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A. Background of the Study Vocabulary is the basic element in learning English that should be mastered well by learners. Learners should have a great number of words in their mind and know how to use them accurately in order to master all of the English skills which have to do with vocabulary. Dellar and Hocking in Thornbury (2002: 13) said that learners will see most improvement of their English if they learn more words. As the basic element in learning English, vocabulary has been learned even since very young age. In teaching and learning vocabulary, a teacher’s role is very vital. A teacher must be able to provide an attractive learning that can interest students of attending the subject. In fact, based on the writer’s observation done on January 3rd, 2011, at SMP N 3 Majenang, the writer found some problems in the vocabulary teaching and learning process. Some teachers were not able to attract the students’ interest because they only used classical method that could not make the students active in the learning process. Moreover, the writer found some the students’ difficulties in learning vocabularies. The students felt difficult to memorize, understand the meaning, and spell new words they got. In addition, the students were not interested in following the teacher’s vocabulary instruction. They were bored with the lesson and reluctant to learn new vocabulary. Actually, we can use a lot of media to provide an interesting learning
process to students. One of the media is game. Games are very helpful for teachers to stimulate students’ learning interest and motivation. Wright in Widyastuti (2007: 2) states that games help and encourage learners to sustain their interest and work. We can use many kinds of interesting games to teach vocabulary. One of games is vocabulary football game. Vocabulary football game is a game with a piece of paper as the field, a small miniature of ball, and the player cards which is provided with two letters in which players guess a word where the letters become the players’ steps of moving the ball to the opposite’s goal. This is an easy and attractive game in which students can play in the class room. It is also very helpful to review the students’ vocabulary because it provides challenging and interesting activity which stimulates the students’ motivation. Based on the explanation above, it is implied that vocabulary football can help the students to get a better achievement in their learning vocabulary. Therefore, the writer decided to conduct a research entitled “Reinforcing Vocabulary Using Vocabulary Football Game.”
B. Reason of Choosing the Topic The writer’s reasons of choosing the topic are: 1. The writer saw that the teaching and learning vocabulary in SMP N 3 Majenang is still dissatisfying. Therefore, the teacher should provide an enjoyable learning in which students are actively involved in the teaching and learning process. 2. Applying usual game in teaching learning process will make the
students bored. Teacher should innovatively provide a new game for reviewing their new vocabulary that makes the students motivated, so the students will find it easier in acquiring new vocabulary.
C. Problem of the Study To make a systematical approach to solve the problems, the writer formulated the problem of the study as follows: “Is vocabulary football game effective to reinforce students’ vocabulary?”
D. Aim of the Study The aim of the study is intended to know if vocabulary football effective to reinforce students’ vocabulary.
E. Contribution of the Study This study will give contribution for all English teachers especially the English teachers of SMP N 3 Majenang to solve the problems in the teaching and learning vocabulary by providing a new game that will increase the students’ motivation and achievements.
F. Clarification of the Terms The title of this study is Reinforcing Vocabulary Using Vocabulary Football on the Seventh Grade Students of SMP N 3 Majenang Academic Year 2010/2011. The terms which are stated in the title above need to be defined in
order to get some insight or perception of the key terms. 1. Reinforcing Reinforcing is an event, a circumstance, or a condition that increases the likelihood that a given response. (www.answers.com/topic/reinforcement) 2. Vocabulary Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) states that the term of vocabulary refers to a lists or set of words for a particular language or a lists or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. 3. Vocabulary Football Game Vocabulary football is a game with a piece of paper as the field, a small miniature of ball, and the player cards which is provided with two letters in which players guess a word where the letters become the players’ steps of moving the ball to the opposite’s goal.
From those linguists’ definitions. While Hiebert and Kamil (2005: 3) argue that vocabulary is the knowledge of meanings of words. Knowledge of words comes in at least two forms: oral and print. Hatch and Brown (1995: 1) states that the term of vocabulary refers to a lists or set of words for a particular language or a lists or set of words that individual speakers of a language might use. We “understand” vocabulary when we listen to speech and when we read. Pikulski and Templeton (2004: 1) define vocabulary as the sum of words that are used by and understood by students. the term receptive vocabulary is used to refer to listening and reading vocabularies. We “use” vocabulary is when we speak and write. B. the term expressive vocabulary is used to refer to both since these are the vocabularies we use to express ourselves. Teaching Vocabulary 5 .THEORITICAL REVIEW A. we can conclude that vocabulary is the knowledge of a lists or set of words for a particular language that individual speakers of a language might understand and use in the form of oral and print. The Definition of Vocabulary Vocabulary plays important roles in mastering English. In line with him. Wilkins in Thornbury (2002: 13) summed up that without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Rivers in Nunan (1992: 17) stated that vocabulary is essential for successful study on the second language. Vocabulary refers to all words in the whole language used in a particular variety.
