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Flemish government

Department of Economy,
EWI- 2008
Budget Browser
Science and Innovation
Koning Albert II-laan 35 bus 10
1030 Brussels
info@ewi.vlaanderen.be
www.ewi-vlaanderen.be
Combining Economy, Science and Innovation
for a better society
Foreword
“Science is organised knowledge” – this is an oft-quoted statement by the 19th-century British philosopher
Herbert Spencer, which applies today more than ever before.

In the so-called knowledge economy, a society in which science and economics are inextricably bound up
with each other, we have to measure and monitor the extent to which the government makes efforts to
stimulate science and innovation.

As Minister for Economy, Enterprise, Science, Innovation and Foreign Trade, it is not only my job to strength-
en the knowledge economy, but also to provide transparent reporting on my policy. I am delighted to have an
instrument like the EWI (Economy, Science and Innovation) Budget Browser at my disposal to do this.

The second edition of the EWI-Budget Browser offers you a complete overview of the funds that have
been provided by the Flemish government in 2008 within the Economy, Science and Innovation policy
area. The EWI-Budget Browser provides a transparent overview of these funds and explains each fund with
which the Flemish government gives shape to the policy.

The Flemish science policy is a horizontal one. This means that each policy area within the Flemish govern-
ment releases the requisite funds for undertaking scientific research.
For 2008, a total science budget of 1.682 billion EUR was provided, of which 1.051 billion was research
funding. Within the EWI policy area, 722 million EUR was allocated to funds for the science policy in the
initial budget, of which 692 million was R&D funding. This year, a further 75 million EUR has been provid-
ed as a stimulus for strengthening the research environment via initiatives such as Hercules, Methusalem,
the BOF (Special Research Fund) and the plan of action for careers in research.

Strengthened collaboration between industry and knowledge institutes, including through augmenting the
Industrial Research Fund, the launch of the Baekeland Programme for intersectoral mobility and increas-
ing the involvement of industry in the IOF (Industrial Research Fund) and SBO (Strategic Basic Research)
programmes are just a few examples of other major projects that are being financed in 2008.

The EWI-Budget Browser analyses the cash flows, places them in a period of time from 1993 to the present day
and positions Flanders internationally in the field of government expenditure on R&D and the intensity of R&D.
Innovation also goes hand in hand with entrepreneurship. A new “Entrepreneurship” call and the establish-
ment of an entrepreneurship cornerstone in the new EFRD programme will strengthen the competitive
position of Flemish entrepreneurs abroad.

As I indicated in the 2008 policy letter, I want to contribute towards giving Flanders a leading position
through the aforementioned stimuli, both in Europe and in the world economy, so as to secure the prosperity
of present and future generations. The Economy, Science and Innovation policy area plays a central role in
this.

The 2008 EWI-Budget Browser will contribute to a better understanding of the science policy in Flanders.
I wish you illuminating reading!

Patricia Ceysens
Flemish Minister for Economy, Enterprise, Science, Innovation and Foreign Trade

FOREWORD 1
2
Contents
FOREWORD 1

CONTENTS 3

INTRODUCTION 5

PART 1 EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 7

Chapter 1.1 Economic Support Policy 8


Chapter 1.2 Policy Support and Academic Policy 12
Chapter 1.3 Valorisation and Industrial Policy 15
Chapter 1.4 Awareness-Raising and Society 17
Chapter 1.5 General Policy 19
Chapter 1.6 PMV, VPM and LRM 21

PART 2 SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 23

Chapter 2.1 ‘Actual science policy’ 27


2.1.1. EWI Science policy 27
2.1.2. ‘Actual science policy’ in the Education and Training policy area 29
2.1.3. ‘Actual science policy’ 2008 compared to 2007 30
Chapter 2.2 Science policy in the other policy areas 31
Chapter 2.3 Analysis of the Horizontal Budget Programme for Science Policy (HBPWB) 33
2.3.1. Period of Time 33
2.3.2. According to policy area 34
2.3.3. According to NABS classification 36
2.3.4. According to the six major categories 38

Chapter 2.4 Expenditure analysis of the Science and Innovation Policy 45

PART 3 R&D GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR FLANDERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 47

Chapter 3.1 International comparison of the government’s expenditure on R&D (GBAORD) 48


Chapter 3.2 The R&D intensity in Flanders 51

CONTRIBUTORS 54

USED ABBREVIATIONS 54

COLOPHON 56

CONTENTS 3
4
Introduction
In the first part, the 2008 EWI-Budget Browser deals with the budget funds in the Economy, Science and
Innovation (EWI) policy area with regard to the content of the new budget programmes: the economic
support policy, policy support and academic policy, valorisation and industrial policy and, finally, the general
policy.

The second part gives an overview of the Flemish government’s science and innovation policy. Then
the ‘actual science policy’ is discussed (from the policy areas of EWI and Education and Training – OV),
followed by the science policy in the other policy areas. Thereafter follows an analysis of the Horizon-
tal Science Policy Budget Programme (HBPWB) and finally, an expenditure analysis of the science funds
allocated by the Flemish government.

The third part explains the funds for research and development (R&D) in more detail. In order to indicate
the international position of Flanders, the Flemish government’s expenditure on R&D is compared here
with other countries.

The initial 2008 budget funds are referred to in this publication – in accordance with the decree of 21
December 2007 concerning the general budget expenditure of the Flemish Community for the 2008
budget year. For the time periods we always used the definitive funds for the previous years (2007 and
earlier) – after the budget controls and any credit rescheduling. The budget programmes also mention the
fund specifically provided for science policy, in addition to the fund recorded in the budget.

Under the Flemish government’s modernisation project, Better Administrative Policy (Beter Bestuurlijk
beleid – BBB), the budget changed over to a structure with thirteen policy areas in 2008. The basic alloca-
tions are categorised according to general and area-specific budget programmes as regards content. In
spite of these changes, it is still possible in most cases to make relevant comparisons with 2007. Since all 13
policy areas were initiated in 2007, the 2007 EWI-Budget Browser was already set up in accordance with
the new structure.

Not all the funds that give shape to the economic and science and innovation policy in 2008 are discussed
in this publication. The EWI-Budget Browser is covered in greater depth on the website www.speurgids.be.
There you will find a textual explanation and you can search specifically for a particular policy initiative; in
other words – you can look up information yourself quickly and accurately. In addition, it will be possible to
carry out more detailed analyses, time periods and so on via the website in the future.

Finally, thanks are due to everyone for his or her contribution to the 2008 EWI-Budget Browser. Because of
their constructive work, we have once more succeeded in grouping together and making available all the
information relating to the economic and science and innovation policy.

INTRODUCTION 5
6
EWI: co-operation between
economy, science
and innovation

Part 1
The budget structure underwent a radical change on January 1st, grammes from the Economic policy of the former EWBL department.
2008 as a result of the Flemish government’s major modernisation The science and innovation policy was until last year covered in pro-
project: Better Administrative Policy (BBB). grammes for the general science policy (71.1), scientific research at
the initiative of the scientist (71.2), scientific research for economic
The structure with 13 policy areas had already been begun earlier – purposes (71.3) and strategic and policy-oriented research (71.4).
they now each consist of a core department, IVAs and EVAs (Internal
and External Independent Agencies) and a strategic advisory com- From 2008 onwards, the following will be the content of the budget
mittee. The 2007 Budget Browser already applied the BBB structure programmes of the EWI policy area: Economic Support Policy (ED),
– so, from 2008 onwards it can also be seen concretely in the Flemish Policy Support and Academic Policy (EE), Valorisation and Industrial
budget. From a technical point of view, this means that all the funds Policy (EF), Awareness-raising and Society (EG) and General Policy
have been brought under the new policy areas and the relevant (EC). These programmes comprise both the resources for financing
budget programmes. In this respect, all the policy areas, programmes the economic policy and those for the science and innovation policy.
and the entities that manage the fund are given their own letter code. They are concisely explained below; of course, particular attention is
paid here to the new initiatives.
The new budget structure is also giving rise to a thorough reshuf-
fle of the funds managed by the Economy, Science and Innovation There is an indication in table form of whether it concerns funds
(EWI) policy area. Up until 2007, it was a matter for the General for science policy or not. The science policy itself will be specifically
Economic Policy (51.1) and Economic Support Policy (51.2) pro- discussed and analysed in parts 2 and 3.

Chapter 1.1.

Economic Support Policy


The resources for the economic support policy are combined under The ‘subsidies for the promotion of entrepreneurship’ (in 2007: BA
one fund – namely, the Fund for Subsidiary Economic Policy: the 51.2 33.06) and the ‘subsidies to support enterprise plan competi-
so-called Hermes Fund. In 2008 there is 290.051 million EUR on tions’ (in 2007: BA 51.2 33.09) were transferred to the Hermes Fund
the allocation authorisation in the budget. The other resources, of during the course of 2007 and will remain a part thereof in 2008 –
which the BAs (Basic Allocations) were still part of the 51.2 pro- see table 2.
gramme (economic support policy) in 2007, will be in other budget
programmes or in the resources for the Hermes Fund from 2008 Table 1 shows the total budget, together with that part of it which is
onwards. The ‘Sustainable Enterprise Study’ (now EC1222B) and earmarked for the science policy. This is discussed further in Part 2.
the ‘subsidies to the Policy Research Centre for Entrepreneurship
and International Entrepreneurship’ (now EC3301B) are part of the Figure 1 compares the 2008 funds with the definitive funds in 2007.
General Policy Programme EC (see further, Chapter 1.5). The ‘sub- In 2007 the fund, after budget control, amounted to 284.683 million
sidies for projects to assist and finance flexible mechanisms’ (now EUR. The closure of pending cases from previous years, in the form
EC5001B), is now included in the EC Awareness-raising and Society of credit realignment, increased this fund by an additional 24.061
programme, discussed in Chapter 1.4. million to 308.744 million EUR.

Table 1. 2008 Economic Support Policy programme (funds in million EUR)

BA Budget Fund Compared to 2007 Description SP fund

Allocation authorisation for the Fund for Subsidiary Economic


ED9911B 290.051 – 18.693 30.000
Policy (Hermes fund)
TOTAL 290.051 – 18.693 30.000

8 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


Figure 1. ED Programme, Economic Support Policy, science policy Fund for Subsidiary Economic Policy
and economic policy funds, 2007 and 2008 (million EUR) (Hermes fund)

Policy instruments
In the 2008 budget there is a fund of 290.051 million EUR on
the allocation authorisation. The Economy Agency manages all
the resources of the Hermes Fund, and its mission is to support,
strengthen and stimulate business enterprises in Flanders sustainably.
It implements those programmes of an economic nature which the
Flemish government approves.

Of this sum, 30 million EUR also serves for innovation initiatives in


2008. This is for R&D investments. Therefore this initiative forms
part of the science policy – see also further in Part 2.

Its policy instruments are described in table 2, with the relevant 2008
funds and categorised by strategic objective of the programme.

SP: science policy; EP: economic policy

Table 2. Policy instruments and funds in the Hermes Fund for 2008 (million EUR)

Description Funds for 2008

Supporting the competitiveness of business enterprises


Investment support for SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) in application of the decree
47.575
concerning the economic support policy of 31 Jan 2003
Ecology support in application of the decree concerning the economic support policy 107.585
Investment support for large companies in application of the decree concerning the economic support
30.000
policy
Interest supplements as a result of problems caused by public works 5.000
Ecology support for particulate filters 7.000
The promotion of entrepreneurship
Initiatives to promote entrepreneurship in education 2.500
Entrepreneurship portfolio 42.900
Sponsorship projects 3.000
Initiatives for promoting entrepreneurship 4.700
Subsidies to support enterprise plan competitions 0.600
Facilitating environmental factors
Government commissions in relation to the continuation of policy-oriented research and working out
0.500
policy initiatives
Industry-Friendly Municipality project 0.800
GIS contracts 0.075
Projects relating to locally-oriented partnerships and/or the Flemish environmental-economic policy 3.252
Expenditure for laying out business parks and for re-using industrial sites 16.000
Efficient management of the EFRD fund
EFRD 16.564
Other expenditure relating to the social, economic and regional policy of the Flemish government
Operational expenditures 2.000
TOTAL 290.051

PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 9


Figure 2 illustrates the relative share of the most important instru-
ments in the Hermes Fund.

Figure 2: Initiatives Fund for Subsidiary Economic Policy


(Hermes Fund), 2008

■ Ecology support
■ Support for SMEs
■ Entrepreneurship portfolio
■ Support for large companies
■ Business parks and industrial sites
■ EFRD
■ Other

Explanations taking out a bridging loan with a credit institution easier. This new
Supporting the competitiveness of business enterprises measure, for which 5 million EUR is provided in 2008, includes a
The objective is to develop instruments and initiatives that greatly simplified procedure without the intervention of interme-
strengthen the competitive position of business enterprises. Here, diaries. The administrative charges for the companies affected are
support is given principally to aspects that give the future of the deliberately kept as low as possible. The company itself applies for
enterprise primary consideration. The Economy Agency therefore the subsidy, and the Economy Agency supervises the basic terms
aims to contribute towards modernising the economic fabric of and conditions. The aid is paid out directly to the company at its
Flanders. request.

Investment support for SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) Ecology support for particulate filters. In 2008 a budget of 7 million
in application of the decree concerning the Economic Support EUR will be provided in ecology premiums for the installation of
Policy. Investment programmes are distributed via the competition particulate filters for lorries and the purchase of Euro V-lorries. This
formula system. The unchanged fund of 47.575 million EUR allows will be a financial stimulus for businesses that make environmental
three calls, each of 15.858 million EUR. investments in Flanders!

