HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

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Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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or information concerning future platforms.13 m.23. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11. However. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms. LINUX running RH 7. 5.11. or 5.8. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms.0.11 m and IRIX 6. WIN 2000/XP.3 or RH 8.5.0 User’s Guide 1 .0.2.5. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative. The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. In general.3. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL. such as drawing a line on the screen. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration.3.0 or 11. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations. depending on their level of sophistication. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group.1. IBM running AIX 4. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11.

0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created. 2. and Windows XP platforms. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. hm. At the operating system prompt.cshrc file in the user home directory.cfg. For more information about the hm. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key.cfg configuration file. Windows 2000.Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX. enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. 2 HyperMesh 8. see Start-up Files. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.alias or . add the following line in the . Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. To start HyperMesh: 1.. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . see Configuring HyperMesh.cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8.g. For example.alias or .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

click Start and choose Programs. click quit. By default. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation. To exit HyperMesh. From the Start menu. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. 2. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. 5.0 User’s Guide 3 . The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. 4. To start HyperMesh: 1. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. Since HyperMesh creates user files. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. you may wish to change this directory. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 3. The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages.

For example. 4 HyperMesh 8. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. Click Apply. 3. Your user files. 2. Select Properties. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. Select Properties. To change/use startup options: 1. 2. Select the Shortcut tab. 4. command.set. are created in this directory. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. Select the Shortcut tab. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. After Start in:. 5. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 3. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory.To change the working directory: 1.cmf and hmmenu.

com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. 3.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. 4. At the operating system prompt. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. fit. plot. 2. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1.cmf and press ENTER. etc.0 User’s Guide 5 . To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. Click Apply. 6. –ccommand. Select Properties. 5. type hmbatch –ccommand. 2. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop.) are ignored. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. After Cmd line:. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file. postscript.g. Select the programs tab. to this path. create.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. command. Append the option.cmf. Since this batch version does not have graphical display.

msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8.hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a . Allows Templex within command files.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. fl. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only). Print this message. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. Use the results file. These options include: fl. nodes are not drawn.res suffix.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. change screen resolutions. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. Otherwise. or to print messages. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. pre-set export paths. Write the mouse commands to a mouse. Always continue on error when processing a command file.set file to replace the installed hmmenu.hm. or the specified file.cmf file.res).msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files. res (-r alone specifies the file fl. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. Sets the global template file to the specified file.set. Automatically run the specified command file.msf file. Allows you to write a master hmmenu. Do not prompt via a pop-up box.

You can edit the commands in the hm. Each of the hm.cfg.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config.cfg file to save your preferences. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command. The commands in the hm. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file are acknowledged. If the hm. The hm. or all of the commands may be on one line. only on start -up.0 User’s Guide 7 . They may begin in any column. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm. The following commands are an example of a partial hm. hm. with each command occupying one line. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm.cfg file exists in multiple directories.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file.cfg.

ini Fatigue.tcl. in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.ini files. However. tabs which are visible (e. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm.cfg file hyperlaminate. Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none).set file Cadreader.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . hmcustom. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means.ini.g. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default.altair on Unix and Linux. key bindings.cfg). model or include browser). called hmsettings.cfg file hmexec file feconfig. administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path. or ug.tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.ini.mac file hmmenu.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm.cfg file userpage. Hmsettings. iges. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user. However. such as catia. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. recent files imported and recent files loaded.

uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device.0 User’s Guide 9 . under Windows.

0. In this case. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0. When mode is set to 1. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.0.-5.000673180986.00994070323. but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster). *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands.0.00170778765.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8.00529684395.00228960797.00785649346. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis.999937705) *quatrotate(-0.0. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built.0. HyperMesh does not respond to button input. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()). HyperMesh does not respond to dial input. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization.0047803938.0. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu.0. but a lower frame rate (slower). if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time.7397916e005.0.000802068982.999966514) *quatrotate(0. In this case.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0. *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the following output is generated: *viewset(-0. the Utility menu is displayed.621393) 5. -3. only the finial position is output.761037.00100703597.000395387048. 1 = on (default). 0. -0. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default.0.00263644785.623743.213868. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0.0.000000.000000. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory.*quatrotate(0. -0. Otherwise. 0. 0.722177.575689. 8.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0.0. When the mode is set to 1. 0. 0. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator. 1.0. The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.299006.0. or a symbolic name for the translator. -8. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. 0. -3.00106667981. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'.000000.030465.583235.703590. 0 = off.485656.000327769044. 0. 0. Comments 0.886445.000000. By default.657815.756111. 0.0.612440.0 User’s Guide 11 . 2. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu.000230328525.964252. reducing the size of the command file.

This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory. 12 HyperMesh 8.FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

*graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh. style and curComp are not required. under Windows. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics.0 User’s Guide 13 . uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. style. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode. element handles.*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. and legends in the graphics area. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. For testing purposes. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color.0). The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel. and B are the intensity values for Red.255. This improves graphic performance. or khaki (210. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename"). To circumvent this. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. black (0. a character string closed in double quotes "". This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory.175. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh. white (255.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default. if this command is specified. G. Green and Blue. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel.B). where R. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. For example.0.128). *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer.80.0. then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8.80).100). The command requires one parameter. The color must be between 1 and 64. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. Other colors include: dark blue (0. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). however. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer.255).G.cfg file. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.

*printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing."Hyper3Dwrite". By default.S. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. use *printfile("print_it junk"). For testing purposes. Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus. This command is only used in the command file.0 User’s Guide 15 . Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. This command requires one parameter. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a character string closed in double quotes. For testing purposes./non-HyperMesh) tasks.*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. In general."Hyper3Dwrite". you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. rapid menu functionality is enabled. Enable rapid menus. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer.dll"}."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. To circumvent this. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. "". If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer.g. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. O.1"}.

where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness."{home}\ {solver}". one for the input file name. the colors representing black and white should be reversed. > *output."infile:input file". By default. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name. A character string that is of type file or value."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. On UNIX platforms. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. one for the solver executable. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. and one for the output file name. The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. depending on the expected input.*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. A file named sliden. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel.fem. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. "*solver *input.out). This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. The solver field can be of type value or file."outfile:output file".out". Functionally. Each character string represents an input field. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always . which is a value."*solver *input file *output file *options". it is very similar to the *printfile() command. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . one for the memory in MB. a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. after substituting the user-input parameters. "file:input". "value:memory in MB". Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. optistruct. contact your systems administrator. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument.fem *memory in MB.sdp is created by HyperMesh. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer. 16 HyperMesh 8. The name of the solver executable file. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete.

even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. After you press CTRL-F2.8. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. height. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh generates a *. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted.6). On UNIX platforms. Note: in some cases. The units used are not important but must be consistent. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. red. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. contact your system administrator.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. the proportions of the objects is corrected. To determine this value. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. *screensize(1200. For more information about creating bitmap screen images. width). To find this value. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. Syntax *setcolor(index. A file named sliden. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors. On the PC.0 User’s Guide 17 . Circles may look like ovals. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1.sdf is created by HyperMesh.g.30) is implemented. height).75. thus. a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. green.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. Functionally. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively. (0 through 255) The color’s green component.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). it is very similar to the *printfile() command. In such cases. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. When *screensize(14. For example.

only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command. 18 HyperMesh 8. The default setting is 0. Place the real number here. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. y. horizontal direction of screen. in/out of screen. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. This command may be used in either the hm. 0-9. vertical direction of screen. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } .cfg file or from a command file.0. . Place the element coordinate system number here. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here.0. Place the material number here. 0. z) x y z Comments X axis location. : ‘ / ? . and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . spaces. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it. Syntax *setlightsource(x. Z axis location. Y axis location. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. 1. Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. Currently. a-z.0. Place the section ID number here.

5 is the default).0 – 1.1. Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1.5. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes.7. but small in another direction.0 – 1.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm.7.0.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file. or from a command file.0. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode. Syntax *setspecularity(red. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights.0) The shininess value.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.0 – 1. *setspecularity(0.0. blue.7.0. however.5. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm.cfg file. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.1. The higher the value.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0. Note. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction.0 User’s Guide 19 .0.0.0. green.5.

the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. In general. *. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. With a shared colormap. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. the *xfontname() command must be modified. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. This string may contain wild card. On some platforms. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. This command requires two parameters. However.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. characters in the name. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black. or a similar one. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. A non-shared colormap can be used. This program. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. 20 HyperMesh 8. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts.

On the Control panel. To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. the directory where HyperMesh is installed. 3. 2. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created.0 User’s Guide 21 . 4. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . When HyperMesh is invoked. Start HyperMesh.cmf file. 4.cmf to the file name particular to your system. 2. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. if it exists. 5.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems.. If you rerun the command.cmf.cmf file when HyperMesh is started. double click the System folder. or delete the start-up file commands in command.. Delete the command. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. . Click the TMP line under User variables for . the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially. If the environment variable is set. After you have generated all of the necessary commands.cmf before you run it. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file.cmf file. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens.hmexec or hmexec. Click OK. including those generated by your start-up file. To create a start-up file: 1. Rename command. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable. HOME). Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. 3. 5. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up).Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. To avoid this problem. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. quit HyperMesh. Select the Environment tab. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created.

This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases." 22 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. All HyperMesh entities. Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. are organized within collectors. at Altair we use the extension . See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". points. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. vector. Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. and systems.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x. The original database does not change until you save the model. lines. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. or group. all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. loads. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. However.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . including nodes. or are referenced by a card image.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. if the current database has been modified but not saved. elements.

rotated.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. Lines. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. line. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. auto1. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. lines. for those entities. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first. You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. In this case. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. see the organize panel. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. If you have not created a component first. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. for example. and surfaces that belong to the component. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. Entities can belong to only one collector. and surface data. For more information about reorganizing collectors. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. elements. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. or deleted. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. assigned colors.0 User’s Guide 23 .

A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. Properties for all other element types. For example. then the model should have at least one material collector. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. if you delete an assembly. including its walls and cells. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. 2-D or 3-D. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. the components in the assembly are not deleted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. If a model contains any non-rigid elements. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector. After an assembly is created. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. Components can belong to more than one assembly.

The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads.System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. which allows you to access them as a unit. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. elements. cylinders. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. Typically. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. or materials. which can be composed of specified elements. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. components. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. and planes. A system can belong to only one system collector. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. A system collector can hold any number of systems. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. Typically. groups. A load can belong to only one load collector. nodes. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. systems. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time.0 User’s Guide 25 . Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. and mbjoints entities. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. mbplanes. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. simulating a system loading condition. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity). which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors.

For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. select a node on in the model window. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. and z. Change. change. To modify the name of a multibody collector. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. review and reset the multibody collector type. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. center of gravity. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. card image type. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. and the body’s local coordinate system. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. release the mouse button. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. and z= entry fields. Define. location of the center of gravity. 26 HyperMesh 8. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. y=. y.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. To define a center of gravity location. Review. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel.

and rigids. i. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw.e. hex) of the element. trias.. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type.e. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes. store.. and work with the element. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes. quads. If a model uses only the basic element types. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities.0 User’s Guide 27 .Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes. quad. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

and pin flags (configuration 60). (Must be Type 1. (Must be Type 1. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). local vector. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). or output translator.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). 28 HyperMesh 8. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). offsets. or orientation node. For example. The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). 2-. or orientation node. which allows the template. A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. local vector. Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. offsets. 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205).) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). 4-. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208). Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. to distinguish between the different types. and pin flags (configuration 63). or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes.Element Type Defines the category of the element. refer to Template Design. if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. 3-noded bar element with property reference.

) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). an orientation vector.) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom. Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104).Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and a property reference (configuration 21).) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). (Must be Type 1. Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56).0 User’s Guide 29 . 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106). (Must be Type 1. 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes.

These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. Used to represent conics such as a circle.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. ellipse. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. you can use surface edges as free lines. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. ruled. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. such as when you are working within the spline . so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. An edge is a trim line of a surface. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. Under certain conditions. as well as many other types of curves. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. and their color is determined by the status of the component. However. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. but are then less efficient. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. or parabola. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. In general. A joint is the common point between two line segments. or line drag panels. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces.

0 User’s Guide 31 .The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Used to represent a spherical surface. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8. When a surface has several faces. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity.Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. Used to represent a toroidal surface. All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Each surface type is referred to as a face. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. In general. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.

HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. Several systems may be nested. and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. If you delete a system. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. loads. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. Entities that have a reference system are systems. cylindrical. or both. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. an analysis system. temperatures. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. concentrated fluxes. and pressures are currently supported. concentrated moments. may be rectangular. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities.0 User’s Guide 33 . HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. When you delete an analysis system. By default. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined. or spherical. Constraints. When a reference system is deleted. In HyperMesh. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards.Systems The system entity. accelerations. Note: A system may be a reference system. After a constraint has been applied. If a system does exist. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. commonly called a coordinate system. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. concentrated forces. For example. and mass elements. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. Additionally. A constraint. velocities. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. applied at a node. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. nodal points. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero.

the color of the title.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and the text displayed in the title.Title Title collectors contain title information. 34 HyperMesh 8. including the name of the title.

hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar. A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no . Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality.0 User’s Guide 35 . It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session. Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications. this displays the current HyperMesh version. these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window.

these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. and model status information. Located just under the graphics area. right. such as changing display options. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. in a tabbed format. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. this area may contain one toolbar. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. or both sides of the graphics area.Tab Area Located on the left. or two toolbars stacked vertically. Tab Location sub-menu. these sidebars display additional tools. Located across the bottom of the window. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays.

clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists). but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment.0 User’s Guide 37 . and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. located just beneath the title bar. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. This approach sub-groups similar features together. When clicked. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. Each menu contains many different options. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically.

Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. or visibility and location of tab area items. global options. Access the on-line Help system. or Scale entities. Boundary Conditions such as forces. First. 38 HyperMesh 8. such as automesh. Rotate. etc. To add extra models to your workspace. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. among other options. use load. or constraints. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup. lighting. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. Model quality checks.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. Translate. Model properties such as materials. import. Note: To work with only one model at a time. Change the angle of view on the model. solid map. connectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . including element check settings. and export models and other files. use import. and keyboard configuration. press the alt key to activate the menu area. deleting. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. Reflect. tetramesh. assemblies. and contact surfaces. element edit. Morph. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. moments. such as OptiStruct. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). Meshing tools. To import multiple files. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. or finding entities. and press enter to select a highlighted option. for example). among other options. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. etc. pressures. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. save.

Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities.0 User’s Guide 39 . geometry. and plots are displayed in this area.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas. Models.

control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. For example. Create or update property collectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Create or update load collectors. or import files. Access the visual attributes panel. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. etc) is assigned directly to the element.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. save. Turn the display of collectors on and off. the two-row configuration is shown above. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. if you select "by comp". and edit solver-specific data. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. the property (PBEAM. Access the collectors panel. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them.0. set global modeling parameters. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. For example. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. This button accesses the display panel. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions. This accesses the files panel. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. Selects the element color style. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. Edit solver-specific data in card format. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh.

etc. automesh). The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. etc. if you select "by component". .0 User’s Guide 41 . Determines how geometry features are colored. By 2D Topo: In this mode.g. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. etc. In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. trias etc. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. free edges in red. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. By Topo: In this mode. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel). The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel.e. internal partition faces in yellow. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials. By 3D Topo: In this mode. Some exceptions apply. 2D and 3D elements differently.e. 3-dimensional geometry (i. geometry is colored based on topology. are colored according to the components that they belong to. feature lines. .• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. surface edit. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. 2-dimensional geometry (i. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. lines. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. For example. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green. bar. By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. If geometry shading is turned on. Note: • • . 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. In most cases. the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. All the 1D elements are colored in green. quad. suppressed edges in blue. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. materials are assigned to elements via their components. By Comp: Surfaces. and no lines.

free edges in red. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode. Once active. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature.) In addition. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Left-click to deactivate. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. Right -click to deactivate. Once active. Left-click to deactivate. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or to alternate between two different views. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. . Zoom incrementally. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. etc. left-click to zoom in. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area. Modal Zoom. 42 HyperMesh 8. Returns to the previous view. Left-click to deactivate. Right -click to activate center mode. (shared edges in green. in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. Once active. Once active. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. Once active. Right-click to deactivate. . • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. right-click to zoom out.

Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. and the right button to rotate it rightward. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar.0 User’s Guide 43 . and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel. See Keyboard for more information. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views.

the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). comp:) in the message bar. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu. Geometry) are displayed.Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar.. If you access a panel by using a function key. the current include and current component (comp).g. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). When you are in a panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .e. along with the current menu page name (i. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels.. The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). 44 HyperMesh 8. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages. Miscellaneous messages.0 User’s Guide 45 . such as status updates or completed operations. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar.

delete the file hmmenu. lines. or surfaces 1-D element creation. and then start HyperMesh once again. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. quit HyperMesh. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. model checking functions. each containing a list of panels and modules. and load creation functions. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. masses. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as bars. A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. To correct this condition. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. Model editing.Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. and informational functions. utility functions. coordinate system. 46 HyperMesh 8. The page menu.

each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. right side. However. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu. multiple features are organized onto tabs. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side.0 User’s Guide 47 . and/or the solver browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. both. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. such as the utility menu. To maximize available space. model browser.

properties. vector collectors. entity sets.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. groups. materials. system collectors. load collectors. 48 HyperMesh 8.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser. multibodies. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display. components. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu.

Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. groups. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. Materials. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly.0 User’s Guide 49 . Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. vector cols. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. multibodies.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. Note: When the color picker palette appears. Materials. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. groups. Colors Assemblies. and System Collectors can all be colored individually. Components. An empty assembly never displays. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. properties. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). Properties. To change an entity’s color. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. etc. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. The currently assigned color displays in the column. entity sets. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. When appropriate.) display. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. therefore it does not have a check box. Load Collectors. so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. In this instance. for example. load cols. and click the desired color from the palette. right-click on the current color in the model browser. system cols. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center. unchecked entities are hidden.

Since these functions work in combination with the filters. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. assemblies. The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. Global Switches The Display All . Depending on which option you select. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). system cols. Display None . and load cols have several display states. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. and vector cols shown in the tree. groups. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. Multibodies. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. Click a second time to remove them. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. system cols. and vector cols. groups. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. multibodies. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. groups. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. or load collector. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. Include geometry entities in tree structure.Display Mode Components. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. assembly. geometry entities. load cols. but no mesh. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. Click a second time to remove them. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. 50 HyperMesh 8. components. load cols. In either case.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . system cols. Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. multibodies (not assemblies).

click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. an up-arrow button. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. In addition. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. in this case they are used for Select All. For example. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. with the same buttons for Display All. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. For example. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. Otherwise.0 User’s Guide 51 . Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. For example. including upper/lower case letters. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. In this way. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). and Reverse Selection. Select None. However. Display None. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. a down-arrow button. . click OK to close the list. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon.

it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . clicking third time finds match #3. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. “FrontChassis”. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. Drag and Drop Components. with this option active. type a search string into the combination box. multibodies. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. In this way. select it again to remove the checkbox. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. clicking again finds match #2. If an assembly is moved or copied. or “RearChassis1”. for instance. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. For example. 52 HyperMesh 8. To find entities matching your specified string and options. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. such as searching for whole names with matching case. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. Since this function works in combination with the filters. rather than only part of the name. finding match #1 again. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. it is highlighted in the model browser. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string.To find an entity. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). So. In this way you can combine the search options. To deactivate the option. In other words. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. For instance. for example.

load col. The new name must be unique. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. and groups cannot be renamed. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. Load Collectors. system cols. property. multibody. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. group. A new assembly. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. Materials. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. Once created. Components. component. Plots. Option New Available for: Assemblies. set. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. Properties. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. Most items can be deleted. beamsectcols. vector cols. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. material. Folders that contain materials.0 User’s Guide 53 . sets. load cols. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. component. system col. Description A new assembly. properties.Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. vector col.

In such cases. components. plots. exposing every item nested at every level. The current component is designated with bold font. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . materials. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. etc. plots. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. load collectors. properties. load collectors. cards. materials. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. groups.g. plots. all groups. components. system collectors. all materials. A component. Assemblies. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. In such cases. properties. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. multibody. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. all materials.) Make Current components. components. and properties. plots. materials. load collectors. multibody. this shows all of the items within that branch (e. materials. groups. and properties. load collectors. In such cases. Display the item in the graphics area. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. Assemblies. components. etc. materials. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. and properties. so that only the top-most level of items displays. components. plots. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. properties.g. materials.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. card. plots. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed. load collectors. system collectors. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. this hides everything except for the items within that branch. system collectors. groups. load collectors. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. all groups. components.

choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. select none. To select entity types manually. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. You can also use the select all. click the Entity types: radio button. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu.0 User’s Guide 55 . Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. and select reverse buttons in this mode. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Separate tabs organize entities and columns.

and select reverse buttons in this mode. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser. To select columns manually. click the Column types: radio button. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. You can also use the select all.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. 56 HyperMesh 8. select none. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window.

and update the contents of a model into various include files. 55 systems. Data. 55 system collectors. edit. which does not have any references to an include file.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. 296 properties.dyn contains 55 vectors. etc. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. in the above example. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. For example. the include named dummy. It allows you create. organize. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. is stored in the master model.0 User’s Guide 57 . 116 sets. review. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents.

When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. Display None . This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. groups. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. and vector cols. components. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. in this case they are used for Select All.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and Reverse Selection. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. multibodies. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. load cols. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. 58 HyperMesh 8. an up-arrow button. a down-arrow button. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. Otherwise. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. Select None. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). with the same buttons for Display All. system cols. load cols. click OK to close the list. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon.Global Switches The Display All . the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. system cols. For example. In addition. groups. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above. In this way. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. Display None. multibodies (not assemblies). Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. and vector cols shown in the tree. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. . However. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it.

for example. To deactivate the option. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top. for instance. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. clicking again finds match #2. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. In other words. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. it is highlighted in the include browser. “FrontChassis”. rather than only part of the name. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. with this option active. In this way. To find entities matching your specified string and options. finding match #1 again. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. clicking third time finds match #3. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. type a search string into the combination box. such as searching for whole names with matching case. So. select it again to remove the checkbox. In this way you can combine the search options. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. For example.To find an entity. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. Since this function works in combination with the filters. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. or “RearChassis1”. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. For instance.0 User’s Guide 59 .

Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. the new include is created within it. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. etc. Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. Deletes the selected include. Makes the selected include "current". If a specific include is selected (highlighted). Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file. Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. contacts. components. are automatically placed in the current include. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements.

Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). For the remaining solvers this option is not available. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in. the entire set of entities of a specific type. etc. Nastran. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include.Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. Executive Control. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include.0 User’s Guide 61 . etc. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or Case Control. Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name.). Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). The contents of the chosen file are imported into include.. mats. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct.

62 HyperMesh 8. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh. Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa. Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser.

locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button. and scale the axis of plots. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. xy plots located on the Post page. contains panels that allow you to read curves. edit curves. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. For example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer. To select a module. the module. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels.0 User’s Guide 63 .Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. perform simple math on curves.

This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. Note: For the 8. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. Each control has its own function: Select all. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. 64 HyperMesh 8.0SR1 release. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. the settings apply only to the current display. To alleviate this. This button acts as a toggle. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. but may not be active by default. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. When inactive. and then sync the browser with one click. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). select none. with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it. When activated. it can be turned on and off. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. Instead. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. For help specific to each profile. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. For large models. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use.

LOAD. Depending on the entity selected. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. This loadstep will not be exported. MOTION. organized into folders. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. This loadstep will be exported. or all folders if none are selected. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase.0 User’s Guide 65 . Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. There are many functions available. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. Renumber the selected entity. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Rename the selected entity. OptiStruct In addition. Delete the selected entity or entities. or all folders if none are selected. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. MLOAD. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. Expands all selected folders and subfolders.

To edit a subcase: 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. In order to support this. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). 5. Depending on the Subcase Type. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. A pop-up window opens. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. allowing you to: • • 2. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. • • • • 4. allowing you to edit the subcase. the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. Click create. When this option is active. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. Another pop-up window opens. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. a warning message appears to notify you. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference.To create a new subcase: 1. Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. To add a loadcol to the load reference. allowing you to edit the subcase. a warning message appears to notify you. 2. and select Edit options. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. the list will change accordingly. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. When importing a model into HyperMesh. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. 3. To activate an option. Right -click on the desired subcase folder.

8. 2. For renaming and renumbering. To remove a loadcol from the load reference. • • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. renumber. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. delete. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type.0 User’s Guide 67 . To remove a loadcol from the load reference. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. To display a subcase: 1. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. 7. Note: To rename. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase.6. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table. 1. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 9. To select multiple loadcols. 2. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. Select the desired option from the popup menu.

if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. To satisfy both types of users. However. assigning the appropriate card image. the Auto-manage load references option is available. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI). Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors.) • 2. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. MLOAD. and selecting the appropriate loadcols. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. This option does the following: 1.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8. MOTION.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. when appropriate. LOAD. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. However.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. In HyperMesh. Inside the Edit options popup. Inside the Edit options popup. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. nor are they always aware of their existence. For example. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name.

You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel.0 User’s Guide 69 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. advance to the next selection. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red).Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. To select a panel. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. Release the mouse button to access the panel. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. Note: Once a panel is active. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. This behavior is called rapid menu. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. a message is displayed stating the error. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. thus reducing mouse movement. Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. and continue selecting or complete the operation.

For example. Collectors . To select a sub-panel.card image sub-panel. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. 70 HyperMesh 8.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel. and card image or dictionary. Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. Collectors .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . update. click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel.create sub-panel. Collectors . on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create.update sub-panel.

When you click a switch. and function buttons. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. data entry fields. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list. a list of options is displayed. HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases.0 User’s Guide 71 . Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. Each panel contains input collectors. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function. When you click a toggle. plane collectors. the menu item following it alternates between choices. toggle switch In some cases.

Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. To access the options: • Click the data type button. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. by path.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. See The Mouse for more details). Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. or by window. a data type button. If you want to reset the entity selections. displaying a list of available selection methods. If the data type is a node list. Therefore. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. this function does not apply. The extended entity selection window opens. Input Collector To change the data type. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. Note: If the data type is a line list.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. show node order. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. click the reset to deselect all selected entities. and a reset (|< ) button. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. and select the type you want to use. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. Extended entity selection window.

the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. as needed: The Plane and vector selector.N2). and loads as well. If you select two free (red) edges. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. y-axis. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Double-click a node’s button (N1.N2. N3 to define a vector (N1. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model.0 User’s Guide 73 . Use N1. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). This selector is broken down into the following items. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation.N3). Local systems may be rectangular. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. The options available are: • Use x-axis. or plane (N1. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. For example. that not every item appears at all times. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. and z-axis to define the first. just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. however. N2. N2. or N3. or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. When defining a plane. cylindrical or spherical. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. Note.

To define a plane: 1. y-.. Select a model vector (i. 3.e. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). N1 and N2.e.N3 and base). N2. Select a model vector (i. N3 option. 2. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. N1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector. A base node provides the extra information. 74 HyperMesh 8. but serve a different purpose. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. 3. 4. and N3. or z-axis and a base node. if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. Select three nodes. y-.. Note that when using the N1.N2. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely. Select the x-. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. N1 and N2. Select the x-. N1.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. Select three nodes. To define a vector: 1. For example. Select two nodes. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. For example. 2. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. N1 (or the base node. 4. Select two nodes. N2. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node. N2. if selected). local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). N1. N3. or z-axis.

). Input field. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. press CTRL-c.. comp =. If you want to edit the existing data. Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. and press CTRL-v. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location. To cut and paste character strings.e.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. After you click either the input field or the description. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. plot =. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. Character String Input To enter a character string. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. title =). After positioning the cursor in the input field. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. signifying that the input field in ready for editing. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel. select another menu item. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value.0 User’s Guide 75 . In edit mode. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. press the ENTER key. A description of the type of input precedes the field. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. or press a function key. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. The first character in a string cannot be a space. respectively.

Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. and press CTRL-v. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. you must make a selection before you can proceed. To cut and paste numeric data. Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections.000. If the pop-up does not have a border. In edit mode. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. if you type 123e+1q1. HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. For example. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box.45.). the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. To use the calculator. the second click gives you access to the calculator).Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. press CTRL-c. When the pop-up menu appears. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. 76 HyperMesh 8. Calculator pop-up. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. If the pop-up menu has a border. and click exit to close the calculator. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation. For example. you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. To enter numeric data. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active.

Lists only the file name. It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files.0 User’s Guide 77 . load…. and last date modified. browse…. Creates a new folder within the current directory. import….. etc. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. based on the search criteria used. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure. you use the standard Windows file browser. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. retrieve…. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. write as….. You can open new directories from this list. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. as well as the contents of the open directory. type.. Click Cancel to close the file browser. Lists the file name.

3.To search for a particular file extension: 1. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. specify the search directory. type *. In the File name field. hm6. etc. For File name. 78 HyperMesh 8.* to search for all files in the directory. Press ENTER. *. To search for a particular filename: 1. 3. Type *. You can also type *.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. For example. 2. hm5. select the file type from the drop-down menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4.hm extension) in the specified directory. Or For Files of Type. Press ENTER. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. specify the directory to search. For Look in/ Save in. For Look in/Save in.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . 2.

