Candidate number: M23059
Reasons for using Twitter
The aim of this essay is to determine the reasons for people using Twitter. In order to do this I will set up an account on Twitter and will follow different types of consumers in order to identify similar patterns of behaviour specifically to see if there are any common grounds behind it. Initially Twitter was created in order to merge a small group of individuals so that they could contact each other through messages similar to sms only via the internet. It is only four years old but has already become a very popular social network engine. In the beginning Twitter was considered to be a message exchange device but it became a powerful marketing tool that allows instant communication and effective customer service. People who use twitter belong to a particular culture, the culture of Twitter users. As defined by Solomon in ³Consumer Behaviour a European perspective´: ³Culture is the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms and traditions among the members of an organization or society. ...individual consumers and groups of consumers are but part of culture, and culture is the overall system within which other systems are organized.´ (p. 506) By accepting the norms and rules established by Twitter, users internalise the culture and become its part. The norms and traditions incorporate, for instance, writing 140 characters in a message and if the account has been created then the owner has to tweet something from time to time. Twitter users have also developed their own language including words such as: twilebrity, twestival or twiart all those words can be look up in their online dictionary http://twittonary.com/ Culture is very important as it brings all the members together and it serves the function of socialization; in order to experience Twitter culture and fulfil the socialization need people wish to join and use Twitter. A culture can then be divided into subcultures, which help individuals to be differentiated from the larger culture to which they belong. As defined by Schouten & McAlexander (1995) a subculture emerges when people indentify with particular objects and then through those objects identify with other people. They also classified the meaning of a subculture of consumption that comes into existence when a group of society shares commitment to a particular brand or product. Subcultures are usually based on age, gender, political or religious views, geographical locations etc, however, the consumption subcultures include social structure of the group, values and beliefs along with special rituals. Members of subcultures tend to distinguish themselves from others through a particular music style or fashion, they might even have their own argot. @roaddevil I love bikers! Wanna look like me check out bikers style Rolo Chain Link Mens Stainless Steel Necklace (Jewelry) http://bit.ly/bTbX5p (Bikers subculture) @MCCherry she love my slang talk jus like me she sed she proud to be stylez gang. i dne made wat yu tryna get kuz my stylez s yo ... http://lnk.ms/2ts1z (Hip-hop slang) Values and beliefs of people are affected by subcultures, hence in order to be up-to-date with trends and styles people use Twitter and follow the subcultures with which they can associate
One of them is a community of Tate museum.com/2009/05/12/seth-godin-tribes-and-brand-communities/ [Accessed March 16th 2010]
. Therefore. which helps to establish a positive relationship between them and the brand. There are computer. People who are members of a particular consumption subculture tend to engage into similar activities as do the members of that subculture. yet the consumers do not enjoy the consumption experience in isolation. People can like and be fans of a brand. therefore twitter can be seen as a very important channel of interaction between brand communities. fashion.smcitizens.. 2008). Anything of interest can be found and supported on twitter and communities are there to represent different interests of the public.. Mairinger (2008) indicated that brand communities transfers emotions and add real experiences to the brand. He was real. By expressing what is fashionable roaddevil helps followers to keep-up with the Bikers fashion. if members of a subculture create a group on Twitter then the consumer in order to satisfy the need for belonging will also join the group. Goths. One of the examples is the cult of Macintosh: @jillianrox19 MAC IM UR BIGGEST FAN EVER U NO I ONLY GOT A TWITTER TO ADD U IDK WAT TWITTER DOES UR VIDEOS R LIKE MY WHOLE LIFE Twitter allows users to satisfy their most intimate and hedonic needs. when a brand name becomes like a religion to consumers.ly/bBMCI8