Ecology support in application of the decree concerning the eco- The promotion of entrepreneurship
nomic support policy. In 2008, an allocation fund of 107.585 million Healthy business enterprises first and foremost need strong
EUR has been provided: this is 15.5 million more than in 2007. entrepreneurship. The Economy Agency aims to contribute to this
end by offering advice, training and assistance. In this regard, the
In 2007, the following measures were in force: The decision of the following are considered as an integral part of ‘entrepreneurship’:
Flemish government of 16 May 2007 (‘Ecology Light’) relates to not only starting up a new business, but also stimulating what
requests for support entered between 1 August 2006 and 16 May we might call ‘intrapreneurship’: entrepreneurship within the
2007. In addition to this, there was also the approval on 16 May business. The aim here is also to take and manage measures that
2007 of the Flemish government’s decision to grant support for ecol- will really make a substantial contribution – again with the focus
ogy investments in the Flemish Region (‘Call Ecology’). on future-oriented activities. Thus, the Agency aims to contribute
to stimulating creativity among both entrepreneurs and intrapre-
Investment support for large companies in application of the neurs.
decree concerning the economic support policy. For the new
investment support for large companies, an amount of 30 million Initiatives to promote entrepreneurship in education. Aid was
EUR will be allocated as a matter of stable policy. This concerns allocated to the so-called bridging projects for the first time in
both investments in tangible assets and major strategic training and 2003, which established a link between education and industry –
education projects. but with the focus on the skills and attitudes needed for power-
ful entrepreneurship. Therefore, there are not geared so much
Interest supplements as a result of problems caused by public towards technology and infrastructure. The projects were assessed
works. Because public works often hinder access to a business, the through a competition formula: with an available budget of 2.5
Flemish government assists with the interest burden, which makes million EUR, 17 of the 50 projects entered were granted aid from

10 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


this budget. The same amount will be provided in 2008 for a Projects relating to locally-oriented partnerships and/or the Flemish
similar call. environmental-economic policy. A fund of 3.252 million EUR will
provide for subsidies to grey-water suppliers for the development of
Entrepreneurship portfolio. BEA stands for Budget for Economic grey-water circuits to protect vulnerable water-bearing strata. This
Advice: the name for the integrated subsidy measure with which also makes the top-down project operation possible in relation to the
SMEs can buy in services, with the support of the Flemish govern- environmental-economic policy.
ment, which would promote entrepreneurship. It is a question here
of training, advice, knowledge and mentorship. This measure came This project operation uses funds in order to:
to replace the former training and advice cheques, and has been • Instigate processes to re-equip outdated business/industrial parks
extended to include the principles of ‘mentorship for talented entre- • Resolve serious bottlenecks on industrial sites that are designed
preneurs’ and ‘knowledge’. SMEs may receive 35% in aid towards for the purpose, but have not been developed (bottleneck sites)
the costs taken into consideration. In 2008, 42.9 million EUR has • Support projects that stimulate the careful use of space on such
been provided for this measure. sites; examine in detail unused industrial land, negotiating teams
for unused industrial land.
Sponsorship projects. During the lifetime of an enterprise, essential
decisions often have to be taken that are decisive for the profits and Expenditure for laying out business parks and for re-using indus-
growth of the business. The experience of other entrepreneurs can trial sites. This support, for which 16 million EUR is provided in
help in this regard. For example, this can be done through sponsor- 2008, is intended for all developers of industrial sites, both public
ship projects that are based on the exchange of knowledge and and private – and also for any form of mutual collaboration. It is a
experience between businesses, with the aim of professionalizing the question here of investments needed for making individual plots on
way a business is run. The Flemish government grants subsidies to industrial land ready for building.
organisers of sponsorship projects. 3 million EUR has been provided
for this purpose in 2008. Efficient management of the EFRD fund
By decision of the Flemish government on 16 May 2007, the opera-
Initiatives for promoting entrepreneurship. Two calls were launched tional EFRD programme (European Fund for Regional Development)
in 2007 for projects to stimulate entrepreneurship, totalling 2.25 was approved for submission to the European Commission.
million EUR – one with the accent on immigrant entrepreneurship
and one with the accent on integrated financing. In addition, ad-hoc This multi-year programme covers the whole of Flanders and envis-
subsidies were also granted, such as for the Dag van de Klant (‘Cus- ages the following priorities:
tomer Day’), the Open Bedrijvendag (‘Open Business Day’) and the • Stimulating the knowledge economy and innovation
Vlaamse Startersdag (‘Flemish Starters Day’). A fund of 4.7 million • Promoting entrepreneurship
EUR has been provided for 2008. • Improving urban planning-economic environmental factors
• Promoting urban development.
Subsidies to support enterprise plan competitions. A fund of 0.6
million EUR will serve for organising enterprise plan competitions, to Submission to the European Commission implies a commitment to
stimulate entrepreneurship. co-financing the campaigns concerned by the Flemish government
– after all, the European funds are additional. Moreover, the regional
Facilitating environmental factors and local administrations have their responsibility, as do the project
Another condition for a successful economy is providing favourable promoters concerned.
environmental factors for businesses. The Economy Agency provides
support for creating various opportunities for setting up in business 16.564 million EUR is provided for this programme in 2008.
and develops instruments that contribute to the optimum factors for
doing this. This applies both to Flemish entrepreneurs themselves Other expenditure relating to the social, economic and regional
and for companies from abroad that want to invest in Flanders. The policy of the Flemish government
Agency will again be concentrating here on factors that are impor- The Economy Agency carries out all the tasks pertaining to its
tant to the future development of the economy. mission, as described in Article 3 of the aforementioned decision
by the Flemish government. This also concerns tasks entrusted to
Government commissions in relation to the continuation of policy- the Agency by decree or by the Flemish government. Moreover, it
oriented research and working out policy initiatives. 0.5 million EUR manages tasks resulting from agreements with and at the initiative
has been provided in funds for study commissions. This will serve both of the department, the other independent agencies and policy
for developing area-specific visions and setup concepts for business park areas.
search zones, and for more general environmental-economic studies.
Operational expenditures. For a number of smaller research tasks,
Industry-Friendly Municipality project. 0.8 million EUR has been such as for the management fee to PMV for the ‘win-win loan’ and
provided for supporting Campaigns with the aim of stimulating so on, an allocation fund of 2 million EUR has been provided for
enterprise-friendly local policy in 2008. 2008.

PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 11


Chapter 1.2.

Policy Support and


Academic Policy
The expenditure from the EE, Policy Support and Academic Policy Part of the funds from the EE programme for the economic policy con-
budget programme amounts to 329.559 million EUR. Of this, cern the grant to the Socio-Economic Council of Flanders (BA EE4107B:
322.665 million EUR is for the science policy. 6.894 million EUR). SERV is the consultative and advisory body of the
Flemish social partners. They specify their joint viewpoint and formulate
The strategic objectives of the programme are: recommendations and opinions. More info on www.serv.be.
1. To strengthen general knowledge-expanding fundamental
research Structurally (thus not taking the indexing of funds into account),
2. To strengthen the strategic basic research that generates knowl- there is an increase to science funds within this programme of
edge useful to industry, the non-profit sector and the government. 44.125 million EUR.

Figure 3 compares the 2008 funds with those of 2007. The total The ‘human capital for science, technology and innovation’ ac-
fund in 2007 amounted to 283.890 million EUR, of which 277.197 tion plan is a new initiative in 2008. Based on dialogue with the
million EUR was for the science policy. research world and the results of a comparative analysis of the
Flemish doctorate bursary systems, a Research Career action plan
Figure 3 shows a striking increase in the funds for 2008: 45.669 mln. will be submitted to the Flemish government for approval. A budget
EUR in total, of which 45.468 million for the benefit of the science of 8.17 million EUR has been earmarked for this, partly for a trial
policy. The grant to the SERV (Socio-Economic Council of Flanders) programme for intersectoral mobility between the academic world
is the only BA (basic allocation) of his programme that doesn’t con- and industry. The basic principle for this Baekeland programme is
tain science policy funds. It is expected that the grant to the FWO that the industry specifies the research subject of the doctorate and
(Fund for Scientific Research), financed with the net income from the that the researcher spends a lot of his or her time in the industry. The
profits of the National Lottery, will be boosted by 2.342 million EUR costs will be divided between the government and the industry itself.
extra, which will bring it up to the level of previous years (11.712 Other points for attention in the action plan are the development
million EUR). The remaining 20% is still allocated to a provisional of a ‘tenure-track’ system and the maximum harmonisation of the
fund for the time being (BA CB0023B). existing doctorate bursary systems.

Figure 3: EE Programme, Economic Support Policy and Academic


Policy, science policy and economic policy funds, 2007 and 2008
(million EUR)

SP: science policy; EP: economic policy

12 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


Table 3: EE programme, Policy Support and Academic Policy 2008 (million EUR)

Compared to
BA Budget fund Description SP fund
2007

+ 8.170
EE3301B 8.170 “Human capital for science, technology and innovation” action plan 8.170
(new)
Subsidy to the Institute of Plant Biotechnology for Developing
EE3302B 0.091 – 0.009 0.091
Countries (IPBO)
EE3303B 0.071 + 0.001 Subsidy to the International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) 0.071
EE3305B 9.500 + 0.500 Subsidies for project-based scientific research (PWO) 9.500
Subsidies for carrying out scientific research, by institutes for post-
EE3307B 1.900 + 1.000 1.900
initial education and by higher institutes of fine arts
EE3341B 0.827 + 0.012 Subsidy to the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp (KMDA) 0.827
EE3343B 1.090 + 0.015 Subsidy to the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) 1.090
Subsidy to the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ), for the support and
EE3344B 0.586 + 0.008 0.586
the operation of the IODE Project Office
Subsidy to the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ), for the support and
EE3345B 0.124 + 0.002 0.124
the operation of the ESF Marine Board
Subsidies to the United Nations University (UNU), within the
EE3540B 1.014 + 0.015 1.014
framework of the programme for regional integration studies
Subsidy to UNESCO, in support of the Flemish UNESCO science trust
EE3541B 1.453 + 0.016 1.453
fund
Strengthening of the involvement of research in academic courses at
EE4001B 6.500 + 1.500 6.500
institutes of higher education
Subsidy to the special research funds, which are part of the
EE4002B 15.194 + 5.143 15.194
Methusalem programme
Subsidy for special research funds to provide additional mandates for
EE4003B 3.021 + 1.521 3.021
independent academic personnel (ZAP)
EE4012B 16.699 + 5.164 Grant to the Industrial Research Fund Flanders (IOF) 16.699
EE4103B 0.749 + 0.208 Grant to the Flemish Council for Science Policy 0.749
EE4105B 12.344 + 0.173 Subsidy to FWO Flanders for the Odysseus programme 12.344
EE4106B 2.270 + 0.032 Subsidy to the Flanders Technology Foundation (STV) 2.270
EE4107B 6.894 + 0.201 Grant to SERV (Socio-economic Council of Flanders) 0.000
Grant to IWT, for support to applied biomedical research, with a
EE4108B 6.000 + 1.000 6.000
primarily a social purpose
Subsidy to the Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for the Sciences
EE4111B 1.144 + 0.013 1.144
and Arts
EE4113B 117.182 + 4.308 Subsidy to FWO Flanders 117.182
Grant to IWT, related to awarding specialisation grants (Decree of 23
EE4114B 26.019 + 3.101 26.019
January 1991)
EE4115B 2.762 + 0.039 Subsidy to university interface services 2.762
EE4116B 0.607 + 0.007 Grant to the EVA Hercules Foundation as management remuneration 0.607
Grant to IWT, for the promotion of technology transfer and research,
EE4117B 8.899 + 1.500 8.899
by higher educational institutes
Subsidy to FWO Flanders, for projects within the framework of
EE4121B 2.273 + 0.771 2.273
international research facilities
EE4125B 38.604 0.000 Strategic basic research (IWT Flanders) 38.604
Subsidies for scientific and technical research with an agricultural
EE4131B 9.602 0.000 9.602
objective (IWT Flanders)
Grant financed with the net receipts from profits in the National
EE4180B 9.370 – 2.342 9.370
Lottery, for the benefit of FWO Flanders
+ 2.500
EE4464B 2.500 Subsidy for the Special Research Fund for the universities 2.500
(new)
+ 1.100
EE5246B 1.100 Subsidies to the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ), for investments 1.100
(new)
Grant to the EVA Hercules Foundation for financing medium-heavy
EE6102B 15.000 + 10.000 15.000
and heavy infrastructure (art. 75 Decree 22.12.2006)
TOTAL 329.559 + 45.669 322.665

PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 13


To finance the medium-heavy and heavy infrastructure for fun- of the universities, destined for intra-university fundamental
damental and strategic basic research, a grant of 15 million EUR research.
has been made available to the Hercules Foundation in the 2008 • For the so-called “big science” projects at major international re-
budget. For 2007, this foundation had a grant of 5 million EUR, search facilities (BA EE4121B), a structural increase of 0.75 million
further supplemented by 10 million EUR, which was transferred EUR brings the total to 2.273 million EUR.
from the FWO (Fund for Scientific Research). The Fund for • The Odysseus programme (BA EE4105B) is a ‘brain-gain-pro-
Scientific Research – Flanders after all no longer has to be respon- gramme’ designed to bring Flemish and other top scientists to
sible for financing medium-heavy infrastructure for fundamental Flanders: either those who are internationally acknowledged to be
research. Maximum use will be made of the available expertise in leading scientists (Group I) or post-doctoral researchers who have
such bodies as the FWO, the IWT Institute and the PMV (Partici- already proven that they have the potential to become leaders in
patieMaatschappij Vlaanderen – Participation Company Flanders). their field (Group II). There were already two calls in 2006 and
At the end of 2007 the first call for submitting proposals for 2007, and a third will follow in 2008. So far, nine researchers in
medium-heavy research infrastructure was launched. The first call Group I and eight researchers in Group II have been attracted.
for heavy research infrastructure already followed at the beginning 12.344 million EUR have been provided for this purpose in 2008.
of 2008. • The precise extent of the final profit share from the National Lot-
tery will only be definitively known in the middle of 2008. Only
The Industrial Research Fund (IOF) will be given a structural financial then will this grant be fully specified and it will be added to the
injection of an extra 5 million EUR. The IOF must allocate structural FWO grant.
financing to the universities for developing application-oriented
knowledge with its relevant property rights. For the IWT (Institute for Innovation by Science and Technology in
Flanders) specialisation grants (BA EE4114B), there is a structural
The BOF (Special Research Fund) and the FWO-Vlaanderen (Fund increase in 2008 of 1.705 million EUR, making a total of 26.019
for Scientific Research-Flanders) are the two financing chan- million EUR.
nels for non-oriented knowledge-widening research at Flemish
universities. The resources for strengthening the involvement of research in
academic courses at institutes of higher education increase structur-
The BOF comes under the joint authority of the Flemish Minister for ally in 2008 by 1.5 million to 6.5 million EUR (BA EE4001B), in line
Science and Innovation and the Flemish Minister for Education. The with the 2006-2009 growth path that was agreed with the minister
amount allocated in the budget (Education and Training policy area) responsible for higher education.
for the basic subsidy is 102.161 million EUR (BA FG4464D).
The institutes of post-initial education, such as the ITG (Institute
The resources for the BOF will be increased in 2008 from the science for Tropical Medicine) and the Vlerick Leuven Ghent Manage-
policy budget (EWI) by: ment School, had until now no direct access to the regular
• 5 million EUR for the further development of the Methusalem Flemish financing channels for research, even though they were
programme (EE4002B). This will provide an overall amount of international leaders in certain areas of research. BA EE3307B
15.194 million EUR in 2008. This programme is geared to keeping therefore provides a research fund for them as well, so that they
scientific talent by financing excellent Flemish researchers over the can strengthen their critical research base. This fund has been
long term; increased by one million to 1.9 million EUR in 2008. These extra
• 1.5 million EUR for financing additional ZAP (Independent Aca- resources are divided between the ITG and the Vlerick Manage-
demic Personnel) research mandates (EE4003B), making available ment School, based on the strategic plans that both institutes
a total fund of 3.021 million EUR; have yet to submit.
• 2.5 million EUR, specifically added to the basic subsidy (new
BA EE4464B) for the further support of fundamental scientific Finally, a new feature of 2008 is the subsidies to the VLIZ (Flanders
research. Marine Institute) for investment expenditure, amounting to 1.1
million EUR (BA EE5246B). The present five-year management
The FWO shows the biggest budget entry in this programme, with a contract (2005-2009) after all does not provide for any substantial
global subsidy of 141.169 million EUR. Together with the 2.342 mil- expenditure on investment. Nevertheless, one of the VLIZ’s im-
lion EUR(currently still allocated to BA CB0023B – provisional fund portant tasks is providing logistical support for the marine research
from National Lottery profits) this means a total of 143.511 million community. This comprises the provision of vessels, a battery of
EUR: an increase of 5.252 million EUR compared to 2007. research instruments on board research ships and platforms, plus
logistical support on land. Because of the rising number of ever
The FWO budget is composed of four funds: larger instruments and the requisite specific storage for them, the
• The basic grant amounts to 117.182 million EUR. The task of institute now has to provide for sufficient storage and process-
the Fund is to stimulate fundamental knowledge-widening ing areas as well. In addition, the VLIZ is responsible for replacing
scientific research at the initiative of the researcher, on the damaged or worn seagoing instruments and the infrastructure that
basis of an inter-university scientific competition. This cam- the extensive research community uses for local and international
paign is complementary to the BOF (Special Research Fund) projects.

14 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


Chapter 1.3.

Valorisation and Industrial Policy

The global initial funds in 2008 for the EF budget programme, Valorisa-
tion and Industrial Policy, amount to 338.983 million EUR and just as Figure 4: EF Programme, Valorisation and Industrial Policy, total
much SP fund: an increase of 32.326 million EUR compared with 2007. funds and SP funds, 2007 and 2008 (million EUR)

Valorisation (economic development) and industrial policy have the


following strategic objectives:
1. Strengthening the basic technological research that generates
knowledge for the benefit of industry.
2. More technological innovation in Flemish industries.

