H.K. Institute of Management Studies and Research, Jogeshwari (West), Mumbai: 400102
JULY 20-- - DECEMBER 20--/ MAY ± JUNE 200_

Student¶s Declaration
I hereby declare that this report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the award for the MASTER IN MANAGEMENT STUDIESto H K Institute of Management Studies and Research is my original work and not submitted for award of any degree or diploma fellowship or for similar titles or prizes. I further certify that I have no objection and grant the rights to H K Institute of Management Studies and Research to publish any chapter/ project if they deem fit in Journals/Magazines and newspapers etc. without my permission.

Place Date Name Class

: Mumbai : 22/01/2011 : MOHD AKRAM.S.SHAIKH : (MMS ± I- Sem. ± II)

Roll No. : 44


This is to certify that the dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of MASTERS OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES of H K Institute of Management Studies and Research is a result of the bonafide research work carried out by Mr. MOHD AKRAM.S.SHAIKH under my supervision and guidance, no part of this report has been submitted for award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship or other similar titles or prizes. The work has also not been published in any Journals/Magazines.

Date TRUST Place: Mumbai


Designation : MANGER

Project guide: AFTAB SHAIKH


Table of Contents . but there are likely to be many more persons who I have inadvertently not mentioned here. this study would not have been completed. the director of Humera khan institute of management studies and research to consider me for the corporate social responsibility project and to give me an opportunity to work with Desh Seva Samiti. Without the support. patience and guidance of the following people. First and foremost. It is to them that I owe my deepest gratitude. I am attempting to name a few of the individuals. Professor Krishna Pandey. For all those who I have failed to name. apologies. but your inputs have been recognized and incorporated.This study would not been possible without the contributions and inputs provided by many people.

3 : 2..2 Introduction to the NGO : 2.1 Analysis & Findings ««36«. ««39««.1... ««37«« Recommendations Bibliography Executive Summary .1.3-23« ««15«« ««13«« ««23«« «.1 Executive Summary ««1««.38««.32«.2 : 2. : 2..4 Objectives Methodology Limitations of the Report CHAPTER 3 : 3.. CHAPTER 2 : 2. CHAPTER 4 : 4.1 Conclusions ««. ««34«.Page No.1 Introduction to the Subject : 2.2 : 4.1 Introduction «.3 Introduction to the foundation : 2. ««35«..3 : 4.1. CHAPTER 1 : 1..

Confidence. innovation. creativity are the key learning¶s out of my project And I would like to say that it will be one of my best skill that would . As a CSR. It¶s an NGO which is a strictly non-profit organization. I spent good time in learning and was rewarded for my best efforts. had good time in learning and performing as one of the best CSR in the campaign.I was placed for CSR project in DESH SEVA SAMITI which is located inBhagat Singh Nagar. hard work. had experience of working which effects an employee performance and attitude towards work. teamwork.GOREGAON (W). seeking success out of dark. deeply committed to social work. consistency. learnt to deal with different situations. My learning experience with DESH SEVA SAMITI begins with me joining in the month of October.

But at the same time there is that part of the society which is not well to do. I would like to highlight this.luxuries. The gap between have and have not is widening on a day to day basis. With the growing population and reducing and unfortunate in receiving all those luxuries and the basic amenities of life. by teaching them and solving any problems they had in studies.quality education and the basic as well as advance knowledge that one should have or is rightly entitled of. Fortunately for this section of society there are few corporate who under ³corporate social responsibility .remain with me and help me in the coming life which offer many challenges. that my experience with DESH SEVA SAMITI was very memorable and full of learning¶s. We helped the children of the facing a problem with scarcity in resources. learning and behavior. where I found a lot of positive changes in my attitude.there are section of the society that are well to do and can afford all the amenities.

"Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large" The same report gave some evidence of the different perceptions of what this should mean from a number of different societies across the world. . used the following definition. Definitions as different as "CSR is about capacity building for sustainable livelihoods. It respects cultural differences and finds the business opportunities in building the skills of employees. through to "CSR is about business giving back to society" from the Phillipines. the community and the government" from Ghana.WHAT IS CSR The World Business Council for Sustainable Development in its publication "Making Good Business Sense" by Lord Holme and Richard Watts.

regionalandnationalorganizati onsworkingon sustainabledevelopment issues.INTRODUCTION TO CSR CorporateSocialResponsibility(CSR)hasbecomeaninescapablepriorityforb usiness leaders acrosstheglobe.Governments.activistsandthemediahavebecomeadeptat holding companiestoaccountforthesocialconsequencesoftheiractionsandthereisa largeandgrowingcommunityofinternational. reputationandreciprocal conformism.tacticalandoperationall evelsto identify ways to meet society¶s demands.intermsofaneconomictheoryofselfregulationbasedon theconceptsofsocial contract.meantasvoluntarycompliance withCSR strategicmanagementstandards. both inthepublicandprivatesectors. Itisnosurprisethenthatfirmsaregrapplingonstrategic. . ThispaperfirstsetsadefinitionofCSRasanextendedmodelofcorporategovern anceand thenaccountsforavoluntaryapproachtoCSR. this in combination with achieving company performancetargets.

aconstraint or acharitabledeed.bothinwaysthatsolv e pressingsocialissuesandimprovethefirms¶competitiveedgeusingthesamefra meworks thatguidetheircorebusinesschoices.Variousformsofselfregulatorypracticeswhichareappliedonadiscretionarybasisare explored inthispaper.arguingthatwhileincompletecontractsandimperfectknowledge debarformresortingtoreputationeffectsinordertosupportdiscretionalselfregulation. Finally.on thecontraryan explicitstandardforCSRstrategicmanagement.arediscoveringthatCSRcanbemuchmor ethana cost.thispaperrevealshowthosecompaniesthathaveembracedCSR± becomingpart ofthesolution± aresettingthestandardsforotherstofollowand. it canbeanenabler for competitiveadvantage.through .insomecases. Those firmstypicallyinvestinginsociallyresponsiblepractices.bothpubliclysharedby stakeholdersandfirmsthroughsocialdialoguemakeitpossibletoputagainatworkthe endogenous incentives of reputation compliance mechanism with a inducing voluntary standard. ItisarguedthatCSRcanbeapotentsourceofinnovationandcompetitiveadvanta ge.theresultbeingthatstakeholdersareencouragedtoµtrust¶inthefirm¶s practices andcommitment to CSR.

..´ Indu Jain partnership with TNS India and IRRAD undertook a national survey to understand the underlying dynamics of CSR and the current situation in India. enhanced brand image and reputation and attractiveness to increasingly sophisticated institutional investors..theirglobalsupplychainsaretakingactionwheredialogueshavefailed. CSR is not new to India. Ltd. The Times of India Group New Delhi The corporate social responsibility wing of the Bennett.Inreturn suchfirms havefoundsignificantcompetitiveadvantagesintheformofimprovedfinancial performance. Coleman & CO. companies like TATA and BIRLA have been . Csr in India Corporate Social Responsibility Practices in India sets a realistic agenda of grassroots development through alliances and partnerships with sustainable development approaches. At the heart of solution lies intrinsic coming together of all stakeholders in shaping up a distinct route for an equitable and just social order..

It is followed by a handful of public companies as dictated by the very basis of their existence. The survey is expected to facilitate formation of an alliance of CSR initiatives so that such initiatives can be further stream lined. And CSR is coming out of the purview of µdoing social good¶ and is fast becoming a µbusiness necessity¶. A lack of understanding.the survey on CSR is timely and apt. The µbusiness case¶ for CSR is gaining ground and corporate houses are realizing that µwhat is good for workers . inadequately trained personnel.their community. and by a few private companies. coverage. non-availability of authentic data and specific information on the kinds of CSR activities. focused and converged to a powerful force of intervention. CSR in India is in a very nascent stage.imbibing the case for social good in their operations for decades long before CSR become a popular cause. One of the major objectives of the survey is to bring out in open the current status of CSR thereby giving both the NGOs and the common man an understanding of . further adds to the reach and effectiveness of CSR programmes. health. policy etc. and environment is also good for the business¶. Thus the situation is far from perfect as the emphasis is not on social good but rather on a policy that needs to be implemented. Inspite of having such life size successful examples. Corporate Social Responsibility Practices . with international shareholding as this is the practice followed by them in their respective foreign country. But the situation is changing. It is still one of the least understood initiatives in the Indian development sector.

