The current center is indicated by a small white box. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. 4. The center relocates. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. also called panning.

Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. Click the upper switch. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or both: 1. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. Select the type of collector you want to display. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. Click the upper switch. 140 HyperMesh 8. At this setting. To change the collector list to display names. The colors of each component display next to the component names. To turn a collector on: 1. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. In the default mode of the display panel. To change to another collector type: 1.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. Select the type of collector you want to display. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. 2. 3. 2. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. Click the upper switch. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. located on the permanent menu. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. 2. Select the collector type. To turn a collector off: 1. 2. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. IDs. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. 3. Click all. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. 3.

0 User’s Guide 141 . Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Enter the character string to use for the filter. To use a filter: 1. 2.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard.

Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. elements. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. in pixels. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. if multiple loads are detected at the same location. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. You can then pick the appropriate load. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. it is easier to pick an entity. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. for more information see Setting Tolerances. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. For example. For smaller models. loads and systems.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. When the pick tolerance is increased. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. This does not affect the display of free points. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles.

Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. then selecting FE Styles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking.0 User’s Guide 143 . The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. If no shrink is selected. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. To select a node. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. For lines and surfaces. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. If a shrink value is applied. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit.

the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. To correct this situation. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. If this occurs. In some cases. To perform this task. When a component is set to hidden line. This can make it very difficult to see a node. you should obtain more system memory. and animation panels. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). If you have solid elements in your model. edges. the interior is filled with solid color. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. If this situation occurs.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. and faces panels. and then another entity closer to you at another. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. If you encounter this problem. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. contour. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. or nearly the same location in space. this could seriously affect performance. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. Here. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. with the elements in back eliminated from the display.

0 User’s Guide 145 .0 1e-4 0.1 10.1 1. and eliminating extraneous vertices. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active. click the toggle after element order: to second.1 0.0 10. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model.01 1. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values.0 Cleanup tolerance min. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.0 100.01 1. These parameters remain constant until changed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.1 0.max 1e-4 0. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate.01 1e-3 0. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry. Element size Node tolerance min max 0. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel.0 0..1 10. any entities created are stored in the active collectors.01 1e-3 0. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh.. deleting fillets. If you want to create second order elements. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value. When you specify a node tolerance.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel.0 0. Elements are designated as first order elements by default.

and Ideas. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. Cmold. 4. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. DXF. HM ASCII. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. Nastran. To import multiple files: 1. and STEP. PDGS. Pamcrash. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. Click multiple files. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. The window minimizes during the import process.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Marc. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. Select the desired file type. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. 5. Patran. VDAFS. but not all. Moldflow. HyperMesh ascii. PRO/E. Click Import to import the selected files. The Multiple File Import window opens. Click the file pull-down menu. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. Altair Engineering 9. 146 HyperMesh 8. 6. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. 7. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. Ansys. UG. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. 8. Abaqus. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. Ls-Dyna. Click import to open the import sub-menu. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. Radioss. 3. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. CATIA. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time.hm) into the current model session. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. STL.

4. Click write.. if they are not already present. 8. and enter the name of the output file or select. 9. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. For file:. Select IGES. 4. 2. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1.. Click the lower switch and select layers. 6. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. 5. For file:. 4. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel.0 User’s Guide 147 .To read data using a standard translator: 1. Select IGES. 2. Click write as. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. 7. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. and use the browser to select a file. 6. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. To read data using a custom translator: 1.. A new input field. groups.. 3. template = appears if it is not already present. Select the CUSTOM option.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. 3. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. 4. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. click import. 5. 3. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. 2. Click write. 2. Select EXTERNAL. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu.. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. or layers & groups. click import. Select the FE option. For translator:.

If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. A PostScript file with the name post?. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. 2.* is generated. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. Set the options to your print specifications. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed.0 inches. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. If it is not selected. press the Options button in the print dialog. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. Select the PostScript sub-panel. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. The standard page length is 11. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. To create a PostScript file: 1. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. 3. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. The following options are available in the options panel. The color checkbox is active by default. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. Open the File pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. Select Image > PostScript. This requires processing time to optimize the image output. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. To change PostScript settings file: 1. 2.

the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer.5 inches. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. In order for the functions to work correctly.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. The standard page width is 8.0 User’s Guide 149 . It creates a smaller PS file.cfg. hm. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. hm. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. but takes longer to generate. hm. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. Generates a *. If you select enhanced.cfg. If the functions do not create output. a slider bar is displayed. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. please contact your systems administrator. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. On UNIX platforms. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.jpg screen capture or animation file. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours.cfg. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). (Note: This works only in UNIX. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer.

however. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. When you override a default value field. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. and allows you to enter data in the field. pick the yellow field label. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. A card that has been defined may be disabled. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the control card is not output. The attributes for that card remain.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. To override a default value field. 150 HyperMesh 8. the label text color changes to cyan.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state.

0 User’s Guide 151 . In general. the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh.

Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. Select the collectors panel. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. 7. 2. Select the create sub-panel. Click create. 8. 5. To create a component: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. Where available. Click the switch under creation method:. Based on the assigned template. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. Click return. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. select material = and enter a name for the material.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. 6. refer to Collectors in Database Design. If you choose not to. 4. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. 6. To create a collector: 1. if desired. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. 4. 152 HyperMesh 8. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. 2. Select the collectors panel. Select the create sub-panel. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. 3. 3. For collector type:. Click create. 5. Click the upper switch and select comps. Click name= and enter comp1. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. 7. If you are creating a component or property collector. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property.

or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. VDAFS.0 User’s Guide 153 . 4. surface data. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. IGES. − − Using the toggle. Parasolid. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. 3. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). 2. Pro/E. 5. Using the toggle. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. Select the Geom option. PDGS. To import geometry: 1.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. select create blanked component or no blanked component. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. Unigraphics. DXF. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. ACIS and STEP. When the geometry is read into the current database. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats.

split. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. at tangents. spheres. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. or spin. extending. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. 154 HyperMesh 8. knots and weights. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. spline/filler. or extend. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. or shrinking. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. drag. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. such as spline. and at the intersection of other geometry. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. including: from points. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. and cylinders.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. smooth. Create circles or arcs. including squares. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. The ruled. cones. Several methods are available. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points.

Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. line by using the lines panel. smooth.0 User’s Guide 155 . Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. These lines result in a more complex surface. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. which takes longer to create. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and slows the automeshing process.

The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. which results in a much simpler surface. In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. A skinned surface created from the lines. Lines used to define a skinned surface. 156 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 157 . A ruled surface created from the lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. faces. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. edges.e. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. If several surfaces share an edge. Similar to wireframe mode. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. moving the mouse slightly from side to side. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. and release it to confirm the selection. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. where appropriate. Each surface highlights as selected.. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. edit elements). 158 HyperMesh 8.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. In the temp nodes panel. click anywhere on the surface to select it. i. and while holding the mouse button down. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. In shaded mode. In wireframe mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list.

The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. which contain surface editing tools. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools. to trim a surface with a line. the surface is not trimmed. After the circle is used to trim the surface.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. This allows them to be meshed at the same time.0 User’s Guide 159 . For example.

Two surfaces before trimming. 160 HyperMesh 8. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface. use the trim with surf sub-panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To trim one surface with another.

or element. node. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface.0 User’s Guide 161 . Some operations break associativity. If you transform. When you create a mesh with the automesher. such as translate.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. a surface. use the node edit or project panel. To re-associate a node to a surface. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. associativity is broken. However. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the associativity is not broken. When nodes are associated to a surface. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface.

misalignments.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. The quick edit. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. 162 HyperMesh 8. point edit. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once. overlaps. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. each a separate mathematical face. edge edit. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or pinholes. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. or other misalignments. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps.

0 User’s Guide 163 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. cleaner geometry. you can easily build a much better mesh. combine surfaces into large meshing regions. you can close the gaps between surfaces. and eliminate pinholes.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels. Using the simpler.

a value of mass. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. welds. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. rods. Supports springs or damper. Supports simple beams. rigid links. springs. Masses have the ability to store one node. gaps. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. Purpose Supports complex beams. line mesh. rbe3s. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. Supports complex beams.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. Supports display type elements. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. and a property reference. Supports gap elements. elem offset. Masses can be created in the masses panel. and joints. bar3s. plots. Plot elements are generated in the edit element.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . rigids. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. edges. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. or features panel. you can build elements directly on the geometry.

Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. four-noded quads. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. By default. or group of elements along a vector. or two lines.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. Builds elements by spinning a line. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. or group of elements about a vector. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. six-noded trias. Builds elements by dragging a line. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. row of nodes. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. Builds elements by hand. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. a row of nodes and a line.0 User’s Guide 165 . Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. row of nodes.

and 10-noded tetras. lines. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids.and 15-noded pentas. 6. By default. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements. Propagates split hexas.and 20-noded hexa elements. 166 HyperMesh 8. and 8. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. Builds elements by hand. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements. and surfaces. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel. Builds solid elements between nodes.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed.

and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver.0 User’s Guide 167 . and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. CFD-style volumetric skew. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. skew. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. skew. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. aspect ratio.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. aspect ratio.

Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. and updating loads and constraints. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. V. reviewing. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Equations are displayed with the label. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Applies a velocity at a node. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. EQ. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. create a load collector. with an optional label. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the force. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. T. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. Before you apply loads. A. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. 168 HyperMesh 8. P. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. M. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. flux. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a flux load at a node.

0 User’s Guide 169 . or spherical. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. mass elements. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. Nodes. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. cylindrical. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. forces. Note: System collectors collect system entities.

A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. Most of the element creation panels use this module. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. • For either method.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. The created mesh can be previewed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. the module operates the same. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. Furthermore. While you are in the meshing module. 170 HyperMesh 8. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. If you do not use surfaces. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. trias. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. • If you use surfaces. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. If you use surfaces. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality.

0 User’s Guide 171 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.

and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section). density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. reject. abort. You can switch freely between the sub-panels. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. smooth. as well as the local view pop-up menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 172 HyperMesh 8.Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. undo.

placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. at least one tria always needed. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. To make tria elements. and where applicable. gives quality results rapidly. Rectangle. or pentagonal in shape. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. For most configurations. Map as Triangle. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. a submapping algorithm is used. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. If quads or trias is the selected element type. if that is the case. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. it chooses the Free algorithm. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides.0 User’s Guide 173 . Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. In this case. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. rectangular. Ignoring rotations. an advancing front algorithm is used. HyperMesh uses a single tria. If mixed is the element type. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. If trias is the selected element type.

the algorithm is to drag. with no surface. If you use the spin panel. and if you use the spheres panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the algorithm is to spin. If you use the drag panel. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. 174 HyperMesh 8.

Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. allowing variation in element size.0 User’s Guide 175 . If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. this choice usually gives the best results. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. this choice usually gives the best results.

the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. then: . Linear Biasing In linear biasing. or near the middle of the edge. In linear solids. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. and b is its y-intercept. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid. Within the automesher.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. near the end of the edge. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. 176 HyperMesh 8. If m is the slope of the line. When you use the drag and solid offset panels.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1.1] of the Real Line. let n be the element density and let .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Specifically. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge.

the nodes are placed according to 1 . let n be the element density and let . then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous.5. That factor is 1. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. Specifically.x(s). For this. we find: so. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. Let be the geometric growth factor. progressing along the edge.0 User’s Guide 177 .20]. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning.Using x(0) = 0. Thus. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge. . If the biasing intensity is negative. Thus.20]. and x(1) = 1. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1.1]. . Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. The value used is b = 1.

1] with x(0) = 0. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. and has the behavior noted above. they are placed at the middle of the edge. We need so that takes values in [0. let n be the element density and . x(1) = 1.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. Specifically. If the biasing intensity is positive. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. and if it is negative. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. 178 HyperMesh 8. .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If we use: for positive biasing intensity r.

The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In these circumstances. it has no effect. The error message.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed.0 User’s Guide 179 . HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges.

you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector. Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8.

The connector is created at the point location. for example.0 User’s Guide 181 . a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. or the weld element is deleted. Only one connector is created for each line. Only nodes. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. The connector is displayed in yellow. The connector is displayed in red. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. and density values. spacing. The connector location option is set in the create panel. and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. The connector is displayed in green. points.

The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. and components can be added to connectors. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. tags. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. or an element that it holds. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component. elements. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. The following entities are supported. Only nodes. surfaces. The welds create fixed points for the mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 183

Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

184 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 185

HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

186 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 187

Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

188 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 189

Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

190 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48.0 User’s Guide 191 . Each template works on only one specific format file.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats.4375:: 9. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file under the same directory. For custom templates. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file.375 Weld Template :: 2. To read in metadata. The spotweld. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks.

requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.

The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. The user-defined number for the FE combination.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition.0 User’s Guide 193 . optistruct. The data can be separated using a space. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. etc). dyna. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. the feconfig. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and pamcrash2g. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. Area.g.).cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. The user-specified name for the FE combination. By default. nastran. marc.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. Spot. ansys. Seam. pamcrash. etc. LSDYNA. Supported solvers are: abaqus.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types.

etc. and that they are native types. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. If rigid flag = 0. For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. rbe3. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. If the type is not defined. so the type field should be zero. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. rigidlink. a zero should be input. If the rigid flag = 1. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. For example. plot. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. In addition. Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. For example. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. The various types supported for rigids are equation.

welds are created in parallel.0. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. hexa8. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel.0 User’s Guide 195 . If the body flag = 1.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. There can be more than one weld in a series. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. etc. plot. attributes. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment.0).tcl extension. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. and other solver specific details. a series weld is created. The various types supported for welds are. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. spring. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. Starting with HyperMesh 8. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . the users home directory (UNIX only). Note. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. based on the solver. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. rod. For example. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). If the length location flag = 1. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. If the body flag = 0. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. The *post lines are optional. however. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config.

User comments should start with a hash character “#”. Therefore.0 (100%).FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. 196 HyperMesh 8. Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0.5 (50%) each. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids.5 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.0 User’s Guide 197 .

tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". The behavior for each value is as follows.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or "2". "1". then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path. 198 HyperMesh 8.Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink.

HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. logical and intuitive. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. During the morphing process. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables.0 User’s Guide 199 .

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the morph volume concept. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. on-screen method. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. or you can define your own domains and handles. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. such as scaling or node projection. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 201 . The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. When the handles are moved. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. such as translation. You define the nodes which will move. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. rotation. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. into morphs using the record sub-panel. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. the nodes which will stay fixed. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. HyperMorph can do this automatically. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. radii. and the affected elements manually. angles.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. dividing the mesh into logical domains. and the freehand concept. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries.

but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. 202 HyperMesh 8. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. edge domains. 3D. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. and general domains.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. cyan. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. Therefore. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. or elements. In the areas between the handles. Domains consist of nodes. in the case of global domains. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. the color indicating their level of dependency. thus making morphing slower. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. 2D domains. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. which in turn. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. Thus. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. When the handles are moved. For domains that have more than 50. for very large domains. The global group consists of global domains. 2D. and general domains. However. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. edge. global and local. 3D domains. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. even for large models.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. or yellow. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. However. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. the actual morphing occurs quickly. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. For very large domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in the case of 1D. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. parametric changes to the model. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels.

The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model.0 User’s Guide 203 . Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. These handles are named handle followed by a number. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. or use the generate auto-function. reposition them. you can always delete them. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. or create new handles.

choose the hierarchical or mixed method. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. the direct method. choose the direct method. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. 204 HyperMesh 8. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. In the mixed method. and the mixed method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. In the direct method. In the hierarchical method. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. which in turn influence nodes. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. If you wish to preserve the local geometry.

it moves the local handles. the mesh is affected directly. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.0 User’s Guide 205 .An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle. which move the mesh.

Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. These local handles are named local followed by a number. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. a cube for 3D domains. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function.. and a line for edge domains. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. 206 HyperMesh 8. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel. but may produce more desirable influences. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. The spatial method is the default. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. When local domains are created. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. four joined rectangles for general domains.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle.

such as bars and rigid elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. Finally. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. The independent handle is larger and orange. In the example above. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains. Additionally. are called 1D domains. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning.0 User’s Guide 207 . Domains made up of 1D elements. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction.

Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. In general. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. Also. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. such as floating in space near the domain. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. If partitioning has been selected. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. or create new ones. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. edit them. Since you morph the model by moving handles. the entire spider is moved.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. By moving the orange handle. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. you can delete them. 208 HyperMesh 8. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

if you do. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. However. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. even at nodes not on the associated domain. Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. Handles can be placed anywhere. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component.0 User’s Guide 209 . these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active.

