# July 17, 2008 Version

ÅÙÐØ Ú Ö Ð Ò Î ØÓÖ
David A. SANTOS

Ð ÙÐÙ×

dsantos@ccp.edu

Free to photocopy and distribute

Mathesis iuvenes tentare rerum quaelibet ardua semitasque non usitatas pandere docet.

ii Copyright c 2007 David Anthony SANTOS. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

iii
Preface iii 2.8 Extrema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 2.9 Lagrange Multipliers . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

1 Vectors and Parametric Curves 1 105 1.1 Points and Vectors on the Plane . . . . . . 1 3 Integration 3.1 Differential Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 1.2 Scalar Product on the Plane . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 Zero-Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 1.3 Linear Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3.3 One-Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 1.4 Geometric Transformations in two dimensions 14 3.4 Closed and Exact Forms . . . . . . . . . . 112 1.5 Determinants in two dimensions . . . . . . 20 3.5 Two-Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 1.6 Parametric Curves on the Plane . . . . . . 24 3.6 Change of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 1.7 Vectors in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.7 Change to Polar Coordinates . . . . . . . . 128 1.8 Cross Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.8 Three-Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 1.9 Matrices in three dimensions . . . . . . . . 44 3.9 Change of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 1.10 Determinants in three dimensions . . . . . 47 3.10 Surface Integrals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 1.11 Some Solid Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.11 Green’s, Stokes’, and Gauss’ Theorems . . 142 1.12 Cavalieri, and the Pappus-Guldin Rules . . 52 1.13 Dihedral Angles and Platonic Solids . . . . 54 A Answers and Hints 148 1.14 Spherical Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Answers and Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 1.15 Canonical Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 1.16 Parametric Curves in Space . . . . . . . . 66 GNU Free Documentation License 198 1.17 Multidimensional Vectors . . . . . . . . . . 69 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . 198 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 2 Differentiation 75 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 2.1 Some Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 2.2 Multivariable Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . 199 2.3 Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . 199 2.4 Deﬁnition of the Derivative . . . . . . . . . 82 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS199 2.5 The Jacobi Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 2.6 Gradients and Directional Derivatives . . . 91 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 2.7 Levi-Civitta and Einstein . . . . . . . . . . 95 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . 199

Preface

These notes started during the Spring of 2003. They are meant to be a gentle introduction to multivariable and vector calculus. Throughout these notes I use Maple™ version 10 commands in order to illustrate some points of the theory. I would appreciate any comments, suggestions, corrections, etc., which can be addressed to the email below.

David A. SANTOS dsantos@ccp.edu

iv

0) by O = (0. Notice that inﬁnitely many different choices of departure and arrival points may give the same vector.2 for an example. 1 b1 = (3. We will always denote the origin. Bi-point. Figure 1. y) with x ∈ R and y ∈ R. 5). at r . the point (0. See ﬁgure 1. W 1 Deﬁnition (Scalar. we associate to it the vector rr = y −y units from (x. a2 = (3. −4).” 1 .1: A point in R2 . 2). r ] and that r is its head. 0 → − The zero vector 0 = indicates no movement in either direction. r 1 and is denoted by [r.1 Points and Vectors on the Plane e start with a na¨ve introduction to some linear algebra necessary for the course.3: Example 2.1. 0). with the arrow tip.1 Vectors and Parametric Curves 1. Given two points r and r in R2 the directed line segment with departure point r and arrival point r is called the bi-point r. Some authors use the terminology “ﬁxed vector” instead of “bi-point. Vector) A scalar α ∈ R is simply a real number. A vector → ∈ R2 is a codiﬁcation of movement of a bi-point: a − → x −x stipulating a movement of x − x given the bi-point [r. O = (0. Those interested ı in more formal treatments can proﬁt by reading [BlRo] or [Lan]. −1). b2 = (5. Figure 1. Point. that is. 0) b = (2. See ﬁgure 1. −6). 0 y axis r r = (x. r ].2: A bi-point in R2 . A point r ∈ R2 is an ordered pair of real numbers. r ]. The bi-point [r. r = (x. 2 Example Consider the points a1 = (1. We say that r is the tail of − the bi-point [r. r ] can be thus interpreted as an arrow starting at r and ﬁnishing. y) in the horizontal axis and of y − y units from the current position in the vertical axis. Here the ﬁrst coordinate x stipulates the location on the horizontal axis and the second coordinate y stipulates the location on the vertical axis. y) r O x axis b1 b b2 a1 a2 Figure 1.

Two bi-points are parallel if the lines containing them are parallel.}. −4. [a. Figure 1. 3Z+2 = {. that is. .Points and Vectors on the Plane Though the bi-points [a1 . −3. . b1 ] belongs to the equivalence class . the angle θ ∈ [0. they represent the same vector. and the name of this equivalence is a vector. b1 ].5 and 1. b2 ] and [O. 4. [a1 . . . −5. b1 ] ∈ . B A θ A B D C D A B C Figure 1. ← → 4 Deﬁnition Let a = b be points on the plane and let ab be the line passing through a and b. −18 ∈ 3Z. that is. . . their heads lie on different half-planes made by the line perpendicular to them at their tails. −1. . See ﬁgure 1. See ﬁgures 1. According to their remainder upon division by 3. 0. 7. a vector is an equivalence class of bi-points. See ﬁgure 1. and for example. b] and [z. −4 − 2 −1 − 5 −6 − 0 −6 The instructions given by the vector are all the same: start at the point. 1. 8. −6 −6 − → 3 Deﬁnition The vector Oa that corresponds to the point a ∈ R2 is called the position vector of the point a. 3Z+1 = {. as 3−1 5−3 2−0 2 = = = . 2. . The sense of a vector is the sense of any of its bi-point representatives. have the same direction. each integer belongs to one of the three sets 3Z = {. Two vectors are parallel. . 3. As an simple example of an equivalence class. 2 2 in example 2. Free to photocopy and distribute 2 . consider the set of integers Z. Analogously.5: Bi-points with the same sense. .3. if bi-point representatives of them are parallel.4: Direction of a bi-point Figure 1. b] are in different locations on the plane. that is. . −2. and point in the same sense are equivalent. [a2 . the bi-point [a1 . . The ← → direction of the bi-point [a. 5. . . −6. w] have the same sense if they have the same direction and if when translating one so as to its tail is over the other’s tail. . when measured counterclockwise. In more technical language. The equivalence class 3Z comprises the integers divisible by 3. all bi-points that have the same length.}.4. π[ that the line ab makes with the positive x-axis (horizontal axis). v ← → → 5 Deﬁnition We say that [a.}. b] has the same direction as [z. . . 6. w] if ab = ← We say that the bi-points zw.6 . both their heads lie on the same half-plane made by the line perpendicular to then at their tails. go two units right and six units down. b] is the direction of the line L. They have opposite sense if they have the same direction and if when translating one so as to its tail is over the other’s tail. The direction of a → − − vector → = 0 is the direction of any of its bi-point representatives. . .6: Bi-points with opposite sense.

(ii) its direction. (1.Chapter 1  Bi-point [b. To add two vectors geometrically. − 9 Deﬁnition If α ∈ R and → ∈ R2 we deﬁne scalar multiplication of a vector and a scalar by the a coordinatewise multiplication a1 αa1 − = .7: Addition of Vectors.2) See ﬁgures 1. 1. and (iii) its sense. (1. Draw a bi-point representative of →.3) α→ = α a a2 αa2 Free to photocopy and distribute 3 . 6 Deﬁnition The Euclidean length or norm of bi-point [a. A bi-point is said to have unit length if it has norm 1. It is clear that the norm of a vector satisﬁes the following properties: ¬¬− ¬¬ 1.7.  A vector is completely determined by three things: (i) its norm. − − − − 8 Deﬁnition If → and → are two vectors in R2 their vector sum → + → is deﬁned by the coordinatewise u v u v addition → + → = u1 + v1 = u1 + v1 . then we have Chasles’ Rule: v u v − → − → − → AB + BC = AC. The norm of a vector is the norm of any of its bi-point representatives. Figure 1. In particular. ab = −ba. − → − → Similarly we write. proceed − − additive identity.11. if → = AB and → = BC. → − It is easy to see that vector addition is commutative and associative. The sum → + → is the vector whose tail is that of the bi-point for → and whose tip is − − − − the tip of u u v u − → − → − − − that of the bi-point for →. Find a bi-point representative of → having its tail at u v →. b] is simply the distance between a and b and it is denoted by ||[a. ¬¬→¬¬ ≥ 0. and 1. − − u v (1. a ¬¬→¬¬ − − ¬¬ = 0 ⇐⇒ → = →. and that the additive inverse of a a − − as follows. − 2. b] and so we write [b.1) u2 v2 u2 + v2 − −2→ u → − u B → − v C 1→ − u 2 → − u A →+→ − − u v Figure 1.8: Scalar multiplication of vectors. b]|| = (a1 − b1 )2 + (a2 − b2 )2 .9. 1. b]. ¬¬ a a 0 ¬¬− ¬¬ 1 − v 7 Example The vector → = √ has norm ¬¬→¬¬ = v 2 √ √ 12 + ( 2)2 = 3. a] = −[a. a] has the opposite sense of [a. that the vector 0 acts as an → is −→.10.

→ − → − − −  α(→ + b ) = α→ + α b a a − − −  (α + β)→ = α→ + β → a a a − −  1→ = → a a − −  (αβ)→ = α(β →) a a − → v − → v → − w + → − → − v v + → − w → − w → − u + → − v → − u − → v − → − → +w − → + v) (u − →) w − → (v + − →+ u → − v → − v +→ − w − → w Figure 1. If u1 = 0. v v Free to photocopy and distribute − → w − − → v − → w → − w 4 . u v u v  → − → − − − Because 0 = 0→ for any vector →. Hence. that is.12. the afﬁne line is the Cartesian line with slope a Cartesian line.9: Commutativity Figure 1. as x is constant. Put R→ = {λ→ : λ ∈ R} and let a ∈ R2 .11: Difference → − − − − 10 Deﬁnition Let → = 0 .Points and Vectors on the Plane It is easy to see that vector addition and scalar multiplication satisﬁes the following properties. Conversely. the 0 is parallel to every vector. The afﬁne line with direction vector u u u → = u1 and passing through a is the set of points on the plane − u u2 ´ − a + R→ = u x y µ ∈ R2 : x = a1 + tu1 . then x − a1 u1 = t =⇒ y = a2 + (x − a1 ) u1 u2 = u2 u1 x + a2 − a1 u2 u1 . if y = mx + k is the equation of u1 0 k . y = a2 + tu2 . − − − − are parallel. It also follows that two vectors → and → are parallel if and only if the afﬁne lines R→ and R→ u v u v → → if there exists a scalar λ ∈ R such that → = λ→. the afﬁne line deﬁned above is vertical. 1 t+ that is. every Cartesian line is also an afﬁne line and one may take the vector as its direction m − − − − vector. If u1 = 0. then x y = 1 m u2 . t∈R .10: Associativity Figure 1. See ﬁgure 1.

t ∈ R. 1 −1 and in the direction of the Solution: The desired equation is plainly x y = 1 −1 +t 2 3 =⇒ x = 1 + 2t. 1 − 11 Example Find a vector of length 3.12: Parametric equation of a line on the plane. −3 ¬¬→¬¬ = − √ √ = ¬¬− ¬¬ v 3 2 − 6 → − u − r = a + t→ u 12 Example Find the parametric equation of the line passing through vector 2 −3 . Here are some examples.Chapter 1 a Figure 1. − → − → − → − → − → 13 Example Given a pentagon ABCDE. parallel to → = √ but in the opposite sense. Solution: Utilising Chasles’ Rule several times: − → − → − → − → − → − → → − 0 = AA = AB + BC + CD + DE + EA. Free to photocopy and distribute 5 . and so the vector sought is v Solution: √ → − v 3 1 − 3 √ . . Some plane geometry results can be easily proved by means of vectors. determine the vector sum AB + BC + CD + DE + EA. v 2 → − √ ¬¬− ¬¬ v Since ¬¬→¬¬ = 3. the vector ¬¬→¬¬ has unit norm and has the same direction v ¬¬− ¬¬ v − and sense as →. y = −1 + 3t.

See ﬁgure 1.Points and Vectors on the Plane 14 Example Consider a ABC. B] and [C. BG = 2GMB . ←− −→ ←→ − Solution: Since the triangle is non-degenerate. We have. Demonstrate that the line segment joining the midpoints of two sides is parallel to the third side and it is in fact. MA ] and [B. − → −− −→ and hence meet at a point G. let MC be the midpoint of [A. MB ] of the non-degenerate demonstrate that − → −− −→ − → −− −→ AG = 2GMA . the lines AMA and BMB are not parallel. whence 2 − b = 0. =⇒ a = b = 2. be MC and MB . −− −→ −− −→ −− −→ −− −→ CMC + MC A + CMC + MC B −− −→ −− −→ −− −→ 2CMC − AMC + MC B −− −→ 2CMC . respectively.13. we have. −−→ −− − → 2MA MB = BA − → − → = BG + GA −− −→ −− −→ = bGMB − aGMA −− −→ −−→ −− −− −→ = bGMA + bMA MB − aGMA . We will − → −−→ −− −− −→ − → −− −→ − → demonstrate that BC = 2MC MB . B]. Since −−→ −− −− −→ ABC is non-degenerate. In the same fashion. b − a = 0. Therefore. ABC intersect at the point G. From example 14. half its length. AG and GMA are parallel and hence there is a scalar − → −− −→ − → −− −→ a such that AG = aGMA . − → BC − → − → = BA + AC − → − → = −AB + AC −− −→ −− −→ = −2AMC + 2AMB −− −→ −− −→ = 2MC A + 2AMB −− −→ −− −→ = 2(MC A + AMB ) −−→ −− = 2MC MB . Therefore. MA MB and GMA are not parallel. 15 Example In ABC. A]. Demonstrate that 1 − −− −→ → − → CMC = CA + CB . − → − → CA + CB = = = from where the result follows. as we were to shew. Solution: Let the midpoints of [A. there is a scalar b such that BG = bGMB . 16 Example If the medians [A. 2AMC = AB and 2AMB = AC. 2 Solution: −− −→ −− −→ As AMC = MC B. and thus −−→ −− −− −→ (2 − b)MA MB = (b − a)GMA . Free to photocopy and distribute 6 .

z] such that ||[y. Therefore −→ − −→ − −→ − −→ − → − → − GG = −2GG =⇒ 3GG = 0 =⇒ GG = 0 =⇒ G = G . Construct two points I and J such that − → − → IA = −3IB.1. − → 1. It follows that − → −− −→ BG = 2GMB .4 Let A. whose sides do not intersect. See ﬁgure 1. Problem 1. B be two points on the plane. Find rational numbers α and β such that TQ = − → − → αTx + β Tz. demonstrating the result. ←→ − Solution: Let G be as in example 16.1 Is there is any truth to the statement “a vector is that which has magnitude and direction”? Problem 1. E is the midpoint of [B. P]|| : ||[P.1. Let Q be a point on side [x.13: Example 17. Let the line CMC and BMB meet in G . By the aforementioned example.1. the quadrilateral formed by the midpoints of the sides is a parallelogram. z] such that ||[x. Q]|| : ||[Q.1.13. C] and F is the midpoint of [D. We must shew that the line CMC also passes through ←→ − ←→ − G. Free to photocopy and distribute 7 .1. C]. Problem 1. The point of concurrency G is called the barycentre or centroid of the triangle. − → −− −→ AG = 2GMA .6 Let x. − − → −→ = GB + BG −− −→ −− −→ = −2GMB + 2G MB −→ −− −→ − − = 2(MB G + G MB ) −→ − = 2G G. Homework Problem 1.5 Find the Cartesian equation corresponding to the line with parametric equation x = −1 + t. −→ − −− −→ CG = 2G MC . z be points on the plane with x = y and consider xyz.3 (Varignon’s Theorem) Use vector algebra in order to prove that in any quadrilateral ABCD. y = 2 − t. Problem 1.1. Problem 1. z]|| = 3 : 4 and let P be a point on [y. −→ − GG −→ − −− −→ BG = 2G MB .2 ABCD is a parallelogram. Prove that − → − → − → AC + BD = 2BC. y. 17 Example The medians of a non-degenerate triangle ABC are concurrent. 3 and then demonstrate that for any arbitrary point M on the plane −→ − −→ − − → MA + 3MB = 4MI and −→ −→ − − − → 3MA + MB = 4MJ. Q]|| = 7 : 2. Let T be an arbitrary point on the plane. − → → 1− JA = − JB.Chapter 1 C MB G A MC MA B Figure 1.

or six equal parts (ﬁgures 1. − − 18 Deﬁnition Let → ∈ R2 and → ∈ R2 .18: 1. Find the sum of the vectors. [B]. Problem → − b → − c → − c → − b Figure 1. inner product) is deﬁned and x y denoted by →•→ = x y + x y . The point a belongs to the line segment [x. 2.8. 3. Free to photocopy and distribute 8 . Problem 1. z be points on the plane with x = y.14: 1. → − a → − a → − c → − a → − d → − b Figure 1.19).1. Problem 1. β ≥ 0 with α + β = 1 such that → = α→ + β → − − − za zx zy. Problem → − b → − d → − a → − f Figure 1. then →• b = 1 · 3 + 2 · 4 = 11.7 Let x. y.8. m.2 Scalar Product on the Plane We will now deﬁne an operation between two plane vectors that will provide a further tool to examine the geometry on the plane. β with α + β = 1 such that → = α→ + β → − − − za zx zy. [A]. four equal. as suggested in the ﬁgures. [D]. The point a belongs to the line ← if and only if xy there exists scalars α.17 through 1.8.19: 1. Problem → − a → − d → − c → − b Figure 1. a 2 4 The following properties of the scalar product are easy to deduce from the deﬁnition. Assume that the divisions start or stop at the centre of the circle.1. Their scalar product (dot product.1.15: 1.1.8. [C]. Problem 1. [E].17: 1. Find rational numbers l.16: 1. Demonstrate that → 1. − − x y 1 1 2 2 1 3 → − − − − → 19 Example If → = a and b = .8 A circle is divided into three. The point a belongs to the interior of the triangle xyz if and only if there exists scalars α > 0. Problem Figure 1.1. → − c → − d → − e [F].1. y] if and only if there exists scalars α ≥ 0.Scalar Product on the Plane − → 2. Problem → − a → − c → − b Figure 1.8.1.8.1. n such that TP = − → − → − → lTx + m Ty + nTz. β > 0 with α + β < 1 such that → = α→ + β → − − − za zx zy.

denoted by (→. b ) a a a a a →→ − − − → − → − − − → − − − − − → ⇐⇒ b • b − 2→• b + →•→ = ||→||2 + || b ||2 − 2||→|||| b || cos (→.Chapter 1 SP1 Bilinearity − − − − − − − (→ + →)•→ = →•→ + →•→.5) (1. using Al-Kashi’s Law of Cosines on the length of the vectors.6) (1. a → − − 21 Theorem Let → and b be vectors in R2 .20. − − − − − a b a b a b Proof: From ﬁgure 1. 2 22 Corollary Two vectors in R2 are perpendicular if and only if their dot product is 0. b ) ∈ a a → − − [0. Then a − →•→ = ||→||||→|| cos (→.20: Theorem 21. → − − − − → 20 Deﬁnition Given vectors → and b . as the angle between the afﬁne lines R→ and R b . π]. x y z x z y z →•(→ + →) = →•→ + →•→ − − − − − − − x y z x y x z (1.7) (1. α ∈ R.4) through (1. and (1. b ).9) SP2 Scalar Homogeneity SP3 Commutativity SP4 SP5 SP6 − − − − − − (α→)•→ = →•(α→) = α(→•→). we deﬁne the (convex) angle between them. Free to photocopy and distribute 9 .9) we have → − − → − → − − − − − → || b − →||2 = ||→||2 + || b ||2 − 2||→|||| b || cos (→. b ) a a a a a − → − − − → − − → a a ⇐⇒ →• b = ||→|||| b || cos (→.8) (1. a as we wanted to shew. b ) a a a a → − − → − − → − → − − − − − → ⇐⇒ ( b − →)•( b − →) = ||→||2 + || b ||2 − 2||→|||| b || cos (→. →). x y x y x y − − → •→ = → •→ − − x y y x → •→ ≥ 0 − − x x − →•→ = 0 ⇐⇒ → = → − − − x x x 0 Ô ¬¬→¬¬ − − ¬¬− ¬¬ = →•→ x x x → − a → → − b −− a → − b Figure 1.4) (1. b ) = a in Theorem 21 we obtain the following corollary. u π − − → Putting (→. b ) a a a a a a → − − → − → − − − → − − − − → ⇐⇒ || b ||2 − 2→• b + ||→||2 = ||→||2 + || b ||2 − 2||→|||| b || cos (→.

y. Prove that Ô √ 2(x + y + z) ≤ x2 + y 2 + y 2 + z 2 + z 2 + x2 . 1 2 1 2 (1.10) 26 Example Let a. a 28 Example Let x. u → − − → − − = (→ + b )•(→ + b ) a a − − − − − − → → → = →•→ + 2→• b + b • b a a a → − → − − − ≤ ||→||2 + 2||→|||| b || + || b ||2 a a → − − = (||→|| + || b ||)2 . b = . − Equality occurs if and only if → a → − b.Scalar Product on the Plane  → − It follows that the vector 0 is simultaneously parallel and perpendicular to any vector! → − − 23 Deﬁnition Two vectors are said to be orthogonal if they are perpendicular. If → is orthogonal to b . Minimise a2 + b2 subject to the constraint a + b = 1.− = c . 2 a b =λ 1 1 . In such case. z be positive real numbers. 1 . the CBS Inequality takes the form a2 b2 |a1 b1 + a2 b2 | ≤ (a2 + a2 )1/2 (b2 + b2 )1/2 . a1 b1 → − − If → = a and b = . a → − − we write → ⊥ b . a a a Since | cos θ| ≤ 1 we also have 25 Corollary (Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz Inequality) ¬ ¬ ¬¬→¬¬¬¬→¬¬ ¬→•→¬ − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬ a b ¬ ≤ ¬¬ a ¬¬¬¬ b ¬¬. and so equality is achieved 27 Corollary (Triangle Inequality) Proof: → − − ||→ + b ||2 a from where the desired result follows. a ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ → − − → − ¬¬→¬¬ − − 24 Deﬁnition If → ⊥ b and ¬¬→¬¬ = ¬¬ b ¬¬ = 1 we say that → and b are orthonormal. Then y z x ¬¬ ¬¬ √ ¬¬ ¬¬ = 2(x + y + z). Solution: − Put → = a x y → z → − . 1 = |a · 1 + b · 1| ≤ (a2 + b2 )1/2 (12 + 12 )1/2 =⇒ a2 + b2 ≥ Equality occurs if and only if for a = b = 1 2 . ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬→ − + → + →¬¬ = ¬¬ x + y + z − ¬¬ b c ¬¬ a ¬¬ ¬¬ x + y + z Free to photocopy and distribute 10 . ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ →¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬→ ¬¬− ¬¬ − − ¬¬ a + b ¬¬ ≤ ¬¬ a ¬¬ + ¬¬ b ¬¬. b be positive real numbers. a = b = λ. Solution: By the CBS Inequality.

→ ← → ← 30 Theorem (Thales’ Theorem) Let D y D be two distinct lines on the plane. Assembling these results. B = B . − → AB = AB On the other hand. AB AB AB 11 . If AB = λ→. −→ − CC = = = Free to photocopy and distribute − − − → −→ − → CA + AA + A C − −→ − AC − AC − → −→ → − · AB + AA + AB + λAA AB AB −→ − AC AC − AC → − AB + 1 + λ AA . A = B. by Chasles’ Rule. then λ is u u − the directed distance or algebraic measure of the line segment [AB] with respect to the vector →. or more routinely. C be distinct points of D .22: Corollary to Thales’ Theorem. On the direction. Observe that − → will denote this distance by AB − . A = B . We u → is patent.21: Thales’ Theorem. if the vector u u AB = −BA. Let A. C be distinct ← → ← → points of D . because they are unit vectors in the same − → AC AC . there is a scalar λ ∈ R such that −→ − − − −→ − − −→ − − → −→ − → → BB = BA + AA + A B = (A B − AB) + AA .2. ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ + ¬¬→¬¬ + ¬¬→¬¬ = a c ¬¬ b ¬¬ x2 + y 2 + y2 + z2 + Ô z 2 + x2 . one hand. Figure 1. and A . B. Let ← → ← → AA BB . A = A . Proof: Refer to ﬁgure 1. ← − → Since AA ← → BB . −→ − −→ − − → A B = AB + λAA . AB AB D D D D C A C B A B C A B A B Figure 1. and the assertion follows by the triangle inequality ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ → →¬¬ − − ¬¬→ ¬¬→¬¬ − − ¬¬ − − ¬¬ a + b + c ¬¬ ≤ ¬¬ a ¬¬ + ¬¬ b ¬¬ + ¬¬ c ¬¬. −→ − AB AB = −→ − AC AC .Chapter 1 Also. − → − − 29 Deﬁnition Let A and B be points on the plane and let → be a unit vector. We now use vectors to prove a classical theorem of Euclidean geometry. Then ← − → ← → AC AC AA CC ⇐⇒ = . by AB. C = C . B .

that is. b such that → = a→ + b→ ? − − − v x y C The answer can be promptly obtained algebraically. x 1 y2 − x 2 y1 v2 = ax2 + by2 x1 v2 − x2 v1 b= . when can we ﬁnd − − − arbitrary vector v x y scalars a. x 1 y2 − x 2 y1 The above expressions for a and b make sense only if x1 y2 = x2 y1 . say. we immediately gather the following corollary. B. an arbitrary vector → can be written as the linear x y v combination → = a→ + b→. then either x2 = 0 or y1 = 0.3 Linear Independence − − onsider now two arbitrary vectors in R2 .Linear Independence ← − → ← → As the line AA is not parallel to the line AB.u From the preceding theorem.) ← → ← → 31 Corollary Let D and D are distinct lines. → and →. and to x2 y1 ? If none of these are zero then y1 y2 x1 x2 =λ y1 y2 − ⇐⇒ → x →. − y 33 Example The vectors 1 0 and 1 1 are clearly linearly independent.2. Under which conditions can we write an x y → on the plane as a linear combination of → and →. In the second case we have − − → = x →. → = a→ + b→ − − − v x y ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ v1 = ax1 + by1 . x y − − − 32 Theorem Given two vectors in R2 . Operating formally. points on line D . − x y 2 j 2 j → − − − and so both vectors are parallel to j and hence → →. and A . since one is not a scalar multiple a b a b Free to photocopy and distribute we can express it as a linear combination of these vectors 1 0 1 1 of the other. a ∈ R. the equality above reveals that ← − → AA proving the theorem. B . b ∈ R − − − v x y → is not parallel to →. what does it mean x1 y2 = x2 x1 = = λ. since all − If x1 = 0. (See ﬁgure 1. − → = y →. → and →. CA CA ← → AC AC CC ⇐⇒ − = 0. 12 . Given an arbitrary vector as follows: = (a − b) +b . AB AB 1. and a fortiori → x x y vectors are parallel to the zero vector. − y → − − − →. Let A. Then ← − → AA ← → CB CB BB ⇐⇒ = . → = 0 . be points ← → ← → on line D . If two vectors are not linearly independent. But. v1 y2 − v2 y1 a= . In the ﬁrst case. say. In this last case we say that → is linearly independent from vector − − − if and only if x y x →. then we say that they are linearly dependent. We have demonstrated the following theorem. intersecting in the unique point C.

4 Prove that two non-zero perpendicular vectors in R2 must be linearly independent.3. − traverses the whole length of x − − − − − for b ∈ [0. 1]. . a→ is parallel to → and x y x x →: from its tip (when a = 1) to its tail (when a = 0). x y ´ . The fundamental parallelogram of the the vectors → and → is the set x y − − {a→ + b→ : a ∈ [0.3. Find a formula for the distance from t to L. Problem 1. The linear combination a→ +b→ y y y x y is also a vector on the plane. Problem 1.3 Consider the line with Cartesian equation L : ax + by = c. . . In the same manner. .3. Figure 1. and the re0 1 spective tiling of the plane by various translations of it. 1].1 Prove that æ é 1 æ é −1 æ é −1 1 . − − 34 Deﬁnition Given two linearly independent vectors → and → consider bi-point representatives of them x y − − with the tails at the origin. b ∈ [0. Observe that the vertices of this parallelogram ´ µ 0 1 1 2 . coloured in brown. linear independence of two vectors on the plane means are 0 0 1 1 that we may obtain every vector on the plane as a linear combination of these two vectors and hence cover the whole plane by all these linear combinations. 1]}.Chapter 1 − − − − Consider now two linearly independent vectors → and →. as a linear combination of the vectors æ é 1 1 Free to photocopy and distribute 13 . where not both of a. Let t be a point not on L.23: Tiling and the fundamental parallelogram. 1]. Problem 1.23 shews the fundamental parallelogram of 1 1 µ Figure 1.3. b are zero. For a ∈ [0. plane. In essence then. Homework and are linearly in1 1 dependent.2 Write an arbitrary vector æ é a b on the and Problem 1. and draw their fundamental parallelogram. b→ is parallel to → and traverses the whole length of →.

will be certain construct called matrices which we will study in the next section. T→2 : R2 → R2 are v v − − − − − − − translations. See ﬁgure 1. it does not distort it shape or re-orient it).b ◦ Sa . For (Sa.b ◦ Sa . I(x) = x is called the identity transformation. and rotations about the origin.25 shews the scaling S2. It will turn out that a handy tool for investigating all of these (with the exception of translations). but nevertheless an important one is the following. → − v Figure 1. if Sa. Figure 1.b Free to photocopy and distribute ax by = a(a x) b(b y) .5 = . b > 0 are real numbers. − where v A translation simply shifts an object on the plane rigidly (that is. v v v v v v v v from where the commutativity claim is deduced.24 for an example. This means that the input of the function is a point of the plane. if T→1 .b : R2 → R2 are scalings. It is clear that the composition of any two scalings commutes. Observe that the identity transformation leaves a point untouched. x y 2x 0. 14 .5y ax by . 37 Deﬁnition A function Sa. and the output is also a point on the plane. − − It is clear that the composition of any two translations commutes. 35 Example The function I : R2 → R2 .b ◦ Sa. For let T1 (a) = a + →1 and T→2 (a) = a + →2 . then Sa.24: A translation.b : R2 → R2 is said to be a scaling if it is of the form Sa.b .b . Then v v v v v v v − − − − − − − − (T→1 ◦ T→2 )(a) = T→1 (T→2 (a)) = T→2 (a) + →1 = a + →2 + →1 .Geometric Transformations in two dimensions 1.b (r)) = Sa.b = Sa . v v v v v v v v and − − − − − − − − (T→2 ◦ T→1 )(a) = T→2 (T→1 (a)) = T→1 (a) + →2 = a + →1 + →2 . We start with the simplest of these functions. Sa .4 Geometric Transformations in two dimensions W e now are interested in the following fundamental functions of sets (ﬁgures) on the plane: translations. that is. where Figure 1. scalings (stretching or shrinking) reﬂexions about the axes. that is.25: A scaling. − − − 36 Deﬁnition A function T→ : R2 → R2 is said to be a translation if it is of the form T→ (x) = x + →. then T→1 ◦ T→2 = T→2 ◦ T→1 . First observe what is meant by a function F : R2 → R2 .b (Sa .0.b )(r) = Sa. A rather uninteresting example. to a copy of itself a given amount of units from where it was.b (r) = a > 0. v v v → is a ﬁxed vector on the plane.

we land on the new Free to photocopy and distribute 15 . See problem 1.Chapter 1 and (Sa . A function RO : R2 → R2 is said to be a reﬂexion Some reﬂexions appear in ﬁgure 1. If we rotate it. Its reﬂexion about the x-axis is cyan (on the fourth quadrant). however. We now deﬁne rotations. in the levogyrate sense.1 0 0 = 0 0 . so let us develop some ancillary results. 38 Deﬁnition A function RH : R2 → R2 is said to be a reﬂexion about the y-axis or horizontal reﬂexion if −x it is of the form RH (r) = . This deﬁnition will be somewhat harder than the others.4. Its reﬂexion about the origin is blue (on the third quadrant). 2π[.1(a) = . Its reﬂexion about the y-axis is magenta (on the second quadrant). The original object (in the ﬁrst quadrant) is yellow. and scalings.b ◦ Sa. translations. Then i a2 − (T→ ◦ S2.27.1 ◦ T→ ) i −1 0 = S2. but − (S2.b from where the commutativity claim is deduced.4. by an angle θ. . Consider a point r with polar coordinates x = ρ cos α.b (r)) = Sa .1 − T→ i −1 0 = S2.26. A function RV : R2 → R2 is said to be a reﬂexion about the x-axis or y vertical reﬂexion if it is of the form RV (r) = about origin if it is of the form RH (r) = −x −y x −y .1 ) i ax by = a (ax) b (by) .b (Sa. 2a1 → − − T→ (a) = a + i and the scaling S2.b )(r) = Sa . y axis x axis Figure 1. Here ρ = x2 + y 2 and α ∈ [0. Translations and scalings do not necessarily commute. A few short computations establish various commutativity properties among reﬂexions.26: Reﬂexions. For consider the translation −1 0 − = T→ i S −1 0 − = T→ i −2 0 = −1 0 . y = ρ sin α as in ﬁgure 1.

but not so translations. ρ cos α ρ sin α θ α x-axis Figure 1. reﬂexions. L(λa) = λL(a). Free to photocopy and distribute 16 . and rotations. But ρ cos(α + θ) = ρ cos θ cos α − ρ sin θ sin α = x cos θ − y sin θ. where for the linear transformation L in the deﬁnition we may take I : R2 → R2 . reﬂexions and rotations are linear transformations. Hence the point x y is mapped to the point x cos θ − y sin θ x sin θ + y cos θ y-axis ρ cos(α + θ) ρ sin(α + θ) . b on the plane and every scalar λ.27: Rotation by an angle θ in the levogyrate (counterclockwise) sense from the x-axis. We may now formulate the deﬁnition of a rotation. Here ρ = x2 + y 2 . We have seen that scalings. If L : R2 → R2 is a linear transformation. 41 Deﬁnition A function A : R2 → R2 is said to be an afﬁne transformation from R2 to R2 if there exists − a linear transformation L : R2 → R2 and a ﬁxed vector → ∈ R2 such that for all points x ∈ R2 it is v veriﬁed that − A(x) = L(x) + →.5 and 1.6. reﬂexions.4. it is veriﬁed that L(a + b) = L(a) + L(b). the identity transformation I(x) = x.4. and ρ sin(α + θ) = ρ sin α cos θ + ρ sin θ cos α = y cos θ + x sin θ. 39 Deﬁnition A function Rθ : R2 → R2 is said to be a levogyrate rotation about the origin by the angle θ x cos θ − y sin θ . measured from the positive x-axis if Rθ (r) = x sin θ + y cos θ Various properties of the composition of rotations with other plane transformations are explored in problems 1.Geometric Transformations in two dimensions point x with x = ρ cos(α + θ) and y = ρ sin(α + θ). We now codify some properties shared by scalings. 40 Deﬁnition A function L : R2 → R2 is said to be a linear transformation from R2 to R2 if for all points a. and rotations are linear transformations from R2 to R2 . v It is easy to see that translations are then afﬁne transformations. It is easy to prove that scalings. then → − → − → − → − L(r) = L(x i + y j ) = xL( i ) + yL( j ).

0 0 From problem 1. 1 0 = a·1 b·0 = a 0 44 Example (Reﬂexion Matrices) It is easy to verify that the matrix for the transformation RH is that the matrix for the transformation RV is −1 0 0 −1 . 2 columns) array whose columns are (in this order) L and L . 46 Example (Identity Matrix) The matrix for the identity linear transformation Id : R2 → R2 . The matrix AL associated to L is the 2 × 2. 42 Deﬁnition Let L : R2 → R2 be a linear transformation.7 we know that the composition of two linear transformations is also linear. N(x) = O is 0 0 02 = . . 0 1 47 Example (Zero Matrix) The matrix for the null linear transformation N : R2 → R2 . Then the composition L ◦ L has matrix representation ar + bt as + bu cr + dt cs + du .Chapter 1 → − → − and thus a linear transformation from R2 to R2 is solely determined by the values L( i ) and L( j ). and the matrix for the transformation RO is 45 Example (Rotating Matrices) It is easy to verify that the matrix for a rotation Rθ is cos θ sin θ − sin θ cos θ . We will now introduce a way to codify these values. 1 0 0 −1 −1 0 0 1 . Id(x) = x 1 0 is I2 = .b 0 1 = 0·1 b·1 = 0 b . We are now interested in how to codify the matrix of a composition of linear transformations L1 ◦ L1 in terms of their individual matrices. The matrix of the scaling transfora 0 mation Sa. 48 Theorem Let L : R2 → R2 have the matrix representation AL = the matrix representation AL = r t s u a c b d and let L : R2 → R2 have . 0 1 43 Example (Scaling Matrices) Let a > 0.4. b > 0 be a real numbers.b and Sa. (2 1 0 rows. Free to photocopy and distribute 17 . For 0 b Sa.b is .

whence we conclude that the matrix of L ◦ L is The above motivates the following deﬁnition. 50 Example Let M = Then M +N = 2 −2 1 2 . 2M = 2 0 −2 2 .  Since the composition of functions is not necessarily commutative. 1 0 =L L 1 0 =L r t → − → − = rL( i )+tL( j ) = r a c +t b d = ar + bt cr + dt . Assume in each case that the vertices of the ﬁgures are lattice points. as we wanted to shew.29. We deﬁne + r t s u = a+r c+t b+s d+u . a c b d r t a c s u b d . so is matrix multiplication. MN = 3 −2 1 1 .Geometric Transformations in two dimensions 1 0 0 1 Proof: We have (L◦L ) and (L◦L ) We need to ﬁnd (L ◦ L ) and (L ◦ L ) .28 into the parallelogram in ﬁgure 1.u 49 Deﬁnition Let A = matrix addition as and B = be two 2 × 2 matrices. 0 1 =L L 0 1 =L s u a b → − → − = sL( i )+uL( j ) = s +u c d ar + bt cr + dt as + bu cs + du = as + bu cs + du . that is. neither is matrix multiplication. Since the composition of functions is associative. coordinate points with integer coordinates. Then since a c b d 0 0 0 0 = . 51 Example Find a 2 × 2 matrix that will transform the square in ﬁgure 1. We deﬁne scalar multiplication of a matrix as λA = λ a c b d = λa λc λb λd . and λ ∈ R be a scalar. 1 0 −1 1 . A+B = We deﬁne matrix multiplication as AB = a c b d r t s u = ar + bt cr + dt as + bu cs + du . 18 Free to photocopy and distribute . N = 1 −2 2 1 . a c b d Solution: Let be the desired matrix.

4 2 4 2 Problem 1. Prove that the composition of a rotation and a translation is not necessarily commutative.4.B= Rθ ◦ Rθ = Rθ+θ = Rθ ◦ Rθ . Prove that the composition of a reﬂexion and a translation is not necessarily commutative.4.1 . Prove that the composition of a Free to photocopy and distribute 19 . to each vertex of the rectangle. R− π .B= a 1 b é and −2 reﬂexion and a scaling is commutative. 0 that each vertex of the square is transformed in the same order. Homework æ Problem 1. as in ﬁgure 1. −1 2 Problem 1.2 . Problem 1.5 Prove that the composition of two rotations on the plane Rθ and Rθ satisﬁes (A + B)2 = A2 + 2AB + B 2 . Problem 1. Determine the the −2 1 effects of the following scaling transformations on the triangle: S2.29: Example 51. R π .2 . without loss of generality.2 Consider ABC with A = . and S2. and R− π on the triangle in ﬁgure 1. and so the composition of two rotations on the plane is commutative.4. S1. b d 1 0 = 2 2 =⇒ a c = 2 2 =⇒ a = c = 2.4.C= . Figure 1.3 Find the effects of the reﬂexions R π .Chapter 1 0 is a fortiori. d = 1.4 Prove that the composition of two reﬂexions is commutative. Problem 1. transformed to itself. Then the point a c Using these values.30.28: Example 51.4.1 If A = 1 2 é −1 3 æ . And so the desired matrix is 2 2 −1 1 .30. 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1. ﬁnd a and b. counterclockwise. a c b d 1 1 = 1 3 =⇒ a+b c+d = 1 3 =⇒ b = −1. 0 2 .6 Prove that the composition of a scaling and a rotation is not necessarily commutative. We now assume.4. Prove that the composition of a reﬂexion and a rotation is not necessarily commutative.

30: Problems 1. Free to photocopy and distribute 20 .30. c d b d a b a c Figure 1. a b .4.7 Let L : R2 → R2 and L : R2 → R2 be linear transformations. in particular. and RO on the triangle in ﬁgure 1.4. c d = ad − bc.4. 1.4.3. Figure 1. Prove that their composition L ◦ L is also a linear transformation.31: Problem 1. and 1. and c d is D This motivates the following deﬁnition. matrix −1 3 2 Figure 1. 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 0 1 2 1 RV . the area of a parallelogram spanned by a b .8 Find the effects of the reﬂexions RH . Figure 1.33).Determinants in two dimensions Problem 1.4.10 Find the image of the ﬁgure below (consisting of étwo circles and a triangle) under the æ 1 1 .32) and (1.4.9 Find all matrices A ∈ M2×2 (R) such that A2 = 02 Problem 1.32: Area of a parallelogram.5 Determinants in two dimensions W e now desire to deﬁne a way of determining areas of plane ﬁgures on the plane. Problem 1. 1. From ﬁgures (1.4.10. It seems reasonable to require that this area determination agrees with common formulæ of areas of plane ﬁgures.4.2.33: (a + c)(b + d) − 2 · ab 2 −2· c(2b+d) 2 = ad − bc.8. the area of a parallelogram should be as we learn in elementary geometry and the area of a unit square should be 1. Problem 1.

→ = (x3 . to ﬁnd the area of a triangle of vertices → = (x1 . →) + D(→. noticing that the quadrilateral is also spanned by −→ = x4 − x3 . → − →) r2 r1 r4 r1 r4 r3 r2 r3   →. r1 r2 r2 r3 r3 r1 r1 r2 r2 r r r3 r3 r1 r2 r3 2 4 We will prove that − − − − − − − − − − D(→. →) + D(→. →) − D(→. →) . →) − D(→. r1 r2 r2 r r r3 r3 r1 4 This is equivalent to − − − − − − ¡ 1  − − − − − − − − − − ¡ D(→.35. →) r3 r2 r4 r3 r3 r3   →. (x2 . →) + D(→. y2 ). →) − D(→. we see that A = = = = 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2   − − − − − − − − ¡ D(→ − →. r4 = (x4 . →) + 2D(→. r− 2 1r y2 − y1 and hence. y3 ). →) + D(→. (1. its area is given by A = det x2 − x1 y2 − y1 x4 − x1 y4 − y1 − − − − = D(→ − →. → − →). →) − − − 1   + 2 D( r4 r2 2 4 2 1 1 4 1 1 − − − − − − ¡ D(→. →) − D(→. →) − D(→. listed r1 r2 r3 in counterclockwise order. →) . listed in counterclockwise order. → − →). as in ﬁgure 1. creating a parallelogram. →) + D(→. →)¡ − − − − − − − − − − − − D( r r r r r r r r r r r r   − − − − − − − − ¡ D(→. →) = 0. reﬂect it about one of its sides. y4 ). r3 = (x3 . →) − D(→.Chapter 1 a b c d 52 Deﬁnition The determinant of the 2 × 2 matrix det a b c d is = ad − bc. →) − D(→. by virtue of 1. r− 4 3r y4 − y3 its area is also given by A = det x4 − x3 y4 − y3 x2 − x3 y2 − y3 − − − − = D(→ − →. y1 ). − ) + D(→. y1 ). listed in counterclockwise order is 1 2 det x1 y1 x2 y2 + det x2 y2 x3 y3 + det x3 y3 x4 y4 + det x4 y4 x1 y1 . →) + 2D(→. →) − D(→. is 1  → → − − − − − − ¡ D(− . as in ﬁgure 1.34. →) + D(→. as in ﬁgure 1. →)¡ − − − − − − − − D( r r r r r r r r 2 4 2 →. →) + D(→. → = (x2 .36. The area of the triangle is now half the area of the parallelogram. →) − D(→. →) + D(→. →) + D(→. →) + D(→. (x4 . y3 ). y2 ). r4 r3 r2 r3 −→ = x2 − x3 . r− 2 3r y2 − y3 Using the properties derived in Theorem ??. y3 ). y1 ). Consider now a simple quadrilateral with vertices r1 = (x1 . r2 r1 r4 r1 −→ = x4 − x1 .11. r1 r2 r2 r3 r3 r4 r4 r1 1 1 4 2 4 2 3 2 4 3 We conclude that the area of a quadrilateral with vertices (x1 . →) . →) − D(→. → − →) + D(→ − →. r1 r2 r2 r r r3 r3 r1 r2 r3 Free to photocopy and distribute 21 1  . This quadrilateral is spanned by the vectors −→ = x2 − x1 . y4 ).11) − − − Similarly. →))¡ + 1  D(→. y2 ). →) + D(→. r2 = (x2 . (x3 . r− 4 1r y4 − y1 Similarly. →) − D(→. →) − D(→. which.

y1 ) Figure 1. y1 ). → − → = → − →. This diagonal divides the polygon into two sub-polygons. which means → = → + → − →. →) − D(→. y2 ) (x3 . Free to photocopy and distribute 22 . Then its area is given by 1 2 det x1 y1 x2 y2 + det x2 y2 x3 y3 + · · · + det xn−1 yn−1 xn yn + det xn yn x1 y1 . (xn . y4 ) r2 (x2 . A ray produced from this vertex must hit another vertex. y) r4 (x4 . . yn ) be the vertices of a simple (noncrossing) polygon. These two sub-polygons are either both convex or at least one is not convex. we appeal once again to the bi-linearity properties derived in Theorem ??. In the latter case. →) − D(→. y3 ) are listed in counterclockwise order. − − − − D(→. (1. y1 ). (x2 .11). →) + 2D(→. we have the following theorem. → − →) r1 r2 r3 r3 r2 r1 r2 r3 →. that − − − − − − − − since we have a parallelogram. (x2 . → − →) + 2D(→. →) = r1 r2 r2 r r r3 r3 r1 r2 r3 = = = = = − − − − − − − − D(→. We have proved then that the area of a triangle. y2 ) r1 (x1 . . y1 ) Figure 1. → + → − →) + 2D(→. y2 ) (x3 . Thus r r3 r2 r1 r r3 r2 r1 − − − − − − − − − − D(→. →) r3 r2 r2 r3 − − − − − − D(→ + →. listed in counterclockwise order. →) r1 r2 r2 r3 r2 r1 r2 r3 → + → − →. →) − D(→. . creating a diagonal. y3 ) r3 r2 (x2 . Proof: The proof is by induction on n. r1 (x1 . y1 ) Figure 1. 53 Theorem (Surveyor’s Theorem) Let (x1 . triangulating the polygon. → − →) + D(→ + → − →. →) − − − − − − D( r r r r r r 3 2 2 3 2 3 − − − − − − − − D(→. If P is not convex. Consider now a simple polygon P with n vertices. →) − D(→. (x3 .36: Area of a triangle. →) − D(→.35: Area of a triangle. y2 ). otherwise the polygon would have inﬁnite area. y2 ). is 1 2 det x1 y1 x2 y2 + det x2 y2 x3 y3 + det x3 y3 x1 y1 . whose vertices (x1 . →) − − − − − − −D( r r r r r r 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 3 0.34: Area of a quadrilateral. and observe. In general.Determinants in two dimensions To do this. We have already proved the cases n = 3 and n = 4 in (1. →) r3 r2 r2 r3 r2 r3 →. →) + D(→. respectively. .12) (x3 . r1 (x1 . y3 ) r3 r (x. →) + D(→. →) + 2D(→. →) − − +2D( r r as claimed. then there must be a vertex that has a reﬂex angle. y3 ) r3 r2 (x2 . creating n − 2 triangles. If P is convex then we may take any vertex and draw a line to the other vertices.12) and (1.

→ = a 2 2 1 2 → − and b = and a matrix A := .2]). the terms det xi yi xj yj + det xj yj xi yi = 0.2].) > > > > det x1 y1 x2 y2 + det x2 y2 x3 y3 + · · · + det xn−1 yn−1 xn yn + det xn yn x1 y1 . 2] normalize(a).Chapter 1 we repeat the argument. with(linalg): a:=vector([2.[3. ] 5 5 4 arccos 4 5 2 4 > > dotprod(a. 2 Problem 1. Applying (1. the polygon can be triangulated in such a way that all triangles inherit the positive orientation of the original polygon but each neighbouring pair of triangles have opposite orientations. angle(a. disappear from the sum and we are simply left with 1 2 u We may use the software Maple™ in order to speed up computations with vectors.1 Find all vectors → ∈ R2 such that → ⊥ a a æ é √ −3 and ||a|| = 13. let us deﬁne two vectors. ﬁnding another diagonal and creating a new sub-polygon. Eventually. we end up triangulating the polygon. b := [1. Most of the 1 − commands we will need are in the linalg package. A := 1 3 > det(A). − a b Free to photocopy and distribute 23 . but having opposite orientations. For example. ﬁnd a unit vector in the 1 3 4 − direction of →. > A:=matrix([[1.b).1]). Moreover. [ √ √ 5 2 5 . yi yj where the sum is over each oriented edge. a := [2. (There must be either a colon or a semicolon at the a end of each statement.2 (Pythagorean Theorem) If prove that ¬¬− ¬¬2 ¬¬→¬¬2 → − ¬¬− ¬¬ − ||→ + b ||2 = ¬¬→¬¬ + ¬¬ b ¬¬ . The result will not display if a colon is chosen. since the number of vertices is inﬁnite. Since each diagonal occurs twice. and the angle between the vectors.12) we obtain that the area is xi xj det . a a − → ⊥ →.b). −2 Homework − − Problem 1.5.4]]). Let us compute their dot product.5. 1] b:=vector([1.

5. v v a v → − − then→ = b . Prove a that if − − − − − → ∀ → ∈ R2 .. w Problem 1. A closed curve whose only multiple points are its endpoints is called a Jordan curve. − − Problem 1. − − u v u v u v 4 be 1.. Γ. where m 1 = 0..10]. > with(plots): > plot([sin(2*t). Prove that − − − − → • → = 1  ||→ + → ||2 − ||→ − →||2 ¡ .5. − − → Problem 1. b] ⊆ R.x=-5.40 follow.5.39: x = y= t .5. then p is a multiple point of the curve.37: x = sin 2t..t=0. 1 + t2 Figure 1.6 Parametric Curves on the Plane 54 Deﬁnition Let [a.40: x = (1 + cos t)/2... y = 2t/10 sin t. We mention in passing however that Maple has excellent capabilities for graphing parametric equations.y=-5.y=-5.t=-20.5.(t-tˆ3)/(1+tˆ2). with v w → → − − → − − → = 0 .sin(t)*(1+cos(t))/2. The trace of the curve r is the set of all images of r. Figure 1. with x(t) r(t) = . b]) = Γ.5). → u v vectors in R2 .5. r(a) is the initial point of the curve and r(b) its terminal point.t=-2.Parametric Curves on the Plane Problem 1. Problem 1. b] → R2 . Our interest is not in graphing curves.5).3 Let a.7 Find the Cartesian equation of all lines −1 π L passing through and making an angle of 6 2 radians with the Cartesian line L : x + y = 1. y = cos 6t. Figure 1.5).. the commands to graph the various curves in ﬁgures 1. prove that L1 ⊥ L2 ⇐⇒ m 1 m 2 = −1.5.5.2ˆ(t/10)*sin(t).. Using Corollary 22. b be ﬁxed vectors in R2 .x=-5.2].38: x = 2t/10 cos t.5. and a theory akin to the one studied for Cartesian equations in a ﬁrst Calculus course has been developed. Prove that the vector → = → − v • w → is − − − w a v ¬¬→ ¬¬2 w ¬¬− ¬¬ w − perpendicular to → .t=0.. > plot([(1-tˆ2)/(1+tˆ2). a − − Problem 1. > plot([2ˆ(t/10)*cos(t). If there exist t1 = t2 such that r(t1 ) = r(t2 ) = p.y=-5. > plot([(1+cos(t))/2.5). m 2 = 0. .6 Consider two lines on the plane L1 and L2 with Cartesian equations L1 : y = m 1 x + b1 and L2 : y = m 2 x + b1 . y = (sin t)(1 + cos t)/2. but in obtaining suitable parametrisations of simple Cartesian curves. A parametric curve representation r of a curve Γ is a function r : [a.cos(6*t). Graphing parametric equations is a difﬁcult art. A curve is closed if its initial point and its ﬁnal point coincide. →.5. b be arbitrary real numbers.2*Pi].y=-5. be vectors on the plane.8 Let → .x=-5. Free to photocopy and distribute 24 . 1 + t2 − t3 1 − t2 .. Figure 1. that is.. The curve is simple if its has no multiple points.5 (Polarisation Identity) Let →.4 Let →. Prove that (a2 + b2 )2 ≤ 2(a4 + b4 ). y(t) and such that r([a. For example..37 through 1.x=-5. → • → = → • b .2*Pi].

y = t. t ∈ [0. Figure 1. traverses the ellipse twice clockwise. t ∈ R. √ √ 2. √ Figure 1. y = t. 1]. For t ∈ [0. The ﬁrst parametrisation must satisfy that as t traverses the values in the interval [0. t ∈ [0. √ √ 3. +∞[ gives the half of the curve for which x ≤ 0. 2. then again y = t = ( t)2 = x2 . x decreases. 1. −2). traverses the ellipse once counterclockwise.43: x = − t. and hence the parametrisation x = t.44: x = cos t. y = t. and returns to (3. If x = t and y = t2 . and so this parametrisation only agrees with the curve y = x2 when −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. y) = 0. we wish to ﬁnd suitable parametrisations for them. t ∈ [0. √ t. −2). 2π]. and hence the parametrisation √ x = − t. Both x and y are periodic with period 2π. The identities cos2 θ + sin2 θ = 1. the cosine decreases from 1 to −1 and so the curve is traversed from right to left in this interval. y = t2 . That is. 1. are often useful when parametrising quadratic curves. π]. π]. one starts at the point (3. according to the choice of functions and the choice of intervals. ﬁnishing at (3. Notice that as t increases.Chapter 1 Our main focus of attention will be the following. the curve is traversed from left to right.42: x = t ∈ [0. and hence the parametrisation √ x = t.41: x = t. Figure 1. Similarly. Given a Cartesian curve with equation f (x. This works only for t ≥ 0. then clearly y = t2 = x2 . the curve is traversed from left to right. y = cos2 t. tan2 θ − sec2 θ = 1. −2). we want to ﬁnd functions x : t → a(t). and so the curve is traversed from right to left. +∞[. Figure 1. 4. if x = − t and y = t. cosh2 θ − sinh2 θ = 1. then again y = cos2 t = (cos t)2 = x2 . We will give various parametrisations for portions of this curve. b(t)) = 0. If x = cos t and y = cos2 t. y = t2 . Free to photocopy and distribute 25 . t ∈ I coincide. t ∈ R works for the whole curve. 55 Example Consider the parabola with Cartesian equation y = x2 . +∞[. +∞[ gives the half of the curve for which x ≥ 0. y = t. This works for every t ∈ R. t ∈ [0. one starts at the point (3. then again y = t = (− t)2 = x2 . As t increases. The second parametrisation must satisfy that as t traverses the interval [0. 56 Example Give two distinct parametrisations of the ellipse (x − 1)2 4 + (y + 2)2 9 = 1. −2). If x = t and y = t. These parametrisations may differ in features. As t increases. This works only for t ≥ 0. y) = 0 and f (a(t). y : t → b(t) and an interval I such that the graphs of f (x.

cos 4πt + will start at (1. 2π]. clockwise. If the initial position of P is 0 angle.47: Hypocycloid with R = 3. Hence we may take π π . cos 4πt) traverses the unit interval twice. Figure 1. 1] x = 1 + 2 sin 4πt + 2 2 as our parametrisation. as t traverses [0. 1]. 2π] = cos t =⇒ x = 1 + 2 cos t. shew that a parametrisation of the hypocycloid is x = (R − ρ) cos θ + ρ cos Free to photocopy and distribute (R − ρ)θ ρ . 0) and ending there. 57 Example A hypocycloid is a curve traced out by a ﬁxed point P on a circle C of radius ρ as C rolls R . 1]. For the second parametrisation.45: Construction of the hypocycloid.46: Hypocycloid with R = 5. is the desired ﬁrst parametrisation. y = −2 + 3 sin t. as the curves drawn by a spirograph. t ∈ [0. sin t) traverses the unit circle once. 0) and 2 2 travel clockwise twice. t ∈ [0. that a ray starting at O and passing through the centre of C makes with the x-axis. ρ = 2. and θ is the on the inside of a circle with centre at O and radius R. notice that as t traverses the interval [0. O φ B P A θ O Figure 1. measured counterclockwise.Parametric Curves on the Plane Solution: What formula do we know where a sum of two squares equals 1? We use a trigonometric substitution. the point (cos t. 0) we must make a shift: sin 4πt + . y = −2 + 3 cos 4πt + . Put x−1 2 and y+2 3 Then x = 1 + 2 cos t. 26 . but begins and ends at the point (0. starting at (1. Figure 1.” Observe that for t ∈ [0. Some classic curves can be described by mechanical means. 1). We will consider one such curve. To begin at π π the point (1. a sort of “polar coordinates. (sin 4πt. ρ = 1. = sin t =⇒ y = −2 + 3 sin t.

Chapter 1 (R − ρ)θ ρ y = (R − ρ) sin θ − ρ sin . and so (R − ρ)θ = ρφ. y) moves clockwise an angle φ. π Let A be the projection of P on the x-axis.48: Length of a curve. The arc length travelled by the centre of the small circle is (R − ρ)θ radians. Solution: Suppose that starting from θ = 0. ∠OO P = π − φ − θ. where O B is parallel to the x-axis. cos(θ + φ) = − cos(π − θ − φ) = − so ρ OO =− ρ R−ρ and cos φ = cos (R − ρ)θ ρ (R − ρ)θ ρ and x = (R − ρ) cos θ − (R − ρ)(cos(θ + φ) cos φ = (R − ρ) cos θ + ρ cos . At the same time the point P has rotated ρφ radians. − d→ x → − x → + d→ − − x x Figure 1. dy at each point. Also. The length of the vector dr = Free to photocopy and distribute dx dy 27 . and OP = (R − ρ) sin(π − φ − θ).45. 2 π − φ. and the point P = (x. as required. Hence ∠P OA = 2 π x = (OP ) cos ∠P OA = (R − ρ) sin(π − φ − θ) cos( − φ). 2 Now π x = (R − ρ) sin(π − φ − θ) cos( − φ) 2 = (R − ρ) sin(φ + θ) sin φ (R − ρ) = (cos θ − cos(2φ + θ)) 2 (R − ρ) = (R − ρ) cos θ − (cos θ + cos(2φ + θ)) 2 = (R − ρ) cos θ − (R − ρ)(cos(θ + φ) cos φ). 2 π y = (R − ρ) sin(π − φ − θ) sin( − φ). Figure 1.49: Area enclosed by a simple closed curve Given a curve Γ how can we ﬁnd its length? The idea.48 is to consider the projections dx. Then ∠OAP = ∠OP O = . The identity for y is proved similarly. A particular example appears in ﬁgure 1. as seen in ﬁgure 1. See ﬁgure 1.47. the centre O of the small circle moves counterclockwise inside the larger circle by an angle θ.

Γ (dx)2 + (dy)2 . How do we ﬁnd the (oriented) area of the region it encloses? The idea. (1. B > 0. (1. for x2 A2 + y2 B2 = A2 cos2 t A2 + B 2 sin2 t B2 = cos2 t + sin2 t = 1.13) Γ Similarly.Parametric Curves on the Plane is ||dr|| = Hence the length of Γ is given by ||dr|| = (dx)2 + (dy)2 . with x y This is a parametrisation of the ellipse.51: Example 59. Figure 1. 58 Example Let (A. Find a parametrisation of the ellipse Γ: (x. Notice that this parametrisation goes around once the ellipse counterclockwise. ﬁnd an integral expression for the perimeter of this ellipse and ﬁnd the area it encloses. B) ∈ R2 . Solution: Consider the parametrisation Γ : [0. 2 and to sum over the closed curve. The perimeter of the ellipse is given by ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬d− ¬¬ = r 2π 0 A2 sin2 t + B 2 cos2 t dt. suppose that Γ is a simple closed curve in R2 . obtaining a total oriented area of 1 2 Á Á det Γ x y dx dy = 1 2 Á Γ (xdy − ydx). Furthermore. 2π] → R2 . = A cos t B sin t . 28 Γ Free to photocopy and distribute .50: Example 58. A > 0. is to split the region into triangles. each of area 1 1 x x + dx x det = det 2 2 y y + dy y dx dy = 1 (xdy − ydx). borrowed from ﬁnding areas of polygons. Figure 1. y) ∈ R2 : x2 A2 + y2 B2 =1 .14) Here Γ denotes integration around the closed curve.

We will have better luck with the area of the ellipse. sin3 t). which is given by 1 2 Á Γ (xdy − ydx) = = = 1 2 1 2 1 2 Á (A cos t d(B sin t) − B sin t d(A cos t)) 2π 0 2π (AB cos2 t + AB sin2 t)) dt AB dt . y) = (cos3 t. and we do not have a closed form for it (in terms of the elementary functions studied in Calculus I).Chapter 1 The above integral is an elliptic integral. we use the line integral command with the vector ﬁeld . 59 Example Find a parametric representation for the astroid Γ : (x. to compute the arc length we use the path integral command and to −y/2 compute the area. if (x. We can use Maple™ (at least version 10) to calculate the above integrals. Solution: Take x y with t ∈ [0. y) ∈ R2 : x2/3 + y 2/3 = 1 . in ﬁgure 1. 2π]. Find the perimeter of the astroid and the area it encloses. ||dr|| = = = 9 cos4 t sin2 t + 9 sin4 t cos2 t dt 3| sin t cos t| dt 0 2π 0 2π 0 π/2 0 3 2 | sin 2t| dt sin 2t dt = 6 = 6. 0 = πAB.51. x/2 Free to photocopy and distribute 29 . The area of the astroid is given by 1 2 Á Γ (xdy − ydx) = = = = = = 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 8 3 Á (cos3 t d(sin3 t) − sin3 t d(cos3 t)) 2π 0 2π 0 2π 0 (3 cos4 t sin2 t + 3 sin4 t cos2 t)) dt (sin t cos t)2 dt (sin 2t)2 dt (1 − cos 4t) dt 2π 0 16 3π 8 . For example. Then The perimeter of the astroid is 2π Γ = cos3 t sin3 t x2/3 + y 2/3 = cos2 t + sin2 t = 1.

<1.1 A curve is represented parametrically by x(t) = t3 − 2t.0.3 Let a. 1 −1 −1 1 Figure 1.53. <1. 5 1+t 1 + t5 Problem 1.y] = LineSegments( <0. To obtain the arc length of the path in ﬁgure 1. t ∈ [0. Pi/5 ) . y = ct + d 2.6.1>. and between the lines x = 1 and x = 2. b. over the x axis. y = b sinh t 4.5 Describe the trace of the parametric curve æ é æ é x sin t = .0>.y] = Arc( Circle( <0. some Maple commands to compute various arc lengths and areas. x = a sec t. In each case give an implicit Cartesian equation for the parametric representation and describe the trace of the parametric curve.2*Pi)).<4. [ 2 2 Problem 1.0.x/2>).0>.(sin(t))ˆ3>. [x..y]=Path( <(cos(t))ˆ3. Give a suitable parametrisation of this curve.6.6. 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.6. 1.3>. x = cos t. t ∈] − π π .6. y 2 sin t + 1 Problem 1. The graph of the curve appears in ﬁgure 1. y = 0 3. LineInt( VectorField(<-y/2.54 > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > LineInt( VectorField(<-y/2. 6 5 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.1>. Find its Cartesian equation. y = b tan t. Homework Problem 1.(1+cos(t))*(sin(t))+2>.53: Arc of circle of π π radius 3. we type > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > PathInt(1.55. Problem 1. 4π]. d be strictly positive real constants.2> .6.(sin(t))ˆ3>. angle ≤θ≤ .x/2>). y = 2 + (1 + cos t)(sin t).2*Pi)). Free to photocopy and distribute 30 .54: x = 1 + (1 + cos t)(cos t). Find the area under the graph.0. Path( <(cos(t))ˆ3. and ﬁnd its length.. Problem 1. 3). y(t) = t3 + 2t. [x.2 Give an implicit Cartesian equation for t2 t3 the parametric representation x = .<2.6. x = a cosh t.6. We include here for convenience.52: Line Path. To obtain the area inside the curve in 1.2*Pi)). 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 1.55: Problem 1. we type > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > PathInt(1. Then ﬁnd its arc length.7 Consider the graph given parametrically by x(t) = t3 + 1. [x. y= . Pi/6.Parametric Curves on the Plane > > > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): PathInt( 1.6.<3. c. x = at + b. y(t) = 1 − t2 .6 Consider the plane curve deﬁned implic√ √ itly by x + y = 1.. 3 Problem 1. > Path( <(1+cos(t))*(cos(t))+1.4 Parametrise the curve y = log cos x for π 0 ≤ x ≤ . 60 Example To obtain the arc length of the path in ﬁgure 1.52.1>).

y(t) = 2t3 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.16 The parabola y 2 = −4px rolls without slipping around the parabola y 2 = 4px.6.6. z ∈ R} .11 Let C be the curve in R2 deﬁned by 3t . 2 y(t) = (2t + 1)3/2 . 1.56.14 Find the length of the parametric curve given by x = et cos t.11. g Figure 1. y = ρ(1 − cos t). Problem 1.8 Find the arc length of the curve given parametrically by x(t) = 3t2 .15 A shell strikes an airplane ﬂying at height h above the ground. It is known that the shell was ﬁred from a gun on the ground with a muzzle velocity of magnitude V .6.12 Let P be a point at a distance d from the centre of a circle of radius ρ. Problem 1. is called a cycloid. z) : x ∈ R.57.6. P Problem 1.9 Let C be the curve in R2 deﬁned by x(t) = t2 .6.56: Problem 1. Deduce that the gun is situated within a circle whose centre lies directly below the airplane and whose radius is Ô V V 2 − 2gh . π].58: Cycloid Figure 1.Chapter 1 Problem 1. The curve appears in ﬁgure 1. without slipping.10. t ∈ [0. y.7 Vectors in Space 61 Deﬁnition The 3-dimensional Cartesian Space is deﬁned and denoted by R3 = {r = (x. t ∈ [0. Find a parametrisation of the cycloid. y(t) = (cos t)(1 + sin2 t).6.6.6. y ∈ R. 1 −1 −1 1 Problem 1. Find the area enclosed by the loop of this curve. Problem 1. y = et sin t.6. Find the length of this curve. + ]. d θ C ρ B Figure 1.13 Find the arc length of the arc of the cycloid x = ρ(t − cos t). 3 1 1 t ∈ [− . Find the equation of the locus of the vertex of the rolling parabola. Problem 1. x(t) = 1 + t3 3t2 y(t) = .57: Problem 1. but the position of the gun and its angle of elevation are both unknown. 2π]. Problem 1.6. 2 2 P as the circle rolls along a straight line. which you may see in ﬁgure 1. The curve traced out by Problem 1. 1 + t3 t ∈ R \ {−1}. Free to photocopy and distribute 31 .6.10 Find the area enclosed by the curve x(t) = sin3 t.

Vectors in Space In ﬁgure 1. y. as in ﬁgure 1. 3). 1.59: A point in space. 0 2.0 -1 . 0 2. 0 and observe that 1 ¾ ¿ → − j = 1 . → − k → − k 3 2 → − j → − i → − j → − i 1 Figure 1.61: Right Hand.0 1. In analogy to R2 we put ¾ ¿ → − i = 0 . Most of what we did in R2 transfers to R3 without major complications.0 -3. 1 2.59 we have pictured the point (2. we have a choice for the orientation of the the x and y-axis. We adopt a convention known as a right-handed coordinate system.0 -2. Figure 1. Having oriented the z axis upwards. 1 and Free to photocopy and distribute 32 . 0 -3.0 -1. 0 -2 . 0 -1.60: system. 1 ¾ ¿ → − → − → − r = (x.62: system. z 4. Right-handed Figure 1.0 x y Figure 1.63: 3 are skew. z) = x i + y j + z k .0 3.0 1. 0 -3 .60. Let us explain. 0 0 0 → − k = 0 . 0 1.0 2. Left-handed Figure 1. 0 -2.

π] is the convex angle a a between the two vectors. By Cauchy’s Inequality. 63 Example Let x. y = . Equality occurs if and only if x 3z 1 λ 4 λ 9 2 2y = λ 1/2 1/3 =⇒ x = λ. where θ ∈ [0. 3 Free to photocopy and distribute 33 . v à à 1 65 Example Find the parametric equation of the line passing through 2 3 Solution: The line follows the direction ¾ and −2 −1 0 . |x + y + z| = x + y + z. → − − 64 Deﬁnition Let a be a point in R3 and let → = 0 be a vector in R3 . Solution: Since x. z be positive real numbers such that x2 + 4y 2 + 9z 2 = 27. y= √ 9 3 14 . 1 2 + 3z 1 ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ |x+y+z| = ¬x + 2y ¬ ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ ≤ (x +4y +9z ) 3 ¬ 2 2 2 1/2 1+ 1 4 + 1 9 1/2 √ 7 = 27 6 = √ 7 3 2 . y. 1 − (−2) 3−0 ¿ ¾ ¿ 3 3 2 − (−1) = 3 . − − a b 1 1 2 2 3 3 → in R3 is − The norm of a vector a Ô ¬¬→¬¬ − − ¬¬− ¬¬ = →•→ = a a a (a1 )2 + (a2 )2 + (a3 )2 . Maximise x + y + z. The desired equation is x y z = à à ¾ ¿ 1 2 3 3 +t 3 . z are positive. z= √ 2 3 7 .Chapter 1 → − − 62 Deﬁnition The dot product of two vectors → and b in R3 is a →•→ = a b + a b + a b . Therefore for a maximum we take x= √ 18 3 7 . the dot product satisﬁes →• b = ¬¬→¬¬¬¬ b ¬¬ cos θ. y. ¬¬− ¬¬¬¬→¬¬ − ¬¬− ¬¬ − → Just as in R2 . The Cauchy-Schwarz-Bunyakovsky Inequality takes the form ¬¬− ¬¬¬¬→¬¬ − ¬¬− ¬¬ − → |→• b | ≤ ¬¬→¬¬¬¬ b ¬¬ =⇒ |a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 | ≤ (a2 + a2 + a2 )1/2 (b2 + b2 + b2 )1/2 .z = =⇒ λ + λ2 4 + λ2 9 = 27 =⇒ λ = ± √ 18 3 7 . a a 1 2 3 1 2 3 equality holding if an only if the vectors are parallel. The parametric line passing v − through a in the direction of → is the set v − r ∈ R3 : r = a + t→ .

any vector t coplanar with both → v w v → can be uniquely expressed in the form − and w → − − − t = p→ + q → . one over the other. → a a → − b} is a plane passing through the origin. v w See ﬁgure 1. Conversely. lying on different planes). b. − → = → + p(→ − →) + q(→ − →). → in R3 be non-parallel vectors. and y z − → − → c are non-collinear. then a c → → − − linear combinations of these three vectors may lie outside the plane containing b . → − − − Consider now two non-zero vectors → and b in R3 . This prompts the following theorem. b arbitrary scalars. In the case at hand the vectors are in space. then the set → − − − {s→ + t b : s ∈ R. a c Any vector in R3 can be written as a linear combination of three linearly independent vectors in R3 . Then every vector → of the form v w u → = a→ + b→. → − − − From the above theorem. See ﬁgure 1. one of the following three situations might arise: (i) the lines intersect at a point. All the above gives the following result. (iii) the lines are skew (non-parallel. a a → − − which is a line through the origin. b . again abusing language. − − − − − r a b a c a 34 Free to photocopy and distribute . We will say. passing through the origin. Suppose that a. We will say. − − − u v w → − − − − a.Vectors in Space  Given two lines in space. they still span a plane.64. → in R3 are said to be linearly independent if a c → − → − − − α→ + β b + γ → = 0 =⇒ α = β = γ = 0. By Chasles’ Rule. c . ax have by Lemma 66. If → a a → − b . t ∈ R} = {λ→ : λ ∈ R}. q with → → = p− + q → − − ar ab ac. are non-parallel. and c are non-collinear à x points on the same plane and that r = is another arbitrary point on this plane. ab and → which are coplanar. they would span the whole plane R2 . We saw in the preceding a chapter that if the vectors were on the plane.63. A plane is determined by three non-collinear points. that a vector is parallel to a speciﬁc plane or that it lies on a speciﬁc plane if there exists a bi-point representative of the vector that lies on the particular plane. b. without intersecting. (ii) the lines are parallel. →. t ∈ R. Since − also lies on the plane. if a vector → is not a linear combination of two other vectors b . − − → − 67 Theorem Three vectors →. Suppose now that → and b are not parallel. is coplanar with both → and →. Thus → − − − {s→ + t b : s ∈ R. − − − 66 Theorem Let →. Since a. we ac. abusing language. that two vectors are coplanar if there exists bi-point representatives of the vector that lie on the same plane. that there exist real numbers p.

This gives the following theorem. Adding gives.65: Theorem 69. The parametric equation of a plane containu v − − ing the point a. b . (u2 v3 − u3 v2 )(x − a1 ) = (u2 v3 − u3 v2 )(pu1 + qv1 ). the second by u3 v1 −u1 v3 . that is. which is the Cartesian equation of the plane. (u3 v1 − u1 v3 )(y − a2 ) = (u3 v1 − u1 v3 )(pu2 + qv2 ). Figure 1. c are zero. b = u3 v1 − u1 v3 . at least one of the ¾ ¿ a →= − coefﬁcients is non-zero. → is linearly independent from →. (u2 v3 − u3 v2 )(x − a1 ) + (u3 v1 − u1 v3 )(y − a2 ) + (u1 v2 − u2 v1 )(z − a3 ) = 0. and parallel to the vectors → and → is given by u v → − → = p→ + q → . not all of a. ¾ ¿ a b c →= − n → − v − − p→ + q → v w ax + by + cz = d → − x → − w Figure 1. y − a2 = pu2 + qv2 . Moreover. − − Since v u 69 Theorem The equation of the plane in space can be written in the form ax + by + cz = d. b. Put and a = u2 v3 − u3 v2 . d = a1 (u2 v3 − u3 v2 ) + a2 (u3 v1 − u1 v3 ) + a3 (u1 v2 − u2 v1 ). (u1 v2 − u2 v1 )(z − a3 ) = (u1 v2 − u2 v1 )(pu3 + qv3 ). where →. z − a3 = pu3 + qv3 .Chapter 1 − − → − is the equation of a plane containing the three non-collinear points a. and → a c are the position vectors of these points. Thus we have the following theorem. c = u1 v2 − u2 v1 . Multiplying the ﬁrst equation by u2 v3 −u3 v2 . Free to photocopy and distribute 35 . b. − − − − r a u v Componentwise this takes the form x − a1 = pu1 + qv1 . the vector n b is normal to the plane with Cartesian equation c ax + by + cz = d. and c. − − 68 Theorem Let → and → be linearly independent vectors.64: Theorem 66. we obtain. and the third by u1 v2 −u2 v1 . Here a2 + b2 + c2 = 0.

d a á =s − b¿ +t ¾ a 1 0 − c¿ a 0 1 b a + b (1) + c (0) = 0.Vectors in Space Proof: We have already proved the ﬁrst statement. In this case we can see that x= Put y = s and z = t. observe that − − − − − − if → and → are non-parallel vectors and → − → = p→ + q → is the equation of the plane u v r a u v → and →. 1 0 2 Solution: The desired parametric equation is à x y+1 z−2 This gives s = z − 2. since at least one − − − − − − − − − pendicular to u v r a n u n v n of a. The argument is similar if one of the other letters is non-zero and a = 0. c is non-zero. Hence the Cartesian equation is x − y = 1. and ¾ ¿ 1 1 ¾ ¿ 1 0 =s 1 +t 1 . 71 Example Find both the parametric equation and the Cartesian equation of the plane parallel to the à ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ 1 1 0 vectors 1 and 1 and passing through the point −1 . We have a − ¾ ¿ d a − b a ¾ y− c a z. proving the second state1 à 1 70 Example The equation of the plane passing through the point ¾ −1 2 and normal to the vector −3 2 4 ¿ is −3(x − 1) + 2(y + 1) + 4(z − 2) = 0 =⇒ −3x + 2y + 4z = 3. a ¾ a b c and so ment. t=y+1−s=y+1−z+2=y−z+3 x = s + t = z − 2 + y − z + 3 = y + 1. b. a − ¾ c + b (0) + c (1) = 0. Now.u is simultaneously perpendicular to − b¿ and a 1 0 − c¿ a 0 . then if → is simultaneously per− − − containing the point a and parallel to the vectors u v n → and → then (→ − →)•→ = 0 for →•→ = 0 = →•→. Free to photocopy and distribute 36 . Then x− y z is a parametric equation for the plane. we may assume a = 0. For the second statement.

Chapter 1 − − 72 Deﬁnition If → is perpendicular to plane Π1 and → is perpendicular to plane Π2 , the angle between n n − − the two planes is the angle between the two vectors → and → . n n z z z

x

y

x

y

x

y

Figure 1.66: The plane z = 1 − x.

Figure 1.67: The plane z = 1 − y.

Figure 1.68: Solid bounded by the planes z = 1 − x and z = 1 − y in the ﬁrst octant.

73 Example 1. Draw the intersection of the plane z = 1 − x with the ﬁrst octant. 2. Draw the intersection of the plane z = 1 − y with the ﬁrst octant. 3. Find the angle between the planes z = 1 − x and z = 1 − y. 4. Draw the solid S which results from the intersection of the planes z = 1 − x and z = 1 − y with the ﬁrst octant. 5. Find the volume of the solid S . Solution: 1. This appears in ﬁgure 1.66. 2. This appears in ﬁgure 1.67.
¾ ¿

1

¾ ¿

0 1

3. The vector 0 is normal to the plane x + z = 1, and the vector 1 is normal to the plane 1 y + z = 1. If θ is the angle between these two vectors, then

1 π 1·0+0·1+1·1 cos θ = √ =⇒ cos θ = =⇒ θ = . √ 2 + 12 · 2 + 12 2 3 1 1 4. This appears in ﬁgure 1.68. 5. The resulting solid is a pyramid with square base of area A = 1 · 1 = 1. Recall that the Ah volume of a pyramid is given by the formula V = , where A is area of the base of the 3 pyramid and h is its height. Now, the height of this pyramid is clearly 1, and hence the 1 volume required is . 3

Homework

Free to photocopy and distribute

37

Vectors in Space
¬¬− ¬¬ − − → Problem 1.7.1 Vectors → , b satisfy ¬¬→ ¬¬ = 13, a a ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ − − ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬→ →¬¬ − + − = 24. Find ¬¬→ − →¬¬. − b ¬¬ b ¬¬ ¬¬ b ¬¬ = 19, ¬¬ a ¬¬ a
Problem 1.7.2 Find the equation of ¿ line passing the ¾ 1 −2 through 2 3 in the direction of −1 . 0 x L2 : y z = 0 0 1

¾

2 1

¿

+ t −1 ,

intersect. Find the angle between them. Problem 1.7.11 Let a, b, c be arbitrary real numbers. Prove that (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 ≤ 3(a4 + b4 + c4 ). Problem 1.7.12 Let a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 be the lengths of the sides of ABC. (Vertex A is opposite to the side measuring a, etc.) Recall that by Heron’s Formula, the area of this triangle is S(a, b, c) = a+b+c s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c), where s = is the 2 semiperimeter of the triangle. Prove that f (a, b, c) = S(a, b, c) is maximised when ABC is equilateral, a 2 + b2 + c 2 and ﬁnd this maximum. Problem 1.7.13 Let x, y, z be strictly positive numbers. Prove that √ √ √ √ x+y+ y+z+ z+x ≤ 6. √ x+y+z Problem 1.7.14 Let x, y, z be strictly positive numbers. Prove that x+y+z ≤ 2 x2 y2 z2 + + y+z z+x x+y .

Problem 1.7.3 Find the equation of plane containing 1 the point 1 and perpendicular to the line x = 1 1 + t, y = −2t, z = 1 − t. Problem 1.7.4 Find the equation of plane containing 1 the point −1 −1 Problem 1.7.5 (Putnam Exam 1984) Let A be a solid a × b × c rectangular brick in three dimensions, where a > 0, b > 0, c > 0. Let B be the set of all points which are at distance at most 1 from some point of A (in particular, A ⊆ B). Express the volume of B as a polynomial in a, b, c. and containing the line x = 2y = 3z.

¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ − ¬¬→¬¬ Problem 1.7.6 It is known that ¬¬→¬¬ = 3, ¬¬ b ¬¬ = 4, a ¬¬→¬¬ − − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ = 5 and that → + → + → = →. Find c a b c 0
− − →•→ + → •→ + → •→ . − − − − a b b c c a Problem 1.7.7 Find the equation of the line perpendicular to the plane ax + a2 y + a3 z = 0, a = 0 and 0 passing through the point 0 1 Problem 1.7.8 Find the equation of the plane perpendicular to the line ax = by = cz, abc = 0 and passing 1 through the point 1 1 Problem 1.7.9 Find the (shortest) distance from the point (1, 2, 3) to the plane x − y + z = 1. Problem 1.7.10 Determine whether the lines ¾ ¿ x 1 2 L1 : y z = 1 1 +t 1 , 1 in R3 . .

Problem 1.7.15 Find the Cartesian equation of the 1 0 0 plane passing through 0 , 1 and 0 . Draw 0 0 1 this plane and its intersection with the ﬁrst octant. Find 0 the volume of the tetrahedron with vertices at 1 0 0 , 0 1 0 and 0 0 1 . 0 0 ,

Problem 1.7.16 Prove that there do not exist three unit vectors in R3 such that the angle between any two of 2π them be > . 3 − − − Problem 1.7.17 Let (→ − → )•→ = 0 be a plane passr a n − ing through the point a and perpendicular to vector → . n If b is not a point on the plane, then the distance from b to the plane is ¬ ¬ − − ¬ → → •→ ¬ − ¬( a − b ) n ¬ ¬¬→¬¬ . ¬¬− ¬¬ n

Free to photocopy and distribute

38

Chapter 1
Problem 1.7.18 (Putnam Exam 1980) Let S be the solid in three-dimensional space consisting of all points x y z x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0, z ≥ 0, Problem 1.7.19 Given a polyhedron with n faces, consider n vectors, each normal to a face of the polyhedron, and length equal to the area of the face. Prove that the → − sum of these vectors is 0 . satisfying the following system of six conditions: 2x + 3z ≤ 24. Determine the number of vertices and the number of edges of S.

2x + 4y + 3z ≤ 36,

x + y + z ≤ 11,

1.8

Cross Product

We now deﬁne the standard cross product in R3 as a product satisfying the following properties. − − − 74 Deﬁnition Let →, →, → be vectors in R3 , and let α ∈ R be a scalar. The cross product × is a closed x y z binary operation satisfying − − − −  Anti-commutativity: → × → = −(→ × →) x y y x  Bilinearity: − − − − − − − (→ + →) × → = → × → + → × → and x z y x y z y → × (→ + →) = → × → + → × → − − − − − − − x z y x z x y

− − − − − −  Scalar homogeneity: (α→) × → = → × (α→) = α(→ × →) x y x y x y → − − −  →×→= 0 x x  Right-hand Rule: → → − − → → → − − − → → → − − − → − i × j = k, j × k = i , k × i = j .

It follows that the cross product is an operation that, given two non-parallel vectors on a plane, allows us to “get out” of that plane. 75 Example Find
¾ ¿ ¾ ¿

1 0 −3

0 2

× 1 .

Solution:

We have → − → − → − → − → → − − → → − − → → − − → → − − ( i −3k)×( j +2k) = i × j +2 i × k −3k × j −6k × k → − → − → − → − = k −2 j +3 i +60 → − → → − − = 3 i −2 j + k.
¾

Hence

1 0 −3

¿

¾ ¿

0 2

¾

3 1

¿

× 1 = −2 . 

but

The cross product of vectors in R3 is not associative, since → − → → − − → → − − → − i ×( i × j )= i × k =− j → → − − → − − → → − → − ( i × i )× j = 0 × j = 0.

Free to photocopy and distribute

39

Cross Product

×→ − y

¬ ¬¬¬→ ¬¬ − y ¬¬

→ − x

θ
− → x → − y

¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ x

Figure 1.69: Theorem 79.

Figure 1.70: Area of a parallelogram

Operating as in example 75 we obtain
¾

− 76 Theorem Let → = x2 x x3

x1

¿

¾

− and → = y2 y y3

y1

¿

be vectors in R3 . Then

− − − → × → = (x y − x y )→ + (x y − x y )→ + (x y − x y )→. − − x y 2 3 3 2 i 3 1 1 3 j 1 2 2 1 k → → − − → → − − → → − − → − Proof: Since i × i = j × j = k × k = 0 , we only worry about the mixed products, obtaining, →×→ = − − x y = → − → − → − → − → − → − (x1 i + x2 j + x3 k ) × (y1 i + y2 j + y3 k ) → → − − → → − − → → − − → → − − x 1 y2 i × j + x 1 y3 i × k + x 2 y1 j × i + x 2 y3 j × k → → − − → → − − +x3 y1 k × i + x3 y2 k × j → → − − → → − − → → − − (x1 y2 − y1 x2 ) i × j + (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) j × k + (x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) k × i → − → − → − (x1 y2 − y1 x2 ) k + (x2 y3 − x3 y2 ) i + (x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) j ,

= =

proving the theorem. u Using the cross product, we may obtain a third vector simultaneously perpendicular to two other vectors in space. − − − − − − 77 Theorem → ⊥ (→ × →) and → ⊥ (→ × →), that is, the cross product of two vectors is simultanex x y y x y ously perpendicular to both original vectors. Proof: We will only check the ﬁrst assertion, the second veriﬁcation is analogous. − − − − →•(→ × →) = (x → + x → + x →)•((x y − x y )→ − − − x x y 1 i 2 j 3 k 2 3 3 2 i → − → − +(x3 y1 − x1 y3 ) j + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 ) k ) = 0, completing the proof. u Although the cross product is not associative, we have, however, the following theorem. 78 Theorem − → × (→ × →) = (→•→)→ − (→•→)→. − − − − − − − − a b c a c b a b c 40

= x 1 x 2 y3 − x 1 x 3 y2 + x 2 x 3 y1 − x 2 x 1 y3 + x 3 x 1 y2 − x 3 x 2 y1

Free to photocopy and distribute

¬¬→¬¬¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬¬¬− ¬¬ sin θ x y

→) ∈ [0. − − − − || x y x y whence the theorem follows. u Free to photocopy and distribute 41 . →). Then x y x y − − − − − − ||→ × →|| = ||→||||→|| sin (→. a c a c completing the proof. →) x y x y x y →||2 ||→||2 sin2 (→. x y x y x y Proof: We have − − ||→ × →||2 x y = = = = = = (x2 y3 − x3 y2 )2 + (x3 y1 − x1 y3 )2 + (x1 y2 − x2 y1 )2 2 2 2 y 2 y3 − 2x2 y3 x3 y2 + z 2 y2 + z 2 y1 − 2x3 y1 x1 y3 + 2 2 2 +x2 y3 + x2 y2 − 2x1 y2 x2 y1 + y 2 y1 2 2 2 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )(y1 + y2 + y3 ) − (x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 )2 →||2 ||→||2 − (→•→)2 − − − − || x y x y − − − − − − ||→||2 ||→||2 − ||→||2||→||2 cos2 (→. u z P D − →×→ − a b A → − c D x B C N θ −b → A → − a M B Figure 1. Figure 1. π] be the convex angle between two vectors → and →.Chapter 1 Proof: − − − − − → × (→ × →) = (a → + a → + a →) × ((b c − b c )→+ − − a b c 1 i 2 j 3 k 2 3 3 2 i → − → − +(b3 c1 − b1 c3 ) j + (b1 c2 − b2 c1 ) k ) → − → − → − = a1 (b3 c1 − b1 c3 ) k − a1 (b1 c2 − b2 c1 ) j − a2 (b2 c3 − b3 c2 ) k → − → − → − +a2 (b1 c2 − b2 c1 ) i + a3 (b2 c3 − b3 c2 ) j − a3 (b3 c1 − b1 c3 ) i → − → − → − = (a1 c1 + a2 c2 + a3 c3 )(b1 i + b2 j + b3 i )+ → − → − → − (−a1 b1 − a2 b2 − a3 b3 )(c1 i + c2 j + c3 i ) − − − − → − → − = (→•→) b − (→• b )→.72: Example 83. →).71: Theorem 82. C y − − − − 79 Theorem Let (→.

3. 1). C(0. x y x y The following result mixes the dot and the cross product. it is possible to “exchange” the cross and dot products: − − → • (→ × → ) = (→ × →) • → − − − − a b c a b c 83 Example Consider the rectangular parallelepiped ABCDD C B A (ﬁgure 1. Find the parametric equation of MP. be linearly independent vectors in R3 . 0). → satisfy → × → = 0 if and only if they are parallel. →. −→ − AM = −1 3 0 − → −→ − − =⇒ AD × AM = −1 . 0. Find the Cartesian equation of the plane containing the points A. 0. −6 −3 The equation of the plane is thus ¾ x−2 z−0 ¿ ¾ y − 0 • −1 = 0 =⇒ 3(x − 2) + 1(y) + 6z = 0 =⇒ 3x + y + 6z = 6. − − → − 82 Theorem Let →. 1. The altitude of the a a ¬¬− ¬¬ → − − − parallelepiped is ¬¬→¬¬ cos θ where θ is the angle between → and → × b . 0.71. A (2. parallelepiped is thus proving the theorem. 0). Suppose that a line through M is drawn cutting the line segment [AC ] in N and the line DD in ← → P . which has area ¬¬→ × b ¬¬. and M . C (0. 0). Solution: 1. ← − → 4. Form the following vectors and ﬁnd their cross product: ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ −→ − AD = −2 0 1 . −6 −3 ¿ Free to photocopy and distribute 42 . 1). D (0. 0). ← → 3. u  Since we may have used any of the faces of the parallelepiped. Find the parametric equation of the line AC . 1). b . → − − − − − 80 Corollary Two non-zero vectors →. D(0. it follows that → − → − − → − − − − − − (→ × b ) • → = ( b × →) • → = (→ × → ) • b . B (2. x y x y 81 Corollary (Lagrange’s Identity) − − − − ||→ × →||2 = ||x||2 ||y||2 − (→•→)2 . 3. 0. The signed volume of the parala c → − − − lelepiped spanned by them is (→ × b ) • →.70.72) with vertices A(2.Cross Product ¬¬− − ¬¬ Theorem 79 has the following geometric signiﬁcance: ¬¬→ × →¬¬ is the area of the parallelogram x y formed when the tails of the vectors are joined. The area of the base of the parallelepiped is the area of the paral¬¬ → − →¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬− − lelogram determined by the vectors → and b . Let M be the midpoint of the line segment joining the vertices B and C. a c c a c a In particular. 3. D . 1). The following corollaries easily follow from Theorem 79. The volume of the c c a ¬¬ →¬¬¬¬→¬¬ − ¬¬ − − ¬¬→ − → → − → − ¬¬ a × b ¬¬¬¬ c ¬¬ cos θ = ( a × b ) • c . See ﬁgure 1. a c Proof: See ﬁgure 1. Find the area of AD M . 2. B(2. 3.

The area of the triangle is ¬¬− → −→¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬AD × AM¬¬ 2 ¾ 1Ô 2 = 3 + 12 + 62 = 2 √ 46 . a a a → − − − Problem 1. Solving the ﬁrst two equations gives s = à 1 2 . z = 2s. z = sz .8. and hence the line AC has parametric equation à ¾ ¿ à x y z = 2 0 0 +t −2 3 1 =⇒ x = 2 − 2t.8. Free to photocopy and distribute 43 . z = t. t = . 2 −→ − 3. y = 3t. t = sz . that is. Putting this into the third equation we 3 3 0 deduce z = 2.1 Prove that → − → − → − − − − (→ − b ) × (→ + b ) = 2→ × b .Chapter 1 2. P = ← → equation of the line MP is thus à à 0 z for some real number z > 0. ﬁnd b × c Problem 1. by ¾ ¿ 1 1 0 ﬁnding a normal to the plane.4 Redo example 71. 3t = 3 − 3s. ﬁnd the Carte¾ ¿ 1 sian equation of the plane parallel to the vectors 1 1 and passing through the point (0. y = 3 − 3s. à 0 4. and → − − − − Problem 1. The parametric x y z = 1 3 0 ¾ + s −3 z −1 ¿ =⇒ x = 1 − s y = 3 − 3s. − − − is known that c a i j a b j k → → − −.8. ← → ← → Since N is on both MP and AC we must have 2 − 2t = 1 − s. Since P is on the z-axis. Thus P = à à 0 2 ¾ and the desired equation is ¿ x y z = 1 3 0 + s −3 2 −1 =⇒ x = 1 − s. −1.3 If b − → and → − → are parallel and it a c a − − − − − → × → = → − → and → × → = → + → .8. 2). We have AC = −2 3 1 ¿ ← → . Homework Problem 1.2 Prove that → × → = 0 follows from the x x anti-commutativity of the cross product.

b are constant vectors. β.8. a c Prove that → − − → − − ( b × →) • (→ × d ) c a → → − − − − +(→ × → ) • ( b × d ) c a → − → − − − +(→ × b ) • (→ × d ) a c = 0. T (j). and S. 8. Solve the system of equations → − − − − − − − − 2→ + → × → = b . (−a.Matrices in three dimensions Problem 1. as shewn in ﬁgure 1. with a parameter t ∈ R.8.8. a). 2a) in R3 . Prove that − − − − → × (→ × → ) + → × (→ × →) + → × (→ × →) = →. and T (k). ||x|| = 1. − − − || x i x j x k − − → Problem 1. 9. Free to photocopy and distribute 44 . ¾ ¿ 1 a . a Solve the equation − − → × (→ × → ) = → × (→ × → ). R.8. x y a y x a c − − − → − → Problem 1. with a parameter s ∈ R.8. Find the intersection point between the lines LC A and LD E . and (0. b . Find x − − − → × →||2 + ||→ × →||2 + ||→ × →||2 . b in R3 and all scalars λ.8. T (λa) = λT (a). 0. be vectors in R3 . Find the parametric equation of the line LC A joining C and A. B(0. 4. 84 Deﬁnition A linear transformation T : R3 → R3 is a function such that T (a + b) = T (a) + T (b). 5. The plane Π intersects a 3 × 3 × 3 cube. ¬¬ ¬¬ → − ¬¬ → ¬¬− 2.8. b .10 If → + b + → = 0 .8. Find the area of the pentagon CP QRS. 1. 1. a c − − → − Problem 1. This intersection forms a pentagon CP QRS. 4. and γ in terms of → • ( b × − ). 3). Such a linear transformation has a 3×3 matrix representation whose columns are the vectors T (i). 1. Find CA × CB. − − − − a b b c c a → − − − Problem 1. → are constant a c vectors. 0) and C(0. 0). Find the area of ABC. 7. Find a vector of ¿ unit length ¾ 0 − − simultaneously perpendicular to → = −a and → = v w − − − → − → Problem 1.73 below. 0. as in the ﬁgure. − → − → 1. − − − x a b c → → − − Find α. Find ¬¬CA × CB¬¬. z C P R S Q B y xA Figure 1. 0). a c a c Problem 1.7 (Jacobi’s Identity) Let →. 6. → be a c 3 vectors in R . a c Prove the following vector identity. Find the coordinates of the points P .8. one of whose vertices is at the origin and that has three of its edges on the coordinate axes. Most of the material will ﬂow like that for 2 × 2 matrices. b . for all points a.5 Find the equation of the plane passing through the points (a. Q.9 Matrices in three dimensions We will brieﬂy introduce 3 × 3 matrices. b .8.9 The vectors →.11 Assume → • ( b × → ) = 0 and that a c − → = α→ + β → + γ → . Find the parametric equation of the line LD E joining D and E. Find the equation of the plane Π. − − − − − − − → − → − − → → − → → − a c (→ × b )•(→ × d ) = (→ •→ )( b • d )−(→ • d )( b •→ ).15 Consider the plane Π passing through the points A(6.8.15.13 Let →. − − − − − − a b c b c a c a b 0 − Problem 1. − − − − a x b b x a → − − → − − Problem 1. Problem 1.8. → . →.14 Let → . 0. d be vectors in R3 .73: Problem 1. prove that a c − − → × → = → × → = → × →. 0 a − − → − Problem 1.8 Let → ∈ R3 .6 Let a ∈ R.12 The vectors → . d . 3.. 3→ + → × → = → .

v be points in R3 . whence the 45 . Then u1 + v1 L(u + v) = L u2 + v2 u3 + v3 = à àà à = x1 − x2 − x3 x1 + x2 + x3 x3 . 1  We have L 0 0 Free to photocopy and distribute = 1 1 0 .L 0 1 0 = −1 1 0 à à à 0 . àà (u1 + v1 ) − (u2 + v2 ) − (u3 + v3 ) (u1 + v1 ) + (u2 + v2 ) + (u3 + v3 ) 3 à u + v3 + v1 − v2 − v3 v1 + v2 + v3 3 àà à = u1 − u2 − u3 u1 + u2 + u3 u3 u1 àà v v1 +L v2 v3 = = and also L u2 u3 L(u) + L(v). and L 0 1 = −1 1 1 . Solution:  Let α ∈ R and let u. àà αu1 L(αu) = L αu2 αu3 = à α(u1 ) − α(u2 ) − α(u3 ) α(u1 ) + α(u2 ) + α(u3 ) αu3 à = α u1 − u2 − u3 u1 + u2 + u3 u3 u1 àà = = à à αL αL(u).Chapter 1 85 Example Consider L : R3 → R3 .  Find the matrix corresponding to L under the standard basis. à u2 u3 proving that L is a linear transformation. with x1 L x2 x3  Prove that L is a linear transformation.

AB = 9a 9b 4c . b > 0. A rotation matrix about the y-axis by an angle θ in the counterclockwise sense is ¾ cos θ 0 sin θ Ry (θ) = 1 0 − sin θ 0 0 cos θ ¿ . ¾ ¿ ¾ 3 αA = [αaij ]. It is an easy exercise to prove that the product of two scaling matrices commutes. 86 Deﬁnition Let A. 0 . Free to photocopy and distribute 46 . ¿ a + 4b + 6c 2a + 5b 3a a + 4b a 2a 3a 6a 3b c BA = 2a + 5b 3a . B be 3 × 3 matrices. A rotation matrix about the x-axis by an angle θ in the counterclockwise sense is ¾ 1 0 0 cos θ sin θ 0 cos θ ¿ Rx (θ) = 0 − sin θ .b. c > 0. 6a 6b 6c 88 Deﬁnition A scaling matrix is one of the form ¾ a 0 0 0 b 0 0 c ¿ Sa. Addition. 89 Deﬁnition A rotation matrix about the z-axis by an angle θ in the counterclockwise sense is ¾ cos θ sin θ 0 Rz (θ) = − sin θ cos θ 0 0 1 ¿ 0 . scalar multiplication. ¿ AB = k=1 aik bkj .Matrices in three dimensions desired matrix is ¾ ¿ 1 1 0 −1 1 0 −1 1 1 . 1 2 6 0 3 0 a a b b c 87 Example If A = 4 5 0 . Then we deﬁne A + B = [aij + bij ]. and B = a ¾ 0 . 3A = 12 15 0 . then ¿ ¾ ¿ 0 0 3 18 ¿ ¾ 1+a 2+b 3+c 0 0 6+a 0 6 0 9 0 A+B = 4+a 5+b ¾ .c = where a > 0. and matrix multiplication are deﬁned for 3 × 3 matrices in a manner analogous to those operations for 2 × 2 matrices.

. → − b = b1 b2 b3 ¿ ¾ − . 1 .9. m(a)m(b) = m(a + b).2 Let A ∈ M3×3 (R) be given by Describe A2 and A3 in terms of n.. 1 1 . and the 3 × 3 matrix A = c2 . . the 3 × 3 identity matrix.. . 0 1 1 .. Since thanks to Theorem 82. prove that 1.. 1.. .. . 0 . 1 0 0 1 0 ¿ Rz = 0 . . . 0 1 1 . Homework ¾ Problem 1. b are real numbers.10 Determinants in three dimensions ¾ − We now deﬁne the notion of determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix.9.9. a general formula for An . A reﬂexion matrix about the y-axis is ¾ 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 −1 ¿ Ry = 0 −1 A reﬂexion matrix about the z-axis is ¾ 0 . Problem 1.. ... that An = 3n−1 A for n ∈ N. 1 1 0 A= 0 ..Chapter 1 Easy to ﬁnd counterexamples should convince the reader that the product of two rotations in space does not necessarily commute. 1 Demonstrate. Free to photocopy and distribute 47 . Find A .1 Let A = 1 1 0 1 ¿ 0 2 3 0 .. . 2 0 0 1 If a. 2.. Problem 1.. ¾ A= 1 1 1 1 1 1 ¿ 1 1 ..9. A and 1 1 1 A4 .4 Let x be a real number.→ = c c1 c2 c3 ¿ ¾ a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c3 ¿ . Consider now the vectors → = a ¾ a1 a3 ¿ a2 .. m(a)m(−a) = I3 .3 Consider the n × n matrix ¾ ¿ 1 1 1 1 . 0 1 1 . 0 1 0 . n ≥ 1. prove by induction. in R3 .. using induction. 90 Deﬁnition A reﬂexion matrix about the x-axis is ¾ Rx = −1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 ¿ 0 . Problem 1. Conjecture and. and put ¾ ¿ 1 0 x 2 m(x) = −x 1 − x .

then they lie on the same plane and the parallelepiped a c − − → − spanned by them is ﬂat. D is linear in each of its arguments. D( i . →). Proof: − → − − − → − − 1. a → → → − − − 3. are linearly dependent. b . that is. are linearly dependent. b . we deﬁne the determinant a c of A. − − → − 2. b . det A. a c → → − − → − → •→ − − 3. Since j × k = i . k ) = 1. →) = (λ→) • ( b × →) = λ((→) • ( b × →)) = λD(→. b . − − D( a a . →) = det a2 a c a3 a1 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 ¿ → − − − = → • ( b × →). b . c ) = 0. for the second component we have.D(→. − − → → − − − → → − − − D(→. b . hence. b . If →. c ). →.15) We now establish that the properties of the determinant of a 3 × 3 as deﬁned above are analogous to those of the determinant of 2 × 2 matrix deﬁned in the preceding chapter. →) = a a c = = and if λ ∈ R. →) = 0. a c a c a c a c The linearity on the second and third component can be established by using the distributive law of the cross product. j . b . to be ¾ − − → − D(→. u Free to photocopy and distribute 48 → − − − − (→ + → ) • ( b × →) a a c − − → • (→ × →) + → • (→ × →) − − − − a b c a b c → → − − → → − − →. →. a c a c a c a c − − → − 2. linearity of the ﬁrst component follows by the distributive a c a c law for the dot product: − − − → − D(→ + → .Determinants in three dimensions → − − − the volume of the parallelepiped spanned by these vectors is → • ( b × →). → → → − − − → − → → − − →→ − − D( i . If D(→. then a c → → − − − D(→. b . a c (1. and i i = 1. c ) + D(→ . If the parallelepiped is ﬂat then the volume is 0. →) = → • ( b × →). →) = → • ((λ b ) × →) = λ(→ • ( b × →)) = λD(→. b . − − = D( a a and if λ ∈ R. − → − − → − − − − → − − − − → − D(λ→. →) = → • (( b + b ) × →) a c a c − − → • (→ × → + → × →) − − − = a b c b c − → → − → • ( b × − ) + → • (→ × →) − − − = a c a b c → → − − → → − − →. →). c ). if →. k ) = i • ( j × k ) = i • i = 1. b + b .15) satisﬁes the following properties: 1. − → − → − − − − → − − − − − → − D(→. b . b . λ b . b . For example. 91 Theorem The determinant of a 3 × 3 matrix A as deﬁned by (1. c ) + D(→. and accords with the right-hand rule. j . b .

1 Prove that ¾ ¿ 1 1 1 det a a2 b b2 c c2 = (b − c)(c − a)(a − b). we may use the Maple™ packages linalg. Solution: Using (1. b := [−1. −6] 2 √ 50 25 Homework Problem 1.1]). (1. a := [−2. dotprod(a.19) = a1 (b2 c3 − b3 c2 ) + a2 (b3 c1 − b1 c3 ) + a3 (b1 c2 − b2 c1 ) = a1 det which reduces the computation of 3 × 3 determinants to 2 × 2 determinants.2 Prove that ¾ ¿ a b c det b c c a a b = 3abc − a3 − b3 − c3 .b). Free to photocopy and distribute 49 . −1. 0.Chapter 1 Observe that ¾ a1 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 ¿ det a2 → − − − = → • ( b × →) a c → − → − → − − = → • (b2 c3 − b3 c2 ) i + (b3 c1 − b1 c3 ) j + (b1 c2 − b2 c1 ) k a b2 b3 c2 c3 − a2 det b1 b3 c1 c3 + a3 det b1 b2 c1 c2 .10. An example follows with linalg. > > > > > > with(linalg): a:=vector([-2.16) (1.10. we have det A = 1 det 5 8 6 9 − 4 det 2 3 8 9 + 7 det 2 5 3 6 = 1(45 − 48) − 4(18 − 24) + 7(12 − 15) = −3 + 24 − 21 = 0. 3. angle(a.18) (1.19). LinearAlgebra.3. 0] crossprod(a.b). Again.0]).b).17) (1. or Student[VectorCalculus] to perform many of the vector operations. arccos [−3.0. 1] b:=vector([-1. Problem 1. ¾ 1 2 7 8 3 9 ¿ 92 Example Find det 4 5 6 .

The height of this trapezoid is thus ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬NQ¬¬ = 5a2 4 − a2 8 = 3a √ .Some Solid Geometry 1. Now. ¬¬− →¬¬ √ ¬¬ − ¬¬ By the Pythagorean Theorem. AD BC . 94 Theorem (Thales’ Theorem) Of two lines are cut by three parallel planes.74 has side of length a.75). ¬¬AD ¬¬ = a 2. Free to photocopy and distribute 50 . The aforementioned ¬¬ − → −→ − 1 ¬¬−→¬¬ a 2 − ¬¬ − ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ .√ N are all on the same plane. their corresponding segments are proportional. D Q¬¬ = ¬¬AP¬¬ = AD ¬¬ − ¬¬MN¬¬ = ¬¬ ¬¬ 2 4 Solution: Also.11 Some Solid Geometry D In this section we examine some examples and prove some theorems of three-dimensional geometry. 2 8 Let us prove a three-dimensional version of Thales’ Theorem. ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬D N¬¬ = Ö ¬¬− →¬¬2 ¬¬−→¬¬2 ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬D C ¬¬ + ¬¬C N¬¬ = a2 + a2 4 = √ a 5 2 . Because they are diagonals that − → −→ − − belong to parallel faces of the cube. D . Hence MND A is a trapezoid with bases M. This means that example also gives ¬¬MN¬¬ = ¬¬AD ¬¬ = 2 2 the four points A. 93 Example Cube ABCDD C B A in ﬁgure 1. Prove that AD MN and ﬁnd the area of the quadrilateral MND A. Figure 1. AD MN. In consequence. and hence √ MN BC by example 14. 2 2 The area of the trapezoid is ﬁnally. √ a 2 of length a 2 and (ﬁgure 1. From the ﬁgure 2 √ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ 1 ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ a 2 ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ . M is the midpoint of edge [BB ] −→ − −→ − and N is the midpoint of edge [B C ]. M and N are the midpoints of the sides −→ − −→ − [B B] and [B C ] of B C B. A B D M A B C N N M C D Q P A Figure 1. by the Pythagorean Theorem. 3a √ · 2 2 √ à √ a 2 a 2+ 9a2 2 = .74: Example 93.75: Example 93.

Figure 1. 95 Example In cube ABCDD C B A of edge of length a. Free to photocopy and distribute 51 . and D intersects plane ← → P 2 in the line EG. If ¬¬MN¬¬ = ¬¬AB¬¬. ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬BC ¬¬ −→ − Solution: There is a unique plane parallel P to face ABCD and containing M. Similarly the plane containing points A. EB GD ← → ← → Similarly. Since P 2 and P 3 are parallel planes. B.78. AE AG = . we must prove that AE EB = CF FD . Figure 1. u = CF FD . Since MN is parallel to face ABCD . EG BD.76: Thales’ Theorem in 3D. the points M and N are located on diagonals √ ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ 5 ¬¬− ¬¬ →¬¬ −→ − ¬¬ − ¬¬ [AB ] and [BC ] such that MN is parallel to the face ABCD of the cube.76. ﬁnd 3 ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬AM¬¬ ¬¬BN¬¬ the ratios ¬¬−→¬¬ and ¬¬−→¬¬ . The intersection of P with the cube produces a lamina A B C D .77: Example 95.78: Example 95. ← → Draw line AD cutting plane P 2 in G. and so by Thales’ Theorem on the plane (theorem 30). P1 A C A D C B D M A N C B A A M A D D B D B B C C N C P2E G F P 3B D Figure 1. C. as in ﬁgure 1. since P 1 and P 2 are parallel. The plane containing points A.Chapter 1 Proof: ← → ← → See ﬁgure 1. Given the lines AB and CD. AC GF and CF FD It follows that AE EB as needed to be shewn. P also contains N. and D intersects plane P 2 in the ← → ← → ← → line GF. = AG GD .

12 Cavalieri. Find the length of the segment [M N ]. Prove that MN ⊥ AB and MN ⊥ CD. as the proof for the ﬁrst is similar. ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬BB ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ Since ¬¬MN¬¬ = B AB ∼ B M B and ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬− − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − →¬¬ ¬¬MB ¬¬ ¬¬MB ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ = ¬¬ − ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬AB¬¬ ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬B N¬¬ ¬¬BB ¬¬ ¬¬− →¬¬ = ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬B C ¬¬ ¬¬BB ¬¬ BC B ∼ BN B . ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬B N¬¬ = xa. All solids with cross sections of proportional areas at the same height have their volume in the same proportion.11. points M and N are the midpoints of the edges [AB] and [CD]. −→ − − → −→ − − → 3. Problem 1. Put ¬¬ ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬AM¬¬ ¬¬MB ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ − ¬¬AM¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ = x =⇒ ¬¬−→¬¬ = ¬¬−→¬¬ = 1 − x.2 In a tetrahedron ABCD. 2. u Free to photocopy and distribute 52 . as ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬− − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − →¬¬ ¬¬MB ¬¬ ¬¬B B ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ = ¬¬−→¬¬ . x2 ]. 3 3 . and the Pappus-Guldin Rules ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ √ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ First notice that ¬¬AB ¬¬ = ¬¬BC ¬¬ = a 2. where c > 0 is the constant of proportionality. D and with ¬¬AB¬¬ = a. by the Pythagorean Theorem. − ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ 3 ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬BC ¬¬ Homework Problem 1. respectively. From elementary calculus. Proof: We only provide the proof for the second statement. at an arbitrary height x above a ﬁxed x2 x2 base. − ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ 3 ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬BC ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬AM¬¬ ¬¬BN¬¬ 2 ¬¬−→¬¬ = ¬¬−→¬¬ = . ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ Now.11. 1. =⇒ =⇒ √ 5 3 a. B. ﬁnd the distance between the lines that contain the diagonals [A B] and [AC]. Prove that AC ⊥ BD. ¬¬ ¬¬ → ¬¬− ¬¬ Problem 1. − ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬AB ¬¬ ¬¬BB ¬¬ ¬¬− →¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬BB ¬¬ ¬¬AM¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ = ¬¬−→¬¬ . Cut any two such solids by horizontal planes that produce cross sections of area A(x) and cA(x). C. ¬¬− − ¬¬ ¬¬ − →¬¬ ¬¬MB ¬¬ = (1 − x)a.1 In a¬¬ regular tetrahedron with vertices ¬¬ → ¬¬− ¬¬ A. ¬¬AB¬¬ = ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ → → → − → − → ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬BC¬¬. ¬¬AD¬¬ = ¬¬DC¬¬. and the Pappus-Guldin Rules 96 Theorem (Cavalieri’s Principle) All planar regions with cross sections of proportional length at the same height have area in the same proportion.3 In cube ABCDD C B A of edge of length a. ¬¬ ¬¬− − ¬¬2 ¬¬− →¬¬2 5 2 − ¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬2 ¬¬ − →¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ a = (1 − x)2 a2 + x2 a2 =⇒ x ∈ ¬¬MN¬¬ = ¬¬MB ¬¬ + ¬¬B N¬¬ =⇒ 9 There are two possible positions for the segment. As x1 A(x)dx = c x1 A(x)dx the corresponding volumes must also be proportional.Cavalieri. 1. giving the solutions ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬−→¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬AM¬¬ ¬¬BN¬¬ 1 ¬¬−→¬¬ = ¬¬−→¬¬ = . Find the angle between the lines [M N ] and [BC]. 1 2 . we know that x1 x2 x2 A(x)dx and x1 cA(x)dx give the volume of the portion of each solid cut by all horizontal planes as x runs over some interval [x1 .11.

Figure 1. equation 2 + a b Solution: y > 0. the corresponding chords for the ellipse and the circle will be proportional. as in ﬁgure 1. Then. bÔ x a x a x r a a Figure 1. a 2 − x2 . and hence. as in ﬁgure 1. We need to recall that the volume of πa2 h . a > 0. for y= Ô a 2 − x2 .79: Ellipse and circle.80: Punctured cylinder. By Cavalieri’s ﬁrst principle. By the Pythagorean Theorem.81. a right circular cone with base radius a and height h is 3 Consider a hemisphere of radius a. b > 0. consider a punctured cylinder of base radius a and height a. y= Area of the ellipse = b Area of the circle a b πa2 = a = πab. and so this circular slab has area πr 2 = π(a2 − x2 ). Now. Cut a horizontal slice at height x. Figure 1. 3 Free to photocopy and distribute 53 . who was so proud of it that he wanted a sphere inscribed in a cylinder on his tombstone. with a cone of height a and base radius a cut from it. A horizontal slab at height x is an annular region of area πa2 − πx2 .79. is πab.81: Hemisphere. x2 + r 2 = a2 . 3 Solution: The following method is due to Archimedes. which agrees with a horizontal slab for the sphere at the same height. a The corresponding ordinate for the ellipse and the circle are proportional. Consider the circle with equation x2 + y 2 = a2 . as in ﬁgure 1.80. 98 Example Use Cavalieri’s Principle in order to deduce that the volume of a sphere with radius a is 4 3 πa . Volume of the hemisphere = Volume of the punctured cylinder πa3 = πa3 − 3 2πa3 = . producing a circle of radius r.Chapter 1 97 Example Use Cavalieri’s Principle in order to deduce that the area enclosed by the ellipse with x2 y2 = 1. By Cavalieri’s Principle.

12. Essentially the same method of proof as Cavalieri’s Principle gives the next result. Also.82) is (2πr)(2πR) = 4π 2 rR. The portion of space bounded by the half planes and the line is called the dihedral angle.Dihedral Angles and Platonic Solids 2πa3 3 4πa3 3 It follows that the volume of the sphere is 2 = . See ﬁgure 1. The intersecting line is called the edge of the dihedral angle and each of the two half planes of the dihedral angle is called a face.82: A torus. Figure 1. Free to photocopy and distribute 54 . The volume of a solid of revolution is equal to the product of the area of the generating plane on one side of the revolution axis and the length of the path described by the centre of gravity of the area under a full revolution about the axis. r R Figure 1.1 Use the Pappus-Guldin Rule to ﬁnd the lateral area and the volume of a right circular cone with base radius r and height h. 1. and radius of gyration R (as in ﬁgure 1.83. 100 Example Since the centre of gravity of a circle is at its centre.13 Dihedral Angles and Platonic Solids 101 Deﬁnition When two half planes intersect in space they intersect on a line. the volume of the solid torus is (πr 2 )(2πR) = 2π 2 r 2 R. Homework Problem 1. Figure 1. 99 Theorem (Pappus-Guldin Rule) The area of the lateral surface of a solid of revolution is equal to the product of the length of the generating curve on the side of the axis of revolution and the length of the path described by the centre of gravity of the generating curve under a full revolution.83: Dihedral Angles.84: Rectilinear of a Dihedral Angle. the surface area of the torus with the generating circle having radius r. by the Pappus-Guldin Rule.

draw ADC on the plane P containing the points V . Also. so assume that. Take the point B ∈ [V Y ] so that V D = V B. in ∠XV Y the line segment [V W ] such that ∠XV W = ∠XV Y . A polyhedral angle is said to be convex if the section made by a plane cutting all its edges forms a convex polygon. X.84. V AB. Each of the intersecting lines of two consecutive planes is called an edge of the polyhedral angle. This implies that ∠BV C > ∠DV C. Hence ∠AV B + ∠BV C = ∠AV D + ∠BV C > = ∠AV D + ∠DV C ∠AV C. The common point is called the vertex of the polyhedral angle. Figure 1. If ∠ZV X is smaller or equal to in size than either ∠XV Y or Y V Z. Ak . u Free to photocopy and distribute 55 . AB + BC > CA. In the trihedral angle of ﬁgure 1.85: Trihedral Angle. we may draw. 104 Theorem The sum of any two face angles of a trihedral angle is greater than the third face angle. any two adjacent faces form a dihedral angle. V is the vertex. In the particular case of three planes. The portion of the planes lying between consecutive edges are called the faces of the polyhedral angle. notice that in any polyhedral angle.87: A. each on each of the faces. V D W C Z A5 P A3 Ak Ak−1 Ak+1 A1 A2 Figure 1. Hence the measure of a dihedral angle is the measure of any one of its rectilinear angles. then we are done.85. Hence AD = AB. In analogy to dihedral angles we now deﬁne polyhedral angles.Chapter 1 102 Deﬁnition The rectilinear angle of a dihedral angle is the angle whose sides are perpendicular to the edge of the dihedral angle at the same point. Since we are assuming that ∠ZV X > XV Y . Now. See ﬁgure 1. Ak+1 are three consecutive vertices.86: Polyhedral Angle. Through any point D of the segment [V W ]. say. as wanted. V CA are faces. ∠ZV X > XV Y . = by the triangle inequality in ABC. V BC. Observe that AV D ∼ AV B. we use the term trihedral angle. 103 Deﬁnition The opening of three or more planes that meet at a common point is called a polyhedral angle or solid angle. All the rectilinear angles of a dihedral angle measure the same. Z.85. Proof: Consider ﬁgure 1. which proves that ∠XV Y + ∠Y V Z > ∠ZV X. Consider now the plane containing the line segment [AC] and the point B. V V A4 A X B Y Figure 1. We must demonstrate that ∠XV Y + ∠Y V Z > ∠ZV X. The angles formed by adjacent edges are called face angles.

This notation means that Ak−1 Ak Ak+1 represents any of the n triplets A1 A2 A3 . we have depicted only ﬁve edges. Observe that the polygon A1 A2 · · · An is convex and that the sum of its interior angles is π(n − 2). as in ﬁgure 1. n Free to photocopy and distribute 56 . Ak . (V Ak Ak+1 + ∠V Ak+1 Ak ) 1≤k≤n (V Ak Ak+1 + ∠V Ak Ak−1 ) 1≤k≤n < πn − π(n − 2) as we needed to shew. Let the faces be cut by a plane. An+1 = A1 .87. For the same reason. Since each interior angle of this polygon measures n 105. . Consider the trihedral angle with vertex Ak and whose face angles at Ak are ∠Ak−1 Ak Ak+1 .86. Also. that is. V Ak Ak−1 = ∠V Ak Ak+1 . Now. the sum ∠Ak−1 Ak Ak+1 = π(n − 2). Proof: Let the polyhedral angle have n faces and vertex V . and ∠V Ak Ak+1 . 1≤k≤n since this is summing the sum of the angles of the n triangles of the faces. By Theorem 104. 1≤k≤n being the sum of the interior angles of the polygon A1 A2 · · · An . etc. ∠V Ak Ak−1 + ∠V Ak Ak+1 > ∠Ak−1 Ak Ak+1 . Suppose a regular polygon with n ≥ 3 sides is a face of a platonic solid with m ≥ 3 faces meeting at a π(n − 2) . where for convenience. Ak+1 be three consecutive vertices of of the polygon A1 A2 · · · An . Thus V Ak Ak−1 + ∠V Ak Ak+1 > 1≤k≤n 1≤k≤n ∠Ak−1 Ak Ak+1 = π(n − 2). An+2 = A2 . A2 . An illustration can be seen in ﬁgure 1. . A2 A3 A4 . we let A0 = An . we must have in view of Theorem corner. ∠V Ak Ak−1 . . u 106 Deﬁnition A Platonic solid is a polyhedron having congruent regular polygon as faces and having the same number of edges meeting at each corner. An−1 An A1 . An . say. But clearly V Ak Ak+1 = 1≤k≤n 1≤k≤n ∠V Ak+1 Ak . We would like to prove that ∠A1 V A2 + ∠A2 V A3 + ∠A3 V A4 + · · · + ∠An−1 V An + ∠An V A1 < 2π. let Ak−1 . . An−2 An−1 An . An A1 A2 .Dihedral Angles and Platonic Solids 105 Theorem The sum of the face angles of any convex polyhedral angle is less than 2π radians. V Ak Ak+1 + ∠V Ak+1 Ak + ∠Ak V Ak+1 = πn. 1≤k≤n 1≤k≤n Hence ∠Ak V Ak+1 1≤k≤n = πn − = πn − = 2π. Observe that as k ranges from 1 through n. A3 A4 A5 . . since one sum adds the angles in one direction and the other in the opposite direction. . intersecting the edges at the points A1 . . π(n − 2) m < 2π =⇒ m(n − 2) < 2n =⇒ (m − 2)(n − 2) < 4.

Figure 1. we obtain the values in the following table.14 Spherical Trigonometry Consider a point B(x. Observe that z = ρ cos φ. 0) we draw a straight line to B(x. Octahedron. as in ﬁgure 1. Tetrahedron or regular Pyramid. φ ∈ [0. 1. Thus there are at most ﬁve Platonic solids. and E is the number of edges of a polyhedron. z) in Cartesian coordinates. and let its distance be ρ. y. and θ is the azimuthal angle. Figure 1. π] radians. F is the number of faces. Hexahedron or Cube. where V is the number of vertices. 108 Deﬁnition If a plane intersects with a sphere. z) in Cartesian coordinates. Dodecahedron.89: Cube or hexahedron. We now project the line segment [OB] onto the xy-plane in order to ﬁnd the polar coordinates of x and y. The endpoints of such a diameter are called the poles of the circle. z = ρ cos φ. 0. Appealing to Euler’s Formula for polyhedrons. which states that V + F = E + 2. By convention. Let θ be angle that this projection makes with the positive x-axis. Spherical coordinates are extremely useful when considering regions which are symmetric about a point. y. measured from the positive z-axis.92: Icosahedron. m).92 depict the Platonic solids. its spherical coordinates are given by x = ρ cos θ sin φ.88: Tetrahedron. We measure its inclination from the positive z-axis. z). the intersection will be a circle.88 through 1. y = ρ sin θ sin φ. y. The axis of any circle on a sphere is the diameter of the sphere which is normal to the plane containing the circle. Since OP = ρ sin φ we ﬁnd x = ρ cos θ sin φ. let us say it is an angle of φ. 107 Deﬁnition Given a point (x. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π and 0 ≤ φ ≤ π. From O(0. we call it a great circle. Icosahedron. measured from the positive x-axis. That there are exactly ﬁve can be seen by explicit construction. Otherwise we talk of a small circle. Figures 1. Here φ is the polar angle. Figure 1.93.90: Octahedron. y = ρ sin θ sin φ. m 3 4 3 5 3 n 3 3 4 3 5 S 4 8 6 20 12 E 6 12 12 30 30 F 4 6 8 12 20 Name of regular Polyhedron. If this circle contains the centre of the sphere. the above inequality only holds for ﬁve pairs (n.Chapter 1 Since n ≥ 3 and m ≥ 3. Free to photocopy and distribute 57 . Figure 1.91: Dodecahedron Figure 1.

OA × OC . and the arcs formed are then of equal length. the great circle formed is split into a larger and a smaller arc by the two points. C are the vertices of a spherical triangle. ∠c. In the case where the two points are not diametrically opposite. and any two points of the surface of the sphere. a plane can be drawn. Free to photocopy and distribute ρ cos φ ρ si n φ P 58 . we mean the closest pole to the plane containing the circle.93: Spherical Coordinates. This plane will be unique if and only if the points are not diametrically opposite. We call the smaller arc the geodesic joining the two points. 111 Theorem Let ABC be a spherical triangle. − → − − → → − → ∠A = ∠ OA × OB. OB × OA . The three arcs of great circles which form a spherical triangle are called the sides of the spherical triangle. OC × OB . By the pole of a small circle. B. B φ ρ θ Figure 1. OB . ∠c = ∠ OA. OC . − → − − → → − → ∠B = ∠ OB × OC. If the two points are diametrically opposite then every plane containing the line forms with the sphere a great circle. and three arc angles. OA . but this is not the case in a small circle. ∠b. but in lowercase. 110 Deﬁnition A spherical triangle is a triangle on the surface of a sphere all whose vertices are connected by geodesics. ∠C. ∠B.Spherical Trigonometry The radius of a great circle is the radius of the sphere.  109 Deﬁnition Given the centre of the sphere. The poles of a great circle are equally distant from the plane of the circle. ∠b = ∠ OC. A pole of a circle is equidistant from every point of the circumference of the circle. ∠a. In this case we take any such arc as a geodesic. − → − − → → − → ∠C = ∠ OC × OA. If A. Then cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C = cos c. the angles formed by the arcs at the points where they meet are called the angles of the spherical triangle. it is customary to label the opposite arcs with the same letter name.  and A spherical triangle has then six angles: three vertex angles ∠A. Observe that if O is the centre of the sphere then − − → → − − → → − − → → ∠a = ∠ OB.

ρ2 + ρ2 − 2ρ2 cos ∠ (AOB) . y1 = ρ sin θ1 sin φ1 . that is. n the number of the plane angles 2π π which form each solid angle. and join CE and DE. Therefore we obtain cos θ2 cos θ1 + sin θ2 sin θ1 cos(φ1 − φ2 ) = cos ∠ (AOB) . that is. z1 = ρ cos θ1 . bisect AB at E.Chapter 1 Proof: Consider a spherical triangle ABC with A(x1 . cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos C = cos c. e respectively. 2 2 2 2 Since x2 + y1 + z1 = ρ2 . C and D the centres of the faces. therefore the plane AOB which contains AB is perpendicular to the plane CED.94. Let m be the number of sides in each face of the polyhedron. about O as centre describe a sphere meeting OA. x2 = ρ sin θ2 cos φ2 . OE at a. hence the angle cea of the spherical triangle is a right angle. x1 = ρ sin θ1 cos φ1 . u Figure 1. 112 Theorem Let I be the dihedral angle of two adjacent faces of a regular polyhedron. so that cae forms a spherical triangle. and the angle CED is the angle of inclination of the two adjacent faces. Proof: See ﬁgure 1. CE and DE will be perpendicular to AB. OC. z2 = ρ cos θ2 . c. x2 + y2 + z2 = ρ2 . Then sin I 2 = cos sin π n π m . By a rotation we may assume that the z-axis passes through C. Then the angle ace = ACE = = . Then the following quantities give the square of the distance of the line segment [AB]: (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 + (z1 − z2 )2 . In spherical coordinates this is.94: Theorem 112. y2 = ρ sin θ2 sin φ2 . Let AB be the edge common to the two adjacent faces. Free to photocopy and distribute 59 . we shall denote it by I. we gather that 1 2 x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 = ρ2 cos ∠ (AOB) . and the angle cae is 2m m 2π π half one of the n equal angles formed on the sphere round a. say. cae = = . In the plane containing CE and DE draw CO and DO at right angles to CE and DE respectively. From the 2n n right-angled triangle cae cos cae = cos cOe sin ace. it is perpendicular to the plane CED. y2 . B(x2 . y1 . and meeting at O. z2 ). and let O be the centre and ρ be the radius of the sphere. Since AB is perpendicular to CE and DE. z1 ).

m I 2 π m that is cos = cos cos = sin − sin . 2 2 m 2 π m cot π n . 2 m 2 2 2 n Here a is the length of any edge of the polyhedron.Spherical Trigonometry π n I 2 π 2 π n π .3 Consider a cube whose edge measures a. and that the radius of the inscribed a 6 sphere is . Problem 1. V3 = − What is the cosine of the dihedral angle between any pair of faces of the tetrahedron? Free to photocopy and distribute 60 . 2 Problem 1. Proof: Let the edge AB = a.14. 12 Problem 1. and R is the radius of the circumscribed sphere.1 The four vertices of a regular tetrahedron are 1 V1 = 0 0 −1/2 √ 3/2 0 . and therefore the volume of the polyhedron is 3 4 m π mF ra2 cot . 12 m ma2 π Furthermore. its sur12 √ 2 face area is√ a 3.2 Consider a tetrahedron √ whose edge a3 2 measures a. therefore sin u 113 Theorem Let r and R be. V4 = 0 √ 2 . Then a π I a I π r = cot tan .14. V2 = −1/2 √ 3/2 0 0 . and therefore the surface area of 4 m mF a2 π the polyhedron is cot . Shew that its volume is . r = CE tan CEO = CE tan also therefore u r = R cos aOc = R cot eca cot eac = R cot R = r tan π m tan π n = a 2 tan I 2 tan π n . a and that the radius of the inscribed sphere is . respectively.4 Consider an octahedron whose edge . its surface area is 6a2 . Shew that its volume is a3 . the radii of the inscribed and circumscribed spheres of a regular polyhedron.14. so that r is the radius of the inscribed sphere. Then CE = AE cot ACE = a 2 cot π m . the area of one face of the polyhedron is cot .14. 4 m Homework Problem 1. R = tan tan . I a π I = cot tan . let OC = r and OA = R. and I is the dihedral angle of any two faces. From the above formulæ we now easily ﬁnd that the volume of the pyramid which has one face of the r ma2 π polyhedron for base and O for vertex is cot .

Let us start with the plane. Recall that if a. 4 √ its surface area is 3a2 25 + 10 5. then the Cartesian ¾ ¿ a equation of a plane with normal vector b and passing through the point (x0 .14. − − If we know that the vectors → and → are on the plane (parallel to the plane) then with the parameters u v p.14. The line ∆ is called the directrix of the cylinder. sphere is 6 Problem 1. whose directrix will be the axis of the missing coordinate. y. then the surface is a cylinder.5 Consider a dodecahedron whose edge √ a3 measures a. Shew that its volume is 3 + 5 . its sur3 √ 2 3. Shew that its volume is . B = 0. Just like in one-variable Calculus it is important to identify the equation and the shape of a line. We shall explore both their Cartesian and their parametric form. not all zero.95: Circular cylinder x2 + y2 = 1.√ √ a scribed sphere is 5 3 + 15 . c are real numbers. z0 ) is c a(x − x0 ) + b(y − y0 ) + c(z − z0 ) = 0. If it is of the form f (A. 114 Deﬁnition A surface S consisting of all lines parallel to a given line ∆ and passing through a given curve Γ is called a cylinder. Under these conditions.  To recognise whether a given surface is a cylinder we look at its Cartesian equation. if one of the variables x.96: The parabolic cylinder z = y2 .Chapter 1 √ a3 2 measures a. it will become important for us to be able to identify certain families of often-occurring surfaces. b. where A. or z is missing. qthe equation of the plane is x − x0 = pu1 + qv1 . 12 1. In practice. its 12 √ and that the radius of the insurface area is 5a2 3. 5 Problem 1.. B are secant planes. z − z0 = pu3 + qv3 . then the curve is a cylinder. and that the radius of the inscribed sphere is a 4 10 + 22 1 . a parabola. Figure 1. We remark that in order to parametrise curves (“one-dimensional entities”) we needed one parameter. B) = 0. etc.15 Canonical Surfaces In this section we consider various surfaces that we shall periodically encounter in subsequent sections. a circle. y − y0 = pu2 + qv2 . and that in order to parametrise surfaces we shall need to parameters. Shew that its volume is 15 + 7 5 . y0 . the lines generating S will be parallel to the line of equation A = 0. and that the radius of the inscribed face area is√ 2a a 6 .6 Consider an icosahedron whose edge √ 5a3 measures a. z z x y x y Figure 1. Free to photocopy and distribute 61 .

One starts with the hyperbola x2 − y 2 on the xy-plane and moves it up and down the z-axis.. v ∈ R.97.. The Maple™ commands to graph this surface are: > with(plots): > implicitplot3d(z=yˆ2.10. z = u.z=-10.s=-10.2.x=-10. u ∈ R.z=-10.98 shews the hyperbolic cylinder with Cartesian equation x2 −y 2 = 1. We need a choice of sign for each of the portions.10. Free to photocopy and distribute 62 .axes=boxed). y = sinh v.numpoints=5001. 2π]. u ∈ R.t=-10.10.sin(s). See ﬁgure 1. The Maple™ commands to graph this surface are: > with(plots): > implicitplot3d(xˆ2+yˆ2=1. 116 Example Figure 1.10.. We have used the fact that cosh2 v − sinh2 v = 1.t=-10. y. u ∈ R.1. One starts with the circle x2 + y 2 = 1 on the xy-plane and moves it up and down the z-axis.y=-10.z=-10.sinh(s).sinh(s). One starts with the parabola z = y 2 on the yz-plane and moves it up and down the x-axis.s=-10.x=-1..10.10. We refer to it as the method of cylindrical coordinates.Canonical Surfaces 115 Example Figure 1.[cosh(s).10.10.t]. A parametrisation for this parabolic cylinder is the following: x = ± cosh v. A parametrisation for this parabolic cylinder is the following: x = u. In general.1. z): x = r cos θ. y in the xy-plane. z = z.numpoints=5001.numpoints=5001). y.t]}. The method of parametrisation utilised above for the cylinder is quite useful when doing parametrisations in space.10.10)...t]. > plot3d({[-cosh(s).s. z = v2 . v ∈ R.. r sin θ. r θ x y Figure 1. y = sin v. > plot3d([t. we ﬁrst ﬁnd the polar coordinates of x..numpoints=5001). v ∈ [0.. > plot3d([cos(s)..y=-10...96 shews the parabolic cylinder with Cartesian equation z = y 2 .numpoints=5001). > s=-2.10.10. y = v.sˆ2]. 0) parallel to the z-axis to (x. z = u.t=-10.axes=boxed). z) y = r sin θ. z (r cos θ.. and then lift (x.95 shews the cylinder with Cartesian equation x2 + y 2 = 1.y=-1. The Maple™ commands to graph this surface are: > with(plots): > implicitplot3d(xˆ2-yˆ2=1.97: Cylindrical Coordinates.. 117 Example Figure 1. A parametrisation for this cylinder is the following: x = cos v..x=-10.

C. We must have x2 + y 2 = which is to say This surface is called a hyperboloid of one sheet. Ô 1 + 4z 2 . y. 0). Figure 1. if the Cartesian equation of a surface can be put into the form f (  119 Example The surface in R3 implicitly given by z 2 = x2 + y 2 is a cone.Chapter 1 118 Deﬁnition Given a point Ω ∈ R3 (called the apex) and a curve Γ (called the generating curve). If this point were on the xz Ô plane. B. The axis of S is the line passing through the centre of Σ and perpendicular to the plane A. When y = 0.98: The hyperbolic cylinder x2 − y2 = 1. 0. that is x2 + y 2 . ) = 0.99: The torus. In practice. Considering the planes z z x = 0. it would be on the hyperbola. then the surface is of revolution. A B . See ﬁgure 1. and its apex is given by A = 0. Free to photocopy and distribute 63 x2 + y 2 − 4z 2 = 1. y. the distance of (x. the apex is located at (0. y 2 − 4z 2 = 1 is a hyperbola on the yz plane.  If the Cartesian equation of S can be put in the form f (A. The intersection of S with a half-plane bounded by ∆ is called a meridian. x2 + y 2 = 1 is a circle on the xy plane. + x 2 y 2 120 Deﬁnition A surface S obtained by making a curve Γ turn around a line ∆ is called a surface of revolution. the surface S obtained by drawing rays from Ω and passing through Γ is called a cone. Observe that when z = 0. z = 0. where A is a plane and Σ is a sphere. Solution: Let (x. then the surface is a cone. y = 0. z) to (0. x2 − 4z 2 = 1 is a hyperbola on the xz plane. Figure 1. When x = 0.100.100: Cone x2 y2 z2 + 2 = 2. Anywhere else. y. z). are planes secant at exactly one point. C = 0.104. Figure 1. and its distance to the axis of rotation would be |x| = 1 + 4z 2 . as its equation can be put in the form − 1 = 0. The graph is shewn in ﬁgure 1. Σ) = 0. z) to the axis of rotation is the same as the distance of (x. . B = 0. 0. where C C A. a2 b c 121 Example Find the equation of the surface of revolution generated by revolving the hyperbola x2 − 4z 2 = 1 about the z-axis. We then say that ∆ is the axis of revolution. z) be a point on S.

We must have Ô Ô x2 + y 2 = (a + sgn(y − a) r 2 − z 2 )2 = a2 + 2asgn(y − a) r 2 − z 2 + r 2 − z 2 . Solution: Let (x. Rearranging or (x2 + y 2 + z 2 − (a2 + r 2 ))2 = 4a2 r 2 − 4a2 z 2 since (sgn(y − a))2 = 1. and the of the distance to the axis of rotation would be y = a + sgn(y − a) r 2 − z 2 . Ô z z z x y x y x y Figure 1. Find the equation of this torus. sgn(t) = 1 if t > 0. y. is of fourth degree. z) : x2 + y 2 . A parametrisation for the torus generated by revolving the circle (y − a)2 + z 2 = r 2 around the z-axis is x = a cos θ + r cos θ cos α. y= Ô 1 + 4u2 sin v. α) ∈ [−π. Anywhere else. the distance from (x. Rearranging again. y. 2 a b Figure Hyperbolic y2 x2 paraboloid z = 2 − 2 a b 1. why?). z) be a point on T . it would be on Ô the circle.101: Paraboloid z = x2 y2 + 2. c a b Free to photocopy and distribute 64 . y. z) to the z-axis is the distance of this point to the point (x. with (θ.103: Two-sheet hyx2 y2 z2 perboloid 2 = 2 + 2 +1. z = r sin α. The equation of the torus thus.102: Figure 1. v ∈ [0. u ∈ R. r are positive real numbers) is revolved around the z-axis.Canonical Surfaces A parametrisation for this hyperboloid is x= Ô 1 + 4u2 cos v. 122 Example The circle (y − a)2 + z 2 = r 2 . z = u. x2 + y 2 + z 2 − a2 − r 2 = 2asgn(y − a) r 2 − z 2 . and its graph appears in ﬁgure 1. π]2 . forming a torus T . on the yz plane (a. (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 − 2(a2 + r 2 )(x2 + y 2 ) + 2(a2 − r 2 )z 2 + (a2 − r 2 )2 = 0.99. y = a sin θ + r sin θ cos α. where sgn(t) (with sgn(t) = −1 if t < 0. (it could not be 0. 2π]. If this point were on the yz plane. and sgn(0) = 0) is the sign of t.

The surface ellipsoid. z = u2 − v 2 . When x = 0. and hence there is no graph when x2 + y 2 < 1. 2 a b c 127 Example Let a.Chapter 1 123 Example The surface z = x2 + y 2 is called an elliptic paraboloid. See ﬁgure 1. 124 Example The surface z = x2 − y 2 is called a hyperbolic paraboloid or saddle. We may c2 b parametrise the ellipsoid using spherical coordinates: y = b sin θ sin φ. y = u sin v. When z = c is a constant c > 1. v ∈ [0. v ∈ R. z = x2 is a parabola on the xz plane. z 2 − x2 = 1 is a hyperbola on the xz plane. x = u cos v. z 2 < 0 is impossible. x2 − y 2 = 0 is a pair of lines in the xy plane.102. See ﬁgure 1.101.105. Figure 1. y= Ô u2 + 1 sin v.When y = 0.104. θ ∈ [0. For x2 + y 2 < 1. When x = 0. x2 + y 2 = c is a circle. u ∈ R. If z = 0. on the xz plane. +∞[. The equation clearly requires that z ≥ 0. y = u sin v. When x = 0. φ ∈ [0. z = u. b. u ∈ R. z = u2 + 1. y = u sin v. u ∈ R. For ﬁxed z = c. The following is a parametrisation of this hyperbolic paraboloid: x = u. v ∈ [0. z = y 2 is a parabola on the yz plane. z 2 − x2 = −1 is a hyperbola on the xz plane. 2π]. When z = c is a constant. 65 Free to photocopy and distribute . 125 Example The surface z 2 = x2 + y 2 + 1 is called an hyperboloid of two sheets. z = u. The following is a parametrisation for this hyperboloid of one sheet x= Ô u2 + 1 cos v.104: z2 x2 y2 = 2 + 2 − 1. See ﬁgure 1. x = a cos θ sin φ. 2π]. u ∈ [0. x2 a2 + y2 b2 x2 a2 + y2 b2 x2 a2 + + z2 c2 z2 c2 = 1 is called an = 1 is an ellipse 1 is an ellipse on the xy plane.105: Ellipsoid x2 y2 z2 + 2 + 2 = 1. 2π]. 2π]. z2 y2 + 2 = 1 is an ellipse on the yz plane. then the x2 + y 2 = c2 − 1 are circles. See ﬁgure 1. and the following parametrises the bottom sheet. For z 2 − 1 < 0. z 2 − y 2 = 1 is a hyperbola on the yz plane. When y = 0. For z = 0. z 2 − y 2 = −1 is a hyperbola on the yz plane. z = −y 2 is a parabola on the yz plane. z = c cos φ. x2 + y 2 < 0 is impossible. z = x2 is a parabola on the xz plane. When x = 0. and hence there is no graph when −1 < z < 1. When y = 0. When y = 0. c be strictly positive real numbers. c > 0. y = v.103. z = −u2 − 1. v ∈ [0. π]. When x = 0. c2 a b One-sheet hyperboloid Figure 1. The following is a parametrisation for the top sheet of this hyperboloid of two sheets x = u cos v. 126 Example The surface z 2 = x2 + y 2 − 1 is called an hyperboloid of one sheet. then the x2 + y 2 = c2 + 1 are circles See ﬁgure 1. 2π] u ∈ R. When y = 0. The following is a parametrisation of this paraboloid: √ √ x = u cos v. v ∈ [0.

we now deﬁne curves in space. x2 + =1 4 z x Problem 1. Spherical. with proof. bu sin v.Parametric Curves in Space Homework Problem 1. a.15. y. v sin u.106: Problem 1. Problem 1. a > 0. and ﬁnd its axis of revolution. v) ∈ (1.16 Parametric Curves in Space In analogy to curves on the plane.106 has the property that if it is cut by planes at z = ±2.15. the radius of the largest circle which can lie on the ellipsoid x2 y2 z2 + 2 + 2 = 1. +y 2 +z 2 − (x + z)e−2xz = 0.12. au). its projection on the xy plane produces y2 the ellipse x2 + = 1.8 Shew that the surface S in R3 given implicitly by the equation 1 1 1 + + =1 x−y y−z z−x is a cylinder and ﬁnd the direction of its directrix. 128 Deﬁnition Let [a. Problem 1. Parametrise S using Cartesian. Problem 1. and if it is cut by a plane at 4 z = 0. Problem 1. v) = (au cos v.15. a2 b c a > b > c > 0. y2 z = 2. +∞) × (0.15.15.2 Find the equation of the surface of revolution generated by revolving the line 3x + 4y = 1 about the y-axis . u2 ).15.4 Describe the surface parametrised by ϕ(u. is a cylinder. b > 0. Problem 1. b] ⊆ R.15. implicitly deﬁned. x2 + y2 4 =1 Figure 1.12 The hyperboloid of one sheet in ﬁgure 1. 1.1 Find the equation of the surface of revolution S generated by revolving the ellipse 4x2 + z 2 = 1 about the z-axis. A parametric curve representation r of a curve Γ is a function r : [a. with à x(t) r(t) = y(t) z(t) Free to photocopy and distribute 66 .15.9 Shew that the surface S in R3 implicitly deﬁned as xy + yz + zx + x + y + z + 1 = 0 is of revolution and ﬁnd its axis. Problem 1. 4x2 + y 2 = 1 y z = −2.7 Shew that the surface in R3 implicitly deﬁned by x4 + y 4 + z 4 − 4xyz(x + y + z) = 1 is a surface of revolution. Problem 1.3 Describe the surface parametrised by ϕ(u.15.15. (u. 2π). . v) → (v cos u. Problem 1.15.15.10 Demonstrate that the surface in R3 given implicitly by z 2 − xy = 2z − 1 is a cone Problem 1.6 Demonstrate that the surface in R3 S : ex 2 Problem 1. and Cylindrical coordinates. b] → R3 . z) ∈ R3 : x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1. Find its equation. 2π) × (0.15. z = 0. 1). (u. v) ∈ (0.11 (Putnam Exam 1970) Determine. z ≥ 1/ 2}.5 Consider the spherical cap deﬁned by √ S = {(x. its projection on the xy plane produces the ellipse 4x2 + y 2 = 1.

Chapter 1 and such that r([a; b]) = Γ. r(a) is the initial point of the curve and r(b) its terminal point. A curve is closed if its initial point and its ﬁnal point coincide. The trace of the curve r is the set of all images of r, that is, Γ. The length of the curve is
Γ

¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬d− ¬¬. r

z

x

y

Figure 1.107: Helix.

129 Example The trace of

→ − → − → − r(t) = i cos t + j sin t + k t

is known as a cylindrical helix. To ﬁnd the length of the helix as t traverses the interval [0; 2π], ﬁrst observe that √ ¬¬ →¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬d− ¬¬ = ¬¬(sin t)2 + (− cos t)2 + 1¬¬dt = 2dt, x and thus the length is
2π 0

√ 2dt = 2π 2.

The Maple™ commands to graph this curve and to ﬁnd its length are:
> > > >

with(plots): with(Student[VectorCalculus]): spacecurve([cos(t),sin(t),t],t=0..2*Pi,axes=normal); PathInt(1,[x,y,z]=Path(<cos(t),sin(t),t>,0..2*Pi));

130 Example Find a parametric representation for the curve resulting by the intersection of the plane 3x + y + z = 1 and the cylinder x2 + 2y 2 = 1 in R3 . Solution: The projection of the intersection of the plane 3x + y + z = 1 and the cylinder is the ellipse x2 + 2y 2 = 1, on the xy-plane. This ellipse can be parametrised as x = cos t, y = From the equation of the plane, z = 1 − 3x − y = 1 − 3 cos t − Free to photocopy and distribute √ 2 2 sin t. 67 √ 2 sin t, 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π.

2

Parametric Curves in Space Thus we may take the parametrisation
¾

x(t) z(t)

¿

¾

r(t) = y(t)

=

1 − 3 cos t −

cos t √ 2 sin t 2 √

¿

. 2 sin t

2

131 Example Let a, b, c be strictly positive real numbers. Consider the the region R = (x, y, z) ∈ R3 : |x| ≤ a, |y| ≤ b, z = c . A point P moves along the ellipse x2 a2 + y2 b2 = 1, z =c+1

once around, and acts as a source light projecting a shadow of R onto the xy-plane. Find the area of this shadow.

z

x

y

Figure 1.108: Problem 1.16.4.

Figure 1.109: Problem 1.16.4.

Figure 1.110: Problem 1.16.4.

Solution:

First consider the same problem as P moves around the circle x2 + y 2 = 1, z =c+1

and the region is R = (x, y, z) ∈ R3 : |x| ≤ 1, |y| ≤ 1, z = c . For ﬁxed P (u, v, c + 1) on the circle, the image of R (a 2 × 2 square) on the xy plane is a (2c + 2) × (2c + 2) square with centre at the point Q(−cu, −cv, 0) (ﬁgure 1.109). As P moves along the circle, Q moves along the circle with equation x2 + y 2 = c2 on the xy-plane (ﬁgure 1.109), being the centre of a (2c + 2) × (2c + 2) square. This creates a region as in ﬁgure 1.110, where each quarter circle has radius c, and the central square has side 2c + 2, of area πc2 + 4(c + 1)2 + 8c(c + 1). Free to photocopy and distribute 68

Chapter 1 Resizing to a region R = (x, y, z) ∈ R3 : |x| ≤ a, |y| ≤ b, z = c , and an ellipse x2 y2 + 2 = 1, z = c + 1 a2 b we use instead of c + 1, a(c + 1) (parallel to the x-axis) and b(c + 1) (parallel to the y-axis), so that the area shadowed is πab(c + 1)2 + 4ab(c + 1)2 + 4abc(c + 1) = c2 ab(π + 12) + 16abc + 4ab.

Homework
Problem 1.16.1 Let C be the curve in R3 deﬁned by x=t ,
2

y = 4t

3/2

,

z = 9t,

t ∈ [0; +∞[. from (1, 4, 9) to

Calculate the distance along C (16, 32, 36).

Problem 1.16.4 Give a parametrisation for the part of the ellipsoid y2 z2 + =1 x2 + 9 4 which lies on top of the plane x + y + z = 0. Problem 1.16.5 Let P be the point (2, 0, 1) and consider the curve C : z = y 2 on the yz-plane. As a point Q moves along C , let R be the point of intersection of ← → PQ and the xy-plane. Graph all points R on the xyplane. Problem 1.16.6 Let a be a real number parameter, and consider the planes P1 : ax + y + z = −a, P2 : x − ay + az = −1. Let l be their intersection line. 1. Find a direction vector for l. 2. As a varies through R, l describes a surface S in R3 . Let (x, y, z) be the point of intersection of this surface and the plane z = c. Find an equation relating x and y. 3. Find the volume bounded by the two planes, x = 0, and x = 1, and the surface S as c varies.

Problem 1.16.2 Consider the surfaces in R3 implicitly deﬁned by z − x2 − y 2 − 1 = 0, z + x2 + y 2 − 3 = 0.

Describe, as vividly as possible these surfaces and their intersection, if they at all intersect. Find a parametric equation for the curve on which they intersect, if they at all intersect. Problem 1.16.3 Consider the space curve ¾ ¿ t4 1 + t2 t3 →:t→ − r . 1 + t2 2 t 1 + t2 Let tk , 1 ≤ k ≤ 4 be non-zero real numbers. Prove that → (t ), →(t ), → (t ), and →(t ) are coplanar if and − − r 1 − 2 − 3 r r r 4 only if 1 1 1 1 + + + = 0. t1 t2 t3 t4

1.17

Multidimensional Vectors

We brieﬂy describe space in n-dimensions. The ideas expounded earlier about the plane and space carry almost without change. 132 Deﬁnition Rn is the n-dimensional space, the collection x1 Rn = x2 . . . xn Free to photocopy and distribute 69
ã

: xk ∈ R

.

Multidimensional Vectors → − − − − → 133 Deﬁnition If → and b are two vectors in Rn their vector sum → + b is deﬁned by the coordinatewise a a addition ¾ ¿ a1 + b1 − →+→= − a b a2 + b2 . . . an + bn − 134 Deﬁnition A real number α ∈ R will be called a scalar. If α ∈ R and → ∈ Rn we deﬁne scalar a multiplication of a vector and a scalar by the coordinatewise multiplication
¾

.

(1.20)

αa1

¿

− α→ = a

αa2 . . . . αan

(1.21)

135 Deﬁnition The standard ordered basis for Rn is the collection of vectors − − − {→1 , →2 , . . . , →n , } e e e with
¾ ¿

0 . . .

→ = − ek 1 . . . 0 (a 1 in the k slot and 0’s everywhere else). Observe that
¾ ¿

α1

n k=1

− αk →k = e

α2 . . . . αn

− − → 136 Deﬁnition Given vectors →, b of Rn , their dot product is a →•→ = − − a b
n

ak bk .
k=1

We now establish one of the most useful inequalities in analysis. − − 137 Theorem (Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz Inequality) Let → and → be any two vectors in Rn . Then x y we have ¬¬− ¬¬¬¬− ¬¬ − − |→•→| ≤ ¬¬→¬¬¬¬→¬¬. x y x y

Proof:

Since the norm of any vector is non-negative, we have
¬¬→ − ¬¬ ¬¬− + t→¬¬ ≥ 0 x y

⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒

− − − − (→ + t→)•(→ + t→) ≥ 0 x y x y →•→ + 2t→•→ + t2 →•→ ≥ 0 − − − − − − x x x y y y ¬¬→¬¬2 ¬¬− ¬¬ − − ¬¬− ¬¬ + 2t→•→ + t2 ¬¬→¬¬2 ≥ 0. x x y y 70

Free to photocopy and distribute

(1.Chapter 1 This last expression is a quadratic polynomial in t which is always non-negative. 140 Example Assume that ak . . u  The above proof works not just for Rn but for any vector space (cf. Then the x y − − angle (→. →) between them is given by the relation x y → •→ − − x y − − cos (→. k = 1. − − 139 Deﬁnition Let → and → be two non-zero vectors in a vector space over the real numbers. n. . x y x y x y giving the theorem. .22) for real numbers xk . below) that has an inner product. ck . Then we have a ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ →¬¬ − ¬¬ − ¬¬→ ¬¬→¬¬ − − ¬¬ a + b ¬¬ ≤ ¬¬ a ¬¬ + ¬¬ b ¬¬. . ¬¬− ¬¬2 ¬¬− ¬¬2 ¬¬− ¬¬¬¬− ¬¬ − − − − x y (2→•→)2 − 4(¬¬→¬¬ )(¬¬→¬¬ ) ≤ 0 ⇐⇒ |→•→| ≤ ¬¬→¬¬¬¬→¬¬. →) = ¬¬→¬¬¬¬→¬¬ . bk . → − − 138 Corollary (Triangle Inequality) Let → and b be any two vectors in Rn . a from where the desired result follows. yk . x y − ¬¬¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬ x y This expression agrees with the geometry in the case of the dot product for R2 and R3 . are positive real numbers. As such its discriminant must be non-positive. Using CBS again on k=1 n a2 b2 k k we obtain n 1/2 n 1/2 ak bk ck k=1 ≤ ≤ a2 b2 k k k=1 n 1/4 c2 k k=1 n b4 k k=1 1/4 n 1/2 a4 k k=1 c2 k k=1 . u Again. Proof: → − − ||→ + b ||2 a → − − → − − = (→ + b )•(→ + b ) a a − − − − − − → → → = →•→ + 2→• b + b • b a a a → − → − − − ≤ ||→||2 + 2||→|||| b || + || b ||2 a a → − − = (||→|| + || b ||)2 . Shew that n 4 n n n 2 ak bk ck k=1 n ≤ a4 k k=1 k=1 b4 k k=1 c2 k . 71 Free to photocopy and distribute . that is. Solution: Using CBS on k=1 n k=1 n (ak bk )ck once we obtain n 1/2 n 1/2 ak bk ck ≤ 1/2 a2 b2 k k k=1 k=1 c2 k . the preceding proof is valid in any vector space that has a norm. The form of the Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz most useful to us will be ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ n k=1 ¬ ¬ ¬ x k yk ¬ ≤ ¬ n 1/2 n 2 yk k=1 1/2 x2 k k=1 .

We now use the CBS inequality to establish another important inequality. Then a1 + a2 + · + an √ n a1 a2 · · · an ≤ . 1 · 3 · 5 · · · · (2n − 1) < 1 + 3 + 5 + · · · + (2n − 1) n n = n2 n n = nn . For. u 143 Example For any positive integer n > 1 we have 1 · 3 · 5 · · · · (2n − 1) < nn . with k=1 qk = 1. n as wanted. by AMGM.23) Successive applications of (1. (1. qk > 0.Multidimensional Vectors which gives the required inequality... Proof: Recall that log(1 + x) ∼ x as x → 0..23) yield the monotone decreasing sequence 1 n n k=1 ak ≥ 1 n n k=1 √ 2 ak ≥ 1 n n k=1 √ 4 4 ak ≥ . n Proof: If bk ≥ 0. u 142 Theorem (Arithmetic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequality) Let ak ≥ 0. Thus n x→0 1/x lim log k=1 qk a x k = = = = x→0 lim lim log Èn n  Èn k=1 qk a x k ¡ x→0 x→0 n k=1 x qk (ax − 1) k k=1 qk x (ax − 1) k x lim k=1 qk log ak . which by Lemma 141 has limit exp giving 1 n n log ak k=1 = √ n a1 a2 · · · an . Notice that since the factors are unequal we have strict inequality. We need some preparatory work. Free to photocopy and distribute 72 . Then n 1/x n x→0 lim log k=1 qk a x k = k=1 qk log ak . then by CBS 1 n n k=1 bk ≥ 1 n n k=1 Ô 2 bk . a1 + a2 + · + an √ n a1 a2 · · · an ≤ . n 141 Lemma Let ak > 0.

. Free to photocopy and distribute k=1 73 . . n n ≤ n−1 from where the ﬁrst inequality is proved. Then s − ak n k=1 1 bk n = k=1 s − ak s =n−1 and from Corollary 146. Then n 1 b1 + 1 b2 + ··· + 1 bn ≤ (b1 b2 · · · bn )1/n . . . we deduce 146 Corollary (Harmonic Mean-Arithmetic Mean Inequality) Let b1 > 0. bn > 0. bn > 0. . For then 1 1 b2 1 bn . . Their harmonic mean is given by n 1 a1 As a corollary to AMGM we obtain 145 Corollary (Harmonic Mean-Geometric Mean Inequality) Let b1 > 0. Solution: Put bk = s .Chapter 1 144 Deﬁnition Let a1 > 0. . . b2 > 0. an > 0. . and s = a1 + a2 + · · · + an . Proof: This follows by putting ak = 1 bk 1 in Theorem 142 . n 147 Example Let ak > 0. Èn s s − ak . + 1 a2 + ··· + 1 an . 1 1 b1 b2 u 1/n ··· bn ≤ b1 + + ··· + n Combining Theorem 142 and Corollary 145. . Prove that n k=1 s s − ak ak s − ak ≥ n2 n−1 n n−1 and n k=1 ≥ . . . b2 > 0. a2 > 0. Then n 1 b1 + 1 b2 + ··· + 1 bn ≤ b1 + b2 + · · · + bn .

17. 2 Problem 1. Prove the AMGM inequality by assembling the results above. .6 Let f (x) = (a + x)5 (a − x)3 . .17.2 Demonstrate that if x1 . In this exercise you will follow the steps of a proof by George Polya. we have n k=1 ak s − ak n = k=1 n s s − ak s s − ak −n . 3. Equality occurs if and only if a1 = a2 = . n Problem 1. Problem 1. x ≤ ex−1 .. a]. Problem 1. . x2 .3 (USAMO 1978) Let a. d. k=1 k=1 a2 = 144. ≤ an such that n n n a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + e2 = 16. −1 −n = k=1 2 ≥ = n n−1 n n−1 Homework Problem 1. is strictly increasing. .7 Prove that the sequence xn = 1 + n = 1. + xn ) + +. are strictly positive real numbers then 1 1 1 (x1 + x2 + . = an . . Free to photocopy and distribute 74 .5 Demonstrate that for integer n > 1 we have.4 Find all positive real numbers a1 ≤ a2 ≤ . e be real numbers such that a + b + c + d + e = 8.17.17. b.1 The Arithmetic Mean Geometric Mean Inequality says that if ak ≥ 0 then (a1 a2 · · · an )1/n ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + an .. 2 Problem 1. Find the maximum value of de f using the AMGM inequality. Maximise the value of e.17. . 2. Problem 1.17. Put nak .Multidimensional Vectors Since s s − ak −1= ak s − ak . xn . . . 2. . . x ∈ [−a. a1 + a2 + · · · + an = a1 a2 · · · an .17. . . . Deduce that Gn ≤ a1 + a2 + · · · + an n n . (a1 + a2 + · · · + an )n ak = 96. + x1 x2 xn ≥n . ´ 1. k k=1 a3 = 216. Prove that Ak = n and Gn A1 A2 · · · An = and that n Gn . 1 n n 4. n+1 n n! < . c. Prove that ∀x ∈ R. k A1 + A2 + · · · + An = n. .

1: Open ball in R2 . a2 . bn [. a2 ) b1 − a1 Figure 2.3: Open ball in R3 . y x Figure 2.2 Differentiation 2. b1 [×]a2. z z ε (a1 . b2 [× · · · ×]an−1.4: Open box in R3 . (a1 . where the ak . a3 ) x Figure 2. Figure 2. An open ball centred at a of radius ε is the set An open box is a Cartesian product of open intervals ]a1 . bn−1 [×]an . bk are real numbers.2: Open rectangle in R2 . y 75 b2 − a2 ε . 148 Deﬁnition Let a ∈ Rn and let ε > 0.1 Some Topology Bε (a) = {x ∈ Rn : ||x − a|| < ε}.

1] is closed in R.1.2 Multivariable Functions f : A → Rm . 1] is not open. closed. 154 Deﬁnition A set F ⊆ Rn is said to be closed in Rn if its complement Rn \ F is open. y) ∈ R2 : x2 + 4y 2 < 4 is open in R2 .1. 151 Example The open interval ] − 1. y) ∈ R2 : |x| ≤ 1. differentiability. D = {(x. f (x)) : x ∈ A)} ⊆ Rn+m . open ellipsoids and their unions and ﬁnite intersections are open sets in Rn . 1]. we say that f is a vector ﬁeld. Let A ⊆ Rn . 152 Example The region ] − 1. That is. an open ball in R2 is an open disk (see ﬁgure 2. or neither. 153 Example The ellipsoidal region (x. y) ∈ R2 : |y| ≤ 9.4). The interval ] − 1. For most of this course. Homework Problem 2. the introduction of more variables greatly complicates the analysis. y)? Problem 2. we would like to examine limits. y) ∈ R2 : x2 ≤ y ≤ x} Problem 2. 150 Deﬁnition A set O ⊆ Rn is said to be open if for every point belonging to it we can surround the point by a sufﬁciently small open ball so that this balls lies completely within the set. R\[−1. E = {(x. y) ∈ R2 : |x| < 1. however. 1] =]−∞. j =1 2. y) ∈ R2 : xy > 1} 6. F = {(x. we say that f is a scalar ﬁeld. In particular. +∞[ is open in R. 1] is neither open nor closed in R. Shew that there is a pairwise disjoint subcollection Dk . our concern will be functions of the form If m = 1. 1. an open box in R2 is a rectangle without its boundary (see ﬁgure 2. |y| ≤ 1} 5. Needless to say. −1[∪]1. y) ∈ R2 : xy ≤ 1} 4. |y| < 1} 2. +∞[ is open in R2 . A ⊆ Rn . ∀a ∈ O ∃ε > 0 such that Bε (a) ⊆ O. as no interval centred at 1 is totally contained in ] − 1. C = {(x. is the set {(x. A = {(x. We would like to develop a calculus analogous to the situation in R. y) ∈ R2 : |x| < 1. continuity.3). in R2 . If m ≥ 2. Free to photocopy and distribute 76 . k ≥ 1 in F such that n 7. 1] × [0.2 (Putnam Exam 1969) Let p(x.3 (Putnam 1998) Let F be a ﬁnite collection of open disks in R2 whose union contains a set E ⊆ R2 .2) and an open box in R3 is a box without its boundary (see ﬁgure 2. The reader will recognise that open boxes. An open box in R is an open interval. 1[ is open in R. |y| ≤ 1} 3. deﬁned over the entire plane R2 . +∞[×[0.Multivariable Functions 149 Example An open ball in R is an open interval. and integrability of multivariable functions. x < y 2 } E ⊆ 3Dj . 1[×]0. 156 Example The region [−1.1. The interval ] − 1.1) and an open ball in R3 is an open sphere (see ﬁgure 2.1 Determine whether the following subsets of R2 are open. 155 Example The closed interval [−1. however. recall that the graph of a function f : A → Rm . G = {(x. B = {(x. 2] is closed in R3 . as its complement. For example. y) be a polynomial with real coefﬁcients in the real variables x and y. What are the possibilities for the image (range) of p(x.

1 Sketch the level curves for the following maps.0) lim x2 y x2 + y 2 = 0. (x. and hence (x. are analogously deﬁned. z) → xyz 3. z) → x2 + y 2 3.y)→(0. m = 1.2 Sketch the level surfaces for the following maps. 158 Example The level curves of the surface f (x.0) (x. (x.0) ¬ x2 + y 2 ¬ (x. In such a case we write. z) → min(|x|. y) → x2 + 4y 2 7. z) → x2 + 4y 2 4. y) → sin(x + y ) 2 6.y)→(0. z) → x2 + y 2 + z 2 2. y.0) Solution: We use the sandwich theorem. and so x2 0≤ 2 ≤ 1. (x. y) → cos(x2 − y 2 ) 6. (x. if there is such a curve. (x. |y|. Homework Problem 2. 1.Chapter 2 If m + n > 3. Observe that 0 ≤ x2 ≤ x2 + y 2 .3 Limits We will start with the notion of limit. limits at inﬁnity. y.2. y. |y|) 4. 159 Deﬁnition A function f : Rn → Rm is said to have a limit L ∈ Rm at a ∈ Rn if ∀ > 0∃δ > 0 such that 0 < ||x − a|| < δ =⇒ ||f (x) − L|| < . |z|) 5. (x. We will now brieﬂy examine this case. (x. we have a tri-dimensional surface. y) → x + y 2. 1. Thus x + y2 ¬ ¬ ¬ x2 y ¬ ¬ ¬≤ lim 0≤ lim (x. (x. (x. (x. c > 0. (x. z) → x + y + z 2. 77 Free to photocopy and distribute . y) → min(|x|.y)→(0. y. y) = x2 + y 2 (an elliptic paraboloid) are the concentric circles x2 + y 2 = c. we have an object of more than three-dimensions! In the case n = 2. (x. The notions of inﬁnite limits. y) and the plane z = c.y)→(0. y.y)→(0. (x.0) lim |y|. Limits in more than one dimension are perhaps trickier to ﬁnd.2. (x. z) → sin(z − x2 − y 2 ) 7. and continuity at a point. y) → x − x 2 5. the level curve at z = c is the curve resulting from the intersection of the surface z = f (x. (x. y) → xy 3 Problem 2. as one must approach the test point from inﬁnitely many directions. y. 160 Example Find lim x2 y x2 + y 2 . 157 Deﬁnition Let A ⊆ R2 and let f : A → R be a function. x→a lim f (x) = L. Given c ∈ R. y.

y) → x2 y ..axes=boxed.y=-10.x=0.8: Example 163.5: (x.color=xˆ2+yˆ2). limit(xˆ2*y/(xˆ2+yˆ2). Free to photocopy and distribute 78 .7: Example 162.x=-10. Notice that Maple is unable to ﬁnd the limit and so returns unevaluated. Figure 2.y=0). > > > with(plots): plot3d(xˆ2*y/(xˆ2+yˆ2). Figure 2.10.6: (x. x6 + y4 Figure 2. y) → x5 y3 .10. 161 Example Find (x..Limits The Maple™ commands to graph this surface and ﬁnd this limits appear below.0) lim x5 y 3 x6 + y 4 . x2 + y2 Figure 2.y)→(0.

0). ¬ x6 + y 4 ¬ X2 + Y 2 Passing to polar coordinates X = ρ cos θ. x ) ≤ y + x −→ 0. If |y| ≤ |x|. we ﬁnd xy 6 x6 + y8 = 1 2t2 → +∞. 1+y −y 2 → −∞. y) → (0. 1+x → +∞. the function is 0. then ¬ ¬ ¬ x5 y 3 ¬ x8 2 ¬ ¬ ¬ x6 + y 4 ¬ ≤ x6 = x . Free to photocopy and distribute 79 . and so the function does not have a limit at (0. But when y = 0.y)→(0. as t → 0.0) lim .0) Solution: Putting x = t4 . The limit does not exist. then ¬ ¬ ¬ x5 y 3 ¬ y8 4 ¬ ¬ ¬ x6 + y 4 ¬ ≤ y 4 = y . Aliter: Let X = x3 . we obtain ¬ ¬ ¬ x5 y 3 ¬ X 5/3 Y 3/2 5/3+3/2−2 ¬ ¬ | cos θ|5/3| sin θ|3/2 ≤ ρ7/6 → 0.Chapter 2 Solution: Either |x| ≤ |y| or |x| ≥ |y|.y)→(0. Thus the limit does not exist. x2 as x → 0. Observe that if |x| ≤ |y|. Thus as (x. (x. y = t3 . ¬ ¬ ¬ x5 y 3 ¬ 4 2 4 2 ¬ ¬ ¬ x6 + y 4 ¬ ≤ max(y . ((x − 1)2 + y 2 ) loge ((x − 1)2 + y 2 ) |x| + |y| 164 Example Find (x. as y → 0. ¬ x6 + y 4 ¬ = X 2 + Y 2 = ρ as (x. 162 Example Find Solution: (x. Solution: When y = 0 we have 2(x − 1)2 ln(|1 − x|) |x| ∼− 2x |x| . ¬ ¬ ¬ x5 y 3 ¬ X 5/3 Y 3/2 ¬ ¬= . 163 Example Find lim xy 6 x6 + y 8 . When y = 0. 0).y)→(0. y) → (0. Y = ρ sin θ. When x = 0. 0). Y = y 2 .0) lim 1+x+y x2 − y 2 .

Free to photocopy and distribute 80 . Figure 2. Figure 2.10: Example 165.12: Example 163. Figure 2.11: Example 166.Limits Figure 2.9: Example 164.

y) = lim x→x0 y→y0 lim f (x. Problem 2. It may occur that lim not exist.y)→(0.3. x→x0 lim y→y0 lim f (x. y) → log(x + y). if x2 + 4y 2 > 1 be continuous everywhere on the xy-plane? Problem 2. If the iterated limits exist and lim does not exist. x2 + y 2 Free to photocopy and distribute 81 .6 For what c will the function Ô 1 − x2 − 4y 2 . It may occur that (x. When y = 0 we obtain → 1. (x. 1.3. but one of the iterated limits does not.y0 ) y→y0 x→x0 y→y0 x→x0 lim f (x.y0 ) lim f (x.2) lim sin xy . y) exists.3.5 Find (x.3 Sketch the domain of deﬁnition of 1 (x.1 Sketch the domain of deﬁnition of Ô (x. y) → (0. The following possibilities might occur.3. x + y2 1 Problem 2. Thus the limit does not exist.y )→(0.0) lim x4 + y 4 .Chapter 2 sin(x4 ) + sin(y 4 ) Ô 165 Example Find (x.y )→(0. Solution: sin(x4 ) + sin(y 4 ) ≤ x4 + y 4 and so ¬ ¬ ¬ sin(x4 ) + sin(y 4 ) ¬ ¬ ¬≤ Ô ¬ ¬ x4 + y 4 x4 + y 4 → 0.y0 ) lim f (x. If (x. 166 Example Find Solution: (x.4 Find lim (x2 + y 2 ) sin . if x2 + 4y 2 ≤ 1. y) → 4 − x2 − y 2 . y) → (x0 .3.y)→(0. y) . y) = c. 2. but that (x. y) does lim f (x. it may be that the limits y→y0 sin x lim x→x0 lim f (x.0) xy Problem 2.y)→(x0 . Problem 2.0) lim Ô x2 + y 2 sin 1 . Homework Problem 2. then each of the iterated limits lim y→y0 x→x0 lim f (x. y) lim f (x.3. y) exists. y) exists.2 Sketch the domain of deﬁnition of (x.y0 ) lim f (x. as (x. If f : R2 → R. 3. 0). y) then (x. When y = x the function is identically −1. y) and lim x→x0 y→y0 lim f (x. x Problem 2. both exist.0) lim sin x − y x − sin y . y) . x as x → 0. 4. y) .7 Find (x. y0 ).y )→(0. y) = lim x→x0 y→y0 lim f (x.3.y)→(x0 .y)→(x0 . These are called the iterated limits of f as (x. y) → 2 .y)→(x0 . f (x.

We write f (h) f (h) = o (h) if f (h) goes faster to 0 than h.3.0) (x.4 Deﬁnition of the Derivative Before we begin. y) exists.0) x 2 x→0 (x. ||x − a|| 82 Free to photocopy and distribute .11 Prove that lim x−y lim y →0 x + y lim = 1 = − lim x−y lim x→0 x + y . 167 Deﬁnition Let A ⊆ Rn .3. y) do not lim x2 y 2 z 2 = 0. a function g : R → R is said to be differentiable at x = a if the limit x→a lim g(x) − g(a) = g (a) x−a exists. h3 + 2h2 = o (h).y )→(0. called the derivative of f at a.0. The limit condition above is equivalent to saying that lim g(x) − g(a) − g (a)(x − a) = 0. Recall that in one variable.3. x−a g(a + h) − g(a) − g (a)(h) h = 0.12 Let f (x. Observe that since we may not divide by vectors.z)→(0.y . + y2 + z2 Problem 2. x2 + y 2 Prove that limits lim exist. Let f : R → R be a function. Da (f ) : Rn → Rm such that x→a lim ||f (x) − f (a) − Da (f )(x − a)|| = 0.+∞) 1 1 + y sin x y if x = 0. |y|) . y) = x sin 0 Problem 2. y) lim f (x.3. x2 y 2 + (x − y)2 x2 y 2 + (x − y)2 = 0.y )→(0.0) x 2 y 2 lim x2 y 2 does not exist.3. x+y but still (x. For example. h→0 h since h3 + 2h2 lim = lim h2 + 2h = 0. x→a or equivalently.10 Demonstrate that (x.8 Find lim max(|x|. The above analysis provides an analogue deﬁnition for the higher-dimensional case.y )→(+∞. Ô x4 + y 4 Problem 2. if lim = 0. and that y →0 y →0 x→0 lim x→0 x 2 y 2 lim = 0.Deﬁnition of the Derivative Problem 2.y )→(0. Problem 2.0) x−y exist?.9 Find lim 2x2 sin y 2 + y 4 e−|x| Ô . Does (x.13 Prove that lim y →0 x 2 y 2 x→0 lim Problem 2. h→0 h→0 h We now deﬁne the derivative in the multidimensional space Rn .y )→(0. let us introduce some necessary notation. that is. A function f : A → Rm is said to be differentiable at a ∈ A if there is a linear transformation. the corresponding deﬁnition in higher dimensions involves quotients of norms. + (x − y)2 2.3.0 y →0 lim f (x. y = 0 otherwise lim f (x. but that the iterated and lim y →0 x→0 (x. h→0 lim We may write this as g(a + h) − g(a) = g (a)(h) + o (h) .

as h → 0. we have f (a + h) − f (a) = Da (f )(h) + o (||h||) . f is differentiable at a if there is a linear transformation Da (f ) such that f (a + h) − f (a) = Da (f )(h) + o (||h||) . Shew that f is differentiable and that → → − − − − − → →− − − D(→. Any linear transformation T will satisfy the deﬁnition. we know that Da (L) uniquely determined. then the claim is established. By deﬁnition. By the triangle inequality. Solution: Since Rn is an open set.  The condition for differentiability at a is equivalent to f (x) − f (a) = Da (f )(x − a) + o (||x − a||) . Da (f ) is uniquely determined. L(v) = Da (f )(v). Proof: Let L : Rn → Rm be another linear transformation satisfying deﬁnition 167. then Da (f ) is not uniquely determined. as T (x − a) = T (0) = 0. ||Da (f )(v) − L(v)|| ≤ ||Da (f )(h) − f (a + h) + f (a)|| = o (||h||) + o (||h||) = o (||h||) . →) x y → → R →•→ − − x y be the usual dot product in R3 . and so f (x) = f (a). 170 Example Let f : R3 × R3 − − (→. observe that f (a + h) − f (a) = L(h) + o (||h||) . Thus if L satisﬁes deﬁnition 167. a + h ∈ A for sufﬁciently small ||h||. We must prove that ∀v ∈ Rn .. +||f (a + h) − f (a) − L(h)|| i. for any a ∈ Rn . as x → a. 168 Theorem If A is an open set in deﬁnition 167. L(v) = Da (f )(v). identically. as h → 0 This means that ||L(v) − Da (f )(v)|| → 0. 169 Example If L : Rn → Rm is a linear transformation.e. Da (f )(v) − L(v) = Da (f )(h) − f (a + h) + f (a) + f (a + h) − f (a) − L(h). For ||x − a|| < δ holds only for x = a. and ||f (x) − f (a) − T (x − a)|| = ||0|| = 0. completing the proof. Since A is open. u  If A = {a}.→) f ( h . and Now. then Da (L) = L. as h → 0. k ) = →• k + h •→.Chapter 2 Equivalently. whence the claim follows. But by linearity ||L(x) − L(a) − L(x − a)|| = ||L(x) − L(a) − L(x) + L(a)|| = ||0|| = 0. a singleton. x y x y Free to photocopy and distribute 83 .

2 Let f : Rn → R. and put ¾ f1 (x1 . →) = x y x y = = → → − − As ( ¬h¬ . x 2. . k¬) → ¬¬ ¬ ¬ →¬¬¬¬→¬¬ − −¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ h ¬¬¬¬ k ¬¬ = o → − − → − − − − (→ + h )•(→ + k ) − →•→ x y x y → →•→ →•→ →•→ − − − →•→ + →• k + h y + − − − − − − − − x y x h k x y − − − − →•→ + →•→ + →•→. . f (→ ) = ¬¬→¬¬ x ¬¬→¬¬2 − − be the usual norm in Rn . . n ≥ 1. Proof: Given a ∈ A. . . . x x ¬¬− ¬¬ − x Problem 2. but that f is not differentiable at 0 . which proves the assertion. . . . we must shew that x→a lim f (x) = f (a). | h • k | ≤ ¬ 0 →¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ h ¬¬ . . u f (x) − f (a) → 0. .4. . . 171 Theorem Suppose A ⊆ Rn is open and f : A → Rn is differentiable on A. Then f is continuous on A. x2 . we have by the Cauchy-Buniakovskii-Schwarz inequality. . x2 . x2 .5 The Jacobi Matrix We now establish a way which simpliﬁes the process of ﬁnding the derivative of a function at a given point. . x2 . Prove x x x that → •→ − − x v − Dx (f )(→ ) = ¬¬→ ¬¬ . with ¬¬− ¬¬ = → •→. . . − − x x x Shew that F is differentiable and that → − → − → − − − Dx (F )( h ) = → × L( h ) + h × L(→ ).1 Let L : R3 → R3 be a linear transformation and R3 → R3 F : → − → → × L(→) . . ¿ f (x) = .The Jacobi Matrix Solution: We have → − − → − − − − f (→ + h . Just like in the one variable case. xj . . and so as x → a. xj + h. xn ) . . . . − − x k h y h k →→ − − → → − − (¬0 . fm (x1 . xn ) Here fi : Rn → R. ¬¬ ). . Homework Problem 2. . fi (x1 . 172 Deﬁnition Let A ⊆ Rn . Free to photocopy and distribute 84 . . xn ) f2 (x1 . xn ) − fi (x1 . The partial derivative ∂fi ∂xj (x) = lim h→0 ∂fi ∂xj (x) is deﬁned as . → + k ) − f (→. v ¬¬− ¬¬ x → − → − − for → = 0 . . proving the theorem. xn ) h whenever this limit exists. implies continuity at that point. differentiability at a point.4. Since f is differentiable at a we have f (x) − f (a) = Da (f )(x − a) + o (||x − a||) . . . x2 . . f : A → Rm . .

y.Chapter 2 To ﬁnd partial derivatives with respect to the j-th variable. z) = x + y 2 + z 3 + 3xy 2 z 3 then ∂f (x. xj + h. (x. x2 . . we simply keep the other variables ﬁxed and differentiate with respect to the j-th variable. . Then each partial derivative n (x) ∂xj exists. . xn ) − εDx (f )(→j )|| e = . . y. . . 173 Example If f : R3 → R. > diff(f(x. . . and the matrix representation of Dx (f ) with respect to the standard bases of R and R is the Jacobi matrix ¾ ¿ ∂f1 ∂f1 ∂f1 (x) (x) · · · (x) ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂xn ∂f2 ∂f2 ∂f2 (x) (x) · · · (x) ∂x2 ∂xn f (x) = ∂x1 . > diff(f(x. . . ε ∈ R. Let f (x) = (Jij ). 1 ≤ j ≤ n. . x2 .y. To obtain the Jacobi matrix. . .z). . z) = 2y + 6xyz 3 . which will give us the j-th column of the Jacobi matrix. y. Jnj − and put y = x + ε→j .z)->x+yˆ2+zˆ3+3*x*yˆ2*zˆ3.z). xn ) − f (x1 . . . . xj . x2 . . . . . y. . . . . Since the derivative of a function f : Rn → Rm is a linear transformation. |ε| Free to photocopy and distribute 85 .y. x2 . xn ) f2 (x1 . z) = 3z 2 + 9xy 2 z 2 . . it can be represented by aid of matrices. . x2 . . . The following theorem will allow us to determine the matrix representation for Da (f ) under the standard bases of Rn and Rm . xn ) Suppose A ⊆ Rn is an open set and f : A → Rm is differentiable. fm (x1 .y). .y. . . ∂z The Maple™ commands to ﬁnd these follow.z). z) = 1 + 3y 2 z 3 . xn ) . we must e − compute Dx (f )(→j ). . . . > f:=(x. 174 Theorem Let ¾ ¿ f1 (x1 . . . . . .x). . . ∂x ∂f ∂y and ∂f (x. > diff(f(x. . and f (x. y. e and observe that ¾ ¿ J1j − Dx (f )(→j ) = e J2j . . Notice that e ||f (y) − f (x) − Dx (f )(y − x)|| ||y − x|| − ||f (x1 . . be the standard basis for Rn .z). ∂fn ∂fn ∂fn (x) (x) · · · (x) ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂xn m ∂fi − Proof: Let →j . f (x) = .

. ε ∂xj This ﬁnishes the proof. ρ sin θ sin φ. . . x2 . y) ∂y ¾ ∂f1 (x. xn ) − fi (x1 . . . . It is a matrix representation of the derivative in the standard basis of Rn . 176 Example Let f (ρ. x2 . φ. xj . xj + ε. x2 . 1 177 Example Let f (ρ. y) = 1 Free to photocopy and distribute if if x = 0. The Jacobi matrix provides a convenient computational tool to compute the derivative of a function at a point. θ. y) = (xy + yz. . y) ∂x ∂f1 (x. . xn ) − fi (x1 . . y) y ∂z = 1 ∂f2 (x. and refer to f when we mean the Jacobi matrix of f . z) be the function which changes from cylindrical coordinates to Cartesian coordinates. The converse. |fi (x1 . . u  Strictly speaking. y) ∂y ∂f2 (x. . . z) = (ρ cos θ. . . xn ) ∂fi = (x) . . . x2 . We will abuse language. xj . Thus differentiability at a point implies that the partial derivatives of the function exist at the point. ρ cos φ) be the function which changes from spherical coordinates to Cartesian coordinates. 178 Example Let f : R2 → R be given by y f (x. y) x ∂z ¿ x+z 1 y y 0 ¿ . z) = −ρ sin θ ρ cos θ 0 0 ¿ 0 . xj + h. θ) = ρ cos θ cos φ −ρ sin φ sin θ ρ sin θ cos φ −ρ sin φ ρ cos θ sin φ 0 ¿ . however. Compute the Jacobi matrix of f . fi (x1 . Solution: The Jacobi matrix is the 2 × 3 matrix ¾ f (x. . We have ¾ cos θ sin θ 0 f (ρ. We have ¾ cos θ sin φ sin θ sin φ cos φ f (ρ. xn ) − εJij | |ε| This entails that Jij = lim ε→0 → 0. . . .The Jacobi Matrix Since the sinistral side → 0 as ε → 0. . . . y = 0. 86 x if . . and so. is not true. . . . . xy = 0. the so does the i-th component of the numerator. . ρ sin θ. θ) = (ρ cos θ sin φ. . loge xy). y) ∂x ∂f2 (x. φ. however. 175 Example Let f : R3 → R2 be given by f (x. the Jacobi matrix is not the derivative of a function at a point. . y) = ∂f1 (x. . θ.

w) at (1. ¾ f1 f2 . ∂u∂v 4 at the desired point. 1. 0)). We have however. 87 . 180 Example Let f (u. 0) = 0 but f (x. ). You should also notice that both partial derivatives are not continuous at (0. (0. and let f : Rn → Rm . ∂x x = y 2 z 3 + 3xy 2 z 2 ∂z ∂x . it is not differentiable there.Chapter 2 Observe that f is not continuous at (0. 181 Example The equation z xy + (xy)z + xy 2 z 3 = 3 deﬁnes z as an implicit function of x and y. −1. v. Thus even ∂x ∂y if both partial derivatives exist at (0. y) = 1 for values arbitrarily close to ∂f ∂f (0. 0) is no guarantee that the function will be differentiable at (0. 0). Similarly with the concept of implicit partial differentiation. ∂2 π f (u. We have. 0) = (0. The concept of repeated partial derivatives is akin to the concept of repeated differentiation. If each of the partial fm derivatives Dj fi exists and is continuous on A. 1) we have ∂z ∂x Similarly. v. 0) = 1. ∂ xy z ∂y = = Free to photocopy and distribute ∂ xy log z e ∂y x log z + +1+1+3 ∂z ∂x = 0 =⇒ 1 =− . the following. ∂ xy ∂z z ∂y z xy . Determine Solution: We have ∂2 ∂u∂v which is √ e 2 2 (eu v cos w) = ∂ ∂u (eu cos w) = eu cos w. ∂x 2 ∂z xy 2 z 3 ∂ xy log z e ∂x xy ∂z y log z + z xy . The following examples should be self-explanatory.. at (1. 0) (f (0. 1. z ∂x ez log xy ∂x ∂z z log xy + (xy)z . w) = eu v cos w.. then f is differentiable on A. and hence. Find ∂z ∂z and at (1. 1). ∂x ∂y Solution: We have ∂ ∂x z xy = = ∂ ∂x (xy)z = = ∂ ∂x Hence. Put f = . however. ¿ 179 Theorem Let A ⊆ Rn be an open set. 0).

Let A ⊆ Rn . y).1) 182 Example Let ¾ uev uv ¿ f (u.The Jacobi Matrix ∂ ∂y (xy)z ez log xy ∂y ∂z z log xy + ∂y y = ∂ = = (xy)z . (2. ∂z . 1) we have ∂z ∂y 2xyz 3 + 3xy 2 z 2 +1+2+3 ∂z ∂y = 0 =⇒ 3 =− . ∂y ∂ xy 2 z 3 ∂y Hence. h : B → Rl be differentiable on B. y) = Observe also that f (h(x. (h ◦ f ) = (h ◦ f )(f ). Since composition of linear mappings expressed as matrices is matrix multiplication. • Chain Rule: Dx ((h ◦ f )) = Df (x) (h) ◦ (Dx (f )). y) = Find (f ◦ h) (x. α ∈ R. be differentiable on A. and h (x. Solution: We have f (u. g : A → Rm . the Chain Rule takes the alternative form when applied to the Jacobi matrix. v) = u + v . ev 1 v uev 1 u ¿ . y)) = 2x 0 1 0 1 1 . ¾ ey+z 1 y+z (x2 + y)ey+z 1 x +y 2 ¿ . h(x. we have the following rules of differentiation. ∂y 4 ∂z Just like in the one-variable case. 1. Then we have • Addition Rule: Dx ((f + αg)) = Dx (f ) + αDx (g). B ⊆ Rm be open sets f. and f (A) ⊆ B. v) = ¾ x2 + y y+z . Free to photocopy and distribute 88 . at (1.

u(x. Put h(x. y) = xz. Now. y. Solution: Put g : R3 → R2 . z) f (u. g (x. x2 + 2y + z x2 + y 183 Example Let f : R2 → R. ç ∂h ∂x (x. f (h(x. v) = 2u ev . Observe that h = f ◦ g. y) = h (x. y)) = 2xz Thus å ä ey+z . y) = 2x2 z + ey+z .Chapter 2 Hence (f ◦ h) (x. Free to photocopy and distribute 89 . y) ¾ ey+z = ¾ (x2 + y)ey+z ¾ 2x 1 0 1 1 1 x2 + y 2 ¿ ¿ 1 y+z 2xe y+z 0 ¿ y+z (1 + x + y)e 2 (x + y)e 1 2 y+z = 2x 2xy + 2xz . u. (x. v) = u2 + ev . z) v(x. y) = (f (g(x. y) v(x. y) = ey+z . y) = y + z. we obtain ∂h ∂x ∂h ∂y 2x2 z + ey+z (x. 0 ey+z = Equating components. y) = 0 1 . y) = f . ∂z Under certain conditions we may differentiate under the integral sign. v(x. f (u. v : R3 → R u(x. y)))(g (x. y))h (x. y)) å ¾ è z ¿ = å 2xz 2xz 2 ey+z 0 1 x 1 è . y) = u(x. y. y) = 2xz 2 . g(x. ∂h (x. Find the partial derivatives of h. y z 0 ä = xz y+z x 1 ç . y) ∂h ∂z è (x. y) = f (h(x. y) ∂h ∂y (x.

y) are continuous in the variables x and y jointly.The Jacobi Matrix 184 Theorem (Differentiation under the integral sign) Let f : [a. Finally thus F (x) = π log(x + 1) − π log 2 = π log x+1 . b] being a closed interval. π =⇒ F (x) = π log(x + 1) + C. x = 1. y) dy. The above implies that (x2 − 1) · F (x) = 2x = = = = = which in turn implies that for x > 0. with [a. F (x) = π/2 0 cos2 θdθ = . compute 0 sin2 x x2 dx. y) dy = Y ∂ ∂x f (x. π 2 π/2 For x = 1 one sees immediately that F (1) = 2 Now. Solution: Differentiating under the integral. x+1 Since F (1) = 0 log 1dθ = 0. +∞ 186 Example Given that 0 sin x x dx = π 2 +∞ . Then ∂x Y differentiable function of x on [a. we gather that C = −π log 2. 2 2x 2 π π 2 − π 2x = π x+1 . b] × Y → R be a function. F (x) = 0 log(sin2 θ + x2 cos2 θ)dθ = π log x+1 2 . F (x) = 2x x2 −1 π/2 0 π/2 0 dθ sin2 θ + x2 cos2 θ 2 2 2 x cos θ + sin θ − 1 sin2 θ + x2 cos2 θ π/2 dθ (x2 − 1) cos2 θ dθ π 2 π − − 0 π/2 0 sin2 θ + x2 cos2 θ sec2 θdθ tan2 θ + ¬ 2 x 1 tan θ ¬π/2 − arctan ¬ 2 x x 0 π π − . the interval of integration in the above theorem need not be compact. 90 Free to photocopy and distribute . y) and ∂ f (x. Suppose that both f (x. agreeing with the formula. with derivative d dx 185 Example Prove that π/2 Y f (x.y) dy exists as a continuously f (x. b]. π/2 F (x) = 0 ∂ ∂x log(sin2 θ + x2 cos2 θ)dθ cos2 θ sin2 θ + x2 cos2 θ dθ π/2 0 = 2x . 2 Under certain conditions. and Y being a closed and bounded subset of R.

Compute (g ◦ f ) (1.5 Suppose g : R → R is continuous and a ∈ R is a constant. Determine n such that ∂f 1 ∂ ∂f = 2 r2 . if at all deﬁned. y) = g(t) dt.5. ∂x Problem 2. y 2 ). f (r. y) = ¾ x−y x2 y 2 x+y ¿ Find (g ◦ f ) (0.5. b Problem 2. a Problem 2. ∂w determine . arctan ax − arctan x π dx = log π. v = rs. y) = min(x. ∂t r ∂r ∂r Problem 2. 1). Since I(0) = 0. ∂x ∂y evaluate 0 dx . f (x. explain. x 2 Compute (f ◦ g) (1.5. 0). (x2 + a2 )2 Problem 2. 0.2 Let f : R2 → R. g(x. 1). +∞[→ R.4 Let f (x. y) = xy 2 é 2 . ∂z Find at (1. Find the partial derivatives with respect to x and y of x2 y f : R2 → R.7 Prove that +∞ 0 æ f (x. explain.5. π 2 .6 Given that b 0 dx 1 b = arctan . where n is a constant.5. y) ∂f (x. we gather that C = 0.8 Assuming that the equation xy 2 + 3z = cos z 2 deﬁnes z implicitly as a function of x and y.5. The desired integral is I(1) = Homework Problem 2. Solution: Put I(a) = 0 +∞ sin2 ax I (a) = 0 +∞ 2x sin ax cos ax x2 sin 2ax dx x sin u du u dx = 0 +∞ = = Integrating each side gives I(a) = 0 π . Find f (x. t) = 2 tn e−r /4t . with a ≥ 0.3 Let f : R2 → R2 and g : R3 → R2 be given by Problem 2. 1. z) = æ x y x − y + 2z xy é . Problem 2.1 Let f : [0. y.Chapter 2 +∞ dx. ﬁnd ∂z . 1).5. 2 π 2 a + C. x2 + a2 a a ∂f (x. and making the substitution u = 2ax. if at all deﬁned.5. 2.6 Gradients and Directional Derivatives f : Rn x → Rm → f (x) 91 A function Free to photocopy and distribute .9 If w = euv and u = r + s. ∂x æ Problem 2. +∞[×]0. ∂r Problem 2. Differentiating both sides with respect x2 to a.10 Let z be an implicitly-deﬁned function of x and y through the equation (x + z)2 + (y + z)2 = 8.5. y) and . If undeﬁned. y) = xy x+y é and g(x.5. If undeﬁned.

z) = x3 + y 3 + z − 4 has gradient ¾ 3x2 3y 2 1 ¿ f (x. ∂ ∂xn . z) = Free to photocopy and distribute 92 . .Gradients and Directional Derivatives is called a vector ﬁeld. y. and assume that f is differentiable in A. Choose t0 so that c(t0 ) = x. u f (x) is 0. . it is called a scalar ﬁeld. Since f (x)||||c (t0 )|| cos θ. and using the chain rule f (c(t0 ))c (t0 ) = 0. The gradient of f is the vector deﬁned and denoted by ¾ (x) (x) . If m = 1. Then (f ◦ c)(t0 ) = f (c(t)) = K. 189 Example Find a unit vector normal to the surface x3 + y 3 + z = 4 at the point (1. (x) ∂ ∂x1 ∂ ¿ = ∂x2 . y. Solution: Here f (x. 2). 187 Deﬁnition Let f : Rn x → R → f (x) ∂f ∂x1 ∂f f (x) = ∂x2 . Then f (x) is orthogonal to the surface implicitly deﬁned by f (x) = K. Since c (t0 ) is tangent to the surface and its dot product with f (x) is normal to the surface. we conclude that  Let θ be the angle between f (x) and c (t0 ). Let K ∈ R be a constant. 188 Theorem Let A ⊆ Rn be open and let f : A → R be a scalar ﬁeld. ∂f ∂xn The gradient operator is the operator ¾ ¿ be a scalar ﬁeld. 1. |( f (x))•(c (t0 ))| = || f (x) is the direction in which f is changing the fastest. Proof: Let c: R t → Rn → c(t) be a curve lying on this surface. . which translates to ( f (x))•(c (t0 )) = 0. .

Normalising this vector we obtain ¾ 3 ¿ √ 19 3 √ .Chapter 2 ¾ ¿ 3 1 which at (1. The equation of the tangent plane is thus 1(x − 1) + 4(y − 2) − 6(z − 3) = 0. 3). 2. 3). 3). y. 2. 5 2 191 Example Let f : R3 → R be given by f (x. 2. 1. Solution: A vector normal to the plane is f (1. 2) is 3 . Solution: The direction is that of the gradient vector. Normalising this vector we obtain ¾ ¿ 1 1 √ 2 . y. or x + 4y − 6z = −9. 2) becomes 2e2 . 2). y. Now ¾ 1 2y −2z ¿ f (x. z) = xyez at the point (2. Free to photocopy and distribute 93 . z) = which is ¾ 1 4 −6 ¿ at (1. Here ¾ yez xez xyez ¿ f (x. y. z) = ¾ ¿ e2 2e2 which at (2. Find the equation of the tangent plane to f at (1. 1. 19 1 √ 19 190 Example Find the direction of the greatest rate of increase of f (x. z) = x + y 2 − z 2 . 1.

. . . y. v Free to photocopy and distribute 94 . g)(x. y 2 . yez ) then divf (x) = 2x + 2y + 2yzez . 0) then ¾ e1 ∂ e2 ∂ ∂x2 0 0 e3 ∂ ∂x3 0 z e4 ∂ ∂x4 w2 0 ¿ curl(f. z) = (x2 . . 193 Example If f (x. z. en ∂ ∂xn g1n (x) g2n (x) . . z. z) = (x2 . w) = det ∂x1 exyz 0 = (xz 2 exyz )e4 . y. y. g2 . 194 Deﬁnition Let gk : Rn → Rn . g(n−2)1 (x) e2 ∂ ∂x2 g12 (x) g22 (x) . z)) = × f (x. Let → ∈ Rn \ {0} be such that x + t→ ∈ A for sufﬁciently small t ∈ R. . 0. Then the directional v v → at the point x is deﬁned and denoted by − derivative of f in the direction of v − D→ f (x) = lim v t→0 − f (x + t→) − f (x) v t . . . . y. . ..  − Some authors require that the vector → in deﬁnition 197 be a unit vector.. 0. . 2 2 196 Example If f (x. y 2 . . . z) = (ez )i. . . . yez ) then curlf ((x. w2 ). .. y. w) = (0. gin ). z. y. gn−2 )(x) = det . 195 Example If f (x. z. g2 . and assume that f is differen− − tiable in A. . gn−2 ) ¾ 2 e1 ∂ ∂x1 g11 (x) g21 (x) . gi2 . . g(n−2)2 (x) ··· ··· ··· . . w) = (exyz . g(n−2)n (x) ¿ curl(g1 . fn (x) The divergence of f is deﬁned and denoted by divf (x) = • f (x) = 2 ∂f1 ∂x1 (x) + ∂f2 ∂x2 (x) + · · · + ∂fn ∂xn (x) . . . . 197 Deﬁnition Let A ⊆ Rn be open and let f : A → R be a scalar ﬁeld.Gradients and Directional Derivatives 192 Deﬁnition Let f : be a vector ﬁeld with Rn x → Rn ¾ → f (x) f1 (x) ¿ f (x) = f2 (x) . Then the curl of (g1 . y. 0. 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 2 be vector ﬁelds with gi = (gi1 . . g(x..

and let U. 1. Problem 2.6. z) = 3xy − 9xz 2 + y increases most rapidly at the point (1.3 Find the tangent plane to the surface x2 − y 2 − z 2 = 0 at the point (2. Find ( f )(2.6. Let → ∈ Rn \ { 0 } be such that → + t→ ∈ A for sufﬁciently small t ∈ R. subscripts are in the set {1. Find Problem 2. −1. V : R3 → R3 be vector ﬁelds.6. 2x2 + xy + y 2 + 4x + 8y − z + 14 = 0 for which the tangent plane is 4x + y − z = 0. z) = ¾ 3x2 3y 2 −2z ¿ and so − f (x.6. − Problem 2. y. y. 0. 0) to estimate f (0. 4. y. ﬁnd D 3 4 f (1. 2. Problem 2. y) = x 3 + y at the point (1. 2). If f (1. 2.7 Levi-Civitta and Einstein  In this section.1. y. y.5 Find a vector pointing in the direction in which f (x. we are dealing in the space R3 and so.6.4 Find the point on the surface x2 + y 2 − 5xy + xz − yz = −3 for which the tangent plane is x − 7y = −6. 3 ¾ ¿ Solution: We have f (x. y) in the direction of the unit vector − − → . Free to photocopy and distribute 95 . 2) = 2→ − →. ) 5 5 φV = φ • V + V• φ × φV = φ • × V + ( φ) × V → − × ( φ) = 0 ( × V) = 0 )U + U × ( × V) + (U•V) = (U• )V + (V• +V × ( × U) Problem 2. 1). 2. z) = x3 + y 3 − z 2 in the direction of 2 .6. 3. Problem 2. Then the directional v x v → at the point → is given by − − derivative of f in the direction of v x − f (x)•→.6.2 Let f (x. v 1 199 Example Find the directional derivative of f (x. y) denote the directional u derivative of f at (x. • Problem 2. v Homework Problem 2. z)•→ = 3x2 + 6y 2 − 6z. 0). 2 Problem 2. and assume that f is differentiable → − − − − in A. 5. 3}.Chapter 2 198 Theorem Let A ⊆ Rn be open and let f : A → R be a scalar ﬁeld. 1). y) = ex cos 2y at (0. z) = xey z .6.11 Find the angles made by the gradient √ of f (x.2).7 Use a linear approximation of the function f (x. z) = xz z ¿ exy . ¾ Problem 2. − u i j ( . y. unless otherwise noted. Prove that 1.6.6.6. Problem 2.1 Let f (x.6 Let D→ f (x.10 Let φ : R3 → R be a scalar ﬁeld. 1.9 Find the point on the surface ( × f )(2.8 Prove that • (u × v) = v • ( × u) − u • ( × v). 1. 1) with the coordinate axes. 1).

B are two n × n matrices. d respectively. →. a c 203 Example Using Einstein’s Summation convention. 205 Example Demonstrate. the subscripted variables are assumed to be summed over. a c what is the meaning of ai bi ck dk ? Solution: ai bi ck dk We have 3 = i=1 ai bi ck dk − − → = →• b a ck dk − − → = →• b a 3 k=1 − − − → − → ck dk = (→• b )(→• d ). 3 207 Example It is easy to see that Free to photocopy and distribute δik δkj = k=1 δik δkj = δij . δij = 0 1 if i = j if i = j. via Einstein’s Summation convention. 204 Example Using Einstein’s Summation convention. bj . dl are the components of vectors in R3 . b . then tr (AB) = tr (BA) . 96 . − 201 Example Using Einstein’s Summation convention. since the indices are dummy variables and can be exchanged. Solution: We have tr (AB) = tr ((AB)ij ) = tr ( Aik Bkj ) = and tr (BA) = tr ((BA)ij ) = tr ( Bik Akj ) = Btk Akt . the trace tr (A) of a square matrix A ∈ Mn×n (R) n is tr (A) = t=1 Att = Att . the dot product of two vectors → ∈ Rn and x → ∈ Rn can be written as − y →•→ = − − x y n x i yi = i=1 x t yt . − − − → − → 202 Example Given that ai .  In order to emphasise that we are using Einstein’s convention.Levi-Civitta and Einstein 200 Deﬁnition (Einstein’s Summation Convention) In any expression containing subscripted variables appearing twice (and only twice) in any term. 206 Deﬁnition (Kroenecker’s Delta) The symbol δij is deﬁned as follows: ´ Atk Bkt . ck . →. we will enclose any terms under consideration with · . that if A. from where the assertion follows. the ij-th entry (AB)ij of the product of two matrices A ∈ Mm×n (R) and B ∈ Mn×r (R) can be written as n (AB)ij = k=1 Aik Bkj = Ait Btj .

 In particular. then e1 e2 e3 →×→= − − x y − εjkl (ak bl )→ ej .1 Let →. and odd if it takes an odd number of transpositions to regain the identity permutation. 2. then. l} = {1. ε123 = ε231 = ε312 = 1. → be vectors in R3 . 211 Example If A = [aij ] is a 3 × 3 matrix. k. x y z Free to photocopy and distribute 97 . →. ε132 = ε321 = ε213 = −1. the cross → − − − − → − → − product can also be expressed. 3} if if 1 j 1 j 2 2 k 3 l 3 l k is an odd permutation is an even permutation 321 → 123. We start with the identity permutation 123 and say it is even. k = →. a Recall that a permutation of distinct objects is a reordering of them. and 312 are even. 210 Example Using the Levi-Civitta alternating tensor and Einstein’s summation convention. Homework − − − Problem 2. using the Levi-Civitta alternating tensor. 231. → be vectors in R3 . 209 Deﬁnition (Levi-Civitta’s Alternating Tensor) The symbol εjkl is deﬁned as follows: 0 εjkl = −1 +1 if {j. 312 → 132 → 123. and 213 are odd. the permutations 123 (identity).7. Also. →. the permutations 132. det A = εijk a1i a2j a3k . − − − 212 Example Let →. j = →. Demonx y z strate that x i yi z j − − − = (→•→ )→.Chapter 2 208 Example We see that 3 3 δij ai bj = i=1 j=1 δij ai bj = k=1 − − → ak bk = →• b . if one subindex is repeated we have εrrs = εrsr = εsrr = 0. The 3! = 6 permutations of the index set {1. Since 231 → 132 → 123. 2. 321. if i = →. 3} can be classiﬁed into even or odd. we will say that it is even if it takes an even number of transpositions (switching only two elements in one move) to regain the identity permutation. 213 → 123. Now. Since 132 → 123. Then x y z → • (→ × →) = − − − x y z − − xi (→ × →)i y z = xi εikl (yk zl ) . for any other permutation.

We know that for ﬁxed x0 ∈ A. . ∂2f ∂xn ∂x2 (x) ··· ··· . let us consider the following. it is a bilinear function. this means that given n 2 m x2 ∈ R . . 213 Theorem Let A ⊆ Rn be an open set. and the “second derivative” will provide us with information about the nature of these extreme points.y. Just as the Jacobi matrix was a handy tool for ﬁnding a matrix representation of Dx (f ) in the natural bases. . given x1 ∈ Rn .Extrema 2. . Thus the function Bx 0 : (x1 . . Rm ) 2 Dx0 (f )(x1 . and f : A → R be twice differentiable on A.8 Extrema We now turn to the problem of ﬁnding maxima and minima for vector functions. . x2 ) Rn × Rn → → L (Rn . ∂2f (x) ∂x1 ∂xn ∂2f (x) ∂x2 ∂xn . y. Again. then Dx0 (f ) is symmetric. This is no coincidence. ∂2f ∂xn ∂xn (x) ¿ ··· 214 Example Let f : R3 → R be given by f (x. if we differen2 tiate T at x0 again. x1 ). Rm ) Dx (f ) . Rm ) denotes the space of linear transformations from Rn to Rm . as the mixed partial deriva∂2 ∂2 tives f = f . Dx0 (f ) is a linear transformation from Rn to Rm . that is. Let A ⊂ Rn and f : A → Rm be differentiable on A. If Dx0 (f ) is 2 n n continuous. Rm ). As in the one-variable case.z) f = From the preceding example. we have the following analogue representation of the second derivative. we have Dx0 (f )(x1 ) ∈ L (Rn . x2 ) = Dx0 (f )(x2 . Free to photocopy and distribute 98 . x where L (Rn . x2 ) ∈ R × R we have 2 2 Dx0 (f )(x1 . Hence. To deﬁne an analogue for the second derivative. the derivative will provide us with information about the extrema. ∀(x1 . we obtain a linear transformation Dx0 (T ) = Dx0 (Dx0 (f )) = Dx0 (f ) from Rn to 2 L (Rn . ∂2f ∂xn ∂x1 (x) ∂2f (x) ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂2f (x) ∂x2 ∂x2 . as guaranteed by the following theorem. Then the matrix 2 of Dx (f ) : Rn × Rn → R with respect to the standard basis is given by the Hessian matrix: ¾ Hx f = ∂2f (x) ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂2f (x) ∂x2 ∂x1 . . etc. that is. x2 ) is well deﬁned. we notice that the Hessian is symmetric. . ∂x∂y ∂y∂x 2 215 Theorem Let A ⊆ Rn be an open set. Rm ). and linear in each variable x1 and x2 . This means that we have a function T : A → → L (Rn . when f maps into R. are equal. z) = xy 2 z 3 . Dx0 (f )(x1 ))(x2 ) ∈ R .. Then ¾ 0 2yz 3 3y z 2 2 2yz 3 2xz 3 6xyz 2 3y 2 z 2 6xyz 2 6xy 2 z ¿ H(x. Hence. and f : A → R be twice differentiable on A.

R2 → R (x. since ∆1 = 2 > 0 and ∆2 = det 1 4 − . Thus x0 = − ≤ f (x.− 3 3 2 1 1 2 = 3 > 0. y) → x2 + xy + y 2 + 2x + 3y which is positive deﬁnite. f (x0 ) ≥ f (x). y = − . 1 4 which yields x = − . Solution: We have ( f )(x. A point t is called a critical point if f is differentiable at t and Dt (f ) = 0. y) = x2 + xy + y 2 + 2x + 3y.− 3 3 is a relative minimum and we have 7 3 1 4 = f − .y) f = 2 1 1 2 . If Hx0 f is indeﬁnite. 219 Example Find the extrema of f : R3 (x. A point is called an extreme point if it is either a local minimum or local maximum. we say that f (x0 ) is a local maximum of f . then Dx0 (f ) = 0. The basic theorems resemble those of one-variable calculus. and f : A → R be differentiable on A. that is. 217 Theorem Let A ⊆ Rn be an open set. z) → → R x2 + y 2 + 3z 2 − xy + 2xz + yz . y. if f is twice-differentiable with continuous second derivative and x0 is a critical point such that Hx0 f is negative deﬁnite. 218 Example Find the critical points of f : and investigate their nature. Free to photocopy and distribute 99 . Now. if there is some open ball Bx1 (r) on which ∀x ∈ Bx0 (r ). 2x + y + 2 x + 2y + 3 . If Hx0 f is semi-deﬁnite (positive or negative). A critical point which is neither a maxima nor a minima is called a saddle point. x0 is a critical point. and f : A → R. Moreover. we make some analogous deﬁnitions.Chapter 2 We are now ready to study extrema in several variables. then f has a local minimum at x0 . we say that f (x1 ) is a local maximum of f . 3 3 H(x. Similarly. x + 2y + 3 = 0. the test is inconclusive. 216 Deﬁnition Let A ⊆ Rn be an open set. First. then f has a saddle point. If there is some open ball Bx0 (r) on which ∀x ∈ Bx0 (r). If x0 is an extreme point. f (x1 ) ≤ f (x). then f has a local maximum at x0 . y) = and so to ﬁnd the critical points we solve 2x + y + 2 = 0. If Hx0 f is positive deﬁnite.

y) = =⇒ ∆1 = 6x. 6x a Hf (x. 0) and 0 = f (0. 220 Example Let f (x. If a = 0. whence . y) = 3x2 + ay −3y + ax 2 = 0 0 =⇒ 3x2 = −ay. ∆2 = −a2 . ¾ 2 2 Hr f = −1 −1 2 1 2 6 ¿ 1 . y. which is positive deﬁnite. 0. y) = x3 − y 3 + axy. − . z) = x2 + y 2 + 3z 2 − xy + 2xz + yz. so again (0.Extrema Solution: We have ( f )(x.− is a critical point. 0. and ∆3 = 2 2 det −1 −1 2 1 2 6 ¿ 1 = 4 > 0. 3 2 a 3 a If y = 0 then x = 0. Solution: We have ( f )(x. 0) ≤ f (x. y. 0) is a critical point. 3 3 a a ∆2 = 3a2 . 0). since ∆1 = 2 > 0. ∆2 = det ¾ 2 −1 −1 2 = 3 > 0. 3 3 Homework Free to photocopy and distribute 100 . 0) is a critical point. If a = 0 then 3 3 y2 a 2 = −ay =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ 27y 4 = −a3 y y(27y 3 + a3 ) = 0 y(3y + a)(9y 2 − 3ay + a2 ) = 0 a y = 0 or y = − . If y = − then x = · − 3 a 3 a a .− will be a local minimum if a > 0 and a local maximum if a < 0. At . a −6y = a 3 so a a At (0. ∆1 = 0. Now. ∆2 = −36xy − a2 . z) = ¾ ¿ 2x − y + 2z 6z + 2x + y 2y − x + z . Thus f has a relative minimum at (0. ∆1 = 2a. 3y 2 = ax. Determine the nature of the critical points of f . 3 3 Now. then x = y = 0 and so (0. If a = 0 then there is a saddle point. with a ∈ R a parameter. which vanishes when x = y = z = 0.

3 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. We solve f for x. y) = x4 + 4xy − 2y 2 .8 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. 101 x y =λ g x y . then ∃λ ∈ R such that f (x0 ) = λ g(x0 ).8.13 Determine the nature of the critical points of g(x. y. z) = 4x2 z − 2xy − 4x2 − z 2 + y. and assume g(x0 ) = 0.8.12 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x.Chapter 2 Problem 2. Problem 2. y) = x4 + y 4 − 2x2 + 4xy − 2y 2 . y) = x4 + y 4 − 2(x − y)2 . y. 2. Problem 2.2 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. Prove that (0.14 Let f (x. y) = (x − 2)2 + 2y 2 . for −3 ≤ x ≤ 3. Problem 2.8. λ. y.8. 221 Theorem Let A ⊆ Rn and let f : A → R.8.8. y) = x2 − y 2 given that x2 + y 2 = 1. Let g(x0 ) = c0 and let S = g −1 (c0 ) be the level set for g with value c0 . Problem 2.1 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. y. where g is a continuously differentiable function deﬁned over all real numbers and g(0) = 0. Problem 2. y) = (x − 2)2 − 2y 2 . y.10 Find the extrema of f (x.6 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x.5 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. z) = 4xyz − x4 − y 4 − z 4 . Problem 2. f (x.7 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. y. y) = x2 + y 2 − 1. y) = (x − y)2 + √ Ô 144 − 16x2 − 4 − y2 3 2 .8. Problem 2.8.15 Find the minimum of F (x. z) = xyz(4 − x − y − z). Problem 2. it does not say anything concerning the nature of the critical points found.8. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + xyz. we have the following. g : A → R be functions whose respective derivatives are continuous. If the restriction of f to S has an extreme point at x0 . Problem 2. x 2 +y Problem 2.8. Problem 2.8.11 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. Problem 2.8. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 − xy + x − 2z. y) = y 2 −x g(t)dt.4 Determine the nature of the critical points of f (x. Problem 2.  The above theorem only locates extrema. For such cases.8. y. 222 Example Optimise f : R2 → R.9 Find the extrema of f (x.9 Lagrange Multipliers In some situations we wish to optimise a function given a set of constraints.8. y. −2 ≤ y ≤ 2. This requires 2x −2y Free to photocopy and distribute = 2xλ 2yλ . 0) is a saddle point for f . g (0) = 0. y) = y 2 − 2x2 y + 4x3 + 20x2 . z) = x2 y + y 2 z + 2x − z. z) = xyze−x 2 −y 2 −z 2 . Problem 2.8. Solution: Let g(x.

and f (x.z = √ . Upon division we ﬁnd x2 + 4y 2 = 4 =⇒ The maximum is clearly then 16 4 √ 73 √ and the minimum is − 73. Since 2 + 2 + 2 = 1. y. y) = 1 − y 2 − y 2 = 1 − 2y 2 ≤ 1. c are positive. Solution: Putting g(x. Thus the maximum is when a b c x = √ . z) = x y z x2 y2 z2 + + on the ellipsoid 2 + 2 + 2 = 1. z are negative. y. y. 0) and (0. we deduce 2λ 2λ 2λ a b c √ 3 3 = 1 or λ = ± . 3 3 3 and √ 3 f (x. y) = x2 − (1 − x2 ) = 2x2 − 1 ≥ −1. z = −√ . f will have a maximum when all x. y. y. Hence 3 16 y 2 + 4y 2 = 4 =⇒ y = ± √ . x = ±1. subject to the constraint x2 + 4y 2 = 4. z) ⇐⇒ = λ 2y/b2 .y = √ . a b c a b c Solution: We use Lagrange multipliers.y = . If x = 0 then y = ±1 and λ = −1. z) = ¾ x2 a2 + ¾ y2 b2 + z2 c2 ¿ − 1. y) = 4x+3y. Determine the maximum and minimum values of f (x. 3 3 3 102 and the minimum is when Free to photocopy and distribute . 256 = . Thus (±1. y) = λ g(x. y) = x2 + 4y 2 − 4 we have f (x. y. y) =⇒ 4 3 =λ 2x 8y . z) ≤ √ = 3 3 a b c x = −√ . Thus the potential critical points are (±1. 3 +3 √ 73 = √ 73. Then 1/a 1/b 1/c ¿ 2x/a2 2z/c2 f (x.Lagrange Multipliers From 2x = 2xλ we get either x = 0 or λ = 1. Hence x = . Clearly then λ = 0. If λ = 1. Since a. Put g(x. y = −√ . using Lagrange multipliers. c > 0. x y 16 3 Thus 4 = 2λx. ±1). x = ± √ 9 73 73. y. 3 = 8λy. If x2 + y 2 = 1 then f (x. b > 0. b. 224 Example Let a > 0. z are 4λ2 2 positive and a minimum when all x. 223 Example Find the maximum and the minimum points of f (x. a b c x2 y2 z2 It follows that λ = 0.z = . then y = 0. 0) are maximum points and (0. z) = λ g(x. ±1) are minimum points.

a b c Solution: Let 2x. then a x= √ . z) ⇐⇒ = λ 2y/b2 =⇒ 4yz = λ x a2 . has ﬁxed surface area of S square units. That is. a b c 225 Example Let a > 0. b > 0. the second by y. 3 Aliter: Using the CBS Inequality. y. 2z.1 A closed box (with six outer faces). ¬ ¬ ¬x ¬ y z ¬ ·1+ · 1 + · 1¬ ≤ ¬a ¬ b c x2 a2 + y2 b2 + z2 c2 1/2 12 + 12 + 12 1/2 √ √ √ x y z = (1) 3 =⇒ − 3 ≤ + + ≤ 3.9.9. . 3 =λ =λ =λ Aliter: Using the AM-GM Inequality. Find its maximum volume using Lagrange multipliers. z) ≥ − √ = − 3. 2y. y. which minimises the volume. 4xz = λ y b2 . Free to photocopy and distribute 103 . Problem 2. a b c ¾ 8yz 8xz ¿ ¾ 2x/a2 2z/c 2 ¿ f (x. =⇒ 12xyz = λ b2 c λ x2 y2 z2 x2 a2 + y2 b2 + z2 c2 = λ. c > 0. Using Lagrange multipliers. you must maximise abc.2 Consider the problem of ﬁnding the closest point P on the plane Π : ax + by + cz = d. 4xyz = λ 2 y2 z2 . Determine the maximum volume of the parallelepiped with sides y2 z2 x2 parallel to the axes that can be enclosed inside the ellipsoid 2 + 2 + 2 = 1. 8xy Multiplying the ﬁrst inequality by x. We must maximise f (x. If λ = 0. 3 and the maximum value is b y= √ .Chapter 2 and √ 3 f (x. be the dimensions of the box. the third by z. x2 a2 y2 b2 z2 a2 1/3 x2 ≤ (abc) 2/3 a2 (x2 y 2 z 2 )1/3 = (abc)2/3 + y2 b2 3 + z2 8 c2 = 1 =⇒ 8xyz ≤ √ (abc). 4xy = λ z c2 . 3 abc 8xyz ≤ 8 √ . 3 3 c z= √ . then 8xyz = 0. z) = 2 + 2 + 2 − 1. 3 3 3 · · · Homework Problem 2. z) = y2 z2 x2 8xyz subject to the constraint g(x. y. 3 a2 b2 c2 If λ = 0. and adding. z) = λ g(x. 4xyz = λ 2 . 4xyz = λ Hence x2 a . y. subject to the constraint 2ab + 2bc + 2ca = S. y.

y) = ax + by subject to the constraint xp + y p = 1. z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 subject to the constraint (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 + (z − 3)2 = 4.12 Determine the extrema of f (x. y. y0 ) ∈ R2 such that p(x0 . 3. y. y) such that p(x. y. by minimising a suitable function f (x.9 Optimise f (x.9. y0 ) = c? x2 + y 2 = 1 Free to photocopy and distribute 104 . p > 1.7 Find the extrema of f (x.5 Find the maximum and the minimum values of f (x. Problem 2. y) = π cos2 x + cos2 y subject to the constraint x − y = . Do this by a geometric argument. y. z) = log x + log y + 3 log z on the portion of sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 5r 2 which lies on the ﬁrst octant. . y.15 Does there exist a polynomial in two variables with real coefﬁcients p(x. c Problem 2.9. y ≥ 0. z) = x − 2y + 2z subject to the constraint x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1. you will do this in three essentially different ways. y. y) > 0 for all x and y and that for all real numbers c > 0 there exists (x0 . and x + z = 1. Do this considering the unconstrained extrema of d − ax − by a suitable function h x.9. y are positive real numbers such that x4 + 81y 4 = 36 ﬁnd the maximum of x + 3y.9. Do this by means of Lagrange multipliers. z) = ax + by + cz − d. 1. z) subject to the constraint g(x.9.9.8 Find the axes of the ellipse 5x2 + 8xy + 5y 2 = 9.9. 4 Problem 2. Problem 2. 1.14 Find the points on the curve determined by the equations x2 + xy + y 2 − z 2 = 1. Maximise f (x.Lagrange Multipliers a. y. x + y ≤ 1. z) = 2x + 3y + z? Problem 2. Problem 2. In this problem. 2.4 If x. Problem 2. z) = x + y + z subject to x2 + y 2 = 2. there follows the inequality a+b+c 5 abc3 ≤ 27 . b be positive real constants. b.3 Given that x. y be strictly positive real numbers with x + y = 1. y. Problem 2.9. y. Problem 2.6 Let a > 0. Problem 2.9.10 Let x.9. arguing the the point P closest to P on Π is on the perpendicular passing through P and P .9.13 Determine the extrema of f (x.9. y) = x2 + y 2 subject to the constraint 5x2 + 6xy + 5y 2 = 8. 1). Maximise f (x.11 Let a. b and c. 5 Problem 2. what is the minimum value of 62 f (x. Problem 2. b > 0. c non-zero constants with a + b + c = d to the point P (1. Problem 2. z are positive real numbers such 1 that x2 y 3 z = . Demonstrate using this that for any positive real numbers a. y) = xa e−x y b e−y on the triangle in R2 bounded by the lines x ≥ 0.16 Maximise f (x. which are closest to the origin. What is the maximum value of √ x + xy? Problem 2.9.9.

xjk component of the signed k-volume of a k-parallelotope in Rn spanned by a1 . . . . . . Moreover. x n in n-dimensional space (used as the names of the axes). . ak ) = det ··· ··· ··· ··· aj1 k ¿ aj2 k . . . In order to smooth our discussion. jk } ⊆ {1. . . . .  linearity: d(a + b) = da + db. 227 Example Consider a= Then ¾ 1 0 −1 ¿ ∈ R3 . ak .  scalar homogeneity: if λ ∈ R. ajk 1 aj1 2 aj2 2 . . the wedge product ∧ of differential forms has the following properties  anti-commutativity: da ∧ db = −db ∧ da. dx(a) = det(1) = 1. ak ) is the xj1 xj2 . . a2 .1 Differential Forms We will now consider integration in several variables. ajk 2 dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxjk (a1 . . a2 . anj aj = ∈ Rn . .   associativity: (da ∧ db) ∧ dc = da ∧ (db ∧ dc). . . 1 ≤ j ≤ k is deﬁned and denoted by ¾ aj1 1 aj2 1 . . 226 Deﬁnition Consider n variables x1 . . . x2 . . . 1 Notice that associativity does not hold for the wedge product of vectors. then dλa = λda. we need to consider the concept of differential forms. . and let ¾ ¿ a1j a2j . dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxjk (a1 .3 Integration 3. . . 2. . . dy(a) = det(0) = 0. n} be a collection of k sub-indices. let {j1 . ajk k In other words.  By virtue of being a determinant. 1 ≤ j ≤ k. a2 .1 Anti-commutativity yields da ∧ da = 0. . . . . 105 . . j2 . be k ≤ n vectors in Rn . . An elementary k-differential form (k > 1) acting on the vectors aj . .

are the (signed) 1-volumes (that is. 228 Example In R3 we have dx ∧ dy ∧ dx = 0. x2 .  230 Deﬁnition A 0-differential form in Rn is simply a differentiable function in Rn . 106 Free to photocopy and distribute . is ω1 ∧ ω2 = (2x2 + 2y 2 )dx ∧ dy. ... .. 236 Example The product of the 1-form ﬁelds in R3 ω1 = ydx + xdy.jk dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjk . we will simplify the summands and express the other differential forms in terms of the one differential form whose indices appear in increasing order. . 237 Deﬁnition Let f (x1 . w) = x + y 2 + z 3 + w4 is a 0-form in R4 . z. ω2 = −2xdx + 2ydy. 229 Example In R3 we have dx ∧ dz + 5dz ∧ dx + 4dx ∧ dy − dy ∧ dx + 12dx ∧ dx = −4dx ∧ dz + 5dx ∧ dy. the length) of the projections of a onto the coordinate axes. The exterior derivative df of f is n df = i=1 ∂f ∂xi dxi . 234 Example An example of a 2-form ﬁeld in R3 is ω = x2 dx ∧ dy + y 2 dy ∧ dz + dz ∧ dx. . 232 Example g(x.. where the aj1 j2 . y. 233 Example An example of a 1-form ﬁeld in R3 is ω = xdx + y 2 dy + xyz 3 dz. We shew now how to multiply differential forms. since we have a repeated variable.jk are differentiable functions in Rn .Differential Forms dz(a) = det(−1) = −1. In order to avoid redundancy we will make the convention that if a sum of two or more terms have the same differential form up to permutation of the variables. xn ) be a 0-form in Rn . 231 Deﬁnition A k-differential form ﬁeld in Rn is an expression of the form ω= 1≤j1 ≤j2 ≤···≤jk ≤n aj1 j2 . 235 Example An example of a 3-form ﬁeld in R3 is ω = (x + y + z)dx ∧ dy ∧ dz.

x2 . 238 Example If in R2 . then d(x3 y 4 ) = 3x2 y 4 dx + 4x3 y 3 dy. . . . (y + z)2 (x + y + z)2 (y + +y+ z(y + z) − zx z)2 (x z)2 − y(y + z) dx ∧ dy ∧ dz z y+z . 241 Example Consider the transformation of coordinates xyz into uvw coordinates given by u = x + y + z.2 Zero-Manifolds 242 Deﬁnition A 0-dimensional oriented manifold of Rn is simply a point x ∈ Rn . whence dx ∧ dy = (u − v)du ∧ dv. Then dx = du + dv. 2 2 (x + y + z) (x + y + z) (x + y + z)2 Multiplication gives du ∧ dv ∧ dw = (y + z)2 (x + y + z)2 xy + − 2 (x + y + z)2 2 (x + y + z)2 (y + z) (y + z) z 2 − y 2 − zx − xy dx ∧ dy ∧ dz. y = uv. 107 Free to photocopy and distribute . . y z dy + dz. . x2 . = 3. the exterior derivative dω of ω is the (k + 1)-form n ω = f (x1 . 243 Deﬁnition Let M = +{b} ∪ −{a} be an oriented 0-manifold. ω = x3 y 4 . dy = vdu + udv. w= y+z x+y+z . ω = x2 ydx + x3 y 4 dy then dω = = = = d(x2 ydx + x3 y 4 dy) (2xydx + x2 dy) ∧ dx + (3x2 y 4 dx + 4x3 y 3 dy) ∧ dy (3x2 y 4 − x2 )dx ∧ dy x2 dy ∧ dx + 3x2 y 4 dx ∧ dy 240 Example Consider the change of variables x = u + v. xn ) ∧ dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxjk . . xn )dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · ∧ dxjk dω = df (x1 . v = Then du = dx + dy + dz. Then M ω = ω(b) − ω(a). A general oriented 0-manifold is a union of oriented points. 239 Example If in R2 . . with a choice of the + or − sign. if is a k-form in R .Chapter 3 Furthermore. . dv = − 2 (y + z) (y + z)2 y+z x x dw = − dx + dy + dz. and let ω be a 0-form.

The ﬁrst one means that the point (1. 1) to (2. 2. whence ω Γ 2 = å −1 (3t3 + 2t2 )dt 3 = = 2 . Solution: We parametrise the curve as x = t. −{(1. 0) = (−1. with a choice of a + orientation if the curve traverses in the direction of increasing t. say. 0). +x 244 Example Let M = −{(1. 4 What would happen if we had given the curve above a different parametrisation? First observe that the curve travels from (−1. Then M ω = −ω((1.  The curve −Γ has opposite orientation to Γ and −Γ ω=− ω. x ∈ [−1. or with a choice of a − sign if the curve traverses in the direction of decreasing t. 0. t ∈ [0. r Γ We now turn to the problem of integrating 1-forms. Then √ √ √ √ √ xydx + (x + y)dy = ( t − 1)3 d( t − 1) + (( t − 1) + ( t − 1)2 )d( t − 1)2 √ √ √ = (3( t − 1)3 + 2( t − 1)2 )d( t − 1) √ √ 1 = √ (3( t − 1)3 + 2( t − 1)2 )dt.3 One-Manifolds 245 Deﬁnition A 1-dimensional oriented manifold of Rn is simply an oriented smooth curve Γ ∈ Rn . 0)} with −(1. 3.One-Manifolds  −x has opposite orientation to +x and −x ω=− ω. A general oriented 1-manifold is a union of oriented curves. 2 t 2 Do not confuse. y = t2 . 0)) + ω(1. the classical way of writing this is − If f : R → R and if d r dy → − − f • d→ . 3) = −(1) + (14) − (−4) = 17. 3 69 t + 3 4 è2 t 4 −1 Free to photocopy and distribute 108 . −2. 2. the second means that (−1. 0. 2] oriented in the positive direction. 0) is given negative orientation. 3) − ω(0. and let ω = x + 2y + z 2 . 0. 0)}2 be an oriented 0-manifold. Then xydx + (x + y)dy = t3 dt + (t + t2 )dt2 = (3t3 + 2t2 )dt. 0. 0. 0) is the additive inverse of (1. y = ( t − 1)2 . 0). 0. Γ æ é → − 2 2 → = dx . 246 Example Calculate xydx + (x + y)dy Γ where Γ is the parabola y = x2 . 3)} ∪ −{(0. 0. 0)} ∪ +{(1. These conditions are met on √ with the parametrisation x = t − 1. 0. 0. 9]. 4) √ the parabola y = x2 .

It turns out that if two different parametrisations of the same curve have the same orientation. B = (−1. dy = 0. dy = 0.<1. Solution: This line has equation y = x.Chapter 3 whence ω Γ √ √ 1 √ (3( t − 1)3 + 2( t − 1)2 )dt 2 æ0 2 t 3/2 é9 √ 3t 7t 5t = − + − t 4 3 2 0 69 = . To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. we only need to worry about ﬁnding a suitable parametrisation. on CD. 0) to (1.  247 Example Calculate the line integral y sin xdx + x cos ydy. and D = (1. 1) in the positive direction.tˆ2>.. y = 1. (sin t − cos t)dt To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. 1 0 = = upon integrating by parts.0>. −1) in the direction ABCDA. −1). > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > LineInt( VectorField( <x*y. on BC. 248 Example Calculate the path integral Γ x+y x−y dy + 2 dx 2 + y2 x x + y2 around the closed square Γ = ABCD with A = (1. Free to photocopy and distribute 109 . > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > LineInt( VectorField( <y*sin(x). so we choose the parametrisation x = y = t.x+y> ). dx = 0. then their integrals are equal. 1). The integral is thus ω Γ = = AB −1 1 ω+ x2 + 1 1 x2 + 1 x−1 BC ω+ dx + dx CD −1 1 ω+ y2 + 1 y−1 DA ω 1 −1 dy + x+1 x2 + 1 1 dx + −1 y+1 y2 + 1 dy 1 = 4 −1 = 4 arctan x|1 −1 = 2π. Line(<0. and on DA. t=-1. dx = 0. Γ where Γ is the line segment from (0. x = 1. The integral is thus 1 y sin xdx + x cos ydy Γ = 0 (t sin t + t cos t)dt [t(sin x − cos t)]1 − 0 2 sin 1 − 1.1>)). Path( <t. 1). C = (−1. y = −1.x*cos(y)> ).2)). 4 9 = as before. Solution: On AB. x = −1. Hence.

> with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > LineInt( VectorField( <(x+y)/(xˆ2+yˆ2). y = 3 sin t. √ 2 x||dx|| = x (dx)2 + (dy)2 = x( 1 + (−4) )dx = x 17dx. and LBC : y = −4x + 6. t ∈ [0.  symbol When the integral is along a closed path.-1>. Solution: The lines passing through the given points have equations LAB : y = √ x 10dx 3 −x − 4 3 . We have Á 2π ω Γ = 0 2π ((4 cos2 t)(3 cos t) + (9 sin t)(−2 sin t))dt (12 cos3 t − 18 sin3 t)dt = 0 = 0. 2).<-1. 2π]. Solution: Parametrise the ellipse as x = 2 cos t.One-Manifolds To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. Observe that when traversing this closed curve. The positive direction of integration is that sense that when traversing the Γ Γ path. −1) to B : (2.(x-y)/(xˆ2+yˆ2)> ). 250 Deﬁnition Let Γ be a smooth curve.1>)). it is customary to use the Á rather than . 251 Example Find Γ x||dx|| where Γ is the triangle starting at A : (−1. −2). > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > LineInt( VectorField( <yˆ2.1>. On LAB x||dx|| = x and on LBC (dx)2 + (dy)2 =x 1+ − 1 3 2 dx = . 110 Free to photocopy and distribute . like in the preceding example. > LineSegments(<1. the area of the ellipse is on the left hand side of the path.xˆ2> ). the area enclosed by the curve is to the left of the curve.Ellipse(9*xˆ2 + 4*yˆ2 -36)).1>.<1.<1. The integral f (x)||dx|| Γ is called the path integral of f along Γ. Γ where Γ is the ellipse 9x2 + 4y 2 = 36 traversed once in the positive sense. so this parametrisation traverses the curve in the positive sense. To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below.<-1. and ending in C : (1. 249 Example Calculate the path integral Á x2 dy + y 2 dx.-1>.

3. 4 sin π . 0) goes to (0. <2. line path that starts at (−1. [x.-1>.2 and 3. traversed in the positive direction. 1) and ends at (1.3. 3 2 1 -3 -2 -1 -1 1 2 3 -2 -3 Figure 3.-2>. 5 5 Free to photocopy and distribute 111 .1 Consider C A xdx +ydy and C xy||dx||. starting at ¡ O(0. B Homework Problem 3.3. 2 2 To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. 0).Chapter 3 Hence x||dx|| Γ = LAB 2 x||dx|| + x||dx|| = = LBC √ 1 √ x 10dx x 17dx + 3√ −1 2 √ 10 3 17 − .2: Problems 3.3. Problem 3. O 1.4 Find Γ zdx + xdy + ydz where Γ is the intersection of the sphere x2 +y 2 +z 2 = 1 and the plane x + y = 1. Evaluate C xdx + ydy where C is the straight Figure 3. Calculate also C xy||dx|| using this parametrisation. by parametrising this path. Evaluate shewn in ﬁgure 3.3.2> ) ). 0) goes to (0.<1. C Á Problem 3. Calculate also xy||dx|| using this parametrisation.2.1: Example 251. by parametrising this path.3 Find xdx + ydy where C is the semicircle C x||dx|| where Γ is the path Γ 2. 1) and ends at (1. 0). 4 sin π and continuing on 6   6 ¡ an arc of a circle to B 4 cos π . > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > PathInt( x.2 Find shewn in ﬁgure 3. xdx + ydy where Γ is the path Γ Problem 3.3.3.y]=LineSegments( <-1. that starts at (−1.2. 0) going on a   straight line to A 4 cos π .

. But d da ∧ dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp = dda ∧ dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp +da ∧ d dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp = da ∧ d dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp . . where the aj1 j2 . Proof: We will prove this by induction on p. Free to photocopy and distribute 112 . p > 0.jp dxi ∂xi ∧ dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp .. But an independent induction argument proves that d dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp = 0. we have dω = 1≤j1 ≤j2 ≤···≤jp ≤n daj1 j2 . . . it is enough to prove that for each summand d da ∧ dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp = 0. completing the proof. For p = 0 if ω = f (x1 .jp are continuous differentiable functions in Rn . since dda = 0 from the case p = 0. Consider now an arbitrary p-form.jp ∧ dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp n i=1 = 1≤j1 ≤j2 ≤···≤jp ≤n ∂aj1 j2 .. u 253 Deﬁnition A differential form ω is said to be exact if there is a continuously differentiable function F such that dF = ω.jp dxj1 ∧ dxj2 ∧ · · · dxjp .. Since such a form can be written as ω= 1≤j1 ≤j2 ≤···≤jp ≤n aj1 j2 .. ..Closed and Exact Forms 3.4 Closed and Exact Forms ´ 252 Lemma (Poincare Lemma) If ω is a p-differential form of continuously differentiable functions in Rn then d(dω) = 0. x2 . since ω is continuously differentiable and so the mixed partial derivatives are equal.. xn ) then dω = k=1 n ∂f ∂xk dxk and d(dω) = n d k=1 n ∂f ∂xk n j=1 ∧ dxk ∧ dxk dxj ∧ dxk = k=1 n ∂2f ∧ dxj ∂xj ∂xk ∂2f ∂xj ∂xk − = 1≤j≤k≤n ∂2f ∂xk ∂xj = 0..

or the second expression. By the Chain Rule dF = This demands that ∂F ∂x = ∂F ∂x dx + ∂F ∂y dy. dω = ddF = 0.Chapter 3 254 Example The differential form xdx + ydy is exact. 257 Example Determine whether the differential form ω= is exact. if ´ dω = 0 on a star-shaped domain then ω is exact. x x2 + y 2 dx + y x2 + y 2 1 2 dy is exact. ∂F ∂y We have a choice here of integrating either the ﬁrst. 256 Example The differential form 1 2 (x2 + y 2 ) . By the Poincare Lemma Theorem 252. 2x(1 − ey ) (1 + x2 )2 dx + ey 1 + x2 dy 2x(1 − ey ) (1 + x2 )2 ey 1 + x2 . that is. since ydx + xdy = d (xy) . we ﬁnd F (x. To ﬁnd it. y) = ey + φ(x). we differentiate the obtained expression for F with respect to x and ﬁnd ∂F 2xey =− + φ (x). Since integrating the second expression (with respect to y) is easier. since x2 x + y2 dx + y x2 + y2 dy = d loge (x2 + y 2 ) . = . 1 + x2 where φ(x) is a function depending only on x. Solution: Assume there is a function F such that dF = ω.  Let ω = dF be an exact form. ∂x (1 + x2 )2 Free to photocopy and distribute 113 . since xdx + ydy = d 255 Example The differential form ydx + xdy is exact. A result of ´ Poincare says that for certain domains (called star-shaped domains) the converse is also true.

∂x ∂F = 2xyz 3 =⇒ F = xy 2 z 3 + b(x. 258 Example Is there a continuously differentiable function such that dF = ω = y 2 z 3 dx + 2xyz 3 dy + 3xy 2 z 2 dz ? Solution: We have dω = (2yz 3 dy + 3y 2 z 2 dz) ∧ dx +(2yz 3 dx + 2xz 3 dy + 6xyz 2 dz) ∧ dy = 0. z). 2). Á In particular. We have the following equivalent of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. z) = xy 2 z 3 . y) = 2x .Closed and Exact Forms ∂F ∂x Comparing this with our ﬁrst expression for . 259 Theorem Let U ⊆ Rn be an open set. ∂y ∂F = 3xy 2 z 2 =⇒ F = xy 2 z 3 + c(x. 0). if Γ is a simple closed path. +(3y 2 z 2 dx + 6xyz 2 dy + 6xy 2 zdz) ∧ dz so this form is exact in a star-shaped domain. y. Γ 260 Example Evaluate the integral Á Γ 2x x2 + y 2 dx + 2y x2 + y 2 dy where Γ is the closed polygon with vertices at A = (0. z). traversed in the order ABCDEA. 1 + x2 + c. E = (1. y). C = (7. D = (3. We then take F (x. ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂F = y 2 z 3 =⇒ F = xy 2 z 3 + a(y. B = (5. Then B ω= Γ A dF = F (B) − F (A). and Γ a path in U with starting point A and endpoint B. Free to photocopy and distribute 114 . we obtain F (x. 1). (1 + x2 )2 1 1 + x2 ey − 1 + c. So put dF = Then ∂F ∂F ∂F dx + dy + dz = y 2 z 3 dx + 2xyz 3 dy + 3xy 2 z 2 dz. Assume ω = dF is an exact form. 2). we ﬁnd φ (x) = that is φ(x) = − where c is a constant. ∂z Comparing these three expressions for F . then ω = 0. 0).

D We will often write f (x. dA D is the area of D. the integral is 0. and let f : A → R be continuous. 261 Example Calculate the path integral Á Γ (x2 − y)dx + (y 2 − x)dy. y)dx dy Free to photocopy and distribute 115 . Let D ⊆ R2 . 3.  In this section. the integral is 0.  The region −D has opposite orientation to D and −D ω=− ω.5 Two-Manifolds 262 Deﬁnition A 2-dimensional oriented manifold of R2 is simply an open set (region) D ∈ R2 . A general oriented 2-manifold is a union of open sets. y)dy dx = c a f (x. where Γ is a loop of x3 + y 3 − 2xy = 0 traversed once in the positive sense. we need the following. Given a function f : D → R. In particular. the form is exact. By virtue of Theorem 259. the integral f dA D is the sum of all the values of f restricted to D. unless otherwise noticed. d]. and since this is a closed simple path. Then b d d b f dA = D a c f (x. and so the form is exact in a start-shaped domain. y)dA D where dA denotes the area element. where the + orientation is counter-clockwise and the − orientation is clockwise. This corresponds to using the area form dxdy. 263 Theorem (Fubini’s Theorem) Let D = [a.Chapter 3 Solution: d x2 Observe that 2x + y2 dx + 2y x2 + y2 dy =− 4xy (x2 + y 2 )2 dy ∧ dx − 4xy (x2 + y 2 )2 dx ∧ dy = 0. we will choose the positive orientation for the regions considered. In order to evaluate double integrals. Solution: Since ∂ ∂y (x2 − y) = −1 = ∂ ∂x (y 2 − x). b] × [c.

4.y]=Region(0. we decompose so that. B : (2. > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > int(x*y. −1)..3] 0 1 2 xydy dx xy 2 2 9x 2 1 0 3 = 0 1 dx 2 = 0 − 2x dx = = 5x2 4 . C : (1. [x. 4 Also. 264 Example 1 3 xydA = [0. 12 3 2 3 To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below.3] xdx 1 5 4 2 0 ydy 2 = = 5 2 To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below.. 265 Example We have 4 3 1 4 1 0 (x + 2y)(2x + y) dxdy 0 = 3 4 (2x2 + 5xy + 2y 2 ) dxdy + 5 2 y + 2y 2 dy = = 409 . [x. 266 Example Find D xy dxdy in the triangle with vertices A : (−1.1.3)).2.0.. this integral is “factorable into x and y pieces” meaning that 1 3 xydA = [0. > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > int((x + 2*y)*(2*x + y). 5 4 Notice that if we had integrated ﬁrst with respect to x we would have obtained the same result: 3 2 1 3 xydx dy 0 = 2 3 x2 y 2 y 2 3 2 1 dy 0 = 2 dx = = y2 4 5 . one variable is kept constant.y]=Region(3. −2).1)). 2)..Two-Manifolds Fubini’s Theorem allows us to convert the double integral into iterated (single) integrals.1]×[2. In the cases when the domain of integration is not a rectangle. 116 Free to photocopy and distribute .1]×[2.

Find xy dxdy.y]=Triangle(<-1. 4). If we integrate 2 ﬁrst with respect to y. D : (7. −5/3). 2 2 : y = 2x − 9.3: Example 266. The right point of the dashed line is (7/4. C : (9.<2.Chapter 3 −x − 4 .-2>. LCA : y = . because there are two left-most lines which the left value of x might be. If we integrate ﬁrst with respect to x.4.5: Example 267. we must divide the region as in ﬁgure 3. 267 Example Consider the region inside the parallelogram P with vertices at A : (6. P Solution: The lines joining the points have equations LAB : y = x 2 . > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > int(x*y. because there are two upper lines which the upper value of y might be.5. Integration order dxdy. Now. 3 3x + 1 LBC : y = −4x + 6. The integral is thus 1 (3x+1)/2 2 Solution: The lines passing through the given points have equations LAB : y = x −1 (−x−4)/3 y dy dx + 1 x −4x+6 (−x−4)/3 y dy dx = − 11 8 .4: Example 266.<1.2>). we draw the region carefully. B : (8. Integration order dydx. The lower point of the dashed line is (1. 3). LBC : y = 2x − 12. 5). 7 3 3 6 5 4 1 1 3 2 -3 -2 -1 -1 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 1 2 2 -2 -2 -3 -3 Figure 3. 6). Figure 3. The integral is thus −1 −2 (6−y)/4 2 (6−y)/4 y −4−3y x dx dy + −1 y (2y−1)/3 x dx dy = − 11 8 . we must divide the region as in ﬁgure 3. To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. LCD : y = LDA Free to photocopy and distribute x 3 + . [x.3.-1>. −1). as in ﬁgure 3. Figure 3. 117 .

y]=Triangle(<6.4>.<8.3>.4>. [x.6: Example 269. Notice that we have split the parallelogram into two triangles.<7. 268 Example Find D y x2 +1 dxdy where D = {(x. y) ∈ R2 |x ≥ 0.<7. 269 Example Find 4 0 √ y y/2 ey/x dx dy.y]=Triangle(<8. 2 2x x2 x2 ≤ y ≤ 2x. x2 + y 2 ≤ 1}.5>)) > + int(x*y. Solution: −f (x. We then have 4 0 ey/x dx dy = 0 2 ey/x dy dx ¬ y/2 = 0 2 xey/x ¬2x dx x2 (xe2 − xex ) dx = 0 = = 2e2 − (2e2 − e2 + 1) e2 − 1 Free to photocopy and distribute 118 . y 2 √ y ≤x≤ √ y =⇒ 0 ≤ x ≤ 2. 1 1 0 0 Figure 3. 0 1 0 1 2 Figure 3. Solution: We have 0 ≤ y ≤ 4. y).8: Example 271.<9. −y) = 2 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 3. −y) ∈ D.Two-Manifolds The integral is thus 4 3 2y 5 (y+12)/2 6 (y+12)/2 xy dxdy + (y+9)/2 4 (y+9)/2 xy dxdy + 5 2y−3 xy dxdy = 409 4 . To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. Observe that if (x. [x.5>)). Also. > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > int(x*y. y) ∈ D then (x. The integral is 0.7: Example 270.6>. f (x.

3 √ √ ( 1 − x + x − 1)dx 271 Example Evaluate R x2 + y 2 dA.x≥0. x2 + y 2 dA R = 1≤k≤3 Rk x2 + y 2 dA 1dA + 1≤x2 +y2 <2.y≥0 2≤x2 +y2 <3. 3}. y) ∈ R : x ≥ 0.3 Let S = {(x. Problem 3.y≥0 3dA. (2. 1 − x + 1 − y ≥ 1}.x≥0. k≤x2 +y2 <k+1.x≥0.5. Problem 3. 0). 1 ≤ x + y ≤ 4}. 1). 2. y) → √x2 + y 2 jumps every time x2 + y 2 is an integer. π]2 .5.4 Find xydxdy D Problem 3.5. y ≥ 0. and so. and (2. y 2 )dxdy. Thus we decompose R as the union of the Rk = {(x. 0). √ 2] × [0.x≥0. y) ∈ R2 : Solution: The area is given by 1 1−(1− (1− √ 1−x)2 Ô √ √ √ x + y ≥ 1.5. x ≥ y 2 }.5. Find S 2 2 2 D where D = [0. 1 1 x2 dA.6 Find 0 0 min(x2 . k ∈ {1. y) ∈ R2 : x ≥ 0.Chapter 3 270 Example Find the area of the region R = {(x. √ 2] . we have 0 ≤ x2 + y 2 ≤ ( 2)2 + ( 2)2 = 4.5 Find (x + y)(sin x)(sin y)dA Problem 3. y) ∈ R2 |y ≥ x2 .2 Let S be the interior and boundary of the triangle with vertices (0. dA = D 0 1 0 √ 2 x) dy dx = = 2 2 .1 Evaluate 3 x 1 dydx. Free to photocopy and distribute 119 . Now the integrals can be computed by realising that they are areas of quarter annuli. x 1 0 the iterated integral Problem 3. Homework Problem 3.y≥0 Hence x2 + y 2 dA = R π 4 (1 + 2 + 3) = 3π 2 . k ≤ x2 + y 2 < k + 1}. y ≥ 0. Solution: The function (x. kdA = k · 1 4 · π(k + 1 − k) = πk 4 . y) ∈ R. S where D = {(x. Find ydA.5. For √ (x.y≥0 = 2dA + 3≤x2 +y2 <4. where R is the rectangle [0.

10 Evaluate [0.9. 2].10 with O(0.5.9 Find 0 y 2e x2 dxdy shaped ﬁgure in ﬁgure 3.11.15 Evaluate ented) circular segment in ﬁgure 3.11 Find R xydA. [0. y) ∈ R2 : y ≥ − √ 3 x+4 .5.16 Evaluate 1 1 xdA where R is the ER Problem 3.12. 9 < x2 +y 2 < 16.8. y 2 )dA. y) ∈ R2 : x > 0. Free to photocopy and distribute 120 . Problem 3.18 Find Figure 3.5.5.5. y) ∈ R2 : x4 + y 4 + x2 − y 2 ≤ 1}. y) ∈ R |x ≥ 0.9: Problem 3. which formed by the the area between the circles x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = 4 in the ﬁrst quadrant. Problem 3. y) ∈ R : x + y ≤ 16} and (x.5.11. x + y ≤ 1}. Problem 3. Figure 3.10: Problem 3. 1). and B(4.5. Problem 3.2]2 Problem 3. 2 D = {(x.5. Problem 3.15. where R is the (unori- ented) OAB in ﬁgure 3.7 Find D xydxdy where Problem 3. B A Figure 3.14 Evaluate Problem 3. A(3. 1 < x2 −y 2 < 16}. y ≥ 0.5.16.19 Find loge (1 + x + y)dA D D 2x(x2 + y 2 )dA where where D = {(x.12: Problem 3.8 Evaluate R x + y dA.12 Find Problem 3.5. which is created by the intersection of regions {(x.1]2 min(x. Problem 3. A O Problem 3. 4).5. 1 2 x √ sin x πx dy 2y 4 2 √ dx + 2 sin x πx dy 2y dx.5. B Figure 3. where R is the R xdA where R is the (unori- rectangle [0 .5. y Problem 3.17 Evaluate 0 π /2 x π /2 cos y dydx.11: Problem 3. 3 2 2 2 xdA where R is the quarR ter annulus in ﬁgure 3. y > 0.5.5. 1] × [0 .5. 0).Two-Manifolds x + y 2 dA.5.13 Evaluate D = {(x.

|y| ≤ 1}.5.5.5.29 Let f. y ≥ 0. 2 x 2 .Chapter 3 Problem 3. 4 4 Problem 3. where D is the triangle with vertices at A(−1.a 2 y 2 ) dydx.23 Evaluate 2 R (f ◦ g)(x)dx ≤ f (x)dx + 0 0 g(x)dx. 1] → [0.5. D = {(x.30 Compute S gion between the circles x + y 2 = 4 and x2 + y 2 = 2y. 1 1 √ x Problem 3. +∞] be a decreasing function. g : [0.31 Evaluate a 0 0 b emax(b where a and b are positive. where Figure 3. Problem 3. Problem 3. −4). Free to photocopy and distribute 121 . Problem 3.5. Problem 3. as in ﬁgure 3. and C(1.5. 1] be continuous.13. xdA. B(2.32 Find D √ xy dA. Problem 3. It is known k=1 that at least one side of each of the rectangles Rk is an integer. where R is the reProblem 3. Prove that 1 0 1 1 where D = {(x.5.5.5. y ≥ 0. as shewn in ﬁgure 3. Problem 3.28 Find (xy(x + y))dA D where D = {(x. y) ∈ R2 |x ≥ 0.21 Find xydA D 0 1 f 2 (x)dx ≤ 0 1 .13: Problem 3.25 Find |x − y|dA D where D = {(x.22 Find loge (1 + x2 + y)dA D Problem 3. Problem 3. y) ∈ R2 : |x| ≤ 1.14: Problem 3. xf 2 (x)dx Problem 3. y) ∈ R2 : x ≥ 0. Prove that 1 1 Figure 3. −1). (xy + y 2 )dA where S = {(x.33 A rectangle R on the plane is the disjoint union R = ∪N Rk of rectangles Rk .5.23. y) ∈ R2 : y ≥ 0. y ≥ 0.5. x + y ≤ 1}.5. Problem 3. with f increasing. (x + y)2 ≤ 2x}.5. 1] →]0.14.5. Shew that at least one side of R is an integer. f (x)dx xf (x)dx 0 0 where D = {(x. xy + y + x ≤ 1}.20 Find the area bounded by the ellipses y2 x2 x2 + = 1 and + y 2 = 1.5.5. y) ∈ R2 : x ≥ 0. y) ∈ R2 : |x|1/2 + |y|1/2 ≤ 1}. x2 + y ≤ 1}.27 Let f : [0.26 Find D (2x + 3y + 1) dA. 3).24 Evaluate 0 e x/y y dydx.20.

n > 0. dx2 dx Problem 3. Demonstrate that I (g(y) − f (x)) dxdy ≥ 0.5. .36 Let I be the rectangle [1. 1 1 y Problem 3. x−y 1 dydx = =− (x + y)3 2 1 0 0 1 x−y dxdy.48 Let a ∈ R. b 2 b b where D = {(x.Change of Variables Problem 3. n ∈ N.45 Find xdA D ··· 0 (x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ) dx1 dx2 . 1 + x4 a b b b 2 (f (x))2 dx a (g(x))2 dx − (f (x)g(x))dx a . g : [1. Deduce Cauchy’s Inequality for integrals.5. . | det g (u)| Free to photocopy and distribute 122 . 2] × [1.5. Problem 3.5.37 Find 1 0 0 xy dxdy. y ≥ 1. g be continuous functions in the interval [a.39 Evaluate 0 y y Ô det æ f (x) f (y) é2 g(x) g(y) dx dy 1 + x3 dxdy. x − y + 1 ≥ 0. Then demon- Problem 3.5. 272 Theorem Let (D. log x lim 0 ··· cos2 0 π (x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ) dx1 dx2 . .5.6 Change of Variables We now perform a multidimensional analogue of the change of variables theorem in one variable. Let f : [0. .5.34 Evaluate 1 0 0 1 1 Problem 3.42 Prove that +∞ 0 +∞ 2x 2 a (f (x)g(x))dx ≤ (f (x))2 dx a a (g(x))2 dx . y2 16 Problem 3. y) ∈ R2 |y ≥ 0. y) ∈ R |x ≥ 1. . 2] and let f.5. 1 1 where D = {(x. a > 0. x + 2y − 4 ≤ 0}. b]. Problem 3.5. ∆) ∈ (Rn )2 be open.5. Problem 3. Prove that 1 2 equals b a a b Problem 3. 1 n! a n Ô dxdy = log(1 + x x2 + y 2 y f (x)dx 0 . x + y ≤ 4}.35 Evaluate 1 0 0 1 1 Is this a contradiction to Fubini’s Theorem? Problem 3. 3. xe−y sin y 1 dydx = .38 Evaluate √ 4 4−y Ô 12x − x3 dxdy. bounded sets in Rn with volume and let g : ∆ → D be a 1 continuously differentiable bijective mapping such that det g (u) = 0. dxn 2n Problem 3.47 Let f. Prove that a 0 0 x1 x n−2 x n−1 0 ··· 0 (f (x1 )f (x2 ) · · · f (xn ))dxn dxn−1 . 2] → [1. g be continuous functions f.5. dxn . dxn . .5.5. Problem 3. 2] such that f (x) ≤ g(x). and both | det g (u)|. (x + y)3 Problem 3. .5. a] → R be continuous. .5.46 Evaluate 1 n→+∞ 1 0 1 strate that 0 x−1 dx = log 2.43 Prove that 1 0 y y2 equals √ 2).44 Prove that 1 0 0 1 ··· 0 (x1 x2 · · · xn )dx1 dx2 .40 Evaluate 0 √ xy dxdy. 0 0 2 2 Problem 3.41 Find 1 dA (x + y)4 D This is an integral analogue of Lagrange’s Identity.

giving du ∧ dv = −3dx ∧ dy. . Figure 3. ∆ One normally chooses changes of variables that map into rectangular regions. v = 2x + y =⇒ dv = 2dx + dy. f (x1 . . 273 Example Evaluate the integral 4 3 1 (x + 2y)(2x + y)dxdy. respectively. ∧ dun . 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 3. . uv-plane. . in the uv-plane (see ﬁgure 3. and (8. or that simplify the integrand. 4). . and (0. (7. 5). xn )dx1 ∧ dx2 ∧ . The form dx ∧ dy has opposite orientation to du ∧ dv so we use dv ∧ du = 3dx ∧ dy Free to photocopy and distribute 123 . (1. f ◦ g| det g (u)| is integrable on ∆ and ··· that is ··· = ··· D f = D ··· ∆ (f ◦ g)| det g (u)|. . The corners of the rectangle in the area of integration in the xy-plane are (0. (u. (traversed counter-clockwise) and they map into (6.16). 3). Put u = x + 2y =⇒ du = dx + 2dy. 3).16: Example 273. ∧ dxn f (g(u1 . . Let us start with a rather trivial example.15: Example 273. . Now. . . 4). (1. 4). xy-plane.Chapter 3 are bounded on ∆. u2 . un ))| det g (u)|du1 ∧ du2 ∧ . v) = 1 2 2 1 x y is a linear transformation. and hence it maps quadrilaterals into quadrilaterals. x2 . 0 Solution: Observe that we have already computed this integral in example 265. . (9. 6). . 3). For f : D → R bounded and integrable.

Change of Variables instead. v = 0. v = 0. AB is thus mapped into the line segment 0 ≤ u ≤ 1. Hence BC is mapped to the portion of − 1. Solution: First we ﬁnd du = 2xdx − 2ydy. CD = {(1 − x. On AB we have u = x. v = 2xy. as before. We now determine the region ∆ into which the square D = [0. 274 Example The integral [0. u ≤ 1 − with −1 ≤ u ≤ 1. v = 2(1 − x). Free to photocopy and distribute udu dv v 2 /4−1 124 . 0 ≤ v ≤ 2. 4 Finally. on DA. and so du ∧ dv = (4x2 + 4y 2 )dx ∧ dy.1]2 (x4 − y 4 ) ∆ 1 4(x2 + y 2 ) dudv 4 1 4 1 (x2 − y 2 )dudv ududv 1−v 2 /4 ∆ 2 0 4 = 0. 1) : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1}. This means that u = [0. parabolas u ≤ 4 4 We deduce that (x4 − y 4 )dA = = = = 1 ∆ On CD we have u = (1 − x)2 − 1. dv = 2ydx + 2xdy. v2 v2 4 . Since 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. 0 ≤ v ≤ 2. (x4 − y 4 )dA = 1 0 1 5 − y 4 dy = 0. 1]2 is mapped. we have u = −(1 − y)2 . v = 0. 0) : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1}. DA = {(0. v = 2y. The integral sought is 1 3 from example 267. We use the fact that boundaries will be mapped into boundaries. DA is mapped into the line segment −1 ≤ u ≤ 0. Put AB = {(x. v = 0. 0 ≤ v ≤ 2. BC = {(1. The region ∆ is thus the area in the uv plane enclosed by the v2 v2 − 1. Since 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Evaluate it using the change of variables u = x2 − y 2 . 1 − y) : 0 ≤ y ≤ 1}. Thus u = 1 − the parabola u = 1 − v2 4 .1]2 P uv dvdu = 409 12 . On BC we have u = 1 − y 2 . y) : 0 ≤ y ≤ 1}.

17: Example 276. xy-plane. The region transforms into ∆ = {(u.18: Example 276. and Kock to prove that +∞ 1 π2 = . uv-plane. then S = 2 n 4 1 0 1 0 +∞ n=1 1 .Chapter 3 275 Example Find e(x D 3 +y3 )/xy dA where using the change of variables x = u2 v. you may try the (more natural) substitution x3 = u2 v. The integral becomes f (x. p ∈]0. Figure 3. dx ∧ dy = 3u2 v 2 du ∧ dv. y = uv 2 . y 3 = v 2 u and verify that the same result is obtained. dy = v 2 du + 2uvdv. = ∆ exp 3 u6 v 3 + u3 v 6 u3 v 3 3 (3u2 v 2 ) dudv = 3 ∆ eu ev u2 v 2 dudv (2p)1/3 2 2 u3 = = 3u e 3 0 1 2p (e − 1)2 . 1 − x2 y 2 125 Free to photocopy and distribute . Prove that n=1 1 = (2n − 1)2 dxdy . x2 − 2py ≤ 0. 276 Example In this problem we will follow an argument of Calabi. 3 1 du As an exercise. Solution: We have dx = 2uvdu + u2 dv. Prove that if S = n=1 +∞ 1 3 . 0 ≤ v ≤ (2p)1/3 }. v) ∈ R2 |0 ≤ u ≤ (2p)1/3 . +∞[ ﬁxed}. n2 6 n=1 +∞ 1. (2n − 1)2 2. y)dxdy D D = {(x. y) ∈ R2 |y 2 − 2px ≤ 0. π 1 0 0 1 2 π 2 Figure 3. Beukers.

from where dx ∧ dy = du ∧ dv − (tan2 u)(tan2 v)du ∧ dv = 1 − (tan2 u)(tan2 v) du ∧ dv.17 is transformed into the triangle in the uv-plane in ﬁgure 3. Observe that u = arctan x 1 − y2 × dy = (sec u)(tan u)(sin v)du+(sec u)(cos v)dv.3 sin u sin v 3.y= sin v cos u forms We now have to determine the region that the transformation x = 1−x .Change of Variables sin u cos v sin v cos u 1 1 0 3. Observe that 1 = 2n − 1 Thus +∞ n=1 1 0 x2n−2 dx =⇒ 1 2n − 1 2 1 = 0 x2n−2 dx 1 0 y 2n−2 dy 1 1 0 = 0 (xy)2n−2 dxdy. Observe that the sum of the even terms is +∞ n=1 1 1 = 2 (2n) 4 +∞ n=1 1 1 = S. Use the change of variables x = . 1 = (2n − 1)2 +∞ n=1 1 0 1 0 (xy)2n−2 dxdy = 1 0 1 +∞ 0 n=1 (xy)2n−2 dxdy = 1 0 1 0 dxdy .y= in order to evaluate 0 dxdy 1 − x2 y 2 . We deduce. then cos v cos u dx = (cos u)(sec v)du+(sin u)(sec v)(tan v)dv. 3 π2 π2 S= =⇒ S = . Free to photocopy and distribute 126 . We will accept it for our purposes. If x = . This means that the square in the xy-plane in ﬁgure 3. 1 − x2 y 2 as claimed. sin2 v cos2 v · sin2 v cos2 u = 1 − (tan2 u)(tan2 v). Also. sin u cos v . 3 S. Solution: 1. 4 2. = dudv. 1 − x2 y 2 = 1 − This gives dxdy 1 − x2 y 2 in the uv-plane. hence the sum of the odd terms must be three quarters of the sum.18.y= . 2 n 4 a quarter of the sum. 1 0 1 0 dxdy 1 − x2 y 2 π/2 π/2−v π/2 = 0 0 dudv = 0 (π/2 − v) dv = π 2 v− v2 2 ¬π/2 π2 π2 π2 ¬ = − = . ¬ 0 4 8 8 Finally. 2 v = arctan y 1 − x2 1 − y2 . 4 8 6 3 This exchange of integral and sum needs justiﬁcation.

 Shew that the above integral reduces to 1 2 0 √ 2 u arctan √ du + 2 4 − u2 4 − u2 2 1 √ 2 2−u arctan √ du.3 Using the change of variables u = x − y and v = x + y.  Find the image of Φ on D .6. y) ∈ R2 |a ≤ xy ≤ b. Consider R2 Φ: (u. Problem 3. 1). v = x − y to shew that 1 0 0 1 dxdy =2 1 − xy 1 0 u −u dv 4 − u2 + v 2 2 2−u u−2 du + 2 1 dv 4 − u2 + v 2 du. 2 n 6  Use the series expansion 1 = 1 + t + t2 + t3 + · · · 1−t 1 0 0 1 |t| < 1. Problem 3.4 Find D f (x.Chapter 3 Homework Problem 3. (2. where R is the x+y Problem 3. 4 − u2 4 − u2  Finally. that is. R x−y dA.5 Use the following steps (due to Tom Apostol) in order to prove that ∞ n=1 π2 1 = . 2). 2). in order to prove (formally) that dxdy = 1 − xy ∞ n=1 1 . y) ∈ R2 : −1 ≤ x ≤ 1. (1. 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 1 − |x|} Ô R x2 + y 2 dA. u ≥ 0.  Find (x + y)2 ex D 2 −y 2 dA. 3). ﬁnd D = Φ(D ). y 2 − x2 ≤ 1. v ≥ 0.6. evaluate where R = {(x. y)dA where D = {(x. (a.6. prove that the above integral is π2 u by using the substitution θ = arcsin .1 Let D = {(u. Problem 3.2 Using the change of variables x = u2 − v 2 . evaluate square with vertices at (0. b) ∈ R2 . n2  Use the change of variables u = x + y. v = y 2 − x2 . 0 < a < b} and f (x. y ≥ x ≥ 0. 2 2 .6. v) ∈ R2 : u ≤ 1. (1. y) = y 4 − x4 by using the change of variables u = xy.6. y = 2uv. −u ≤ v ≤ u}. v) → → R2 u+v u−v . 6 2 Free to photocopy and distribute 127 .

y) ∈ R2 |x ≥ 0. The angle clearly sweeps from 0 to .Change to Polar Coordinates 3.20: Example 278.19: Example 277. Figure 3.23. y ≤ x. The region D transforms into the region π ∆ = [0. y ≥ 0. where R is the region bounded by the circles x2 + y 2 = 4 and x2 + y 2 = Observe that this is problem 3.7 Change to Polar Coordinates x = ρ cos θ =⇒ dx = cos θdρ − ρ sin θdθ. . Figure 3. Solution: R xdA. Free to photocopy and distribute = 1 0 2 π/2 0 (8 cos θ − 8 cos θ sin3 θ)dθ 128 . that is. Figure 3. the radius sweeps from π r 2 = 2r sin θ to r 2 = 4. x2 + y 2 ≤ 1}. Thus 2 the integral becomes π/2 2 sin θ xdA = R r 2 cos θdrdθ 3 = 2. 1] × 0. Figure 3. y = ρ sin θ =⇒ dy = sin θdρ + ρ cos θdθ. 278 Example Evaluate 2y. We use polar coordinates.5. 4 Therefore the integral becomes Solution: ρ4 cos θ sin θ dρdθ ∆ π/4 1 = 0 cos θ sin θ dθ 0 ρ4 dρ = 1 20 . Since x2 + y 2 = r 2 .22: Example 280. from 2 sin θ to 2.21: Example 279. One of the most common changes of variable is the passage to polar coordinates where whence dx ∧ dy = (ρ cos2 θ + ρ sin2 θ)dρ ∧ dθ = ρdρ ∧ dθ. 277 Example Find xy D x2 + y 2 dA where D = {(x.

Chapter 3 279 Example Find D e−x 2 −xy−y2 dA. Observe that on the ellipse x2 a2 + y2 b2 = 1 =⇒ a2 r 2 cos2 θ a2 + b2 r 2 sin2 θ b2 = 1 =⇒ r = 1. the above equals 2 √ 3 2π 0 1 0 2π 2 ρe−ρ dρdθ = √ (1 − e−1 ).22). y) ∈ R2 : x2 + xy + y 2 ≤ 1}. whence dx ∧ dy = (abr cos2 θ + abr sin2 θ)dr ∧ dθ = abrdr ∧ dθ. 3 281 Example Evaluate R (x3 + y 3 )dA where R is the region bounded by the ellipse x2 a2 + y2 b2 = 1 and the ﬁrst quadrant. y) ∈ R2 : x2 + y 2 ≤ 4. where D = {(x. The integral becomes 2 e−x {x2 +xy+y2 ≤1} −xy−y2 dxdy = 2 √ 3 e−(U {U 2 +V 2 ≤1} 2 +V 2 ) dU dV. y ≥ 1 (ﬁgure 3. Passing to polar coordinates. y = br sin θ =⇒ dy = b sin θdr + br cos θdθ. a > 0 and b > 0. Put U = x + . y = br sin θ. Solution: Put x = ar cos θ. Then x = ar cos θ =⇒ dx = a cos θdr − ar sin θdθ. The desired integral is 5π/6 2 R (x2 1 dA = + y 2 )3/2 1 drdθ 2 π/6 csc θ r 5π/6 1 = sin θ − dθ 2 π/6 √ π = 3− . Free to photocopy and distribute 129 . Solution: Completing squares x + xy + y = x + y 2 √ 3y 2 2 2 y 2 2 + √ 3y 2 2 . 3 280 Example Evaluate R 1 (x2 + y 2 )3/2 dA over the region (x. 1 sin θ Solution: The radius sweeps from r = to r = 2.V = .

Problem 3.23: Problem 3. (a. y ≥ 1 . Problem 3.4 Find D f dA where D = {(x. Set up the integral in both Cartesian and polar coordinates. Problem 3.1. y) ∈ R2 : x2 + y 2 ≤ 16.1 Evaluate R xydA where R is the region ¨ © R = (x. 15 Homework Problem 3.7.7.Change to Polar Coordinates Thus the required integral is (x3 + y 3 )dA = R π/2 0 1 0 1 0 abr 4 (cos3 θ + sin3 θ)drdθ π/2 0 3 = = = ab ab r 4 dr (a3 cos3 θ + b3 sin3 θ)dθ 1 2a3 + 2b 5 3 2ab(a3 + b3 ) .7.3 Find D √ xydA where D = {(x.7.7. +∞[ ﬁxed} and f (x. Free to photocopy and distribute 130 . y) ∈ R2 : b2 x2 + a2 y 2 = a2 b2 . y) = x3 + y 3 . x ≥ 1.2 Find (x2 − y 2 )dA D where D = {(x.23. as in the ﬁgure 3. y) ∈ R2 |(x − 1)2 + y 2 ≤ 1}. y) ∈ R2 |(x2 + y 2 )2 ≤ 2xy}. Figure 3. b) ∈]0.

y )∈R2 :x≥0. Prove that Ö a 2 b2 − a 2 y 2 − b2 x 2 πab(π − 2) dA = . a2 b √ y dxdy = 2 − 1. y) ∈ R2 |x ≥ 1. 2 2 Free to photocopy and distribute 131 . (x2 + y 2 )2 Problem 3.7 Prove that the ellipse (x − 2y + 3)2 + (3x + 4y − 1)2 = 4 bounds an area of 2π . y) ∈ R2 |y ≥ 0.7. y) ∈ R2 : 0 < x < 1.7. (1 + x2 + y 2 )2 Problem 3. y = ρ sin θ. Problem 3. Problem 3. o < y < x2 }.13 Let D = {(x. y) ∈ R2 |x ≥ 0.7. y) = 1 . y) ∈ R2 |y ≤ x2 + y 2 ≤ 1}. x2 + y 2 Ô R where R = {(x.12 Let Find the integral D = {(x. x2 + y 2 − x ≤ 0}.14 Evaluate x3 y 3 {(x.y ≥0. x2 + y 2 − 2x ≤ 0} and f (x. y) ∈ R2 : x ≥ 1.8 Find D Ô x2 + y 2 dA where D = {(x.5 Let a > 0 and b > 0.7.x 4 +y 4 ≤1} Ô 1 − x4 − y 4 dA using x = ρ cos θ. x2 + y 2 − 2x ≤ 0} and f (x. 5 Problem 3. y) = x2 y.7. x2 + y 2 − 2y ≥ 0}.7.7. Find xdA.7.11 Find D f dA where D = {(x.Chapter 3 Problem 3. Problem 3.10 Let D = {(x. y ≥ 0. (x + y)2 dA.7.7.9 Find D f dA where D = {(x.6 Prove that x2 y2 + 2 = 1 and the ﬁrst quadrant. a 2 b2 + a 2 y 2 + b2 x 2 8 R where R is the region bounded by the ellipse Problem 3. Compute D dA . D Problem 3. D Problem 3. x2 + y 2 ≤ 4}. y) ∈ R2 : x2 + y 2 − y ≤ 0. x2 + y 2 ≤ 1.

Find x2 + xy + y 2 D Problem 3.7. Liouville was a mathematician. M We will often write f dV M where dV denotes the volume element. y)dA. |y| ≤ a}. 2 1 .18 In the xy-plane. where the + orientation is in the direction of the outward pointing normal to the body.8 Three-Manifolds 282 Deﬁnition A 3-dimensional oriented manifold of R3 is simply an open set (body) V ∈ R3 . y) be the distance from (x.  Deduce that 0 +∞ e−x dx = 2 √ π .  The region −M has opposite orientation to M and −M ω=− ω.7. Problem 3. A general oriented 3-manifold is a union of open sets. 3.16 Let D = {(x. y) to the nearest point R.y ) dxdy = 2π + L + A.7.15 William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) is credited to have said: “A mathematician is someone to whom +∞ 0 e−x dx = 2 √ π 2 is as obvious as twice two is four to you. y) = f (x. if R is the set of points inside and on a convex polygon. Prove that Ia ≤ Ja ≤ Ia √ 2 . let D(x. and the − orientation is in the direction of the inward pointing normal to the body. y) ∈ R2 : 4 ≤ x2 + y 2 ≤ 16} and f (x.17 Prove that every closed convex region in the plane of area ≥ π has two points which are two units apart. y) ∈ R2 ||x| ≤ a. Show that +∞ −∞ +∞ e−D (x. 2 √ π 2  Let a > 0 be a real number and put Da = {(x. −∞ where L is the perimeter of R and A is the area of R. Problem 3.Three-Manifolds Problem 3.  Let a > 0 be a real number and put ∆a = {(x. Free to photocopy and distribute 132 .” Prove that +∞ 0 e−x dx = by following these steps. Find Ia = Da e−(x 2 +y 2 ) dxdy. y) ∈ R2 |x2 + y 2 ≤ a2 }.7. Let Ja = ∆a e−(x 2 +y 2 ) dxdy.

Given a function f : V → R. where V is the tetrahedron V = (x. In particular. = e− 284 Example Find R z dV if R = {(x. z) ∈ R3 |x ≥ 0. y ≥ 0. z) ∈ R3 : x ≥ 0. z ≥ 0. Let V ⊆ R3 . √ √ √ x + y + z ≤ 1}. y. dV V is the oriented volume of V . y. z ≥ 0. unless otherwise noticed. [0. 283 Example Find x2 yexyz dV. we will choose the positive orientation for the regions considered. y ≥ 0.Chapter 3  In this section. Solution: The integral is 1 (1− √ 2 z) (1− 0 √ √ z− x)2 zdxdydz R = 0 1 z 0 √ (1− z)2 dy (1 − √ z)4 dz √ √ z − x)2 dx dx dz dz = 0 z 1 6 1 0 0 = = 1 z(1 − 840 . the integral f dV V is the sum of all the values of f restricted to V .1]3 Solution: The integral is 1 0 1 0 1 0 x2 yexyz dz dy dx 1 1 0 = 0 1 x(exy − 1) dy dx = 0 (ex − x − 1)dx 5 2 . 133 . Free to photocopy and distribute Ò x a + y b + z c Ó ≤1 . 285 Example Prove that xdV = V a2 bc 24 . This corresponds to using the volume form dx ∧ dy ∧ dz.

Free to photocopy and distribute 134 . > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): > int(x. ﬁnally. The line passing through 3 2 AC has equation y = x. 3 We ﬁnd.25: xy-projection.3. 0).0>.Three-Manifolds Solution: We have c b−bz/c 0 c 0 c a−ay/b−az/c xdxdydz V = 0 0 xdxdydz 1 2 1 ay az − b c 0 3 a2 (−z + c) b dx c3 a− b−bz/c 2 = = z = dydz 6 0 a2 bc 24 C B O x A Figure 3. 0. A short computation shews that the plane passing through (3. 286 Example Evaluate the integral S xdV where S is the (unoriented) tetrahedron with vertices (0.2>)).0>. and (0.<0. 2). Solution: 3 3−x/3 2x/3 3−x/3 2x/3 (18−2x−6y)/9 xdV S = 0 3 0 xdzdydx dydx 9 18xy − 2x2 y − 3y 2 x ¬3−x/3 ¬ dx ¬ 2x/3 9 x3 − 2x2 + 3x dx 3 18x − 2x2 − 6yx = 0 3 = 0 3 = = 9 4 0 To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below.24. We must now ﬁgure 9 out the xy limits of integration. See ﬁgure 3. 2. and 18 − 2x − 6y (0. 2.0.<0. The line passing through AB has equation y = − + 3. 3.y. 0. 0). A C B y Figure 3.25 we draw the projection of the tetrahedron on the x xy plane. (0. 0). In ﬁgure 3. 0 ≤ z ≤ .2.[x. Hence. (0.0>. (3.0. 2) has equation 2x + 6y + 9z = 18. 0. 0).24: Problem 286. 0).<3.z]=Tetrahedron(<0. 3.

2 0 y 0 4−x2 xyzdzdxdy 0 = = = 1 2 1 2 2 0 2 2 0 y 0 y 0 xy(4 − x2 )2 dxdy y(16x − 8x3 + x5 )dxdy y7 12 dy 0 4y 3 − y 5 + = 8. Problem 3.4 Compute cylinder x2 + y 2 = 9. if at all. dzdxdy 2. and the z and y axes. its lowest z coordinate is 0 and its highest one is on the cylinder. so the limits for z are from z = 0 to z = 4 − x2 .2 Consider the solid S in the ﬁrst octant. on y and z. Given an arbitrary point in the solid. y = x. S xyz = 2 ﬁrst by integrating in the order dzdydx. Use the following orders of integration: 1. 0. y = x.8. With the order dxdydz. and then by 3 x2 and the 2 Problem 3. bounded by the parabolic cylinder z = 2 − planes z = 0. where R is the solid formed by the intersection of the parabolic cylinder z = 4 − x2 . 4 0 √ 0 4−z 2 xyzdxdydz y = = 1 2 4 4 0 √ 0 4−z (4y − y 3 )zdydz dz 0 2z − z3 8 = 8. the limits of integration of x can only depend.8. 2. 1). x = 2. E zdV where E is the region in the ﬁrst octant bounded by the planes y + z = 1 and Problem 3. the planes z = 0. 0.Chapter 3 287 Example Evaluate R xyzdV .3 Evaluate the integrals (1. E xdV where E is the region in the ﬁrst octant bounded by the plane y = 3z and the Free to photocopy and distribute 135 . where R is the tetrahedron with vertices at (0. and (0.8. 1.8. and y = 0. The projection of the solid on the xy-plane is the area bounded by the lines y = x. the limits of integration of z can only depend. Prove that integrating in the order dydxdz. 0). 1. Homework Problem 3. With the order dzdxdy. 1). and y = 0. 0). x sweeps from the plane to x = 2.1 Compute x + z = 1. on x and y. so the limits for √ x are from x = y to x = 4 − z. dxdydz Solution: We must ﬁnd the projections of the solid on the the coordinate planes. The projection of the solid on the yz-plane is the area bounded by z = 4 − y 2 . R 1dV and R xdV . if at all. and the x and y axes. Given an arbitrary point in the solid. (1. 0.

Also.8. du ∧ dw ∧ dv = 4dx ∧ dy ∧ dz which have the same orientation. Free to photocopy and distribute 136 . z) ∈ R3 |x2 + y 2 ≤ 1. Solution: We make the change of variables u = x + y + z =⇒ du = dx + dy + dz. say. 2x − z = 1 =⇒ u + v + 2w = 2. ρ sin θ. w = x − y − z =⇒ dw = dx − dy − dz. y. 289 Example Find R z 2 dxdydz if R = {(x. Since the wedge product of forms is associative. From what we know about polar coordinates dx ∧ dy = ρdρ ∧ dθ. 3. x − y − z = 0. R 288 Example Find where R is the tetrahedron bounded by the planes x + y + z = 0.5 Find D = {(x. z) ∈ R3 : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. The tetrahedron in the xyz-coordinate frame is mapped into a tetrahedron bounded by u = 0. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. These forms have opposite orientations. Consider a transformation to cylindrical coordinates (x. dx ∧ dy ∧ dz = ρdρ ∧ dθ ∧ dz. This gives du ∧ dv ∧ dw = −4dx ∧ dy ∧ dz.Change of Variables dV where (1 + x2 z 2 )(1 + y 2 z 2 ) D Problem 3. The integral becomes 1 4 2 0 1−v/2 0 2−v−2w uvw dudwdv = 0 1 180 . so we choose. z ≥ 0}.9 Change of Variables (x + y + z)(x + y − z)(x − y − z)dV. z). y. 0 ≤ z ≤ 1}. u + v + 2w = 1 in the uvw-coordinate frame. z) = (ρ cos θ. v = 0. y. x + y − z = 0. v = x + y − z =⇒ dv = dx + dy − dz. and 2x − z = 1.

z) ∈ R3 : 0 ≤ y ≤ x. Using cylindrical coordinates Ò ∆ = (θ. +∞[. Solution: The integral is 1 0 π/2 π/4 2 1 ρ3 dρdθdz = 15π . Ó √ 0 V = 0 π/4 R2 −ρ2 cos2 θ dz ρdρ dθ = 0 π/4 = = u = cos θ = = Finally = R3 3 R3 3 R3 0 ä çR 1 (R2 − ρ2 cos2 θ)3/2 dθ 2θ 0 3 cos π/4 1 − sin3 θ dθ cos2 θ √ 0 2 2 1 − u2 π/4 [tan θ]0 + du u2 1 ρ R2 − ρ2 cos2 θdρ dθ − 3 √ 2−1 3 R . R] × [0. 1] through a cylindrical coordinate change. Now. z) ∈ 0. The integral is therefore 2π 1 1 f (x. 16 291 Example Three long cylinders of radius R intersect at right angles.Chapter 3 Solution: The region of integration is mapped into ∆ = [0. π 4 × [0. √ 2 1 − u−1 + u ä ç √ 2 2 1 V = 16V = 8(2 − √ 2)R3 . Find the volume of their intersection. Free to photocopy and distribute 137 . 3 0 dθ 0 ρ dρ 0 z 2 dz 290 Example Evaluate D (x2 + y 2 )dxdydz over the ﬁrst octant region bounded by the cylinders x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = 4 and the planes z = 0. Solution: Let V be the desired volume. By symmetry. z 2 + x2 ≤ R2 }. where V = D dxdydz. 0 ≤ z. y. ρ. z = 1. x = 0. z)dxdydz R = = π . 1] × [0. y. x2 + y 2 ≤ R2 . 2π] × [0. D = {(x. 0 ≤ z ≤ π/4 R 0 R 0 R2 − ρ2 cos2 θ . y 2 + z 2 ≤ R2 . In this case it is easier to integrate with respect to z ﬁrst. V = 24 V . x = y.

z) ∈ R3 : x2 a2 + y2 b2 xyz dV if R = cos θ sin φdρ − ρ sin θ sin φdθ + ρ cos θ cos φdφ. z ≥ 0 . cρ cos φ). z) = (aρ cos θ sin φ. 293 Example Let V = {(x. 4 Homework Ô Problem 3. Free to photocopy and distribute 138 . +∞[3 be ﬁxed. We use spherical coordinates. y.9.Change of Variables Consider now a change to spherical coordinates x = ρ cos θ sin φ. b. Then 2π π/2−arcsin 1/3 π/2−arcsin 2/3 2/ cos φ 1/ cos φ dxdydz V = 0 ρ2 sin φ dρdφdθ = 63π . ]. Also. y.2 Consider the integral R xdV . ﬁnd this volume. 292 Example Let (a.1 Consider the region R below the cone z = x2 + y 2 and above the paraboloid z = x2 + y 2 for 0 ≤ z ≤ 1. x ≥ 0. 2 2 π/2 0 cos θ sin θ dθ 0 0 ρ5 dρ cos3 φ sin φ dφ = (abc)2 48 . and so we choose dx ∧ dy ∧ dz = ρ2 sin φdρ ∧ dφ ∧ dθ instead. where (x. Find R= Solution: (x. Problem 3. c) ∈]0. where R is the region above the paraboloid z = x2 + y 2 and under the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4. = cos φdρ − ρ sin φdφ. Also. ﬁnd this volume. y = ρ sin θ sin φ. We have The integration region is mapped into dx ∧ dy ∧ dz = abcρ2 sin φdρ ∧ dφ ∧ dρ. We have dx dy dz This gives From this derivation.9. + z2 c2 ≤ 1. bρ sin θ sin φ. The integral becomes (abc)2 π/2 1 π π ] × [0. 1 ≤ z ≤ 2}. z) ∈ R3 : x2 + y 2 + z 2 ≤ 9. dx ∧ dy ∧ dz = −ρ2 sin φdρ ∧ dθ ∧ dφ. y ≥ 0. 1] × [0. the form dρ ∧ dθ ∧ dφ is negatively oriented. cylindrical and spherical coordinates. ∆ = [0. cylindrical and spherical coordinates. = sin θ sin φdρ + ρ cos θ sin φdθ + ρ sin θ cos φdφ. z = ρ cos φ. Set up integrals for the volume of this region in Cartesian. Set up integrals for the volume of this region in Cartesian. y.

y. R where R = {(x.9. b > 0. cylindrical and spherical coordinates.   The surface −Σ has opposite orientation to Σ and −Σ ω=− ω.6 Prove that e− x≥0. Problem 3.4 Prove that the volume enclosed by the ellipsoid x2 y2 z2 + 2 + 2 =1 2 a b c is 4πabc .9. Set up integrals for the volume of this region in Cartesian. we will choose the positive orientation for the regions considered.10 (Putnam Exam 1984) Find x1 y 9 z 8 (1 − x − y − z)4 dxdydz.10 Surface Integrals 294 Deﬁnition A 2-dimensional oriented manifold of R3 is simply a smooth surface D ∈ R3 . y ≥ 0. dx ∧ dy}. Here a > 0. Problem 3. dz ∧ dx. 3 ydV where E is the region between the cylinders x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = 4.9.9. A general oriented 2-manifold in R3 is a union of surfaces.9. where the + orientation is in the direction of the outward normal pointing away from the origin and the − orientation is in the direction of the inward normal pointing towards the origin. Free to photocopy and distribute 139 .5 Compute the plane x − z = −2 and above the xy-plane.Chapter 3 Problem 3. x + y + z ≤ 1}. This corresponds to using the ordered basis {dy ∧ dz.9. Problem 3.7 Compute E y 2 z 2 dV where E is bounded by the paraboloid x = 1 − y 2 − z 2 and the plane x = 0. Problem 3. Also.9.3 Consider the region R bounded by the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 and the plane z = 1. below E Problem 3.y≥0 √ x 2 +y 2 +z 2 dV = π 2 − 2e−R − 2Re−R − R2 e−R . Σ In this section.9 Compute the 4-dimensional integral ex x 2 +y 2 +u 2 +v 2 ≤1 2 +y 2 +u 2 +v 2 dxdydudv.8 Compute E z Ô x2 + y 2 + z 2 dV where E is is the upper solid hemisphere bounded by the xy- plane and the sphere of radius 1 about the origin. c > 0. x 2 +y 2 +z 2 ≤R 2 Problem 3. z ≥ 0.9. Problem 3. z) ∈ R3 : x ≥ 0. 3. ﬁnd this volume. unless otherwise noticed.

Observe that the domain D of Σ is the unit disk u2 + v 2 ≤ 1. 0 ≤ z ≤ 1. We parametrise the cylinder by putting x = cos u. z ¬¬d2 x¬¬ = D ¬¬ ¬¬ (u2 + v 2 ) 1 + 4u2 + 4v 2 dudv. dy ∧ dz = cos udu ∧ dv. and so (u2 + v 2 ) 1 + 4u2 + 4v 2 dudv D Ô 2π 1 0 = 0 ρ3 1 + 4ρ2 dρdθ = √ 1 (5 5 + ). and so ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ ¬¬d x¬¬ = = (dx ∧ dy)2 + (dz ∧ dx)2 + (dy ∧ dz)2 cos2 u + sin2 u du ∧ dv = du ∧ dv. y − 1 = sin u. We see that dx ∧ dy = du ∧ dv.Surface Integrals 295 Deﬁnition Let f : R3 → R. dz = dv. dy = cos udu. Σ Ô ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ ¬¬d x¬¬ = 1 + 4u2 + 4v 2 du ∧ dv. Ô To evaluate this last integral we use polar coordinates. y = v. and z = v. 12 5 π 297 Example Find the area of that part of the cylinder x2 +y 2 = 2y lying inside the sphere x2 +y 2 +z 2 = 4. The integral of f over the smooth surface Σ (oriented in the positive sense) is given by the expression f ¬¬d2 x¬¬. 296 Example Evaluate x2 + y 2 . Solution: We have x2 + y 2 = 2y ⇐⇒ x2 + (y − 1)2 = 1. Σ ¬¬ ¬¬ Here ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ ¬¬d x¬¬ = (dx ∧ dy)2 + (dz ∧ dx)2 + (dy ∧ dz)2 is the surface area element. whence dx ∧ dy = 0. Σ z ¬¬d2 x¬¬ where Σ is the outer surface of the section of the paraboloid z = ¬¬ ¬¬ Solution: We parametrise the paraboloid as follows. and so Now. z = u2 + v 2 . Let x = u. dy ∧ dz = −2udu ∧ dv. Hence dx = − sin udu. dz ∧ dx = −2vdu ∧ dv. dz ∧ dx = sin udu ∧ dv. Free to photocopy and distribute 140 .

0 ≤ x ≤ 1. (0.10. that is. 2 xydxdy = − .10. 4).10. Also 0 ≤ u ≤ π. We project this plane onto the coordinate axes obtaining 4 2−z/2 0 2 0 2 xdydz = Σ 0 (2 − y − z/2)dydz = 4−2x 0 8 3 . 0 ≤ y ≤ 2.10. (z 2 − zx)dzdx = Σ (z 2 − zx)dzdx = 8.2 Consider the cone z = the planes z = 1 and z = 2.5 You put a perfectly spherical egg through an egg slicer. Σ Homework Problem 3. The integral is thus ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ ¬¬d x¬¬ Σ π √ 2−2 sin u √ − 2−2 sin u πÔ π = 0 dvdu = 0 2 2 − 2 sin udu Ô = 2 2 1 − sin u du √ 0√ = 2 2 4 2−4 . √ 298 Example Evaluate xdydz + (z 2 − zx)dzdx − xydxdy.10. Σ where Σ is the top side of the triangle with vertices at (2. Find the surface area of the part of the cone which lies between Problem 3.e. 0.4 Evaluate S ¬¬ ¬¬ Ô z ¬¬d2 x¬¬ over the conical surface z = x2 + y 2 between z = 0 and z = 1. Ô Problem 3. Problem 3.1 Evaluate Σ ¬¬ ¬¬ y ¬¬d2 x¬¬ where Σ is the surface z = x + y 2 . Problem 3. resulting in n slices of identical height. Your argument must use surface integrals. but you forgot to peel it ﬁrst! Shew that the amount of egg shell in any of the slices is the same. 3 2−y 0 − Σ xydxdy = − 0 and hence xdydz + (z 2 − zx)dzdx − xydxdy = 10. when z 2 = 4 − 2y. Free to photocopy and distribute 141 . x2 + y 2 .Chapter 3 The cylinder and the sphere intersect when x2 + y 2 = 2y and x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4. 0. v 2 = 4 − 2(1 + sin u) = 2 − 2 sin u. i. Solution: Observe that the plane passing through the three given points has equation 2x + 2y + z = 4. 0). 2. (0. 0).3 Evaluate Σ ¬¬ ¬¬ x2 ¬¬d2 x¬¬ where Σ is the surface of the unit sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.

observe that 1 = (sin2 θ + cos2 θ)2 = sin4 θ + 2 sin2 θ cos2 θ + cos4 θ. = (dx − 3y 2 dy) ∧ dx + (3x2 dx) ∧ dy The region M is the area enclosed by the circle x2 + y 2 = 1. y)dy Free to photocopy and distribute 142 . In R2 . then ω= ∂M M dω.11 Green’s. We dω = d(x − y 3 ) ∧ dx + d(x3 ) ∧ dy = (3y 2 + 3x2 )dx ∧ dy. Á C (x − y 3 )dx + x3 dy = = = 3π 2 0 (3y 2 + 3x2 )dxdy M 2π 1 0 3ρ2 ρdρdθ . again resorting to polar coordinates. Stokes’. and using polar coordinates. Σ where Σ is the top of the triangular region of the plane 2x + 2y + z = 6 bounded by the ﬁrst octant. Aliter: We can evaluate this integral directly. whence the integral equals 2π 0 (sin4 θ + cos4 θ − sin θ cos θ)dθ 2π = = 3π . this takes the name of Green’s Theorem.6 Evaluate xydydz − x2 dzdx + (x + z)dxdy. Á 300 Example Evaluate C (x − y 3 )dx + x3 dy where C is the circle x2 + y 2 = 1. and Gauss’ Theorems Problem 3. let ω = f (x. 299 Theorem (General Stoke’s Theorem) Let M be a smooth oriented manifold. if ω is a 1-form. 3. Thus by Green’s Theorem. y)dx + g(x. If ω is a differential form. 2 0 (1 − 2 sin2 θ cos2 θ − sin θ cos θ)dθ In general.Green’s. Á C (x − y 3 )dx + x3 dy 2π = 0 2π (cos θ − sin3 θ)(− sin θ)dθ + (cos3 θ)(cos θ)dθ (sin4 θ + cos4 θ − sin θ cos θ)dθ. and Gauss’ Theorems We are now in position to state the general Stoke’s Theorem. Stokes’. Solution: have We will ﬁrst use Green’s Theorem and then evaluate the integral directly.10. having boundary ∂M . = 0 To evaluate the last integral.

z) → −y is an odd function of y and the domain of integration is symmetric with respect to y. Now. y) ∧ dx + dg(x. let ω = f (x. y. y. y) − f (x. since (x. y)dx + g(x. −3 0 |ρ| 9 − ρ2 dρdθ Also zdzdx = 0. y. y) dxdy. (dx − dy) ∧ dy ∧ dz + dz ∧ dz ∧ dx − dy ∧ dx ∧ dy = 4π 3 (27) = 36π. 3 2π xdydz Σ = = 36π. 301 Example Evaluate S (x − y)dydz + zdzdx − ydxdy where S is the surface of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 and the positive direction is the outward normal. z) → z is an odd function of z and the domain of integration is symmetric with respect to z. Aliter: We could evaluate this integral directly. y. Solution: The region M is the interior of the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9. Now. if ω is a 2-form. y. y)dy ∧ dy which gives the classical Green’s Theorem f (x. In general. y)dy = ∂M M ∂ ∂x g(x. y. We have (x − y)dydz = xdydz. Then dω = = = df (x. y)dy ∧ dx + ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂ g(x. y) dx ∧ dy ∂x ∂y ∂ ∂x ∂ ∂y g(x.Chapter 3 be a 1-form in R2 . y) ∧ dy ∂ ∂ f (x. Similarly Σ −ydxdy = 0. In R3 . z)dz ∧ dx + h(x. Σ Σ since (x. y)dx + g(x. y)dx + f (x. z) → −y is an odd function of y and the domain of integration is symmetric with respect to y. z)dy ∧ dz + g(x. the above theorem takes the name of Gauß’ or the Divergence Theorem. y) − ∂ ∂y f (x. z)dx ∧ dy Free to photocopy and distribute 143 . Σ since (x. dω = = The integral becomes dxdydz M dx ∧ dy ∧ dz.

Also. d S = dzdx . y. y. z)dy + f (x. y. z) + ∂ ∂z h(x. let ω = f (x. z)dz Free to photocopy and distribute 144 . z) + ∂ ∂y g(x. y. y. y. − a S ∂M dydz ¿ ( M − • →)dV = a The classical Stokes’ Theorem occurs when ω is a 1-form in R3 . Stokes’. y. z)dx + g(x. y. −dx ∧ dy + 2dx ∧ dy + dy ∧ dz + dz ∧ dx Since on C.e. y. x2 + y 2 = 3. Using classical notation. the integral evaluates to dxdy = 3π. z)dy + g(x. y. z)dx + f (x. dxdy − → • d→. z) + h(x. i. y. z) . z)dx + g(x. y. = ∂x ∂y ∂z which gives the classical Gauss’s Theorem f (x. z)dy ∧ dz + dg(x. the surface Σ on which we are integrating is the inside of the circle x2 + y 2 + 1 = 4. z)dz ∧ dy ∧ dz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ ∂ + g(x. y. y. y. z)dy + +h(x. y. y. z)dz ∧ dz ∧ dx ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ ∂ + h(x. and Gauss’ Theorems be a 2-form in R3 . z)dx ∧ dy ∂ ∂ ∂ = f (x. y. y. z) h(x. y. Á 302 Example Evaluate C x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 and the plane z = 1. z)dx + h(x. z)dzdx+h(x. z) dxdydz. z)dy + h(x. z)dxdy = ∂M M ∂ ∂x f (x. y. y. z)dz ∧ dx ∧ dy ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ ∂ f (x. y. y. y. z) + g(x. Solution: We have dω = = = ydx + (2x − z)dy + (z − x)dz where C is the intersection of the sphere (dy) ∧ dx + (2dx − dz) ∧ dy + (dz − dx) ∧ dz dx ∧ dy + dy ∧ dz + dz ∧ dx. Σ In general. z)dz ∧ dx + dh(x. Then dω = df (x.. if →= − a then ¾ f (x. z = 1 implies dz = 0 and so dω = Σ Σ dxdy. y. y. z = 1. z) dx ∧ dy ∧ dz. z) ¿ ¾ → − g(x. Since this is just the area of the circular region x2 + y 2 ≤ 3.Green’s. z)dydz+g(x.

y. if ¾ f (x. − − a r Homework Á Problem 3.  Evaluate Á y 2 dx + xdy. y. z) dx ∧ dy ∂x ∂y = which gives the classical Stokes’ Theorem f (x. then ( M → − − × →) • d S = a ∂M → • d→. Free to photocopy and distribute 145 . y. y. y. z) − f (x. 2) and (0. z)dx + f (x. (2. z) dy ∧ dz ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ + f (x. y. y. z) ∧ dz ∂ ∂ ∂ f (x. y. 2). z)dy + h(x. z) dxdy.  If LP Q denotes the equation of the line joining P and Q ﬁnd LAB . y. z) − g(x. z) dydz ∂ ∂ g(x. z)dz ∧ dy + ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ ∂ + h(x. z) dz ∧ dx ∂z ∂x ∂ ∂ g(x.  Find (1 − 2y)dx ∧ dy D where D is the interior of . y. z)dz ∧ dx ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ ∂ g(x.11. and LB C . y. C : (−2. y. z)dz ∧ dz ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂ ∂ h(x. y. y. y. y. z)dx + h(x. z) ∧ dx + dg(x. z) ∧ dy + dh(x. z) − ∂ ∂z g(x. z) − f (x. z)dx + g(x. y. y. z)dz ∂M = M ∂ ∂y + h(x. y. z)dx + g(x. z) dxdy ∂z ∂x ∂ ∂ + h(x.Chapter 3 be a 1-form in R3 . z) ¿ ¾ dx dz ¿ ¾ →= − a g(x. z)dy + f (x. Problem 3. y. 1). r → − dS = dydz dxdy ¿ dzdx . z) − f (x. y. y. y. (2. − d→ = dy . y. z) − h(x. z)dy + g(x. y. 0). 2). B : (1. y.2 Consider the triangle with vertices A : (0. Then dω = = df (x.1 Evaluate C x3 ydx + xydy where C is the square with vertices at (0. y. y. y. 0). z)dy + h(x.11. ∂x ∂y Using classical notation. y. LAC . z) h(x. z) . 0).

The surface ∂M of the solid is positively oriented upon considering outward normals.4 Problems 1 through 4 refer to the box M = {(x. y2 + log(1 + z 2 ) dz = 2 3 0 0 12−4z ydydz+ Problem 3. The differential form is ω = (2xz + arctan ex ) dx + (xz + (y + 1)y ) dy + xy + y2 + log(1 + z 2 ) dz. prove this directly by using a path integral. and C(0. 1 √ − 1−x 2 1−x 2 0 2. 1 0 0 1−r 2 3. Problem 3. Γ where Γ is the circle (x − 2)2 + y 2 = 4. z) ∈ R3 : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Prove that the integral on the open box is 6zy 2 )dxdy = −4. 0.11. the boundary of the box without the upper top S = ∂M \ U . y. Prove that ∂M 2 0 0 1 0 1 (arctan y −x2 )dydz +(cos x sin z −y 3 )dzdx+(2zx+6zy 2 )dxdy = 3y 2 dxdydz = 2.11.3 Problems 1 through 4 refer to the differential form ω = xdy ∧ dz + ydz ∧ dx + 2zdx ∧ dy.Green’s. 0. 12. 2. M dω = 0 4rdzdrdθ. The surface T is oriented positively by considering the top of the triangle. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. The vertices of T are at A(6. z = 0. 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 and the disc x2 + y 2 ≤ 1. the upper face of the box U = {(x. continuing to B.11. and ending again at A. following to C. 4.11. Prove that dω = 4dx ∧ dy ∧ dz. 1. Also. Prove that ∂M xdydz + ydzdx + 2zdxdy = 2π. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. Prove that the equation of the plane that contains the triangle T is 2x + y + 4z = 12. Prove that the integral on the upper face of the box is 1 1 U (arctan y − x2 )dydz + (cos x sin z − y 3 )dzdx + (2zx + 6zy )dxdy = 0 0 2 4x + 12y dxdy = 6. y. and the solid M whose boundaries are the paraboloid z = 1 − x2 − y 2 . 3. ∂M ω= −1 2π 1−x 2 −y 2 √ 4dzdydx.6 Use Green’s Theorem to prove that (x2 + 2y 3 )dy = 16π. 2 1. Prove that in cylindrical coordinates. Free to photocopy and distribute 146 . 0 ≤ z ≤ 2}. 0). z) ∈ R3 : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Prove that 6 0 0 3−x/2 ∂T (2xz + arctan ex ) dx+(xz + (y + 1)y ) dy+ xy + 2xdzdx=108. Prove that dω = ydy ∧ dz + (2x − y) dz ∧ dx + zdx ∧ dy. and the differential form ω = (arctan y − x2 )dy ∧ dz + (cos x sin z − y 3 )dz ∧ dx + (2zx + 6zy 2 )dx ∧ dy. z = 2}. as viewed from a point far above the triangle. 3.5 Problems 1 through 3 refer to a triangular surface T in R3 and a differential form ω. 3). ∂ M \U Problem 3. The boundary of of the triangle ∂T is oriented positively by starting at A. 1. B(0. Prove that in Cartesian coordinates. Prove that dω = 3y 2 dx ∧ dy ∧ dz. 0). and Gauss’ Theorems Problem 3. 2. (arctan y − x2 )dydz + (cos x sin z − y 3 )dzdx + (2zx + 2 4. Stokes’. Here the boundary of the box is positively oriented considering outward normals.

Chapter 3 Problem 3. Problem 3. C where C is the positively oriented boundary of the region between the circles x2 + y 2 = 2 and x2 + y 2 = 4. Free to photocopy and distribute 147 .8 Use Green’s Theorem to evaluate Á (x3 − y 3 )dx + (x3 + y 3 )dy.7 Let Γ denote the curve of intersection of the plane x+y = 2 and the sphere x2 −2x+y 2 −2y+z 2 = 0.11.11. Use Stoke’s Theorem to prove that ydx + zdy + xdz = −2π Γ √ 2. oriented clockwise when viewed from the origin. Prove this directly by parametrising the boundary of the surface and evaluating the path integral.

2→(= 2 d ) c 1. − → − → 3JA = −JB − → − → − → 3JA = −JA − AB − → − → 4JA = −AB − → → 1− AJ = AB 4 ⇐⇒ − → − → 4IA = −3AB − → − → 4AI = 3AB − → → 3− AI = AB.1. − → − → But since ABCD is a parallelogram.2 We have 2BC = BE + EC.1 No. has magnitude but no direction. 0 . AD = BC. We deduce that − → − → − → − → − → − → − → − → AC + BD = AE + EC + BE + ED = AD + BC.β = .6 α = 4 3 4 2 1 .4 We have IA = −3IB ⇐⇒ IA = −3(IA + AB) = −3IA − 3AB.A Answers and Hints → − 1. b = − .1. 1. 4 4 Now −→ − −→ − MA + 3MB − → − → − → MI + IA + 3IB − → − → − → 4MI + IA + 3IB − → 4MI.1. The zero vector 0 . 2 2 1 1 1 1.8 [A]. and BD = BE + ED. By Chasles’ Rule AC = AE + EC. Thus we deduce − → − → − → IA + 3IA = −3AB ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ Similarly − → → 1− JA = − JB 3 ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ ⇐⇒ . [C].1.n = . [E].1. [B].m = . æ é a b æ é æ é b − a −1 a+b 1 = + .5 x + 1 = t = 2 − y =⇒ y = −x + 1.3. − → − → − → − → − → − → − → − → − → 1.1. − → − → − → − → − → − → − → 1.1 a = −3. 1. Hence − → − → − → − → − → AC + BD = AD + BC = 2BC. 0 . [D]. 4 = = = and −→ −→ − − 3MA + MB = = = − → − → − → − → 3MJ + 3JA + MJ + JB − → − → − → 4MJ + 3JA + JB − → 4MJ. l = .4. 0 . 2 148 .2 Plainly. 7 7 9 9 3 → − → − → − → − → − − 1. − → → − → → 3− 1− Thus we take I such that AI = AB and J such that AJ = AB. 0 .

Appendix A
1.4.2 The desired transformations are in ﬁgures A.1 through A.3.

5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Figure A.1: Stretch.

Horizontal

Figure A.2: Vertical Stretch.

Figure A.3: Horizontal and Vertical Stretch.

1.4.3 The desired transformations are shewn in ﬁgures through A.4 A.7.
5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Figure A.4: Levogyrate rotaπ tion radians. 2

Figure A.5: Levogyrate rotaπ tion radians. 4

Figure A.6: Dextrogyrate roπ tation radians. 2

Figure A.7: Dextrogyrate roπ tation radians. 4

1.4.8 The transformations are shewn in ﬁgures A.8 through A.10.
5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Figure A.8: Reﬂexion about the x-axis.

Figure A.9: Reﬂexion about the y-axis .

Figure A.10: Reﬂexion about the origin.

æ
1.4.9

a c

b −a

é
, bc = −a2

Free to photocopy and distribute

149

1.5.1 Upon solving the equations we ﬁnd (a1 , a2 ) = (2, 3) or (a1 , a2 ) = (−2, −3). → − − ||→ + b ||2 a −3a1 + 2a2 = 0, a2 + a2 = 13 1 2

− − → 1.5.2 Since →• b = 0, we have a

= = = =

→ − − → − − (→ + b )•(→ + b ) a a − − − − →•→ + 2→ •→ + → •→ − − a a a b b b → •→ − − → •→ + 0 + b b − − a a → − − ||→||2 + || b ||2 , a

from where the desired result follows. 1.5.3 By the CBS Inequality, whence the assertion follows. (a2 · 1 + b2 · 1) ≤ (a4 + b4 )1/2 (12 + 12 )1/2 ,

→ − → − − − − − − 1.5.4 We have ∀→ ∈ R2 , → • (→ − b ) = 0. In particular, choosing → = → − b , we gather v v a v a → − − → − → − − − (→ − b )•(→ − b ) = ||→ − b ||2 = 0. a a a → − → − → − → − − − But the norm of a vector is 0 if and only if the vector is the 0 vector. Therefore → − b = 0 , i.e., → = b . a a 1.5.5 We have − − − − ||→ + → ||2 − ||→ − → ||2 u v u v = = = giving the result. 1.5.6 A parametric equation for L1 is x y A parametric equation for L2 is x y = 0 b2 +t = 0 b1 +t − − − − − − − − (→ + → )•(→ + →) − (→ − →)•(→ − → ) u v u v u v u v − − − − − − − − − − → •→ + 2→ •→ + → •→ − (→ •→ − 2→ •→ + →•→ ) − − v v u v u u v v u v u u → •→ , − − 4u v

æ

1 m1

é
.

æ

1 m2

é
.

The lines are perpendicular if and only if, according to Corollary 22, æ é æ é 1 • 1 = 0 ⇐⇒ 1 + m 1 m 2 = 0 ⇐⇒ m 1 m 2 = −1. m1 m2 1.5.7 The line L has a parametric equation x y Let L have parametric equation x y = 0 b +t = 0 1 +t

æ

1

é
.

−1

æ

1

é
.

æ
We need the angle between

1 m

é

π to be and so by Theorem 21, 6 −1 Ô √ √ π 1 − m = 1 + m 2 2 cos =⇒ m = −2 ± 3. 6 and −1 2 √ 3

æ

1

é

m

This gives two possible values for the slope of L . Now, since L must pass through √ √

y = (−2 ± 3)x + b =⇒ 2 = (−2 ± 3)(−1) + b =⇒ b = ± √ √ √ √ and the lines are y = (−2 + 3)x + 3 and y = (−2 − 3)x − 3, respectively.

Free to photocopy and distribute

150

Appendix A
− − 1.5.8 We must prove that →•→ = 0. Using the distributive law for the dot product, a w → → − − → − v •w → − − v ¬¬→ ¬¬2 w ¬¬− ¬¬ w − •→ w = = = = 1.6.1 We have y − x = 4t =⇒ t = y−x and so 4 x= is the Cartesian equation sought. 1.6.2 Observe that for t = {0, −1}, y 2 y x = t =⇒ x = y x 1+ x =⇒ x = y 2 x3 =⇒ x5 + y 5 = x2 y 2 . + y5 y−x 4
3

→ → − − → •→ − v • w → •→ − − − − v w ¬¬→¬¬2 w w ¬¬− ¬¬ w → → − − − →•→ − v • w ¬¬→¬¬2 − − v w ¬¬→¬¬2 ¬¬ w ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ w → •→ − → •→ − − − − v w v w 0.

−2

y−x 4

5

x5

If t = 0, then x = 0, y = 0 and our Cartesian equation agrees. What happens as t → −1? 1.6.3 1. ay − cx = ad − bc, this is a straight line with positive slope. x2 y2 − 2 = 1, x > 0. This is one branch of a hyperbola. 2 a b x2 y2 4. 2 − 2 = 1. This is a hyperbola. a b 3. 2. −1 ≤ x ≤ 1, y = 0, this is the line segment on the plane joining (−1, 0) to (1, 0).

1.6.4 We may simply give the trivial parametrisation: x = t, y = log cos t, 0 ≤ t ≤ (dx)2 + (dy)2 = (1 + tan2 t)(dt)2 = sec2 t(dt)2 . Hence the arc length is
π /3

π . Then 3

sec tdt = log(2 +
0

3).

1.6.5 Observe that y = 2x + 1, so the trace is part of this line. Since in the interval [0; 4π], −1 ≤ sin t ≤ 1, we want the portion of the line y = 2x + 1 with −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 (and, thus −1 ≤ y ≤ 3). The curve starts at the middle π 3π point (0, 1) (at t = 0), reaches the high point (1, 3) at t = , reaches its low point (−1, 1) at t = , reaches its 2 2 5π 7π high point (1, 3) again at t = , it goes to its low point (−1, 1) at t = , and ﬁnishes in the middle point (0, 1) 2 2 when t = 4π. √ √ 1.6.6 First observe that x + y = 1 demands x ∈ [0; 1] and [0; 1]. Again, one can give many parametrisations. 2 2 One is x = t , y = (1 − t) , t ∈ [0; 1]. This gives (dx)2 + (dy)2 = To integrate 2 √ 2 we now use the trigonometric substitution 2 t− 1 2 = tan θ =⇒ dt = 1 sec2 θdθ. 2
1 0

Ô 2 4t2 + (2 − 2t)2 dt = 2 2t2 − 2t + 1 dt = √ 2
1 2
2

4 t−

1 2

2

+ 1 dt.

4 t−

+ 1 dt,

Free to photocopy and distribute

151

The integral thus becomes √
π /4

2
0

sec3 θdθ,

the famous secant cube integral, which is a standard example of integration by parts where you “solve” for the integral. (You write sec θd tan θ = tan θ sec θ − √
π /4

tan θd sec θ, etc.) I will simply quote it, as I assume most of

you have seen it, and it appears in most Calculus texts: 2
0

sec3 θdθ

= = =

1 1 sec θ tan θ − log | sec θ + tan θ| 2 2 √ √ 1 √ 1 2 · 2 + log( 2 + 1) 2 2 √ 1 √ log( 2 + 1) + 1. 2 2

π /4 0

1.6.7 First notice that x = 1 =⇒ t3 + 1 = 1 =⇒ t = 0 and x = 2 =⇒ t3 + 1 = 2 =⇒ t = 1. The area under the graph is t=1 t=1 t=1 2 ydx = (1 − t2 )d(t3 + 1) = 3t2 (1 − t2 )dt = . 5 t=0 t=0 t=0 1.6.8 Observe that dx = 6tdt; and so the arc length is
t=1 t=1

dy = 6t2 dt =⇒ (dx)2 + (dy)2 =

(dx)2 + (dy)2 = 6t 6t
t=0

Ô

1 + t2 dt,

Ô

t=0

√ 1 + t2 dt = 4 2 − 2.

1.6.9 Observe that dx = tdt, dy = √ 2t + 1dt =⇒ (dx)2 + (dy)2 =
1/2

Ô √ t2 + ( 2t + 1)2 dt = t2 + 2t + 1dt = (t + 1)dt.
t2 2
1/2

Hence, the arc length is (1 + t)dt =
−1/2

t+

= 1.
−1/2

1.6.10 Observe that the parametrisation traverses the curve once clockwise if t ∈ [0; 2π]. The area is given by æ é Á Á x dx 1 1 det = xdy − ydx 2 Γ 2 y dy 0 4 = (sin3 t(− sin t(1 + sin2 t) + 2 sin t cos2 t) 2 π /2 − cos t(1 + sin2 t)(3 sin2 t cos t))dt
0

= = = 1.6.11 Using the quotient rule, dx = and dy = Hence xdy − ydx =

2
π /2 0

(−3 sin2 t + sin4 t)dt − 9 1 + cos 2t + cos 4t dt 8 8

2 9π . 8
π /2

3(1 + t3 ) − 3t2 (3t) 3 − 6t3 9t2 − 18t5 · dt = · dt =⇒ ydx = · dt (1 + t3 )2 (1 + t3 )2 (1 + t3 )3

6t(1 + t3 ) − 3t2 (3t2 ) 6t − 3t4 18t2 − 9t5 · dt = · dt =⇒ xdy = · dt (1 + t3 )2 (1 + t3 )2 (1 + t3 )3

9t2 (1 + t3 ) 18t2 − 9t5 9t2 − 18t5 9t2 + 9t5 9t2 · dt − · dt = · dt = · dt = · dt. 3 )3 3 )3 3 )3 3 )3 (1 + t (1 + t (1 + t (1 + t (1 + t3 )2

Observe that when t = 0 then x = y = 0. As t → +∞, then x → 0 and y → 0. Hence to obtain the loop Using integration by substitution (u = 1 + t3 and du = 3t2 dt) , the area is given by 1 2
+∞ 0

9t2 3 · dt = (1 + t3 )2 2

+∞ 0

3t2 3 dt = (1 + t3 )2 2

+∞ 1

du 3 = . u2 2

Free to photocopy and distribute

152

6. making the point P to rotate an angle of θ radians. 4 The quadratic equation in t2 has a real root if (gh − V 2 )2 ≥ g 2 (h2 + u2 ) =⇒ g 2 u2 ≤ V 2 (V 2 − 2gh). t is the time and g is the acceleration due to gravity. d cos θ). 4px0 ).6. 1. g 2 t4 + (gh − V 2 )2 t2 + h2 + u2 = 0.12 See ﬁgure 1. and the airplane is on a point with coordinates (u. Free to photocopy and distribute 153 . the vertex V of the rolling 0 parabola is the reﬂexion of the origin about the line tangent to their point of contact. Suppose the circle is displaced towards the right.58. ρ − d).16 Suppose the parabolas have a point of contact P = (4px2 . 1.   y ¡2   y ¡2 x 1+ (x2 + y 2 )x + 2py 2 = 0. h) with u ≥ 0. 2x0 The line normal to this line and passing through the origin is hence y = −2xx0 . dy = et (sin t+cos t)dt =⇒ The arc length is thus 0 π (dx)2 + (dy)2 = et √ π (cos t − sin t)2 + (sin t + cos t)2 dt = √ 2et dt. we must have x = V t cos a. ρ). Then the centre of the circle has displaced rθ units horizontally. 8px2 16px3 0 0 . Since we know that the shell strikes the plane. y = V t sin a − u = V t cos a. 2 1 + 4x0 1 + 4x2 0 . 2 = V 2 t2 . If the gun were ﬁred at t = 0. the y-axis is vertical. y(t)).14 We have dx = et (cos t−sin t)dt. from where the equation of the tangent is 2x0 x y= + 2px0 . (1 + t3 )2 2 A shorter way of obtaining xdy − ydx would have been to argue that xdy − ydx = x2 d y x = 1. At θ = 0 the centre of the circle is at (0. (dx)2 + (dy)2 = 2 0 et dt = √ 2(eπ − 1). This is the desired parametrisation.Appendix A  9t dt. and so is now located at (ρθ. The point P has moved x = ρθ − d sin θ horizontal units and y = ρ − d cos θ units. and P = (0. 2 where a is the angle of elevation. and let C be the centre of the circle. Let θ be the angle (in radians) of rotation of the circle. whence u2 + h + and thus h = V t sin a − 1 2 gt 2 2 gt2 . eliminating t yields x=− or giving the equation of the locus.15 Choose coordinates so that the origin is at the position of the gun. ρ). 1 + 4x2 1 + 4x2 0 0 2p x := (x(t).6. and so the lines intersect at − from where V = As −2x0 x(t) = y(t). then gt2 .6. The polar coordinates of the point P are (d sin θ. in relation to the centre of the circle (notice that the circle moves clockwise). 1. − 4px2 8px3 0 0 . The slope of the tangent at P 1 is . from where the assertion follows. By symmetry.

and two c × a × 1 bricks. The desired equation is thus 1 4 3 x − y + z = 0. 1 ¾ Since the line follows the direction of of the desired plane is 1 ¿ −1 ¾ ¿ 1 −2 −1 −2 .  Four quarter-cylinders of length a and radius 1.7. of volume abc.3 The vectorial form of the equation of the line is ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ 1 1 →= − r 0 + t −2 . Free to photocopy and distribute 154 . two b × c × 1 bricks. and thus the equation (x − 1) − 2(y − 1) − (z − 1) = 0. and thus ¾ 1 ¿ × ¾ 1 ¿ = ¾ 1/6 3/2 ¿ −1 −1 1/2 1/3 −4/3 is normal to the plane. this means that −1 is normal to the plane. Thus the vector ¾ −1 − 0 −1 − 0 1−0 ¿ = ¾ 1 ¿ −1 −1 lies on the plane. ¾ 1.7. a whence ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬→ →¬¬ − ¬¬ a − b ¬¬ = x 1 = 2 3 ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬2 − → ¬¬ − ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬− 2¬¬→¬¬ + 2¬¬ b ¬¬ − ¬¬→ + b ¬¬ = a a ¿ −2 0 2(13)2 + 2(19)2 − (24)2 = 22. 0 1.7. four quarter-cylinders of length b and radius 1. z = t/3. the vectorial form of the equation of the line is ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ 0 1 1 →= − r 0 + t 1/2 = t 1/2 .Answers and Hints 1. ¾ This means that 1 1/2 1/3 ¿ 0 1/3 1/3 also lies on the plane. ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ − − ¬¬→ → ¬¬2 ¬¬→ →¬¬2 − − ¬¬ a − b ¬¬ + ¬¬ a + b ¬¬ = = ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬→ ¬¬2 − − − − − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ − 2→ •→ + ¬¬→ ¬¬ + ¬¬→ ¬¬2 + 2→•→ + ¬¬→¬¬ a b a b a a ¬¬ b ¬¬ ¬¬ b ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬− ¬¬2 − ¬¬→¬¬ 2¬¬→¬¬ + 2¬¬ b ¬¬ . Hence.1 Observe that.  Two a × b × 1 bricks. Now. and four quarter-cylinders of length c and radius 1. 1.7. and hence on the plane. 6 3 2 1.4 Observe that 0 0 (as 0 = 2(0) = 3(0)) is on the line. then x = t. in general.2 y z + t −1 .7. y = t/2. if x = 2y = 3z = t.5 The set B can be decomposed into the following subsets:  The set A itself.

y = 2 − t.7. this perpendicular line to the plane has equation ¾ ¿ x 1 1 y z = 2 3 + t −1 1 =⇒ x = 1 + t.6 We have. 3) is therefore 2 7 8 . 0 or We may also write this as x y z 1 1 1 + + = + + . Therefore. −1 The intersection of the line and the plane occurs when 1 1 + t − (2 − t) + (3 + t) = 1 =⇒ t = − . ¾ 1. 3 3 3 3 Free to photocopy and distribute 155 . t ∈ R.9 The vector 1 ¿ is perpendicular to the plane. and the distance sought is 3 3 3 √ 2 2 7 2 8 2 3 (1 − ) + (2 − ) + (3 − ) = . 2. 3) is obtained by 1 the perpendicular line to the plane that pierces the plane. so x = t/a. 2. The line sought has the same direction as this vector. z = 3 + t. ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬→ ¬¬2 ¬¬→ ¬¬2 ¬¬→ ¬¬2 − − − − − ¬¬→ → →¬¬2 ¬¬− ¬¬ → → → − − → → → − − → → → → → → − − − − − − − − ¬¬ a + b + c ¬¬ = ( a + b + c ) • ( a + b + c ) = ¬¬ a ¬¬ + ¬¬ b ¬¬ + ¬¬ c ¬¬ + 2( a • b + b • c + c • a ).7. Thus the required formula for the volume is abc + 2(ab + bc + ca) + π(a + b + c) + 4π . y = t/b. thus the a2 ¾ ¿ x y z = ¾ ¿ 0 0 1 ¾ a a2 ¿ t ∈ R. 3 1. the equation of the plane is ¾ 1/a 1/b 1/c ¿ ¾ • x−1 y−1 z−1 ¿ = ¾ ¿ 0 0 . 3 The closest point on the plane to (1.Appendix A  Eight eighth-of-spheres of radius 1. z = t/c.7. + t a2 .7. Hence. − − − − a b b c c a 2 ¾ ¿ a 1. ¾ Thus the vector 1/a 1/b 1/c ¿ is perpendicular to the plane.7 A vector normal to the plane is equation of the line is a2 . The parametric equation of the line is ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ x 1/a y z =t 1/b 1/c . . . from where we deduce that 2 2 2 − − →•→ + →•→ + → •→ = −3 − 4 − 5 = −25. the shortest distance from (1.8 Put ax = by = cz = t. a b c a b c bcx + cay + abz = ab + bc + ca. 1.

Free to photocopy and distribute 156 .11. b.12 First observe that S(a. Then cos θ = Ô 2 · 2 + 1 · (−1) + 1 · 1 4 Ô = √ √ =⇒ θ = arccos (2)2 + (1)2 + (1)2 (2)2 + (−1)2 + (1)2 6 6 2 . (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 3 which in turn gives S(a. there would be a value t for which ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ 1 2 0 2 1−0 1 1 +t 1 1 = 0 1 +t −1 1 =⇒ 1−0 1−1 ¾ =t −1 − 1 1−1 2−2 ¿ =⇒ ¾ ¿ 1 1 0 =t ¾ 0 0 ¿ −2 . This gives (since squares are positive. 6 1− √ 2 1 3 = √ = . c) 1 ≤ a 2 + b2 + c 2 4 the desired maximum.16 Assume contrariwise that →.7. Now take x1 = a2 . x3 = c2 and y1 = y2 = y3 = 1. y3 ) let θ be the angle x y between them. and →•→ < − . x2 . Thus a c c a 3 2 2 2 ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬2 ¬¬→¬¬ − − ¬¬→ → → ¬¬ − − − 2 = ¬¬→ ¬¬ + ¬¬ b ¬¬ + ¬¬→¬¬ a c ¬¬ a + b + c ¬¬ − − → •→ + 2→ •→ + 2→ •→ − − − − +2 a b b c c a < = 0. x2 = b2 . (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 a 4 + b4 + c 4 .Answers and Hints 1.11 Observe the CBS Inequality in R3 given the vectors → = (x1 . b. b . which is clearly impossible. → = (y1 .7. b.7. (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 a 4 + b4 + c 4 1 ≥ .7. From problem 1. c) 1 = a 2 + b2 + c 2 4 and thus maximising f is equivalent to minimising 2 1 4 1 4 s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c) (a + b + c)(b + c − a)(c + a − b)(a + b − c) (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 − 2(a4 + b4 + c4 ) x2 + x2 + x2 1 2 3 2 2 2 y1 + y2 + y3 =⇒ (a2 + b2 + c2 )2 ≤ (a4 + b4 + c4 )(3). since a norm of vectors is always ≥ 0. 1 . Then → • b < − . and so the lines are skew. 3 − − 1. b •→ < − . c) = = = Hence S(a. → are three unit vectors in R3 such that the angle between any two of a c − − 2π 1 → − 1 1 − → − − them is > . Then → •→ = ¬¬→ ¬¬¬¬→ ¬¬ cos θ =⇒ |x y + x y + x y | ≤ − − ¬¬− ¬¬¬¬− ¬¬ x y x y 1 1 2 2 3 3 x2 + x2 + x2 1 2 3 2 2 2 y1 + y2 + y3 .10 If the lines intersected. 1.7. x3 ).7. y2 . Ö 1−2 a 4 + b4 + c 4 . 1+1+1−1−1−1 which is impossible. 1.15 x + y + z = 1. 3 12 4 3 − − → − 1. we don’t need the absolute values) |x1 y1 + x2 y2 + x3 y3 | ≤ which proves the claim at once. Let θ be the angle between them.

Let x be the point on the plane that is nearest − 1.8.4 The vector 1 1 ¾ ¿ 1 1 0 ¾ × = ¿ −1 1 0 is normal to the plane.18 There are 7 vertices (V0 = (0. → •→ = →•→ . ¬¬→ ¬¬2 − ¬¬ ¬¬ n ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ n − − − − Since R0 is on the plane. 9. 0. 2). ¬¬− ¬¬| ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ n n n as we wanted to shew. and the distance we seek is − to b. y → − → − − − − − − − − − − − 1. V1 V5 . 0).11: Problem 1. V1 = (11. V5 = (9. 8). V0 V3 . and V4 V6 ).8.5 The vectors ¾ a − (−a) a−0 0−1 ¿ = ¾ 2a a ¿ −1 and ¾ 0 − (−a) 2a − 0 1−1 ¿ = ¾ a 0 2a ¿ Free to photocopy and distribute 157 . as obtained before. 0.8. z x Figure A. 3.17 Let projt = s t s 0 0 s (||s||)2 − → − → − → is orthogonal to the plane.Appendix A → •→ − − t s → − − − be the projection of → over → = →.7. Thus 2→ × → = 0 and hence → × → = 0 . c a c a ¾ ¿ 1 1.8.7. and so r0 n a n r ||projn0 − b || = → − → − → − − → − − → − − − − − − − |→•→ − b •→ | a n n |(→ − b )•→ | a n | → •→ − b •→ | r0 n n ¬¬→ ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ = = . V3 = (0. 0. 8). 1. V4 V5 .3 One has This gives → − − → → − − − → − → − − − − − − ( b − → ) × (→ − →) = 0 =⇒ → × b + b × → + → × → = 0 a c a a c c a → → − → − − → → → → − − − − → → − − − − b × − = −(→ × b + → × →) = −( j + k + i − j ) = − i − k . 1. The plane has thus equation ¾ x z−2 ¿ ¾ • y+1 ¿ −1 1 0 = 0 =⇒ −x + y + 1 = 0 =⇒ x − y = 1. V6 = (4. V2 V6 . 0).18. x x x x y x x x x x 1. 0). V3 V5 . V1 V6 . 7. 0)) and 11 edges (V0 V1 .2 We have → × → = −→ × → by letting → = → in ??. V4 = (0. V2 = (0. Then bx0 = x0 b ¬¬ ¬¬ − → − − ¬¬ → → •→ ¬¬ − → −→ − − r0 n − |(→ − b )•→| r0 n ¬¬ (− − b ) − → ¬¬ r ¬¬→¬¬ ||projn0 b || = ¬¬ n ¬¬ = . V3 V4 . V0 V2 .7. 0. V2 V4 .

1. Hence we may take either v w √ or −√ 1.8. −2a ¿ ¾ • x−a z−a y−0 ¿ = 0.8. x x x x ¬¬− ¬¬2 ¬¬→¬¬2 → − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ − − → − → ||→ × j ||2 = ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬ k ¬¬ − (→ • k )2 = 1 − (→• k )2 .7 From Theorem ?? we have − → × (→ × → ) = (→ •→ )→ − (→ •→ )→ . − − − − − − − − − − − − a x b b x − a a b x a x b b a x b x a a x b x → − − − − The answer is thus {→ : → ∈ R→ × b }.6 Either of →×→ − − →×→ − − v w v w → × → || or − ||→ × →|| will do. 1 2a2 + a4 −a2 a a and adding yields the result. a −2a ¿ ¾ −3a2 a that is.8. Now − − − − || v w v w →×→ − − v w = = = = 2ax + 3a2 y − az = a2 .Answers and Hints lie on the plane. x x a ¬¬− ¬¬2 ¬¬→¬¬2 → − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ − − → − → ||→ × i ||2 = ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬ i ¬¬ − (→ • i )2 = 1 − (→• i )2 . x x x x ¬¬− ¬¬2 − − − − → − → − → and since (→• i )2 + (→ • j )2 + (→ • k )2 = ¬¬→ ¬¬ = 1. x x x x 1.8. → − → − → − → − (−a j + a k ) × ( i + a j ) → → − − → → − − → → − − → → − − −a( j × i ) − a2 ( j × j ) + a( k × i ) + a2 ( k × j ) → − → − → − a k + a j − a2 i −a2 a a . Ô Ô − − and ||→ × →|| = a4 + a2 + a2 = 2a2 + a4 . the desired sum equals 3 − 1 = 2. 1. c a a c c a − → × (→ × → ) = (→ •→ )→ − (→ •→ )→ .9 − − − − − − − − − → × (→ × → ) = → × (→ × →) ⇐⇒ (→ •→)→ − (→•→)→ = (→•→ )→ − (→•→)→ ⇐⇒ →•→ = → •→ = 0. − − − − − − − − a b c a c b a b c 1 2a2 + a4 −a2 a a . → − → − − − → − − − − − b × (→ × → ) = ( b •→ )→ − ( b •→ )→ .8 By Lagrange’s Identity. − − − − − − − − c a b c b a c a b ¬¬− ¬¬2 ¬¬→¬¬2 → − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ − − → − → ||→ × k ||2 = ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬ j ¬¬ − (→ • j )2 = 1 − (→• j )2 . x x x x Free to photocopy and distribute 158 . A vector normal to the plane is ¾ ¿ 2a −1 a The equation of the plane is thus given by × ¾ a 0 2a ¿ = ¾ −3a2 .

8.13 First observe that − − − − This is so because both sides give the volume of the parallelogram spanned by → . a c c a c a c a c a c a This gives → − → − − − → − − − − − − − − − → − → − − − → → − → − → ((→ × b ) × → ) • d = ((→ •→) b − (→ • b )→ ) • d = (→ •→)( b • d ) − (→ • b )(→ • d ). −3 Free to photocopy and distribute 159 . a c Adding these three equalities.15 1. z = −3s. − → CB = ¾ 0 4 ¿ − → − → → − → − → − → − → − → − → − =⇒ CA × CB = (6 i − 3 k ) × (4 j − 3 k ) = 24 k + 18 j + 12 i = ¾ 12 24 ¿ 18 . We have −3 ¬¬ ¬¬ Ô √ √ → − ¬¬ → ¬¬− ¬¬CA × CB¬¬ = 122 + 182 + 242 = 1044 = 6 29. again.8. → − → − − − − − − − − − − → − − − → − − → − → − (→ × b ) × → = −→ × (→ × b ) = −((→ • b )→ − (→ •→ ) b ) = (→ •→) b − (→ • b )→ . we see that all the terms on the dextral side cancel out and we obtain 0.12 → − → → → − − − → → − − → = (a•b)a +6b +2a × c − x ¬¬→¬¬2 12 + 2¬¬− ¬¬ a − → → → − − − → − → → − → = (a•c)a +6c +3a × b − y ¬¬→¬¬2 18 + 3¬¬− ¬¬ a → • (→ × →) = (→ × →) • →.8. The desired line has equation x y z = 3 0 0 +s = 0 0 3 6 0 −3 ¿ =⇒ x = 6t. y = 0. ¾ 0 0 ¿ =⇒ x = 3. −3 2. as required. and using the fact that the dot product is commutative. − − − − − − x y z x y z 1. y = 0. y = → and → = d we gather that − − − a c z → − → − − − (→ × b ) • (→ × d ) a c Now. Now. → . 1. putting → = x y z x → → − − → − → × b .Appendix A 1. x y u v x u y v x v y u Using this three times: → − − → − − ( b × →) • (→ × d ) c a → → − − − − (→ × →) • ( b × d ) c a → − → − − − (→ × b ) • (→ × d ) a c = = = − → → − − − → − − − → − → a c c ( b •→) • (→ • d ) − ( b • d ) • (→ • d ) − − − − − → − → − → − → (→ • b ) • (→ • d ) − (→ • d ) • (→ • b ) c a c a → •→ − − → − → •→ − − − − − a (→ •→) • ( b d ) − (→ • d ) • ( b c ) a c = → − → − − − ((→ × b ) × → ) • d . → .8.14 By problem 1.8. − − − − − − − − − − − − (→ × →) • (→ × →) = (→•→ ) • (→•→ ) − (→ •→) • (→ •→). z = 3 − 3t. ¾ +t 3. a c c a c a c a c a proving the identity. 1.13. The desired line has equation x y z 4. We have ¾ − → CA = 6 0 ¿ .

we ﬁnd 3 2(3) + 3(0) + 4z = 12 =⇒ P = 0 3 2 3 2(3) + 3y + 4(0) = 12 =⇒ Q = 2 0 3 2 3 0 0 2(0) + 3(3) + 4z = 12 =⇒ S = 3 3 4 . Q= 3 y 0 . 4 16 16 1. . Assume its truth for n − 1. I will follow the second approach. the line LC A is x = 6t. and so the assertion is proved by induction.Answers and Hints 5. ¬¬ = ¬¬ 2 2 ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ 8 ¬¬ 2 16 64 4 16 3 ¬¬ 3 ¬¬ 3 ¬¬ − ¬¬ − ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ 4 4 2 Hence the area of the pentagon is √ 3√ 3 √ 33 √ 3 29 − 29 − 29 = 29. item The area is 2 ¬¬ ¬¬ √ √ → − ¬¬ → 1 1 ¬¬− ¬¬CA × CB¬¬ = · 6 29 = 3 29. Another way would be to subtract from the area of ABC the areas of AP Q and RSB. z = −3s. A possible way is to decompose the pentagon into three triangles. 2x + 3(3) + 4(0) = 12 =⇒ R = . S = 0 3 z . 0 = 0. Then ¬¬¾ ¿ ¾ ¬¬¾ ¿¬¬ ¿¬¬ ¬¬ 3 ¬¬ −3 ¬¬ 0 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ → − ¬¬ → 1 ¬¬− 1 ¬¬ 1 ¬¬ 9 ¬¬ 1 81 3√ ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ = ¬¬ [ AP Q] = ¬¬PA × PQ¬¬ = ¬¬ 0 × 9+ + 36 = 29. CQR and CRS and ﬁnd their areas. [ RSB] denote the areas of AP Q and RSB respectively. . From the preceding items. that is. 7. ¬¬ = 2 2 ¬¬ 3 2 ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ 2 4 4 ¬¬ 3 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ 6 ¬¬ − 2 2 ¬¬¾ ¿¬¬ ¬¬¾ ¿ ¾ ¬¬ 3 ¬¬ ¿¬¬ ¬¬ 3 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ 0 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ 4 ¬¬ ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ → − ¬¬ → 1 ¬¬− 1 ¬¬ 1 ¬¬ 9 ¬¬ 1 9 81 9 3 √ 1 ¬¬ = ¬¬ [ RSB] = ¬¬SR × SB¬¬ = ¬¬ 0 × + + = 29. say CP Q. 0. z = 3 − 3t and the line LD E is x = 3. Let [ AP Q]. Since all this points lie on the plane 2x + 3y + 4z = 12. 2 2 6. y = 1 1 0. Free to photocopy and distribute 160 . 3 − 3t = −3s gives t = and s = − . Observe that 3 P = 0 z .9. y = 0. An = AAn−1 = A(3n−2 A) = 3n−2 A2 = 3n−2 3A = 3n−1 A. Observe that ¾ ¿¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 A2 = 1 1 Now 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 3 3 3 3 3 3 = 3A. R= x 3 0 .2 The assertion is trivial for n = 1. . If the line intersect then 6t = 3. assume An−1 = 3n−2 A. The point of 2 2 3 intersection is thus 3.

0 . we use Gauß trick: summing the sum forwards is the same as summing the sum backwards. 0 n ¿ A = 2 n−1 . . 0 2 1 0 . Observe that A = [aij ]. 2 Free to photocopy and distribute 161 .. . For the second sum. 1 n−2 . . 2 n Put now A3 = [cij ]. S2 = k=i k. ··· (i + j) i−1 (i + j)(j − i + 1) . 0 (n − 1)n 2 (n − 2)(n − 1) 2 (n − 3)(n − 2) 2 . j]. For the second part. and hence j j S1 = k=i a = S1 = a k=i 1 = a(j − i + 1). ..9. you need to know how to sum arithmetic progressions.... Then bij = aik akj = k=1 k=1 0 = 0.3 First.. 0 n(n + 1) 2 (n − 1)n 2 (n − 2)(n − 1) 2 . .. we will prove that ¾ 1 0 0 . 1 ¿ . we will prove that ¾ 1 3 6 10 . . Put A2 = [bij ]. Since A3 = A2 A. ..Appendix A 1. 0 ... cij = k=1 j bik akj (k − i + 1) j j = k=i j = k=i k− i+ k=i k=i 1 = = (j + i)(j − i + 1) − i(j − i + 1) + (j − i + 1) 2 (j − i + 1)(j − i + 2) . where aij = 1 for i ≤ j and aij = 0 for i > j. .. . Now. . 0 6 3 . The ﬁrst sum is trivial: there are j − i + 1 integers in the interval [i. n−1 n−2 n−3 . S2 S2 2S2 2S2 which gives S2 = = = = = i j (i + j) (i + j)(j − i + 1) + + + i+1 (i + j) j−1 + + + i+2 (i + j) j−2 + + + ··· ··· ··· + + + j−1 + + + j i (i + j) . . 0 4 3 2 . Then n j bij = k=1 aik akj = k=i n 1 = j − i + 1.. and so... 0 A = 3 1 0 ... .... . 0 3 1 . .. 0 . we need to know how to sum (assume i ≤ j)... proving the ﬁrst statement.. . . In our case.. Assume ﬁrst that i ≤ j. 0 3 2 1 . Assume ﬁrst that i ≤ j.. . .. . adding the ﬁrst two rows below.. j j S1 = k=i a... . n Assume now that i > j. ..

The cone is generated when the triangle rotates about CA.12. The gyrating curve is the hypotenuse. Then n n cij = k=1 bik akj = k=1 0 = 0.11.1 Consider a right triangle ABC rectangle at A with legs of length CA = h and AB = r. a π 1. . ¾ m(a)m(−a) = m(a − a) = m(0) = 1 −0 0 0 1 0 0 02 − 2 1 ¿ = I3 . 2 C r/2 h/3 G A G B Figure A. This ﬁnishes the proof.12: Generating a cone.4 For the ﬁrst part.3 √ 3 1.1 √ .12.9. observe that using the preceding part of the problem. whose centroid Ô is its centre. observe that ¾ m(a)m(b) = 1 −a 0 1 0 1 ¾ = 0 a a2 − 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 ¿¾ 1 −b 0 0 1 0 −a − b 0 a+b a2 b2 − − + ab 2 2 1 a+b (a + b)2 − 2 1 b b2 − 2 1 ¿ ¿ ¾ = 1 −(a + b) 0 ¿ = m(a + b) For the second part. The lateral area is thus πr r 2 + h2 . The length of the generating curve is thus r 2 + h2 and the length of curve described by the centre Ô r of gravity is 2π = πr. 1. 2 4 a 1.Answers and Hints Assume now that i > j. Free to photocopy and distribute 162 .11. giving the result. as in ﬁgure A.

and its distance Ô x2 + y 2 .15.4 A spiral staircase. If this point were on the xy plane.15.15. If G is the perpendicular projection of G onto [CA]. Then shew that cos θ = .2 Let y z 1 the axis of rotation would be |x| = |1 − 4y|. it would be on the line. shewing that the surface is of revolution.3 A spiral staircase. But from example 17.14. Its axis is → → → − − − the line in the direction i + j + k . 2 and so we may take A : x + y + z = 0.7 Rearranging. that is x y z to the axis of rotation is the be a point on S. 1. 1. 3 9x2 + 9z 2 − 16y 2 + 8y − 1 = 0.1 Find a vector → mutually perpendicular to V1 V2 and V1 V3 and another vector and a vector b mutually a → − −− −→ −− −→ 1 − a perpendicular to V1 V3 and V1 V4 . where θ is the angle between → and b . 3 x 1. the length of the curve described 2 3 3 r h 3 2 2 rh π by the centre of gravity of the triangle is πr. the distance of 3 x same as the distance of y z to 0 y 0 . This distance is the same as the length of the segment on z the xz-plane going from the z-axis.15.15. We must have Ô which is to say x2 + z 2 = 1 |1 − 4y|. Σ : x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 0. The volume of the cone is thus πr · = r 2 h. We thus have Ô 1Ô x2 + y 2 = 1 − z 2. the distance from 2 0 distance of this point to the point 0 : x y z to the z-axis is the be a point on S. 3 3 2 3 To ﬁnd the volume. 1. then this means that G is at a vertical h/3 h 2 h GG r height of · = . and its distance to Ô x2 + z 2 . We need to ﬁnd the centroid of the 2 triangle. Free to photocopy and distribute 163 . it would be on the ellipse. whose area is → − −− −→ −− −→ − 1. x 1. Hence.Appendix A rh . we know that the centroid G of the triangle is is two thirds of the way from A to the midpoint of BC. 2 or 4x2 + 4y 2 + z 2 = 1.1 Let y z 1Ô to the axis of rotation would be |x| = 1 − z 2 . The directrix has direction i − k . Anywhere else. The surface has equation of the form f (A.15. 1. If this point were on the xz plane. B) = 2 2 → → − − eA +B − A = 0. Anywhere else. By similar triangles = =⇒ GG = . and it is thus a cylinder. we gyrate the whole right triangle. (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 − 1 ((x + y + z)2 − (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )) − 1 = 0.6 The planes A : x + z = 0 and B : y = 0 are secant.

To ﬁnd its directrix. 2 + 2 = 1. x2 + 1.1 The arc length element is (dx)2 + (dy)2 + (dz)2 = We need t = 1 to t = 4.12 Any hyperboloid oriented like the one on the ﬁgure has an equation of the form x2 y2 z2 = 2 + 2 − 1. Parallel cross sections of the ellipsoid are similar ellipses.15. 1. 1. B : y = 0. we see that our surface is a cone. Arguing similarly on the xy-plane b c shews that the radius of the circle is at least b. To shew that circular cross section of radius b actually exist. and the diameter of any such cross section must be a diameter y2 z2 of the ellipse x = 0. b = 1. ¬4 ¬ (2t + 9) dt = (t2 + 9t)¬ = (16 + 36) − (1 + 9) = 42. one may verify that the two planes given by a2 (b2 − c2 )z 2 = c2 (a2 − b2 )x2 give circular cross sections of radius b. or − Considering the planes y x + 1 = 0.9 Rearranging. Every plane through the origin which makes a circular cross section must intersect the yz-plane. Σ : x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 0 as our plane and sphere. 2 z2 = 4x2 + y 2 − 1. B) = 1 1 1 + − − 1 = 0.15. A B A+B thus the equation¾represents¿ cylinder. we obtain (z − 1)2 − xy = 0. c2 c 4 4 4 4 y2 = 1. The equation is thus 4 3z 2 = 4x2 + y 2 − 1. B : y − z = 0. 1).10 After rearranging. the equation takes the form f (A. Therefore. 0. the radius of the circle is at most b. 4 Hence. z 1. since at z = ±2. C : z = 1. hence we may increase the size of these by moving towards the centre of the ellipse. so we may take A : x + y + z = 0.15. The direction vector is thus i + j + k .11 The largest circle has radius b.15. 1.16. This gives y = t 1 . 2 c a b When z = 0 we must have 4x2 + y 2 = 1 =⇒ a = Thus 1 . z−1z−1 (x + y + z)2 − (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) + 2(x + y + z) + 2 = 0. The axis of revolution is then in → → → − − − the direction of i + j + k .15. letting z = ±2.Answers and Hints 1.8 Considering the planes A : x − y = 0. we ﬁnd the intersection of the planes x = y and ¿ ¾ a x 1 → → → − − − y = z. c2 4 1 y2 1 1 3 = 4x2 + y 2 − 1 =⇒ 2 = x2 + − = 1− = . with apex at (0. 1 A : x = 0. 1 Free to photocopy and distribute 164 . The desired length is 4 1 Ô 4t2 + 36t + 81 dt = (2t + 9) dt.

Since the coefﬁcient of t in this polynomial is 0. y = 3 sin θ sin φ. Hence to be above the plane we need 0 ≤ φ ≤ . z = cos φ. The projection of the plane x + y + z = 0 onto the xy-plane is the line y = −x. 4 1. If f (x) = 0 then ex−1 = 1 implying that x = 1. t ∈ [0. Thus f has a single minimum point at x = 1. π 0 (c2 + 1)dc = 4π 3 1. so they intersect at the circle x2 + y 2 = 1.16. z = 2.3 Let →(t) lie on the plane ax + by + cz = d. 3).2 Observe that z = 1 + x2 + y 2 is a paraboloid opening up. 1 1 1 1 t1 t2 t3 + t1 t2 t4 + t1 t3 t4 + t2 t3 t4 = 0 =⇒ + + + = 0. Easy Algebra! Free to photocopy and distribute 165 .16. the angle 1 π 3π θ. we may parametrise this circle as x = cos t. 2. Adding the equations we obtain 2z = z + z = (1 + x2 + y 2 ) + (3 − x2 − y 2 ) = 4 =⇒ 2z = 4 =⇒ z = 2. − 1. x2 + y 2 = c2 + 1 1 3. t1 t2 t3 t4 t1 t2 t3 t4 a2 − 1 a2 + 1 −2a ¿ 2. z = 3 − x2 − y 2 is another paraboloid opening down. then the sum of the roots of p(t) taken three at a time is 0. Since 1 is normal to the plane 4 4 1 π x + y + z = 0.Appendix A 1. the tk are coplanar if and only if they are roots of p(t). which gives the desired result. Since they meet at the circle x2 + y 2 = 1. On the other hand.6 ¾ 1. measured from the positive x-axis needs to be in the interval − ≤ θ ≤ . Now.1 1. Clearly f (1) = e0 − 1 = 0.16. Then we must have r a t4 t3 t2 +b +c = d =⇒ (at4 + bt3 + ct2 ) = d(1 + t2 ) =⇒ at4 + bt3 + (c − d)t2 − d = 0. Subtracting the equations. 0. with vertex (lowest point) at (0. A common parametrisation found was: x = cos θ sin φ.17. so they intersect at the plane z = 2. Thus for all real numbers x 0 = f (1) ≤ f (x) = ex−1 − x. 1. t1 t2 t3 + t1 t2 t4 + t1 t3 t4 + t2 t3 t4 = 0 =⇒ as required. 2π]. Hence. f (x) = ex−1 − x. with highest point at (0. then t must satisfy the quartic polynomial p(t) = r at4 + bt3 + (c − d)t2 − d = 0. the plane makes an angle of with the z-axis. 2 2 1+t 1+t 1 + t2 − which means that if → (t) is on the plane ax + by + cz = d. To be ¾ ¿ “above” this line. f (x) = ex−1 − 1. that is. 0. f (x) = ex−1 . Easy Algebra! 3.4 Observe that in this problem you are only parametrising the ellipsoid! The tricky part is to ﬁgure out the bounds in your parameters so that only the part above the plane x + y + z = 0 is described. Recall that φ is measured from φ = 0 (positive 4 3π z-axis) to φ = π (negative z-axis). y = sin t.16. (1 + x2 + y 2 ) − (3 − x2 − y 2 ) = z − z = 0 =⇒ 2x2 + 2y 2 − 2 = 0 =⇒ x2 + y 2 = 1. Put f : R → R. 1). z = 2.

we need each of the inequalities Ak ≤ exp(Ak − 1) to hold. (a1 + a2 + · · · + an )n We deduce that Gn ≤ which is equivalent to a1 + a2 + · · · + an n n .4 Observe that 96 · 216 = 1442 and by CBS. .17. then a + x ≥ 0 and a − x ≥ 0. 1. and thus we may use AM-GM with n = 8. An ≤ exp(An − 1). Hence a1 = a2 = . a2 . This completes the proof. . n: n!1/n = (1 · 2 · · · n)1/n < with strict inequality for n > 1. . A1 A2 · · · An ≤ exp(A1 + A2 + · · · + An − n). 48 Free to photocopy and distribute 166 . we have A1 ≤ exp(A1 − 1).. . na2 = 144 gives a = 1. . n n n k=1 a2 ≤ k a3 k k=1 k=1 ak . . a1 + a2 + · · · + an . an ) = t(a3 . Since all the quantities involved are non-negative. As there is equality.17.17. . . . This occurs. = an = a.17. + (x1 + x2 + .17.2 By CBS. if and only if Ak = 1.   ¡ 16 (8 − e)2 ≤ 4 16 − e2 ⇐⇒ e (5e − 16) ≤ 0 ⇐⇒ 0 ≤ e ≤ .   ¡ (a + b + c + d)2 ≤ (1 + 1 + 1 + 1) a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 Hence. We deduce that 5 3 a+x 5 from where f (x) ≤ with equality if and only if a+x a−x = . n 2 1.5 Applying the AM-GM inequality. ∀k.Answers and Hints 4. = an . from where na = 96. the preceding inequality is equivalent to nn Gn ≤ exp(n − n) = e0 = 1. . a3 .. . for equality to occur. a]. a3 ) 1 2 n 3 y n = 32. . in view of the preceding lemma. (a1 a2 · · · an )1/n ≤ 1. . + xn ) x1 x2 xn n ≥ = √ i=1 1 xi √ xi 2 n2 . . . . A2 ≤ exp(A2 − 1).3 By CBS. . 2. 5 6 16 is reached when a = b = c = d = . we may multiply all these inequalities together. to obtain. In view of the observations above. a1 = a2 = · · · = a+x a−x a5 = and a6 = a7 = a8 = . 5 3 5 a−x 3 3 5 ≤ a+x 5 +3 8 a−x 3 8 = a 4 8 . . which translates into a1 = a2 = . .6 If x ∈ [−a. The maximum value e = 5 5 1. 2 for some real number t. =   ¡ 4 a 2 + b2 + c 2 + d 2 . . . 55 33 a8 . 1 +2 +··· + n n+1 = . for 1. (a1 . By the preceding results. n Now. 1 1 1 + +.

. x2 as (x.17.2 Since polynomials are continuous functions and the image of a connected set is connected for a continuous function.3. 4. 1+ that is 1+ which means xn+1 > xn . all real numbers (take for example p(x.3. y) = x2 whose image is [0. The possibilities are thus 1. kx) would be bounded for every constant k. y. y) = 0). p(x. giving the assertion. 1 + has arithmetic mean 1+ and geometric mean 1+ Therefore. 1 n n > 1+ . y) = x). the image must be an interval of some sort.10 By AM-GM. +∞[). 2. 0. 2.4.4 0 2. and so the image would just be the point f (0. If the image were a ﬁnite interval. a semi-inﬁnite interval with an endpoint (take for example p(x. then f (x. a semi-inﬁnite interval with no endpoint (take for example p(x..6 c = 0. 2. e k=1 − hk L(→ k ). +∞[). e k=1 Free to photocopy and distribute 167 . we will prove that || h × L( h )|| = o ¬¬ h ¬¬ as h → 0 .3.5 2 2.7 Applying AM-GM to the set of n + 1 numbers 1. (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )2 x2 y 2 z 2 ≤ = →0 2 + z2 2 + y2 + z 2) +y 27(x 27 → − − − F (→ + h ) − F (→ ) x x − hk → k . 0). 1 n n/(n+1) 1 > n+1 1 n+1 1+ n+1 .3.1 + . n n n 1 n+1 n/(n+1) 1 n .. 3.3. 0). 2. z) → (0. Then e → − L( h ) = n n 1 1 1 ..7 0 2. For let = → − h = − where the →k are the standard basis for Rn .1 We have → − → − − − − − (→ + h ) × L(→ + h ) − → × L(→ ) x x x x − − → + → ) × (L(→ ) + L(→ )) − → × L(→ ) − − − − = (x h x h x x → − → − → − → − − − = → × L( h ) + h × L(→) + h × L( h ) x x ¬¬ ¬¬ → − → − → − − → − ¬¬→ ¬¬ Now.Appendix A 1.1. 2. a single point (take for example. y) = (xy − 1)2 + x2 whose image is ]0.1 + .

This is a contradiction. ¬¬ ¬¬ − → − → − → − → − → − ¬¬→¬¬ as ¬¬ h ¬¬ → 0. We use the fact that (1 + t)1/2 = 1 + + o (t) as t → 0. → − t − 2. Since f ( 0 ) = ||0|| = 0. e as it was to be shewn. To prove the second assertion.4.Answers and Hints and hence by the triangle inequality. ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬2 ¬¬→ ¬¬ → ¬¬→ ¬¬2 − − − ¬¬ h ¬¬ ¬¬− ¬¬ + 2→ • h + ¬¬ h ¬¬ + ¬¬− ¬¬ x x x proving the ﬁrst assertion. Free to photocopy and distribute 168 . and so. assume that there is a linear transformation D0 (f ) = L. such → − linear transformation L does not exist at the point 0 . L( 0 ) = 0 . Recall that by theorem ??. → − → − → − → − → − → − − || h × L( h )|| ≤ || h ||||L( h )| ≤ || h ||2 |||L(→k )||2 )1/2 = o || h || . L : Rn → R such that ¬¬ ¬¬ − → − − → → − → − ¬¬→¬¬ ||f ( 0 + h ) − f ( 0 ) − L( h )|| = o ¬¬ h ¬¬ . and the dextral side → 0 as h → 0 . as ¬¬ h ¬¬ → 0. f ( h ) = ¬¬ h ¬¬ this would imply − ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ h ¬¬ that ¬¬¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ − → ¬¬ − − ¬¬¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬→ ¬¬ ¬¬¬¬ h ¬¬ − L( h )¬¬ = o ¬¬ h ¬¬ .2 Assume that → = 0 . and by the Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz inequality. This → − ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ − → − − L( h ) → − → − → − ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ implies that ¬¬→¬¬ → D0 (L)( 0 ) = 0 . e whence. x x h x x ¬¬ h ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬2 − − − → ¬¬→¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ 2→ • h + ¬¬ h ¬¬ x → •→ − − − x h ¬¬→ ¬¬ → ¬¬→ ¬¬ + o ¬¬ h ¬¬ . again by the Cauchy-Bunyakovsky-Schwarz Inequality. we have ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬2 ¬¬− ¬¬ − − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ + 2→ •→ + ¬¬→¬¬ + ¬¬→ ¬¬ → 2¬¬→ ¬¬. We have x 2 → − − − f (→ + h ) − f (→ ) x x = = = = ¬¬− ¬¬ → − − x ||→ + h || − ¬¬→ ¬¬ x ¬¬− ¬¬ → • → → − − − (→ + h ) (− + h ) − ¬¬→¬¬ x x x ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬→ ¬¬2 ¬¬− ¬¬ → ¬¬→ ¬¬2 − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ + 2→• h + ¬¬ h ¬¬ − ¬¬→¬¬ x x x ¬¬ ¬¬ → ¬¬→ ¬¬2 − − − 2→ • h + ¬¬ h ¬¬ x ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬ ¬¬ . or ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬1 − ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ → ¬¬ − L( h ) ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ = o (1) . ¬¬ ¬¬2 ¬¬ ¬¬ − − → − → − ¬¬→ ¬¬ ¬¬→¬¬ Since ¬¬ h ¬¬ = o ¬¬ h ¬¬ as h → 0 . and so by example 169. → − ||L( h )|| n ≤ n k=1 1/2 − |hk |||L(→k )|| e n 1/2 ≤ = k=1 |hk |2 ¬¬ ¬¬ − ¬¬→ ¬¬ ¬¬ h ¬¬( n k=1 − ||L(→k )||2 e k=1 − ||L(→k )||2 )1/2 . D0 (L)( 0 ) = L( 0 ) = 0 . ¬¬→ ¬¬2 − − − − ¬¬− ¬¬ + 2→•→ + ¬¬→¬¬ + ¬¬→¬¬ x x h x ¬¬ h ¬¬ → − → − As h → 0 . − ¬¬→ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ h ¬¬ ¬¬ → − → − → − → − But the sinistral side → 1 as h → 0 .

5. z) = ey z xzey z xye yz ¿ =⇒ ( f )(2. 1)) = f (3. 1)))(f (0.5. the output of f is R2 . ∂x ∂f (x. 1) = This gives. 1) = 0 2y if x > y 2 if x > y 2 1 0 if x > y 2 if x > y 2 x y 2 if x ≤ y 2 if x > y 2 æ é 3 0 æ . 0.5. via the Chain-Rule. z) = x2 g(x2 y). z) = ¿ =⇒ ( × f )(2. y.6 Differentiating both sides with respect to the parameter a. y. y) = æ 1 y −1 x 2 0 é . 0.6. 0) = æ 0 0 é 0 9 . 1) = ¾ 0 e2 ¿ 2 . The composition g ◦ f is undeﬁned.5. Free to photocopy and distribute 169 . 0.1 f (x. y. ∂x ∂x ∂x 2 ¾ ¿ e 2e . the Chain Rule gives 1 ¾ (g ◦ f ) (0.Appendix A 2. but the input of g is in R3 . y) = Hence ∂ f (x.2 Observe that f (x. 1. 0. ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂x At (1. 1)) = (g (0.6. 0. 1) = (g (f (0. 1)) = 2. 1) the last equation becomes 4(1 + ∂z ∂z ∂z 1 )+4 = 0 =⇒ =− .5 We have and 1 0 1 ¿ −1 æ 0 1 1 1 é 0 1 ¾ = 0 0 2 ¿ −1 0 1 ∂f (x. f (x. 1.10 We have ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂z ∂z (x + z)2 + (y + z)2 = 8 =⇒ 2(1 + )(x + z) + 2 (y + z) = 0. 1) = f (g(1.5. 1))g (1. 1) = and hence g (1. 0. y) = ∂y 2. æ 1 0 −1 1 é 2 0 . y) = y2 2xy 2xy x2 é . f (g(1. g (x. (f ◦ g) (1. For. 1))(f (0. y.3 Observe that g(1. 2e 0 x yexy ¾ 2. 1) = æ é 0 . 1) = ¾ 2. z) = 2xyg(x2 y).5.2 ( × f )(x.4 Since f (0. æ 0 0 éæ 0 1 9 0 −1 1 2 0 é = æ 0 0 0 9 é 0 0 . y) = ∂x and ∂ f (x. the integral is 2. 1. 2. ∂y 1 b b arctan + 2a3 a 2a2 (a2 + b2 ) 2.

fy (x. y) = (0. This gives f (0. If x is close enough to 0. b . 0) = 1. What happens in a neighbourhood of (0. ( 2. Put f (x. y.2) ≈ 1 + 0. 0. 0). Thus x = y = 1 and z = 4. 0) + fx (0. −x) = 2x4 − 4x2 = 2x2 (x2 − 1). y) = . f (x.6. 0)(y − 0) =⇒ f (x. → . and hence there exists a constant a such that ¾ 2x − 5y + z 2y − 5x − z x−y ¿ ¾ 1 0 ¿ =⇒ x = a. z) is parallel to the vector ¾ 1 0 ¿ 2y − 5x − z .4 The vector 1 0 ¿ is perpendicular to the plane. 0) = 1. Free to photocopy and distribute 170 . 0) = 0. 2) or (x. 0) then ∆1 = −4 < 0 and ∆2 = 0. z) = 2x − 5y + z x−y ¿ f (x. = a −7 Since the point is on the plane x − 7y = −6 =⇒ a − 7a = −6 =⇒ a = 1. the critical points are thus (− 2. then ∆1 = 20 > 0 and ∆2 = 384 > 0. æ é 12x2 − 4 4 Hf (x. If (x. z = 4a. where acts the differential operator and × is the − − → − product.7 We have ( f )(x.1. ﬁrst keeping v constant and then keeping u constant we then see that − Treating = u v → − u → − − − − − • (→ × →) = ( × → ) • →. 2}.7 Observe that f (0. y) ≈ 1 + x.Answers and Hints ¾ 2. − − − − a b c a b c → − → − → + − → as a vector. − 2). y) = −2x sin 2yex cos 2y =⇒ fy (0. 2. 6 3 æ 4x3 − 4(x − y) 4y 3 + 4(x − y) é = æ é 0 0 =⇒ 4x3 = 4(x − y) = −4y 3 =⇒ x = −y. so the matrix is negative semideﬁnite and further testing is needed. f (x.1. y. Hence fx (x. meaning that there is a saddle point there. 0). (0. u v u v v u π π with the x-axis and with the y-axis. u v u v → − u → − v − − • (→ × → ) = − u v → − v → − − − − − • (→ × →) = −( × →) • → .1 = 1. √ √ 4x3 − 4(x − y) = 0 =⇒ 4x3 − 8x = 0 =⇒ 4x(x2 − 2) = 0 =⇒ x ∈ {− 2. Then −7 ¾ ( f )(x. so the matrix is positive deﬁnite and we have a local minimum at each of these points. 0)(x − 0) + fy (0. 4 12y 2 − 4 and its principal minors are ∆1 = 12x2 − 4 and ∆2 = (12x2 − 4)(12y 2 − 4) − 16. which means that the function both increases and decreases to 0 in a neighbourhood of (0. Observe that −7 . y) = (cos 2y)ex cos 2y =⇒ fx (0.8.6.6. y = a. The Hessian is now. y) = Hence + →) − v • (u × v) = → − u − − • (→ × →) + u v → − − → − − − − − − • (→ × →) = ( × → ) • → − ( × →) • → . 0)? We have f (x. y) = ( 2. z) = x2 + y 2 − 5xy + xz − yz + 3.8 This is essentially the product rule: duv = udv + vdu. − 2). y) = (− 2. y. Recall that when we deﬁned the volume of a parallelepiped spanned by the vectors →. we saw a c that − − → • (→ × →) = (→ × →) • →. 2. √ √ √ √ Since x = −y. = 2x2 (x2 − 1) < 0. v u v u Thus • (u × v) = ( 2. 2). y) ≈ f (0. x) = 2x4 > 0. √ √ √ √ If (x.11 An angle of 2. −0.6.

the matrix is negative deﬁnite and the critical point is thus a saddle point. 2). −2). all equal 0. −4. −2. xyz(xyz + 8) = 0. y. ∆2 (0. 2. then ∆2 (x. z = 1/2. by virtue of the original three equations. then none of the variables is 8 0. y. y. ¾ 2 z y z 2 x y 2 ¿ x . ∆3 = −32. The other critical points are therefore (−2. if xyz = 0. Free to photocopy and distribute 171 . z) = and Hr f = ¾ 2xy + 2 x2 + 2yz y −1 2 ¿ . xyz = −8. y = −1. It is easy to see then that either exactly one of the variables is negative. 0. and 8. If ( f )(x. y. 0) is a minimum point. z) = 2.8 We have ¾ f (x. that is. Thus (0. 2. 2y = −xz. 8xyz = −x2 y 2 z 2 . y. y. 0) = 4 > 0.8. ∆2 (x. 0. 0. or all three are negative.Appendix A 2. or zy = −4. æ We see that ∆1 (x. If xyz = −8. ¾ 2y 2x 0 2x 2z 2y 0 0 ¿ 2y . z) = det Hr f = 8 − 2x2 − 2y 2 − ¾ ¿ 0 0 0 2x = −yz. At z = 1/2. (2. in which case. −2. 2). The hessian is H = ¾ 8z − 8 −2 8x −2 0 0 8x 0 ¿ . and solving for x.8. then we must have and upon multiplication of the three equations. 0). −2 The principal minors are 8z − 8. z) = det 2z 2 + 2xyz. z) = and Hr f = ¾ 2x + yz 2z + xy ¿ 2y + xz . ∆1 (0. 2. then we must have at least one of the variables equalling 0. Clearly. 2. in which case x = −2. ∆1 (0. and thus (0. 0. say. If x2 = y 2 = z 2 = 4.10 We have ( f )(x. yz meaning that either yz = 4. 0. we must have x = − . 2z = −xy. in which case x = 2. z) = 2 z 2 é z = 4 − z 2 and ∆3 (x.8.9 We have ( f )(x. and (−2. y. (2. z) = 8xz − 2y − 8x 4x2 − 2z −2x + 1 ¿ = ¾ ¿ 0 0 0 =⇒ x = 1/2. 0) is a critical point. z) = 0. −2). and substituting this into 2x + yz = 0 we gather (yz)2 = 16. 0. At (0. 0) = 8 > 0. so these points are saddle points. y. 0) = 2 > 0.

y. (−1. 1) = −7. − ) = −8. y. Thus (0. Free to photocopy and distribute 172 . and (−1. (−1. 4xz = 4y 3 . 1. shewing that (1. Then 4yz = 4x3 .Answers and Hints æ We see that ∆1 (x. −1. x x2 = −2yz. ) is also a saddle point. and ∆3 = = = < −1728x2 y 2 z 2 + 192x4 + 192z 4 + 128zyx + 192y 4 −1728 + 192 + 192 + 128 + 192 −1024 0. 1). 1. and 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 ∆3 (1. −1. xz(4 − x − 2y − z) = 0. −1. ) = −6. ∆2 (x. −1. yz(4 − 2x − y − z) = 0. ). 1. z) = 4xy − x2 y − xy 2 − 2xyz z(4 − 2x − 2y − z) −2yz z(4 − 2x − 2y − z) x(4 − x − 2y − 2z) −2xz y(4 − 2x − y − 2z) −2xy 4xz − x2 z − 2xyz − xz 2 . exactly two of the variables can be negative. 2. −1. z) = 0. Then (xyz)3 = x4 y 4 z 4 = (xyz)4 =⇒ xyz = 1 =⇒ yz = 1 =⇒ x4 = 1 =⇒ x = ±1. 1). 1. z) = Assume f (x. Since xyz = 1. we have ∆1 = −12x = −12 < 0. Similarly. ∆2 = 144x2 y 2 − 16z 2 = 144 − 16 = 128 > 0. Assume now that xyz = 0. ) = −2. ¾ Hf (x. −1). z) = ¿ y(4 − 2x − y − 2z) x(4 − x − 2y − 2z) Equating the gradient to zero. −1). y = ±1. 0. y. z) = det 2y 2x 2x 2z é = 4yz − 4x2 and ∆3 (x. −1. 4xy = 4z 3 =⇒ xyz = x4 = y 4 = z 4 . 0. ∆2 (1. Thus (1. Thus xyz ≥ 0. 1. Then. 2 2 2. ¾ ¿ 4yz − 2xyz − y 2 z − yz 2 ( f )(x. and if one of the variables is 0 so are the other two. Now. ) is a saddle point. y. Thus we ﬁnd the following critical points: (0. 1). −1. ∆2 (−1. ) = 8. If 1 = xyz = x = y = z . xy = −1. z) = xyz(4 − x − y − z) = 4xyz − x2 yz − xy 2 z − xyz 2 . ¾ 4yz − 4x3 4xy − 4z 3 ¿ 4xz − 4y 3 . 0) = 0 and f (−1. 1 1 1 1 and hence (1. z) = det Hr f = −8y 3 . and 2 2 2 2 1 1 ∆3 (−1. (1. (1. 1. y. − ) = 2. y. Similarly. (−1. Now f (0. The Hessian is ¾ Hx f = 2 2 2 −12x2 4z 4y 2 4z −12y 2 4x 4y 4x −12z 2 ¿ . z) = 0 0 then we must have y = ±1. Observe that at these critical points f = 1. 1. −1.8. z = ±1.11 We ﬁnd f (x. −1). 1. (1. z) = 2y. we obtain. 1). − ) are the critical points. 1. −1. 0. y. y. −1. ¾ ¿ 0 If ( f )(x. xy(4 − x − y − 2z) = 0. − ) = −6. This means that for xyz = 0 the Hessian is negative deﬁnite and the function has a local maximum at each of the four points (1. (−1. y. 0). 0) is the only critical point with at least one of the variables 0.8. ∆1 (1. −1). ∆1 (−1.12 Rewrite: f (x.

( √ . y. If (x.13 To facilitate differentiation observe that g(x. (4z 3 − 6z)(xy) with t(x. 1 4 −√ 2 3 1 − 6 −√ 2 √ = 2 2 > 0. In this case Hf (1. 0) the function is both decreasing towards 0 and increasing towards 0. x) = x3 (−4 + x). If either of x. the Hessian reduces to ¾ Hx g = (e−3/2 ) (4x3 − 6x)(yz) 0 0 0 (4y 3 − 6y)(xz) 0 0 0 (4z 3 − 6z)(xy) ¿ . x) = x3 (4 − 3x). z) = 0. We ﬁnd 2 2 2 ¾ ¿ (4x3 − 6x)(yz) (1 − 2x2 )(1 − 2y 2 )z (1 − 2x2 )(1 − 2z 2 )y Hx g = t(x. 4 − x − y − 2z = 0 =⇒ x = y = z = 1. the Hessian is positive deﬁnite. z) = (xe−x )(ye−y )(ze−z ). 1). − √ ). √ . which means that in some neighbourhood of (0. − √ . so the matrix is negative deﬁnite and we have a local maximum at (1. y. (1 − 2z 2 )(xy)(e−x )(e−y )(e−z ) 2 The function is 0 if any of the variables is 0. y. (− √ . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Free to photocopy and distribute 173 . ( √ . and ∆3 = −4 < 0. 0. y. 4 1 √ 2 3 −6 1 √ 2 √ = −2 2 < 0. Since at the critical points we have 1 − 2x2 = 1 − 2y 2 = 1 − 2z 2 = 0. − √ ). y. x. −2 −1 −1 −1 −2 −1 ¾ ¿ −1 −1 −2 and the principal minors are ∆1 = −2 < 0. or z is 0. 1) = 4 − x − 2y − z = 0. then we the Hessian is negative deﬁnite. Now. − √ . − √ . z) = ¾ 2 2 2 ¿ (1 − 2x2 )(yz)(e−x )(e−y )(e−z ) 2 2 2 2 2 (1 − 2y 2 )(xz)(e−x )(e−y )(e−z ) . − √ ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 and local minima at 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (− √ . y = ± √ z = ± √ . ∆2 = 3 > 0. x) > 0 and f (x. which means that (0. √ . 1. (− √ . −x. and if an odd numbers of the variables is positive (1 or 3). We have ∆2 = (4x3 − 6x)(4y 3 − 6y)(xyz 2 ) ∆1 = (4x3 − 6x)(yz) ∆3 = (4x3 − 6x)(4y 3 − 6y)(4z 3 − 6z)(x2 y 2 z 2 ). f (x.Appendix A If xyz = 0 then we must have 4 − 2x − y − z = 0. y. This means that if an even number of the variables is negative (0 or 2). 1. x) < 0. z) = (e−x )(e−y )(e−z ). √ ). Also. Now 2 2 2 g(x. − √ ).8. z) (1 − 2y 2 )(1 − 2x2 )z 2 2 2 2 2 (1 − 2z )(1 − 2x )y (1 − 2z )(1 − 2y )x (4y 3 − 6y)(xz) 2 2 (1 − 2y 2 )(1 − 2z 2 )x . −x. we will get ∆3 = 0. √ . We conclude that we have local maxima at 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( √ . Since the function clearly assumes positive and negative values. √ ). so further testing is needed. − √ . 0) is a saddle point. Thus as x → 0+ then f (x. √ ). we 1 1 1 can discard any point with a 0. then x = ± √ . ( √ . 2. f (x. x. (− √ . √ ). √ . 0.

Answers and Hints 2. 6 and the maximum volume is abc = √ ( S)3 . 0) is a critical point. 2. Geometrically this is easily seen to be 1. and so (0. Hf (0. ∂x ∂f (x.9. Regardless of the sign of g (0). 0) = 0. 4 − y the problem reduces to ﬁnding the minimum between the boundaries of the circle and the ellipse. b b+a a b+a = =⇒ a = c. 0) = g(0) = (0. 0) = æ −g (0) 0 é . 6 2.8.1 We have (abc) = λ (2ab + 2bc + 2ca − S) =⇒ ¾ bc ca ab ¿ ¾ 2b + 2c 2b + 2a ¿ = λ 2a + 2c = = = 2λ(b + c) 2λ(a + c) 2λ(b + a) bc =⇒ ca ab By physical considerations. a c+a Therefore 2 2 2 c a+c = =⇒ b = c. the Hessian of f is æ Hf (x. √ ( 6)3 The above result can be simply obtained by using the AM-GM inequality: S 2ab + 2bc + 2ca S 3/2 = ≥ ((2ab)(2bc)(2ca))1/3 = 2(abc)2/3 =⇒ abc ≤ 3/2 . Hence ∂f (x. ∂y ∂f ∂f (0.9. there exists a continuously differentiable function G such that x 2 +y f (x. −2 ≤ y ≤ 2 describe a circle centred at the origin with radius 2.14 By the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. by successively dividing the equations. Now. y) = G (x2 + y) − 2yG (y 2 − x) = g(x2 + y) − 2yg(y 2 − x). the determinant of of this last matrix is −(g (0))2 < 0.2 √ Free to photocopy and distribute 174 . 3 3 6 Equality happens if S 2ab = 2bc = 2ca =⇒ a = b = c = √ . 144 − 16x2 ). c b+c √ S 2a + 2a + 2a = S =⇒ a = √ . Hence. abc = 0 and so λ = 0. y) = 2xG (x2 + y) + G (y 2 − x) = 2xg(x2 + y) + g(y 2 − x). √ 2. y) = and so 2g(x2 + y) + 4x2 g (x2 + y) − g (y 2 − x) 2xg (x2 − y) + 2yg (y 2 − x) g (x2 + y) − 2g(y 2 − x) − 4y 2 g (y 2 − x) 0 g (0) 2xg (x2 + y) + 2yg (y 2 − x) é .8. y) = y 2 −x g(t)dt = G(x2 + y) − G(y 2 − x). −3 ≤ x ≤ 3 describe an ellipse centred at the origin and semiÔ3 2 ). 0) is a saddle point. axes 3 and 4. b+c b = =⇒ a = b. ∂x ∂y This gives so (0.15 Since the coordinates (x. and the coordinates (y.