current CSR policies. They only have to be independent fromgovernment control. and thus would not fall under the category of development-oriented NGOs. virtually alltypes of private bodies can be recognized as NGOs. recommendations etc An Introduction to Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) The term.000 NGOs active in Iran. The survey underlines the various issues . challenges. "non-governmental organization" or NGO. referred to as grass-roots .the various initiatives undertaken by corporates and the role that is played by the government in the field.their current and future plans. morelocally-based groups. role of civil society and government. geographical areas covered. major stakeholders . not seeking to challenge governments either as a political party or by anarrow focus on human rights.The structures of NGOs vary considerably. there were reportedly over 20. At the UN. came into use in 1945 because of the needfor the UN to differentiate in its Charter between participation rights for intergovernmentalspecialized agencies and those for international private organizations. The majority of these organizations are charityorganizations. non-profit-making and non-criminal. With the improvement in communications. As of 2003. In thisdocument the term NGO is primarily used for organizations other than charitable organizations.

to label a government-organizedNGO. It is hard for NGOs not to come under anygovernmental influence. in more authoritarian societies. . This has beenrecognized by quite common use of the acronym GONGO. Individual governments do at times try to influence the NGOcommunity in a particular field.have become active at the national or even the global level. NGOs are components of social movements within a civil society. where civil society is not yet mature. In thecase of Iran.excluding businesses. Increasingly this occurs through theformation of coalitions with other NGOs for particular goals. by establishing NGOs that promote their policies. NGOs may find it very difficult to act independentlyand they may not receive acknowledgment from other political actors even when they are actingindependently. Also.A civil society is composed of three sectors: government. such as was the case in the case ofthe Bam earthquake for example. The issue of independence is animportant one in the credibility of an NGO. On the other hand. to run their operational programs. so most of them readily accept official funds.organizations or community based organizations. the private sector and civil society. NGOs can have an important role instrengthening the foundations of an emergent civil society. development and humanitarian relief NGOs need substantialresources.

in order to sustain their projects and programs. foundations or companies. but. from governments.What is a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)? NGOs can be distinguished into two groups: Operational and advocacy NGOs. media relations and motivating supporters. materials or volunteer labor. Finance obtained from grants or contracts. This may be interpreted as the choice between small-scale change achieved directly through projects and large-scale change promoted indirectly through influence on the political system. Advocacy NGOs will carry out much the same functions. in addition to a small number . require time and expertise spent on planning. operational NGOs need to possess an efficient headquartersbureaucracy. Persuading people to donatetheir time is necessary. This process may require quite complex organization. accounting and reporting. budgeting. Major fund-raising events require skills in advertising. preparing applications. in addition to the operational staff in the field. Operational NGOs have to mobilize resources. but with a different balance between them. Thus. but on a smaller scale and it can serve the symbolic function of strengthening the donors' identification with the cause. in the form of financial donations. Fund-raising is still necessary.

External donors may not impose onerous administrative burdens. Human rights NGOs and women's NGOs end up having programs to assist the victims of discrimination and injustice. but supporters still have to be supplied with information on an efficient regular basis. Major events will aim to attract favorable publicity rather than raise funds. In reality. organizing special events. at least by supporting campaigning networks. despite their differences. cultivating themedia and administering a headquarters. mobilization of work by supporters. advocacy NGOs often feels they cannot ignore the immediate practical problems of people in their policy domain. the distinctions are not as sharp as the labels suggest. All the large development and environment operational NGOs now run some regular campaigns. Operational NGOs often move into advocacy when projects regularly face similar problems and the impact of the projects seems to be insufficient. it is also necessary to be able to mobilize large numbers for brief periods. . both operational and advocacy NGOs need to engage in fundraising. Similarly.of people giving a great deal of time. Only the defining activities ± implementing projects or holding demonstrations ± serve to differentiate them. Therefore.

Types of NGOs In the case of Iran. NGOs can have an active role in the following areas:  Community Health Promotion and Education y Contraception and Intimacy Education y General Hygiene y Waste Disposal y Water Usage y Vaccinations y Youth Counseling Services  Emerging health crises y HIV/AIDS education and support y Hepatitis B education y Drug Addiction recovery  Community Social Problems y Juvenile crimes y Runaway girls y Street Children .