If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. Note that when an edge domain is created. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. flat surfaces remain flat. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. Similarly.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. When you release the mouse button. and curved edges retain their curvature. Also. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. 210 HyperMesh 8. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains.

general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. 2D. and 3D domains are used. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. Otherwise. However. In the bottom frames. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. thus no handles are created for the domain.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. and 3D elements. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain.0 User’s Guide 211 . When a general domain is created. Like all other domains. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. preserving the shape of the feature. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. where 1D. 2D. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. Note that the edge domain remains straight.

you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). and solid elements. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. 212 HyperMesh 8. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. However. shell. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value. Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. If there are no surfaces in the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. If you have also selected add to geometry. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. For instance. element-based and node-based. partitioning was used. otherwise they are considered to be curved. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. they are considered flat. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. For the model on the right. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. In general. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. In either case. For the node based method. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. changes direction. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms.0 User’s Guide 213 . then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. When using curvature-based partitioning. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. If you have selected use geometry. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. the other method might work better. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire.

all local handles are dependent on global handles. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. independent (orange) and dependent (green. the shape of the edge can be changed. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. biasing will affect them. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. When the dependent handle is moved. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. Global handles. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. cyan. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. 214 HyperMesh 8. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. blue. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. and violet) Local handles. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. but dependency loops are not allowed. In the hierarchical method. and so on. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner.

Dependencies .0 User’s Guide 215 .example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. in essence. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. the center handle is moved independently. the center handle follows along. performing localized “global” morphing. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). In the lower frame.

Also. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. In the model on the right. Dependencies . 216 HyperMesh 8.example 2 In the model on the left. The bottom has similar dependencies. both holes move with it.Dependencies . each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. When the independent handle is moved. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. For many morphing operations. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. the morph consists only of node perturbations. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. However. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. When you create a shape. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo.0 User’s Guide 217 . if constraints are being used. all of these shapes must be applied. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. When you morph your model. In the case of freehand morphing. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel.

Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. Select the shapes to be converted. Click convert. Each desvar is given a unique name. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. Select the save shape sub-panel. From the BCs page. redone. or vice-versa: 1. Click create. 2. 6. 2. 3. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. 8. optimization module. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. 4. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. If you select node perturbations. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. Once a shape is saved. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. 218 HyperMesh 8. 7. you should save shapes as node perturbations. 4. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape.When you are saving a shape. it becomes a shape variable. or saved as part of another shape. 5. 10. select the shapes panel. select the shape panel. Save your morph as a shape. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. select the morph panel. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. If not. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. 3. Whenever you make a change to your model. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. The shape is converted. If you select handle perturbations. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. Select the convert sub-panel. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. 9. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. 5.

Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it.11. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. The deformed panel displays.0 User’s Guide 219 . Click animate.

3.space frame model 1. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. Often the desired shape changes are general. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. In many cases. Set the selector to global domain. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. Select the domains panel. 2. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. Type in a name. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. For these types of models. Set the toggle to all nodes. From the Tool page.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or altering the basic positions of components within the frame.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. 6. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. wider. If more than one handle is created at a time. Set the toggle to create handles. such as making it smaller. 4. From the HyperMorph module. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. 7. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. select the handles panel. select the HyperMorph module. 5. these handles will be where you want them to be. If not. use a cluster type morph constraint. Click create. 220 HyperMesh 8. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. shorter. Click create. In many instances. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. Select create. Delete any unwanted handles. such as a wheel or the engine block. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. Creating Handles and Domains . all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. such as a car body. but their basic structure is rather simple.

There are many options available for moving the handles. domains.0 User’s Guide 221 .A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. this can be time consuming. Adding. or symmetries. or deleting handles. if necessary. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For large models or large changes. editing.

Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. select the morph constraints panel. 6. Select move handles. select the morph panel. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. If the handle position needs to be changed again. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. 3. As you drag the mouse. Click morph. only the graphics for the handle are updated. 4. Select the nodes on the target mesh. repeat steps 7 through 9. 9. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. 5. Switch the selector to fixed. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. 3. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. 4. 222 HyperMesh 8. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. When you release the mouse button. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . From the HyperMorph module. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. Select a vector.Matching a Mesh. From the HyperMorph module. Select the create/update sub-panel. 7. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). Line. 2. Since on release was selected. 8. 2. 5. Click create. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. 6. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. the handle follows along the selected vector.

Perform steps 7 through 9. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line.10. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. select several handles on the screen. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line.0 User’s Guide 223 . all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you release the mouse. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected.

edit. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. or a surface. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. or delete any morphing entities. However. 3. Select a node. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. save your shapes as node perturbations. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. 2. a plane. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. Select a handle.

Select follower handles for node b that are near node b.0 User’s Guide 225 . both node a and node b will move the same distance. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. node a will not move (same for node b). Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. Click translate. Select a few handles. Set the rotation angle. Select a vector and distance. Select alter dimensions. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Click morph. Select a few handles. If the left selector is set to hold end a. Translate the handles. Change the distance value. Select an axis of rotation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Rotate the handles. Click rotate. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. 3. From the HyperMorph module. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. 2. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. If the left selector is set to hold middle. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. Set the upper left selector to distance. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. select the morph panel. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly.

The distance is changed and the model morphs. or at least get close. 7.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. 2. iterattion is not necessary. 4. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. 226 HyperMesh 8. Change the angle value. 3. 5. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. If necessary. 6. and node b are the specified angle. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. Select node a. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. the vertex. Click morph. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . vertex. Set the upper left selector to angle. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. To change the angle: 1.

The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. and red). In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). However. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. blue. When you perform global morphing operations. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. For the general space frame cases. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. By placing three fingers on each side.0 User’s Guide 227 . If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet.

Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards. Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. 228 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

0 User’s Guide 229 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. 2. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. Select the global domain icon. morph volumes will usually yield better results. Select the system you created. the fender of the model is morphed. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. From the HyperMorph module. 230 HyperMesh 8. 3.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. select the systems panel. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. 4. 7. Return to the HyperMorph module. Mirror Images . 5. Enter a name. 9. 8. Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the symmetry panel. 6. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required.

Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. When handles are created or deleted. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. Since enforced was selected. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. use the approximate option instead. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them.10.0 User’s Guide 231 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. As a result. Click create. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

232 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 233

Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. 234 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 235

Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

236 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 237

For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

238 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 239

Select organize. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge.To group two or more domains together: 1. select the domains panel. Change the selector to combine domains. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains. 240 HyperMesh 8. Select the domains to be grouped together. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. 3. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. Click organize. 2. 4. If you do your edge editing first. 5. You may need to correct this by hand. From the HyperMorph module. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points.

To split edge domains: 1. 5.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Select edit edges. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. 3. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. Select an edge domain. 3. 4. select the domains panel. Click split. From the HyperMorph module. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Change the selector to merge. From the HyperMorph module. Splitting an edge domain . Click merge. Change the selector to split. A handle is created at the selected node. 5. Select any number of connected edge domains. 2. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. To merge edge domains: 1. 4. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. 6. select the domains panel. Select edit edges.0 User’s Guide 241 .

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 242 HyperMesh 8. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. Since retain handles was unchecked. 5.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. the handle at the joint was deleted. select the domains panel. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 2. Select one or more domains. 3. From the HyperMorph module. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. Click create. Select edit edges. 4. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. Change the selector to add handles. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain.

.When you are satisfied with your domains. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. plane. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. It will be as if they were not there. the influences do not need to be recalculated. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. In these cases you should divide large domains. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. delete unnecessary handles. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. Secondly. surface. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. line and surface difference. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing.0 User’s Guide 243 . record. The first is that since they are dependent. click return. curvature. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. or mesh Using section mapping.

surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or place them on lines. surfaces. it is better to use a non-interactive option. or domains. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. line. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. plane. You select an entity such as a vector. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. or another mesh. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. surfaces. or another mesh.

Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the length of the flange is reduced.0 User’s Guide 245 .

Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards. 246 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the width of the channel is increased. the thickness of the lower section is reduced.

Morphing by rotating handles . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node). the end angle of the section is modified. Morphing by rotating handles .0 User’s Guide 247 . the position of the bolt boss is modified.constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation.

This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles. 248 HyperMesh 8. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles. Morphing by rotating handles . To correct this situation.Morphing by rotating handles . This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. check the true rotation checkbox. When applying handle perturbations to your model. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated.

the angle between nodes. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. For solid models. such as the distance between nodes. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”.Morphing by rotating handles . The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. If you click no. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. While morphing a model. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain.0 User’s Guide 249 . For most cases you will want to click yes.

distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it. the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face. 250 HyperMesh 8. Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Morphing by altering dimensions .

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees.0 User’s Guide 251 . near.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. blue.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. Morphing by altering dimensions .Morphing by altering dimensions . blue. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node.

select the center calculation and style options. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. curvature.radius . 252 HyperMesh 8. so if you want to change a radius from 5.5 and kept in line with the edges at either end. the radius is changed from 5 to 2. and click morph.5. set the new radius.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . All the domains are changed simultaneously. curvature multiplication.6. or arc angle factor for them. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes.The radius. and arc angle options are used as follows. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option. Morphing by altering dimensions .0. the radius is changed from 3 to 1. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains.0 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 253

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

254 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 255

For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

256 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 257

Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

258 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 259

Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

260 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

the handles were translated linearly. the morphing between the handles is linear. and 3. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation.000.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. 2. In this example. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. When the handles are translated. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains.000 at the edges. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles.000 in the middle. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains.000 at the corners. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 261 . To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1.

and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1.000.500. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1.000.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2.000. After applying a morph.000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).000. 262 HyperMesh 8.000.000 for the handle at the hole. the mesh unfolds (right frame). Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2.