There is a structural increase in the subsidy to IMEC (Interuniversity


Micro-Electronic Centre), amounting to 4.375 million EUR. The
funds for VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) have
also increased structurally: a new BA (EF4114B) has been included
to finance their reference tasks. There is an extra 2.244 million EUR
(structural) for this purpose. The general operating funds have also
been structurally increased in 2008 by 1.746 million EUR. The IMEC,
VITO, VIB (Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology) and SP: science policy
IBBT (Interdisciplinary Institute for BroadBand Technology) strategic
research centres have been earmarked jointly for a global allocation
of 145.977 million EUR: 10.429 million more than in 2007.

With regard to funds managed by the IWT (Institute for Innovation


by Science and Technology), we can see a structural increase of 20
million EUR to support campaigns for technological innovation at the
initiative of the Flemish government (BA EF9911B). The funds avail-
able on this Basic Allocation serve mainly for the further development
of the competence centres, whereby on the one hand new funds
are reserved (after evaluation, of course) for the benefit of the first
generation of competence centres and, on the other hand, investment
is made in new competence centres. At present there are six feasibility
studies underway in this regard, of which four might lead to a new
competence centre as early as this year. In order to be able to achieve
this, 44.434 million EUR has been allocated to this BA in the budget.

There are also all the allocation authorisations of the IWT (BAs EF
9911B up to and including EF9914B). These are BAs to support
technological innovation campaigns at the initiative of the Flemish
government, projects at the initiative of the industries and innova-
tion cooperatives, e-media projects and, finally, study and appraisal
commissions for the VIN (Flemish Innovation Network). 180.398
million EUR has been earmarked for these jointly, making an increase
of 21.5 million EUR compared to 2007.

PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 15


Table 4. EF programme, Valorisation and Industrial Policy for 2008 (million EUR)

Budget Compared
BA Description SP fund
fund to 2007

EF3301B 43.976 + 4.960 Subsidy to the Interuniversity Micro-Electronic Centre (IMEC) 43.976
EF3302B 38.771 + 0.573 Subsidy to the Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB) 38.771
EF3303B 23.476 + 0.378 Grant to the Interdisciplinary Institute for BroadBand Technology (IBBT) 23.476
Grant to the Dutch Language Union for the implementation of the
EF3540B 0.760 0.000 0.760
“STEVIN programme”
EF4103B 11.848 + 0.395 Grant to the Institute for Innovation by Science and Technology (IWT) 11.848
EF4113B 26.801 – 3.421 Grant to the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) 26.801
+ 7.864 Grant to the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) for
EF4114B 7.864 7.864
(new) financing the reference tasks
Grant to the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) for
EF6102B 5.089 + 0.075 5.089
investments
Allocation authorisation for IWT Flanders, for supporting technical
EF9911B 44.434 + 19.970 innovation actions that are proposed at the initiative of the Flemish 44.434
government
Allocation authorisation for IWT Flanders, for projects proposed by
EF9912B 123.860 – 1.905 123.860
companies and innovation co-operations
EF9913B 11.263 + 3.426 Allocation authorisation for IWT Flanders, for e-media projects 11.263
Allocation authorisation for IWT Flanders, for study and expertise
EF9914B 0.841 + 0.012 0.841
assignments, for the benefit of the Flemish Innovation Network (VIN)
TOTAL 338.983 + 32.326 338.983

16 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


Chapter 1.4.

Awareness-Raising and Society

For the EG budget programme – Awareness-Raising and Society – EG3301B, EG3303B, EG4001B and EG5201B). The policy on
there is a global fund in the initial 2008 budget of 26.847 million science information and popularisation remains an important
EUR, an increase of 1.82 million compared with 2007. point of attention within the scientific and technological innova-
tion policy. The policy concerned is grouped each year within the
The programme has the following strategic objectives: Science Information and Innovation action plan. This comprises
1. Stimulating entrepreneurship all the campaigns and events that the government organises
To boost the development of the Flemish economic fabric in a itself or which are outsourced to third parties: the structural
proactive and integrated manner; to stimulate creative and in- partners. As the most important examples, we would mention
novative entrepreneurial activities and make them more attractive Flanders Technology International (FTI), the expertise units for
for existing and new target groups. popularizing science, technology and technological innovation
2. Science information service within the ambit of the associations, the organizers of the five
To strengthen public support for the scientific and technological scientific ‘Olympics’, the six Flemish People’s Observatories, the
innovation policy in Flanders. two scientific youth associations (Youth, Culture & Science and
Nature & Science) and the Roger Van Overstraeten Society. The
The economic policy in the EG programme concerns the grant to Flan- Flemish government has concluded a multi-year contract with all
ders Enterprise (VLAO) (BA EG4104B), the expenditures for VLAO these structural partners.
local contact points (BA EG3001B) and the subsidies for projects that
support and finance flexible mechanisms (BA EG5001B). In addition, there is also the subsidy of 2.410 million EUR to Flanders
District of Creativity vzw (Flanders DC). The task of Flanders DC
The grant for the 2008 budget year to Flanders Enterprise (VLAO) is to contribute towards the awareness-raising and stimulation of
amounts to 13.742 million EUR (BA EG4104B). 2007 was the first entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation.
full working year of the agency. The aim is that all enterprises and
entrepreneurs can take their questions to a single contact point
Figure 5: EG Programme, Awareness-Raising and Society, science
within the ambit of Flanders Enterprise. The agency in its turn will
policy and economic policy funds, 2007 and 2008 (million EUR)
assist the enterprises and entrepreneurs in an efficient and industry-
friendly manner and put them through to the right channels in the
Flemish government. Simplification and transparency are the key
words here.

In addition to the grant, a fund of 1.5 million EUR has been provided
for setting up a quality network of low- and wide-threshold VLAO
contact points for applicant entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs and busi-
ness enterprises (BA EG3001B). The contact points will provide the
first line of advice and will be responsible for referring all questions
that require further follow-up to the provincial VLAO antennae.
However, the contact points do not function as an office window in
the administrative sense of the word: they cannot issue the obliga-
tory formalities of the government themselves. The advice provided
by the local contact point is totally free of charge for the requesting
party. You can find more info on www.vlao.be.
SP: science policy; EP: economic policy

A budget of 9.114 million EUR has been allocated for the


Science Information and Innovation action plan (BAs EG1203B,

PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 17


Table 5: EG programme, Awareness-Raising and Society for 2008 (million EUR)

Budget Compared
BA Description SP fund
fund to 2007

EG1203B 2.257 + 0.025 Popularisation of science, technology and technological innovation 2.257
+ 1.500 Expenditure related to the local contact points of Flanders Enterprise
EG3001B 1.500 0.000
(new) (VLAO)
Various subsidies, with reference to publicising the Science Policy and
EG3301B 1.098 0.000 1.098
scientific research to structural partners
EG3303B 3.974 + 0.059 Subsidy to Flanders Technology International (FTI vzw) 3.974
EG3304B 2.410 + 0.036 Subsidy to Flanders District of Creativity (Flanders DC vzw) 2.410
Subsidies for expertise cells, with the objective of popularising science,
EG4001B 1.744 + 0.019 1.744
technology and technological innovation within associations
EG4104B 13.742 + 0.179 Grant to Flanders Enterprise (VLAO) 0.000
EG5001B 0.051 + 0.001 Subsidies for projects that support and finance flexible mechanisms 0.000
EG5201B 0.071 + 0.001 Investment subsidy for the Flemish people’s observatories 0.071
TOTAL 26.847 + 1.820 11.554

18 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


Chapter 1.5.

General Policy

The ‘General’ programme covers the resources for 2008 that give partner organisations. In order to achieve the objectives, joint project
shape to both the general economic policy and the science and inno- calls will be launched from 2008 onwards. There are two types:
vation policy. This also includes those BAs that cannot be unambigu- contract research – mainly aimed at consultancy firms – and research
ously assigned to the content of another programme (see above). projects that are mainly aimed at research institutes.

The total fund included in the 2008 budget for the EC programme, In addition, the subsidies relating to international cooperation in
General Policy, amounts to 24.677 million EUR. Of this, 18.978 mil- science and innovation (BA EC3311B) have been increased structur-
lion EUR is science policy (SP) fund. Figure 6 compares these funds ally by 2.1 million EUR, in order to set up additional campaigns to
with 2007. The total for 2007 amounts to 19.69 million EUR, of strengthen the strategic collaborative relations with priority partner
which 13.839 million are SP funds. The increase in the fund for the countries or regions, as well as the further development of scientific
EC programme is entirely due to the increase in funds for the science cooperation within the framework of development aid (‘capacity
policy, as can be seen in figure 6. building’).

The grant to the IWT to support Flemish participation in the Europe-


Figure 6: EC Programme, General Policy Programme, science policy an programmes (Flemish point of contact – VCP) has been increased
and economic policy funds, 2007 and 2008 (million EUR)
structurally by 0.6 million EUR. With this fund of 0.283 million EUR,
the Flemish research groups and industries will be supported in the
further conduct of their research and innovation activities via tran-
snational cooperation. This BA was introduced at the 2007 budget
control, and amounts to 0.22 million EUR.

SP: science policy; EP: economic policy


*: The research funds for the ‘study on sustainable entrepreneur-
ship’ (BA EC1222B: 0.051 million EUR) and the co-financing of the
Policy Research Centre Entrepreneurship and International Entre-
preneurship (BA EC3301B: 0.267 million EUR) were categorised as
science policy funds in this figure.

BA EC3510B is a new fund in 2008 for participation in the European


VISION ERA-Net, amounting to 0.35 million EUR. This is a European
collaboration network of ministries and agencies involved in the
innovation policy. The aim of the VISION ERA network is to improve
the quality and effectiveness of innovation-policy planning with the

PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 19


Table 6: EC programme, General Policy programme for 2008 (million EUR)

Budget Compared
BA Description SP fund
fund to 2007

Expenditures for inventory and valorisation of scientific and technological


EC0190B 0.050 0.000 0.050
research
Expenditures for the conception, preparation and execution of scientific
EC1201B 1.185 + 0.013 actions on the initiative of the Flemish minister for Science and 1.185
Innovation
Specific operating costs with regard to the economic policy, including
EC1201C 0.250 + 0.091 among other things fees, expenditures for encouraging company 0.000
investments, and investments with regard to economic events
Expenditures for a variety of interregional economic co-operative
EC1204C 0.098 + 0.001 0.000
associations
Expenditures for promoting the Flemish Information society, within the
EC1207B 3.069 + 2.432 3.069
framework of the Lisbon Strategy
Various communications initiatives, with regard to science, technology
EC1220B 0.143 + 0.002 and innovation on the initiative of the Flemish minister for Science and 0.143
Innovation
EC1222B 0.051 + 0.001 Study on sustainable entrepreneurship 0.051
Expenditures for communications initiatives, with regard to the economic
EC1222C 0.816 + 0.009 0.000
policy
Funds for financing assignments and co-operative agreements with
EC1223C 0.048 – 0.302 0.000
partners in social entrepreneurship (POMs)
Expenditures within the framework of international scientific co-
EC1225B 0.064 + 0.011 0.064
operations
EC1241C 2.165 0.000 Specific ICT costs of the IVA Economy Agency: project costs 0.000
Subsidy for co-financing the Policy Research Centre Entrepreneurship
EC3301B 0.267 + 0.004 0.267
and International Entrepreneurship
Subsidy to the non-profit organisation “Vlaamse jonge ondernemingen”
EC3302C 1.000 + 0.036 0.000
(Young Flemish Enterprises)
EC3303B 8.628 + 0.128 Subsidies to the policy research centres 8.628
EC3304B 1.164 + 0.017 Subsidy for co-financing the Policy Research Centre R&D Indicators 1.164
Subsidies to the non-profit organisation “Vlaams Centrum voor
EC3306C 0.372 0.000 0.000
Kwaliteitszorg” (Flemish Centre for Quality Assurance)
Subsidies within the framework of international scientific and innovative
EC3311B 3.465 + 2.115 3.465
cooperation
+ 0,350
EC3510B 0.350 Participation to the European VISION ERA-Net 0.350
(new)
Subsidy related to the inventory of scientific and technological research
EC4104B 0.259 + 0.003 0.259
(IWETO)
EC4106C 0.950 + 0.013 Subsidies for certified regional co-operative associations 0.000
Grant to IWT Flanders to support Flemish participation in the European
EC4107B 0.283 + 0.063 0.283
programmes (Flemish point of contact – VCP)
TOTAL 24.677 + 4.987 18.978

20 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


Chapter 1.6.

PMV, VPM and LRM

The following public limited companies are externally independent 156.8 million EUR. Thanks to that guarantee, entrepreneurs were
agencies (EVAs) of the EWI policy area: Participation Company Flan- able to obtain loans from banks totalling 265.4 million EUR. The
ders (PMV), Flemish Participation Company (VPM) and the Limburg loans that were provided with the aid of the Guarantee Scheme
Investment Company (LRM). In contrast to the previous chapters, in their turn made investments of 335 million EUR possible. That
this does not concern budget funds, but rather an overview of the means that for every euro of government guarantee, more than two
activities of the aforementioned agencies. euros in investments were made, which indicates that the scheme
has considerable leverage.

Participatiemaatschappij Vlaanderen NV (PMV) The Win-Win loan encourages private individuals to lend money
(Participation Company Flanders) to enterprises at advantageous rates via a tax benefit. Anyone
ParticipatieMaatschappij Vlaanderen NV (Participation Company who, as a friend, an acquaintance or family member grants a
Flanders) has taken over the role of GIMV, as the instrument for Win-Win loan to a business just starting up will receive a tax
the realisation of economic initiatives by the government in Flan- discount of 2.5% of the money that has been lent. The Win-
ders. As an independent investment company, PMV has a unique Win loan is a subordinated loan of 50,000 EUR max. The loan
position. It is not a bank, and it is not an administration. PMV is has a lifetime of eight years and must be repaid in a single lump
a company that invests in the Flemish Region in a businesslike sum. If the firm is ultimately unable to repay the subordinated
manner. The activities of PMV have been assigned to four business loan, the investor receives 30% of the amount outstanding via
units: a one-off tax reduction. The Win-Win loan makes it easier for
young entrepreneurs to find start-up capital from their immediate
PMV-kmo (PMV for SMEs) environment. By the beginning of 2008, 511 start-up enterprises
This business unit is the unique point of contact for the financing in Flanders had already taken out Win-Win loans, totalling 13.4
requirements of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It man- million EUR.
ages a variety of instruments, which makes it easier for entrepre-
neurs to find financing with private capital providers: Innovative starters with a high risk profile, but strong growth po-
tential, can apply to the Vlaams Innovatiefonds (VINNOF – Flemish
ARKimedes is doubling the provision of venture capital for young Innovation Fund) for venture capital. VINNOF offers the following
growth industries. The ARKimedes Fund, worth 110 million EUR, three financing products:
offers one euro extra for each euro that recognised private venture • The main product is designated as ‘seedling capital’. With this,
capital funds (ARKIVs) invest in a Flemish SME (small or medium- VINNOF makes a risky investment in the start-up and initial
sized enterprise). At the beginning of 2008, 13 professional venture growth of innovative enterprises in Flanders. This is usually done
capital providers were recognized as ARKIVs. Together they have in the form of a holding in the company’s capital, but a convert-
funds of 218.1 million EUR to invest in Flemish SMEs. Of this, 106.4 ible subordinated loan or a loan with warrants are other possible
million EUR comes from the ARKimedes Fund. At the beginning of forms of investment. In addition, VINNOF also provides incuba-
2008, the ARKIVs had already invested a total of 42 million EUR in tion financing and project financing.
59 promising companies in Flanders. • Incubation financing offers (pre-)starters the opportunity to see
if and how they can realise an innovative idea and convert it into
The Surety Regulation offers the bank or credit provider more cer- a business. Incubation financing is done in the form of a subor-
tainty when an entrepreneur wants a loan to invest, but cannot offer dinated loan and can be granted to entrepreneurs who obtain a
sufficient guarantees. The government stands surety for part of the subsidy from the IWT for an SME Innovation study.
loan that an SME needs. • Project financing is intended to finance innovation projects from
Since the introduction of the new Surety Regulation in the summer SMEs, in addition to an IWT subsidy granted in relation to an SME
of 2005, appeals had already been made by the beginning of 2008 Innovation project or an R&D Industrial project. Project financing
in 1786 cases to the guarantee of the Flemish Region, totalling by VINNOF is done in the form of a subordinated loan.

PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION 21


By the end of 2007, VINNOF had made a total of 14.134 million
EUR available to 86 innovative enterprises from different sectors.
Table 7 shows the distribution of it between the three financing
products.

Table 7: Promised investment sums and the number of enterprises for the three VINNOF financing products as of 31 December 2007

Promised investment sum Number of


Product
As of 31/12/2007 (in million EUR) enterprises

Seedling capital 5.879 18


Incubation financing 1.701 30
Project financing 6.554 38
TOTAL 14.134 86

Since it started at the beginning of 2007, CultuurInvest has already technologies. It searches for future possibilities for important public
given 28 enterprise projects a financial push totalling 3.8 million EUR. enterprises in the environmental sector, and it takes initiatives for the
realisation of the Kyoto objectives.
The Fonds Vlaanderen Internationaal helps Flemish SMEs to move More information is available on www.pmvlaanderen.be.
into foreign fields. Since the beginning of 2007, the Fonds Vlaander-
en-Internationaal (Flanders International Fund) has already given the
green light to six investment projects totalling 2.8 million EUR. These Vlaamse Participatiemaatschappij NV (Flemish Partici-
represent investments in China, Bulgaria, Hungary, Russia, Turkey pation Company – VPM)
and the USA. Vlaamse Participatiemaatschappij NV (Flemish Participation Com-
pany – VPM) is a public limited company, whose only task is the
The NRC-Fonds offers high-technology companies long-term financ- management of the participation of the Flemish government in
ing, for innovative projects that are connected to a specific end- GIMV1. Today this participation only consists of a minority position
product. Since it started at the end of 2006, the NRC Fund decided of 27%, after large blocks of GIMV shares were sold on the stock
to grant a subordinated loan to three projects, this financing being market during 2005 in 2006, in conformity with the agreements that
worth 8 million EUR in total. have been made.

PMV-pps
The PMV-pps business unit lays a foundation, with which it is pos- Limburgse Reconversiemaatschappij NV (Limburg
sible to meet the quickly evolving expectations of our society by way Investment Company – LRM)
of public-private co-operations. PMV-pps structures capital-intensive Limburgse Reconversiemaatschappij NV (Limburg Investment Com-
investment projects, which are part of the responsibilities of the gov- pany – LRM) wants to be a driving force in the economic expansion
ernment (infrastructure works, modernisation and renewal of schools of Limburg. This it does by, on the one hand, providing risk capital
and hospitals, social housing, ...) whereby the participation of private to local and foreign companies that invest in Limburg. Established
parties offers an important added value. large companies, as well as start-ups and SMEs, can be taken into
consideration. Furthermore, it can also accompany or finance man-
PMV-Vastgoed (real estate) agement buy-outs or buy-ins. On the other hand, LRM is a partner,
By way of an active real estate management, PMV supports and and frequently the initiator, in the development of industrial terrains,
finances the real estate policy of the Flemish government. The brownfields, business and scientific parks in Limburg.
PMV-Vastgoed business unit plays a pioneering role in the area of
public-private co-operation, and it is involved in the realisation of The Flemish Community is the only shareholder in LRM. Neverthe-
the three Flemish administrative centres, as well as in the valorisation less, LRM is an ordinary public limited company, which is subject to
of Flemish government buildings. PMV also carries out a strategic the regulations concerning commercial companies. Profitability and
real estate policy for the development of brownfields, and it offers market conformity are the guiding principles in the operations of LRM.
support for regional and inner-city development projects. More information is available on www.lrm.be

PMV-Duurzame ontwikkeling (sustainable development)


This business unit supports a strategic investment policy in the
area of sustainable development. Such investments after all have a 1 GIMV is an independent investment company, which is listed on the
great impact on society, and they offer a new impulse for sustain- stock market and that has specialised itself in investments in equity capital of
able economic development. PMV invests in the development and growth-oriented companies that are not listed (private equity). GIMV has a
implementation of environmentally friendly and energy-efficient leadership position in the private equity and venture capital sectors in Belgium,
and it also operates at a European level.

22 PART 1 • EWI: CO-OPERATION BETWEEN ECONOMY, SCIENCE AND INNOVATION


Science and
innovation policy

Part 2
This chapter gives a precise overview of what the scientific and the analysis, evaluation and monitoring of external phenomena are
technological innovation policy consists of. We will use the interna- included in this.
tionally agreed definitions for this purpose: After all, to be able to
make an international comparison, one has to keep to international Within R&D there is a further classification according to the type of
agreements. research (Frascati Manual, OECD, 2002, p. 30):

As the social importance and the complexity of knowledge and Basic research is “experimental or theoretical work undertaken
technological developments increased, exactly as the interest and primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation
participation by governments in an international context, the defini- of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular ap-
tions also evolved in conformity with changed circumstances. The plication or use in view”;
technological policy was, after all, originally considered as a subsidi-
ary sector, which was contained in the broader term science policy. Applied research is “also original investigation undertaken in
Later on it was felt necessary to provide a separate description for order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily
this type of policy, which is directly connected with technological towards a specific practical aim or objective”;
development. The accent today lays rather on innovation and with
this the entirety of the activities that stimulate renewal in industry Experimental development is “systematic work, drawing on exist-
and society is meant. ing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience,
that is directed to producing new materials, products or devices,
to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving
International definitions substantially those already produced or installed.”

Scientific activities – R&D – STET – STS


Innovation
The term “scientific activities”, as defined in the Recommendation The term Technological product and process (TPP) innovation is
concerning the International Standardisation of Statistics on Science defined in the Oslo Manual (second edition, OECD/Eurostat 1997,
and Technology” – UNESCO, 1978 (Canberra Manual – OECD, p. 31) as follows:
Paris, 1995, p. 67) comprises: “Technological product and process (TPP) innovation comprises
implemented technologically new products and processes and
Research and Development (R&D): “... creative work undertaken significant technological improvements in products and processes.
on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, A TPP innovation has been implemented if it has been introduced
including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this on the market (product innovation) or used within a production
stock of knowledge to devise new applications” (Frascati Manual, process (process innovation). TPP innovations involve a series of
OECD, 2002, p. 30). In other words, it includes any scientific scientific, technological, organisational, financial and commercial
activity which is aimed at developing scientific knowledge (basic activities.”
research), making it applicable (applied research) and applying it
(development). Innovation now stands for the commercially and socially successful
exploitation of the new inventions. Also low-technology innova-
Education and Training (STET): “...all activities comprising specialised tion is important: The more gradual innovations that are part of
non-university higher education and training, higher education and product development, production processes and market strategies,
training leading to a university degree, postgraduate and further are viewed as being just as import for the creation of prosperity.
training, and organised lifelong training for scientists and engineers” The diffusion of knowledge and technology transfers are therefore
(Canberra Manual, OECD, Paris, 1995, p. 67). Therefore it concerns exceedingly important for SMEs. An important role has been set
the funding of scientific education, for example, the proportion of aside for the government here, amongst others as a stimulator
the operational subsidies to universities that are used for university of the maximum valorisation of research results. That occurs, for
education. instance, through support of technology transfer from universities
and research institutes to industry. Innovation is viewed in a much
Scientific and Technological Services (STS): “...activities concerned expanded sense: Not only scientific research is important (and a
with research and experimental development and contributing to the First requirement), but also the global innovation system, including
generation, dissemination and application of scientific and techni- the social, economic and legal aspects that are connected to this.
cal knowledge” (Canberra Manual, OECD, Paris, 1995, p. 68). This An essential role in this is reserved for education and training, for
concerns any form of services, such as performing routinemeasure- the financial framework (the availability of a risk capital is essen-
ments (e.g., routine medical analyses), the provision of scientific- tial), and for an efficient regulation regarding intellectual property
technological information (e.g., by libraries or information centres), rights. Innovation in commercial and management aspects, just as
and the collection of data of a general interest (including the much as social innovation, are also viewed as important factors in
collection of data on social-economic phenomena). Studies related creating employment opportunities, and for meeting evident needs
to policy and the activities of administrative units with regard to of society.

24 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Administrative Structures of the tives that support their policy. Besides EWI, these policy areas
Flemish Science and Innovation Policy are:

Here we will provide a summary description of the administrative • Services for the General Government Policy (DAR)
structure for the management of the science policy, after the restruc- • Administrative Affairs (BZ)
turing project of the Flemish government BBB. • Finance and Budget (FB)
• Foreign Affairs (IV)
• Education and Training (OV)
EWI policy area • Welfare, Public Health and Family (WVG)
The EWI Department, which is responsible for preparing policy initia- • Culture, Youth, Sport and Media (CJSM)
tives and policy evaluation for the entire policy area. • Work and Social Economy (WSE)
• Agriculture and Fisheries (LV)
The agencies: • Environment, Nature and Energy (LNE)
• IWT Flanders: carries out policy related to industry. It is an • Mobility and Public Works (MOW)
intermediary organ, which distributes the funds amongst • Town and Country Planning, Housing Policy and Immovable
businesses and research institutes, in conformity with defined Heritage (RWO)
selection criteria, and evaluation and decision-making proce-
dures. The four Flemish scientific institutes:

• FWO Flanders: carries out policy with regard to basic research at • Research Institute for Nature and Forests (INBO)
the universities. It is an intermediary organ which distributes the • Carries out policy-oriented scientific research with regard to the
funds among the universities and research institutes. That happens conservation, management and sustainable use of biodiversity
in conformity with defined selection criteria, and evaluation and and its environment;
decision-making procedures. • Provides scientific services in support of the policy and to
defined target groups, amongst others through advising, ex-
• Hercules foundation: finances medium-heavy and heavy in- perimental analyses, the provision of new products, techniques,
frastructure for fundamental and strategic basic research in all concepts and documentation;
scientific areas. • It reports periodically on the condition of nature and the
natural environment, and on the effects of environmental
Furthermore, the Participation Company Flanders (PMV), the policy, including the extent in which the assumed objectives
Flemish Participation Company (VPM) and the Limburg Invest- of the environmental policy are reached, while monitoring and
ment Company (LRM) as externally independent agencies (EVAs) evaluating the available know-how and investigating future
and the Economy Agency as an internally independent agency developments.
make part of the EWI policy area. Although they have much
ground in common with the science and innovation policy, the ex- • Flemish Heritage Institute (VIOE)
ecution of it isn’t included in their key tasks. The Economy Agency • Manages and preserves the natural heritage in Flanders;
was described in Chapter 1.1; the agencies PMV, VPM and LRM in • Carries out scientific research in this area.
Chapter 1.6.
• Royal Museum of Fine Arts – Antwerp (KMSKA)
The advisory body: • Acquires, conserves, restores and exhibits its own art collection;
• The Flemish Council for Science Policy (VRWB) formulates recom- • Carries out scientific research;
mendations to the Flemish government and the Flemish Parlia- • Publishes catalogues on its collection and yearbooks;
ment, in the area of science and technology policy. This council • Organises exhibitions in the Royal Museum of Fine Art and in
will provide such recommendations on request, or at its own foreign countries;
initiative. • Organises educational activities: training of educational as-
sistants, training courses for adults, lessons for teachers and
The Socio-economic Council of Flanders (SERV) is the other schools, guided tours, lectures and youth ateliers, publica-
advisory body of the EWI policy area. SERV formulates and gives tions;
advice about the broad economic aspects of the Flemish policy. • Organises documentary activities: technical library, archives and
Here too, there is common ground with the science and innova- a collection register.
tion policy.
• Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO)
• Co-ordinates and carries out policy-supporting research,
Other policy areas including the accompanying services, with the objective of
The science policy is situated in all thirteen policy areas. The making the agricultural and fishing sectors sustainable from an
departments are authorised to give form to science policy initia- economic, environmental and social perspective.

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 25


• Builds up the required know-how for an improvement of
products and production methods, for monitoring the quality
and safety of end-products, and for an improvement of policy
instruments, as a basis for sector development and agrarian
rural policy.
• Regularly provides information to the policymakers, the cor-
responding sectors and society at large.

26 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Chapter 2.1.

‘Actual Science Policy’

The ‘actual science policy’ concerns the science policy of the EWI education, including the strategic research centres IMEC, VITO, VIB
policy area, together with the resources for financing the science and IBBT. In addition, there is also the broad and varied domain of
policy at the universities and institutes of higher education under the industrial research carried out in support of Flemish industry.
Education and Training (OV) policy area. Previously, these resources
were ascribed to the organisation division OA 71 of the former WIM
department, together with the aforementioned science funds from 2.1.1. EWI Science Policy
OA 33 of the former Education department.
NEW POLICY RESOURCES AND NEW POLICY ACCENTS OF 2008
Fundamental research at universities, which opens up new horizons, The policy funds for science and innovation that come directly under
as a necessary basis for all further socially and industrially oriented the minister responsible for science and innovation policy are in-
research, just as much as research at institutes of higher education, creased structurally in 2008 by 75 million EUR. This rise honours the
is after all a part of such a coherent policy. Strategic basic research execution of the Innovation Pact for 2008. Table 8 gives an overview
also is largely carried out at the universities and institutes of higher of these initiatives.

Table 8. Overview of new policy resources and accents of the 2008 EWI science policy

BA Initiative Increase (million EUR)

EE4002B Methusalem 5.000


EE4102B Hercules 10.000
EE4464B Special Research Fund (BOF) 2.500
EF3301B IMEC 4.375
EE4012B Industrial Research Fund (IOF) 5.000
EF9911B Innovation at the initiative of the Flemish government (IWT) 20.000
EE3307B Institutes post-initial education 1.000
EE4121B “Big science” 0.750
EE4103B VRWB 0.200
EE4117B TETRA (IWT) 1.500
EE4001B Additional funds for the academic content of graduate courses 1.500
EE4114B IWT Specialisation grants 1.705
EE4108B Applied biomedical research (IWT) 1.000
EE3305B Project-based Scientific Research (PWO) 0.500
EC3510B ERA Vision-Net 0.350
EE4003B Additional ZAP mandates 1.500
EE4113B Postdoctoral FWO mandates 2.700
EF4113B VITO – General operation 1.746
EF4114B VITO – Reference tasks 2.244
EE3301B Action plan researchers career 8.170
EE5242B Investment subsidy VLIZ 1.100
EC3311B International cooperation 2.100
EC4107B Flemish Contact point Framework programme (IWT) 0.060
TOTAL 75.000

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 27


DISTRIBUTION OF RESOURCES FOR 2008 OVER THE EWI BUDGET
PROGRAMMES
If we look closely at the budget programmes in the EWI policy area,
we see that more than 90% of the science funds are incorporated in
the Valorisation and Industrial Policy (46%) and Policy Support and
Academic Policy (45%) programmes.

Table 9. Distribution of resources for the 2008 science policy in the EWI policy area

Budget Programmes EWI SP R&D STET STS

EF. Valorisation and Industrial Policy 338.983 327.135 0.000 11.848


EE. Policy Support and Academic Policy 322.665 318.168 0.000 4.497
ED. Economic Support Policy 30.000 30.000 0.000 0.000
EC. General 18.978 14.272 0.000 4.706
EG. Awareness-raising and Society 11.554 2.410 0.000 9.144
TOTAL 722.180 691.985 0.000 30.195

Figure 7: Percentage distribution of resources for the 2008 science


policy (SP) in the EWI policy area

■ EC. General
■ ED. Economic Support Policy
■ EE. Policy Support and Academic Policy
■ EF. Valorisation and Industrial Policy
■ EG. Awareness-raising and Society

EVOLUTION OF THE RESOURCES


Figures 8 and 9 show the evolution of the financing of the science Figure 8: Evolution of EWI (Economy Science and Innovation)
and innovation policy of the former Organisation Division OA 71 Science Policy funds, including one-off special funds (in million EUR)
(2000-2007) and of EWI for 2008.

Figure 8 shows the evolution of the total funds, including the


one-off special funds outside the traditional budget programmes,
introduced from 2004 for effecting specific policy priorities for that
particular year. There are also two additional funds (for R&D) in
2008: 30 million EUR on the Hermes Fund and 2.6 million EUR LRM
(Limburg Investment Company) impulse financing for the develop-
ment of research activities at the transnational University of Limburg
(tUL). The extra nett increase of 60 million EUR in R&D funds,
allocated in 2007 to the EWI policy area, was masked because 75
million EUR of additional funds, allocated in 2005 and 2006 outside
the usual budget programmes to the Flemish Innovation Fund
(VINNOF), was not repeated in 2007. 2008 once again shows a
sharp rise compared with 2007.

28 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


In figure 9, without one-off special funds, it can be seen that the 2.1.2. ‘Actual science policy’ in the Education and
rising trend continues in 2008. In 2008, there is an overall in- Training policy area
crease (including indexation) of 82.105 million EUR in the science The ‘actual science policy’ in the Education and Training (OV) policy
policy (SP) funds – i.e., R&D and STS together – and of 81.295 area comprises the operational subsidies to the universities, the
million EUR in the R&D funds compared with the definitive 2007 subsidy to the Special Research Fund (BOF), additional operational
budget. funds (Bachelor-Master BAMA), other subsidies to the universities
and to similar institutes and, finally, funds for the academic content
of graduate courses. These funds are contained in the Higher Educa-
Figure 9: Evolution of EWI (Economy Science and Innovation) tion FG programme.
Science Policy funds, without one-off special funds (in million EUR)

Table 10 sums up the 2008 basic allocations of the ‘actual science


policy’ in the Education and Training (OV) policy area. In 2008 they
are all contained in the new Higher Education FG programme. The
total Science Policy fund is 841.282 million EUR.

The new decree of 14 March 2008 concerning finance of the opera-


tion of institutes of higher education and universities in Flanders has
been in force since 1 January 2008.This decree gears the various
financing mechanisms to each other and also introduces fundamen-
tal changes to the 2008 expenditure budget. For the structure of the
budget, this means that different basic allocations will be bundled
together or split up.

Table 10: Basic Allocations to ‘actual science policy’ in the Education and Training policy area (OV), 2008 (funds in million EUR)

Budget
BA fund Description SP fund

FG4002D 1,253.322 Operational subsidies for higher education 649.139


FG3326B 0.150 Subsidy to the Evangelical Theological Faculty 0.150
FG4003B 2.279 Operating payments for the Dutch-Flemish Accreditation Organ (NVAO) 2.279
FG4003D 0.508 Subsidy for associations 0.508
FG4010B 0.632 Subsidies for open higher education 0.632
Subsidies for Social provisions in university education (Art. 140 bis, Decree of 12 juni
FG4073D 15.441 15.441
1991)
Subsidy to the Universiteit Antwerpen for the Institute for Development Policy and
FG4122D 2.025 2.025
Management (IOB)
FG4128D 0.163 Subsidy to the University of Antwerp (UA) for the Institute of Jewish Studies (IJOS) 0.163
Strengthening of the involvement of research in academic courses at institutes of higher
FG4407B 5.275 5.275
education
Subsidy to the Free University of Brussels (VUB) for the Institute for European Studies
FG4426D 1.517 1.517
(IES)
Legal and conventional employers’ contribution for free universities (Decree of 12 June
FG4460D 23.429 23.429
1991)
FG4464D 102.161 Subsidy for the Special Research Fund for the universities 102.161
FG4480D 0.319 Subsidy for the Faculty of Protestant Theology in Brussels 0.319
Subsidy granted to the “Prins Leopold” Institute for Tropical Medicine, in Antwerp
FG4487D 9.915 9.915
(Decree of 18 May 1999)
Subsidy granted to the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School (Decree of 18 May
FG4489D 1.819 1.819
1999)
FG6012D 25.898 Capital transfers for real estate investments for university education 25.898
FG6417D 0.612 Capital transfers for real estate investments ITG 0.612
TOTAL 841.282

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 29


Thus, in 2008 there is the new BA FG4002D, ‘operational subsi- The Science Policy (SP) funds for the ‘actual science policy’ have
dies for higher education’, amounting to 1,253.322 million EUR gone up from 1,452.992 million EUR to 1,568.404 million EUR in
(initially 2008). For the science policy this means that the operational 2008 – an increase of 115.412 million. Within the EWI the increase
subsidies to the universities, which were covered by separate BA’s in SP funds is 80.988 million EUR, of which 75 million is a structural
until now, are contained within this new BA, in the same way as the increase (see table 8). Of the total SP funds under the ‘actual science
funds Funds for the academic content of graduate courses. The sup- policy’, 988.233 million EUR is for R&D – an increase of 93.278 mil-
plementary funds for the conversion to the BAMA courses are also lion EUR compared with the definitive budgets for 2007.
included in it.

The funds under the new BA FG4003D are allocated to the as-
sociations. 0.508 million EUR is provided for the five associations,
in application of the new financing decree for the operation of the
universities and institutes of higher education.

2.1.3. ‘Actual science policy’ in 2008 compared to 2007


Table 11 shows a comparison for 2008 of the initial funds for the
‘actual science policy’ (EWI and OV policy areas and special funds)
with the initial budgets for 2007 (as contained in the 2007 EWI-
Budget Browser) and with the definitive funds for that year. In
2008, a sum of 30 million EUR has been provided from the Hermes
Fund (BA ED9911B – Fund for Subsidiary Economic Policy) for R&D
initiatives. 2.6 million EUR in LRM impulse financing has also been
set aside for extending the research activities at the transnational
University of Limburg (tUL).You will find the SP funds in the top half
and the R&D funds in the bottom half of the table.

Table 11: Comparison of initial funds in 2008 with initial and definitive funds in 2007 for the ‘actual science policy’, in particular, the SP funds
in the EWI policy area (until 2007: OA 71) and Education and Training (OV) (until 2007: organisation division OA 33), supplemented with
one-off special funds (million EUR)

2007 2007 2008 Increase vs. Increase vs.


‘Actual SP’
initial final initial 2007 initial 2007 final

EWI 608.248 611.192 692.180 83.932 80.988


BOF 100.444 100.726 102.161 1.717 1.435
Hermes fund – Innovation 30.000 30.000 30.000 0.000 0.000
Provisional budget – National Lottery 2.342 0.000 2.342 0.000 2.342
Impulse financing for tUL 2.600 2.600 2.600 0.000 0.000
OV (-BOF) 704.969 708.474 739.121 34.152 30.647
TOTAL ‘actual SP’ 1,448.603 1,452.992 1,568.404 119.801 115.412

2007 2007 2008 Increase vs. Increase vs.


‘Actual R&D’
initial final initial 2007 initial 2007 final

EWI 579.449 581.807 661.985 82.536 80.178


BOF 100.444 100.726 102.161 1.717 1.435
Hermes fund – Innovation 30.000 30.000 30.000 0.000 0.000
Provisional budget – National Lottery 2.342 0.000 0.000 – 2.342 0.000
Impulse financing for tUL 2.600 2.600 2.600 0.000 0.000
OV (-BOF) 178.953 179.823 191.487 12.534 11.665
TOTAL ‘actual R&D’ 893.788 894.956 988.233 94.445 93.278

30 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Chapter 2.2.

Science policy
in the other policy areas
The science policy within the other policy areas comprises those the universities. 7.170 million EUR has been provided globally here
science policy initiatives that do not come under the ‘actual science for the science policy.
policy’ (see Chapter 2.1). In other words, it is the science policy for
which the authority lies with the policy areas themselves, and that Foreign Affairs
authority is geared towards supporting and giving shape to the In the IV (Foreign Affairs) policy area too, there is cofinancing for a
‘actual science policy’. policy research centre: the Policy Research Centre for Foreign Policy,
Tourism and Recreation. Furthermore, in the Tourism programme
This policy is situated within all the policy areas, except EWI, which part of the subsidy to the Koninklijke Maatschappij voor Dierkunde
will be discussed point by point below. It represents 113.809 mil- (Royal Zoological Society) in Antwerp and part of the grant to Flan-
lion EUR: 7.2% of the total science and innovation policy. Of this, ders Tourism is provided for science policy. 2.398 million EUR has
63.531 million EUR is R&D funding, or 6.4% of the total volume been provided globally in 2008 for science policy. Furthermore, the
of R&D funds from the HBPWB (Horizontal Budget Programme for Tourism programme reserves part of the funds for the science policy,
Science Policy). both from the subsidy to the Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp
and the grant to Flanders Tourism. This amounts to 2.398 million
Of course, it is not the intention to explain each and every fund EUR globally in 2008.
from this section. For that, we would refer you to the website
www.speurgids.be, where you can consult all the detailed informa- Education and Training
tion per fund in the form of index cards. 3.806 million EUR has been provided to Science Policy (SP) funds
for other science policy initiatives in the OV (Education and Training)
Services for the General Government Policy policy area. This covers such things as the cofinancing of the Policy
The DAR (Services for the General Government Policy) policy area is Research Centre Education and School Careers and the subsidy to
providing 1.148 million EUR for research funds in 2008. This includes the OBPWO (Education Policy and Practical Scientific Research) and
such things as research funding for the Studiedienst van de Vlaamse the financing of expertise networks, regional platforms and specific
Regering and cofinancing for the policy research centres for Sustain- teacher-training projects.
able Development, Equal Opportunities Strategy and the Public
Administration in Flanders. Welfare, Public Health and Family
In 2008, the global Science Policy budget of the WVG (Welfare,
Administrative Affairs Public Health and Family) policy area amounts to 6.743 million EUR.
A research budget of 1.235 million EUR has been provided under the There are the subsidies to the Policy Research Centre for Welfare,
Administrative Affairs policy (BZ) area to finance research in relation Public Health and Family and to the Policy Research Centre for Envi-
to urban policy and civic integration, in addition to cofinancing the ronment and Health. The Louis Pasteur scientific Institute for Public
policy research centres Equal Opportunities Strategy and the Public Health also has an annual grant; there are also subsidies for the
Administration in Flanders. recognised centres for human heredity, the Royal Academy of Medi-
cine and for epidemiological research and indicator collection. Child
Finance and Budget and Family and the Flemish Agency for Persons with a Handicap also
A further 2.342 million EUR has been provided by way of provisional provide for a scientific research section within their own budgets.
funds to finance fundamental research. This is part of the expendi-
ture that will be financed with the nett income from the profits of Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
the National Lottery; it is expected that this will be siphoned over to Within this policy area (CJSM), a global science fund of 15.901 mil-
the FWO (Fund for Scientific Research). Part of the provisional fund lion EUR has been provided for 2008.There are science funds within
to carry out the Limburg Plan will be planned as science funding. the Arts and Heritage programmes, the grant to the Royal Museum
In addition, there are the cofinancing of the Policy Research Centre of Fine Arts and subsidies to private archives, documentation centres
Taxation and Budget and the interest charges on loans taken out by and custodial (reference) libraries. There is also the grant to the

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 31


Royal Academy for Dutch Language and Literature in Ghent, as well of Ecology, Nature and Energy, the Flemish public institutes of the
as the budgets for the Sport programmes (research into medically VLM, VMM and OVAM and the scientific institution, the Institute
responsible sports, medical sport examinations and doping control) for Nature and Forestry Research (INBO). The research priorities
and Media (expenditure on media innovation and part of the grant are promoted horizontally through the departments via strategic
to the VRT [Flemish Radio and Television]). Finally, there is cofinanc- projects within INBO. INBO started with three such projects in 2007:
ing for the Policy Research Centre for Culture, Youth and Sport. knowledge development, monitoring and stock-taking and, finally,
sustainable use and management.
Work and Social Economy
A budget of 0.398 million EUR is provided to science funds for stud- You can find detailed explanations of the 2007 funds for the scien-
ies and research within the WSE policy area. tific institutes of INBO, VMM, VLM, OVAM, Aquafin, the TWOL
research programme and the Flemish Infrastructure Fund (VIF) on
Agriculture and Fisheries www.speurgids.be.
As a Flemish Scientific institution, the Institute for Agricultural and
Fisheries Research (ILVO) occupies an import place here. Various Mobility and Public Works
funds have also been allocated to Agriculture, Fisheries and Country- Mobility studies, mobility agreements, research into harbour matters
side policy with which to finance the science policy, such as subsidies and expenditure on the Waterways Laboratory and Hydrological re-
to practice centres for agriculture and horticulture, agriculture search are covered by the MOW (Mobility and Public Works) policy
chambers, comicen [subsidised agricultural companies], horticultural area. A total of 4.637 million EUR in science funds has been planned
associations, monitoring services and subsidies in the interests of here for science policy.
agriculture and horticulture. There is the subsidy to VLAM – the
Flemish Centre for Agro- and Fishery Marketing. Overall, 22.507 Town and Country Planning, Housing Policy and Immovable Herit-
million EUR has been planned for the science policy. age (RWO)
The grant to the scientific institute Flemish Heritage Institute (VIOE)
Environment, Nature and Energy is the largest science fund of the RWO policy area. VIOE manages
A total of 37.487 million EUR has been programmed for science and protects the archaeological heritage in Flanders and conducts
funds in this policy area. Research is being financed both from the scientific research on it. There is also cofinancing for the Policy
general budgets (General, Nature, Forestry and Greenery and Energy Research Centre for Spatial Planning and Housing. Here, the total
programmes) and from the MINA Fund (Fund for Prevention and science funding amounts to 7.665 million EUR.
Redevelopment concerning Environment and Nature).
Higher Entities
To bring cohesion to the multitude of research subjects, funds and There is one fund here: the science budget of the viWTA – the Flem-
patrons, an Applied Scientific Ecological Research programme – or ish Institute for Scientific and Technological Assessment – amount-
TWOL – is drawn up annually. The TWOL programme aims at cohe- ing to 1.259 million EUR. This is part of the grant for the Flemish
sive organisation of the research projects by the various departments Parliament.

32 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Chapter 2.3.

Analysis of the Horizontal


Budget Programme
for Science Policy
2.3.1. Period of time new initiatives, the total Science Policy fund planned for 2008
Table 12 and figure 10 illustrate the evolution of the government amounts 1.682 billion EUR. The dip that can be seen in 2007 is
funds for science and innovation policy. Successive govern- mainly due to the fact that the one-off fund of 75 million EUR to
ments have made science policy a priority and have provided the the Flemish Innovation Fund (VINNOF) in 2005 and 2006 was
requisite funds for it. Partly with the aid of the 75 million EUR in not repeated.

Table 12: Evolution of the Horizontal Budget Programme for Science Policy (HBPWB) (in million EUR)

1993 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008i

R&D 326.78 575.12 595.68 625.07 711.26 770.69 820.67 898.64 967.95 952.67 1,051.45
STET 365.13 443.82 454.10 463.81 482.41 497.54 504.05 517.91 532.92 531.17 551.06
STS 31.88 88.04 77.27 76.79 75.13 66.97 68.16 72.28 75.10 77.52 79.39
SP 723.79 1,106.98 1,127.06 1,165.67 1,268.80 1,335.20 1,392.87 1,488.83 1,575.97 1,561.36 1,681.90

Figure 10: Evolution of the Horizontal Budget Programme for Science Policy (HBPWB) (in million EUR)

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 33


2.3.2. According to policy area icy area, split up into research and development (R&D) and science
In 2008, the global fund for the HBPWB (Horizontal Budget Pro- and technology services (STS). For the definitions, see above. The
gramme for Science Policy) amounts to 1.682 billion EUR, of which apportionment in table 13 strictly follows the expenditure budget.
1.051 billion is for research funds. Compared to the definitive funds This means that the funds for the EWI Hermes Fund are accounted
for 2007, this is an increase in the science budget of 120.5 million for; the BOF (Special Research Fund) funds in the policy area of
EUR and in the R&D budget of 98.8 million EUR. Compared to the Education and Training (OV) and the expected increase of 2.342 mil-
definitive funds for 2006, the increases are respectively 105.9 million lion EUR for the FWO (Fund for Scientific Research – Flanders) from
and 83.5 million EUR. the income from the National Lottery profits have been allocated to
the provisional fund in the Finance and Budget (FB) policy area. The
These budgets are spread over all the policy areas alluded to above. tUL impulse financing is mentioned separately, following the same
The policy areas of EWI and OV (Education and Training) account reasoning.
jointly for 93.4% of the total HBPWB. Of course, the science policy
in the other policy areas is important for supporting and giving sub- Figure 11 shows the percentage ratios of the funds for the science
stance to their own policy. Table 13 shows the total SP fund per pol- policy between the various policy areas.

Table 13: Distribution of the Horizontal Budget Programme for Science Policy (HBPWB) over the policy areas (in million EUR)

SP R&D STET STS

OV 848.567 296.984 548.611 2.973


EWI 722.180 691.985 0.000 30.195
LNE 37.487 18.095 0.017 19.375
LV 22.507 14.292 0.000 8.215
CJSM 15.901 3.908 0.000 11.993
RWO 7.665 4.954 0.000 2.712
FB 7.170 4.538 2.426 0.205
WVG 6.743 5.086 0.003 1.654
MOW 4.637 4.251 0.000 0.387
IV 2.398 1.151 0.000 1.248
BZ 1.235 1.235 0.000 0.000
DAR 1.148 1.148 0.000 0.000
WSE 0.398 0.398 0.000 0.000
Higher Entities 1.259 0.823 0.000 0.436
LRM impulse financing tUL 2.600 2.600 0.000 0.000
TOTAL 1,681.895 1,051.447 551.057 79.392

34 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Figure 11: Distribution of the science and innovation policy funds in 2008 over the 13 policy areas

DAR Services for the General Government Policy


BZ Administrative Affairs
FB Finance and Budget
IV Foreign Affairs
EWI Economy, Science and Innovation
OV Education and Training
WVG Welfare, Public Health and Family
CJSM Culture, Youth, Sport and Media
WSE Work and Social Economy
LV Agriculture and Fisheries
LNE Environment, Nature and Energy
MOW Mobility and Public Works
RWO Town and Country Planning, Housing Policy and Immovable Heritage
Higher Ent. Higher Entities
Impulsf. tUL LRM impulse financing tUL

Figure 12 shows that the R&D funds are apportioned somewhat operational subsidies to the universities are composed of 25% R&D
differently over the EWI and OV policy areas. The OV policy area and 75% STET (Education and Training), EWI is the policy area that
has the largest volume of science funds of all. However, because the contains the largest volume of R&D funds.

Figure 12: Distribution of the R&D funds in 2008 over the 13 policy areas

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 35


2.3.3. According to NABS classification policy: fundamental research as the basis for an ongoing technologi-
Figure 13 divides up the whole budget for the 2008 science policy cal innovation policy. The other NABS categories together comprise
according to the new NABS classification. NABS stands for Nomen- the other 12.3% of the R&D budget.
clature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes
and Budgets and is an EU classification system that subdivides the In accordance with the socio-economic objectives, it is also possible
government funds for R&D according to socio-economic objectives. to classify the civil R&D funds (thus, without defence research) as
A review of the standard NABS 1993 classification became necessary follows: economic development, health and environment (social
because of the rapid developments in some of the research areas. structures, protection of the environment and exploitation of the
The new NABS 2007 classification comes into effect this year. An im- earth), space programmes, non-oriented research and general uni-
portant advantage of this classification of R&D funds is that it makes versity funds. The Flemish government does not finance defence re-
international comparisons possible – see further in Chapter 3.2. search, which means this budget for Flanders consequently concerns
Figure 13 shows the distribution of the HBPWB for 2008 according the total GBAORD (Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays
to the new NABS 2007 classification. for R&D). Other countries finance for a considerable part this type of
research: in 2006 France spent 22.4% of the total R&D budget on
The largest volume of funds in 2008 goes to NABS 6 – industrial defence, Spain 16.6%, Sweden 16.8%, the UK 28.3% and finally,
production and technology: 409.6 million EUR or 38.77%. This the leader in the field – the USA with 56.9%.
category appeared to be the largest in 2007 as well. Then follows
NABS 13 – general advancement of knowledge: R&D financed The NABS classes can be aggregated into larger categories: economic
from other sources, with 305.7 million EUR (28.9%) and thereafter, development, health and environment (social structures, protection
NABS12, R&D financed from general university funds, with 210.8 of the environment and exploitation of the terrestrial environment),
million EUR (19.9%). Indeed, NABS 6 on the one hand and NABS space-travel programmes, non-oriented research and general university
12 and 13 on the other constitute the two major poles of the science funds.

Figure 13: Distribution of the 2008 R&D budget according to the new NABS 2007 classification
NABS 2007 is the name of the new NABS classification and replaces the previous NABS 1993 classification.

■ 1. Exploration and exploitation of the earth


■ 2. Environment
■ 4. Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures
■ 6. Industrial production and technology
■ 7. Health
■ 8. Agriculture
■ 9. Education
■ 10. Culture, recreation, religion and mass media
■ 11. Political and social systems, structures and processes
■ 12. General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from general university funds (GUF)
■ 13. General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from other sources

36 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Figure 14 shows the developments between 1997 and 2008.

Figure 14: Evolution of the proportions of R&D expenditure by the Flemish government between research relating to economic development,
health and environment, non-oriented (pure) research and general university funds between 1997 and 2008

It can be seen that the financing of research for economic develop- and environment also decreased, whilst the percentage share of
ment increases proportionately; in 1997 this still represented 33% non-oriented research is more or less the same over time.
– but in 2008, no less than 44%. The relative share of research
financed from general university funds decreased – from 28% in Figure 14 once again shows the almost 50/50 ratio between non-
1997 to 20% in 2008. The percentage share of research into health oriented and oriented research.

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 37


2.3.4. According to the six major categories
Table 14 shows the apportionment of the total HBPWB budget over
the six major categories, as well as the sharp rise in the period 1993-
2008. There are spectacular increases in non-oriented research and
the operational subsidies to the universities on the one hand and in
industrial research on the other.

Table 14: Distribution of the total Horizontal Budget Programme for Science Policy (HBPWB) (in million EUR)

supporting research
Industrial research

initiatives, policy-
services and VOIs
similar institutes

Govt. institutes,
universities and

science policy
Non-oriented

departments,
Operation of

Horizontal
research

Global
Year Total

1993 76.866 486.821 120.864 15.122 17.337 6.780 723.790


1994 81.487 547.837 133.743 19.246 27.092 11.140 820.545
1995 89.248 544.767 121.855 19.217 25.419 7.350 807.855
1996 106.930 551.373 146.549 40.183 28.333 17.921 891.288
1997 124.926 547.649 178.442 39.890 29.850 22.099 942.855
1998 137.439 553.162 207.867 40.380 41.704 32.704 1,013.256
1999 155.727 584.855 219.446 45.813 39.338 61.800 1,106.979
2000 171.906 600.460 216.199 54.372 43.771 40.348 1,127.056
2001 180.526 612.778 227.163 52.917 68.867 23.417 1,165.667
2002 190.964 641.860 292.746 48.983 67.338 26.911 1,268.801
2003 195.554 664.778 330.105 71.795 50.500 22.465 1,335.196
2004 218.288 676.164 378.606 65.300 31.201 23.314 1,392.873
2005 233.359 694.729 433.491 69.029 33.857 24.365 1,488.829
2006 256.512 718.485 465.475 72.741 36.434 26.325 1,575.972
2007 276.254 716.167 427.392 74.491 37.070 29.982 1,561.357
2008 300.210 750.445 474.496 77.185 38.515 41.046 1,681.895

Figure 15 shows the apportionment of the whole budget for the


science policy (HBPWB) for 2008 over the six categories. The opera-
tion of universities and similar institutes is split up into university
operational subsidies, other subsidies to universities and other
similar institutes. The operational subsidies to universities account
for 39.5% of the total science budget. The funds for non-oriented Figure 15: Distribution of the funds for the 2008 science policy
research at the universities take up 17.8% and industrial research (HBPWB)
accounts for 28.2%.

■ Non-oriented research
■ Industrial research
■ Operational university subsidies
■ Govt. institutes, departments, services and VOIs
■ Other institutes
■ Global science policy
■ Other university subsidies
■ Horizontal initiatives, policy-supporting research

38 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Below, the major global expenditure items are grouped according to accordance with the university’s research policy. The budgets for the
the aforementioned six categories. You will find the full time period IWT Flanders specialisation grants and for FWO Flanders mandates
of the HBPWB on the website www.speurgids.be. and projects are indirectly distributed by those intermediaries. The
IWT specialisation grants are also in the table for non- oriented
1. Non-oriented research at the universities research – they are after all doctorate grants. There is a global rise of
Table 15 comprises the funds for groundbreaking, non-oriented re- 23.352 million EUR compared to 2007.
search at universities. The funds for the Special Research Fund (BOF)
go directly to the universities and research council distributes them in

Table 15: Non-oriented research for 2008 at the universities (in million EUR)

2008

IWT specialisation grants 26.019


FWO Flanders 117.182
FWO Flanders (National Lottery) 9.370
FWO Flanders – provisional budget (National Lottery) 2.342
FWO Flanders – international research facilities 2.273
Odysseus programme 12.344
Hercules – financing of (medium-)heavy research infrastructure (50%)* 7.500
Hercules – management remuneration (50%)* 0.3035
BOF subsidy 104.661
Methusalem programme 15.194
ZAP mandates 3.021
TOTAL 300.210

*Half of the grant to the Hercules Foundation in 2008 for the financing of medium-heavy and heavy infrastructure, amounting to 15 million
EUR, and the management remuneration of 0.607 million EUR, goes to non-oriented research, while the other half goes to strategic basic
research.

Figure 16: Distribution of the non-oriented research 2008 The distribution of funds for non-oriented research in 2008 goes
47.8% via the FWO (Fund for Scientific Research), 40.9% via the
BOF, 8.7% via the IWT and 2.6% via the Hercules Foundation (50%
of the grant).

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 39


2. Operation of universities and equivalent institutes

Table 16: Operation of universities and equivalent institutes (in million EUR)

Operational subsidies to universities Funds 2008

Catholic University of Brussels (KUBrussel) 3.912


Catholic University of Louvain (KULeuven) 232.771
University of Hasselt (UHasselt) 24.255
transnational University of Limburg (tUL) 0.668
University of Ghent (UGent) 204.687
University of Antwerp (UA) 88.535
Free University of Brussels (VUB) 79.649
Total operational subsidies 634.477
Funds for the academic content of graduate courses + funds for library digitalisation 14.662
LRM impulse financing for tUL 2.600
Strengthening of the involvement of research in academic courses at institutes of higher education* 11.775
Subsidy to the associations 0.508
TOTAL 664.022

Other subsidies to universities Funds 2008

Financial burdens of universities 3.235


Real estate investments of universities 25.898
Subsidy for the social facilities of students 15.441
Employer contributions for free universities 23.429
TOTAL 68.003

Other similar institutes Funds 2008

Faculty of the protestant Theology (Brussels) 0.319


Institute of Jewish studies (IJOS) 0.163
Evangelical Theological Faculty (ETF) 0.150
Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School 1.819
Institute of Tropical Medecine “Prins Leopold” (I.T.G.) 10.527
Institute of Development Policy and Management (IOB) 2.025
Institute for European Studies (IES) 1.517
Post initial education 1.900
TOTAL 18.420

* To strengthen the involvement of research in academic courses at institutes of higher education, an additional 5.275 million EUR has been
allocated in subsidies to the Education and Training policy area in 2008, apart from the 6.5 million EUR from the EWI policy area.

The subsidies for the universities take up a major portion of In application of the new financing decree, the 2008 budget
the funds for the science policy. The initial funds for 2008 will probably be raised even further during the course of
amount to 634.477 million EUR, an increase of 20.198 mil- 2008. To be absolutely clear, we are referring to the initial
lion EUR. Of this amount, 75% is for education and training budget funds for 2008, as with all 2008 funds that are men-
(STET), while 25% goes to research and development (R&D). tioned in this publication.

40 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Figure 17: Distribution of the operational subsidies to the universities in 2008 (on the basis of initial budget funds)

Figure 18: Evolution of the operational subsidies to the universities and supplementary funds (initial budget funds for 2008) (in million EUR)

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 41


3. Financing of research and development of new technologies for
the industry

Table 17: Funds for oriented industrial research (in million EUR)

2008

IWT – Initiative of the Flemish government 44.434


IWT – Initiative of industry and innovation cooperative ventures 123.860
IWT – Innovative media projects 11.263
IWT – Flemish Innovation Network (VIN) 0.841
IWT – Flemish participation in the European programmes (Flemish point of contact -VCP) 0.283
IWT – Operation 11.848
IWT – Agricultural research 9.602
IWT – TETRA Fund 8.899
IWT – Biomedical research 6.000
IWT – Strategic basic research (SBO) 38.604
IMEC (Interuniversity Micro-Electronic Centre) 43.976
VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) 39.754
VIB (Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology) 38.771
IBBT (Interdisciplinary Institute for BroadBand Technology) 23.476
Innovation (Hermes fund) 30.000
Industrial Research Fund (IOF) 16.699
Project-based Scientific Research (PWO) 9.500
Hercules – financing (medium-) heavy research infrastructure (50%)* 7.500
Hercules – management remuneration (50%)* 0.3035
Interface services 2.762
Flanders DC 2.410
STV (Foundation Technology Flanders) 2.270
Limburg plan 1.440
TOTAL 474.496

* Half of the grant to the Hercules Foundation in 2008 for the financing of medium-heavy and heavy infrastructure, amounting to 15 million
EUR, and the management remuneration of 0.607 million EUR, goes to non-oriented research, while the other half goes to strategic basic
research.

Table 17 shows an overview and evolution of the funds for ori- centres IMEC, VITO, VIB and IBBT account for a volume of funds
ented industrial research. Here, the funds amount to 474.8 million of 145.977 million EUR in 2008, an increase of 10.429 million.
EUR in 2008. A considerable portion of these funds is managed by There are also structural budget increases for IMEC and VITO (see
the IWT: 255.634 million EUR. The funds for the strategic research Chapter 1.3).

42 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Figure 19: Distribution of the funds for oriented industrial research in 2008

■ IWT ■ Hercules (50%)


■ SOCs ■ Interface services
■ Innovation (Hermes) ■ Flanders DC
■ IOF ■ STV
■ PWO ■ Limburg plan

After the dip in 2007 due to not repeating the 75 million EUR for the research in 2008 rises above the 2006 level.
VINNOF to finance innovation projects via venture capital, industrial

Table 18: Scientific institutes, departmental divisions and Flemish Public Institutions (VOIs) (in million EUR)

2008

Flemish Heritage Institute (VIOE) 5.534


Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) 12.980
Royal Museum for Fine Arts - Antwerp (KMSKA) 5.504
Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO) 16.970
Flemish Institute for Scientific and Technological Assessment (viWTA) 1.259
Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) 2.900
VRT 5.759
Scientific Institute of Public Health – Louis Pasteur 0.987
Child and Family (Kind en Gezin) 0.165
Flemish Agency for Persons with a Handicap (VAPH) 0.231
Royal Zoological Society of Antwerp (KMDA) 2.619
Tourism Flanders 0.312
Public Environmental Agency of Flanders (VMM) 10.771
Public Waste Agency (OVAM) 1.315
AQUAFIN 4.204
Flemish Land Agency (VLM) 1.059
Environment and Nature Fund – MINA 631B1223 1.255
Hydrological Laboratory 2.439
Dutch Language Union 0.760
Institute of Plant Biotechnology for Developing Countries (IPBO) 0.091
International Centre for Reproductive Health (ICRH) 0.071
TOTAL 77.185

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 43


4. Scientific institutes, departmental divisions and Flemish Public cofinancing for the Policy Research Centre for Entrepreneurship and
Institutions (VOIs) International Entrepreneurship (0.267 million).
Here, the funds are distributed over the scientific institutes, certain
departmental divisions or Flemish Public Institutions (VOIs) that also Table 19: Horizontal initiatives and policy-supporting research and
undertake research and the provision of scientific services. In 2008, studies (in million EUR)
funds are mentioned here totalling 77.185 million EUR. Table 18
2008
gives a summary of these scientific institutes, departmental divisions
and VOIs and the corresponding budget. DAR 1.236
BZ 0.586
5. Horizontal initiatives and policy-supporting research and studies
FB 0.153
The funds for policy-supporting research and policy-oriented initia-
IV 0.295
tives from the horizontal science policy are included here and jointly
account for 38.515 million EUR. However, this does not cover the EWI 0.318
funds for the policy-relevant research carried out in all kinds of insti- OV 10.196
tutes, such as the Flemish scientific institutes, since these are covered WVG 5.189
in category 4. The funds for the policy research centres are taken
CJSM 4.375
into account, however.
WSE 0.398
After 2007, these initiatives have been classified according to the 13 LV 5.537
new policy areas as outlined by BBB (Better Administrative Policy). LNE 5.903
The funds have risen steadily over the last few years, reaching 38.515 MOW 2.198
million EUR in 2008. At the 2007 budget control, new additional
RWO 2.131
funds were allocated in the budget in the policy area of Education and
Training (OV). These are STET funds via subsidies for specific projects TOTAL 38.515
within the framework of teacher training and for financing expertise
networks and regional platforms in relation to the decree on teacher
training in Flanders, amounting to 2.479 million EUR in 2008. 6. A variety of expenditure related to the general science policy
These cover the initiatives in support of the science policy as a
The funds mentioned here from the EWI policy area are the R&D whole. The advisory bodies have been included here, since they sup-
funds for the study of sustainable enterprise (0.051 million) and the port the global policy for science and technology.

Table 20: A variety of expenditure related to the general science policy (in million EUR)

2008

Royal Academy for Medicine 0.171


Royal Academy for Sciences, Literature and Fine Arts 1.144
Royal Academy for Dutch Language and Literature – Ghent (KANTL) 0.263
Flemish Council for Science Policy (VRWB) 0.749
Conception, preparation and execution of scientific actions 1.185
Flemish electronic network 3.069
Publication of the science policy 3.426
International scientific co-operation 5.996
Flanders Technology International (FTI) Foundation 3.974
Inventarisation and valorisation of science and technology research (VIA) 0.050
Inventory of Scientific and Technological Research (IWETO) 0.259
Policy research centres 10.353
Various communications initiatives, with regard to science, technology and innovation 0.143
Expertise centres 1.744
“Human capital for science, technology and innovation” action plan 8.170
Participation to the European VISION ERA-Net 0.350
TOTAL 41.046

44 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


Chapter 2.4.

Expenditure analysis of the


Science and Innovation Policy
The Horizontal Budget Programme for Science Policy (HBPWB) most important global results follow here, with details only where
indicates for a particular year how much money is earmarked for necessary.
science policy according to plan, and for what activities. Where the
HBPWB is looking ahead, the expenditure analysis will on the other For certain Basic Allocations, for which global subsidies or grants for
hand check whether the money budgeted has indeed been spent, institutes are recorded, no detailed analysis has been made. This is
and on what precisely. the case with FWO Flanders and IWT and for the strategic research
centres and the Flemish Scientific institutes. They each have their
An accurate understanding of the expenditure is a basic parameter own account management system, which cannot supply further
for being able to meet future needs. It might appear that a project details via the Financial System.
did not get off the ground or was postponed, or cost more than was
envisaged, that certain sums of money were used for different pur- Finally, we would also mention that for IWT and the Hermes Fund,
poses. It should be remembered that an ad-hoc adjustment on the only the allocation authorisations have been taken into account and
grounds of a re-orientation of the policy accents during the course not the grants, because the HBPWB is always based on the descrip-
of the year is part of the normal course of affairs. The interaction tion of the actual policy area. The complete allocation authorisations
between the HBPWB and the expenditure analysis enables a deeper have been included; how these funds are paid out is published in the
understanding and better orientation when drawing up the subse- annual reports.
quent budget. Thus, the information obtained via the Horizontal
Budget Programme for Science Policy can be essentially supplement- Table 21 compares the global science policy budget, whereby
ed and completed – so that the expenditure of all funds on science, a distinction is made between initial and definitive funds,
technology and innovation can be properly evaluated. with the actual Science Policy funds allocated. The last
column shows the percentage that was officially ordered for
Of course, it is impossible to discuss the expenditure analyses payment. This is the section for which the instruction to pay
for the previous three years in detail. For this reason, the three was given.

Table 21: Evolution of the initial, definitive, allocated and ordinanced Science Policy (SP) funds for HBPWB, 1997-2006

Allocated
Initial Final Allocated
SP vs. % ordinanced of the
Budget year SP budget SP budget SP budget
final SP allocated SP budget
(million EUR) (million EUR) (million EUR)
budget (%)

1997 943.23 942.86 940.45 99.7 94.0


1998 1,013.64 1,006.71 1,003.05 99.6 93.9
1999 1,107.30 1,122.06 1,099.60 99.4 91.7
2000 1,131.16 1,127.06 1,120.94 99.5 92.5
2001 1,155.549 1,165.669 1,147.899 98.5 88.7
2002 1,214.279 1,268.801 1,256.331 99.0 97.6
2003 1,321.910 1,335.197 1,326.806 99.4 95.3
2004 1,418.101 1,392.873 1,367.665 99.2 93.4
2005 1,486.495 1,488.829 1,485.631 99.8 93.4
2006 1,573.737 1,575.972 1,570.561 99.8 90.2

PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY 45


Figure 20: Evolution of the initial, definitive, allocated and ordinanced Science Policy (SP) funds for HBPWB, 1997-2006 (million EUR)

There is clearly a very good correlation between the planned during the course of the year following. But not all payments
and the finally allocated SP fund. With regard to the ordi- of allocations made had already been carried out then: the
nanced SP fund (ordered for payment) we would point out actual amount is therefore higher and closer to the allocated
that the expenditure analysis of the budget year was done fund.

46 PART 2 • SCIENCE AND INNOVATION POLICY


R&D Government
Expenditure for Flanders
in the International Context

Part 3
At the European Top, which took place in Lisbon in March of 2000, Flanders fully supports this European ambition, and it translated this
the goal of making Europe the most competitive, knowledge-based objective within a Flemish context through the so-called Innovation
economy of the world by the end of 2010 was announced. To be able Pact. This pact was signed in March 2003, and it contains a formal
to realise this, a further step was taken at the Top in Barcelona (March engagement by all involved actors in the Flemish innovation landscape
2002), where it was decided that the objective for 2010 is to increase (government, business community, universities and research institutes)
R&D expenditures (GERD) by 3% of the GDP (Gross domestic prod- to jointly realise this 3% objective by means of complementary efforts.
uct) in the EU. Research and development do, after all, play a crucial
role in the development of a flourishing economy. As an additional This section examines in detail the expenditure on R&D by Flanders,
objective, it was decided that one third of the R&D expenditures must in particular that of the Flemish government, and compares it with
be financed by government and the other two thirds by industry. that of other countries.

Chapter 3.1.

International comparison of the


government’s expenditure on
R&D (GBAORD)
The government’s expenditure is expressed in GBAORD (Govern- input for R&D. Table 22 shows an international comparison of the
ment Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D), these being the GBAORD as a percentage of GDP. The calculation method of the
government funds available for R&D. It is an indicator used by the Flemish figure is explained in Chapter 3.2.
OECD and EUROSTAT, which gives an idea of the government’s

Table 22: International comparison of government expenditure on R&D (GBAORD), expressed as a percentage of GD(R)P

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008i

Flanders* 0.61% 0.64% 0.67% 0,67% 0.68% 0.70% 0.67% 0.69%


Belgium 0.59% 0.60% 0.61% 0,59% 0.60% 0.61% 0.61%
Germany 0.78% 0.78% 0.79% 0,77% 0.77% 0.77% no data
France 0.99% 1.00% 0.99% 0,96% 0.97% 1.02% no data
United Kingdom 0.68% 0.77% 0.76% 0,71% 0.73% 0.75% no data
Ireland 0.32% 0.33% 0.34% 0,44% 0.47% 0.48% no data
Netherlands 0.75% 0.74% 0.74% 0,73% 0.70% 0.72% 0.71%
Denmark 0.75% 0.73% 0.73% 0,72% 0.71% 0.72% 0.78%
Finland 0.97% 0.96% 1.00% 1,01% 1.03% 1.00% 0.99%
Sweden 0.84% 0.90% 0.95% 0,90% 0.89% 0.87% no data
Italy 0.68% no data no data no data 0.67% 0.62% no data
Portugal 0.60% 0.67% 0.61% 0,64% 0.73% 0.72% 0.76%
Spain 0.66% 0.74% 0.73% 0,80% 0.84% 0.99% no data
United States 0.91% 0.99% 1.05% 1,09% 1.06% 1.04% 1.03%
Japan 0.70% 0.72% 0.73% 0,72% 0.71% 0.70% no data
EU-25 0.73% 0.75% 0.74% 0,74% 0.73% 0.74% no data
EU-27 0.72% 0.74% 0.73% 0,73% 0.72% 0.73% no data

Source: OECD – MSTI 2007-2


* Flemish government R&D funds + 56 % of the federal R&D funds (variant 2 – see chapter 3.2)

48 PART 3 • R&D-GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR FLANDERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT


It is clear that the figures for the government’s R&D expenditure, According to the socio-economic objectives, we can categorise the
expressed as % GDP, do not rise everywhere year after year. In some civil R&D funds (this is the GBAORD without defence R&D) as fol-
countries it stagnates, in others there is even a drop over several lows:
years. If we compare the latest figures from the selected countries • Economic development;
with Flanders (figure 21), then we can see that Flanders scores lower • Health and Environment (This should be interpreted broadly:
than the EU27 average as regards government R&D funds. control and care of the environment, exploration and exploitation
of earth, as well as social structures and relationships);
It should also be pointed out that certain countries provide a sub- • Space R&D programmes;
stantial proportion of their R&D expenditure for defence (see also • Non-oriented research;
the explanation of the NABS analysis in Chapter 2.3). The USA is the • General university funds.
leader in this regard with 56.9% of their R&D budget for defence
in 2006, the UK 28.3%, France 22.4%, Sweden 16.8% and Spain
16.6%. The Flemish government finances absolutely no research in
the defence sector.

Figure 21: International comparison of government expenditure on R&D (GBAORD), expressed as a percentage of GD(R)P

Source: OECD – MSTI 2007-2


Year: Flanders: 2008; Belgium, Netherlands, Portugal, Denmark, Finland and the USA: 2007; other countries and EU-27 average: 2006
Flanders*: Flemish government funds + 56 % of the federal funds

PART 3 • R&D-GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR FLANDERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 49


Figure 22 compares Flanders International with the ratios of the the largest portion of research financing towards economic develop-
aforementioned categories per country compared with the total ment – more than 44% On the other hand, the Flemish govern-
civilian GBAORD. The countries are arranged in order of decreasing ment does not finance any research that is directly related to space
share of economic development. It is striking that the Flemish gov- exploration programmes. Helped by funds from the Federal science
ernment, compared with the other countries listed, directs relatively policy budget, Belgium does score highly here: 10.5%.

Figure 22: International comparison of the civil GBAORD (exc. defence research): ratios of economic development, health and environment,
space programmes, non-oriented research and general university funds

Source: OECD – MSTI 2007-2


Year: Flanders: 2008; Netherlands, Portugal, Denmark, Finland and the USA: 2007; other countries in the EU-27 average: 2006
Flanders*: Only Flemish government funds

50 PART 3 • R&D-GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR FLANDERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT


Chapter 3.2.

The R&D intensity in Flanders

The R&D intensity – the percentage of gross domestic (regional)


product GD(R)P appropriated to R&D – is calculated on the basis
of the results from the biennial OECD R&D surveys. For the 2006
survey (2004-2005 period) the results are published by the Policy
Research Centre for R&D Indicators in the 2007 Indicatorenboek
(Indicators Book) (table 23). After the drop in R&D intensity (GERD/
GD(R)P) in the period 2001-2004, the tide appears to be turning
and the total R&D expenditure rises again slightly in 2005.

Table 23: Evolution of R&D intensity in Flanders

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

GERDgew1/GDRP 2.38 2.17 2.09 2.03 2.09


2
GERDgem /GDRP 2.43 2.22 2.13 2.07 2.13

Source: Indicatorenboek (Indicators Book) 2007, Policy Research Centre for R&D Indicators
1. GERDgew: region-based calculation of GERD. The R&D expenditures of the Flemish institutes located in the Brussels-Capital Region are not
taken into account.
2. GERDgem: community-based calculation of GERD. The R&D expenditures of the Flemish institutes located in the Brussels-Capital Region
are taken into account. This calculation results in a higher value of the total R&D intensity for Flanders.

For the period 2006-2008, however, there are no survey data avail- tional comparison of the GBAORD. When calculating Flanders’
able yet, nor any alternative sources of information. Consequently, share in the Federal government funds, two formulae are used
for the present purpose, as in the 2007 Budget Browser, a calculation (F=Flemish):
is included to approximate the results for the most recent years. Of • 35.5%F European Space Agency (Source: Flemish Council for
course, a certain circumspection is justifiable for this approximative Science Policy – VRWB) and 56% for the rest of the Federal
method, as data are being put together which are obtained through R&D funds;
two different methodologies. • 56%F: the general formula for the federal science funds used
until now.
The combined efforts of the government are calculated here by
working out different variants. 3. The efforts of the Flemish government + the Flemish share in the
Federal government funds + the Flemish share in the funds of the
1. The efforts of the Flemish government by itself EU research programmes (Framework programmes)
This is the Flemish GBAORD in the strict sense, financed by the With variant 2, the Flemish return from the EU research programmes
Flemish government alone; can also be counted, since here too it is a question of R&D activities
financed with government funds. However, the result can no longer
2. The efforts of the Flemish government+ the Flemish share in the be considered as GBAORD, but is actually a third variant that can
Federal government funds be used for calculating the publicly financed portion of the R&D
In Flanders, R&D activities are also financed with Federal govern- intensity.
ment R&D funds. When this share of the Federal government
is counted into the Flemish GBAORD in the strict sense (1), a The final public financed share of the R&D expenditure as meas-
GBAORD is obtained for Flanders that is possibly closer to reality. ured via the R&D survey, is situated in between these three variants
This variant is consequently the most suitable for an interna- (figure 23).

PART 3 • R&D-GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR FLANDERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 51


Figure 23: Comparison of publicly financed R&D intensity (R&D The efforts from industry are calculated through the BERD (ex-
survey) with approximative calculation via GBAORD (variants 1, 2 penditure on R&D in the business enterprise sector), expressed as a
and 3)
percentage of GDP, as obtained from the R&D surveys of the profit
sector. For the period 2006-2008, for which no survey data are
available yet, the same figure as that for 2005 is kept.