Catering services.) y Cooperative creation y inancial consulting Range of NGO Activities y Career services and job search assistanceDevelopment y School construction y Infrastructure construction y Cultural center construction and operation y Agriculture and Aquaculture expert assistanceWomen s Issues y Women and Children s Rights y Battered women assistance center y Group therapy for sexually abused women . technician training.y Prostitution  Environmental y Sustainable water and energy consumption education y Keeping mountains and forests clean  Economic y Microenterprises and Micro-loans y Skill training (Computers.) y Product promotion and distribution (Bazaars etc. clothing andtextile. etc.

'Board of Directors.y Counseling hotlines (telephone-based counseling services for women) y Legal assistance to women y Literacy drives There is a growing need for nonprofit and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) throughout the world to be more effective and productive. and developing management and governance tools. Having a good and effective NGO Board provides a basis for successful management of its organization. and also assists in distributing responsibilities among the team members within the NGO organization. building capacity by training. One the many ways they are achieving this is by broadening and strengthening the constitution of their Boards. An increase in the effectiveness of NGO board itself has been achieved by bringing together organizations and leaders with a shared interest in the work of boards. familiarizes its target constituents with the activities of the NGO. An NGO Board may be called by different names . 'Steering Committee' . help in better understanding the organizational structure of the NGO.

education. Numerous organizations were established during thisperiod. the National Council for Women in India (1875). The Societies Registration Act (SRA) was approved in 1860 to confirm the legal status of the growing body of nongovernment Organizations (NGOs). working to improve social welfare and literacy and pursuing relief projects. PrathanaSamaj (1864). health. nationalist consciousness spread across India and self-help emerged as the primary focus of sociopolitical movements. and the Indian National Conference (1887).4 During the second half of the 19th century. including the Friend-in-Need Society (1858). They proliferated during British rule. AryaSamaj (1875). Voluntaryorganizations3²organizations that are voluntary inspirit and without profit-making objectives² wereactive in cultural promotion. and natural disaster relief as early as the medieval era. The term 'Board' is used collectively and interchangeably to mean all these names. The SR A continues to be relevant legislation for . History of NGO Activity in India India has a long history of civil society based on theconcepts of daana(giving) and seva(service).'Advisory Group' etc. SatyaShodhanSamaj (1873).

A firm foundation for secular voluntary action in India was not laid until the governmental development agencies were established around this time. although most state governments have enacted amendments to the original version. NGO networks.The process of structural adjustment begun in the early1990s²and the more recent approach of bilateral andinternational donors channeling funds directly throughthe government. and large corporateNGOs²have somewhat pushed peoples¶ organizationsinto the background. NGOs focused their efforts on education. and livelihood all became the focus of attention. relief. and mobilization of themarginalized to protect their rights. schools. With community participation as a defined component in a number of social sector projects during the 1970sand 1980s. Meanwhile. environment. Their work wasincreasingly characterized by grassroots interventions. Small. anddevelopment. education. India witnessed a rapid increase in and diversification ofthe NGO sector as a response to the national political scenario and increasing concern about poverty and marginalization. Both welfare and empowerment oriented organizations emerged during this period. spontaneous initiativesat . and other infrastructure. roads.NGOs in India. leading to a professionalization of the sector. Christian missionaries active in India at this time directed their efforts toward reducing poverty and constructing hospitals. health. and social welfare.advocacy at various levels. civil liberties. Foreign-trained Indiansentered civil society in greater numbers. NGOs began to be formally recognized as development partners of the state. health. such as the People¶s Action for Development of India.

The . deeply committed to social work.000 people die in road accidents and double that number are injured. It was the outcome of discussions held among a group of citizens who were concerned about the increasing impoverishment of the people. Female foeticide and sex determination tests are rampant. There are still people in a metropolis like Mumbai. Millions of Indians go blind every year because of nutritional deficiencies.the community level. are nolonger the hallmark of the NGO sector. as a response to social andeconomic exploitations at the community level. who are condemned to darkness because they cannot afford the cost of a cataract operation. which is regarded as the commercial capital of India. It was registered in February 2005. There are thousands of rag-pickers who compete for a morsel of food with dogs and cats at roadside garbage bins in our cities. while on the other and there are lakhs of children who go to bed hungry daily across the country. DESH SEVA SAMITI INTRODUCTION: DeshSevaSamiti is a strictly non-profit organization. On the one hand we find the sensex zooming skywards raking in millions of rupees profits to players in the stock market. About 75.