The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. In general. Select create. Click create. select the domains panel. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. edges. From the HyperMorph module.0 User’s Guide 263 . or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Change the toggle to all elements. tetras. If they are not. 4. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. or manually select all of the elements in the model. you can add. 3. Set the selector to 3D domains. namely. This procedure is automatic.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. Once partitioned. Creating Handles and Domains . these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. If the model is made up of more than one part. In many cases. edit. For solid models. 5. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. 2.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. flanges. and hexas. pentas. and ribs. bosses. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. If partition 2D domains is checked.

which produces dependent (green) handles. However. 2D. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. 264 HyperMesh 8. Select create. Without handles. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. morphing cannot be performed. 1D. select the domains panel. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. before deciding to partition by hand. the node based partitioning will work better. Set the selector to auto functions. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. global handles. 3. such as first order tetra meshes. as well as a global domain and handles. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. element based and node based. 4.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. If you click yes. However. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. Click generate.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. From the HyperMorph module. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. and 1D domain. If there are any domains or handles in the model. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. 2.

Set the selector to 3D domains. for first order tetra meshes. Select update. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. When the new domain is created. Click create. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming.Also. you only need to create domains for that part. 3. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. you do not need to select only solid elements. From the HyperMorph module. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. select the domains panel. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Also. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. 4. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain.0 User’s Guide 265 . it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. When selecting elements for the new domain. 5. From the HyperMorph module. 2. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. 5. 6. Additionally. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. Select create. Therefore. in the parameters sub-panel. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. For these meshes. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. To do this. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. 2. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. However. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. 4. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. but it will not partition the interface. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. To subdivide your solid model: 1.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. Click subdivide. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. 3. To divide your solid model manually: 1. select the domains panel.

Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. Create and edit the 2D domains. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. the internal elements can become distorted. you can edit them in the domains panel. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. When some meshes are morphed. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. and place handles along edge domains. domains. Some cleanup may be required. or symmetries are added. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. Occasionally. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Create and edit the edge domains.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. merge. 266 HyperMesh 8. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. or deleted. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. edited. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. Influences must be recalculated every time handles.

To move elements from one domain to another: 1. For this example. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. handles may be deleted. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. 2. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. New handles may also be created during this process. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. Select the target domain. 6.0 User’s Guide 267 . 5. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. and if retain handles is not checked. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. 3. 4. the retain handles option was left unchecked. select the domains panel. Click organize. Select the elements to be moved. Select organize. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain.

Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. A handle is created at the selected node. 4. 3. 2. From the HyperMorph module. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. 3. 268 HyperMesh 8. If you perform edge editing first. which becomes a handle (right model). Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. 5. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. but in some cases. Select organize. 5. 6. 2. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. From the HyperMorph module. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. Click organize. select the domains panel. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. To split edge domains: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends.To group two or more domains: 1. Change the selector to split. select the domains panel. Select an edge domain. Select the domains to be grouped. Click split. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. You will need to correct this by hand. Select edit edges. Change the selector to combine domains. 4. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model).

2. Click create. Secondly. Select edit edges.To merge edge domains: 1. This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Select edit edges. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. 5. From the HyperMorph module. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. 3. If a model is very large. Change the selector to merge. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Select any number of edge domains. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 4. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 269 . From the HyperMorph module. 2. Change the selector to add handles. The first is that since they are dependent. the influences do not need to be recalculated. 5. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. select the domains panel. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. 4. select the domains panel. Click merge. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. 3. It will be as if they were not there. Select one or more domains.

you should divide large domains. but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. delete unnecessary handles. Viewing Solid Models . click return. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. In these cases. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 270 HyperMesh 8. if desired (as shown). the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on.6. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. When you are satisfied with your domains. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. your model is displayed as a wire frame. However. You can still display the surface mesh. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory.

0 User’s Guide 271 .You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Select the lines. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. surface. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. It is a threestep process. its local coordinate system.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. beam. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Each step is described in more detail below. rod) element property data for an FEA model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. moving. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. and any beam section properties calculated. as dictated by the beam section template. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 273 . You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected. The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.Step 3: Beam Property Import.

The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. 274 HyperMesh 8. N1. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected.

HyperBeam is invoked when you click create. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point.0 User’s Guide 275 . Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam.

If the node selection was performed differently. and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped). HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 276 HyperMesh 8.

In this case. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. If there were a 1 within the Z comp.0 User’s Guide 277 . This can be done in the collectors panel. This operation is performed in the bars panel. the HyperBeam alignment axis. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. and the local bar element alignment axis. After the card image is created. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel. 278 HyperMesh 8.The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment.

the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system. The x axis is defined along the beam axis.z plane. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For shell sections.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y.0 User’s Guide 279 . Thickness warping is also neglected.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Goeldner. Wunderlich. Boca Raton. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre. 1979. U.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. CRC Press. and W. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. H. Wiley & Sons. Leipzig. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. A. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods.. ed. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Gjelsvik. 1981. Fachbuchverlag. Rubenchik. 1993.D. Pilkey.0 User’s Guide 281 . FL. V.D. Schramm. Pilkey and W.

HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. 282 HyperMesh 8. and status bar. shell section graphics pane. toolbar. and results/spreadsheet sections. Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas. It also has a menu bar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

select the section. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. To export sections to an external file. right-click in the section browser pane. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors.bm extension to save beam section files). To view thumbnails of selected sections. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. and renaming sections and section collectors. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. select the collector branch in the section browser window. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. Section types are identified by icons. select a section by left-clicking on it. select the collector where you want the section to appear. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the .0 User’s Guide 283 . copying sections. right-click in the section browser pane. select the collector where you want the section to appear. To move a section. holding down the control key. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. select the section. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. click Save. At the highest level is the model. and select Paste from the Edit menu.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. and select Paste from the Edit menu. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. click once on the item to select it. To copy a section. and enter the new name. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. select Cut from the Edit menu. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. select Copy from the Edit menu.

If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. separated by a colon. 284 HyperMesh 8. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. if you have them enabled on the view menu. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. if you have them enabled on the view menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. or equivalently. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. For shell sections. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down.

you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. "No results to display. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. You specify the text font. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog.0 User’s Guide 285 . Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. Also. If there are computed values that are not necessary. text color. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. to toggle between them. and the associated vertex moves to the new location." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. variables. You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. consult the documentation for the results output template. To see the list of all the results available. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. and optimization bounds for the section. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. then the spreadsheet displays equations. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. If the results are not available. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. it displays them in the results pane. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. then HyperBeam displays the message. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations.

If you choose add.) To delete an equation. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. If all three values are equal. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. Select delete variable on the menu. variables. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. click the variable with the right mouse button. blank spaces may be prohibited. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. a lower bound.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. (For example. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. Alternatively. arithmetic functions. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. or trigonometric functions. Next. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. To define a variable for use in an equation. 286 HyperMesh 8. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. and an upper bound. into which you can enter the variable's name. you can use other vertex coordinates. and optimization bounds. In the equation. initial value. with a few restrictions. A menu is displayed. a new blank line appears. To delete a variable. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. The equation is passed to the optimization solver.

Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. Options are provided to export all sections. Displays a print preview.0 User’s Guide 287 . standard section. or generic section. Copies the selected text or entity. From the Edit window. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. select Preferences. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Redo the last procedure. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. Delete the currently selected text or entity. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Set the graphics and results preferences. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. On the Edit menu. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. select Preferences to display the tabs. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Save the beam cross-section. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. or only selected sections.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector.

x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. so it can display just those values known to be relevant.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. such as courier. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. Each section type can have its own custom script. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. so that their sizes are relative to one another. Displays the font dialog box. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. for best formatting.

Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Turns on and off the display of the status bar.. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Moves the model in the selected direction.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. When selected. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section.. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex... updates results. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Properties. automatically updates the display when you make changes. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. If selected... Part Editor.0 User’s Guide 289 . Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. rearrange vertices in a part. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to move vertices. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail.

you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. the current shear center. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. the origin for the section does not follow it. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. the current principle axes. Likewise. Note that.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or the current centroid to be the new origin. If you move a defi ning vertex. reflecting it about the y-axis.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. or the principle axes change. the origin will not move with it. 290 HyperMesh 8. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. To specify a new coordinate system. if you subsequently move that vertex. this coordinate system does not adjust with them.

