Chronology | Analog To Digital Converter | Operational Amplifier


The following steps have been followed in carrying out the project. Study the book on the relevant topic. Understand the working of the circuit. Prepare the circuit diagram. Prepare the list of component along with their application. Estimate the cost and procure them after carrying out survey. Plan and prepare PCB for mounting all the component.fix the component on the PCB and solder them. Tool the circuit for their desired performance. Trace and rectify false if any. Give good finish to the unit. Prepare the project report.




Block diagram of temperature indicator and controller.

PCB layout of temperature indicator and controller.

Basic function or working of project. System hardware designing Soldering Temperature sensor Microcontroller Capacitors Diode Resistance Transistor Transformer Rectifier Relay

Temperature sensor LM35, Microcontroller 89c52, ADC 0804 Rectifier Relay


Chapter first provides all brief intro of temperature indicator and controller. Chapter two and three shows the block and circuit diagram of the project. Chapter four describes the working of the temperature indicator and controller. Chapter five explains components used in the project. Chapter six contains


Temperature control in manufacturing is a quintessential part of proper product formation. If the temperature slips above or below the ideal range needed for a particular stage in a manufacturing process, the results can be harmful—improperly adhered coatings, a weakened base material, or an overall compromised component—so it becomes increasingly important that the manufacturer not only determine the proper temperature for each stage, but also monitor the temperature inside the machine and receive appropriate feedback. An on/off temperature control is the least expensive of the control types, and also the most simple in terms of how it works. The control is either on or off—if the temperature drops below a certain point, the control signals to the machine to turn raise the temperature. Likewise, if a temperature goes above a certain point, the control is triggered to tell the machine to lower the temperature. A common example of on/off systems is a household thermostat. When the temperature drops below a certain point, the controller triggers the heater to raise the temperature back to the programmed value. With airconditioning it works the other way: if the temperature rises past a certain point, the controller triggers the air-conditioner, dropping the temperature back to the programmed norm.






Working of this project is totally based on the temperature sensor. To accurately control process temperature without extensive operator involvement, a temperature control system relies upon a controller, which accepts a temperature sensor such as a thermocouple or RTD as input. It compares the actual temperature to the desired control temperature, or set-point, and provides an output to a control element. The controller is one part of the entire control system, and the whole system should be analyzed in selecting the proper controller. The following items should be considered when selecting a controller. 1. Type of input sensor (thermocouple, RTD) and temperature range 2. Type of output required (electromechanical relay, SSR, analog output) 3. Control algorithm needed (on/off, proportional, PID) 4. Number and type of outputs (heat, cool, alarm, limit) There are three basic types of controllers: on-off, proportional and PID. Depending upon the system to be controlled, the operator will be able to use one type or another to control the process.

On/Off Control:An on-off controller is the simplest form of temperature control device. The output from the device is either on or off, with no middle state. An on-off controller will switch the output only when the temperature crosses the setpoint. For heating control, the output is on when the temperature is below the setpoint, and off above setpoint. Since the temperature crosses the setpoint to change the output state, the process temperature will be cycling continually, going from below setpoint to above, and back below. In cases where this cycling occurs rapidly, and to prevent damage to contactors and valves, an on-off differential, or “hysteresis,” is added to the controller operations. This differential requires that the temperature exceed setpoint by a certain amount before the output will turn off or on again. On-off differential prevents the output from “chattering” or making fast, continual switches if the cycling above and below the setpoint occurs very rapidly. On-off control is usually used where a precise control is not necessary, in systems which cannot handle having the energy turned on and off frequently, where the mass of the system is so great that temperatures change extremely slowly, or for a temperature alarm. One special type of on-off control used for alarm is a limit controller. This controller uses a latching relay, which must be manually reset, and is used to shut down a process when a certain temperature is reached.

Proportional Control:Proportional controls are designed to eliminate the cycling associated with on-off control. A proportional controller decreases the average power supplied to the heater as the temperature approaches setpoint. This has the effect of slowing down the heater so that it will not overshoot the setpoint, but will approach the setpoint and maintain a stable temperature. This proportioning action can be accomplished by turning the output on and off for short time intervals. This "time proportioning" varies the ratio of “on” time to "off" time to control the temperature. The proportioning action occurs within a “proportional band” around the setpoint temperature. Outside this band, the controller functions as an on-off unit, with the output either fully on (below the band) or fully off (above the band). However, within the band, the output is turned on and off in the ratio of the measurement difference from the setpoint. At the setpoint (the midpoint of the proportional band), the output on:off ratio is 1:1; that is, the on-time and off-time are equal. if the temperature is further from the setpoint, the on- and off-times vary in proportion to the temperature difference. If the temperature is below setpoint, the output will be on longer; if the temperature is too high, the output will be off longer.

PID Control:The third controller type provides proportional with integral and derivative control, or PID. This controller combines proportional control with two additional adjustments, which helps the unit automatically compensate for changes in the system. These adjustments, integral and derivative, are expressed in time-based units; they are also referred to by their reciprocals, RESET and RATE, respectively. The proportional, integral and derivative terms must be individually adjusted or “tuned” to a particular system using trial and error. It provides the most accurate and stable control of the three controller types, and is best used in systems which have a relatively small mass, those which react quickly to changes in the energy added to the process. It is recommended in systems where the load changes often and the controller is expected to compensate automatically due to frequent changes in setpoint, the amount of energy available, or the mass to be controlled.OMEGA offers a number of controllers that automatically tune themselves. These are known as auto tune controllers.

System Hardware designing:System hardware designing is divided in to 3 sections A. CPU Board B. Input Board C. PCB designing A. CPU Board Designing: In our project we are using 89C51 micro-controller as CPU. 89C51 micro-controller requires some extra supporting hardware like + 5 volts power supply, POR as well as manual RESET, Clock generator, pull up resisters, and LCD display. 1. Power supply For getting +5 volts supply, we are using 7805 IC. The minimum input to 7805 is +7 Vdc and Maximum input is + 35 Vdc. 2. POR and Manual RESET: When we switch ON the power supply of the CPU board then micro-controller must be RESET to start the program execution from 0000H memory location. Therefore POR is must. POR means Power On Reset. For this purpose we have to use RC differentiator circuit. RC differentiator circuit will provide logic High pulse to RESET pin of 89C51, when you switch ON the power supply. Some times we requires manual RESET. For this purpose one push to ON tact switch is used. When you press this tact switch then logic high signal is given to the RESET pin of the Micro-controller 89C51.

3. Clock Generator: The maximum clock frequency of the Micro-controller 89C51 is 24 Mhz. Therefore we can use any frequency less then 24 Mhz. But if we are using PC interfacing then for selecting the bits per second we have to use particular crystal. For selecting 9600 bits per second we have to use 11.0593 MHz crystal. Now just connecting the crystal is not sufficient to generate the clock, it requires two additional capacitors to generate the starting spike pulse. 4. External Pull Up resister: In micro-controller port 0 does not have internal pull up resister therefore we have to use the external pull up resister at port 0. At other ports external pull up resistor is optional. But we had connected the external pull up registers for other ports also. 5. LCD DISPLAY: In our project to monitor the temperature, we require LCD display. The disadvantage of LCD is it will not emit the light. Therefore to remove this disadvantage we have to select the LCD, which has backlight LED. Two lines are sufficient for our project. Therefore we can select 2 line 16 character LCD display.

B. INPUT Board Designing:In INPUT board we have following parameters to design. 1. Power supply 2. Temperature measurement 3. ADC designing 1.Power supply:In our project Temperature measurement requires +5Vdc and 5Vdc supply. For getting + 5 Vdc and . 5 Vdc supply, first 230 Vac supply is converted into 12-0-12 Vac by using center tapped step down transformer. This 12-0-12 Vac supply is given to bridge formed by diode 1N4007. The output of the bridge is pulsating dc voltage therefore we are using two 1000uF/25V filter capacitor. The output of the filter is +12Vdc and .12 Vdc. But we want + 5 Vdc and . 5 Vdc. For this purpose we have to use IC 7805 and IC 7905. The minimum input to 7805 is +7 Vdc and Maximum input is + 35 Vdc. And we are giving + 12 Vdc as input to the 7805. Therefore the output of the 7805 is constant regulated +5 Vdc. The minimum input to 7905 is . 7 Vdc and Maximum input is . 35 Vdc. And we are giving .12 Vdc as input to the 7905. Therefore the output of the 7905 is constant regulated . 5 Vdc.

2.Temperature measurement circuit designing:In our project we are using LM 35 as temperature sensor. LM 35 temperature sensor converts temperature in to electric form. Sensitivity of LM 35 is 10 mV / 0C. For 30 0C output of LM35 is +300 mV. This output is given to signal conditioning block. Signal conditioning block has 2 opamps. First op-amp is used as voltage follower; Second op-amp is used as amplifier with gain of 10. The overall gain of signal conditioning block is + 10. Therefore output of signal conditioning block for 30 0C is 3000 mV. This output is given to ADC. The resolution of ADC 0808 for 5 Voltage is 20mV. Therefore output of ADC for 30 0C (i.e. for 3000 mV input) is 96H in hexadecimal. This output is compared with lookup table. The output of look up table for 96H is 30.00 degree Celsius. 3. ADC designing:The ADC designing is very important in our project. Because without this we can.t measure the temperature. For designing the ADC card we have to find the resolution of ADC. Without knowing the resolution of ADC we can.t design temperature measurement circuit. Resolution means minimum change that can be detected by the ADC. The resolution of ADC is given by following equation 1. Resolution =

Where, N = No of output bits Vref = Reference voltage In our project we are using ADC 0808. Number of output bits of ADC 0808 is 8 and the reference voltage is + 5 Vdc. Putting these values in the equation we are getting resolution of ADC = 20 mV/ OC. Following table gives the idea about the resolution of ADC. Thus from above table we can say to get output of ADC = 0000 0001 in binary we have to apply +20 mV dc input. Again next parameter designing is clock of ADC. We had used IC 555 in AMV mode to generate clock frequency of 10 KHz. C. PCB Designing: For designing the PCB we had used Express PCB software. This is user friendly and very simple. We made the PCB layouts in this Software. The main disadvantage of this software is,we can’t take the mirror image directly. To eliminate this disadvantage we have to take the print out on tracing paper. After taking the print out reverse the tracing paper you will get the mirror image of the PCB layout. After getting the PCB layout give it to screen printer. The screen printer will paint that mirror image on Cu clad. After painting it wait for drying it.

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