1. or whether they use the language in formal and informal situation. It depends on the goals of the learning. The effectiveness of the strategies for individual teachers and learners depends on many factors. The Principles of Teaching Vocabulary As a teacher. Focus on the vocabulary in the most appropriate way. reading.A key part of being a language teacher is knowing how to help students learn vocabulary both well and reasonably quickly. and language educators must approach decisions about method and materials system actually. . A good teacher should have a set of guiding principles that can be applied in a variety of teaching and learning situation. The key in all vocabulary teaching is to keep motivation high while encouraging students to develop strategies that they can continue to use once they leave their classroom. b. Nunan (1992: 135) mentions some principles in teaching vocabulary: a. or writing. we must be able to provide a good system in teaching vocabulary. using principle to help us make wise decisions (Hatch and Brown 1995: 422). Teacher should focus on the most useful vocabulary that every English learner needs whether they use language for listening. Focus on the most useful vocabulary first.
Encourage learners to reflect on and take responsibility for learning. and the ability to monitor and evaluate progress with those options.co.Teacher should focus on how students should be taught and learned. Taking this responsibility requires knowledge of what to learn and the range of options for learning vocabulary.il/ ) a.vocabulary. 2. skill in choosing the best options. Both teacher and students will face some problems as follows: (http://www. Problems in Teaching Vocabulary Teaching vocabulary is not an easy matter for a teacher. Text Book Many textbooks have very long wordlists. d. It means that in order to understand a text related to a particular unit students have to know or be able to guess at a lot of vocabulary. Learners should be responsible for their own learning. A teacher should be able to differ the way they treat high frequency words from the way they treat low frequency words. High frequency vocabulary should be met and used in communication. It should also be fluently accessible for receptive and productive use. 7 . Give attention to the high frequency words. c.
especially a task which is interesting or seems intrinsically useful. 3. you are more likely to notice it. c.b. If you meet vocabulary in novel or emotionally colored settings. So. Students and Teacher’s Boredom Both teacher and students can become bored and demotivated. Difficulty For some people. but for some people it is very difficult. but also spoken and written. You best remember vocabulary that you have not just read. Presentation of vocabulary is often done in the same way repeatedly. and remember it than you otherwise might. pay attention to it. Thus. it is wise to adopt an integrated skills approach. long lists of vocabulary are not a problem. teachers should avoid always reviewing vocabulary in the same few ways. You are particularly likely to remember vocabulary you need in order to perform a task. learners are especially likely to benefit from teaching . So. How to Help Students Review Vocabulary Lindsstronberg (2004: 144) declares some teachers’ considerations to help students review vocabulary: a. b. and not just heard and read. but also heard. c.
Memory for a vocabulary item is enhanced if successive encounters (especially ones on different days) bring out 9 . especially centering on topics of interest to the students in the class. Formation of mental links with other word is very important. It seems likely topic-based lessons can play a valuable role in the formation of links of both types. and plenty communicative activities. mime and so on. especially ’collocational links’ such as that between heavy and rain and ‘tropical links’ like that between blood and vampire. f. it is quite common for teacher to links vocabulary to pictures. And there is very strong evidence that actually acting out the meanings of vocabulary is particularly effective. But there is doubtless more we can all do in this respect. Fortunately. Possibly even more fundamental is the formation of mental links between vocabulary and non-verbal images-for instance. realia. d. e. but we should also seek out smallscale tasks that focus sharply on the formation of mental links of one type or the other. a link between the verb spin and a visual image of something spinning or kinesthetic image of you yourself spinning around. work with song.which includes learning games.