. The program called as 'School of Life' is conducted by Ujjwal Banerjee of AnupamKher Foundation wherein experiential teaching of maths and science concepts is adapted. The program also includes English especially spoken language and life skills.number of people below the poverty line is increasing in absolute terms every year. Each session is for 2h and there are 4 sessions a week held in "AaplaGhar" DSS¶s center in Bhagat Singh Nagar and the program has been running since July 2009. Education for Kids: DeshSevaSamiti has arranged for educational support for school going children (5th ± 8th grade) for Bhagat Singh Nagar.

K) : . have enrolled for the NIOS secondary exams to be held in 2010. This initiative was preceded by a community meeting wherein the importance of education and necessity to be employed was highlighted. 5 children from the Bhagat Singh Nagar community. Goregaon (West). The idea is to tutor the adolescents so that they clear Class X and will be eligible for jobs like security guards etc.RICH EDUCATION ACTION PROGRAMME (REAP) : This program is an initiative of DeshSevaSamiti (DSS) to enroll school drop-outs into National Institute of Open School (NIOS. In August 2009. Mahila Takrar Nivaran Kendra (M. 2009) was an ice-breaking session. This session (held June 4.T.N. Delhi Board).

To work with individuals. 5. The women were apprehensive of lodging a complaint at the police station. 6. socially and economically and hence.N.K : 1. DSS has realized that M.T.K caters to not just housewives. With this backdrop. both. To conduct training programmes/workshops for women as well as their family members on wide range of issues and themes. 3. Centres in Mumbai suburbs are functioning since Sep µ08 Kashimira. needed an outlet to voice their grievances. Objectives of M. DeshSevaSamiti (DSS) volunteers observed that innumerable women residing in slums were oppressed. domestic workers or small vendors but also to professional class that seeks help. families.T. Lately. To conduct health camps. 4. Malad and Bangur Nagar and Aug ¶09 in Kanakia Police Stations November 09 in Chembur. June ¶09 in Goregaon. Six M. groups and communities so as to create harmonious relationships. either out of fear of society or due to fear of their spouses and family members.While working with various communities. . To give the women a listening ear and to take cognizance of the offences perpetrated on them.N.K. . To network with women¶s organizations and other like-minded organizations for collaborative work. 2.N.T. To coordinate with the police in cases of crimes against women. DSS along with the police conceived the idea of the MahilaTakrarNivaran Kendra in order to help women in distress.

The project. 8. Problems between mother and son 7. Under Saathi. Divorce. desertion. Sexual problems and lustful behaviour 4. unemployment. cleaning. which started in the August 2009. To motivate distressed women to be independent and to take decisions on their own. Problems and Disputes concerning in-laws¶ 3. . Love affairs resulting in elopement and marriage 5. photo frames etc. aprons and caps. Problems between father-in-law and daughter-in-law. This is an income generation activity for the women. Marital conflicts (wife beating. these packets are sold near Goregaon Railway Station. Problems related to properties.7. entails obtaining vegetables each day directly from the farmers. weighing and packing them in polythene bags. extra-marital relationships. maintenance and illegal second marriages 6. financial constraints) 2. cutting. SAATHI PROJECT : Project Saathi employs women from the slums (primarily Goregaon West community).). housing societies and canteens. women are taught tailoring and embroidery and thus are capable of taking orders from Corporates for ethnic gifts (ex: handbags. alcoholism. Nature of Grievances : 1. These vegetables are clean and fresh and the women carrying out the chores are provided with gloves.

West) community.Self Help Group/Microfinance: MansiLavate from MahilaArtikVikasMahamandal (MAVIM) was on site in July 2009 to introduce BatchatGhat. Since then. Environment Mangroves Protection: In a victory for Malad residents. Each group has a President. six women self help groups with 12 to 19 women are registered with State Bank of India with the support of MAVIM. This effort was a result of a lot information provided by DSS on benefits of saving and convincing each individual of Bhagat Singh Nagar community. . the Bombay high court on Wednesday stayed for a week an order of the collector allowing dumping of debris on a mangrove plot along the Malad-Goregaon Link Road. a concept of self help financing group in the Bhagat Singh Nagar (Goregaon. Secretary and Treasurer from their own group.

This clinic is run by DrSuvarna since August 2009. on Saturdays between 3 to 5 pm. This clinic is for the benefit of slum dwellers especially women who suffer from gynecological problems and also children who suffer from common illnesses like diarrhea. Medicines are distributed free of cost.per patient is charged so that they appreciate the value of the medicines and will complete the course of medicines as prescribed by the doctor. cough .HEALTH CLINIC IN SLUM : DeshSevaSamiti felt the need for starting a Health Clinic at Bhagat Singh Nagar.cold. DrSuvarna not only treats patients but also gives advise on various health issues and the precautions that need to be taken to prevent certain ailments. Goregaon West. fever and anaemic conditions. Medical Camps: . as it realized that most people living there could not afford a visit to the doctor and thus neglected critical health issues. Rs 10/.

schools etc. Events Adolescent Group Picnic : .DSS organizes Medical Camps on regular basis. Since the first camp. Earlier we used to arrange them in various localities. DSS has served at least 7. After getting our own premises in Bhagat Singh Nagar ³ AaplaGhar´. we have a camp every month with different speciality doctors coming in with medicines for free distribution.000 patients.

Members from an organization called Project Mainstream were invited to give information on various courses which would benefit the girls. West) community get a chance to interact with each other and the community workers as well. It was a difficult job to convince the parents to send the girls for the picnic. 2 DAY WORKSHOP AT BHAGAT SINGH NAGAR: A 2 day workshop was organized by DeshSevaSamiti along with KamgarShikshan Kendra (workers¶ education) for women between the age group of 20 to 40 yrs at Bethani Church. so that the girls from the Bhagat Singh Nagar (Goregaon. 2009. All the girls enjoyed themselves and before leaving gave us a feed back of the event. Bhagat Singh Nagar on 20th and 21st August 2009 from 11am to 4pm. Lunch and snacks were served. 25 young women from the community attended the picnic. In all. Though the girls were eager to go out they did not even want to inform their parents about the picnic as their parents were reluctant to send the girls out.A picnic to Aksa Beach was arranged by DSS on June 19. .

Suvarna who gave details on medical problems faced by women after the age of 35. Dr.A total of 40 women participated in this workshop which required compulsory attendance of both days. Ms. Director of DSS provided information on various activities of Desh Seva Samiti and encouraged the participants to fully make use of the same. She also gave information on breast cancer and cervical cancer and encouraged the women to freely discuss their medical concerns with the doctor.was given to each participant along with a certificate from KamgarShikshan Kendra . a volunteer with DSS. She also explained the problems faced by women during menopause and how to cope with them. Day 2 had programs including a demonstration on making artificial jewellery with pearls by Ms. Bise also cautioned that superstition and blind beliefs to follow tantriks¶ words most often result in loss of money. Seema Gudekar who is working with Desh Seva Samiti and who looks after the various activities in Bhagat Singh Nagar Slum gave information on various activities conducted for the community.AvishaKulkarni. This was followed by a talk by Dr. Day 1 had programs that included a talk by Ms Maya Bise on µMyths and Beliefs¶ wherein she pointed out the phony tricks of tantriks which lead to fraud or crime. In the evening Ms. After the end of the 2 day workshop a stipend of Rs 150/. Shraddha.

. Fortunately for this section of society there are few corporate who under ³corporate social responsibility. But at the same time there is that part of the society which is not well to do. I have also experience that parents of poor students were also not caring abouttheir children and so they were not discipline. finance and unfortunate in receiving all those luxuries and the basic amenities of life. I have also help them in their studies and extra-curricular activities and try to motivate them.Children day. I have interacted with many children and their i realize what actual problem they are facing through. diya making etc. I helpedthe children in many occasion like Diwali. how to do well in their exam.CONCLUSION Working with Desh Seva Samiti was an excellent experience in my life. is facing a problem with scarcity in resources. Experiencing that handling children is not an easy job. The gap between have and have not is widening on a day to day basis. rangoli. I have learned many things by working with them. but the way the teacher handle is appreciable.

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