Free to photocopy and distribute 175 . 1. ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ 2(x − 1) a f (x. y) = = b d − ax − by 0 2(y − 1) − 2 −1 c c which implies t(x. 2 y =1+ λb . x =1+ λa . 2(y−1) = λb. 1. a 2 + b2 + c 2 Then the coordinates of P are x = 1+ λa d−a−b−c = 1+a· 2 . 2 a + b2 + c 2 z = 1+ λc d−a−b−c = 1+c· 2 . we gather that λ = 0. a 2 + b2 + c 2 1+a· P = The distance is then Ö a· d−a−b−c a 2 + b2 + c 2 2 + b· d−a−b−c a 2 + b2 + c 2 2 + c· d−a−b−c a 2 + b2 + c 2 2 2. The vector b c x y z = 1 1 1 +t is perpendicular to Π. 2 a + b2 + c 2 y = 1+ λb d−a−b−c = 1+b· 2 . z) = (x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 + (z − 1)2 be the square of the distance from P to a point on the plane and let g(x. y. y) = (x − 1)2 + (y − 1)2 + x= −b2 − c2 + ab − ad + ac d−a−b−c = 1+a· 2 . the equation of the perpendicular passing through P is ¾ ¿ a b c =⇒ x = 1 + ta. The intersection of the line and the plane happens when a(1 + at) + b(1 + tb) + c(1 + tc) = d =⇒ t = Hence d − a − b − cá a 2 + b2 + c 2 d−a−b−c 1+b· 2 a + b2 + c 2 d−a−b−c 1+c· 2 a + b2 + c 2 d−a−b−c . y. Consider the function 2 d − ax − by −1 . z) = λ g(x. z = 1 + tc. z) on the plane to the point (1. as before. a 1+ λa 2 +b 1+ λb 2 +c 1+ λc 2 = d =⇒ λ = 2 · d−a−b−c . y = 1 + tb. 2 z =1+ λc . Using Lagrange multipliers. a 2 + b2 + c 2 a + b2 + c 2 y= c2 + a2 − ab + bd − bc d−a−b−c = 1+b· 2 . Hence. z) =⇒ 2(y − 1) 2(z − 1) =λ b c =⇒ 2(x−1) = λa. c which is the square of the distance from a point (x. Now. 3. 2 a + b2 + c 2 as before. Let f (x. 1) is not on the plane and abc = 0. Substituting this in the equation of the plane gives the same coordinate of z. Now. y. 2(z−1) = λc. ¾ ¿ æ é a d − ax − by 2(x − 1) − 2 −1 0 c c t(x. 1). a 2 + b2 + c 2 a + b2 + c 2 as before. Since (1. z) = ax + by + cz − d. y. 2 Putting these into the equation of the plane.Appendix A ¾ ¿ a 1. y.

(p−1)/p + b p p/(p−1) . We solve ¾ ¿ ¾ ¿ x x f y z for x. y. (− 2.Answers and Hints 2. We then have x= Thus 1 = xp + y p = which gives λ= This gives x= (a1/(p−1) a1/(p−1) b1/(p−1) . these points deﬁne a maximum for f and so ax + by ≤ ap/(p−1) bp/(p−1) + . Since f is non-negative. λ = 0.9. y) = xp + y p − 1. λ. using AM-GM. The linear system (the ﬁrst two equations) will have the unique solution (0. 2) = f ( 2. 5 5 5 5 2 8 5 2. 1/ 2). Free to photocopy and distribute 176 . 2y 6x + 10y This gives the three equations 0 = 5(λ − 1)x + 3y. We have æ é æ é 2x 10x + 6y f (x. z) = (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 + (z − 3)2 − 4. the feasible values are ( 2. 1/ √ 2) = f (−1/ √ 2. We need a = pλxp−1 and b = pλy p−1 .4 Using AM-GM.9. This requires =λ g y z ¾ 2x 2y 2z ¿ = ¾ 2(x − 1)λ 2(z − 3)λ ¿ 2(y − 2)λ . √ √ x + 3y x4 + 81y 4 1/4 361/4 ≤( ) = 1/4 =⇒ x + 3y ≤ 23/4 6 = 25/4 3. (−1/ 2. y) = 5x2 + 6xy + 5y 2 − 8 and argue using Lagrange multipliers.3 Using CBS. −1/ √ 2) = 1. y= . 2). y= b λp 1/(p−1) .9. (1/ 2. 1 61/3 = Ô 6 x2 y 3 z ≤ 2x + 3y + z =⇒ 2x + 3y + z ≥ 62/3 . 5x2 + 6xy + 5y 2 = 8. Taking into √ √ √ √ √ √2 √ √ account the third equation. but this solution does not lie on the third equation.6 Put g(x. Clearly then . then we deduce that x = ±y. If 25(λ − 1)2 − 9 = 0. y) =⇒ =λ . 0) as long as 25(λ − 1)2 − 9 = 0. y) = λ g(x. 5x2 + 6xy + 5y 2 = 8 =⇒ x2 + y 2 = √ 2. − 2) = 4 and the minimum is f (1/ Aliter: Observe that. Substituting √ 1 this into the third equation we gather that 10x2 ± 6x2 = 8. 1/(p−1) )1/p 1/(p−1) + b1/(p−1) )1/p +b (a a p p/(p−1) a λp 1/(p−1) . 2 2 2 2.5 We put g(x. −1/ 2) The desired maximum is thus √ √ √ √ f (− 2. y. 6 2. 8 6 8 6 x2 + y 2 5 8 − xy ≥ − · =⇒ x2 + y 2 ≥ · = 1. − 2). resulting in x = ± 2 or x = ± √ .7 Let g(x.9. (a1/(p−1) + b1/(p−1) )1/p (a1/(p−1) + b1/(p−1) )1/p 2.9. 0 = 3x + 5(λ − 1)y. a λp p/(p−1) + b λp p/(p−1) .

8 Observe that the ellipse is symmetric about the origin.2 + √ . Now maximise and minimise the distance between a point on the ellipse and the origin.3 − √ . z = 1.11 Claim: the function achieves its maximum on the boundary of the triangle. Since the function is identically 0 for x = 0 or y = 0. 2 2 the value sought is a maximum.9. If a and b are the semi-axes. bxa y b−1 1 Free to photocopy and distribute 177 .9. 1) g(x. y) = xa y b e−(x+y ) = xa y b e−1 on the line. z). we gather that −λ −2λ −3λ .2 − √ . we can see that f (x. λ = 1. Hence we maximise f subject to the constraint x + y = 1. 4(x(1 − x))3/2 x(1 − x) √ 1 2 + . z) = and 2 4 6 1 + √ . y) =⇒ =λ . 2 √ −3λ −3 1−λ 2 = 4. √ 2. y. 1) yields a maximum and that (0.3 + √ 14 14 14 4 6 2 1− √ . y) = xa y b subject to the constraint x + y = 1. 2 4 2 x(1 − x) f (x) = − (1 − 2x)2 1 − Ô < 0. 1 = 2λy. y) = λ( g)(x. so the problem reduces to maximising h(x. we only need to look on the line x + y = 1 for the maxima. y.y = .10 One can use Lagrange multipliers here. y) = = =⇒ x = 0 or y = 0. Using Lagrange multipliers. 2.9 Put g(x. √ x + z = 1. y = ± yields a minimum. you will ﬁnd that 2a = 2 and 2b = 6 2.Appendix A Clearly. δ such that f (x. 1 = δ. y. But perhaps the easiest approach is to put y = 1− x and maximise f (x) = x + For this we have x(1 − x). y. h(x. − √ 2. To prove this claim we have to prove that there are no critical points strictly inside the triangle.9. Since x + y = 1. z) + δ h(x. z) = x + z − 1. We may shew that (0. 7 7 (x. Since √ 1 − 2x 2 1 f (x) = 0 =⇒ 1 + Ô = 0 =⇒ x = + . We must ﬁnd λ. y. y. We deduce that x = 0. For this we compute the gradient and set it equal to the zero vector: æ é æ é −axa−1 y b e−(x+y ) 0 ( f )(x. This gives x = 4. z) = x2 + y 2 − 2. y. Substituting into (x − 1)2 +(y − 2)2 +(z − 3)2 = 1−λ 1−λ 1−λ −λ −1 1−λ 2 + from where −2λ −2 1−λ λ =1± 2 + 14 . 2. −bxa y b−1 e−(x+y ) 0 which means that the critical points occur on the boundary. z) = 2.9. and x2 + y 2 = 1. æ a−1 b é æ é ax y 1 ( h)(x. and z = . z) = λ which translates into 1 = 2λx + δ. This gives the two points (x. This maximum is thus √ 1 2 f + 2 4 = 2. 14 14 14 √ √ 12 14 12 14 The ﬁrst point gives an absolute maximum of 18 + and the second an absolute minimum of 18 − .

−π /2 √ 3. 3. . thus xy||dx|| L2 = = = √ 0. −1 xdx(x + 1)dx + xdx − (−x + 1)dx Also. a+b a a+b a b a+b b e−1 . ||dx|| = (cos t)2 + (− sin t)2 dt = dt. 3 π π to θ = .3. = L1 1 xdx + ydy + L2 xdx + ydy 1 0 = = 0. We put x = sin t. centred at (0. both on L1 and on L2 we have ||dx|| = xy||dx|| C √ 2dx. 0) and radius 4 going counterclockwise from θ = 6 5 ← → x Observe that the Cartesian equation of the line OA is y = √ . Then on Γ1 3 x x 4 xdx + ydy = xdx + √ d √ = xdx. the integral will be zero. −π /2 (sin t)(cos t)dt − (cos t)(sin t)dt Also. Free to photocopy and distribute 178 .Answers and Hints which in turn =⇒ axa−1 y b = λ = bxa y b−1 =⇒ ay = bx =⇒ ay = b(1 − y) =⇒ y = Finally.2 Let Γ1 denote the straight line segment path from O to A = (2 3. y) = (y 2 + 1)x2 + 2xy + 1. Observe that 6 5 On the arc of the circle we may put x = 4 cos θ.15 Try p(x. y) = xa y b e−(x+y ) ≤ xa y b e−1 ≤ 2.9. a+b x= a . f (x. t ∈ − . L2 : −x + 1. y = cos t. y = 4 sin θ and integrate from θ = there and since the integrand is 0. 3 3 3 Hence 2 √ 3 xdx + ydy = Γ1 0 4 xdx = 8. xdx + ydy = (cos θ)d cos θ + (sin θ)d sin θ = − sin θ cos θdθ + sin θ cos θdθ = 0. Then 2 2 π /2 xdx + ydy C = = 0.3. 2) and Γ2 denote the arc of the circle π π to θ = . Then xdx + ydy C b .1 1. L1 xy||dx|| + 1 −1 2 x(x + 1)dx − √ 1 2 0 x(−x + 1)dx ä π πç 2. Let L1 : y = x + 1. and thus π /2 xy||dx|| C = = = (sin t)(cos t)dt ¬ (sin t)2 ¬π /2 ¬ 2 −π /2 0.

Arc(Circle( <0. we ﬁnd on Γ1 that x||dx|| = x whence 2 (dx)2 + (dy)2 = x 1+ 1 2 dx = √ xdx. which returns true. and to parametrise this curve. [x. 4). 5 6 5 On Γ2 that x||dx|| = x whence π /5 (dx)2 + (dy)2 = 16 cos θ x||dx|| = Γ2 π /6 16 cos θdθ = 16 sin Assembling these we gather that x||dx|| = Γ Γ1 x||dx|| + Γ2 √ π x||dx|| = 4 3 − 8 + 16 sin . from where y = 1 − x and x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 give x2 + (1 − x)2 + z 2 = 1 =⇒ =⇒ =⇒ So we now put x= 1 cos t + .3.y> ).0>.Appendix A Assembling these two pieces. 2 y =1−x = 1 cos t − . Pi/5) ). 3 sin2 θ + cos2 θdθ = 16 cos θdθ. with(Student[VectorCalculus]): PathInt(x.2> )) +PathInt(x. 1.3 Using the parametrisations from the solution of problem 3. use the code Maple gives 16 cos 10 5 > is(16*cos(3*Pi/10)=16*sin(Pi/5)). On the zx-plane.y> ). <2*sqrt(3). <2*sqrt(3). Pi/6.y]=Arc(Circle( <0. 3. 4). Pi/5) ). y say. To check that these two are indeed the same.0>.4 The curve lies on the sphere. 2 2 2x2 − 2x + z 2 = 0 1 2 1 2 x− + z2 = 2 2 1 2 4 x− + 2z 2 = 1. 0) the Free to photocopy and distribute 179 .3.0>. To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. 3 3 √ 3 x||dx|| = Γ1 0 √ 2 √ xdx = 4 3. > > > 3. 2 2 sin t z= √ . To obtain a positive parametrisation 2 we must integrate from t = 2π to t = 0 (this is because when you look at the ellipse from the point (1. π 3π rather than our 16 sin .y]= Line( <0. 2 ¾ ¿ 1 1 We must integrate on the side of the plane that can be viewed from the point (1.0>. we dispose of one of the variables.2> )) +LineInt( VectorField( <x. > > > with(Student[VectorCalculus]): LineInt( VectorField( <x. 0) (observe that the vector 0 1 2 is normal to the plane). xdx + ydy = Γ Γ1 xdx + ydy + Γ2 xdx + ydy = 8 + 0 = 8. π π π − 16 sin = 4 sin − 8. Pi/6. [x.3. 1. Line( <0.3. 5 To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. 4 x − + 2z 2 = 1 is an ellipse.

12 0 1 x(x − x4 ) dx 2 π π x sin x sin ydxdy + D D y sin x sin ydxdy = = 2 0 y sin y dy 0 sin x dx 4π. 3 Free to photocopy and distribute 180 .5.5. 2 3.5 The integral equals 1 .5.5.8 Observe that x2 + y 2 = 16.6 The integral is 1 y 1 1 x2 dxdy + x≤y y ≤x y 2 dxdy = 0 1 0 x2 dxdy + 0 y y 2 dxdy = = = = 3.5.3 1 3 15π 16 1 √ x dt 3.5. √ 16−x 2 − 33 x+4 √ xdydx = = = √ Ô 3 2 + x 16 − x x − 4 dx 3 0 √ ¬2√ 3 1 3 3 ¬ − (16 − x2 )3/2 + x − 2x2 ¬ 3 9 0 8 .Answers and Hints positive x-axis is to your left.1 2 3. 3. 6 3.7 21 8 √ 1   2 ¡ y3 y − y 3 dy dy + 0 ¬ 3 0 ¬ y 4 ¬1 y3 y 4 ¬1 − ¬ + ¬ 12 0 3 4 0 1 1 1 + − 12 3 4 1 . and not your right).2 3. Thus Á 0 sin t cos t 1 zdx + xdy + ydz = + √ d 2 2 2 Γ 2π 0 1 1 cos t cos t + + d − 2 2 2 2 2π 0 1 cos t sin t + − d √ 2 2 2 2π 0 sin t cos t cos t sin t 1 = + √ + − √ 4 4 2 2 2 2 2π π = √ .5. 2 3. y = − The integral is 2 0 √ 3 3 x + 4 =⇒ 16 − x2 = 3 2 √ 3 − √ 3 x+4 3 2 √ =⇒ x = 0.4 The integral equals xydxdy D = 0 1 x x2 y dy dx = = 3.5.

0>. [x. 4 0 Free to photocopy and distribute 181 . but this command is limited. I will integrate with respect to y ﬁrst. 1 1−x loge (1 + x + y)dxdy D = 0 1 0 loge (1 + x + y) dy dx = 0 1 [(1 + x + y) loge (1 + x + y) − (1 + x + y)]1−x dx 0 (2 loge (2) − 1 − loge (1 + x) − x loge (1 + x) + x) dx = = 1 . for AB is 3 ← → y = 3x − 8 (3 ≤ x ≤ 4). one notices that it does not make much of a difference. We have a choice of whether integrating with respect to x or y ﬁrst.<3.y]=Triangle(<0.10 We have min(x.4>)).5.1]2 y 2 dA y 2 <x x≤y 2 1 y 2 1 0 1 0 2 1 = 0 = = = = 1 2 0 0 1 1 4 y dy + 2 0 2 1 + 10 15 7 . > > > int(x*y.<3.1]2 = [0.4>). 3.<4.5. and for BO is y = x (0 ≤ x ≤ 4). y 2 )dA [0. y goes from the line OA to the line OB. y goes from the line AB to the line OB 3 x 4 x xydA R = 0 x/3 3 xydydx + xydydx 3 3x−8 ¬x 4 2¬ = = = = = 1 1 dx + dx xy ¬ 2 0 2 3 x/3 3x−8 3 4   ¡ 1 x2 1 x x2 − dx + x x2 − (3x − 8)2 dx 2 0 9 2 3 3 4   ¡ 4 1 3 3 −8x + 48x2 − 64x dx x dx + 9 0 2 3 9+9 18.1>. [x. Maple can also provide the limits of integration. In such a case notice that for ← → ← → ← → ← → 0 ≤ x ≤ 3. It also evaluates expressions that it deems below its dignity to return unevaluated. ¬x ¬ xy 2 ¬ To solve this problem using Maple you may use the code below. and for 3 ≤ x ≤ 4.<4.5.1>.12 Integrating by parts.9 e − 1 3. ’inert’).5.0>.1]2 xdA + [0.Appendix A 3. with(Student[VectorCalculus]): int(x*y.11 Begin by ﬁnding the Cartesian equations of the various lines: for OA is y = (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). since Maple is quite whimsical about which order of integration to choose. 30 xdxdy + 0 ¬y 2 1 ¬ x2 ¬ dy + 1 0 y 2 dxdy ¬1 ¬ y 2 x¬ dy y2 4 y2 (y − y )dy ← → ← → x 3. Upon examining the region.y]=Triangle(<0.

7571.2]2 22 4√ 4√ + 3− 2 ≈ 7.17 below) (I am omitting the details of the integrations.5.2]2 [0. 3 3 2≤x+y 2 <3 2 √ √ 2 4−x 3 [0.13 First observe that on [0. We have x + y 2 dA [0.2]2 dA = 5 1 √ 5−x dy dx = − 4≤x+y 2 <5 Adding all the above.15: 3 ≤ x + y2 < 4.13: 1 ≤ x + y2 < 2. 3≤x+y 2 <4 1 2 √ √ 5−x 4 [0. 3.2]2 [0.2]2 [0.2]2 4≤x+y 2 <5 dA + 5 [0.13 through A. 3 3 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 0 1 2 Figure A. 0 ≤ x + y 2 ≤ 6. we obtain √ √ 1 2−x 2 2−x 4√ 2 4√ 4 2 dA = dydx + 2+ =− + 2.5.2]2 5≤x+y 2 <6 dA By looking at the regions (as in ﬁgures A. so we decompose the region of integration according to where x + y 2 jumps across integer values.14: 2 ≤ x + y2 < 3. 3 4≤x+y 2 <5 2 5 5 [0.Answers and Hints 3. Hence x + y dA R = = 1 R 1dA + 1dydx + R 2dA 2dydx 1≤x+y <2 2 2−x 1−x 2≤x+y <3 2 2 1 2−x = 4.16: 4 ≤ x + y2 < 5.2]2 2≤x+y 2 <3 dA + 3 [0.2]2 3≤x+y 2 <4 dA + 4 [0. 1] × [0 . 2] we have 0 ≤ x + y ≤ 3.2]2 dA = 3 0 3−x √ √ dy dx = 18 − 6 3 − 4 2. relying on Maple for the evaluations). Figure A.2]2 = x+y 2 =1 1dA + x+y 2 =2 2dA + x+y 2 =3 3dA + x+y 2 =4 4dA + x+y 2 =5 5dA = [0. Figure A.2]2 dA = 4 0 √ dy dx + 4 4−x 1 4−x dy dx = − √ √ 40 64 16 √ +8 3+ − 16 3 + 2. Figure A. Figure A.2]2 [0. Free to photocopy and distribute 182 . we obtain x + y 2 dA = [0.2]2 dA = 2 0 2−x √ 8√ 4 dy dx = 4 3 − 2− . dydx = − + √ 3 3 3 3 3 1−x 0 1 0 [0.2]2 1≤x+y 2 <2 2 √ √ 3−x 2 [0.17: 5 ≤ x + y2 < 6. 2]2 .2]2 [0.14 Observe that in the rectangle [0 .2]2 1≤x+y 2 <2 dA + 2 [0. 3 3 3 √ 50 + 10 3.

y) = −f (x.5.5.15 0 1 xdydx + 1−x 2 2 1 −1 −2 xdydx = 2 1 7 .5. 1 1−x 2 x dx 2 1+x 0 2 (t − 1)(t − 2)2 dt t2 1 11 4 loge 2 − .5. − 2y πy cos dy π 2 4(π + 2) . y) ∈ D then (−x. 4 1 1−x 2 loge (1 + x2 + y)dA D = 0 1 0 loge (1 + x2 + y) dy dx = 0 (2 loge (2) − 1 − loge (1 + x2 ))dx 1 + 0 (−x2 loge (1 + x2 ) + x2 ) dx = 2 2 8 π loge 2 + − .5.5. Free to photocopy and distribute 183 . Then D = D1 ∪ D2 . f (x. 2y −y 2 3.5. y) ∈ R2 | − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1. f (−x. y)dxdy = D D1 f (x.5.21 The integral equals 1 xydA D = 0 1 0 1−x 1 + x xy dy dx = = = 3.22 Using integration by parts. y)dxdy.Appendix A 1 √ √ 4−x 2 2 √ 0 4−x 2 3. y) ∈ R2 | − 1 ≤ x ≤ 1.19 The integral is 0. y).20 −2/ 1 2 √ 4−y 2 √ −1 2 √ dxdy = 4−y 2 8 + 4 arcsin 5 √ 5 5 . x ≤ y}. y) ∈ D. we ﬁnd that the integral equals 2 1 y y2 πx dx sin 2y 2 å dy = 1 2y πx − cos π 2y − èy 2 dy y = = upon integrating by parts. 3.25 Let D1 = {(x. x > y}. D1 ∩ D2 = ∅ and so D2 = {(x. y)dxdy + D2 f (x.23 0 xdxdy = 2. π /2 0 0 y cos y dxdy = y π /2 cos ydy = 1.5. 0 3. 3.17 Exchanging the order of integration. Also. Observe that if (x.18 Upon splitting the domain of integration. π3 1 2 3. 2/ √ 5 5 3.5. 3 9 3 √ √ 4−y 2 3.16 0 −2 xdxdy + 1 xdxdy + 1 0 xdxdy + 1 2 xdxdy = 7. 3 2 3 3 3.

the desired inequality is established. II. y)dxdy = II II f (−x. y)dxdy. and integrate ﬁrst with respect to y.29 For t ∈ [0. y) = xy + y 2 .5.28 The domain of integration is a triangle. III. and B has equation y = −x − 2. 0 Since 0 0 f (x)dxdy = 0 f (x)dx.5.5.Answers and Hints By symmetry. 1].5. y)d(−x)dy = − I f (x. y)dxdy D = = = = 2 D1 1 f (x. 3. If I. line joining B. Hence 1 1 (f (x)dx) dy ≥ 0 (f ◦ g)(y)dy − g(y)dy. Free to photocopy and distribute 184 .30 Put f (x.5. 1 0 0 1 4−1 3. IV stand for the intersection of the region with each quadrant. The integral equals 1 1−x xy(x + y)dxdy D = 0 0 1 xy(x + y) dy dx = = = 1 å 2 è1−x y y3 x x + dx 2 3 0 0 1 x(1 − x)2 (1 − x)3 x + 2 3 0 1 . y)dxdy. from where the desired inequality follows. y)dxdy = D1 D2 f (x. 30 dx 3. and so f (x. f (x. y)dxdy 1 x 2 −1 1 −1 (y − x) dy dx (1 − 2x + x2 ) dx 8 . 3 3. We split the triangle along the vertical line x = 1. then f (x.27 Since f is positive and decreasing. and line joining A.26 The line joining A. and C has equation y = −7x + 10. 3. The desired integral is then 1 2x+1 (2x + 3y + 1) dxdy D = −1 (2x + 3y + 1)dy + 1 1 −x−2 2 −7x+10 −x−2 dx dx (2x + 3y + 1)dy = 21 2 3 x + 9x − dx 2 2 −1 2   ¡ + 60x2 − 198x + 156 dx 1 = = 3. ﬁrst argue that 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 f (x)dx ≥ (1 − t)f (t) ≥ f (t) − t. and C has equation y = 2x + 1. f (x)f (y)(y − x)(f (x) − f (y))dxdy ≥ 0.

Appendix A

f (x, y)dxdy =
IV IV

f (x, −y)dxd(−y) = −
I

f (x, y)dxdy,

and f (x, y)dxdy =
III III

f (−x, −y)d(−x)d(−y) = +
I

f (x, y)dxdy.

Thus (xy + y 2 )dxdy
S

=
I

f (x, y)dxdy +
II

f (x, y)dxdy +
III

f (x, y)dxdy +
IV

f (x, y)dxdy f (x, y)dxdy
I

=
I

f (x, y)dxdy −
I

f (x, y)dxdy +
I

f (x, y)dxdy −

=

0.

3.5.31 We split the rectangle [0; a] × [0; b] into two triangles, depending on whether bx < ay or bx ≥ ay. Hence
a 0 0 b

emax(b

2

x 2 ,a 2 y 2 )

dydx

=
bx<ay

emax(b e
a2 y 2

2

x 2 ,a 2 y 2 )

dydx +
bx≥ay

emax(b dydx ea
2

2

x 2 ,a 2 y 2 )

dydx

=

dydx +
bx≥ay a2y 2

e
a

b2 x2

bx<ay b ay /b

bx/a

=
0 b 0

e

dxdy +
a 0 0 a2y 2

y2

dydx

= = =

aye bxe dy + b a 0 2 2 ea b − 1 e −1 + 2ab 2ab a2b2 e −1 . ab
0 a2b2

a2y 2

dx

√ 1 3.5.32 Observe that x ≥ (x + y)2 ≥ 0. Hence we may take the positive square root giving y ≤ 2x − x. Since 2 √ y ≥ 0, we must have 2x − x ≥ 0 which means that x ≤ 2. The integral equals
2 0 0 √ 2x−x

xydy

dx

= = = = =

2 3

2 0

2 √ 4 u2 (u 2 − u2 )3/2 du 3 0 1 1 (1 − v 2 )3/2 (1 + v)2 dv 6 −1 π /2 1 cos4 θ(1 + sin2 θ)dθ 6 −π /2 7π . 96

√ x( 2x − x)3/2 dx

3.5.33 Observe that
a

´
sin 2πx dx =

0

0 1 (1 − cos 2πa) 2π

if a is an integer if a is not an integer

Thus
0

a

sin 2πx dx = 0 ⇐⇒ a is an integer.
N

Now

sin 2πx sin 2πy dxdy = 0
k=1 Rk

since at least one of the sides of each Rk is an integer. Since
N

sin 2πx sin 2πy dxdy =
R k=1 Rk

sin 2πx sin 2πy dxdy,

we deduce that at least one of the sides of R is an integer, ﬁnishing the proof.

Free to photocopy and distribute

185

3.5.34 We have
1 0 0 1 1 n 1 n

···

0

(x1 x2 · · · xn )dx1 dx2 . . . dxn =

xk dxk
k=1 0

=
k=1

1 1 = n. 2 2

3.5.35 This is
1 0 0 1 1 n n 1 0 0 1 1

···

xk
0 k=1

dx1 dx2 . . . dxn

=
k=1 n

···

xk dx1 dx2 . . . dxn
0

=
k=1

1 2

= 3.5.41 The integral equals 1 dxdy (x + y)4
D 3

n . 2

4−x 1

=
1 3

dy dy (x + y)4

dx

= = = 3.5.45 The integral equals
2/3 x+1

4−x 1 − (x + y)−3 dx 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 − dx 3 1 (1 + x)3 64 1 . 48

4

xdxdy
D

=
−1 2/3 0

dy

x dx +
2/3 4 0

2− x 2

dy

x dx

= = 275 . 54
−1

x(x + 1) dx +
2/3

x 2−

x 2

dx

3.5.46 Make the change of variables xk = 1 − yk . Then
1 1 0 1

I =
0

···
1

cos2
0

π (x1 + x2 + · · · + xn ) dx1 dx2 . . . dxn 2n

equals
1 0 2 2 0 1

···

sin2
0

π (y1 + y2 + · · · + yn ) dy1 dy2 . . . dyn . 2n 1 . 2

Since sin t + cos t = 1, we have 2I = 1, and so I = 3.6.1  Put x =

u+v u−v and y = . Then x + y = u and x − y. Observe that D is the triangle in the uv 2 2 plane bounded by the lines u = 0, u = 1, v = u, v = −u. Its image under Φ is the triangle bounded by the equations x = 0, y = 0, x + y = 1. Clearly also dx ∧ dy = 1 du ∧ dv. 2 1 u2 euv dudv 2 D 1 u 1 u2 euv dudv 2 0 −u 1 2 2 1 u(eu − e−u )du 2 0 1 (e + e−1 − 2). 4

 From the above (x + y)2 ex
D
2

−y 2

dA

= = = =

Free to photocopy and distribute

186

Appendix A
3.6.4 Here we argue that du = ydx + xdy, dv = −2xdx + 2ydy. Taking the wedge product of differential forms, du ∧ dv = 2(y 2 + x2 )dx ∧ dy. Hence f (x, y)dx ∧ dy = = = The region transforms into ∆ = [a; b] × [0; 1]. The integral becomes f (x, y)dx ∧ dy
D

(y 4 − x4 )

1 2 (y − x2 )du ∧ dv 2 v du ∧ dv 2

1 du ∧ dv 2(y 2 + x2 )

=

v du ∧ dv 1 du 2 a b−a . 4
1 b 1

= = 3.6.5  Formally,
1 0 0 1

v dv
0

dxdy 1 − xy

1

=
0 1 0

(1 + xy + x2 y 2 + x3 y 3 + · · · )dxdy
1 0

= = =

xy 2 x2 y 3 x3 y 4 + + +··· 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 x x x (1 + + + + · · · )dx 2 3 4 0 1 1 1 1 + 2 + 2 + 2 + ··· 2 3 4 y+

dx

 This change of variables transforms the square [0; 1] × [0; 1] in the xy plane into the square with vertices at (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 0), and (1, −1) in the uv plane. We will split this region of integration into two disjoint triangles: T1 with vertices at (0, 0), (1, 1), (1, −1), and T2 with vertices at (1, −1), (1, 1), (2, 0). Observe that 1 dx ∧ dy = du ∧ dv, 2 and that u + v = 2x, u − v = 2y and so 4xy = u2 − v 2 . The integral becomes
1 0 0 1

dxdy 1 − xy

= =

1 2
T 1 ∪T 2 1

1−
u −u

du ∧ dv

u 2 −v 2 4 2 2−u u−2

2
0

dv 4 − u2 + v 2

du + 2
1

dv 4 − u2 + v 2

du,

as desired.  This follows by using the identity
t 0

dω = arctan t. 1 + Ω2

 This is straightforward but tedious! 3.7.1 The integral in Cartesian coordinates is
√ 1 15 1

16−y 2

xydxdy

= =

1 2 49 . 2

√ 1

15

15y − y 3 dy

Free to photocopy and distribute

187

The integral in polar coordinates is
π 4

4

r 3 sin θ cos θdrdθ +
1/ sin θ

arccos 1 4
π 4

4

r 3 sin θ cos θdrdθ
1/ cos θ

=

arcsin 1 4

1 4

π 4

+ = 44 4 − − = = 3.7.2 Using polar coordinates,
π /2 2 cos θ

arcsin 1 4 arccos 1 4

44 −

1 sin4 θ 44 −

sin θ cos θdθ sin θ cos θdθ

1 4

arccos 1 4 arcsin π 4

π 4

1 cos4 θ

sin θ cos θdθ (cot θ)(csc2 θ)dθ (tan θ)(sec2 θ)dθ

1 4 1 4

π 4

arcsin 1 4

arccos 1 4

7 7 28 − − 4 4 49 2

π 4

x2 − y 2 dxdy
D

=
−π /2 π /2 0

ρ3 dρ 8
0

(cos2 θ − sin2 θ)dθ

= = 3.7.3 Using polar coordinates, √
D

cos4 θ(cos2 θ − sin2 θ) dθ

π.

π /4

√ 0

sin 2θ

xydxdy

= = = =

4
0

ρ
π /4 0

Ô

ρ2 cos θ sin θ dρ

4 3

√ √ ( sin 2θ)3 cos θ sin θ dθ
π /4

4 √ 3 √2 π 2 . 12

sin2 2θ dθ
0

3.7.4 Using x = aρ cos θ, y = bρ sin θ, the integral becomes
2π 1

(ab)
0

a3 cos3 θ + b3 sin3 θdθ
0

ρ4 dρ

=

2 (ab)(a3 + b3 ). 15

3.7.8 Using polar coordinates,
π /6 1

f (x, y)dA
D

=
0 π /6 2 sin θ

ρ2 dρ dθ 1 (1 − 8 sin3 θ) dθ 3 0 √ π 16 − + 3. 18 9

= = 3.7.9 Using polar coordinates the integral becomes
π /2 0 0 2 cos θ

ρ4 dρ 3.7.11 Using polar coordinates the integral becomes
π /4 −π /4 2 cos θ 1/ cos θ

cos2 θ sin θdθ =

4 . 5

1 dρ ρ3

π /4

dθ =
0

cos2 θ −

sec2 θ 4

dθ =

π . 8

Free to photocopy and distribute

188

we have 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/2. The respective domains of integration of Ia and Ia √ 2 are the inscribed and the exscribed circles to the square.14 We have whence It follows that x3 y 3 2xdx = cos θdρ − ρ sin θdθ.15  Using polar coordinates 2π a 0 Ia = 0 ρe−ρ dρ dθ = π(1 − e−a ). the integral equals √ √ π 2 π π π 2 − − .7. This gives the result.7. 2ydy = sin θdρ + ρ cos θdθ. Ô 1 − x4 − y 4 dx ∧ dy = = 1 2 2 Ô (x y )( 1 − x4 − y 4 )(4xy dx ∧ dy) 4 Ô 1 3 (ρ cos θ sin θ 1 − ρ2 )dρ ∧ dθ 4 Observe that Since the integration takes place on the ﬁrst quadrant. y) ∈ R2 : y ≥ x. Since both Ia and Ia √ 2 tend to π as a → +∞. Hence the integral becomes π /2 0 0 1 x4 + y 4 ≤ 1 =⇒ ρ2 cos2 θ + ρ2 sin2 θ ≤ 1 =⇒ ρ ≤ 1.13 Observe that D = D2 \ D1 where D2 is the disk limited by the equation x2 + y 2 = 1 and D1 is the disk limited by the equation x2 + y 2 = y.12 Put Then the integral equals D = {(x. 60 π /2 Ô 1 3 (ρ cos θ sin θ 1 − ρ2 )dρdθ 4 1 = = = ρ3 0 Ô 1 − ρ2 dρ 3.Appendix A 3.7. 64 48 π /2 3. x2 + y 2 − x ≤ 0}. x2 + y 2 − y ≤ 0. 1 cos θ sin θdθ 4 0 1 1 2 · · 4 2 15 1 . = 2 2 4 4 3. 2 2  The domain of integration of Ja is a square of side 2a centred at the origin. 4xydx ∧ dy = ρdρ ∧ dθ. Using polar coordinates the integral equals π /2 cos θ 2 π /4 (cos θ + sin θ)2 0 ρ3 dρ dθ = = 1 cos4 θ(1 + 2 sin θ cos θ)dθ 2 π /4 3π 5 − .  First observe that Ja = −a a e−x dx 2 2 . 2 D (x + y)2 dxdy. Hence dxdy = (1 + x2 + y 2 )2 dxdy − (1 + x2 + y 2 )2 dxdy . we deduce that Ja → π. Free to photocopy and distribute 189 . t2 + 1 2t + 1 2 4 sin θ (We evaluated this last integral using t = tan θ) Finally.7. (1 + x2 + y 2 )2 D D2 D1 Using polar coordinates we have dxdy = (1 + x2 + y 2 )2 π /2 2π 0 0 1 D2 ρ π dρdθ = (1 + ρ2 )2 2 π /2 and D1 dxdy (1 + x2 + y 2 )2 = = 2 0 +∞ 0 ρ sin2 θdθ dρdθ = (1 + ρ2 )2 1 + sin2 θ 0 0 √ dt dt π π 2 − 2 = − .

Γ Parametrise the curve enclosing the region by polar coordinates so that the region is tangent to the polar axis at the origin. 0 2 dθ so the problem reduces to evaluate I = . Free to photocopy and distribute 190 . If no two points are farther than 2 units. dθ = . we now use what has been dubbed 2 + sin 2θ 0 1 as “the world’s sneakiest substitution” : we put tan θ = t. so we split the interval of integration into two pieces. whose Calculus book I recommend greatly. x2 + xy + y 2 3 4≤x 2 +y 2 ≤16 dt 1+t 2 2t −∞ 2 + 1+t 2 0 3. In so doing we have to pay attention to the fact that π π θ → tan θ is not continuous on [0. and so the area < 1 1 2 π /2 4dθ = π.14 that the area enclosed by a simple closed curve Γ is given by 1 2 Using polar coordinates xdy − ydx = = (ρ cos θ)(sin θdρ + ρ cos θdθ) − (ρ sin θ)(cos θdρ − ρ sin θdθ) ρ2 dθ. cos 2θ = . [0. 0 by Michael Spivak. their squares are no farther than 4 units. The area of the region is then given by 1 2 π ρ2 dθ = 0 1 2 π (f (θ))2 dθ = 0 1 2 π /2 ((f (θ))2 + (f (θ + π/2))2 )dθ. 0 By the Pythagorean Theorem. the integral above is the integral of the square of the chord in question. 3 √ 1 4π 3 log 2 dA = . Let the equation of the curve be ρ = f (θ).7. To ﬁnd this integral. π] = [0. ]∪] . xdy − ydx. 2 2 2t 1 − t2 dt Then sin 2θ = .17 Recall from formula 1. π]. Hence 1 + t2 1 + t2 1 + t2 π 0 dθ 2 + sin 2θ π /2 = 0 +∞ dθ + 2 + sin 2θ 2 dt 1+t 2 2t + 1+t 2 π π /2 0 dθ 2 + sin 2θ = 0 +∞ + = = = = = We conclude that dt dt + 2(t2 + t + 1) 2(t2 + t + 1) 0 −∞ +∞ 0 2 dt 2 dt + 2t 2t 1 2 1 3 0 3 −∞ ( √ + √ )2 + 1 ( √3 + √3 ) + 1 3 √ ¬+∞ √ √ √ ¬3 √ √ 3¬ 2t 3 3 3 ¬0 2t 3 3 arctan + + arctan + ¬ ¬ 3 0 3 3 3 −∞ 3 3 √ √ π π 3 π 3 π − + − − 3 2 6 3 6 2 √ π 3 .7.Answers and Hints 3.16 1 dA x2 + xy + y 2 4≤x 2 +y 2 ≤16 2π 4 2 = 0 2π 4 r drdθ r 2 + r 2 sin θ cos θ = = = = = = π 1 drdθ r(1 + sin θ cos θ) 2π 4 dθ dr 1 + sin θ cos θ r 0 2 2π dθ log 2 1 + sin θ cos θ 0 2π dθ 2 log 2 2 + sin 2θ 0π dθ 4 log 2 2 + sin 2θ 0 4I log 2. π].

1). 8 Free to photocopy and distribute 191 . 3. 12 y /3   √ 0 9−x 2 0 xdV = E 0 xdzdydx = 27 . C. C. 0. so the limits are z = y to z = 1 − x + y. I(R) = A. x − y + z = 1 P2 : P3 : P4 : A. Then l +∞ I(S(L )) = 0 0 e−v dudv = l.18 Let I(S) denote the integral sought over a region S. O z=y x=y y = 0.8. The projection of the solid on the xy plane produces the region bounded by the lines x = 0. If V is a vertex of R. We have four planes passing through each triplet of points: P1 : A. 0. y) = 0 inside R. The sum of these integrals over all the sides of R is L. Set up coordinates uv so that u is measured parallel to L and v is measured perpendicular to L.1 We have zdV E 1 1−y 0 0 1−z = 0 1 1−y zdxdzdy z − z 2 dzdy = 0 1 0 = = = (1 − y)2 (1 − y)3 − dy 2 3 0 3 ¬1 4 (1 − y) (1 − y) ¬ − ¬ 12 6 0 1 = . then using polar coordinates α +∞ I(S(V )) = 0 0 ρe−ρ dρdθ = α. 0. and O = (0. B = (1. We have 1 0 0 x y 1−x+y 1 x 0 xdzdydx = 0 1 (x − x2 )dydx = = = 3.7. If α is the measure of that angle.8. 1). z sweeps from P2 to P1 . C = (0. 0). 6   We use the same limits of integration as in the previous integral. Using the order of integration dzdxdy. Thus 1 0 0 x y 1−x+y 1 x 0 dzdydx = 0 1 (1 − x)dydx = = = ¡ x − x2 dx 0 ¬ x2 x 3 ¬1 − ¬ 2 3 0 1 . The sum of these integrals over all the vertices of R is 2π. the points that have V as nearest from R lie inside an angle S(V ) bounded by the rays from V perpendicular to the edges meeting at V . 6 3.8. 1.3 Let A = (1.Appendix A a contradiction. O A. 3. C. B. x = 1 and x = y on the ﬁrst quadrant of the xy-plane. 0). Let L be a side of R with length l and let S(L ) be the half strip consisting of the points of the plane having a point on L as nearest point of R. B. Assembling all these integrals we deduce the result. Since D(x.4 We have 3 ¡ x2 − x3 dx 0 ¬ x3 x4 ¬1 − ¬ 3 4 0 1 . O B.

y. 0 r2 Spherical: π /2 π /4 0 2π 0 (cos φ)/(sin φ)2 r 2 sin φdrdθdφ.9. π The volume is . The z-limits remain the same as in the Cartesian coordinates. Free to photocopy and distribute 192 . The desired integral is thus 2 √ 17−1 2 √ 17−1 −x 2 2 √ 4−x 2 −y 2 − √ 17−1 2 − √ 17−1 −x 2 2 xdzdydx. Ô and so r 2 ≤ z ≤ 4 − r 2 . 3 3. Observe that if (x.9. 2 √ 17 − 1 Since x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4 =⇒ −2 ≤ z ≤ 2. we must have z = only. z) is on the intersection of the surfaces then √ −1 ± 17 z 2 + z = 4 =⇒ z = . x 2 +y 2 2.8. but translated into cylindrical coordinates.Answers and Hints 3. √ √ 1−y 2 1−y 2 x 2 +y 2 − √ 1 dzdxdy.5 The desired integral is 1 0 0 1 0 ∞ dxdydz (1 + x2 z 2 )(1 + y 2 z 2 ) 1 1 0 0 = 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 = 0 dxdydz ¬z=∞ ¬ 1 ¬ (x arctan(xz) − y arctan(yz)) ¬ dxdy 2 − y2 x ¬ x2 z=0 ∞ 1 − y2 x2 y2 − 2z 2 1+x 1 + y2z2 = 0 1 1 = 0 = = = 3. 2 a circle of radius Ö√ 17 − 1 . Since x2 + y 2 ≤ z ≤ 4 − x2 − y 2 .1 Cartesian: 1 −1 π 2 0 1 0 π(x − y) dxdy 2(x2 − y 2 ) π dxdy 2(x + y) ¬1 ¬ π ¬ · ((y + 1) log(y + 1) − (y + 1) − y log y + y)¬ 2 ¬ 0 log(y + 1) − log ydy π log 2. we start our integration with the z-variable. The projection of the circle of 2 intersection of the paraboloid and the sphere onto the xy-plane satisﬁes the equation z 2 + z = 4 =⇒ x2 + y 2 + (x2 + y 2 )2 = 4 =⇒ x2 + y 2 = √ 17 − 1 . The projection of the intersection circle onto the xy-plane is again a circle with Ö√ 17 − 1 centre at the origin and radius . x 2 +y 2 Cylindrical: 2π 0 r rdzdθdr.2 Ô 1. The desired integral 2 2π 0 0 √ 17−1 2 √ r2 4−r 2 r 2 cos θdzdrdθ.

7 96 3.8 π 14 x = ρ cos θ sin φ sin t. a conclusion that is easily reached.9 We put sin θ sin φ sin tdr + ρ cos θ sin φ sin tdθ + ρ sin θ cos φ sin tdφ + ρ sin θ sin φ cos tdt cos φ sin tdr − ρ sin φ sin tdφ + ρ cos φ cos tdt cos tdr − ρ sin tdt Free to photocopy and distribute 193 . x2 + y 2 + u2 + v 2 = = = = Now. Spherical: π /3 0 r 2 sin φdrdθdφ. 1/ cos φ The volume is 3. v = ρ cos t. y = ρ sin θ sin φ sin t. (csc φ)(cot φ)}. Upon using sin a + cos2 a = 1 three times.9. It is clear that the limits of the angle θ are from θ = 0 to θ = 2π. Cylindrical: 3 0 2π 0 2π 1 2 √ 4−r 2 rdzdθdr. The angle φ starts at φ = 0. 3.9. since the integrand is an odd function of x and the domain of integration is symmetric about the origin in x.9. √ 17 − 1 √ 17 − 1 2 =⇒ φ = arccos z = r cos φ =⇒ cos φ = 2 4 The desired integral √ 2π 0 0 arccos 17 − 1 4 2 r 3 cos θ sin2 φdrdφdθ. 3 2π 2 1 0 2+r cos θ ydV = E 0 r 2 sin θdzdrdθ = 0. Observe that z = x2 + y 2 =⇒ r cos φ = r 2 (cos θ)2 (sin φ)2 + r 2 (sin θ)2 (sin φ)2 =⇒ r ∈ {0.3 Cartesian: √ − 3 3 √ − √ 0 3−y 2 3−y 2 1 √ 4−x 2 −y 2 √ √ dzdxdy. dx dy du dv = = = = cos θ sin φ sin tdr − ρ sin θ sin φ sin tdθ + ρ cos θ cos φ sin tdφ + ρ cos θ sin φ cos tdt .Appendix A 3.5 We have 5π . We obtain √ 2π 0 0 17 − 1 2 √ r2 4−r 2 r 2 cos θdzdrdθ = 0.9. r 2 cos2 θ sin2 φ sin2 t + r 2 sin2 θ sin2 φ sin2 t + r 2 cos2 φ sin2 t + r 2 cos2 t r 2 cos2 θ sin2 φ + r 2 sin2 θ sin2 φ + r 2 cos2 φ r 2 cos2 θ + r 2 sin2 θ r2.9. u = ρ cos φ sin t. (csc φ)(cot φ) Perhaps it is easiest to evaluate the integral using cylindrical coordinates. 2 3. π 3. Now.

0 ≤ uv ≤ 1. dx ∧ dy ∧ du ∧ dv = r 3 sin φ sin2 tdr ∧ dφ ∧ dθ ∧ dt. dz ∧ dx = −2vdu ∧ dv.10 We make the change of variables u = x + y + z =⇒ du = dx + dy + dz. y = v. Ô ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ ¬¬d x¬¬ = 2 + 4v 2 du ∧ dv.10. 2]. xm (1 − x)n dx = m!n! . Free to photocopy and distribute 194 . and so dy ∧ dz = −du ∧ dv.9. (m + n + 1)! we deduce. 0 1 0 1 0 1 u20 v 18 w 8 (1 − u)4 (1 − v)(1 − w)9 dudvdw. u v du ∧ dv ∧ dw = dx ∧ dy ∧ dz. n one has 1 0 x = u(1 − v). uvw = z =⇒ uvdw + uwdv + vwdu = dz. 0 dθ 0 sin φdφ 0 sin2 tdt = = 3.1 We parametrise the surface by letting x = u. 0 ≤ uv − uvw ≤ 1 − uvw. 1 which in turn is 1 0 1 u20 (1 − u)4 du 0 v 18 (1 − v)dv 0 w 8 (1 − w)9 dw = 1 1 1 · · 265650 380 437580 which is = 1 . z = u + v 2 . 0 ≤ w ≤ 1. Thus 0 ≤ uvw ≤ 1. z = uvw. 0 ≤ v ≤ 1. This gives y = uv(1 − w). Therefore ex x 2 +y 2 +u 2 +v 2 ≤1 2 +y 2 +u 2 +v 2 π 2π 0 1 0 2 π 0 1 dxdydudv = 0 r 3 er sin φ sin2 tdrdφdθdt 2π π π 2 = 0 r 3 er dr 1 π (2π)(2) 2 2 π 2. To ﬁnd the limits of integration we observe that the limits of integration using dx ∧ dy ∧ dz are 0 ≤ z ≤ 1. 44172388260000 3. 0 ≤ u − uv ≤ 1 − uv + uvw − uvw. uv = y + z =⇒ udv + vdu = dy + dz. Observe that the domain D of Σ is the square [0. 2 0 ≤ u ≤ 1. This translates into 0 ≤ uvw ≤ 1. 1] × [0.Answers and Hints After some calculation. which ﬁnally give The integral sought is then. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 − y − z. using the fact that for positive integers m. 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 − z. 0 ≤ u ≤ 1. Observe that dx ∧ dy = du ∧ dv.

Then dx = du. (x. with R cos φ1 − R cos φ2 = 2R/n.2 Using x = r cos θ. dz ∧ dx = − du ∧ dv. 1+ (dx ∧ dy)2 + (dz ∧ dx)2 + (dy ∧ dz)2 Hence ¬¬ ¬¬ z ¬¬d2 x¬¬ = Σ u 2 +v 2 ≤1 Ô u2 + v 2 √ 2 dudv = √ 2π 1 2 0 0 ρ2 dρdθ = √ 2π 2 .10. 3. dz ∧ dx = − sin θ sin2 φdφ ∧ dθ. 3. 4 Free to photocopy and distribute 195 . each slice will have height 2R/n.6 We project this plane onto the coordinate axes obtaining 6 3−z/2 0 xydydz = Σ 0 (3 − y − z/2)ydydz = 27 . sin θ sin φ. and so The integral becomes dy ∧ dz = cos θ sin2 φdφ ∧ dθ. Observe that dx ∧ dy = sin φ cos φdφ ∧ dθ.5 If the egg has radius R. y = r sin θ. ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ ¬¬d x¬¬ = sin φdφ ∧ dθ. 3 3. y = v. z z ¬¬ 2 ¬¬ ¬¬d x¬¬ = = = u2 + v 2 du ∧ dv z2 √ 2 du ∧ dv. The area of the part of the surface of the sphere in slice is 2π 0 φ2 φ1 R2 sin φdφdθ = 2πR2 (cos φ1 − cos φ2 ) = 4πR2 /n. 2π] is the latitude and φ ∈ [0.10. ¬¬ ¬¬ x2 ¬¬d2 x¬¬ Σ 2π π = 0 0 cos2 θ sin3 φdφdθ 4π . whence and so u v dx ∧ dy = du ∧ dv. the surface area is √ 2π 2 2 0 1 rdrdθ = 3π √ 2.10. 3 0 √ Ô 2 + 4v 2 dudv 2 = = y 0 Ô 2 + 4v 2 dv 3. z 2 = u2 + v 2 . dy = dv. 3 = 3. zdz = udu + vdv.3 We use spherical coordinates.Appendix A The integral becomes ¬¬ ¬¬ y ¬¬d2 x¬¬ Σ 2 1 = 0 1 0 v du 13 2 . φ1 ≤ φ ≤ φ2 . z) = (cos θ sin φ. This means that each of the n slices has identical area 4πR2 /n.4 Put x = u. y.10. 1 ≤ r ≤ 2. dy ∧ dz = − du ∧ dv. π] is the longitude. A slice can be parametrised by 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. cos φ). Here θ ∈ [0. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π.10.

2 (x + z)dxdy = Σ 0 (6 − x − 2y)dxdy = 27 . 2 27 . To do it directly. Free to photocopy and distribute 196 .1 Evaluating this directly would result in evaluating four path integrals. The region M is the area enclosed by the square. We have dω = = = (3x2 ydx + x3 dy) ∧ dx + (ydx + xdy) ∧ dy d(x3 y) ∧ dx + d(xy) ∧ dy (y − x3 )dx ∧ dy. − 0 x −x/3+4/3 (1 − 2y)dy Hence by the generalised Stokes’ Theorem the integral equals π /2 d(x2 + 2y 3 ) ∧ dy = 2xdx ∧ dy.2 We have −4.  We have (1 − 2y)dx ∧ dy D 0 = −2 1 −x/3+4/3 −x (1 − 2y)dy dx dx + = = 3. put x − 2 = 2 cos t. 0 ≤ t ≤ 2π. We will use Green’s Theorem. Then the integral becomes 2π 2π ((2 + 2 cos t)2 + 16 sin3 t)d2 sin t 0 = 0 (8 cos t + 16 cos2 t +8 cos3 t + 32 cos t sin3 t)dt = 16π. LAC is y = −x. 4 and hence xydydz − x2 dzdx + (x + z)dxdy = Σ 3. one for each side of the square.11.11. and LB C is clearly y = − x + .Answers and Hints 3 6−2x 0 3−y 0 − Σ x2 dzdx = − 3 0 x2 dzdx = − 27 . y = 2 sin t.11. 3 3  We have 1 y 2 dx + xdy AB = 0 (x2 + x)dx −2 0 = 2 5 6 − 15 2 14 3 y dx + xdy BC 2 = 1 1 4 − x+ 3 3 − 1 x dx 3 = = y 2 dx + xdy CA = −2 (x2 − x)dx Adding these integrals we ﬁnd Á y 2 dx + xdy = −2. 1 4  LAB is y = x. 4 cos θ 0 2xdx ∧ dy = {(x−2)2 +y 2 ≤4} −π /2 2ρ2 cos θdρ ∧ dθ = 16π.6 Observe that 44 10 − 27 27 −2. The integral equals Á 2 2 x3 ydx + xydy = (y − x3 )dxdy C 0 0 = 3.

x = 2 − y = 1 − cos θ. Similarly we get 2(x − 1)2 + z 2 = 2 on the xz-plane.Appendix A 3. we would set √ y = 1 + cos θ. z = 2 sin θ. (x − x0 )2 (y − y0 )2 + ≤1 a2 b2 (To evaluate the integrals you may resort to the fact that the area of the elliptical region is πab). The integral becomes 2π 0 (1 + cos θ)d(1 − cos θ) + 2π √ √ 2 sin θd(1 + cos θ) + (1 − cos θ)d( 2 sin θ) √ √ √ which in turn = 0 sin θ + sin θ cos θ − 2+ 2 cos θdθ = −2π 2. Since dx ∧ dy = 0. which describes an ellipse on the yz-plane.11. by Stokes’ Theorem the integral sought is − 2(y −1)2 +z 2 ≤2 dydz − 2(x−1)2 +z 2 ≤2 √ dzdx = −2π( 2). If we were to evaluate this integral directly.7 At the intersection path 0 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2(x + y) = (2 − y)2 + y 2 + z 2 − 4 = 2y 2 − 4y + z 2 = 2(y − 1)2 + z 2 − 2. Free to photocopy and distribute 197 . We have d (ydx + zdy + xdz) = dy ∧ dx + dz ∧ dy + dx ∧ dz = −dx ∧ dy − dy ∧ dz − dz ∧ dx.