Performs selection operations on single entities. Click and move.0 User’s Guide 79 . CTRL Single click and release. Single click and release. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection). Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. Aborts graphics operations. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. such as Penetration Checks. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. If you release the mouse. Selects a new center of rotation. Single click and release. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected.The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Single click and release. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click and move. Aborts intensive processes. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. If you release the mouse. Single click and hold.

In entity selection mode . In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. Click and move. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release.quick window deselection of entities. Pans the model. Zooms into an area of the model. Single click and release. SHIFT Single click and release.CTRL Click and move. Click and move. Dynamically rotates the model. 80 HyperMesh 8. Click and move. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

return is assigned to the rapid menu. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. when you enter the lines panel. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. For example in the ruled panel. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. an error message results. create becomes the rapid menu function. For example. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. N3 vector option in the translate panel. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). In panels that contain multiple function buttons. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. if you pick two nodes. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. In most panels. But once you pick a node to create the line. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. in the replace panel. the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. Since you do not have N1. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. rapid menu advances to the next collector. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. resulting in an error message. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. For example. In some panels. thus reducing "mouse miles". a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. In such cases. For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. For example. In these panels. N2. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. an attempt to perform translate + is executed.0 User’s Guide 81 . For example. when you try to move nodes using the N1. For example.

and CTRL key to access panels. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. from the main page menu. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. -. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. this opens help for that panel.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. global panel Open the Help. it opens the Help’s table of contents. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. but simply + on the numeric keypad. or arrow keys. When a panel is active. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. +. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and reverse view Zoom by increments.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. clockwise. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. SHIFT key. In addition. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window.

zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 83 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks. when pressed.

Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. 84 HyperMesh 8. Notes • • Some special-function keys. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. backspace etc. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. such as tab. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. Next. alt. up. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. The selected key highlights in blue. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. and down respectively. Generates a *.jpg screen capture or animation file. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. esc. Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. cannot be mapped. For example. shift. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. right. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. ctrl.

To call the same macro. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}.tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps.tcl file.0 User’s Guide 85 . "none". *deletemark elements 1. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. "". 1. Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K". enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. 1).shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model.

The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. to continue using the initial panel.Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. and upon completion. 86 HyperMesh 8. When you use the secondary menu. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys.

passed to them from a control. HOME directory (UNIX only). HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu. so that you can group the macros by type of operation.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. When HyperMesh starts. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. If it finds this macro. Only one button can be depressed at a time. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. A macro file (hm. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. it looks for a macro file named hm.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. it first looks for the userpage. Macros may accept variable arguments. Thus it is actually a group of menus. A userpage. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. etc. You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel. radio options. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. by using the arguments $1. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. although only one displays at a time. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used.mac file in their home directory. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. Macros may contain any valid command file command.mac geommeshpage. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. The default hm. $2. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu.mac globalpage. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group.mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. each dedicated to different tasks.mac userpage.mac qamodelpage. or the application’s base directory. When HyperMesh starts. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. Populates the User page of the utility menu.mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory.mac in the current directory. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu.0 User’s Guide 87 .

but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. Note. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. 88 HyperMesh 8. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. The Geom/Mesh. in the Tab area pane. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. with the current page’s button depressed. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. if that pane is open. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu. To restore the utility menu. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro. By combining these features. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. however. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. if you wish. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. simply check it in the view menu. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. For example. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. turning off the display of everything except entities of type.cfg file. QA/Model.By default. However. Then. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. and a macro may not be called recursively. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and save additional model views. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. you must remember that once a macro is executed.

including its boundary conditions. for example. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. followed by 2-3 buttons. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. surfs. For example. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. such as elements or geometry. slot 2. Broad categories. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. or 3-D elements. such as 2-D elements or lines. 2. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. such as elements or geometry. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. regardless of entity type. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. In other words. Scene (1.0 User’s Guide 89 . Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. These views function in addition to the user views. and solids).2. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. but does not affect the display of 0. So. lines. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. even within the same broad category. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. For example. are more restrictive. however. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model. such as 2-D elements or lines. 1. 3) Save Scene (1. For example. clicking none hides the entire model. Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. or slot 3. For example. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. or isolate the display of an entity type. 2. 3) save macros. 1. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. or 3-D elements. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. control an array of several related entities (such as points. if you turn off the display of lines. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. Smaller sub-types of entity. such as geometry. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. but does not affect the display of 0.

Like the display controls. boundary conditions. Labels (located under the BC’s category). Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. turning off all geometry. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. For example.) displaying. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. For example. etc. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. then turning on lines. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. or press the <esc> key. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. To exit the macro. such as rbe3 elements. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. Note. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. Similarly. however. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type. Note that these functions are accumulative. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. hide. as well as removing temporary nodes. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. for this reason. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. however. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one.

as well as a set for working with FE mesh. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. with ribs (T junctions). Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. points may even project to multiple edges.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts.0 User’s Guide 91 . You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file. the macro determines the radius of the hole. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. and then trims this new line into the surface. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. You select a node along the hole. This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface. etc. Projects free points to surface edges. This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points. and then projects those points to a concentric line.5 times its original size. creating a higher quality mesh. Depending on the tolerance you specify.

it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. If any elements fail the criteria. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. If any elements fail the criteria. if necessary. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. If any elements fail the warpage test.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. If any elements fail the criteria. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.

BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and uses the mixed element type. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. If any elements fail the criteria. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. If any elements fail the criteria. does not break connectivity. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. two. number of elements in that component and their ID range. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). If any elements fail the criteria. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. They only affect the report. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. two. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.0 User’s Guide 93 . The remesh uses the current size. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel. This macro displays the component name. Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle.

these loads are un-masked. these comps are un-masked. while 3 is the largest. including forces. If masked. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. constraints. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. 94 HyperMesh 8. pressures. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors. these elements are un-masked. and so on. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios. If masked.The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Since these buttons affect all loads. If masked. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. If masked. these elements are un-masked.

assembly. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing.0 User’s Guide 95 . property assignments. LS-Dyna. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. the formats and content of the BOM can vary. Radioss-Block. and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. model comparison. and Abaqus user profiles.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information.

This section controls most tool functions. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file. Contains master column selection. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Contains options for metadata management. 96 HyperMesh 8.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. part of the tree section. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. Material. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. or type a new header into it and Add them. Part Id. Update the model attributes to match the BOM. and Gauge. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Material Id.0 User’s Guide 97 . If all are found. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. If any are missing. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file. click Continue to generate the new file. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). If the corresponding model contains the missing data. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. Close the BOM Comparison Tool. You can select additional items from a combo box. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool.

Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. Same function as Edit > Check Model. Same function as File >Save and Export. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file. • • • Same function as File > Open. Same function as File > Show Failed. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. Same function as Edit > Update Model. 98 HyperMesh 8.

Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. You can enter a string in the combo box.0 User’s Guide 99 .BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool. select the desired header in the options menu. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. appended with part ids. It then displays the part names. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window.

BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. i. part name and part number. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section.e. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. and Comparison. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . columns containing part id.

Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. remaining columns display the BOM info. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets.0 User’s Guide 101 . mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. In the Different category. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table. Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table.

Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table. First row corresponds to BOM info. the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. 102 HyperMesh 8.

Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved. Removes all lines from the preservation list. However.0 User’s Guide 103 . The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Thus. When you click the preserve edges button. When active. any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. Saves the preservation state. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components.

Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. 104 HyperMesh 8. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The Midsurf thickness macro. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. have thickness information stored in their definition. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. Type a value into this field. using the same units as your model. HyperMesh displays a target element size field. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. The lines remain preserved.

HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness.. In order to execute this mode. For each User profile. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). 3. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile.0 User’s Guide 105 . a base component named t0 must be defined. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. (For example.The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. (For example. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). check the Z-offset values checkbox. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers.. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card. 2.

Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. Closes the tab. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. it is a review/display function only. If the Assigned Value is not specified. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. 2. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes.

Click the Proceed button. Change to your preferred User Profile. Create the base component “t0”. Pick the desired nodes. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 6. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 5. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 2. Change to your preferred User Profile. 3. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 8. 2. Select the Components option. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 9. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 11. 8. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select a Thickness Calculation method. Load the desired model file. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1. and enter any default values for this card. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 6. 7. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 5.0 User’s Guide 107 . Load the desired model file. 5. Change to your preferred User Profile. assign the base property card image. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. 3. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Load the desired model file. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. 4. 10. 7. 4. 6.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. 3. 4. 7.

Load the desired model file. 9. 7. 10. Select a Thickness Calculation Method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. Select the desired elements.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. Click the Proceed button. 10. 6. Select the Components option. 4. 5. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 3. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 2. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. 3. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 6. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 6. 5. Select the desired nodes. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Load the desired model file. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. 4. Select the desired elements. 5. Load the desired model file. Select the desired nodes. Change to your preferred User Profile. 8. Change to your preferred User Profile. 7. 7. 11. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Click the Proceed button. Activate the Z-Offset check box. Click Proceed. 9. Select the Components option. 8. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 108 HyperMesh 8. 4. 8. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Select the desired nodes. 3. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. Change to your preferred User Profile.

1 0.15 0.15 End 0. Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.2 Assigned Value 0. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option.05 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.05 0.0 User’s Guide 109 .15 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.05 0. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.1 0. 3. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.1 0.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.0 0.

• • • • • 3. 1. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. 3. Nodes/Elements • • • • 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values. 110 HyperMesh 8. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface.

• Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. • • • • • 3.0 User’s Guide 111 . • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1.Ls-Dyna 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • • • 3. Nodes/Elements • 2. • • • 3.

Click proceed to finalize the selection. This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. helping to better maintain the geometry. To alleviate this. During the process of quick tetramesh. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees. the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. and displays in a new tab in the tab area. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. For example.

no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. ignores/replaces existing elements. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. and edges to improve accuracy. Choose floating. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. both trias and quads may be created. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface. but requires more computing time. and always uses uniform density. or fixed. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. but only for the elements selected as sacred. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. Choose between automesh and batch. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. Minimum allowable area for any element. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. or the one used by the batch mesher. correction of sliver elements. Average element size of the mesh to be created. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. feature lines.0 User’s Guide 113 . even if doing so would improve element quality. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. and projections onto the original geometry. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. If the feature angle exceeds the given value.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements. With the Mixed mesh type. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. When this option is checked. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. splitting of elements. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this.

if any (e.g. Select these elements as sacred elements. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. and Maximum angle. Closes the tab. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro. 5. As a part of the cleanup. 114 HyperMesh 8. 4. These sacred elements need to be trias. 6. the tool heals small cracks in the model. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. however. Load the geometry. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. Run with the desired mesh size.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. Locate T-connections in the model. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). 2. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. Identify problem areas. After making adjustments. any surfaces edges that were ignored. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. manually mesh using chordal deviation. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list. this persists until you exit HyperMesh. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). Locate entities attached to the selected components. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. In addition. 3. manually mesh problem areas.

Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location. and using that panel’s save failed option. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. but no greater than 1. so a value of 0. HyperMesh 8. nd The Fix 2 4. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length. 2. From that point onward. 3. nd Order Midnodes window. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. Remember that this is a minimum length. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. Specify a minimum Jacobian value.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. Click proceed. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu.

a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh. Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply.5. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. When you click Apply. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified.

the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified. or to vary from one another. measured from the node. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero.0 User’s Guide 117 . temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu.Trim Hole Macro This macro. If you chose varying width for the layers. then click proceed. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. The number of a specific washer layer. only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Otherwise. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. No. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius. with a nodes selector and a proceed button.

delete the rigid spider before using this macro. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. use “0.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8. Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. click this button to undo it. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. evenly spaced around its circumference. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. if necessary. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. Click this button to create the new hole(s). located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. For example. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius.

The window temporarily minimzes. Click this button to perform the fill operation. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Split the model along global Y=0. The Filling holes with mesh window returns.0 and Y=ymax. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. For example. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0.0.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. 2. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. and X=xmin and X=value. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. 3.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. and X=value and X=xmax. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. Split the model along global Y=0. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. 4. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. Split the model along global Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value). and attempt to fill them with mesh. and X=value and X=xmax.0 and Y=ymax. and X=xmin and X=value. Click proceed in t he panel area. HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax.0 User’s Guide 119 . Click the yellow Select Nodes button. click this button to undo it. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car.

e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. 120 HyperMesh 8.This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

2. If you select custom.) 5. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. From the Box Trim dialog. Y and Z bounds of the box.0 User’s Guide 121 . Using the extended entity selection. Click Trim. . all displayed elements are selected. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. Then enter Delta X. click the icon. and select the center node. click the icon. If you select a standard type. You can also specify a Box collector. If no load collector is specified. If you select Corners. . 3. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. If no elements are selected. click Box Trim. From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. the outer X. Y and Z directions.To box trim a model: 1. 6. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector). select the node/enter value for trim location. (Reject will undo all the above. the constraints are created in the current load collector. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. 4.

The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities. Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.

cfg file) in the Fe type field.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig. The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig. This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig.0 User’s Guide 123 . The property and diameter can be specified if necessary.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required. Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.

The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget.0 Maximum thickness 1.9 3.4 2. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld. For additional supported formats. Minimum thickness 1.0:: 0. The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa.exe feinput translator.25: 3.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld.0 for the thickness range of 1. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.4 to 1. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts. A format example is shown below.25:: 3. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses.05:: Y 2.99. The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements.25:: Z 1. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. see Spotweld Interface Overview. Diameter vs.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.

ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element.0 User’s Guide 125 .

2. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 4. If no DvsT file is selected. 9. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. For CWELD elements. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. 126 HyperMesh 8. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page. 6. meshless elements.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors.0. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options…. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. 5. 8. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. 3. Click realize. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. 7. Select a DvsT file. Once a connector is created.

set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. moving. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. Radioss. The current user profile displays on the header bar. Once you choose a standard user profile.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. Pamcrash. Madymo. or renaming panel options. removing unused panels or sub-panels. OptiStruct.0 User’s Guide 127 . The hmmenu. Actran. They include Abaqus.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The configuration can include loading a specific template. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). renaming panels. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. Nastran. LsDyna. however. Moldflow. loading a specific Utility menu. Ansys. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . and an interface customized for CFD uses. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. and removing. They may. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. HyperMesh. Permas.

the template remains the same. If a template file exists before loading the profile. None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. the template remains the same.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .mac) is loaded. Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded. If a template file exists before loading the profile. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.

To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. Save simply saves the current model under its current name. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. You can also click save as. Next. Save.. and then select the hm file sub-panel. click retrieve. select a path and file name. dialog. but can be less efficient than using the File menu.. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Next. and then select the hm file sub-panel.0 and earlier..Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open. HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. Using the Files Panel However.. and click Open. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button.. or type in a name for the file to be saved. and click Save. To save a database. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7. click save.. If the file being saved already exists.0 User’s Guide 129 . updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. select a file using the Open file...

Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length. If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm.cfg command file. Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. or surface within that component. Components do not have pick handles. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node. To select a node. A component can be selected by picking an element. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. see Entity Selection." If there are many pick handles. Note: For more information about picking entities. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. line. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

simply select a system within that system collector. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. To select a load collector. when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). Load collectors do not have pick handles. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. To select a system collector. or loads. elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. simply select a load within that system collector.0 User’s Guide 131 . The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. Blocks do not have pick handles. To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes.

Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. edges. When you are in a node collection mode. 2. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. 132 HyperMesh 8. 4. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. While the line/surface is highlighted. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. 3. To select new nodes on elements: 1. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. . A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. release the left mouse button to select it.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. 3. While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted. Release the left mouse button. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity.

You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. vectors. equations. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. With all other entities.0 User’s Guide 133 . When you select by collector. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. lines. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. When you select by adjacent. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When you select by assems.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. coordinate systems. Allows you to select entities by assembly. Allows you to select elements. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. and points by collector. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. click the data type button on the current input collector. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text. When you select by attached. surfaces. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. When you select all. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. To access the extended selection menu. loads. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. You may select multiple collectors from this list.

It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . Allows you to select entities by surface face. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select. elements. that belong to selected include. 8 .2000 by 100 1000 . 4. When you select by include. adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. 850 1 . Attached. or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). 77. 800. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. "thru". Allows you to select entities by group. 134 HyperMesh 8. When you select by group. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers.<end number> by <increment value> "through".10. When you select by config.by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. groups and mats within an outputblock. loads. When you select by output block. When you select by id. comps. systs. 5. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. 5. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. The standard format is: <start number> . HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. You may select multiple groups from this list.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. 3. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1.100 by 2. groups etc. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. 100 3.

Alternatively. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface. When you select by surface.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. When you select by sets. Once the surfaces have been selected. When you select duplicate. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. surfaces. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. lines. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. Allows you to select the entities within a set. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. When disp is selected. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. as shown in the global panel. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to select surfaces by width. Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted.0 User’s Guide 135 . and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. Similarly. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. or points.

Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. Some collectors. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. When reverse is selected. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. If you select two free (red) edges. all selected elements are removed from the mark.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. 136 HyperMesh 8. the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. for example. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges.

and restore different views of your model. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. fill the window with the model. reverse the view. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. specify an area to see in closer detail. up.0 User’s Guide 137 . The save and restore options allow you to save. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). View pop-up menu. identify. or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Slide zoom. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button. right. Hold down the ctrl key. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. and refresh the screen. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. • • • Use the left.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise).

2. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. With the mouse button still depressed. 2. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. Release the mouse button. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. Click and hold the mouse button. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. 3. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. Press the s key. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. To drag the model: 1. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. Press . 3. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen.on the numeric keypad to zoom out. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. Slide the mouse: or 4. To perform a circle zoom: 1. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. 2.right click allows you to drag the model.CTRL . To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated. Press Z on the keyboard. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. 2. 138 HyperMesh 8.

Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. by clicking the right mouse button.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. 2.0 User’s Guide 139 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The current center is indicated by a small white box. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. zoom. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard. center. or other viewing manipulation was performed. Move the mouse into the graphics area. 3. The center relocates. 4. also called panning. Press C on the keyboard. Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. To change the screen center: 1. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. or by pressing any key.

Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. 2. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. To change to another collector type: 1. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. To turn a collector on: 1. Select the type of collector you want to display.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. Click the upper switch. or both: 1. located on the permanent menu. 2. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. 140 HyperMesh 8. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. 2. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. Click the upper switch. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. 3. To turn a collector off: 1. Click the upper switch. 2. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. Select the collector type. Select the type of collector you want to display. 3. The colors of each component display next to the component names. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. 3. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. To change the collector list to display names. At this setting. IDs. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list. Click all. In the default mode of the display panel.

To use a filter: 1.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 141 . Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. 2. Enter the character string to use for the filter.

if multiple loads are detected at the same location. For example. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. This does not affect the display of free points. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. it is easier to pick an entity. The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. When the pick tolerance is increased. for more information see Setting Tolerances. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. You can then pick the appropriate load. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. elements. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. loads and systems. in pixels. For smaller models. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created.

then selecting FE Styles.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking.0 User’s Guide 143 . To select a node. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. If no shrink is selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. If a shrink value is applied. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. For lines and surfaces. For nodes that are not attached to any elements.

you should obtain more system memory. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. If you encounter this problem. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. If this situation occurs. and faces panels. and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. or nearly the same location in space. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). with the elements in back eliminated from the display. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. Here. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. HyperMesh graphics use some memory. and then another entity closer to you at another. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. In some cases. edges. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. When a component is set to hidden line. To correct this situation. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8. This can make it very difficult to see a node. this could seriously affect performance. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. To perform this task. and animation panels. If this occurs. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. contour. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. If you have solid elements in your model. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. the interior is filled with solid color.

HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. and eliminating extraneous vertices. These parameters remain constant until changed.1 0. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. If you want to create second order elements.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate..0 0. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model.0 Cleanup tolerance min. click the toggle after element order: to second. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.01 1e-3 0. deleting fillets.1 0.0 10. When you specify a node tolerance. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.01 1.. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it.1 1. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use.max 1e-4 0.1 10.0 100. Elements are designated as first order elements by default.01 1.0 0.0 1e-4 0.01 1e-3 0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.0 User’s Guide 145 . you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation.1 10.

7. The Multiple File Import window opens.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. Altair Engineering 9. Patran. PDGS. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. but not all. Ls-Dyna. 5. Abaqus. VDAFS. 2. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. PRO/E. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. CATIA. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. Ansys. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. Click Import to import the selected files. Cmold. Radioss. 6. HyperMesh ascii.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. Click multiple files. 4. Moldflow. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. STL. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. The window minimizes during the import process. Select the desired file type. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. and STEP. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu. DXF.hm) into the current model session. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. HM ASCII. 146 HyperMesh 8. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. 3. Click import to open the import sub-menu. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. UG. Click the file pull-down menu. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. and Ideas. 8. Pamcrash. Nastran. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. To import multiple files: 1. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). Marc.

4. 2. click import. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 7. click import. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. Select IGES. template = appears if it is not already present. 5. Select IGES. For file:. Click write as. A new input field. and enter the name of the output file or select.. 3. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel.. 4. 5. or layers & groups... For file:. 6. and use the browser to select the file containing the data. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. groups. For translator:. 2. Select the FE option. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Select EXTERNAL. 4. 2. if they are not already present. 6. and use the browser to select a file. Click the lower switch and select layers.To read data using a standard translator: 1.. Click write. 4. 3. 3. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. 2. To read data using a custom translator: 1. Select the CUSTOM option. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. 3. 8. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. Click write. 9. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data.0 User’s Guide 147 . A column of switches and toggles appears on the right.. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only.

This requires processing time to optimize the image output.* is generated. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. 3. To change PostScript settings file: 1. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. press the Options button in the print dialog. The following options are available in the options panel. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page. 2. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. 2. Set the options to your print specifications. a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. Select Image > PostScript. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. Select the PostScript sub-panel. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you must have a PostScript capable printer installed. The color checkbox is active by default. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. If it is not selected. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer).0 inches. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. To create a PostScript file: 1. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. A PostScript file with the name post?. The standard page length is 11. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. Open the File pull-down menu. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image.

The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. but takes longer to generate. If you select enhanced. a slider bar is displayed. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. In order for the functions to work correctly.jpg screen capture or animation file. hm. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. The resolution is displayed in the header bar. please contact your systems administrator.0 User’s Guide 149 .cfg. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.5 inches. hm. hm.cfg. The standard page width is 8. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. If the functions do not create output. Generates a *.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer.cfg.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. (Note: This works only in UNIX. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It creates a smaller PS file. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. On UNIX platforms. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications.

The attributes for that card remain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the control card is not output. the label text color changes to cyan. 150 HyperMesh 8. To override a default value field. A card that has been defined may be disabled. and allows you to enter data in the field. however. pick the yellow field label. When you override a default value field. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated.Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer.

0 User’s Guide 151 . or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh. the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file. In general.

To create a component: 1. if desired. If you are creating a component or property collector. Click return. Select the collectors panel. 3. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. If you choose not to. Where available. Click create. For collector type:. Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. Select the create sub-panel. Click name= and enter comp1. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. select material = and enter a name for the material. 6. 4. 5. To create a collector: 1. 2. 8. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. Click create. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. Select the collectors panel. 5. 152 HyperMesh 8. refer to Collectors in Database Design. 2. 7. Select the create sub-panel. Click the upper switch and select comps. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 7. 6. 3. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. 4. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. Click the switch under creation method:. Based on the assigned template. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector.

or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. − − Using the toggle. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. Using the toggle. To import geometry: 1. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. 5.0 User’s Guide 153 . Parasolid. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. select create blanked component or no blanked component. VDAFS. 2. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. 4. When the geometry is read into the current database. Select the Geom option. DXF. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Unigraphics. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data. ACIS and STEP. 3. Pro/E. surface data. PDGS. IGES.

There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. and cylinders. and at the intersection of other geometry. spline/filler. drag. The ruled. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. split. spheres. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. smooth. or shrinking. or spin. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. 154 HyperMesh 8. cones. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. including squares. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. Create circles or arcs. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. extending. or extend. such as spline. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. at tangents. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. Several methods are available. including: from points. knots and weights.

0 User’s Guide 155 . These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. which takes longer to create. and slows the automeshing process. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These lines result in a more complex surface. HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new.These lines form more than one path and cause an error. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. smooth. line by using the lines panel.

The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines. which results in a much simpler surface. A skinned surface created from the lines. In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Lines used to define a skinned surface. 156 HyperMesh 8.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line.

A ruled surface created from the lines. Lines used to create a ruled surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines.0 User’s Guide 157 .

faces. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. edit elements). and release it to confirm the selection. In shaded mode. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. If several surfaces share an edge. click anywhere on the surface to select it.e. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . moving the mouse slightly from side to side. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge.. where appropriate. and while holding the mouse button down. Each surface highlights as selected. edges. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. 158 HyperMesh 8. In wireframe mode. In the temp nodes panel. i. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. Similar to wireframe mode.

to trim a surface with a line. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. For example. If the sweep does not intersect the surface. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 159 . It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. After the circle is used to trim the surface. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces. which contain surface editing tools. the surface is not trimmed.

160 HyperMesh 8.To trim one surface with another.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface. Two surfaces before trimming. use the trim with surf sub-panel.

which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. use the node edit or project panel. a surface. the associativity is not broken. associativity is broken. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task. If you transform.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. When you create a mesh with the automesher.0 User’s Guide 161 . Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. When nodes are associated to a surface. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. or element. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. node. To re-associate a node to a surface. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. Some operations break associativity. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. However. such as translate.

point edit. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry. The quick edit. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. or other misalignments. edge edit.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 162 HyperMesh 8. overlaps. or pinholes. To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. misalignments. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. each a separate mathematical face.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Using the simpler. you can close the gaps between surfaces. cleaner geometry. and eliminate pinholes. combine surfaces into large meshing regions. you can easily build a much better mesh.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels.0 User’s Guide 163 .

you can build elements directly on the geometry. a value of mass. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. and joints. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. welds. plots. Supports simple beams. gaps. rigids. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. Supports springs or damper. rods. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. or features panel. This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . edges. Supports gap elements. line mesh. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. rigid links. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. elem offset. Masses can be created in the masses panel. Supports complex beams. and a property reference. bar3s. rbe3s. Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. springs. Masses have the ability to store one node. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. Purpose Supports complex beams. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. Supports display type elements.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data.

or two lines. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals. or group of elements along a vector. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. row of nodes. Builds elements by dragging a line. By default.0 User’s Guide 165 . and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. Builds elements by hand. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. Builds elements by spinning a line. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces. four-noded quads. six-noded trias. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. a row of nodes and a line. or group of elements about a vector. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. row of nodes.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed.

Propagates split hexas. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. and surfaces. By default. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements.and 10-noded tetras. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements. and 8.and 20-noded hexa elements. 166 HyperMesh 8. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. lines. Builds elements by hand. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. 6. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines.and 15-noded pentas. Builds solid elements between nodes.

The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. CFD-style volumetric skew.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. skew. aspect ratio. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. skew. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse.0 User’s Guide 167 . you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. aspect ratio. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions.

168 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. and updating loads and constraints. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a velocity at a node. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. EQ. T. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. with an optional label. P.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. M. The label may include the magnitude of the force. Before you apply loads. create a load collector. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. flux. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. V. Applies a temperature constraint at a node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. A. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. Equations are displayed with the label. Applies a flux load at a node. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels. reviewing.

or spherical. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. Nodes. Note: System collectors collect system entities.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity.0 User’s Guide 169 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. cylindrical. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system. Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system. mass elements. forces.

the module operates the same. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. • For either method. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. • If you use surfaces. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. 170 HyperMesh 8. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model. trias. You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. If you use surfaces. Furthermore. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. If you do not use surfaces.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. While you are in the meshing module. The created mesh can be previewed. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. Most of the element creation panels use this module.

The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions.0 User’s Guide 171 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

undo. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. 172 HyperMesh 8. reject. smooth. abort. You can switch freely between the sub-panels. as well as the local view pop-up menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section).

For most configurations. gives quality results rapidly. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. To make tria elements. or those working entirely from node and/or line data.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. Rectangle. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. If quads or trias is the selected element type. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. or pentagonal in shape. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. If trias is the selected element type. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. Ignoring rotations. if that is the case. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. HyperMesh uses a single tria. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region. an advancing front algorithm is used. rectangular. it chooses the Free algorithm. Map as Triangle. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. If mixed is the element type. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In this case. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance. at least one tria always needed. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. and where applicable. and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements.0 User’s Guide 173 . The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. a submapping algorithm is used. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality.

the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation. If you use the spin panel. 174 HyperMesh 8. and if you use the spheres panel. the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the algorithm is to spin. the algorithm is to drag. with no surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. If you use the drag panel. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together.

Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. this choice usually gives the best results. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias. this choice usually gives the best results. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. allowing variation in element size. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default.0 User’s Guide 175 . HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias.

You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid.1] of the Real Line.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle. let n be the element density and let . near the end of the edge. 176 HyperMesh 8. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. or near the middle of the edge. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. and b is its y-intercept. Specifically.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. When you use the drag and solid offset panels. Within the automesher. In linear solids. Linear Biasing In linear biasing. then: . the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. If m is the slope of the line.