. 13. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. To set a new thickness.) If you are currently in an optimization section. 3. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. enter a value in the appropriate field. 2. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. 2. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. 4. When you use the part editor tools for. For example. in the section illustrated below. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. 14.. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 291 . so the connectivity of the top part is 1. 12. include those vertices in more than one part. 5. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list.

Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select properties. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. This operation cannot be undone. or equations tying coordinates together.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. On the Tools menu. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. Set the warping factor. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. or vertex coordinates.

0 User’s Guide 293 . Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section.

Resize the display to fit the pane. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. To finish the part. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . activate this tool and click on the vertex. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. If you want to delete a vertex. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. double-click the last vertex. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. Bring the section results up to date. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. Specify a new center for the graphics display.

Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. activate this tool. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. Copy an item. Undo the last action performed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition.0 User’s Guide 295 . Paste a copied or cut item. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Redo the last action performed. rearrange vertices in a part. Open the print dialog. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session.

The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. principal axes. calculate its properties. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. Note: For design reasons. 296 HyperMesh 8. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. moments of inertia. and torsion and warping constants. shear center. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . center of gravity. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section.

If you are using offset sections. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. the cross section must be planar. Axes. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. If you define the base point by picking a node. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. If you define the plane. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. or have it calculated for you. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. All properties are calculated on the plane. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. the coordinate system. offset values are calculated for you. Unless you change the name of the component. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. the Y. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. If you use the default method. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. If you do not specify a base point. in this case. When you pick elements. using NASTRAN conventions. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane.0 User’s Guide 297 . or elements is used. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. surfaces. second order elements are always used.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section.Describing Cross Section Planes.

298 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. When you define a weld point. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. Although you can use the line segments option. or reverse normal to the line. normal to the line. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. the section must be a contiguous area.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. When you use this method. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. an offset of each line is created. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. By default. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. based upon the line data in the model. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. After the initial cross section is defined. or by entering the desired values. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. The offset direction is user-specified. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. and weld points. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. thicknesses. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. The choices are centered. With either method. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. the offset direction is centered. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. those elements are considered to be the section.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section.0 User’s Guide 299 . If you select by elements. Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. No alterations are made to those elements. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. lines. aside from projecting to a common plane. If the section is defined using elements. When lines or surfaces are chosen. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area.

the properties are calculated. Otherwise. The post-processing panel is displayed. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 300 HyperMesh 8.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel. The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations.

These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. ABAQUS. I12. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Iyy A.0. MARC. Similarly non 1. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. OPTISTRUCT. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. I1. J. K2 A. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. K1. As. CW. and the modified value. independently developed over many years. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. I2. Itt. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. ANSYS. K2. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. Iyy. Izz. Otherwise. Iss. see Creating Collectors. CENTROID. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component.0 User’s Guide 301 . Irr. I2. I2. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. J. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. J. J. After you select the solver. N2 A. RADIOSS. Is. These factors.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. N1. see Save and Display Results. SA A. I12. I1. Ir A. that solver is automatically selected. you may select NASTRAN. Centroid x1 and x2. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. or PAM-CRASH. Ist. For more information. the original value. Izz. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. K1. and the spacing between welds. For more information.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. It. I22. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. LS-DYNA. I1. If data exists. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. Γw. no changes are made to the calculated value. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. When you apply the results to the properties or components.

that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. 302 HyperMesh 8. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. This feature works only with apply results. if any.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. If you want to save these. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. it creates a new node. to describe the bar’s orientation. that is referenced by the bar element. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. you must save the results as an ASCII file. The element is created in the currently active component. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. If only one property is selected. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. If you use a vector orientation. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. and not with summary alone. to which the calculated properties were assigned. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. If you use a nodal orientation.

Select those lines as your section definition.0 User’s Guide 303 . Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness. split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. If you need a different reference point.

HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. review and edition of composite laminates. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. Nastran. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. 304 HyperMesh 8. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. this is not advisable. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu.

paste. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. and access on-line help.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. and delete entries in text boxes. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. copy. laminates and size design variables in your model. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. and to cut.0 User’s Guide 305 . Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). change views. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This browser. laminates or design variables. edit materials. provides a vertical tree view of materials. laminates and design variables.

Exports material and laminate information to a text file. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). This text file can be printed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 306 HyperMesh 8. Exit HyperLaminate. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session. The following chart lists each menu option. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting.

contact.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Display/hide status bar.0 User’s Guide 307 . Displays version. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and copyright information.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. The toolbar is shown and described here. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. 308 HyperMesh 8. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields.

At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. These are: a.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. Laminates: SHELL91. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. for Abaqus: i. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. SHELL99. for the active user profile. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. Materials: MAT1. 2. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. for Ansys: i.0 User’s Guide 309 . The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. and laminates in your model. Design Variables: DESVAR b. Laminates and Design Variables. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. On launching HyperLaminate.

Rename . Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. 2. displayed with the names as defined by you. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. At the lowest level are the entities. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity.3. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. 2. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. 2. on the toolbar.which allows the entity to be renamed. Click the New icon. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. 3. Click New. Or 1. 310 HyperMesh 8. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. i. . The selected entity is highlighted. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. A new entity appears under the selected branch. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. a new MAT1 entity is created. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. Or 1. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. To review and update entities: 1. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. A new entity appears under the selected branch. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Select New from the File pull-down menu. Right click on selected entity sub-type. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type.e.

2. Right click on selected entity. Right click on the selected entity. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. 2. Click Yes. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. and Delete. Duplicate. Click Delete. and Delete. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. 7.0 User’s Guide 311 . Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. switches to a text box. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Duplicate. Click Duplicate. 3. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. A confirmation dialog is displayed. The name of the selected entity. and Delete. Or 5. 4. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Click Rename. 4. 2. 6.To rename entities: 1. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. 3. in the Laminate Browser. Duplicate. Right click on the selected entity. A confirmation dialog is displayed. 3. Click Yes. Enter the desired new name in the text box. To duplicate entities: 1.

The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. on the toolbar. . 312 HyperMesh 8. 10. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. Click the Delete icon.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 9. To delete these undefined materials. as they do not really exist. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged).8. Click Yes.

On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. Once the desired changes have been made. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Materials For OptiStruct. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images).Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Nastran and Ansys materials.0 User’s Guide 313 . all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane.

clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. HyperMesh component color. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. As with the other user profiles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane.

270 and 360 respectively). The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). e. 90.0 User’s Guide 315 . A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. c. Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. 180. Due to the midlayer. f. d. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. 270 and 360 remain as 0. 270 and 360 respectively). Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). 90. 270 and 360 remain as 0. b.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. 180. The midlayer is not reflected. The midlayer is not reflected. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. 180. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. 180. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Due to the midlayer. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. the total number of plies is always odd. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 90. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. 90. the total number of plies is always odd. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0.

ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. using the toolbar. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. Each row of the table defines the material. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). Ctrl+c. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. Rows may be cut.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . When multiple rows are selected. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). pasted or deleted to/from the table. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). Rows may be inserted in the table. with the Ctrl key held down. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. copied. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once.

you can click the Clear button. 2. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. but this is not enforced in the GUI. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. A new material appears under the selected branch. Once the desired changes have been made. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. b) Click the new icon. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. A new material appears under the selected branch. the No. on the toolbar. c) Click New. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. A new material appears under the selected branch.0 User’s Guide 317 . Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). . clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). To define a new material: 1.

Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). Data may be cut. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. 318 HyperMesh 8. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. using the toolbar. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. Ctrl+c. Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Click Apply to save the changes. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab.For the OptiStruct. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). For the Abaqus user profile: 1. 2. 2. 4. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 3. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. 5. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. copied.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To review or modify an existing material: 1. Click return. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. 3. 2. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 3. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. For the OptiStruct.

A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. . 5. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. b) Click the new icon. 4. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. 2. c) Click New. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. Click return. 6.0 User’s Guide 319 . 2. Click Apply to save the changes. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 3. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. on the toolbar. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. 4. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. 3. To define a new laminate: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser.

specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. copied. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Table rows may also be cut. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. a) For Convention:. Ctrl+c. 9. using the toolbar. Data may be cut. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. using the toolbar. 320 HyperMesh 8. 10. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). row 3 will be pasted as row 8. if you now uncheck the box. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. select Constant or Variable. Note: 7. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. but are now editable. 6. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. copied. Eg. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields.5. they will be pasted as sequential rows. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Ctrl+c. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. pasted or deleted. b) For Ply thickness:. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. 8. row 1 will be pasted as row 7. If Constant is selected.

