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A study on an anti-lock braking system controller and rear-wheel controller to enhance vehicle lateral stability

Jeonghoon Song1*, Heungseob Kim2, and Kwangsuck Boo2 1Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Tongmyong University, Busan, Republic of Korea 2Innovation Centre for Automobile Parts, School of Mechanical-Automotive Engineering, Inje University of Technology, Malaysia The manuscript was received on 23 November 2005 and was accepted after revision for publication on 2 April 2007. DOI: 10.1243/09544070JAUTO225

Abstract: This paper presents a mathematical vehicle model that is designed to analyse and improve the dynamic performance of a vehicle. A wheel slip controller for anti-lock braking system (ABS) brakes is formulated using a sliding mode controller and a proportional–integral– derivative (PID) controller for rear wheel steering is also designed to enhance the stability, steerability, and driveability of the vehicle during transient manoeuvres. The braking and steering performances of controllers are evaluated for various driving conditions, such as straight and J-turn manoeuvres. The simulation results show that the proposed full car model is suﬃcient to predict vehicle responses accurately. The developed ABS reduces the stopping distance and increases the longitudinal and lateral stability of both two- and four-wheel steering vehicles. The results also demonstrate that the use of a rear wheel controller as a yaw motion controller can increase its lateral stability and reduce the slip angle at high speeds. Keywords: vehicle model, anti-lock braking system (ABS), sliding mode wheel slip control, PID rear wheel control, yaw motion controller (YMC), four-wheel steering (4WS), two-wheel steering (2WS)

1 INTRODUCTION The primary objective of anti-lock braking systems (ABSs), which were ﬁrst implemented in vehicles in the late 1970s, is to prevent the wheels from locking while braking. Most ABS controllers on the market are based on tables and relay feedbacks, and make use of hydraulic actuators to deliver the braking force. One approach that is used with hydraulic brakes is to measure wheel rotational velocity and use this to compute wheel deceleration. Then, given prescribed thresholds for wheel deceleration, the braking pressure is increased, held, or decreased while trying to maintain a wheel slip value that is close to the point that gives the maximum amount of friction [1, 2]. Many researchers have developed numerous control strategies to improve the performance of ABSs, such

* Corresponding author: Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Tongmyong University, Yongdang-Dong, Nam-Gu, Busan, 608-711, Republic of Korea. email: jhsong@tu.ac.kr

as the sliding mode controller. Kazemi et al. designed a wheel angular acceleration feedback controller [3] and Drakunov et al. formulated ABS control methods by estimating the optimal friction force [4]. These methods do not require any prior knowledge of the optimal wheel slip ratio. Thus, several studies have obtained satisfactory results for longitudinal manoeuvres during braking. However, satisfactory performance is not obtained for lateral motion, indicating that more extensive research is required to guarantee vehicle stability. Bang et al. developed a yaw controller that controls the yawing motion by generating additional braking pressure on the outer front wheel when the vehicle is in a turning manoeuvre [5]. Ikushima and Sawase proposed a brake torque distribution controller to enhance lateral motion [6]. However, these control strategies can negatively aﬀect the driveability and steerability of the vehicle, especially on slippery roads. The present study proposes a new yaw motion controller (YMC) that controls the steering angle of the rear wheels to improve lateral stability of a

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. Automobile Engineering

JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007

the vehicle is never airborne and the four tyres remain in contact with the ground at all times. Heungseob Kim. and Kwangsuck Boo vehicle. the roll axis has an angle of 0. the YMC system proposed in this study is diﬀerent from a 4WS system. 1). the dynamics of the vehicle must be deﬁned by describing how the vehicle responds to given force inputs [1. IMechE Vol.778 Jeonghoon Song. Automobile Engineering JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 .43 degrees relative to the x axis [2]. for example. ice. 1 Overall vehicle system dynamic model Proc.. 2]. the CoG of the Ford Taurus with a driver plus measuring instrumentation is only 17. A typical 4WS system is developed to improve handling performance and calculates the steer angle of the rear wheels by using the vehicle velocity and the steer angle of the front wheels. The current research has three aims: to develop a model that can be used to predict vehicle dynamics for steering and braking manoeuvres. ation (Fig. a Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE) standard coordinate system is used. and so on are taken into consider- Fig.5 mm to the left of centre. so that the roll and longitudinal axes are essentially the same. in which the positive x axis points 2 VEHICLE DYNAMIC MODEL In general. Thus YMC eliminates unnecessary steering input and the unfamiliar handling feeling of 4WS. In order to develop such a model. suspension. this has been developed to improve the lateral stability and controls the steering angle based on the reference yaw rate. and thus there are no vertical wheel motions. The next assumption is that the angle of the roll axis relative to the horizontal is negligible. and to investigate the dynamic characteristics of YMC vehicles using a mathematical model and a control algorithm.2 Equations of motion When modelling a vehicle. 8]. road conditions. chassis. However. modelling a vehicle requires that the eﬀects of the powertrain. In this study. Various electronic stability program (ESP) or vehicle dynamic control (VDC) systems have been proposed. Thus the rear wheels are steered always when front wheel steering input is applied and the vehicle runs regardless of the driving conditions. 2. but they are brake torque control systems. to propose control strategies to obtain higher longitudinal and lateral stabilities. 221 Part D: J. This is also a reasonable assumption. Under this assumption. tyres. In the case of YMC. 2. regardless of whether it is fully or partly covered by asphalt. The other assumption made in this study is that the centre of gravity (CoG) is located laterally at the centre of the vehicle. This is because the moments of inertia of the vehicle are constant with respect to such a coordinate frame. In the Ford Taurus. One of the most important assumptions made in this study is that the vehicle is travelling on a smooth road. According to reference [2]. etc. This is a reasonable assumption for the majority of vehicles. it is convenient to use a reference coordinate frame attached to and moving with the vehicle. Such systems are easy to combine with ABSs and traction control systems (TCSs) to improve their performance. Recent developments and research show that four-wheel steering (4WS) systems can eﬀectively improve the handling behaviour of vehicles [7.1 Modelling assumptions The modelling assumptions will be clearly deﬁned before generating the equations of motion for the vehicle.

0013 m2 0. These are dominated by the tyre forces. normal load.2 0. The forces generated at each wheel are calculated as FX =(F −F ) cos d −F sin d i xi ni i yi i FY =(F −F ) sin d −F cos d i yi ni i xi i (3) (4) Here. 2.0 N/rad 70. which depend on the longitudinal slip.1 b t r R b K r I z h cg m s m ur C ar K p K d 1. and B and K are the roll roll roll damping and roll stiﬀness constants.203 m 1.0 kg m2 0. and so on [1].2. Automobile Engineering JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 . 2. Figure 2 deﬁnes the axis system and necessary degrees of freedom to accommodate Fig.5 m 60 kg 20 000. and lateral acceleration motions. and Table 1 shows the vehicle and controller design parameters. 221 Part D: J. and 4 in equations (1) and (2) represent the front left.0 N/rad 1627.1 where a and b are the distance from CoG to the front wheel and rear wheel.3 m 19 980. and the positive z axis points down [9]. and the ﬁnal term is the aerodynamic yawing moment. the second four terms represent the tyre aligning moments. IMechE Vol.5 m 1160. d is a steering angle of the wheel. respectively. 2) C=I d2c t t =aFY + f FX +aFY − f FX −bFY z dt2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 t t + r FX −bFY − r FX +M +M +M 3 4 2 4 zlf zrf zlr 2 +M +M zrr zw Fig. and pitching motions of the vehicle.0 N/rad 0.Enhancing vehicle lateral stability 779 forward. 1. Lateral dynamics involves the yawing. The movement of a vehicle in the longitudinal and lateral directions when steering and braking maoneuvres are performed is described by m 4 (v −v c)= ∑ FX −F cos b ˙ ˙ total x y i D a i=1 (1) m 4 (v +v c)= ∑ FY −F sin b ˙ ˙ total y x i D a i=1 (2) where F is the drag force which opposes the vehicle. rolling.0 kg 60 kg 20 000.2 Yawing movement If I is the moment of inertia of the entire vehicle z referenced about the z axis then. Positive rotations are determined by the right-hand rule for these axes.217 m 1. longitudinal acceleration. the positive y axis points to the right. and rear right wheels. front right. 2 Vehicle model (5) Table 1 Vehicle and controller design parameters a t f R w K f I roll h s h. longitudinal aerodynamic drag. rear left.5 m 0.2.h f r m uf C af A w K i 1.33 m 0. the total torque C acting on the vehicle in the yawing plane about the z axis is calculated as (see Fig.33 m 0.1 Longitudinal and lateral dynamics Longitudinal dynamics involves the speed.3 Rolling movement I denotes the moment of inertia of the vehicle roll about its roll axis. z 2. 2. the lateral slip angle.16 m 25 020.9 kg m2 0. respectively Proc. F is a rolling n resistance force that is calculated from the friction coeﬃcient m and normal force F of each wheel. 3.2. The ﬁrst eight terms are the inﬂuence of the tyre forces. camber angle. and t and t are the front and f r rear wheel distances. D The values of i=1.0 N/rad 489.

and h and h are the height of front f r and rear unsprung mass CoGs. Q B 1 = (B t2 +B t2 ) r r roll 2 f f (6) (7) The total normal forces acting on the front and left tyres are F =F +F +F −0. and Kwangsuck Boo (see Fig. while K and K are the vehicle f r front and rear spring rates. F ). m and m are uf ur front and rear unsprung masses. Heungseob Kim. The normal forces acting on both the front and rear tyres have two components: the longitudinal or lateral weight transfer owing to braking or acceleration or steering.5F +0. The tyre slip angle is the angle between the intended direction of motion of the tyre and the direction of travel at the centre of the tyre contact [12]. respectively.5F z1 rf sf uf bf mf khm m bh a =(a cos Q+g sin Q) f s s + s f y y k +k t (a+b) f r f h 1 a +m a f − (m h +m h +m h ) x uf y t s cg ur r a+b 2 uf f f b 1 g (9) + m total a+b 2 where a and a are acceleration in the x and y x y directions. F ).2. For a small roll angle. The longiuf ur tudinal weight transfer owing to braking at the front and rear tyres is considered through the F and F bf br terms. the slip angle s is deﬁned as s =d −f (13) i i i The direction angle of each tyre f is represented in reference [11]. 3 Vehicle mass distribution and roll axis Proc. mf mr 2.2. mf mr Fig. The longitudinal and lateral forces are calculated using the Dugoﬀ model [13]. m is the total total vehicle mass. The equations that model the normal forces acting at the front and rear tyres are developed in a quasistatic manner in this study.4 Vertical dynamics The normal load present at each tyre is dependent on the stiﬀness of the tyre and the amount of tyre deﬂection when weight is applied.5 Tyre model The forces acting on each tyre are analysed to develop equations for modelling the tyre forces. 2. and a component owing to the static distribution of the masses [10]. The model also includes the normal force acting on each tyre owing to the static distribution of the masses (F .780 Jeonghoon Song. k (=K t2/2) and k (=K t2 /2) are the front f f f r r r and rear roll stiﬀness coeﬃcients.6 Wheel dynamics model From Newton’s Second Law.5F (10) z2 rf sf uf bf mf F =F +F +F −0. F ). F ). respectively. 3). and sf sr owing to the unsprung weight (F .5F +0. 2. using Fig.5F +0. Then. rf rr owing to the height of the roll centre (F . [10] and Maallej et al. Similarly.5F (12) z4 rr sr ur br mr These equations neglect contributions from the aerodynamic lift and drag. 3 I Q +B Q +K Q ¨ ˙ roll roll roll =m gh sin Q−m (y +xc)h cos Q (8) ¨ ˙˙ s s s s where m is the sprung mass and h is the distance s s from sprung mass CoG to roll axis. Automobile Engineering I v =−KP A R −F R −T ˙ vi i bi w b xi w rolli (14) JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 .2. IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. [14]. which is analysed in detail by Song et al. From this point of view. The lift and drag terms contribute to a negligible load shift that is less than 5 per cent of either F or F [11]. rotational equations of motion for the wheels that consider the rolling resistance can be written as 1 K = (K t2 +K t2 ) r r roll 2 f f where B and B are the damping of the vehicle front f r and rear.5F +0. The lateral weight transfers are modelled using three components: the lateral weight transfer owing to body roll (F . the total forces acting on the other tyres are F =−F −F −F −0.5F (11) z3 rr sr ur br mr F =−F −F −F −0. The lateral and longitudinal forces acting on each tyre are determined from the normal forces acting on each wheel and the tyre slip angles.

c and c are the front and rear tyre af ar cornering stiﬀnesses.Enhancing vehicle lateral stability 781 where I is the rotating inertia of a wheel. The derivative of the sliding r di si surface is calculated from equation (17) R ˙ ˙ S =−l = w [−(K u+t +t )v −va ] si v2 i x r x x x (19) ˆ The best approximation u of a continuous control law is u= ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ [−(t +t )v −va ] x r x x v K x i (20) In order to satisfy a sliding condition that maintains a zero value for the scalar S. equation (21) can be rewritten as follows R ˙ ˆ ˆ S×S =S× w [(t +t −t −t )v x r x r x v2 x −v (t* +t* +g) sgn(S)] x x r (23) Proc.1 Sliding mode ABS controller The stopping distance is supposed to decrease as the braking torque increases. The estimation error for t ˆ ˆ x r x and t is assumed to be bounded by known values r of t* and t* . In the present study. The dynamics of t i bi x and t are not known exactly. the vehicle manoeuvres better and the delay in path tracking is reduced by turning the rear wheel steering angle in the opposite direction to the front wheels. it does not consider the eﬀects of the yaw rate. However.2. l . x r In order that the slip of the braking system. t =T /I . Therefore. However. l . and T is the w rolli wheel torque owing to resistance. At low speeds. the most common rear wheel steering law involves turning the front and rear wheels in opposite directions at low speeds and in the same direction at high speeds. 1 d ˙ S2=S×S ∏−g|S| 2 dt If it is deﬁned that t* +t* +g r sgn(S) u= x : K i (22) (gÁ0) (21) 3 CONTROLLER DESIGN 3. Siahkalroudi and Naraghi proposed a new algorithm to control the steering angle of the rear wheels [8] d= r ac −bc +m v2 c af ar total x c − af d ˙ v c c f x ar ar (16) distance can also increase with increased braking torque if the wheel slides [3]. A is the area of the master cylinder. The eﬀect of this force is considered as a rolling resistance torque in the wheel equation. w R is the distance from the centre of the wheel to the b brake path. IMechE Vol. Sano and Furukawa determined the steering angle of the rear wheels from [7] −b+{m a/[c (a+b)]}v2 d total ar r= (15) d a+{m b/[c (a+b)]}v2 f total af where d and d are the steering angles of the front f r and rear wheels. and could be counterproductive in certain manoeuvres. Therefore. but they can be r estimated as t and t . and its direction is against the rotation of the tyre [3]. This simple scheme reduces the lateral acceleration gain and the lateral acceleration response time at high speeds. t =F R /I . The rolling resistance force exists during rotation. vehicle stability improves and passengers tend to feel more relaxed when the steering angles of all of the wheels are in the same direction. 8]. and v is the velocity of the CoG. Automobile Engineering . a sliding mode controller is introduced to control the minimum stopping distance. a controller that maintains a suitable braking torque is required to ensure that the stopping distance is as short as possible. Therefore. From equation (14) 1 v =− (KP A R +F R +T ) ˙ i bi w b xi w rolli I wi =−(K u+t +t ) i z r (17) where K =KA R /I . si tracks the desired slip ratio. the stopping JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 ˆ : then since u=u +u. 221 Part D: J. 2. and improves vehicle manoeuvrability at low speeds. R is the wheel radius.7 Four-wheel steering input Steering using both the front and rear wheels can signiﬁcantly improve the manoeuvrability of a vehicle. Recent developments and research show that 4WS systems can eﬀectively improve the handling behaviour of vehicles [7. The last term is attributed to the rolling resistance. v is the v wheel speed. the sliding surface is di deﬁned as S= A n−1 d l +l r dt B (18) where l =l −l . i w b wi z xi w wi r rolli wi and the control input u =P . At high speeds.

and lateral acceleration. 4 gives a saw tooth steering input for a vehicle travelling at 20 m/s. yaw rate. However. Once sliding. the wheel locked and the vehicle began to slip at 2. It does not use a shaft from the front steering gear to the rear steering gear or any hydraulic system. Automobile Engineering 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5. which includes suﬃcient data to drive the simulations and gives experimental vehicle responses [11]. Thus. respectively. This technique has been used in torque and braking force distribution control.5 s is reduced by 34 per cent when the proposed ABS controller is employed. d . thereby causing the vehicle to spin. 4 reveal the response of the vehicle displacement. When a vehicle without an ABS controller manoeuvres on an icy road and a braking torque of 200 N m is applied. This condition is similar to a vehicle that is performing a double lane change manoeuvre to avoid traﬃc congestion. that minimizes the yaw rate error r (e=c −c) between the desired and measured yaw ˙ ˙ ref rates is calculated by a digital PID controller.0 s. This ﬁgure indicates that the vehicle displacement between 0 and 4. The diﬀerences between the simulated and referenced results arise from the model algorithm and the amount of braking torque applied during the steering manoeuvre. the deceleration of the vehicle decreases and the stopping distance increases. An electronic control unit (ECU) system sends control signals to a motor which is connected to the rear steering gear. IMechE Vol. 5. G C A B DH 4 MODEL VALIDATION – DOUBLE LANE CHANGE In order to validate the vehicle model. 221 Part D: J. The reference yaw rate is [6] v d f c = ˙ ref 1+Kv2 a+b where K is ac m −bc m m af f ar r total (26) (c m )(c m ) a+b af f ar r and m and m are the friction coeﬃcients of the f r front and rear wheels. in order to enhance the lateral stability. the present study proposes a new yawing motion controller that controls the steering angle of the rear wheels. for which K= d (k)=d (k−1)+(K +K +K )e(k) r r p i d −(K +2K )e(k−1)+K e(k−2) p d d Proc. respectively. However. respectively. which calculates a reference yaw rate for improved stability.1 Wheel slip controller Figures 5 and 6 show a braking manoeuvre during longitudinal driving with an initial speed of 30 m/s (108 km/h) on dry asphalt and on an icy road. the control input u is obtained as follows u= 1 ˆ ˆ −(t +t )v x r x v K x i 1 4 ∑ FX −F cos b +v c −v ˙ i D y m total i=1 t* +t* +g r + x sgn(S) (24) K i where K . 5. These problems make it diﬃcult for the driver to maintain safe control of the vehicle [5]. 3. p i d and derivative gains. There is one control theory that explores the use of a yaw rate feedback control. Thus. simulation results are compared with those of Smith and Starkey. many researchers have proposed yaw motion controllers. The friction coeﬃcient m is obtained from a look-up table that gives a slip ratio versus friction coeﬃcient proﬁle. as shown in Fig. The other plots of Fig. Heungseob Kim. and Kwangsuck Boo which satisﬁes the sliding condition of equation (21). The upper left plot shown in Fig. The rear wheel steering angle. which include the fact that they do not produce the yaw rate required for turning. as shown in the ﬁgure. The data used for the model are listed in reference [11]. they have several problems. The performances of these controllers are evaluated in this section. However.782 Jeonghoon Song.1. K . based upon this comparison. and K are the proportional. the model appears to be suﬃciently valid for the manoeuvres considered in this study. It can be implemented like a steer-by-wire system. 6.2 Proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller for rear wheel steering Wheel slip controllers were originally developed to prevent the vehicle from losing longitudinal stability while braking. The displacement and deceleration results with the sliding mode controller for dry asphalt and a braking torque of 400 N m are given in Fig. integral.1 Controller evaluation The current study proposes a wheel slip controller and a yaw motion controller. JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 (25) (27) .

IMechE Vol. 221 Part D: J. The yaw motion controller proposed in the present study aims to enhance the lateral stability JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 of a vehicle. 7 is applied to a vehicle and the responses are examined.1.2 Yaw motion controller A properly implemented 4WS system can result in a vehicle that is more manoeuvrable at low speeds. 4 Model validation with referenced results Fig. 6 Performance of the sliding mode wheel slip controller (icy road) 5. Proc. only the high-speed manoeuvre is described.Enhancing vehicle lateral stability 783 Fig. thus. Automobile Engineering . A braking input is not applied in this simulation. 5 Performance of the sliding mode wheel slip controller (dry asphalt) Fig. and more responsive and stable in high-speed transient manoeuvres. the steering input given in Fig. and the initial speed is 30 m/s. In order to evaluate the yaw motion controller.