The results of this exercise are illustrated in table 24. If we look at


the R&D funds of the Flemish government, then – after the regres-
sion in 2007 – we see a sharp rise in the absolute figures in 2008,
mainly due to the extra 75 million EUR in new structural policy funds
and accents in 2008. Taking the HBPWB as a whole, government
R&D funds have increased by 98.8 million EUR to 1.051 billion EUR.
In spite of these considerable government efforts, the 1% norm
(bottom half of table 24: variants 1, 2 and 3 without BERD) is clearly
not yet in sight.

If we only look at the R&D expenditure under the Flemish govern-


ment budget, then we will see in figure 24 that, after the dip in
2007, the 2006 level is reached again in 2008. Nevertheless, the
government’s R&D expenditure rose by 83.5 million EUR in two
years; in other words, the rise in the Flemish GDP is an important
factor in the final settlement.

Figure 24: Evolution of the % R&D/GDP Flanders, taking only the Flemish government’s funds into account (variant 1)

52 PART 3 • R&D-GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR FLANDERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT


Table 24: Evolution of R&D efforts and R&D efforts as a percentage of GD(R)P by the Flemish government

R&D budget
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
(in million EUR)

Flemish government (1) 625.071 711.258 770.687 820.666 898.638 967.954 952.670 1,051.447
Flemish share of Federal
240.052 235.515 252.597 248.878 233.595 252.013 260.604 260.604
government (2)
Flemish share of Federal
272.383 268.151 279.271 282.974 259.004 286.184 298.690 298.690
Government (3)
Total F + Fed (2) 865.123 946.773 1,023.284 1,069.544 1,132.233 1,219.967 1,213.274 1,312.051
Total F + Fed (3) 897.454 979.409 1,049.958 1,103.640 1,157.642 1,254.138 1,251.360 1,350.137
Flemish share EU (4) 70.723 70.723 88.250 88.250 88.250 88.250 88.250 88.250
F + Fed (2) + EU 935.845 1,017.495 1,111.534 1,157.794 1,220.483 1,308.217 1,301.524 1,400.301
F + Fed (3) + EU 968.177 1,050.131 1,138.208 1,191.890 1,245.892 1,342.388 1,339.610 1,438.387
GDRP (5) in million EUR 147,999.4 152,714.9 157,115.1 164,948.3 170,266.2 179,050.9 187,564.8 195,716.4

R&D as a
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
% of GDRP

Flemish government (1) 0.42 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.53 0.54 0.51 0.54
F + Federal government (2) 0.58 0.62 0.65 0.65 0.66 0.68 0.65 0.67
F + Federal government (3) 0.61 0.64 0.67 0.67 0.68 0.70 0.67 0.69
F + Fed (2) + EU 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.70 0.72 0.73 0.69 0.72
F + Fed (3) + EU 0.65 0.69 0.72 0.72 0.73 0.75 0.71 0.73
BERD (6) 1.84 1.61 1.51 1.42 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46
Total F + BERD 2.26 2.08 2.00 1.92 1.99 2.00 1.97 2.00
Total govt. (2) + BERD 2.47 2.28 2.22 2.12 2.18 2.19 2.15 2.18
Total govt. (3) + BERD 2.49 2.30 2.23 2.14 2.19 2.21 2.17 2.19

(1) Flemish government, as defined in the HBPWB – final budgets 2001-2007; initial budget 2008;
(2) Flemish share in the Federal government R&D funds: ESA distribution key at 35.5% Flemish (source: VRWB – Flemish Indicators Book
2005) and the rest of Federal government R&D funds at 56% Flemish. Federal government R&D funds: source: CFS/STAT. For 2007 and 2008:
initial budget of 2007 used;
(3) Flemish share in the Federal R&D funds, according to the distribution key 56% F;
(4) Estimated according to the calculated Flemish return for the 5th Framework Programme for 2001 and 2002) and for the 6th Framework
Programme for 2003-2006. The same return was applied for the following years. Sources: Flanders in the European 5th Framework Programme
for research, P. Dengis, E. Dewallef and K. Verlaeckt, 2005; Flanders in the European 6th Framework Programme for research, P. Dengis, E.
Dewallef and M. Van Langenhove, in preparation;
(5) Source: Studiedienst Vlaamse Regering (SVR) – Flemish government (version of the calculations dated 21 May 2007), on the basis of vari-
ous sources: 2001-2004: INR; 2005-2008: estimation by SVR;
(6) Source: Indicatorenboek (Indicators Book), Policy Research Centre for R&D Indicators, March 2007. The % BERD 2005 was used for 2006-2008.

Figure 25: Evolution of the % R&D/GDP Flanders (Flemish gov-


ernment funds + 56% share in the Federal R&D funds + Flemish
return on EU-KP (variant 3) + BERD), as approximative method for
calculating R&D intensity

Figure 25 shows the evolution of the results of the approximative


calculation method described above for the R&D intensity (bottom
line in table 24). For 2006-2008, the 2005 % BERD (1.46%) was
kept. There is a clear downward trend until 2004, the rise in 2005,
followed by near-stagnation in the period between 2005 and now.
The 2008 level reaches that of 2005 again. Continuing along with
the results of this approximative method, the 3% norm for Flanders
appears a long way off.

PART 3 • R&D-GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE FOR FLANDERS IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT 53


Contributors
We hope that you have read this first EWI-Budget Browser with
interest and, above all, that you have found the answers to DAR: Tine Mortelmans, Frank Steenput, Heidi Vander Poorten; An
your questions here. Van Acker; Oda Walpot; Studiedienst van de Vlaamse Regering: Josée
Lemaître, Thierry Vergeynst; BZ: Annemie Degroote, Ilse Snelders,
Do you have any comments or suggestions? If you do still Fatima Tigra; FB: Bart Dewandeleer, Stefan Lagast, Tom Van Laere,
have a question about the economy, science and innova- Jean Dekempeneer; IV: Toerisme Vlaanderen: Jan Van Praet; EWI:
tion policy of the Flemish government, do contact us via IWT: Paul Zeeuwts; FWO: Benno Hinnekint; PMV: Bart De Smet;
info@ewi.vlaanderen.be. VPM: Herman Daems; LRM: Lieve Ketelslegers; STV: Paul Berckmans;
Agentschap Economie: Tim Ampe; all EWI department contributors;
And if you require a more detailed explanation with regard to a OV: Lieven Blomme, Noël Vercruysse, Evy Vogeleer, Micheline Scheys;
certain budget, programme, policy aspect, institution etc., surf to WVG: Fred Deven, Els Meert, Jos Versaen, Herwin De Kind, Herwig
www.speurgids.be. There you can browse to find the informa- Deumens; Vlaams Agentschap voor Personen met een Handicap:
tion you need and download other EWI publications free-of- Rudi Kennes, Marc Cloet; Kind en Gezin: Bea Buysse; CJSM: Jasmine
charge as a PDF file. Choua; Peter Jolling, Geert Elshout; Patrick Ghelen, Caroline De
Pauw; KMSKA: Marjolijn Barbier; WSE: Johan Troch; LV: Dirk Van
In the course of the year, you will also be able to consult the Gijseghem; ILVO: Johan Van Waes; VLAM: Luc Van Bellegem; Jean
adapted funds for 2008 (after budget control), and you can De Lescluze; LNE: Philippe Van Haver; Marnix De Vrieze, Katrien
consult the archive of the science policy funds for the years 1993 Oorts, Jan Vereecke; INBO: Jurgen Tack; Dominique Aerts; Jos
to 2007. Van Slycken; OVAM: Luc Vanacker; VLM: Roland De Paepe, Sofie
Ducheyne; VMM: Line Vancraeynest; MOW: Wilfried Goossens, Frank
To remain fully up-to-date, do visit our website regularly, at Mostaert, Lieve Van de Water; RWO: Sofie Houvenaghel, Ronald van
www.ewi-vlaanderen.be. Paassen; VIOE: Dirk Callebaut; Flemish Parliament: viWTA: Robby
Berloznik, Lieve Vandamme; IMEC: Els Parton, Katrien Marent; VIB:
Furthermore, we would like to refer you to the EWI Reviews Lieve Ongena; VITO: Dirk Fransaer; IBBT: Karen Boers; KMDA: Zjef
which highlight several policy area-related topics. Pereboom; KANTL: Marijke De Wit; AQUAFIN: Chris Thoeye; Greet
De Gueldre; Eev Breugelmans.

Used abbreviations

BA Basic allocation FP Framework Programme


BAMA Bachelor-Masters structure FTI Flanders Technology International
BBB Beter Bestuurlijk Beleid (Better Administrative Policy) FWO Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek – Vlaanderen
BEA Budget for economic advice (Fund for Scientific Research – Flanders)
BERD Expenditure on R&D in the Business Enterprise Sector GBAORD Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for
BOF Bijzonder Onderzoeksfonds (Special Research Fund) Research and Development
BP Budget programme GBOU Generisch Basisonderzoek aan de Universiteiten
BZ Bestuurszaken (Administrative Affairs) (Generic Basic Research at Universities)
CJSM Cultuur, Jeugd, Sport en Media GDRP Gross Domestic Regional Product
(Culture, Youth, Sport and Media) GERD Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D
DAR Diensten voor het Algemeen Regeringsbeleid GIMV Gewestelijke Investeringsmaatschappij Vlaanderen
(Services for the General Government Policy) (Regional Investment Company – Flanders)
EFRD European Fund for Regional Development HBPWB Horizontaal Begrotingsprogramma Wetenschapsbeleid
ESA European Space Agency (Horizontal Budget Programme for Science Policy)
ESF European Social Fund IBBT Interdisciplinary Institute for BroadBand Technology
EU European Union ICT Information and Communications Technology
EVA Extern Verzelfstandigd Agentschap ILVO Instituut voor Landbouw- en Visserijonderzoek
(External Independent Agency) (Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research)
EWI Economie, Wetenschap en Innovatie IMEC Interuniversity Micro-Electronic Centre
(Economy, Science and Innovation) INBO Instituut voor Natuur- en Bosonderzoek
FB Finance and Budget (Research Institute for Nature and Forest)
FFEU Financieringsfonds voor Schuldafbouw en Eenmalige IOF Industrieel Onderzoeksfonds (Industrial Research Fund)
Investeringsuitgaven (Financing Fund for one-off ITG Instituut voor Tropische Geneeskunde
Investment Expenditures) (Institute for Tropical Medicine)

54
IV Internationaal Vlaanderen (Foreign Affairs) STET Scientific and Technical Education and Training
IVA Intern Verzelfstandigd Agentschap STS Scientific and technological services
(Internal Independent Agency) TPP Technological Product and Process
IWETO Inventaris van het Wetenschappelijk en Technologisch tUL Transnationale Universiteit Limburg
Onderzoek (Inventory of Scientific and Technological (transnational University of Limburg)
Research) TWOL Toegepast Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Leefmilieu
IWT Instituut voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie (Applied Scientific Research into the Environment)
in Vlaanderen (Institute for Innovation by Science and UA Universiteit Antwerpen (University of Antwerp)
Technology in Flanders) UGent Universiteit Gent (University of Ghent)
KMDA Koninklijke Maatschappij voor Dierkunde te Antwerpen UHasselt Universiteit Hasselt (University of Hasselt)
(Royal Zoological Society – Antwerp) UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
KMSKA Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen Organization
(Museum for Fine Arts Antwerp) UNU United Nations University
KUBrussel Katholieke Universiteit Brussel VESOC Vlaams Economisch Sociaal Overlegcomité
(Catholic University of Brussels) (Economic and Social Consultation Committee of Flanders)
KULeuven Katholieke Universiteit Leuven VIB Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie
(Catholic University of Louvain) (Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology)
LNE Leefmilieu, Natuur en Energie VIN Vlaams Innovatie Netwerk
(Environment, Nature and Energy) (Flemish Innovation Network)
LRM Limburgse Reconversiemaatschappij VINNOF Vlaams Innovatiefonds (Flemish Innovation Fund)
(Limburg Investment Company) VIOE Vlaams Instituut voor het Onroerend Erfgoed
LV Landbouw en Visserij (Agriculture and Fisheries) (Flemish Heritage Institute)
MER Milieueffectenrapport (Environmental Effects Report) VITO Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek
MINA Fund Environment and Nature Fund (Flemish Institute for Technological Research)
MIRA Milieu- en Natuurrapport Vlaanderen viWTA Vlaams instituut voor Wetenschappelijk en
(Environment and Nature Report Flanders) Technologisch Aspectenonderzoek (Flemish Institute for
MOD Managementondersteunende Diensten scientific and Technological Assessment)
(Management Support Services) VIZO Vlaams Instituut voor het Zelfstandig Ondernemen
MOW Mobiliteit en Openbare Werken (Flemish Institute for Independent Entrepreneurs)
(Mobility and Public Works) VLAM Vlaams Centrum voor Agro- en Visserijmarketing vzw
NABS Nomenclature for the analysis and comparison of scientific (Flanders Agricultural Marketing Board)
programmes and budgets VLAO Vlaams Agentschap Ondernemen (Flanders Enterprise)
NACE General Industrial Classification of Economic Activities VLAREM Vlaams reglement betreffende de milieuvergunning
within the European Communities (Flemish Regulations related to Environmental Licensing)
OA Organisatieafdeling (Organisation Division) VLIZ Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee
OBPWO Onderwijskundig Beleids- en Praktijkgericht (Flanders Marine Institute)
Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek VLM Vlaamse Landmaatschappij
(Education Policy and Practical Scientific Research) (Flemish Land Agency)
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development VMM Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij
OV Onderwijs en Vorming (Education and Training) (Public Environmental Agency of Flanders)
OVAM Openbare Vlaamse Afvalstoffenmaatschappij VOI Vlaamse Openbare Instelling
(Public Waste Agency of Flanders) (Flemish Public Institution)
PMV ParticipatieMaatschappij Vlaanderen VPM Vlaamse Participatiemaatschappij
(Flanders Participation Company) (Flemish Participation Company)
PROG. Begrotingsprogramma (Budget programme) VRT Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroep
PWO Projectmatig Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (Flemish Community Broadcasting Company)
(Project-based Scientific Research) VRWB Vlaamse Raad voor Wetenschapsbeleid
R&D Research and Development (Flemish Council for Science Policy)
RO Ruimtelijke ordening (Urban Planning) VUB Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University of Brussels)
ROW Ruimtelijke Ordening, Woonbeleid en Onroerend VZW Vereniging zonder winstoogmerk
Erfgoed (Town and Country Planning, Housing Policy (not-for-profit organisation)
and Immovable Heritage) WSE Werk en Sociale Economie
SBO Strategisch Basisonderzoek (Strategic basic research) (Work and Social Economy)
SERV Sociaal-Economische Raad van Vlaanderen WVG Welzijn, Volksgezondheid en Gezin
(Socio-economic Council of Flanders) (Welfare, Public Health and Family)
SME Small or Medium-sized Enterprise ZAP Zelfstandig Academisch Personeel
SP Science policy (Independent Academic Personnel)

55
Colophon

The EWI-Budget Browser is a publication of the department of


Economy, Science and Innovation of the Flemish government.

Statistics and Indicators team


Pascale Dengis, Team Leader
Koning Albert II-laan 35, bus 10
1030 Brussels

T +32 (0)2 553 57 40


info@ewi.vlaanderen.be
www.speurgids.be

Compilation and responsible publisher:


Koen Waeyaert and Pascale Dengis

Responsible publisher:
Veerle Lories

Deze publicatie is eveneens in het Nederlands beschikbaar.

D/2008/3241/082

56
Flemish government
Department of Economy,
EWI- 2008
Budget Browser
Science and Innovation
Koning Albert II-laan 35 bus 10
1030 Brussels
info@ewi.vlaanderen.be
www.ewi-vlaanderen.be
Combining Economy, Science and Innovation
for a better society