If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. 2. on the toolbar. 3. 4. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. (only subtype available is DESVAR). Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. A new design variable appears under the selected branch.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). A new design variable appears under the selected branch. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. . (only subtype available is DESVAR). 6. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. (See To define a new laminate). Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. (only subtype available is DESVAR). lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. 2. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).5 may be entered. Initial. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 1. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. 5. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. b) Click the new icon. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. 3. c) Click New. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser.0 User’s Guide 321 . 7.

3. Data may be cut. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. copied. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. 2. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Ctrl+c. using the toolbar. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. 322 HyperMesh 8. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).

the review pane has two tabs. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. This is followed by a description of the laminate. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. For Abaqus materials. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). no information is displayed in the Review pane. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. thickness and orientation. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. Materials For OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide 323 . Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. Nastran and Ansys materials. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Review Pane The Review Pane. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane.

You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .0 and 110. chemical reaction. fluid flow. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. Otherwise. three-dimensional. If a finite element model is currently loaded. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. creating "dead cells. 324 HyperMesh 8. j.0 in each direction." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. wall. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. the outer boundary of the volume. and k directions of the block. When the block is displayed. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. you can export the grid. After you create a finite difference block.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase.

Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. A cell may exist in only one wall. Displays a list of all walls in the block. See the FD nodes panel for more information. j nodes.0 User’s Guide 325 . respectively. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. marked as dead. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. each cell within a block is live. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. To intersect the model with the cells. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. j. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. which creates dead cells wherever a one. Deletes all existing walls. Initially. Note: Before any wall operation is begun. and displayed in the current wall color.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. After you create a wall. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. based on whether i nodes. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. select the desired elements and click intersect. After you create a mesh. or k nodes has been selected. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. Deletes the specified wall. Updates the color of an existing wall. and k directions. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. j. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button.

The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. Otherwise. j. If you change the color of a plane. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. by volumes. However. and i. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. they are highlighted. When cells are selected. 326 HyperMesh 8. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. or by planes. j. When the entire block is plotted. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. If the block is displayed in planar mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can edit any cell in the block. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. it is easier to see which cells are dead. by using the next and prev menu functions. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. and k are at their minimum values. the color menu items in the i. Because cells have no visible pick handle. where the block coordinate axes are located. plane-by-plane. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. It is possible to step through the model. After edit cells is selected. since only dead cells are plotted.

pressures. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. constraints. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. and accels. Use the none. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. Automatically. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). moments. flux. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 327 . There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. temperatures. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. When geoms is selected. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. you control the display of loads applied to elements. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. by exporting the FE deck. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. using the files panel/export sub-panel. After remeshing. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. using the load on geom panel. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. velocities. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. See Exporting Loads for more information. When elems is selected. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page.

a line. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry. Loads applied to geometrical entities. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element).Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. or a surface. The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads.

in each of the load application panels listed above. node). HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window.) located on the Analysis Page. points. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. lines and surfaces. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. lines and surfaces. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. and choose the create sub-panel. constraints. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. The process includes two basic steps.g. Third. etc.g. lines and surfaces. velocities. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. lines and surfaces. points. moments. temperatures. forces. and click create. 1. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. 2. Next. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. pressures. lines. and accels. and updating loads and constraints. reviewing. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 329 . flux. constraints. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points.

For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. The basic length of the arrow also differs. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. When exporting the model using an export template. 330 HyperMesh 8. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. mapped from geometry to mesh. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows.hm file. or both. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . If displayed is selected. If all is selected. only the loads on mesh are exported. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element).Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry.

ABAQUS. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. on the macro menu. until all data has been entered. or ANSYS format. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. dlm.mac.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. to the next field below. ABAQUS. NASTRAN.. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4.0 User’s Guide 331 . NASTRAN. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed.. in order.

The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. 332 HyperMesh 8. This file is related to the base CFD model. This file is related to the structural input model. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. structural_model_tecplot.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. used to post-process in Altair HyperView.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. For instance. for example. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. for example.0 format file related to the structural input model. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4.dat Structural analysis model file. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. These files are always called hmimp.

2. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. click Browse.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. y.452460170E-02 1. and z coordinates first. .356568158E-01-8.357369840E-01-8. .e. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format.. filename_dynain. i.970389962E+00 4. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4.098905325E+00 1.960968852E+00 4. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model.960631967E+00 4..854129910E-02 1. Each row should show the x. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView.548135996E-01-8.095489740E+00 . a warning message is displayed. Click Open. .0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format. Use the browser to locate a file.0 User’s Guide 333 . For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:.926119655E-02 1.105462790E+00 1.

The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. filename_dynain. For Structural analysis model file:. The default value is 1. ABAQUS..000. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. i. For example. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model. 2. For Mapping method:. Click Open.500. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. select Element nodes or Element centroids. For CFD result scaling:. . This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. 334 HyperMesh 8. or ANSYS input file format) 1. or ANSYS input deck. Set the scale factor 1. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. Once the data is mapped. For example. Use the browser to locate a file. 2. click Browse. For CFD model scaling:.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. select the data type to be mapped. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. For Data parameter mapped:. 2. 3. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. Y. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. ABAQUS. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types.500.00 (no scaling). NASTRAN. if the CFD result scale factor is 1. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. the X.e. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). The default is 1. NASTRAN.

The mapping algorithms are accessed.0 User’s Guide 335 . for instance. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. The default mapping algorithm. and takes an average of these two values. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Set the mapping algorithm 1. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. For Mapping algorithm:. Click OK. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. the mapping process runs. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude.

0 Altair Engineering ..z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1.y. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands. dlm.mac. on the macro menu.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro.0 corresponds to 1. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.0 corresponds to 1.. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.

0. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results.0 User’s Guide 337 .0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained.1e+01 corresponds to 1. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.

phase. offset) at an element. Stores one floating point value at a node. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. assigned. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. offset) at a node. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. deformed. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. If this occurs. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. 338 HyperMesh 8. For example. phase. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. If you run a nonlinear job. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. Stores one floating point value at an element. for more information. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. and may contain a subset of the total model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. A data type may contain only one type of result. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. if this is appropriate.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. and vector plots. This translation is done using result translators. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation.

Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. and transient.. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. for results file:. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse.. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. to select a file using the browser. and for file:. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence.0 User’s Guide 339 . Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. For transient animation. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions.. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. select the results sub-panel. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes.. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. modal. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. to select a file using the browser. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. In this case. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. In the global panel. For linear and modal animation. The three types of animation include linear.

based on the values in the results file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. so no further calculations are required. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. In order to accomplish this. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. For each element. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. When a contour function is performed. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. based on the values found in the results file.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. See the vector plot panel for more information. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. In order to accomplish this. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. When the assign function is performed. The values are located at the centroid of the element.

and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. To modify the descriptor. The ID.0 User’s Guide 341 . click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. modify the colors used in the legend. simulation and data type. reverse the colors of the legend. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. you can add titles. change the font size. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. change the color of the text in the legend. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. After you enter the title and create the plot. By default. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. To modify a legend. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor.

This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. 342 HyperMesh 8. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. which are referred to as plots. To display a curve. which are referred to as curves. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. The plot may contain any number of curves.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. Allows you to rename curves. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. To access the xy plots module. Reads curves from an ASCII file. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. font. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. thickness. In addition. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. and number of significant places in the labels. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. dashed. subtitle. and zoom out. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. etc. thickness of the grid lines. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. line style. and the line style (solid. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). circle zoom. marker style (used to indicate the point location). You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities.).0 User’s Guide 343 . Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. and label. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves.