We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0. placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning.x(s). the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. Thus. we find: so. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. and convenient values will fall in the range [0. and x(1) = 1. Thus. let n be the element density and let .Using x(0) = 0. That factor is 1.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. Let be the geometric growth factor. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. Specifically. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0.20]. the nodes are placed according to 1 . For this. The value used is b = 1.1]. . progressing along the edge. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity.20]. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge.0 User’s Guide 177 . .5. If the biasing intensity is negative.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. If the biasing intensity is positive. 178 HyperMesh 8. let n be the element density and . they are placed at the middle of the edge. We need so that takes values in [0. then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. and has the behavior noted above.1] with x(0) = 0. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. and if it is negative. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. Specifically. . x(1) = 1.

If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed. The error message. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it has no effect.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing. In these circumstances.0 User’s Guide 179 . Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset.

Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface. you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector. The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

and lines can be used to define connector location. The connector is displayed in red. The connector is displayed in green. points. Only one connector is created for each line. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and density values. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. The connector is displayed in yellow. spacing. for example. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. The connector is created at the point location. The connector location option is set in the create panel. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location.0 User’s Guide 181 . realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. Only nodes. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. or the weld element is deleted.

The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. tags. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. Only nodes. The welds create fixed points for the mesh.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization. and components can be added to connectors. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. surfaces. elements. The following entities are supported. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. or an element that it holds. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file.cfg file under the same directory. The spotweld. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48.Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. Each template works on only one specific format file. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters. To read in metadata.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. For custom templates.375 Weld Template :: 2.4375:: 9.0 User’s Guide 191 . 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks.

num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.

By default.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. etc). etc. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. Seam. and pamcrash2g. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below.). optistruct. LSDYNA. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. The user-defined number for the FE combination. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type. The data can be separated using a space. The user-specified name for the FE combination.g. dyna. Spot. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. the feconfig. Supported solvers are: abaqus. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. nastran.0 User’s Guide 193 . The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. ansys.cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. Area. pamcrash. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. marc.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig.

etc. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. For example. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. For example. In addition. a zero should be input. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. If rigid flag = 0. If the rigid flag = 1. so the type field should be zero. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. rigidlink. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited. and that they are native types. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. plot. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. The various types supported for rigids are equation. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the type is not defined. rbe3.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. For example.

however. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. and other solver specific details. a series weld is created. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. If the body flag = 1. but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a . The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). spring. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. hexa8.0). This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties. The various types supported for welds are. The *post lines are optional.0 User’s Guide 195 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. If the body flag = 0. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1. etc. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. Starting with HyperMesh 8. Note. plot. rod. For example. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. If the length location flag = 1. attributes. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector.0. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. There can be more than one weld in a series. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. welds are created in parallel. the users home directory (UNIX only). The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). based on the solver.tcl extension.

196 HyperMesh 8. The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1.0 (100%). Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported.5 (50%) each. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. User comments should start with a hash character “#”. Therefore. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported.

0 User’s Guide 197 . Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities. The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.5 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.

0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink. If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. or "2". "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path. "1".Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. The behavior for each value is as follows.tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0". 198 HyperMesh 8. "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location.

which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality. logical and intuitive.0 User’s Guide 199 . HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. During the morphing process.HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

on-screen method. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. and the affected elements manually. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. rotation.0 User’s Guide 201 . allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. HyperMorph can do this automatically. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. and the freehand concept. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. such as translation. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. or you can define your own domains and handles. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). angles.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. When the handles are moved. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. radii. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. dividing the mesh into logical domains. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances. such as scaling or node projection. and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. the morph volume concept. You define the nodes which will move. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. into morphs using the record sub-panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. the nodes which will stay fixed.

2D domains. and general domains. which in turn. Domains consist of nodes. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. cyan. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. Thus. 3D. When the handles are moved. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. global and local. calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. However. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. and general domains. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. for very large domains. the actual morphing occurs quickly. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. Therefore.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. However. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. 202 HyperMesh 8. 3D domains. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. thus making morphing slower. edge. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. parametric changes to the model. The global group consists of global domains. For domains that have more than 50. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. or elements. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. even for large models. For very large domains. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. 2D. In the areas between the handles. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. in the case of global domains. or yellow. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. in the case of 1D. edge domains. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains. Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. the color indicating their level of dependency. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles.

HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. These handles are named handle followed by a number. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. you can always delete them.0 User’s Guide 203 . Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. or use the generate auto-function. reposition them. or create new handles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size.

There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method. In the direct method. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. In the mixed method. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. and the mixed method. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. choose the direct method. If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. If you wish to preserve the local geometry. the direct method. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. 204 HyperMesh 8. In the hierarchical method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which in turn influence nodes. choose the hierarchical or mixed method.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right.0 User’s Guide 205 . it moves the local handles. the mesh is affected directly. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. which move the mesh. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.

two joined rectangles for 2D domains. 206 HyperMesh 8. or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel.. a cube for 3D domains. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. but may produce more desirable influences. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. These local handles are named local followed by a number. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. four joined rectangles for general domains. The spatial method is the default. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. When local domains are created. and a line for edge domains. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. The colors of the handles cannot be changed.

The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains.0 User’s Guide 207 . Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. The independent handle is larger and orange. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. Additionally. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. Finally. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains. are called 1D domains. In the example above. Domains made up of 1D elements. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. such as bars and rigid elements. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning.

HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. By moving the orange handle. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and have it influence the nodes within its domain. Since you morph the model by moving handles. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated.A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. 208 HyperMesh 8. the entire spider is moved. these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. you can delete them. If partitioning has been selected. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. In general. such as floating in space near the domain. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain. Also. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. or create new ones. edit them. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model.

Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. However. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component.0 User’s Guide 209 . even at nodes not on the associated domain. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. if you do. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. Handles can be placed anywhere.

and curved edges retain their curvature. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. flat surfaces remain flat. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). 210 HyperMesh 8. Similarly. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges. When you release the mouse button. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. Note that when an edge domain is created. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. Also.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

and 3D domains are used.0 User’s Guide 211 .How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. However. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain. 2D. Note that the edge domain remains straight. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. and 3D elements. General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. Like all other domains. 2D. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. When a general domain is created. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. Otherwise. In the bottom frames. thus no handles are created for the domain. where 1D. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. preserving the shape of the feature.

Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). and solid elements. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. 212 HyperMesh 8. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). If there are no surfaces in the model. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. shell. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. However. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked.

domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. changes direction. If you have also selected add to geometry. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms. In general. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. otherwise they are considered to be curved. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When using curvature-based partitioning. partitioning was used. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. In either case. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. the 2D domain was created without partitioning. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes.0 User’s Guide 213 . For the model on the right. element-based and node-based. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. For instance. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. the other method might work better. they are considered flat. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. If you have selected use geometry. For the node based method. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge.

A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. 214 HyperMesh 8. all local handles are dependent on global handles. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. but dependency loops are not allowed. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. and so on. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. biasing will affect them. Global handles. blue. the shape of the edge can be changed. cyan. In the hierarchical method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . independent (orange) and dependent (green. and violet) Local handles. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. When the dependent handle is moved. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved.

Dependencies .• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle. the center handle follows along.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. performing localized “global” morphing. in essence.0 User’s Guide 215 . In the lower frame. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). the center handle is moved independently. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle.

both holes move with it. Dependencies . When the independent handle is moved. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle. Also.Dependencies . the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top.example 2 In the model on the left.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The bottom has similar dependencies. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles. The entire cross section is controlled by one handle.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. 216 HyperMesh 8. In the model on the right. each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries.

the morph consists only of node perturbations. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. When you create a shape. For many morphing operations.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. In the case of freehand morphing. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. if constraints are being used. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape.0 User’s Guide 217 . If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape. However. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. When you morph your model. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. all of these shapes must be applied. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Click convert. Select the save shape sub-panel. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. The shape is converted. From the BCs page. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. 218 HyperMesh 8. select the morph panel. select the shapes panel. 4. 2. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. you should save shapes as node perturbations. If not. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. or vice-versa: 1. 6. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. If you select handle perturbations. or saved as part of another shape. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. If you select node perturbations. Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. select the shape panel. 5. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. Click create.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the shapes to be converted. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. Once a shape is saved. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. redone. 4. Select the convert sub-panel. 9. optimization module. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. 10. Save your morph as a shape. 8. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only.When you are saving a shape. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences. 5. 3. Whenever you make a change to your model. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. Each desvar is given a unique name. 2. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. 7. it becomes a shape variable. 3. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space.

The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created. Click animate. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies.0 User’s Guide 219 .11. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. The deformed panel displays. you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created.

In many cases. From the HyperMorph module. shorter. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. use a cluster type morph constraint. Select create. 6. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. Select the domains panel. Type in a name. If more than one handle is created at a time. such as a wheel or the engine block. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. Often the desired shape changes are general.Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. such as making it smaller.space frame model 1. 2. From the Tool page. Set the toggle to create handles. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. 4. Click create. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. If not. Set the selector to global domain. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. In many instances. For these types of models. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. Click create. Set the toggle to all nodes. 7. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. select the HyperMorph module. Delete any unwanted handles. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. but their basic structure is rather simple. 5.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . wider. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. 220 HyperMesh 8. select the handles panel. such as a car body. 3. Creating Handles and Domains . these handles will be where you want them to be. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands.

For large models or large changes. this can be time consuming.A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. editing. or deleting handles.0 User’s Guide 221 . or symmetries. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. domains. if necessary. There are many options available for moving the handles. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. Adding. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences.

One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively.Matching a Mesh. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. Select a vector. 5. Click create. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. Since on release was selected. 2. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. select the morph panel. 4. 3. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. the handle follows along the selected vector. 3. Switch the selector to fixed. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. 9. Select the nodes on the target mesh. Select move handles. When you release the mouse button. From the HyperMorph module. As you drag the mouse. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). select the morph constraints panel. 2. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. 8. Click morph. Select the create/update sub-panel. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. 7.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 6. 5. repeat steps 7 through 9. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. 222 HyperMesh 8. Line. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. 4. 6. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. From the HyperMorph module. If the handle position needs to be changed again. only the graphics for the handle are updated. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time.

In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. When you release the mouse.10. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected. Perform steps 7 through 9.0 User’s Guide 223 . all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. select several handles on the screen.

HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. a plane. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. or a surface. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. 3. or delete any morphing entities. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly. 2. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. Select a handle. edit.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. However. save your shapes as node perturbations. Select a node.

Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Click translate. Click morph. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Translate the handles. 2. Select a few handles. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. Select a few handles. Select a vector and distance. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Click rotate. Select an axis of rotation. Rotate the handles. If the left selector is set to hold end a. One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Select alter dimensions.0 User’s Guide 225 . 3. node a will not move (same for node b). If the left selector is set to hold middle. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. both node a and node b will move the same distance. Set the upper left selector to distance. Set the rotation angle. Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate. select the morph panel. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. From the HyperMorph module. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Change the distance value.

vertex. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. To change the angle: 1.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. 5. 4. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. or at least get close. Set the upper left selector to angle. iterattion is not necessary. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. Change the angle value. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. Select node a. 226 HyperMesh 8. Click morph. If necessary. 2. The distance is changed and the model morphs. the vertex. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. 6. and node b are the specified angle. 7. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. 3.

selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. By placing three fingers on each side. You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. When you perform global morphing operations. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. For the general space frame cases. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area.Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. However.0 User’s Guide 227 . blue. and red). Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof.

Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched. Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 228 HyperMesh 8.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it.

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Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. From the HyperMorph module. Select the global domain icon. 8. Mirror Images . you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. Enter a name. morph volumes will usually yield better results. 7. 4. 230 HyperMesh 8. 6. Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. 9. Return to the HyperMorph module. 2. Select the system you created. 5. select the symmetry panel. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required. select the systems panel. the fender of the model is morphed. Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. 3.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric.

Since enforced was selected. use the approximate option instead. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. As a result. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other.0 User’s Guide 231 . If you have the symmetry links check box activated. When handles are created or deleted.10. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. Click create. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 233

Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 235

Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. Change the selector to combine domains. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. 5. 3. select the domains panel. Click organize. From the HyperMorph module. Select organize. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. You may need to correct this by hand. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. 4. 2. HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. 240 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains.To group two or more domains together: 1. Select the domains to be grouped together. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. If you do your edge editing first.

5. Select an edge domain. Click split. Change the selector to split.To split edge domains: 1. Select any number of connected edge domains. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. Splitting an edge domain . 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. 3. 2. 6. Change the selector to merge.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. select the domains panel. A handle is created at the selected node. 2. 4. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. 4. select the domains panel. 5.0 User’s Guide 241 . Select edit edges. Click merge. To merge edge domains: 1. From the HyperMorph module. Select edit edges. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node.

You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the handle at the joint was deleted. 3. Since retain handles was unchecked. 5. Change the selector to add handles. To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. Click create. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 4. Select edit edges. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. 242 HyperMesh 8.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. From the HyperMorph module. select the domains panel. Select one or more domains. This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain.

when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. click return. plane. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. curvature. Secondly. In these cases you should divide large domains. the influences do not need to be recalculated. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. surface. The first is that since they are dependent. .0 User’s Guide 243 . and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It will be as if they were not there.When you are satisfied with your domains. or mesh Using section mapping. delete unnecessary handles. line and surface difference. record. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes.

This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. or domains. or another mesh. or another mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You select an entity such as a vector. line. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. surfaces. it is better to use a non-interactive option. or place them on lines. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. surfaces. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8. and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. plane. surface. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node.There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen.

0 User’s Guide 245 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes). the length of the flange is reduced.

246 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. the width of the channel is increased. the thickness of the lower section is reduced. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards.

the end angle of the section is modified. Morphing by rotating handles .Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally.constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation.constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Morphing by rotating handles . the position of the bolt boss is modified.0 User’s Guide 247 .

linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles.Morphing by rotating handles . Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. Morphing by rotating handles .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. 248 HyperMesh 8. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. check the true rotation checkbox. When applying handle perturbations to your model. To correct this situation.

If you click no. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle. controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. or the radius or curvature of an edge domain. For most cases you will want to click yes. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes.Morphing by rotating handles . For solid models. the angle between nodes. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. such as the distance between nodes.0 User’s Guide 249 . The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. While morphing a model. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b).true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles.

Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node. the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 250 HyperMesh 8. the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.Morphing by altering dimensions .distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.

the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. Morphing by altering dimensions . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. near. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. blue.0 User’s Guide 251 .Morphing by altering dimensions . and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. blue.

or arc angle factor for them. curvature multiplication. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. and arc angle options are used as follows. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains. All the domains are changed simultaneously. and click morph.0 to 8.5. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes. select the center calculation and style options.0. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option.radius .5 and kept in line with the edges at either end.6. Morphing by altering dimensions .The radius. 252 HyperMesh 8. the radius is changed from 5 to 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . curvature. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. set the new radius. the radius is changed from 3 to 1. so if you want to change a radius from 5.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles. In this example. 2. the handles were translated linearly. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence.000 at the corners. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. the morphing between the handles is linear. When the handles are translated. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. and 3.000 at the edges. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed.000 in the middle.000. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations.0 User’s Guide 261 .

000 for the handle at the hole.000.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1. you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. After applying a morph. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values. the mesh unfolds (right frame).000. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3.000. and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation. 262 HyperMesh 8. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2.000.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .500. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want.000.

For solid models. Once partitioned. Creating Handles and Domains . each part is placed in its own 3D domain. Change the toggle to all elements. select the domains panel. edges. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. In general. Click create. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface. or manually select all of the elements in the model. 4.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. and hexas. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. edit. 3. In many cases. 5. tetras.0 User’s Guide 263 . To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. bosses. If partition 2D domains is checked. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. you can add. flanges. Select create. Set the selector to 3D domains. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. If the model is made up of more than one part. If they are not. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. This procedure is automatic. and ribs. pentas. 2. namely. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. From the HyperMorph module. edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains.

However. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. 2D. as well as a global domain and handles. global handles. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. Select create. the node based partitioning will work better. 264 HyperMesh 8. and 1D domain. element based and node based. Set the selector to auto functions. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. If you click yes. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model. However. If there are any domains or handles in the model.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. From the HyperMorph module. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. 4. such as first order tetra meshes. which produces dependent (green) handles. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. 3. morphing cannot be performed. Click generate. Without handles. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. or if there are no morphing entities in the model. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. select the domains panel. 2. 1D. before deciding to partition by hand.

select the domains panel. From the HyperMorph module. 3. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. To divide your solid model manually: 1. 6. and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. From the HyperMorph module. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. When selecting elements for the new domain. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. Set the selector to subdivide 3D.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. When the new domain is created. but it will not partition the interface. However. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. To subdivide your solid model: 1. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Select create. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. For these meshes. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. you do not need to select only solid elements. To do this. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. for first order tetra meshes. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. Select update. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. Additionally.Also. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. 3. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. select the domains panel. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. 5. 2. 4. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. 5. Click subdivide. 2. Click create. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain.0 User’s Guide 265 . Therefore. Set the selector to 3D domains. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. you only need to create domains for that part. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. Also. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. in the parameters sub-panel.

elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. Create and edit the 2D domains. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. edited. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. Create and edit the edge domains. the internal elements can become distorted. or deleted. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. domains. and place handles along edge domains. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. or symmetries are added. merge. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. Some cleanup may be required. Occasionally.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Influences must be recalculated every time handles. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. you can edit them in the domains panel. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. When some meshes are morphed. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. 266 HyperMesh 8. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split.

2. 3. handles may be deleted. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. Select organize. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. New handles may also be created during this process. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. 4.0 User’s Guide 267 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 6. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. select the domains panel. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. Click organize. Select the target domain. and if retain handles is not checked. 5. Change the selector to add nodes/elements. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain. From the HyperMorph module. For this example.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. Select the elements to be moved. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. the retain handles option was left unchecked.

Edge domains are used to make radius changes. which becomes a handle (right model). 3. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. Click organize. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. 5. 6. This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. 2. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. You will need to correct this by hand. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. Select an edge domain. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. 4. Change the selector to combine domains. From the HyperMorph module. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated.To group two or more domains: 1. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). 5. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. select the domains panel. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. Select organize. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. From the HyperMorph module. To split edge domains: 1. A handle is created at the selected node. 2. 4. 268 HyperMesh 8. 3. select the domains panel. but in some cases. Select the domains to be grouped. If you perform edge editing first. Select edit edges. Change the selector to split. Click split.

This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. Click create. 4. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. Select edit edges. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. If a model is very large. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Change the selector to merge. Select edit edges. Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects.To merge edge domains: 1. 4.0 User’s Guide 269 . 2. Click merge. 3. Change the selector to add handles. 2. select the domains panel. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. 3. Select one or more domains. Select any number of edge domains. It will be as if they were not there. select the domains panel. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. From the HyperMorph module. From the HyperMorph module. Secondly. The first is that since they are dependent. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. the influences do not need to be recalculated. 5. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. 5.

In these cases.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on.6. 270 HyperMesh 8. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. You can still display the surface mesh. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. click return. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. When you are satisfied with your domains. your model is displayed as a wire frame. delete unnecessary handles. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). Viewing Solid Models . Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. you should divide large domains. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. if desired (as shown). since the viewing mode is still wire frame.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. However. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing. surface-only wire frame In this default mode.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid.0 User’s Guide 271 .You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles.

moving. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. surface.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. its local coordinate system. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. Select the lines. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. as dictated by the beam section template. It is a threestep process. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. beam. Each step is described in more detail below. and any beam section properties calculated. rod) element property data for an FEA model. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates.

You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 273 .Step 3: Beam Property Import. The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image. 274 HyperMesh 8. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. N1. The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel.

HyperBeam is invoked when you click create.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam. It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements.0 User’s Guide 275 . N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below. 276 HyperMesh 8.If the node selection was performed differently. and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).

it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. After the card image is created. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section.0 User’s Guide 277 .Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction. the HyperBeam alignment axis. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. This operation is performed in the bars panel. This can be done in the collectors panel. If there were a 1 within the Z comp. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. and the local bar element alignment axis. In this case. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question.

278 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment. This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.

the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y.0 User’s Guide 279 . the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected. Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The x axis is defined along the beam axis. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. Thickness warping is also neglected.z plane. For shell sections.

Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

1981. Pilkey and W. Goeldner. 1979. and W. Wunderlich. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations. Leipzig. 1993. Boca Raton. Rubenchik. Fachbuchverlag. H. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods.D. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Gjelsvik. Pilkey. A. ed. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre.D. CRC Press. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Schramm.0 User’s Guide 281 ..Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. Wiley & Sons. V. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. FL. U.

shell section graphics pane. It also has a menu bar. and status bar. 282 HyperMesh 8. and results/spreadsheet sections. Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas.HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . toolbar.

To move a section. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. To view thumbnails of selected sections. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . and select Paste from the Edit menu. select the collector where you want the section to appear. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. Section types are identified by icons. select Copy from the Edit menu. the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. click Save. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. and renaming sections and section collectors. At the highest level is the model. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector.0 User’s Guide 283 . select Cut from the Edit menu. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. To export sections to an external file. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. right-click in the section browser pane. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. holding down the control key. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. select the collector where you want the section to appear. select a section by left-clicking on it. copying sections. and select Paste from the Edit menu.bm extension to save beam section files). select the section. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. To copy a section. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). select the collector branch in the section browser window. right-click in the section browser pane. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. and enter the new name. click once on the item to select it. select the section.

then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. 284 HyperMesh 8. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. For shell sections. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. or equivalently. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. separated by a colon. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane. You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

If the results are not available. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. then the spreadsheet displays equations.0 User’s Guide 285 . You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. If you select Copy from the Edit menu.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. variables." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. "No results to display. To see the list of all the results available. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. to toggle between them. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You specify the text font. consult the documentation for the results output template. text color. and optimization bounds for the section. Also. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. then HyperBeam displays the message. If there are computed values that are not necessary. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. it displays them in the results pane. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. If you select Copy from the Edit menu.

and optimization bounds. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver. with a few restrictions. (For example. In the equation. arithmetic functions. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. and an upper bound. variables. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. a lower bound. Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. Next. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. To delete a variable. If all three values are equal. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. Select delete variable on the menu. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. A menu is displayed. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. If you choose add. into which you can enter the variable's name. blank spaces may be prohibited. you can use other vertex coordinates. a new blank line appears.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Alternatively. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. click the variable with the right mouse button. To define a variable for use in an equation. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. 286 HyperMesh 8.) To delete an equation. or trigonometric functions. initial value.

On the Edit menu. Save the beam cross-section.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. Allows you to set up printer preferences.0 User’s Guide 287 . Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. From the Edit window. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Delete the currently selected text or entity. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Set the graphics and results preferences. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Redo the last procedure. or only selected sections. or generic section. select Preferences to display the tabs. Copies the selected text or entity. standard section. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. Displays a print preview. Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. select Preferences. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. Options are provided to export all sections.

for best formatting. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. such as courier. so that their sizes are relative to one another. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image. Each section type can have its own custom script. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. Displays the font dialog box.

0 User’s Guide 289 . Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. rearrange vertices in a part.. Part Editor. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane. Moves the model in the selected direction. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. updates results. automatically updates the display when you make changes. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex.. Allows you to move vertices.. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor... Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Properties. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes.. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. If selected. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor. Turns on and off the display of the status bar.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane. When selected.

if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. or at an angle offset from the current y axis. the origin for the section does not follow it. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. if you subsequently move that vertex. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. or the principle axes change. the origin will not move with it. Likewise. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. Note that. the current shear center. 290 HyperMesh 8. If you move a defi ning vertex. the current principle axes. To specify a new coordinate system. reflecting it about the y-axis. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex. or the current centroid to be the new origin. this coordinate system does not adjust with them.

12. 5. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. include those vertices in more than one part. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. 14. 4. A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges.0 User’s Guide 291 . When you use the part editor tools for. For example. enter a value in the appropriate field. 2. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.) If you are currently in an optimization section. To set a new thickness. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. in the section illustrated below. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. 2. 13. 3. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog.. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list.. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities.

This operation cannot be undone. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. Set the warping factor.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. or vertex coordinates. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. select properties. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . On the Tools menu. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. or equations tying coordinates together.

0 User’s Guide 293 . Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. double-click the last vertex. To finish the part. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. If you want to delete a vertex. Specify a new center for the graphics display. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. Resize the display to fit the pane. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. Bring the section results up to date.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. activate this tool and click on the vertex.

Open the HyperBeam on-line help. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. rearrange vertices in a part.0 User’s Guide 295 . Redo the last action performed. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Copy an item. Undo the last action performed. General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Open the print dialog.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. activate this tool. Paste a copied or cut item. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar.

Note: For design reasons. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. calculate its properties. moments of inertia. 296 HyperMesh 8. center of gravity. shear center. and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. principal axes. and torsion and warping constants.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section.

and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. offset values are calculated for you. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. the cross section must be planar.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. the coordinate system. using NASTRAN conventions. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. surfaces. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. If you use the default method. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. in this case. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. If you are using offset sections. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. If you define the plane. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. If you do not specify a base point. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. If you define the base point by picking a node. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system.0 User’s Guide 297 . Axes. second order elements are always used.Describing Cross Section Planes. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. Unless you change the name of the component. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. When you pick elements. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. All properties are calculated on the plane. the Y. or elements is used. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. or have it calculated for you. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided.

Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. 298 HyperMesh 8. By default. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. The offset direction is user-specified. The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. thicknesses. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. normal to the line. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. Although you can use the line segments option. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. the offset direction is centered. When you define a weld point. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. an offset of each line is created. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. With either method. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. or by entering the desired values. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. or reverse normal to the line. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option. based upon the line data in the model. The choices are centered. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. When you use this method. After the initial cross section is defined. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. the section must be a contiguous area. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition. and weld points.

0 User’s Guide 299 . or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. lines. If you select by elements. No alterations are made to those elements. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. When lines or surfaces are chosen. aside from projecting to a common plane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. those elements are considered to be the section. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently. the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section.Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. If the section is defined using elements.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. 300 HyperMesh 8.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel. Otherwise. The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. The post-processing panel is displayed. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model. the properties are calculated. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed.

I1. and the modified value. Izz. Γw. see Save and Display Results. Iss. Similarly non 1. J. J. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. that solver is automatically selected. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. ABAQUS. K1. I2. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. N1. MARC. Ir A. ANSYS. Izz. K1. As. you may select NASTRAN. These factors. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image. RADIOSS. Iyy. no changes are made to the calculated value. N2 A. the original value. I22. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results. Itt. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. Is.Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. K2 A. Iyy A. J. I2. Centroid x1 and x2. SA A.0. For more information. I12. and the spacing between welds. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. I12. I1. When you apply the results to the properties or components. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. For more information. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. see Creating Collectors. J. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. K2. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. LS-DYNA. Irr. If data exists. It. independently developed over many years. Ist. Otherwise. CENTROID. CW. or PAM-CRASH. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel.0 User’s Guide 301 . The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. I1. OPTISTRUCT. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. After you select the solver. I2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel.

The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. The element is created in the currently active component. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. to describe the bar’s orientation. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. you must save the results as an ASCII file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element. If you use a nodal orientation. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. If only one property is selected. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. it creates a new node. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. If you want to save these. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. This feature works only with apply results. to which the calculated properties were assigned. if any. the information includes a named list of the properties/components.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. that is referenced by the bar element. 302 HyperMesh 8. and not with summary alone. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. If you use a vector orientation.

How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output. If you need a different reference point. Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. Select those lines as your section definition.0 User’s Guide 303 . split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting.

Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. Nastran. The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . review and edition of composite laminates.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. this is not advisable. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials. 304 HyperMesh 8. or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate).

laminates and design variables. change views. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials.0 User’s Guide 305 . located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. laminates or design variables. laminates and size design variables in your model. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and access on-line help. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. This browser. and to cut. paste. and delete entries in text boxes. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. copy. edit materials. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. provides a vertical tree view of materials. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser).

File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. This text file can be printed. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. 306 HyperMesh 8. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Exit HyperLaminate. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Exports material and laminate information to a text file. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. The following chart lists each menu option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Displays version. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help.Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Display/hide status bar. and copyright information. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar.0 User’s Guide 307 . contact.

Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. 308 HyperMesh 8. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. The toolbar is shown and described here. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields.

SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. Materials: MAT1. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. for the active user profile.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. Design Variables: DESVAR b. Laminates and Design Variables. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. SHELL99. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. Laminates: SHELL91. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. On launching HyperLaminate. 2. for Abaqus: i. for Ansys: i. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. These are: a. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images.0 User’s Guide 309 . Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. and laminates in your model. MAT2 and MAT8 ii.

Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. The selected entity is highlighted. 2. At the lowest level are the entities.e. Click New. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New.which allows the entity to be renamed. To review and update entities: 1. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 2. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. 2. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. Or 1. A new entity appears under the selected branch. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. i. 3. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. Right click on selected entity sub-type. a new MAT1 entity is created. . Click the New icon. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected. 310 HyperMesh 8. displayed with the names as defined by you. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. Rename . the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Select New from the File pull-down menu.3. 2. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A new entity appears under the selected branch. Or 1. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. on the toolbar. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available.

Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Click Yes. in the Laminate Browser. switches to a text box. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Duplicate. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. 2. Or 5. 2. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Click Yes. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.To rename entities: 1. 4. 3. 4. Click Duplicate. and Delete. Right click on selected entity. A confirmation dialog is displayed. To duplicate entities: 1. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. Duplicate. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Right click on the selected entity. 6. 7. 2. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Click Delete. Enter the desired new name in the text box. Duplicate. 3. 3. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide 311 . A confirmation dialog is displayed. Right click on the selected entity. and Delete. and Delete. Click Rename. The name of the selected entity. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser.

as they do not really exist. 10. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. To delete these undefined materials.8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A confirmation dialog is displayed. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. 312 HyperMesh 8. on the toolbar. 9. Click Yes. . Click the Delete icon. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.

Materials For OptiStruct. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Nastran and Ansys materials. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Once the desired changes have been made. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane.0 User’s Guide 313 .

Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. As with the other user profiles. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane. HyperMesh component color.

Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. The midlayer is not reflected. e. b. 180. 270 and 360 remain as 0. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. d. 90. Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). 90.0 User’s Guide 315 . the total number of plies is always odd. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. 270 and 360 respectively). The midlayer is not reflected. c. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Due to the midlayer. 180. Due to the midlayer. the total number of plies is always odd. 180. 90. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. 270 and 360 remain as 0. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). 180. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. 90. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. f. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 270 and 360 respectively).

It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. Each row of the table defines the material. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). Ctrl+c. When multiple rows are selected. selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. Rows may be inserted in the table. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. pasted or deleted to/from the table. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields). Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. with the Ctrl key held down. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. copied. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. Rows may be cut. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. using the toolbar. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). by checking the Failure Theory check-box. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.

To define a new material: 1. but this is not enforced in the GUI. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Once the desired changes have been made. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. b) Click the new icon. A new material appears under the selected branch. you can click the Clear button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. . As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid). For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. A new material appears under the selected branch. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).0 User’s Guide 317 . Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. To reset all design variable fields to their default values. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. on the toolbar. A new material appears under the selected branch. 2. Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. c) Click New. the No.

The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. 5. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. using the toolbar. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 3. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). Ctrl+c. 4. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. 3. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane.For the OptiStruct. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. 318 HyperMesh 8. For the OptiStruct. Data may be cut. 2. Click Apply to save the changes. Click return. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 2. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). 2. To review or modify an existing material: 1. 3. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI.

A new laminate appears under the selected branch. 4. 5. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. 6. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click Apply to save the changes. Click return. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. To define a new laminate: 1.0 User’s Guide 319 . A new laminate appears under the selected branch. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. b) Click the new icon. . 3. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. on the toolbar. 3. c) Click New. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. 4. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu.

Table rows may also be cut. 320 HyperMesh 8. 10. 9. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. b) For Ply thickness:. copied. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 8. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. Data may be cut. pasted or deleted. select Constant or Variable. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. copied. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. If Constant is selected. Ctrl+c. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. but are now editable. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. Eg. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. Ctrl+c. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. using the toolbar. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. they will be pasted as sequential rows. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. row 3 will be pasted as row 8. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). row 1 will be pasted as row 7. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. using the toolbar. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. a) For Convention:. if you now uncheck the box. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. 6. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Note: 7.5. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.

where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. (only subtype available is DESVAR). lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. 2. b) Right click on the selected sub-type.5 may be entered. 6. b) Click the new icon. The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. 5. A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. 4. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). where a move limit value other than the default of 0. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. 2. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. . 1.0 User’s Guide 321 . Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Initial. 3. on the toolbar. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. 7. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). (only subtype available is DESVAR). If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. c) Click New. (See To define a new laminate). Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field. (only subtype available is DESVAR). Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. 3.

The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. 3. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 322 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. using the toolbar. Ctrl+c. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Data may be cut. copied. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. 2. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.

information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. the review pane has two tabs.0 User’s Guide 323 . thickness and orientation. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. Nastran and Ansys materials. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices.Review Pane The Review Pane. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. For Abaqus materials. no information is displayed in the Review pane. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. This is followed by a description of the laminate. Materials For OptiStruct. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate.

the block is created with the default bounds of -10.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and k directions of the block. three-dimensional. chemical reaction. 324 HyperMesh 8. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. wall. j. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel. creating "dead cells. you can export the grid. fluid flow.0 and 110. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines." All of these dead cells are placed in walls.0 in each direction. Otherwise. If a finite element model is currently loaded. After you create a finite difference block.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. These axes serve as a reminder of the i. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. the outer boundary of the volume. When the block is displayed.

meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. j. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. and displayed in the current wall color. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. Initially. Deletes all existing walls. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. or k nodes has been selected. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. See the FD nodes panel for more information. select the desired elements and click intersect. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. and k directions. Deletes the specified wall. Displays a list of all walls in the block. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. which creates dead cells wherever a one. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. j nodes. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. each cell within a block is live. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. marked as dead. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. After you create a mesh. based on whether i nodes. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. j. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. To intersect the model with the cells. After you create a wall. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. A cell may exist in only one wall. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall.0 User’s Guide 325 . Note: Before any wall operation is begun. Updates the color of an existing wall. respectively.

or by planes. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . since only dead cells are plotted. and i. or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. j. by using the next and prev menu functions. where the block coordinate axes are located. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. When cells are selected. the color menu items in the i. Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. If the block is displayed in planar mode. When the entire block is plotted. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. After edit cells is selected. they are highlighted. j. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. However. Otherwise. and k are at their minimum values. you can edit any cell in the block. It is possible to step through the model. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. Because cells have no visible pick handle. by volumes.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. it is easier to see which cells are dead. If you change the color of a plane. plane-by-plane. 326 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 327 . One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. Automatically. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. After remeshing. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. pressures.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. Use the none. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. using the load on geom panel. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh. See Exporting Loads for more information. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. moments. using the files panel/export sub-panel. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you control the display of loads applied to elements. When geoms is selected. temperatures. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. velocities. constraints. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. by exporting the FE deck. flux. and accels. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. When elems is selected.

a line. load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element).Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. or a surface. Loads applied to geometrical entities.

or surfaces) using the panel selection box.g. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. and choose the create sub-panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. reviewing. velocities. The process includes two basic steps. points. Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points. points. constraints. lines and surfaces. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating.0 User’s Guide 329 . forces. flux. lines. etc. 2. node). define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e. lines and surfaces.g. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. pressures. and updating loads and constraints.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh.) located on the Analysis Page. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. lines and surfaces. Next. in each of the load application panels listed above. Third. Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. 1. temperatures. constraints. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. moments. and click create. lines and surfaces. and accels.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. 330 HyperMesh 8. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh. The basic length of the arrow also differs. a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). If all is selected. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. If displayed is selected. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element).hm file. When exporting the model using an export template. mapped from geometry to mesh. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . or both. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well. only the loads on mesh are exported. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported.

NASTRAN. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed.. in order. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. to the next field below.0 User’s Guide 331 . on the macro menu. ABAQUS. until all data has been entered.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT. ABAQUS.. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. or ANSYS format. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. NASTRAN. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4.Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis.mac. dlm. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT.

0 format file related to the structural input model. structural_model_tecplot. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. This file is related to the structural input model.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. used to post-process in Altair HyperView.dat Structural analysis model file. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. 332 HyperMesh 8. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . These files are always called hmimp. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. This file is related to the base CFD model. For instance. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. for example. for example. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface.

Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. . y.960968852E+00 4. Each row should show the x.105462790E+00 1.e. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.356568158E-01-8. .548135996E-01-8. i. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:.452460170E-02 1. Use the browser to locate a file.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format. The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format. 2.095489740E+00 . filename_dynain.. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format. Click Open.098905325E+00 1.. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4. click Browse.970389962E+00 4. a warning message is displayed. and z coordinates first.854129910E-02 1. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them.357369840E-01-8.960631967E+00 4. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1. .0 User’s Guide 333 .926119655E-02 1.

000. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. ABAQUS. filename_dynain. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. Click Open. For example. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. if the CFD result scale factor is 1.500. For example. NASTRAN. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. select the data type to be mapped. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration.. For CFD result scaling:. For Structural analysis model file:. 3. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. Y. select Element nodes or Element centroids. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. 2. Once the data is mapped. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model.e. For Mapping method:. NASTRAN. 2. For Data parameter mapped:. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. the X. ABAQUS. Set the scale factor 1.00 (no scaling). or ANSYS input deck.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .500.. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. . The default value is 1. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. 2. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. click Browse. Use the browser to locate a file. or ANSYS input file format) 1. 334 HyperMesh 8. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results). The default is 1.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. For CFD model scaling:. i. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model.

and takes an average of these two values. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. The mapping algorithms are accessed. The default mapping algorithm. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. For Mapping algorithm:. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. Click OK. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude. for instance.0 User’s Guide 335 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. the mapping process runs.Set the mapping algorithm 1. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to.

Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro.0 Altair Engineering .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1. on the macro menu..0 corresponds to 1.z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.0 corresponds to 1. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.y.. The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.mac. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8. dlm.

0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.0.0 User’s Guide 337 .1e+01 corresponds to 1. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions.

for more information. Stores one floating point value at an element. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. offset) at an element. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. If you run a nonlinear job. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. assigned. This translation is done using result translators. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. 338 HyperMesh 8. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. phase. offset) at a node. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. For example. and vector plots.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . phase. and may contain a subset of the total model. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. A data type may contain only one type of result. Stores one floating point value at a node. If this occurs. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. if this is appropriate. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. deformed.

enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. modal.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. for results file:. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel.. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure.. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. In the global panel. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel.. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. to select a file using the browser. For linear and modal animation. and for file:. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. For transient animation. In this case. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. select the results sub-panel. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations. The three types of animation include linear. and transient. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. to select a file using the browser.. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse.0 User’s Guide 339 .

so no further calculations are required.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . based on the values in the results file. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. based on the values found in the results file. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. When a contour function is performed. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. In order to accomplish this. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. The values are located at the centroid of the element. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. For each element. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. In order to accomplish this. See the vector plot panel for more information. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. When the assign function is performed.

modify the colors used in the legend. reverse the colors of the legend. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. To modify a legend. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. By default. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. simulation and data type. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements.0 User’s Guide 341 . and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model. To modify the descriptor. After you enter the title and create the plot. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel. and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. you can add titles. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. change the font size. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. change the color of the text in the legend. The ID. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel.

Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. which are referred to as curves. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. To display a curve. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. which are referred to as plots. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. The plot may contain any number of curves.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors. 342 HyperMesh 8.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. and label. thickness of the grid lines. Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. marker style (used to indicate the point location). and zoom out. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. Creates and modifies the curves in the database. dashed. Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. In addition. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. circle zoom. The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. subtitle.). Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color.0 User’s Guide 343 . Reads curves from an ASCII file. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. and number of significant places in the labels. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. line style. Allows you to rename curves. thickness. To access the xy plots module. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. font. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. and the line style (solid. etc. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu.

Plot attributes include the title. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or add a title to the plot. you can change the color. select the plot you want to change. and change the attribute in the panel. thickness. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. or width of the border. This process also applies to curves. the grid labels and grid attributes. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. After each change. the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. or a subset of the plots. in one step. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. For example. and labels. To modify an xy plot. Every time you change the current xy plot. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. 344 HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. Access this panel by pressing the w key. subtitle. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window.

follows on the same line. After this information has been supplied. Point data follows with a set of (x. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. When you create an analysis curve. Y1 X2. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. you select entities of interest in your model. . . the title assigned to the curve. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed. . You can combine two curves. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. Y2 . Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. which is displayed in the legend. After XYDATA. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. XYDATA. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. In the above example. transform a curve.TITLE X1. y) data pairs on each line. The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. there are two blocks of data. Y2 .0 User’s Guide 345 . The block begins with the statement.TITLE X1. For every operation. which define two curves. . ENDDATA XYDATA. or export the curve. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. Y1 X2. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. Essentially.

For more information about math expressions. refer to the Altair Math Reference. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. For example.vector: For example: c1. in the format curve number. After the data request set has been selected. 346 HyperMesh 8. Once the data type has been selected. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order.x c1. request. When you modify a curve. Available data types depend on the data file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression. Source file data is divided into type.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. To reference the y vector of curve 1. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. the data source for the x vector could be a file. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. and component. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. the data request set needs to be selected.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. the component must be selected. based on what has been modified. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data.

The width of line used when the curve is drawn. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. no line at all. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel.0 User’s Guide 347 . select the plots panel and click select curves. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. and four different patterns. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. when the curve is displayed. The style of line used to draw the curve. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line. HyperMesh currently supports circular. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. triangular. The color used to draw the curve. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. and square markers. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. To select curves for a plot.

2. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. curve attributes (blue). click the close command button.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. 348 HyperMesh 8. To display curves in the graph area: 1. Modify the curve attributes if needed. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. and must be imported by use of the update button. because they are automatically applied as you make them. For this reason. Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. graph area (red). Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. and graph attributes (cyan). The curve editor contains four main areas. 3. To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. The curve displays in the graph area. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh. outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). To quit the curve editor. Click the desired curve in the curve list.

0. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. For example. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis.5). 2. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. select a number from the every: list box. Either click the curve in the curve list. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. Or 2. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. the line’s symbol points will still display. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. click the thick line checkbox. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis.0 User’s Guide 349 . A list of available colors displays. For example. Note: If you choose no line. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. if it is already set to Display. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). In the graph attributes area. and then typing in a new value.5. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. select a symbol from the list box. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . and 1. Click the curve in the graph area. click the desired color to select it. For example. To change the graph's attributes: 1. For example. or show no line at all. 1. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. For example. To change the symbol spacing. To draw the curve in a thicker line. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.To change a curve's attributes: 1. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. making a finer grid. Click the curve that you wish to modify.0.