http://www. The above statement implies that Tate is using Twitter as an instant advertising tool that will inform the fans about the debate taking place at Westfield. cigars and many other communities. product or a person. Simmons (2008) proposed that consumption helps postmodern consumers to re-establish themselves. brand community is a way to overcome the segregation issues. The extreme side of brands devotions is known as cult. http://bit. implying that a number of individuals use Twitter in order to get information about a particular brand from the other users. sports. @Tate we're part of the Great British Art Debate.themselves. Customers¶ loyalty towards the Macintosh brand strengthens its cult position. cosmetics. According to statistics 49 % of social media users purchased products based on their friends recommendations (Razorfish. join the talkaoke Tate museum has 69.000 followers meaning that some of the most devoted consumers form its brand community. Emos. For instance. Schouten and McAlexander (1995) identified brand community as a social unit to which individuals would relate in order to generate or renovate their self identity. Subculture tends to represent a way of life like Bikers. The brand communities can be formed when consumers follow similar patterns of consumption and share views about the brand characteristics. Skinheads and many others. Hip-Hop.24% follow brand because they are the current consumers and 23% because they are interested in the brand and its reviews. which has a registered twitter account. facilitates and increases the Mac fan base. the modern world is considered to be individualistic. 1 @CARPOWER007 Car Dealer Review: Bought a new 2010 Camry LE . gardening. & right now there's a debate at Westfield in London! If you're there. The assistance provided by the customer service team.Universal Toyota: I called and spoke with John Kenny. however.
Therefore.. I am emo hear me cry Goffman (1959) stated that self-presentation is shaped by the way an individual perceives him/herself as well as by the theory of social performance. The imaginary identity helps people to escape from reality and it might actually reflect their real inner identities as they do not need to hide who they really want to be and what their desires are.
. Make style an expression of your soul.. the posts created by users will be reflected in a broadly accessible domain.com/food-rules/
Twitter aids communication process inside these communities and subcultures as well as it provides opportunity for them to express and self-represent themselves. 1998)." Simple. wanna get waves like me http://bit. Telepresence. The extended self can develop as the consumer incorporate social roles into the real self. which Goffman called the impression management technique. if they want to stay undercover they have to develop a conspicuous digital self that will carry out the semiotic meaning of self. that's right. If Twitter users do not want to be publicly exposed they usually lock their profiles. @Britneyspear just arrived to the hairdressers and I know soon I will look gorgeous. however. when a person associates herself with the Chanel brand and she illustrates the ³You are what you wear´ example. the term developed by Minsky (1980) meaning the person not presented physically can still be contacted with the use of modern technology. Inner Style = Outer Style #TDL This twit can be interpreted in terms of the individual level of extended self. their account can then be considered as a learning tool. Telepresence permits individuals to create multiple self-identities and live virtual lives of completely different people with values. @HJuku_BarBie @Lstar_online I'm hiding my identity! U never know these days whose on this "twitter thing" look @blackfirefly Consumers create accounts that may be regarded as personal and private. where a person explores its personal preferences and real character. @BikersWelcomeUS It's all about sharing info on motorcycle events and biker friendly places so we can all enjoy the ride @digittrent just died my hair black. age and gender being distinct from real life ones.ly/bABXbv The person to whom belongs the tweet above is pretending to be Britney Spears because the account is not verified and the name is not real either. Online media is exceptionally suitable for the development of multiple identities of the self. thus Twitter helps her to express herself and link the inner self with the brand name.@jennysansouci I highly recommend Michael Pollan's "Food Rules. also known as digital identity (Turkle.. Self-representation allows individuals to achieve and create a desired impression. Twitter allows consumers to self-present themselves all day long as they can post any tweets at any time they want to. to the point suggestions on eating for health! http://myliferecipe. @jeimyespinoza88 I <3 Chanel . U can be spiritual and wear Chanel.