This process also applies to curves. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. or width of the border. or a subset of the plots. or add a title to the plot. Plot attributes include the title. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. Every time you change the current xy plot. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. in one step. Access this panel by pressing the w key. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. you can change the color.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. thickness. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. For example. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. and change the attribute in the panel. subtitle. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. To modify an xy plot. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and labels. select the plot you want to change. 344 HyperMesh 8. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. After each change. the grid labels and grid attributes.

transform a curve. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. The block begins with the statement.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. In the above example. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. Y1 X2. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. the title assigned to the curve. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. you select entities of interest in your model. there are two blocks of data. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. After XYDATA. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Y1 X2.TITLE X1. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format.0 User’s Guide 345 . which define two curves. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. You can combine two curves. Y2 . Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. which is displayed in the legend. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. . For every operation. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. y) data pairs on each line. ENDDATA XYDATA. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. Point data follows with a set of (x. After this information has been supplied. or export the curve. When you create an analysis curve.TITLE X1. Y2 . XYDATA. Essentially. follows on the same line. . . . filters exchange data with HyperMesh.

you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. the data source for the x vector could be a file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Source file data is divided into type. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression. the component must be selected.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. Once the data type has been selected. For more information about math expressions. the data request set needs to be selected.x c1. request. based on what has been modified. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. and component. To reference the y vector of curve 1. Available data types depend on the data file. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. 346 HyperMesh 8. After the data request set has been selected.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. When you modify a curve. in the format curve number. refer to the Altair Math Reference. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. For example.vector: For example: c1.

and square markers. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. To select curves for a plot. and four different patterns. The style of line used to draw the curve. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. triangular. HyperMesh currently supports circular. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. no line at all. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. select the plots panel and click select curves. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. The color used to draw the curve.0 User’s Guide 347 . The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. when the curve is displayed. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend.

if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. 348 HyperMesh 8. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). Click the desired curve in the curve list. To quit the curve editor. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. graph area (red). because they are automatically applied as you make them. Modify the curve attributes if needed. For this reason. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. curve attributes (blue). and must be imported by use of the update button. click the close command button. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. 3. To display curves in the graph area: 1. and graph attributes (cyan).Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The curve editor contains four main areas. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. The curve displays in the graph area. 2.

or show no line at all.To change a curve's attributes: 1. if it is already set to Display.5). the line’s symbol points will still display. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. Click the curve in the graph area. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. Click the curve that you wish to modify. A list of available colors displays. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. and then typing in a new value. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. Note: If you choose no line. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. Either click the curve in the curve list. Or 2. select a number from the every: list box. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. 1. For example. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. 2. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. For example. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. To change the graph's attributes: 1. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. For example. and 1. For example.5. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. To draw the curve in a thicker line.0. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler).0. In the graph attributes area. To change the symbol spacing. For example. click the thick line checkbox. select a symbol from the list box. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . click the desired color to select it. making a finer grid. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label.0 User’s Guide 349 . setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0.

but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. To delete a curve: 1.5. 3. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. Click proceed. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. 1. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. and 1. Click the Delete command button. For example. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. Click proceed. For example. 3. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. which now uses the curve’s new name. Click the desired curve in the curve list. 4. click the curve that you wish to delete. 350 HyperMesh 8. A confirmation window displays. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. To rename a curve: 1.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. 3. Type in a new name for the curve. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler).0. Type in a name for the new curve. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. For example. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. Undo You cannot undo a deletion.0.5). or No to keep the curve. 2. making a finer grid. To create a new curve: 1. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . once you delete a curve. 2. In the curve list. you cannot recover it. 2. 3. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn.

Further. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. Using the basis vector approach. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. HyperOpt. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. Nastran. Before importing AutoDV data. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. In size optimization. HyperStudy. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. and spring properties are design variables. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. the shell thickness. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. Altair HyperOpt provides both. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. In the past. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct.0. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. BVi variable DVi . and Templex. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. x. The basis vectors define nodal locations. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. In finite elements. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi .0 User’s Guide 351 . Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. Nastran. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. Starting with HyperWorks 6. Altair HyperOpt. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. Altair HyperStudy. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. If there is a choice in the optimization code. such as beam section properties. In topology optimization. In shape optimization. and Genesis. input parameters of a model. is the vector of nodal coordinates. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. Genesis.

5. where nnn is the design variable ID. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Example: mymodel. Select the solver panel. To generate another perturbation vector.base model.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution. However. 3. identifies the perturbed grids. 7. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. 4.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. Before these methods can be applied. In HyperMesh. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. giving the *. 352 HyperMesh 8. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3.pert<nnn>. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. 3. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. 2.pert006. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. using the AutoDV template. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. Write a <prefix>. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model.pert file a different ID. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. 6. Do not save the perturbed model. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. 2.

To create a domain element: 1. Define shapes and control perturbations. 2. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. 5. select the optimization panel. 4.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. DPENTA6. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. 3. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. It is recommended. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed.0 User’s Guide 353 . 5. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. On the BCs page. 6. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. Select the perturbations panel. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Assign shapes to design variables. none of the domain components should include finite elements. 2. Select the domain subpanel. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. but not necessary. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. If needed. 4. 7. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. 3. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. Select the type of domain element. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. However.

e. Select the domain subpanel. 6. Select update. 5. Select the nodes for the domain node set. 4. A given node may belong to more than one node set.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. i. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. it is identified by AutoDV. or they can be created manually. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. 7. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. select the optimization panel..0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3. Click add. 2. 8. On the BCs page. However. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. Toggle nodeset to manual. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. 354 HyperMesh 8. Select the perturbations panel.

Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. 3. On a given edge. Click return to return to the perturbations panel.g. Py. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. To define control perturbations: 1. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points).. 2.y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. Select perturbations using the toggle.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. For corner control points. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. Enter a name (max. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e.0 User’s Guide 355 . place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. you do not need to create a second order domain element. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. Click create vector to create the vectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. In either case. Select the perturbations panel. 8 characters) in shape =. Instead. For 2-D domains. Click create shape. The interpolations are performed as follows. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. otherwise it is linear.

For mid-side control points. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node. 356 HyperMesh 8. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. the presence yields a quadratic interpolation.

grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. With only primary domain. illustrated below. For example. they remain unperturbed.0 User’s Guide 357 . because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. Here. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. Here. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. However. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops.

Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point.Using the example illustrated above.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this yields the perturbation shown below. 358 HyperMesh 8. and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.

Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. These are part of the vector collector card. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. 3. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. Y_ORDER. 4. Edit X_ORDER. However. create a design variable using that shape.one at each corner control point of that element. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. 2.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. X_TYPE. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1.y) = P (x. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the shape panel.0 User’s Guide 359 . Each vector may have a different length and orientation. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. There should be no other vector in that shape. one DQUAD4 element at a time.y) T (x. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains.

even Default all all For given values of m and n. odd. Accordingly. odd. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. odd. AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel.You have the option of generating all. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. even all. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Select desvar using the toggle. select the solver panel. Click create. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Select the create load subpanel. 8 characters) in desvar =. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Enter a name (max. moments and temperatures. Click file = and enter the result file with the .dv. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. − − − − On the BCs page. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. the corner and mid-side control points. 3. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Variable loading can be generated for forces. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load.animate suffix. To generate a variable load: 1.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. 2. select the results subpanel. Select AUTODV as the solver. Click create to create the vectors. Select the perturbations panel. select the apply result panel. On the Post page. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Click apply to apply the variable loads. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. 4.0 User’s Guide 361 . Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page.

Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 363

After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

364 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 365

Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

366 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 367

Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

368 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

Altair Engineering
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 369

Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

370 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering

Altair Engineering

FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. and changing the export state of entity sets. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. It also includes functions for displaying. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. Nastran. 2.0 User’s Guide 371 . From the Tools pull-down menu. creating. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. Nastran. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. The set manager displays in the tab area. deleting. and ABAQUS user profiles. renaming. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. geometry. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. or Abaqus user profile. select Set Manager. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. along with the entity set display and export states. appending entities to.

on folders.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. or Abaqus user profile. grouped in folders by type. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. or on individual or multiple items within folders. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. Rename: Rename the selected set. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. select Set Manager. 372 HyperMesh 8. accessed by right clicking in the background. Supported entity set types are shown above. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. From the Tools pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3. 2. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. The set manager displays in the tab area. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Nastran.

Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). The set manager displays in the tab area.0 User’s Guide 373 .ses) containing group definitions. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. 2. which control the display of each of these entities separately.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. Nastran. When switching between supported solvers. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. or Abaqus user profile. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. 3. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. grouped in folders by type. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. Once a display toggle is changed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. Available options are shown above. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed.ses). and is only available for component and element sets. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. From the Tools pull-down menu. to the disk. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. select Set Manager. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. Instead. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. In addition. 374 HyperMesh 8.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. To remedy these occurrences. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. Export states synch automatically. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. For large models.

op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). only the LABEL is used. This procedure reduces the size of the . You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. If a new . Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. 4. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). The tool also supports . Select a sub-case. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. Additionally.op2 file. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the . all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. a text summary table within HyperMesh. sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities.op2 file changes.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information.op2 file is required.op2 file display for selection. and a formatted . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. If no SUBTITLE exists. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. select Free Body Diagram. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. 2. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.0 User’s Guide 375 .op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). for Nastran and OptiStruct. then FBD Displacements. Once an . or if the original .LABEL(ID)”. Location: Results menu. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . Use the . Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. From the Results pull-down menu.op2 file is selected. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. you must load the new .

