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IDDP

IDDPdrilling
Drilling and well design
Technology
Status Project definition study
of the pre-feasibility
Sverrir Thorhallsson Report
for the Pre-Feasibility
Orkustofnun, GeoScience Div.
Sverrir Thorhallsson
Nesjavellir,
Orkustofnun, Iceland Div.
GeoScience
March 17th, 2002
Reykjavik, Iceland
June 25th , 2001 s@os.is
E-mail: s@os.is

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


IDDP
• Major goal: To investigate the roots of a known
geothermal system in Iceland by drilling 4-5
km into possible supercritical conditions
> 374,15°C and 221,2 bar (higher for brines)
for the extraction of energy and minerals.
• Integrate the engineering goals of the IDDP with
scientific investigations to the mutual benefit of
both. Dual pupose hole !
• The drilling challenge is to design a well and drill,
by applying or modifying existing technology.

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


SAGA 1 A. Cored pilot hole,
then drill production hole.

B. Cored hole full


length, then ream
for each casing string.

C. Spot cores taken in a


production hole.

D. Production hole drilled


and sidetrack for cores.

E. Spot cores at each casing


shoe, continuous coring
of bottom part >3500m.
Flow test the well.
Ream bottom part for
production if promising.

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Drilling challenges
• Drilling in uncertain geological and reservoir conditions.
• A well control program to allow safe drilling.
• Design and materials to withstand the very high T&P.
• Continuous coring 3500-5000 m in 350-500°C.
• Well cleaning in greatly under-pressured reservoirs.
• Straight hole drilling and maintaining well stability.
• Cementing of very long casing strings. Cementing losses.
• Maintaining adequate penetration rates (m/day).
• Mud motors and logging while drilling for high T.
• Cooling of well during drilling and logging.
• Obtaining good core recovery.
ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division
IDDP Pre-Feasibility Study
• Preparation of the drilling section of the IDDP pre-
feasibility study is coordinated by a “Drilling
Technology” working group.
• Work on the FS is divided into 10 subtasks.
• A Deep Vision - Orkustofnun ROS contract has
been prepared for the FS and also subcontracts for
three of the drilling tasks with Orkustofnun, VGK
Consulting and Jarðboranir hf.
• Work is ongoing and as will be discussed at the
workshop. The group meets every two weeks.
Nine months to go !
ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division
Working group: Drilling Technology
• Bjarni Pálsson LV bp@lv.is

• Guðmundur Ó. Friðleifsson, DV liason gof@os.is

• Kristinn Ingason VGK kristinn@vgk.is


• Matthías Matthíasson VGK matthias@vgk.is
• Sverrir Þórhallsson, group leader OS s@os.is

• Þorbjörn Karlsson HI
• Þór Gíslason JB thorgi@jardboranir.is

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


The Engineer’s approach for the FS
1. Drilling target definition and est. of T & P, geology.
2. Safety – drilling conditions.
3. Number of casing strings, depths, diameters. Design.
4. Drilling / coring, any special req. or operations ?
5. Mud and cementing programme.
6. Methods to overcome problems – contingency planning.
7. Rig and mud system selection.
8. Information handling – science requirements.
9. Infrastructure.
10. Estimate cost and time.
ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division
Important equipment
• Top drive, coring string and core barrels + bits.
• Steering equipment to maintain well verticality.
• Special hangers and anchors for “technical” string.
• High temperature bits, cements and muds.
• Stage tools for multiple cementing.
• Logging instruments.
• Early detection of hostile environments, T&P,
gases, low pH fluids.
• Specification of rig and mud system.
ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division
Work planIDDP
forDrilling
theTechnology
FS - Drilling
Page 1 of 1 11.3.02

2001 2002
TASK Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov

0. Preparation of FS
15.11 15.3
22.3 30.11
Conv . Supercrit. Scenarios
1. Well simulation
7.1 1.3 12.3 1.48.4 24.5 15.7 6.9 30.9
Well stability / losses
2. Rock mechanics
1.4 15.4 2.8 12.8
Equipment and pocedures
3. BOP's and safety
15.2 1.4 5.715.7
Design crit. + matl. Conv . Supercrit.
4. Casing - well design
29.11 1.3 12.3 30.3 3.5 10.6
17.6 20.930.9
DP + tools
5. Drillstring design
4.2 25.2 5.715.7
Limits Selection
6. Drilling fluid
7.1 22.2 8.715.7 20.930.9
Cem. progr. Matl. and testing ?
7. Casing cementing
10.12 14.1 1.2 25.3 28.6 15.7
Specs. Selection
8. Rig instrumentation
4.3 10.521.5 17.6 1.7 13.923.9
Jötunn / top driv e Coring Selection
9. Rig selection
19.11 28.1 1.3 12.3 15.4 24.5 5.8 25.104.11
Rpt. prep.
10. Drilling program
16.9 12.1126.11
Index Rpt. prep.
11. Feasibility report
22.11
29.1113.12 10.1 24.1 7.2 21.2 7.3 1.4 19.4 5.8 29.11
30.11

Start/Stop Draft #1 Report due

SAGA Workshop II DrillTech Meeting Partner


Milestones Professional Trial Version (http: //www.kidasa.com).

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Temperature (°C)

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
0

500

1000

1500
Boiling point
depth curve

ORKUSTOFNUN
2000

2500

Depth (m)
3000

3500 C.P.
Isothermal 375°C

4000 Gradient 50°C/km

•Boiling point – depth


Gradient 100°C/km
4500
Gradient 150°C/km
S.Th. 28.11.2001

•Straight gradient below.


5000

curve to the critical point.


Pressure (bar-a)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300


0

500

1000

1500

2000
Hydrostatic
pressure at BPD
2500
Depth (m)

3000

3500 C.P.

4000
Isothermal 375°C

4500 Gradient: 50, 100, 150°C/km


Estimates of T & P for well design

S.Th. 28.11.2001
GeoScience Division

5000
Casing Programme
The figure shows a
concept sketch of the
IDDP well.

• 9 5/8” production csg.


• 7” liner

The casing profile is


similar to a conventional
HT geothermal well, but
with longer casing
strings.
ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division
Casing programmes
UNZEN VOLCANO EUROPEAN JAPAN HDR HAWAII
SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT HDR PROJECT KAKKONDA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING
JAPAN SOULTZ WD-1 PROGRAM (HSDP)
DEPTH (m)
22“ csg
0 50m ø26“ 30“ csg 18m 20“ csg 14m
ø30“
13 3/8“ csg ø17 1/2“
16“ csg ø20“ 122m
350m 18 5/8“ csg ø24“
20“ csg ø24 1/2“ 9 5/8“ csg ø12 1/4“
500 13 3/8“ csg ø14 3/4“
650m 600m 610m
720m

9 5/8“ csg ø12 1/4“


1000 1050m 13 3/8““ csg 7“ csg
ø17 1/2“ 13 3/8“ csg ø17 1/2“
w/ tieback ø8 1/2“
@610m to
7“ liner ø8 1/2“ surface
1450m
1500m 1500m
1500
ø6 1/4“ KOP
1600-1700m
1750 m
1830m

2000 9 5/8“ csg ø12 1/4“

2500 2550m 5“ temp. liner hung


at each casing point
and permanently after
drilling @ 610 m - 3353m

3000

9 5/8“ csg ø12 1/4“ ø8 1/2“


3353m

3500

3729m

4000

7 elem.
packers
4500
4650m

5000

ø8 1/2“ ORKUSTOFNUN
S.Th. 12.12.2001
Rev. 11.03.2002
5500
6000m

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


IDDP well profile – 9 5/8” prod. csg.
ERGA ICELAND ICELAND
EXPLORATORY TR-1 CASING IDDP CASING
DEEP WELL PROGRAM PROGRAM (prelim)
DEPTH (m) CONFIGURATION
32“ csg
0 ø36“ 22 1/2“ csg ø26“ 28“ csg 80m ø30“
40m
80m
18 5/8“ csg
24 1/2“ csg ø30“ 22 1/2“ csg ø26“
300m
400m
450m
500
13 3/8“ csg ø17 1/2“ 18 5/8“ csg ø21“
18 5/8“ csg ø23“
800m 800m

1000 1000m

1500 9 5/8“ slotted ø12 1/4“ 13 3/8“ csg ø17 1/2“


liner
14“ csg ø17“

2000
2300m
2300m

2500 2500m

9 5/8“ csg ø12 1/4“


3000

9 5/8“ csg ø12“

3500 3400m

4000m CORING. Technical Well Pilot pipe


4000 SYSTEM csg.OD dia ID
7“ slotted ø8 1/2“ DOSECC 5“ 3,782” 4”
7“ csg ø8 3/8“ liner
Pilot cored BRR 7“ 6” 4 7/8“
4500 4500m
DOSECC ?
w. 5” temp. csg BRR 7 5/8“ 6 3/4” 4 7/8“
to surface.
Then reamed
and liner inst.
ø6“ 5000m
5000
ORKUSTOFNUN
S.Th. 12.12.2001
Rev. 25.02.2002
5500

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Stages of drilling IDDP

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Modelling of circulation temperatures
B A
t2 t1

Based on unsteady state heat flow from the


formation into the well (A) and energy and mass
balance calculations + engineering equitations of
heat flow for this geometry (B), a spreadsheet program
was developed (STAR) to calculate the circulation
temperatures for inside the drill pipe (t1) and annuls (t2).
This allows e.g. the formation temperature,loss zones
and time of formation cooling to be entered for each depth
interval in addition to information on the drill string.
No correction factors or approximations are used.
Main input is the pumping rate and temp. into the drill string.
The spreadsheet calculates the temp. inside the DP and in
the annulus from a common temp. at the bottom of the hole
and then iterates until it reaches the known inlet temperature.

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Modeling of the circulation temperature - STAR
Tem perature (°C) Tem perature (°C)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0 0

500 500

1000
Q=35 l/s 1000

1500 1500

2000 2000
Depth (m)

Depth (m)
2500 2500

3000 3000

3500 3500

4000 4000
Q=5 l/s
4500 4500

5000 5000

Assuming for reservoir boiling point depth curve (BPD) to 3400 m and then 100°C/km gradient

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Vestmannaeyjar – coring into hot lava

5 years after
eruption,1978

4-6 mo. after


eruption,1973
Ref. Þorbjörn Sigurbjörnsson, Sveinbjörn Björnsson

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Drilling system

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Stagnant and flowing temp. profile - modeling
600

7 5/8" casing
500

400
Temperature (°C)

Reservoir

300
Temp (°C)
BPD + 100 °C/km

200

100

S. Þórh. 09.03.2002
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Depth (m)

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Stagnant and flowing press. profile - modeling
250

7 5/8" casing @ dP flow 25 bar


200
Pressure (bar-a)

150

Reservoir Press (bar-a)


Reservior

100

50

S. Þórh. 09.03.2002
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Depth (m)

ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division


Status summary
• Well simulation: The well models have been developed
for T & P prediction. Scenarios yet to be run. Reservoir ?
• A casing program has been selected, but may be modified
based on discussions during the workshop. Casing design
status will be presented tomorrow.
• The use of the Jötunn rig has been evaluated and results
will be presented tomorrow.
• Coring system is yet to be selected. For this workshop to
give guidance.
• Other planning work for the FS is ongoing and will be
completed by the end of 2002. The Feasibility Report.
ORKUSTOFNUN GeoScience Division