Thornbury (2002: 30) declares the implications of teaching vocabulary regarding how learners learn and develop vocabulary: a. 4. It is particularly easy to recall vocabulary and collocations that have been learned in meaningful contexts which are rhythmic or even melodic. at appropriate times-use of the mother tongue. if students have learned spin as in. one thing that is important to know is understanding how students learn and develop vocabulary. My head is spinning).g. Here is an additional reason for using song lyrics as well as other texts with poetic qualities. For instance. stand up and spin around. Having an accurate idea of meaning is so important for learning vocabulary that any practice which helps get vocabulary meanings across should be allowed. including-in useful ways. Learners need tasks and strategies to help them organize . h. then it helps them also to learn that wheels can spin and that spin is used metaphorically (e. It is especially important that our work on high-frequency words needs to take account of this. The Implication of Teaching Vocabulary Dealing with teaching vocabulary.different aspects of its meaning. g.
and their syntactic environments. i. g. their collocation. f. particularly the way they are stressed. Being inspired the game. Learners need to be involved in the learning of words. h. Words need to be presented their typical contexts. d. c. C. Memory of new words can be reinforced if they are used to express personally relevant meaning. Not all the vocabulary that the learners need can be taught: learners will need plentiful exposure to talk and text as well as training for self-directed learning. Learner should aim to build a threshold vocabulary as quickly as possible. so that learners get a feel for their meaning. e. their register. Vocabulary Football Game Nowadays. b. Teacher should direct attention to the sound of new words. Learners need multiple exposures to words and they need to retrieve words from memory repeatedly. Teachers need to wean themselves off reliance on direct translation from their mother tongue. the writer introduces a brand new game namely vocabulary football game. football has become the most favorite sport and entertainment throughout the world. 11 . Most of people like it.their mental lexicon by building networks of associations.
Dictionary A player uses a dictionary if only the opposite is doubt with the word made by the player. Field The field is in the form of cells in which a player makes steps to the opposite’s goal based on the letters of the words guessed. 2. Ball The ball is just in the form of miniature in which a player moves to the opposite’s goal.1. and the player cards provided with two letters in which players guess a word where the letters become the players’ steps of moving the ball to the opposite’s goal. . d. a small miniature of ball. Vocabulary Football Kit a. The Definition of Vocabulary Football Game Vocabulary football is a game with a piece of paper as the field. Card The cards seem like domino cards consisting two letters in which players guess the possible word. c. b.
d. Each player has to make words based on the two letters on the cards. but each 13 . If the score is still nil – nil. each player will do the same step. g.3. How to Play Vocabulary Football The rules of playing vocabulary football are not as complex as that of football game. i. It means they must give their turn to the opposite. f. If a player moves the ball passing the side lines. This game is played one on one or two on two. e. While the number of vocals refers to the number of the left or to the right side steps. j. Each player should reciprocally move the ball started from the central point into the opposite’s goal to make a goal. Each player has 5 seconds to make one word. Players have to take the cards reciprocally. c. the game will be continued by penalty. In penalty. Each player cannot make the same words as the words that have been made before. it will be throwing in for the opposite. h. b. We have several rules that should be followed: a. The number of consonant letters of the word that has been made refers to the number of the forward steps.
b. Teachers must prepare the vocabulary football kits based on the number of the students.player will move the ball from the short distance of the goal. The kits consist of the fields and the cards. Teachers give one kit to each pair and tell them the rules . It is also very helpful to review the students’ vocabulary because it provides challenging and interesting activity which stimulates the students’ motivation. How to Implement Vocabulary Football Game in Teaching Vocabulary Generally the teachers’ role in implementing vocabulary football game is as the facilitator which provides and controls the students in order that students can enjoy it. Teachers divide the students into pairs in which each pair will battle. D. The letters in the cards are provided based on the target words which have been taught to the students before. 1. c. Teaching Vocabulary through Vocabulary Football Game Vocabulary football is an easy and attractive game in which students can play in the class room. There are several steps that should be done in implementing the game: a.
this game has some disadvantages of this game: 15 . Teachers give prize to the winners and punishment to the looser in order to create greater challenge for the students. 3. 2.of the game. The students will obtain new vocabularies from other friends and retrieve their vocabulary knowledge. b. c. Teachers ask the students to play and control them to make sure that the students play based on the rules and to keep the class conducive. The advantages are as the following: a. Vocabulary football brings fun and challenge. e. The Disadvantages of Vocabulary Football in Teaching Vocabulary Although there are many advantages of vocabulary football in teaching vocabulary. A time will not be a problem because teacher can decide it regarding the effectiveness of the time. It will interest the students because it will involve the students in a competitive and challenging activity. d. d. The Advantages of Vocabulary Football Game in Teaching Vocabulary We can find some of advantages of this game in teaching vocabulary.
Hypothesis The hypothesis of this research is that Vocabulary football is effective to reinforce students’ vocabulary. The classical problem is that students are bored and unmotivated in their learning process. F. Therefore. This is an easy and attractive game in which students can play in the class room. E. . the writer uses vocabulary football as one of games that will be very interesting for students. Basic Assumption Learning vocabulary has always been a difficult process for students and teacher. teacher should have a set of guiding principles that can be applied in a variety learning situation. One of the media that can be used as a teaching aid is game. Teacher also should be able to provide media that can attract students in their learning. teacher also should consider a good game that can make all of the students active in their activity. The teacher has to intensively control and monitor while the students play the game. b. The teacher has to prepare many materials in providing this game.a. It is also very helpful to review the students’ vocabulary. Considering this problem. In choosing a game in teaching.
The method of the research is formulated as follows: 17 .CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. 3. There are some designs of quasi experimental design. In this research. There are two groups or classes in which each group is given a pre-test and a post-test. It means that the two classes have the same competences. The control class is taught with convention with conventional method. The writer used nonequivalent design. while the experiment class is given the experimental treatment. Method of the Research This research is considered as an experimental research because the purpose of the writer is to find out the effectiveness of vocabulary football for reinforcing students’ vocabulary. 2. the conditions of the two classes are the same. the writer used quasiexperimental design. Emzir (2008: 102) mentions the considerations of choosing this design: 1. This design is usually used for the group whose members are collected like students in a classroom. Before the experiment is done. This design is considered as one of common design used in education research.
the writer needed two . Both of the groups were taught with different treatments.where : O1 = pre-test of experimental class O2 = post-test of experimental class O3 = pre-test of control class O4 = pre-test of control class X = treatment for experimental class (Sugiyono. Population The population of his research was the seventh grade students of SMP N 3 Majenang in academic year 2010/2011. B. Subject of the Study 1. 2. while the control class was taught with the conventional method as usually done before. 2009: 116) The writer had two groups taken as the experimental and the control group. The experimental group was taught with vocabulary football game. Sample As this research belongs to quasi experiment. It consists of 238 students.
The samples of this research were VII F as the experiment class and VII B as the control class. The time of the research is completely described as follows: No 1 Activities Designing proposal Making instrument Collecting data Analyzing data and December 1 2 3 4 January 1 2 3 4 February 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 making report 19 . 2006: 140-141). 3. Sampling Technique In taking the sample. ((Arikunto.samples. It consists of 38 students in each class. The writer used the technique because of consideration that the samples were two groups or two classes chosen from six classes that had the same condition or characteristic. C. Place and Time of the Research The research was conducted at SMP N 3 Majenang in the beginning of February 2011. the writer used purposive cluster random sampling technique.
D. It was used to know the students’ vocabulary competence after the treatment. It was used to know the students’ vocabulary competence before the treatment. the writer used a test as an instrument to know the students’ vocabulary mastery. The test was divided into pre-test and post-test. Technique for Collecting the Data To collect the data. 1. Post-test The post-test was used to measure the effect of certain treatment. It . It consisted of 20 multiple choice items. Pre-test It was conducted before giving the treatment. 2.
To find out the validity of the test items.consisted of 20 multiple choice items. the writer used the product moment correlation formulated as follows: where: 0100090000039e0500000000ba0300000000ba03000026060f006a07574d46 430100000000000100797300000000010000004807000000000000480700000 10000006c0000000000000000000000160000001a0000000000000000000000 2a030000b903000020454d4600000100480700000c000000010000000000000 00000000000000000000400005802000069010000d400000000000000000000 00000000001c830500d23a0300460000002c00000020000000454d462b01400 21 . the writer tried the instrument out to find out the validity. reliability. Technique of Analyzing Instrument Before using the instrument. E. 2006: 168). and item difficulty of the items. 1. Validity An instrument is considered to be a valid instrument if it can measure what it is intended to measure (Arikunto.
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ef24396a0f23d90bdb585a15473f37c4d928f9e644833e7ef0117b7794f15928a2 f495acf1bdb06403974dfddcffe8068080b9dea8c20e2b0000000049454e44ae42 6082000840010824000000180000000210c0db0100000003000000000000000 0000000000000001b40000040000000340000000100000002000000000000bf 000000bf0000b8410000d84103000000000080b3000080b3ffffb741000080b3 000080b3ffffd7412100000008000000620000000c0000000100000015000000 0c00000004000000150000000c0000000400000051000000940300000000000 000000000160000001a00000000000000000000000000000000000000170000 001b00000050000000bc0000000c01000088020000000000002000cc0017000 0001b00000028000000170000001b0000000100080000000000000000000000 000000000000250000000000000000000000ffffff000066b60066000000ffffb6 00b6ffff0000006600b6660000003a9000ffb6660066b6ff003a00000066909000 dbffb6003a90db00ffdb9000dbffff00903a0000ffffdb00db903a0090dbff000000 3a00b666660066003a0090dbb600b6663a00663a90003a0066009090db00b6ff 23 .
b6006600660066b6b600dbffdb0090669000b6b66600903a66006666b600010 1010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ff010101010101010101 0101010101010101010101010101ff010101010101010101010101010101010 1010101010101ff0101010101010101010101010110080013010101010101ff0 10101010101010101010101010124040e130101010101ff0101010101010101 0101010101010101010e0901010101ff01010101010102030405060b0f010101 01020b0f010101ff0101010101011c1d1e1f11202112010110082223120101ff0 1010101010101010506130101010101051b0f0a130101ff01010101010101011 0081112010101010a0304101a0401060102111201010516141718190a090e09 0e1112010e13012e010e0b0f0101010a0007010a001301020013011415111206 010a00090101010101010101010101010101010101010106010506130101010 101010101010101010101010101010100011008111201010101010101010101 01010101010101010001010e0b0f01010101010101010101010101010101010 10001010a00070101010101010101010101010101010101010008090a0b0c03 .
0d0809010101010101010101010101010100010200030405060007010101010 101010101010101010106010101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010100010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010100010101010 101010101010101010101010101010101010100010101010101010101010101 010101010101010101010100010101010101010101010101010101010101010 101010106010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010106010101 010101010101010101010101010101010101010100010101010101010101010 1010101010101010101010101004c0000006400000000000000000000001600 00001a0000000000000000000000170000001b0000002900aa0000000000000 000000000803f00000000000000000000803f00000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000220000000c000000ffffffff460 000001c00000010000000454d462b024000000c000000000000000e00000014 0000000000000010000000140000000400000003010800050000000b0200000 000050000000c021b001700030000001e000400000007010400040000000701 25 .
0400af010000410b2000cc001b001700000000001b001700000000002800000 0170000001b0000000100080000000000000000000000000000000000250000 000000000000000000ffffff000066b60066000000ffffb600b6ffff0000006600b 6660000003a9000ffb6660066b6ff003a00000066909000dbffb6003a90db00ffd b9000dbffff00903a0000ffffdb00db903a0090dbff0000003a00b666660066003 a0090dbb600b6663a00663a90003a0066009090db00b6ffb6006600660066b6b 600dbffdb0090669000b6b66600903a66006666b60001010101010101010101 01010101010101010101010101ff01010101010101010101010101010101010 10101010101ff0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101ff010 1010101010101010101010110080013010101010101ff010101010101010101 010101010124040e130101010101ff010101010101010101010101010101010 10e0901010101ff01010101010102030405060b0f01010101020b0f010101ff01 01010101011c1d1e1f11202112010110082223120101ff010101010101010105 06130101010101051b0f0a130101ff010101010101010110081112010101010a .
0304101a0401060102111201010516141718190a090e090e1112010e13012e0 10e0b0f0101010a0007010a001301020013011415111206010a000901010101 010101010101010101010101010101060105061301010101010101010101010 101010101010101000110081112010101010101010101010101010101010101 0001010e0b0f0101010101010101010101010101010101010001010a0007010 1010101010101010101010101010101010008090a0b0c030d08090101010101 010101010101010101000102000304050600070101010101010101010101010 101060101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101000101010101 010101010101010101010101010101010101000101010101010101010101010 101010101010101010101000101010101010101010101010101010101010101 010101000101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101060101010 101010101010101010101010101010101010101060101010101010101010101 010101010101010101010101000101010101010101010101010101010101010 101010101000c00000040092900aa000000000000001b001700000000000400 27 .
00002701ffff030000000000 ∑X ∑Y ∑X2 ∑Y2 N = product moment correlation = the sum of the score of distribution X = the sum of the score of distribution Y = the sum of the square of distribution X = the sum of the square of distribution Y = the number of the students The example of the calculation of validity is as follows: (Item number 1 of try out pre-test items) ∑X ∑Y ∑X2 ∑Y2 = 440 = 169 = 5882 = 13 (∑X)2 = 169 (∑Y)2 = 193600 ∑XY = 181 N =36 .
In this research. 2. It means that the item is valid.342>0. the writer used K-R-20 formula formulated as follows: where: r11 k Vt = reliability = the number of the test items = the total variants 29 . Reliability An instrument is considered to be a reliable if it is consistent from one measurement to another. A reliable instrument will make the collected data reliable as well (Arikunto.rxy is higher than rtable (0.329). 2006: 178).
Before the writer goes to the formula above. The formula of total variants is as follows: where: Vt ∑Y ∑Y2 N = the total variants = the sum of the score of distribution Y = the sum of the square of distribution Y = the total number of the respondents The example of the calculation of the items reliability of pre-test try out is as follows (see appendix): ∑Y ∑Y2 N k ∑pq = 5882 = 36 = 20 = 4.146 = 440 . the writer should find the total variants (Vt ) first.∑pq = the sum of the multiplications between the proportion of the students who answer correctly aaaaaaaaa.
r11 is higher than rtable (0. Arikunto (1998: 209) divides the criteria as follows: 31 .329). It is indicated by the percentage of pupils who get the item right (Gronlund and Linn. 1990: 249). 3.741>0. It means that the instrument is reliable. There are some criteria of the item difficulty of a test. Item Difficulty The item difficulty shows us how easy or difficult a particular item is.
0 to 0.70 to 1 = easy Heaton (1979: 178) formulates the difficulty index as follows: where: FV R N = the index of difficulty = the number of correct answer = the number of correspondents The example of the calculation of item difficulty is as follows: (Item number 1 of try out pre-test items) R N = 13 = 36 Based on the criteria of item difficulty. Technique of Analyzing Data . F. the item is classified as a fair item.0.70 = fair 0.30 = difficult 0.30 to 0.
2006: 311) 2. Degree of Freedom Having known the effect of vocabulary football by using t-test. T-test To know the effect of the treatment of the research. the writer used T.test. the writer found that the hypothesis was accepted or not by computing the degree of freedom formulated as follow: 33 .1. The formula is as follows: MX MY ∑x2 ∑y2 NX NY = mean of the score in experimental class = mean of the score in control class = the total deviation square of experimental class = the total deviation square of control class = the number of the students in experimental class = the number of the students in control class (Arikunto.
CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. If the value of t-test computation is greater than that of t table.f= (Nx + Ny – 2) where : d. Try-out Test Result . 2002: 277). the hypothesis is accepted (Arikunto.d.f Nx Ny = degree of freedom = the number of the students in experimental class who took the test = the number of the students in control class who took the test.
329 valid 0.329 0.485 0.329 valid 0. The result of the computation of the instrument validity that consists of the item validity of pretest and post-test is described as follows: Table 1 The Result of Validity Computation number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 pre-test items rxy rtable 0.466 0.329 valid 0.35 0.360 0.35 0.329 valid 0. 1.329 valid 0.35 0.329 0.329 valid 0.442 0.329 valid 0.329 criteria valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid valid 35 post-test items rxy rtable criteria 0.41 0.373 0.329 valid .329 valid 0.Before using the instrument.329 valid 0.39 0.329 0.329 valid 0.329 valid 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.46 0.62 0.329 0.329 0.374 0.43 0.329 0.534 0.329 0.637 0.44 0.46 0.476 0.329 0.329 valid 0.41 0.40 0.329 0.403 0.34 0.329 valid 0. Validity The computation of validity aims to find out whether or not the instrument can measure what is intended to measure.329 valid 0.331 0.329 valid 0.37 0. The respondents were 36 students.41 0.329 0. The writer conducted the try-out in Class VII C of SMP N 3 Majenang.54 0.353 0.329 0.329 0. the writer tried the instrument out to find out whether or not he instrument is suitable with the standard of a test.329 valid 0.387 0.329 valid 0.489 0.451 0.395 0.34 0.329 0.329 0.53 0.408 0.366 0.
440 0. On the other side.38 0.329 valid 0. it was concluded that the tests were reliable. .329 valid The table shows that the rxy value of the items either the pretest items and the post-test items are higher than that of the rtable.19 20 0. it was found that those values were higher than that of r table. An instrument is considered to be a reliable if it is consistent from one measurement to another. the writer used K-R-20 formula to find out the reliability of the pre-test and the post-test. the writer found that the r11 (reliability) value of pre-test was 0. After computing the reliability.329 valid 0. B. Therefore.741 and the r11 value of post-test was 0. Reliability A good test has to be considered as a reliable test. the posttest was given to know the students’ vocabulary competence after the treatment.329 valid 0.45 0.506 0. it is concluded that all of the items are valid. Thus. 2. The pre-test was given to both the experimental and the control group to know the students’ vocabulary competence before the treatment.747. In this research. the test consisted of pre-test and post-test. Test Result As the writer told before. From that result.
The result of the test is described on the table below: Table 2 The Result of Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental and Control Class respondents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 experimental group pre-test post-test 65 95 60 85 80 100 55 90 80 100 55 90 60 95 55 95 90 100 80 100 65 100 55 95 65 85 80 90 60 90 70 90 75 95 60 100 60 85 85 95 55 90 65 100 80 100 85 100 80 100 60 100 75 90 80 100 80 100 80 100 45 75 80 95 75 100 70 75 35 65 60 80 37 control group pre-test post-test 65 60 65 75 80 90 75 70 75 80 70 85 65 80 75 85 40 70 45 60 80 70 80 100 75 85 70 95 80 90 45 70 60 80 60 85 60 100 85 90 65 75 70 85 70 80 70 70 50 80 80 85 50 90 60 75 80 75 80 80 75 85 75 70 65 60 60 60 75 90 60 85 .
the writer found out the degree of freedom.11 65 70 67.47 The pre-test result shows that the means of the experimental and the control group are almost the same (67.37 38 mean 45 55 67.53.37 100 55 92.63). the writer used t-test to find out the statistic different of the means. T-test Result To find out the effect of vocabulary football game. the means of the post-test result of both groups are significantly different. The Implementation of the Treatment The writer gave the treatment in four meetings. The teaching and learning process of the experimental and the control class was different. Discussion 1. Then. Finally the writer consulted the critical value of t-table with the significant level 5% and the degree of freedom 74.37 and 67. On . The degree of freedom was 38+38-2= 74. On the other side. D. However.63 95 70 79. Thus. the writer could not conclude that the means of both groups were statistically different. the writer used t-test. The writer applied the experimental treatment using vocabulary football game. the hypothesis which states that reinforcing vocabulary using vocabulary football game is effective is accepted. So. It means that there is a positive effect of teaching vocabulary using vocabulary football game. After the computation. C.99. The t-table was 1. the writer found that the t-value was 4.
the other side. They enjoyed the game while they were unconsciously retrieving their vocabulary. Vocabulary football game was given as the review. The first important point that the writer found after asking the students to play the game was that the students were interested in it. The writer presented the words that were related to the topic leant at the meeting. In each meeting. the writer gave one kit vocabulary football to each pair and asks them to play based on the rules and the words which had been explained before. Lastly. e. the writer gave prize to the winners and punishment to the looser in order to create great challenge for the students. The writer divided the students into pairs in which each pair would battle. the control class was taught a conventional method that had usually been used by the teacher before. They had fun and no pressure during the teaching and learning process. The process on how the writer implemented the treatment in experimental class is described as follows: a. After presenting the words related to the topic. The writer asked the students to play vocabulary football game to review the vocabulary. the control class was taught with conventional method. c. the writer presented ten new words that were related to the material. the writer just asked the students to remember and do some exercises to review 39 . b. Second. d. In contrast with the experimental class.
c. it was given to find out the difference of the change of their achievements that happened in the experimental and control class. 2. Only a few students were interested in doing the activity given by the writer.63. It was found that there was a different motivation between the students in experimental and control class. the mean of the experimental class was 67. It showed a very close result between the . The process on how the writer taught vocabulary in control class is described as follows: a. The writer asked the students to fill in the blank text with the suitable vocabulary. The writer presented some words related to the topic discussed in the meeting. The condition was quite different from that of the experimental class. Besides. d. The Meaning of the Test The aim of the test given to the students of the experimental and the control class was to know their vocabulary competence before and after giving the treatment. In the pre-test. Almost all of the students in control class were not interested in following the lesson. b. The writer asked the student to do the exercise on the hand book. The writer asked the students to remember the words.37 and the control class was 67.their vocabulary.