221 Part D: J. the yaw rate ﬂuctuates. Fig. 7. Heungseob Kim. regardless of the road conditions. However. If the rear wheels have insuﬃcient lateral force. which indicates that its controllability is the worst. and slip angle provide further proof of oversteer. except for the road conditions. as the slip angle is deﬁned as the angle between the direction that the wheel travels and the direction of the wheel heading [12]. which is not a desirable result. suggesting that oversteer occurred. and trajectories of the simulated vehicle. Figure 10 shows the responses and trajectories of a vehicle when braking and steering inputs are applied on a slippery road. The vehicle runs on dry asphalt and the initial speed is 30 m/s. The 2WS vehicle without an ABS has the largest turning radius. These situations are more critical when a vehicle is running on a slippery road. lateral accelerations. If this happens at the front wheels. and so on [7. The initial conditions and inputs are the same as those used previously.784 Jeonghoon Song. 7 Front wheel steering and brake torque input Figures 8(a) and (b) show the reference yaw rate calculated using equation (25) and the controlled yaw rate for a vehicle on dry asphalt and on an icy road. which indicates the highest level of controllability.2 Braking and cornering – high velocity on a dry asphalt road The response of the vehicle and performance of the controllers during a transient cornering manoeuvre are examined in this section. and Kwangsuck Boo Fig.3 Braking and cornering – high velocity on an icy road Braking while steering is a very common evasive manoeuvre. lateral acceleration. slip angles. Automobile Engineering JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 . they slide outward and the vehicle turns into the corner and oversteers [7]. 8 Performance of the PID yaw rate controller on (a) dry asphalt and (b) icy road Proc. When a 2WS vehicle runs on an icy road. The YMC vehicle. but the trajectory and the actual direction that the vehicle is heading diﬀered slightly. The largest turning radius induces the smallest slip angle. the vehicle understeers. The trajectory of the 2WS vehicle with an ABS shows the smallest turning radius. which is represented as 4WS with ABS and with PID has the smallest slip angle. IMechE Vol. 12]. The large yaw rate. The results for the 2WS vehicle without a wheel slip controller show that it is nearly impossible to steer. When a two-wheel steering (2WS) vehicle is on dry asphalt. depending on the road conditions. as illustrated in Fig. and the stability and driveability of the vehicle deteriorate. vehicle design parameters. respectively. 8(b). 5. and the turning radius increases. The braking and steering input supplied to the numerical model are given in Fig. The yaw rate produced by the rear wheel controller follows the reference yaw rate very well. Figure 9 shows the yaw rates. generated yaw rate is insuﬃcient to produce suﬃcient lateral force. it generates a suﬃcient yaw rate to change direction. Acceleration or braking during cornering can reduce the available lateral forces at the tyres. as indicated by the trajectories. The small yaw rate and lateral acceleration cause these results. 5. This can induce oversteering or understeering.

the lateral acceleration becomes stable and the slip angle is reduced because the wheel slip is controlled. Thus. 9 Vehicle responses and trajectories during braking and cornering on dry asphalt Fig. a YMC (4WS vehicle with wheel slip and a yaw rate controller) can achieve a good Proc. On a very slippery road. the control input for a typical rear wheel controller is the steering angle of the rear wheel [8]. Automobile Engineering . According to the explanation by Siahkalroudi and Naraghi. although the ABS controller proposed in this study is not designed to control lateral motion. 10 Vehicle responses and trajectories during braking and cornering on an icy road The performances of the vehicles with and without a yaw rate controller are also depicted in Fig. 221 Part D: J. When an ABS controller is added to this system. 10. which increases the amount of oversteer. it can improve lateral motion to some degree when combined with a yaw motion controller. However.Enhancing vehicle lateral stability 785 Fig. the lateral acceleration and slip angle of the 4WS vehicle without an ABS are more aggravated. IMechE Vol. JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 Thus. The yaw rate of the 4WS vehicle follows the reference yaw rate very well. regardless of whether the vehicle is equipped with an ABS controller. it is almost impossible to control both the yaw rate and lateral acceleration of a vehicle completely.

JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 . Figure 11 shows the performance of the two controllers. P. B. a conventional rear wheel controller.5 s when the vehicle is running on dry asphalt and the initial velocity is 30 m/s. Ozguner. IMechE Vol.. Control Systems Technol.. 3(1).. which is tuned for each wheel separately. 4 Drakunov. even though weak oversteering takes place. D. the YMC increases the stability and driveability. Proc. which indicates improved stability and controllability of the lateral motion. and Ashraﬁ. because of the load transfer from the rear to the front tyres during braking [6. Hamedi. The model was suﬃcient to predict accurately the vehicle response. T. Dix. A new sliding mode controller for four wheel anti-lock brake system (ABS). it can enhance the vehicle’s response. 11 Responses and trajectory comparison when the rear wheel steering angle is controlled using diﬀerent methods response. D. it also reduces the slip angle and turning radius when a vehicle with an ABS controller is running on an icy road. 79–85. 2000. 12]. 2 Demerly. R. R. ABS control using optimum search via sliding modes. J. The controller also prevents the wheels from locking if the vehicle is on a slippery road when a sudden braking torque is applied. Automobile Engineering 1 Allen. 3 Kazemi. When the vehicle performs a turning manoeuvre on dry asphalt. The YMC exhibits faster and larger lateral acceleration. A rear wheel steer system using a PID control scheme was also designed to control the yawing motion and thereby improve vehicle stability.. and Javadi. The yaw rate of a YMC vehicle follows the reference yaw rate very well. K. The numerical model was validated by comparing the results with a known reference. The 4WS vehicle with a conventional rear wheel controller shows a smaller yaw rate and slip angle. Requirements for vehicle dynamics simulation models. 2000.786 Jeonghoon Song. 1995. 1994. is employed in the proposed vehicle model and the vehicle response is analysed. J. REFERENCES 6 CONCLUSIONS A full car dynamic model has been developed in this study.. Heungseob Kim. The ABS controller reduces the deceleration distance by about 34 per cent between 0 and 4. The applied hydraulic pressure at each wheel is controlled based on the desired slip. The larger lateral acceleration causes larger slip angles but reduces the turning radius. 221 Part D: J. S. SAE paper 2000-01-1621. and Kwangsuck Boo Fig. In order to validate the YMC in detail.. and Rosenthal. SAE paper 2000-01-1639. A new sliding mode controller for an ABS braking system that is designed to reduce the stopping distance while maintaining the steerability of a vehicle has been presented. IEEE Trans. and Youcef-Toumi. W. The model has 15 degrees of freedom. Although the yaw motion controller does not allow the vehicle to achieve a perfect level of performance by reducing the slip angle. represented by equation (16). Non-linear analysis of vehicle dynamics (NAVDyn): A reduced order model for vehicle handling analysis. B. SAE paper 940175. U.

8 Siahkalroudi. 2002. C. APPENDIX Notation a b B roll F D F n F x F y F z h s I roll I wi I z K roll P w R b R w t f t r T rolli b c C d l di m Q distance from CoG to the front wheel distance from CoG to the rear wheel roll axis torsional damping drag force rolling resistant force longitudinal force lateral force normal force distance from sprung mass CoG to roll axis vehicle moment of inertia around roll axis rotating inertia of a wheel vehicle moment of inertial around z axis roll axis torsional stiﬀness brake ﬂuid pressure distance from centre of wheel to brake path wheel radius front wheel distance rear wheel distance wheel torque owing to resistance side slip angle yaw angle torque steering angle desired slip ratio friction coeﬃcient roll angle JAUTO225 © IMechE 2007 Proc. 12 Wong. Trans. K. J. Fancher. Y. Experimental development of tyre force and moment models. Eﬀects of model complexity on the performance of automated vehicle steering controllers. D. M. and Furukawa. K. M. J. 455–468. Engrs A. 1989. 7 Sano.. 221 Part D: J.. E. Veh. Y. 1995. Des. An analysis of tyre traction properties and their inﬂuence on vehicle dynamic performance. 1978. and Segel.. P. SAE paper 2002-01-1590. Vehicle System Dynamics. 1970. L. IMechE Vol. J. A. and Ellis. D. Performance enhancement of a sliding mode wheel slip controller by the yaw moment control. 2001. and Naraghi. Boo. 6 Ikushima. and Starkey. S. Automobile Engineering. Part D: J. J.. H. 11 Smith. S. SAE paper 700377. S. D. 24. 14 Maallej. Warrendale. Int. 2003. 1995. J. N. V. Guenther. B. Mech. A study on the eﬀects of the active yaw moment control. Han.. Lee.. SAE paper 860625... Y. 215. SAE paper 950303. PA). H. 1492–1498. and Hedrick. model development. Instn Mech. A study on the performances of hybrid type electric brake system (in Korean). SAE J670e (Society of Automobile Engineers. Machiuca. 3rd edition. 34–51. S. 27(9). M. Four wheel steering system with rear wheel steering angle controlled as a function of steering wheel angle. validation and comparison. R. Chichester). S. A. 10(1). and Sawase. 2001 (Wiley. Proc. Theory of ground vehicles. 163–181.Enhancing vehicle lateral stability 787 5 Bang. 1986. Engrs. 9 Vehicle dynamics terminology. Korean Soc. Model reference tracking control of a 4WS vehicle using single and dual steering strategies. Automobile Engineering . Y.. K.. C.. J. 10 Song. 13 Dugoﬀ. and Lim.

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