The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. If a node set is not selected.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name.5.csv file output options.op2 file format. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. then all nodes within the element set are used. Select entities.y. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. and toggle to the assign sub-panel. 376 HyperMesh 8. otherwise modify the value as desired. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data.op2 file. when checked. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. click Coordinate Systems. If a coordinate system is not specified. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1.0e-6. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. Uy.z) in the summary table and . Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. and click Set Analysis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets. • 6. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. Displacement data (Ux. On the Setup menu. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x.

you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. The table contains information about the sub-cases. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. • The Create . A single load collector. A sample window with partial output is shown below. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. For example. IN any case.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. and detailed displacement data at each node. You may select a new file or an existing file. If it does not exist. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type.csv file option creates a . element and node set(s). it will append/replace the data. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. node set and sub-case IDs). FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. for the current element and node set. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. it will be appended to the end of the file.0 User’s Guide 377 . is created for each sub-case. but in a comma-separated file. node set 1 and sub-case 1.

csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. This procedure reduces the size of the .op2 file changes) you must load the new . use this to browse to and select the desired . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID). Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. overwriting the previously selected. 378 HyperMesh 8.op2 file. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. The tool supports . If a new . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information.op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . This opens the standard file selection dialog window. Location: Results menu. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected.op2 file.op2 file are displayed for selection only. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . Once you’ve selected an op2 file.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran.op2 file is required (or if the original . Additionally. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. only the LABEL is used.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file into the database. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections. for Nastran and OptiStruct. If no SUBTITLE exists. a text summary table within HyperMesh.

0 User’s Guide 379 . Rigidlink. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. and Reaction Loads Only. On the assign sub-panel.To select entities: 1. 2.op2 file. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. 4. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. RJOINT. the extracted values will be incorrect. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. result system and summation node. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. If a results system is not specified. the HyperMesh origin (0. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. 3. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . To specify output options: 1. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Available options include All Loads. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. applied.0) is used by default. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. or output to. RROD. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . SPC. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set. Applied Loads Only. If a node is not selected. results coming from. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card.0. RBE3. and RBAR. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. In addition. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node.

therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. 3. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. 5. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. sub-case IDs). but in a comma-separated file. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data.csv file option to create a . activate the Show summary table option. If it does not exist. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility.0e-6. it is appended to. Use the Create . This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. When you save the HyperMesh database. and component Fx. You may select a new file or an existing file. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. modify the value as desired. If an existing file is selected. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. element set(s). sub-case 1. A sample window with partial output is shown below. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. it will be appended to the end of the file. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. However. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1.2. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. The table contains information about the sub-cases. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats.

If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. when checked. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. which are defined by an element set. When using the “Centroid” option. node set. 3. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. Location: Results menu. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). summation node. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. 5. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. a temporary node is created. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. If no node is selected. To define a cross-section manually: 1. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. gaps. 4. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. displays the element set. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. node set. 2. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. If a results system is not specified. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. and a local result coordinate system. If this node is deleted from the model. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes.0 User’s Guide 381 . The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. If multiple element sets are selected.

the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. This is the offset value for generated set names. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. highlighting the currently selected element set. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. 382 HyperMesh 8. 2. all cross-section definitions are also saved. 5. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. 6. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. By default. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections.e. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. or deleted. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. Therefore. If checked. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. modified. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. 3. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. 7. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. Therefore. or only the new “row” of elements. 7. For example.6. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. where “#” increases with each new set generated. first cross-section). When the HyperMesh database is saved. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. For example. where “#” increases with each new set generated. result system and summation node. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. 4. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . node set.

op2 file display for selection only. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. Location: Results menu. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . overwriting the previously selected. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.op2 file. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”.op2 file is required. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a text summary table within HyperMesh. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView. To select a results file: Use the .op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking.op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. you must load the new . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. Additionally. This procedure reduces the size of the .op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. If a new .op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. If no SUBTITLE exists.0 User’s Guide 383 .op2 file changes.op2 file into the database. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). and/or a formatted .csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). only the LABEL is used. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. The tool supports . When an .op2 file is selected. or if the original .

fbd file output options. (On the assign sub-panel. sub-case 1.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. and . Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. RROD. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . RBE3. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. 384 HyperMesh 8. Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. In addition. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1.op2 file. select the required nodes and a coordinate system.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. . Rigidlink. otherwise modify the value as desired. the extracted values will be incorrect. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. If a coordinate system is not specified. RBAR.z) in the summary table. RJOINT. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.csv file. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). and component Fx. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. node set 1. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. each made up of an element set and node set. 2. 1.0e-6. 3.y.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case.

0 User’s Guide 385 . 4. You may select a new file or an existing file. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections.fbd file. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. Activate the Create . Activate the Create . 6. Comments When saving over existing . HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. it will be appended to the end of the file.csv file option to create a . This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. sub-case IDs). If an existing file is selected. but in a comma separated file. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. When the HyperMesh database is saved. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. it is appended to. You may select a new file or an existing file. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. If an existing file is selected. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu. If it does not exist.csv or . However. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review.The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. 5. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. it is appended to. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.

Valid types include FBD Displacements. Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. and Resultant Force and Moment. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Fy. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). • • 386 HyperMesh 8.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. • The Fx. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. FBD Forces (All Loads). Pick the desired Results type. If multiple sub-cases are selected. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. Displacement. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. Select one or more Element sets. 4. 3. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. Location: Results menu. The optional Show model checkbox. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. Displacement. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. 2. FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. when checked. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases.

The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. if desired. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. Two options are available. each of which requires a numeric value.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. Magnitude % or Uniform size. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • 5. Click the Color box to pick a different color.0 User’s Guide 387 . The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion.

To export FBD. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file.op2 file. 2. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. 3. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). This populates the list of subcases. 388 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. Specify Export options:. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. or type in a name for a new one. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. After export. Displacement. Location: Results menu. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. In addition. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. For FBD Displacements. 4. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. Displacement. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. an additional list of node sets displays. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. 5.

0 User’s Guide 389 . and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. removing it from the tab area. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. Close closes the tab. Displacement. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.6.

This model cons ists of two elements. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. Location: Results menu. and a point load on the right end. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node. 390 HyperMesh 8. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. a fixed support on the left end. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 391 .

3. for any given node. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a.121e+03) and is extracted iii. Therefore. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. For FBD type Reaction loads only. 2. Element 1 has nodes 1. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only.121e+03 b. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. MPC loads: Zero iv. Applied loads: Zero ii. Applied loads: Zero ii. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. Furthermore. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. v. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. Node 2 i.121e+03) and is extracted iii. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. 3 and 4. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. For FBD types Applied loads only. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Node 1 i.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. MPC loads: Zero iv. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. The element set serves several purposes: 1. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. 4. Fx calculation. for any given node. • • 2. v. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.

ii. My. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. however. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility.c. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. My. is the simple sum. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. Node 4 i. ii. v. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. iv. illustrated in the screenshot below. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx.0 (ie.085e+03 e.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Fy. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. d. Node 3 i. Fz) for each node. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. iii.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. Fz. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. The sum of the forces components (Fx.085e+03) v. iii. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.0 User’s Guide 393 . Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. iv. Mx. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately.

Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. MPC loads:Zero iv. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Applied loads: Zero vii.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Since only element 2 is not in the element set. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. For all nodes in the node set. Fx calculation. summation node set to node 3. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations.085e+03) x.085e+03 b. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1.0 Fy calculation. Node 4 vi. MPC loads:Zero ix.085e+03) v. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. SPC loads: Zero viii. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set. 4. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. 2. SPC loads: Zero iii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Applied loads: Zero ii. 5. Node 3 i.085e+03 c. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . 3. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. All values are zero in this model. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. • 394 HyperMesh 8.

• • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. MPC loads:Zero xxix. Node 4 xvi.426e+02) xv.808e+02 d. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3.000e+02.0*3. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6.024e+00) xxx. Applied loads: Zero xxii.426e+02 b.808e+02 xxxiii. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Applied loads: Zero xvii.024e+00 c. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. Node 3 xxi. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. Node 4 xxvi.166*1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2. MPC loads:Zero xiv. Applied loads: Zero xii. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. All values are zero in this model. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.574e+02) = -1.574e+02) xx. SPC loads: Zero xiii.871e+00) xxv. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3.085e+03) + (0. SPC loads: Zero xviii. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1.871e+00 b. MPC loads:Zero xxiv. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.574e+02 c. My calculation. SPC loads: Zero xxviii.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Node 3 xi. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. MPC loads:Zero xix.0 User’s Guide 395 .

Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. Additionally. FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. All values are zero in this model. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . nodes 3 and 4 (node set).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. summation node set to node 3. for Nastran and OptiStruct. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). 2. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1.• Mz calculation. • • 396 HyperMesh 8.op2 file. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. This procedure reduces the size of the . which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below.op2 file in float point precision in binary format.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful