CCNA Exploration: LAN Switching and Wireless  Chapter 5 Case Study

Objectives: • • Consolidate the knowledge of the STP concept and configuration Enforce the difference between STP port roles and STP Port states

Intro: Ajax had a failure in one of its secondary trunk links which kept a relevant portion of the network with no connectivity. After this problem, they decided to implement redundancy between the switches in order to avoid the problem from happening again.

The Scenario: After a quick look at Ajax network, you decide to connect a few more cables between the switches in order to achieve some redundancy. Ajax’s updated topology is shown below. Because Ajax now has redundant links between its switches, the spanning tree protocol is necessary to avoid layer 2 loops.

Topology:

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in SW1. You also connect SW1’s port fa0/16 to SW2’s port fa0/22. To ensure no other switch but SW1 will be elected root bridge. The command used changes the bridge priority of SW1 to make it the root bridge for the specified VLANs.CCNA Exploration: LAN Switching and Wireless  Chapter 5 Case Study Using crossed cables. All of those links will work as a backup path to reach the root bridge and you configure all of them as trunk links. SW1’s port fa0/17 to SW3’s port fa0/19 and SW1’s port fa0/18 to SW4’s fa0/21. The table below has the port mapping you created: From: SW1 fa0/16 SW1 fa0/17 SW1 fa0/18 SW2 fa0/20 SW2 fa0/21 SW3 fa0/22 SW3 fa0/23 To: SW2 fa0/22 SW3 fa0/19 SW4 fa0/21 SW3 fa0/20 SW3 fa0/21 SW4 fa0/22 SW4 fa0/23 Because SW1 is a better switch when it comes to processing power and amount of memory. you issue the same command for each VLAN. The commands are listed below: SW1# configure terminal SW1(config)# spanning-tree vlan 10 root primary SW1(config)# spanning-tree vlan 20 root primary SW1(config)# spanning-tree vlan 30 root primary SW1(config)# end © 2009 Cisco Learning Institute     . you decide to make it the root bridge of the tree. Since a different instance of SPT is created for each VLAN and you want SW1 acting as root bridge for all 3 VLANs. you connect SW2’s ports fa0/20 and 21 to SW3’s port fa0/20 and 21 respectively and SW3’s port fa0/22 and 23 to SW4’s port fa0/22 and 23. you change SW1 priority.

CCNA Exploration: LAN Switching and Wireless  Chapter 5 Case Study Question 1: In a switched LAN environment. SW2(config-if)# end SW3(config)# int ra fa0/1 – 15 SW3(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast %Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a single host. Answer: No. bridges. which also had its priority set to 0. Even if a switch has its priority set to 0. %Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0/1 . you decide to do some adjustments in order to optimize SPT operation and network overall performance. Connecting hubs. another switch. Question 2: What is the default bridge priority? Answer: 32768 Once you ensured SW1 will be elected the root bridge. is it correct to state that a switch with priority set to 0 will always become the root bridge? Explain.shtml To ensure SW1 will be the root bridge. Use with CAUTION. Cisco created a feature called Root Guard to ensure a switch will always be the root bridge. switches. to this interface when portfast is enabled. Since no loops will be created. see: http://www. Use with CAUTION. there is no point to have such ports going through all SPT states before they can forward traffic. SW3(config-if)# end © 2009 Cisco Learning Institute     . loops will not be created through such ports. SW3 and SW4 and check their SPT priorities. SW1 will become the root bridge. Based on the structure of the bridge ID. switches. you connect the console cable to SW2.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_tech_note09186a00800ae96b. Because the ports connected to end devices under SW2. SW3 and SW4 won’t have any switches. can cause temporary spanning tree loops. can cause temporary spanning tree loops. SW3 and SW4 and configure all ports connected only to end devices with the spanning-tree portfast command. etc. Since SW2.cisco. concentrators. concentrators. %Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0/1 . For more information on Cisco root guard. You connect to SW2. could be elected root bridge if its MAC address was lower than the first switch’s. the switch elected as root bridge is the switch with highest-priority bridge ID (lowest numeric bridge ID value). SW3 and SW4 SPT bridge priorities are set to the default value. SW2(config)# int ra fa0/1 – 15 SW2(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast %Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a single host. bridges. Connecting hubs. etc. to this interface when portfast is enabled.15 but will only have effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode.15 but will only have effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode.

20 and 30. Use with CAUTION. switches.1300 This bridge is the root © 2009 Cisco Learning Institute     .1300 This bridge is the root SW1#show spanning vlan 30 VLAN0030 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 24606 Address 000f. etc. be careful when configuring ports as SPT portfast. SW1#show spanning vlan 10 VLAN0010 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 24596 Address 000f. Connecting hubs. concentrators. bridges. SW4(config-if)# end Note: As shown on the output above.90e2. to this interface when portfast is enabled. Notice that the priority value has changed from the default of 32768 to a smaller value and SW1 is actually the root bridge. Verifying You connect to SW1 and issue the sh spanning-tree vlan command to ensure it became the root bridge for VLAN 10.90e2.15 but will only have effect when the interface is in a non-trunking mode.CCNA Exploration: LAN Switching and Wireless  Chapter 5 Case Study SW4(config)# int ra fa0/1 – 15 SW4(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast %Warning: portfast should only be enabled on ports connected to a single host. %Portfast has been configured on FastEthernet0/1 .90e2. can cause temporary spanning tree loops.1300 This bridge is the root SW1#show spanning vlan 20 VLAN0020 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 24606 Address 000f.

You watch port roles being assigned and ports going through SPT states while the switched LAN converges. Note: In some implementations of SPT.CCNA Exploration: LAN Switching and Wireless  Chapter 5 Case Study You watch the switches and notice while SPT assign correct port roles to the switch ports. The other SW4 ports took the Non-Designated port role and are in SPT blocking state. © 2009 Cisco Learning Institute     . SW4 has one port playing the role of root port (fa0/21) and one port playing the role of designate port (fa0/22). non-designated ports are called alternate port. SW3 has one root port (fa0/19) and 2 designated ports (fa0/20 and fa0/22). As SW4. SW2 also has one root port (fa0/22) and one designated port (fa0/20) and all other port are nondesignated ports in blocking state. since SW1 is the root bridge. As expected. All other ports are nondesignated ports and are in blocking state. all SW1 ports are playing the role of designated ports and are in the SPT forwarding state.

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