Some TV shows create Twitter accounts for their characters. called @DoctorCoop´2 One of the Twitter users posted that before using Twitter he communicated with colleagues only through rare meetings at the bars or business events. Like in Nurse Jackie: ³Beginning in the season¶s second episode.mobilebehavior. to seek advice. Cooper character.´ 3 The other reasons for using twitter might be using it as a personal ³headhunter´ tool in order to find employees or employees use it as a job advertising technique. People create accounts because they search for social bonds and twitter helps them to fulfill their wants. Postmodern consumers look more for the symbolic linking value than for the functional value of goods and brands (Cova.com/tag/twitter/ [Accessed March 18th 2010] http://stevenbutler.
http://www. and the character¶s comments will show up in real time on a Twitter account. the only way to re-communicate with them was to simply start following them on Twitter. which causes people to generate feelings and emotions as soon as they see Starbucks sign. http://starbucks. the Dr. Better relationship can be established if a consumer is involved with the product and is also attached to it. The present society is very individualistic and by using Twitter users reconnect with community. Isolation and individualism encourage people to consume symbols and signs in order to counterbalance the lack of the sense of community. the followers are getting more attached to the series. Fans of Starbucks follow the brand on twitter. ³Now I just logon to Twitter and I have an instant stream of messages from other attorneys throughout the country. the main reason behind using twitter is clearly communication. which in turn replies onto the messages sent by the followers. I have the opportunity to trade war stories.
@starbucks How do you transfer stars over from a lost card to a newly registered one? I don't want to lose all of my rewards!!! @fuelandfitness Stars are earned on an account.However. Also there might be soe sore of addiction as now there is a term as ³twitter prison´ where users who tweet more than 1000 tweets per day are allocated.com/card Starbucks is regarded to be a symbolic brand. Since he works as attorney in a small office it was difficult to maintain good working relationship with colleagues from subsidiary companies. Also it increases the involvement of the audience as they can keep up with the character even when the show is not on. Symbolic brands create a closer attachment between the symbol and the consumer. Just register a new card on the same account. Therefore. will be shown posting on Twitter. that triggers even deeper emotional relationship. 1997). not a card. therefore. and just to share common experiences.com/2009/09/17/why-i-use-twitter/ [Accessed March 17th 2010]
. They want to expand on storytelling in order to inspire fans and attract new viewers. played by Peter Facinelli.
find out what consumers think about their brands and gather information about how they can improve. the main reasons for using twitter is virtual socialization that keeps individuals entertained and up-to-date with the global news.In the research conducted there could have been some methodological constraints. Moreover. There are no more geographic boundaries as users can be communicated in every part of the world. it re-communicates users and make them be heard. it affects not only human beings but also big corporations that use Twitter as a marketing tool to promote their products.
. In conclusion. The research was too subjective as I was the only person choosing tweets and deciding on what theories to include. Also the participants studied might have not provided the reliable information due to the possible lack of true identity established behind the Twitter account. Twitter itself can be used as an example of a successful brand as most of the people are not only aware of it but they are also users.
43-61. June. (1997).´ Journal of Consumer Research.0. G. 297-316. 42(3/4). M. Marketing to Postmodern Consumer: Introducing the Internet Chameleon. 31(3). 4) Minsky.mitpressjournals. S. Electronic Markets. Telepresence. (2008). Vol. Retrieved March 20. 45±51. MIT Press Journals. pp 117-129. NY: Doubleday Anchor. McAlexander (1995). from http://www. Presence.
.d.Using Web 2.
3) Maringer. ³Subcultures of Consumption: An Ethnography of the New Bikers. B. (n. 6) Simmons. Leben im Netz. (2008). Omni. 2010.0 Principles to build an Open Source Brand´. E. ³Branding 2. M. 22 (1). European Journal of Marketing. The presentation of self in everyday life. John W. Hamburg: Rowohlt.). and James H. (1998). Garden City. 2) Goffman. (1959). µCommunity and consumption: towards a definition of linking value of products and services¶. (1980).
7) Turkle.18. 2. European Journal of Marketing.org/loi/pres [Accessed March 18th 2010]
5) Schouten. 299-310.Bibliography