47 for the control class.11 for the experimental group and 7. it means that the condition of the sample of the research has already fulfilled the requirement of the nonequivalent quasi-experimental research design in which the experimental and the control class have to have the same condition before giving the treatment. The significant improvement that happened in the experimental class showed that there were positive effects in the use of vocabulary football game. The t-table was 1. the post-test result of the experimental class was higher than that of the control class. 41 . So the writer concluded that the hypothesis which stated that vocabulary football game was effective for teaching vocabulary was accepted.experimental class and the control class.53. the writer computed the score using t-test to find out whether the hypothesis was accepted or not. It was proved also by the fact that the students had more fun in following the lesson. the writer consulted to the t-table with the level of significance 5% and the degree of freedom 74. Then. It was related to the advantage of using the game that the students will have more fun and enjoyable in learning. The atmosphere appeared in the experimental class during the vocabulary football game activity was different from that of the control class which was taught with the conventional method. It could be seen that the tvalue was higher than the t-table.99. The difference of those scores could not make the writer interpreted that the hypothesis was accepted. After computing the t-test. So. they were 92. Then. it was found that the t-value was 4. Furthermore.
The students were involved in a competitive atmosphere provided by this game. The research findings reveal that the result of the treatment is in line with the hypothesis that “vocabulary football game is effective to reinforce students’ vocabulary” because there is a significant different between students taught with vocabulary football game and those taught without the game.Because the students felt happy and no pressure during the teaching and learning process. Based on the discussion above. In addition. Indirectly. Each student was demanded not only to retrieve the words in their memories. Many students in the experimental class achieved perfect scores. Actually. the writer concluded that the process done in the experimental was better than that of the control class. . they only got average scores in the pre-test. The fact could be seen from the result of the post-test. the situation of the class became livelier because this game required the speed of recalling the memory. It was because every student wanted to be the winner in the game so they thought that the more vocabulary they remember the bigger chance for them to win the game. Consequently. it significantly increased the students’ post-test achievements. most of the students were motivated to memorize all of the vocabularies which the writer presented in every meeting. the students could easily understand the material. but also to think the strategy to defeat each other. It is also implied that playing vocabulary football game can be the alternative to make the class livelier and enthusiastic in following the lesson.
On the other hand. Third. First.99). Consequently. The Effect of the Treatment We all know that every technique of teaching gives either positive or negative effects. The following explanation shows the positive and negative effects of using vocabulary football game in teaching vocabulary. Second. Conclusion Having analyzed the data. the students unconsciously learned while they were playing the game. The negative impact was that it needed better classroom management skill because if the students were not controlled well. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A.3. It could be seen from the final result of t-test analysis which stated that the t-value was higher than the ttable (4. they would have been noisier during the activity. the game also gave the negative impact. the treatment gave the students different nuances and situation of learning. the game made the atmosphere inside the class livelier because the students participated actively the learning activity. it can be justified that there was a significant 43 .5 >1. the writer found that the students’ achievement of experiment class was better than that of the control class.
Suggestion After conducting this research. The students should be more cooperative by not making any useless noise when they play the game so that the condition of the class can be more conducive. In applying the game. .difference in the students’ vocabulary score of the seventh grade students of SMP N 3 Majenang between the students who were taught vocabulary with vocabulary football game and those who were taught with conventional method. the writer gives the following suggestions: 1. The students can also be more active and motivated to learn vocabulary. The teacher can try new invention game that is very challenging for the students. it will be better for English teachers to conduct a classroom action research of improving students’ vocabulary mastery using vocabulary football game. After we know the result of the study that reinforcing vocabulary using vocabulary football game is effective. The students could learn in a fun way by playing the game. 3. it is concluded that reinforcing vocabulary using vocabulary football game is effective. teachers should truly consider the curricular target and control the students when they play the game to make sure that they play based on the rules so that the students can truly achieve the expected target of the learning. 2. Therefore. B.