A confirmation window displays. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. 3.0. - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. 350 HyperMesh 8. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. and 1.0. you cannot recover it. Type in a name for the new curve. 2. Click proceed. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. 3. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. once you delete a curve. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. Click proceed. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. In the curve list. which now uses the curve’s new name. For example. 3. 4. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. To create a new curve: 1. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. Type in a new name for the curve.5. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. click the curve that you wish to delete. To delete a curve: 1. or No to keep the curve. Click the Delete command button. 3. Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed. 1. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). 2. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. Undo You cannot undo a deletion.5). To rename a curve: 1. For example. Click the desired curve in the curve list. For example. making a finer grid.

most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. BVi variable DVi . Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. input parameters of a model. Further. and Genesis. If there is a choice in the optimization code. In the past. such as beam section properties. The basis vectors define nodal locations. Nastran. In finite elements. and Templex. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. Using the basis vector approach. and spring properties are design variables. Nastran. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. Before importing AutoDV data. HyperStudy.0 User’s Guide 351 . Starting with HyperWorks 6. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. Altair HyperOpt. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. AutoDV has been stand-alone software. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. HyperOpt. Genesis. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. In size optimization. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. is the vector of nodal coordinates. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. Altair HyperStudy.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. In topology optimization. usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. x. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . In shape optimization. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. the shell thickness. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. Altair HyperOpt provides both.

using the AutoDV template. Before these methods can be applied. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. In HyperMesh. 4. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. However. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. 2. 5. giving the *. where nnn is the design variable ID. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. Example: mymodel. 3. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options.base model. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. 2. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed. 6.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. Select the solver panel.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution.pert006. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. identifies the perturbed grids. 3. 7. 352 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .pert<nnn>.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. To generate another perturbation vector. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh.pert file a different ID. Do not save the perturbed model. Write a <prefix>.

build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. However. Define shapes and control perturbations. none of the domain components should include finite elements. Assign shapes to design variables.0 User’s Guide 353 . Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. To create a domain element: 1. 3. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. 7. Pick the nodes that form the domain element.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. DPENTA6. 6. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. If needed. 2. It is recommended. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. 4. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. Select the type of domain element. Select the domain subpanel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. 5. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. 4. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. but not necessary. On the BCs page. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. 5. select the optimization panel. 3. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Select the perturbations panel. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. 2. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4.

5. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. 2. Select the perturbations panel.. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. 3. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. 6. Select the domain subpanel. 4. or they can be created manually.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 7. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. 354 HyperMesh 8. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. However. Toggle nodeset to manual. Click add. A given node may belong to more than one node set. Pick the domain element from the graphic display. 8. Select the nodes for the domain node set. it is identified by AutoDV. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. Select update. i.e. select the optimization panel.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. On the BCs page.

y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains. To define control perturbations: 1. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations.0 User’s Guide 355 .y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. Click return to return to the perturbations panel.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). On a given edge. For 2-D domains. The interpolations are performed as follows. Select the perturbations panel. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points). For corner control points. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition.g. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. In either case. defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. Click create vector to create the vectors. Select perturbations using the toggle. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. otherwise it is linear. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. 2.. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. 3. Py. Instead. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points. Enter a name (max. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. Click create shape. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. 8 characters) in shape =. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element. AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. you do not need to create a second order domain element.

Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable. AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 356 HyperMesh 8. the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge.For mid-side control points. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations.

With only primary domain. For example. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. they remain unperturbed. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. However. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. illustrated below. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. Here.0 User’s Guide 357 . because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. Here.

Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point. and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.Using the example illustrated above. 358 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this yields the perturbation shown below.

y) = P (x. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. Edit X_ORDER. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu. 3. create a design variable using that shape. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1.0 User’s Guide 359 . and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These are part of the vector collector card. X_TYPE. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. In the shape panel. Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. There should be no other vector in that shape. Y_ORDER. one DQUAD4 element at a time. y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors . However. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. 2. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent.one at each corner control point of that element.y) T (x. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. 4.

even all. odd. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. even Default all all For given values of m and n. Accordingly. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. odd.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector.You have the option of generating all. odd. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all.

Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Variable loading can be generated for forces. 3. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. To generate a variable load: 1.0 User’s Guide 361 . Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. Select desvar using the toggle. Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads.dv. 8 characters) in desvar =. the corner and mid-side control points. − − − − On the BCs page. select the apply result panel. Click create to create the vectors. Click apply to apply the variable loads. 2. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. select the results subpanel. On the Post page. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. select the solver panel.animate suffix. Select AUTODV as the solver. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. Enter a name (max. Select the create load subpanel. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. 4. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. Click file = and enter the result file with the .Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. moments and temperatures. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. Select the perturbations panel. Click create.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 363

After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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geometry. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. appending entities to. 3. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. deleting. or Abaqus user profile. 2. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct. It also includes functions for displaying. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details.0 User’s Guide 371 . The set manager displays in the tab area. Nastran. Nastran. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. and ABAQUS user profiles. along with the entity set display and export states. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. select Set Manager. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. renaming. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. From the Tools pull-down menu.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. and changing the export state of entity sets. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. creating. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements.

Rename: Rename the selected set. The set manager displays in the tab area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . accessed by right clicking in the background. 3. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. or Abaqus user profile. 372 HyperMesh 8. grouped in folders by type. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. or on individual or multiple items within folders. Supported entity set types are shown above. on folders. The graphic above shows all of the available options. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. select Set Manager. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. From the Tools pull-down menu. Nastran. 2.

which control the display of each of these entities separately. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. Available options are shown above. and is only available for component and element sets. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. Once a display toggle is changed. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. or Abaqus user profile. From the Tools pull-down menu. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. When switching between supported solvers. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display.ses) containing group definitions. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. grouped in folders by type. 3. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. after clicking either the display or sync buttons. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. The set manager displays in the tab area. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. select Set Manager. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 2. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar. to the disk. Nastran. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display.0 User’s Guide 373 . Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box).• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set.ses). Export Session File: Saves a session file (.

in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings. 374 HyperMesh 8. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues. In addition. For large models. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. Export states synch automatically. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. To remedy these occurrences. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. Instead.

Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.op2 file display for selection.op2 file. You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. and a formatted . This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted. or if the original . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1. a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one).csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. The tool also supports .op2 file is selected. From the Results pull-down menu. Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only. for Nastran and OptiStruct. 3. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.0 User’s Guide 375 . Additionally.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran.LABEL(ID)”. If no SUBTITLE exists. only the LABEL is used. Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. then FBD Displacements. Once an . you must load the new . If a new . This procedure reduces the size of the . sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme.FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). Use the . 4.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”.op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the .op2 file changes. 2.op2 file is required.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area. Location: Results menu. select Free Body Diagram. Select a sub-case. The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID). Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set.

If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. On the Setup menu. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets.op2 file format.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. Uy.z) in the summary table and .5. Select entities. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. If a node set is not selected. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction. 376 HyperMesh 8. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model.y. and click Set Analysis. • 6. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. otherwise modify the value as desired.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility.csv file output options. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). Displacement data (Ux. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the .op2 file. and toggle to the assign sub-panel. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected.0e-6. click Coordinate Systems. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. If a coordinate system is not specified.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. • The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. when checked. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. then all nodes within the element set are used.

you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. For example. but in a comma-separated file. The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. node set and sub-case IDs). The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. The table contains information about the sub-cases. and detailed displacement data at each node. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type. element and node set(s). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1.0 User’s Guide 377 . • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. node set 1 and sub-case 1.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. A sample window with partial output is shown below. it will append/replace the data. is created for each sub-case. it will be appended to the end of the file. for the current element and node set. Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. If it does not exist.csv file option creates a . You may select a new file or an existing file. IN any case. A single load collector.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”. • The Create .

a text summary table within HyperMesh. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). The tool supports . each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. 378 HyperMesh 8. The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file. If a new . only the LABEL is used. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the .op2 file into the database. Location: Results menu. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. for Nastran and OptiStruct. This procedure reduces the size of the . Once you’ve selected an op2 file. overwriting the previously selected. Additionally.op2 file is required (or if the original . To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected.op2 file. To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.op2 file are displayed for selection only.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . use this to browse to and select the desired . and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. This opens the standard file selection dialog window. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages.op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model.op2 file changes) you must load the new . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID).op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran. If no SUBTITLE exists. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality.

Available options include All Loads. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. If a node is not selected. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis.0 User’s Guide 379 . (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. 3. RJOINT. results coming from. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. RROD. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. result system and summation node. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. SPC. 4. Applied Loads Only. RBE3. In addition. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set.op2 file.To select entities: 1. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node. and Reaction Loads Only. the HyperMesh origin (0. Rigidlink. If a results system is not specified. On the assign sub-panel. applied. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output.0) is used by default. and RBAR. To specify output options: 1. or output to. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. 2. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set.0. the extracted values will be incorrect. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s).

The table contains information about the sub-cases. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. activate the Show summary table option. it is appended to. The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. Use the Create . To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. sub-case 1. element set(s). The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. You may select a new file or an existing file. A sample window with partial output is shown below. it will be appended to the end of the file. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1.csv file option to create a .csv file that contains the same information as the summary table.0e-6.2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . 3. modify the value as desired. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. sub-case IDs). Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. 5. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. If an existing file is selected. However. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. and component Fx. Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. When you save the HyperMesh database. If it does not exist. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. but in a comma-separated file.

node set. The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). If no node is selected. node set. displays the element set. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. 3.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. When using the “Centroid” option. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. 2. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 381 . summation node. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. If multiple element sets are selected. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. 4. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection. gaps. If a results system is not specified. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. which are defined by an element set. This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. when checked. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. If this node is deleted from the model. the loads associated with that node are also deleted. To define a cross-section manually: 1. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. Location: Results menu. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. and a local result coordinate system. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. 5. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. a temporary node is created.

Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. 7.e. highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. first cross-section). each element set will contain the elements from the previous set. 3. or deleted. all cross-section definitions are also saved. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. Therefore. where “#” increases with each new set generated.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. 4. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. If checked. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. 6. result system and summation node. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. This displays the entire model in transparency mode. where “#” increases with each new set generated.6. modified. Therefore. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. 382 HyperMesh 8. This is the offset value for generated set names. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. 7. 5. For example. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required. highlighting the currently selected element set. For example. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. By default. node set. or only the new “row” of elements. 2. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. When the HyperMesh database is saved. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections.

op2 file is selected. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. or if the original .op2 file display for selection only. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.op2 file changes.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the . This procedure reduces the size of the . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). To select a results file: Use the . a text summary table within HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 383 . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. overwriting the previously selected.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. you must load the new . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. and/or a formatted .op2 file into the database. The tool supports .op2 file is required. If a new . When an .op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. If no SUBTITLE exists. Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. only the LABEL is used. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”.op2 file. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. for Nastran and OptiStruct. The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID). Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView. Location: Results menu. Additionally. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files.

including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. sub-case 1. Rigidlink.y.0e-6. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. In addition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. . RJOINT. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .csv file. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. 3. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. 1. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. and .z) in the summary table. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. 384 HyperMesh 8. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. RBE3. If a coordinate system is not specified. (On the assign sub-panel. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. each made up of an element set and node set.op2 file.fbd file output options. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . RBAR.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab. RROD. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. the extracted values will be incorrect. 2. Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. and component Fx. otherwise modify the value as desired. node set 1.

5. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu. it will be appended to the end of the file. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If an existing file is selected. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. it is appended to. 6. If it does not exist.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above. You may select a new file or an existing file. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. but in a comma separated file.csv file option to create a . You may select a new file or an existing file. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file.fbd file. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections.0 User’s Guide 385 .The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data.csv or . Activate the Create . 4. Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. When the HyperMesh database is saved. Comments When saving over existing . sub-case IDs). This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager. You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. However. it is appended to. If an existing file is selected. Activate the Create . there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot.

3. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. Fy. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. Pick the desired Results type. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). If multiple sub-cases are selected. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). • • 386 HyperMesh 8. FBD Forces (All Loads). Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. The optional Show model checkbox. Select one or more Element sets. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. Displacement. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. Valid types include FBD Displacements. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. Displacement. • The Fx. when checked. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review. Location: Results menu. 4. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. and Resultant Force and Moment. 2. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager. each of which requires a numeric value.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option. • 5. Magnitude % or Uniform size. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. if desired. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. Click the Color box to pick a different color. Two options are available.0 User’s Guide 387 .

or type in a name for a new one. Location: Results menu. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. 2. This populates the list of subcases. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. 4. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type.op2 file. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. Displacement. If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. an additional list of node sets displays. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. In addition. Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. After export. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. 5. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. For FBD Displacements. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . Displacement. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. 3.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. To export FBD. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. Specify Export options:. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. 388 HyperMesh 8.

and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 389 .6. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. Displacement. removing it from the tab area. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. Close closes the tab. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model.

See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. a fixed support on the left end. This model cons ists of two elements. 390 HyperMesh 8. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. Location: Results menu. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. and a point load on the right end.

0 User’s Guide 391 .Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. 2. MPC loads: Zero iv. For FBD types Applied loads only.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. Node 2 i. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. v. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. v.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. Therefore. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. 4. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. for any given node. The element set serves several purposes: 1. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set.121e+03) and is extracted iii. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. Node 1 i. MPC loads: Zero iv. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03 b. • • 2. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. 3. 3 and 4. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. For FBD type Reaction loads only. Element 1 has nodes 1. Fx calculation. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. for any given node. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only.121e+03) and is extracted iii.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. Furthermore. Applied loads: Zero ii. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. Applied loads: Zero ii.

085e+03 e. iv. The sum of the forces components (Fx. iii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. illustrated in the screenshot below.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. Fz) for each node. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Fy. d. Fz.085e+03) v.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. My. Node 3 i. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility.0 (ie. v. Node 4 i. is the simple sum.0 User’s Guide 393 . This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. Mx. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. however. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. iii. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. My.c. ii. ii. iv. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.

085e+03 c. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. SPC loads: Zero iii. Fx calculation.0 Fy calculation. 5. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations. MPC loads:Zero ix. MPC loads:Zero iv. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set.085e+03 b. 2. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4. 4. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. All values are zero in this model. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Node 4 vi.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Applied loads: Zero vii.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.085e+03) x. 3. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1. Node 3 i. Applied loads: Zero ii. summation node set to node 3. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.085e+03) v. For all nodes in the node set. SPC loads: Zero viii. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. • 394 HyperMesh 8.

000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation. Applied loads: Zero xvii. SPC loads: Zero xviii.0 User’s Guide 395 . All values are zero in this model. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8. SPC loads: Zero xxiii.426e+02 b.085e+03) + (0. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. SPC loads: Zero xxviii. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Node 4 xxvi.574e+02) = -1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.000e+02. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.166) the following is obtained: xxxi.024e+00) xxx.0*3. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1. My calculation. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.426e+02) xv.871e+00 b.808e+02 d.871e+00) xxv. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. Node 3 xxi. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0.574e+02) xx. MPC loads:Zero xxiv. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.024e+00 c. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1. Applied loads: Zero xxii. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. Node 4 xvi. Applied loads: Zero xii. MPC loads:Zero xiv.574e+02 c. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. SPC loads: Zero xiii. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1. Node 3 xi. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6. looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. MPC loads:Zero xxix.166*1. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3.808e+02 xxxiii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. MPC loads:Zero xix. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1. Since only element 2 is not in the element set.

FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . looping through all the nodes in the node set a. • • 396 HyperMesh 8. This procedure reduces the size of the . Additionally. The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . 2.op2 file. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only.op2 file in float point precision in binary format. nodes 3 and 4 (node set). for Nastran and OptiStruct. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). summation node set to node 3. All values are zero in this model. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1.• Mz calculation. This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.

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