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W

BDG

Whole Building Design Guide

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Health Care Facilities
by Robert F. Carr Last updated: 03-14-2007

Overview
We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us... Winston Churchill (May 10, 1941) Health care facilities encompass a wide range of types, from small and relatively simple medical clinics to large, complex, and costly, teaching and research hospitals. Large hospitals centers may include all the various subsidiary health care types that are often independent facilities. The old expression, "You never get a second chance to make a good first impression" applies to health care facilities. The facility conveys a message to patients, visitors, volunteers, vendors, and staff. The facility also communicates a torrent of clues about the organization and the medical care being provided there. The clues start at the approach to the facility, the drop-off area, the parking lots, and the street signs. Ideally, that message is one that conveys welcoming, caring, comfort, and compassion, commitment to patient well-being and safety, where stress is relieved, refuge is provided, respect is reciprocated, competence is symbolized, way-finding is facilitated, and families are accommodated. The facility also influences employee service attitudes and behaviors. Finishes, signage, and artwork must be carefully selected, well coordinated, and integrated. Security can be balanced with some features apparent to patients/visitors, while conveying a message of safety. Thoughtful design can help ensure the proper first impression is created and sustained. The design of health care facilities is governed by many regulations and technical requirements. It is also affected by many less defined needs and pressures. The most pressing of these are workforce shortages, reimbursements, malpractice insurance, physician-hospital relations, capacity, care for the uninsured, patient safety, advances in technology, and patient satisfaction per a recent American College of Healthcare Executives survey of hospital CEOs.

3 VAMC Dallas, TX The entire health care system is under great pressure to reduce costs, and at the same time, be more responsive to "customers". The aging are the heaviest users of health care services, and the percentage of the aging in our population is increasing significantly. At the same time, rapid technological advances, often involving very sophisticated techniques and equipment, make more diagnostic and treatment procedures available. The consequent increase in health care costs is not easily accommodated. Designers find increasing focus on limiting both construction costs and the costs of their design services, while compressing construction schedules and still meeting the highest quality standards. As cost pressures increase, health care facilities find themselves in increasing competition for both patients and staff. Architecture is often recognized as an important tool in attracting and retaining the best doctors and nurses, the most successful HMOs and insurance plans, and the most patients. Consumer decisions are based on cost, accessibility, quality of service, and quality of medical care. An aesthetically pleasing facility is a key aspect of the perceived quality of care. Health care is a labor-intensive industry, and much of that labor is highly skilled and highly paid. Since 60 to 75% of hospital expenses are labor costs, a design that increases operational productivity or efficiency and reduces staffing needs can have a major impact on the bottom line. (Don Blair, then at Perkins + Will, estimated that the cost of one fulltime staff person is equivalent to the debt service on $1 million of borrowing per Architectural Record of May 1997.) Likewise, operations and maintenance costs over the typical 50-year life cycle of a hospital contribute up to 80% to the equation, so anything designers can do to facilitate maintenance and reduce total life-cycle cost will have tremendous returns on a relatively small up-front investment. (Source: Federal Facilities Council.) Flexibility must be a basic feature of any new health care facility to keep it from rapid obsolescence in the face of changing needs and technologies. Health care facility needs are evolving rapidly, and the direction of that evolution is difficult to forecast with any certainty. New equipment technologies, new treatment methodologies, changes in diseases, and changes in the patient population base all impact the facilities that house them. Inpatient care is steadily being reduced while outpatient services are growing. There is increasing emphasis on special-care units and smaller satellite facilities rather than large, centralized facilities. In the past, communicable diseases were the major health problem, and sanitation or cleanliness was the main characteristic of a healing or therapeutic environment. Cleanliness remains extremely important, but there is increasing recognition of the value of a pleasant, easily-understood, and non-threatening environment for patient recovery. For example, the Planetree Hospital philosophy of "demystifying medicine" emphasizes such a physical environment as part of its approach. Good design in the health care setting starts by recognizing the basic functional needs, but does not end there—it must

4 also meet the emotional needs of those who use such facilities at times of uncertainty, dependency, and stress.

Emerging Issues
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The movement from hospital-based acute care to outpatient care, and toward a more holistic, preventative, and continuous care of health and wellness. The new HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act) regulations addressing security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). These regulations put new emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy, and may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information, both paper and electronic, as well as patient accommodations. Increasing emphasis on security, especially in large public facilities, and the need to balance this with the desired openness to patients and visitors.

Classification
A trend towards specialization has resulted in a growing number of health care types. Among them are hospitals, nursing homes, outpatient facilities, psychiatric facilities, rehabilitation facilities, hospices, assisted living facilities, congregate housing, adult day care facilities, and various specialized outpatient facilities. The WBDG currently includes sections on the following four specific building types:
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Hospital Nursing Home, including Alzheimer's Related Dementia (ARD) units Outpatient Clinic, including the specialized diagnostic and treatment areas which may be stand-alone facilities Psychiatric Facility, including psychiatric hospitals

Major Resources
Websites
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AIA Academy of Architecture for Health (AAH)—Contains AAH newsletters, reports, and other documents related to health care design. American Hospital Association—Information generally focused on financial and organizational issues, but includes good data on health care statistics and other resources. American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE)—An advocate for continuous improvement in the health care engineering and facilities management professions. Contains a Therapeutic Environments Forum with excellent information and sponsors an annual conference on planning, design, and construction.

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American Society of Interior Designers and the University of Minnesota—The first centralized clearinghouse for design and human behavior research on the Web. Green Guide for Health Care™—A best practices guide for healthy and sustainable building design, construction, and operations for the healthcare industry. Hospitals for a Healthy Environment—A four-member partnership between the Environmental Protection Agency, American Hospital Association, American Nurses Association, and Healthcare Without Harm to educate health care professionals about pollution prevention. Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)— Has some facility related information, though it is largely concerned with operational issues. Society for the Arts in Healthcare (SAH)—National and international advocacy group for the integration of the arts into the healing health care environment. The Center for Health Design—An extensive site focusing on health care facility design. VA Office of Construction & Facility Management (CFM) Technical Information Library—Includes manuals, guides, and other standards covering all aspects of health care facility design.

Publications

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Architectural Record—Monthly journal with a building types study section focusing on health care design every year or so. Online archives include many more projects than those that appear in the printed magazine. Building Type Basics for Healthcare Facilities . ed. Stephen A. Kliment. New York: John Wily & Sons, Inc., 2000. Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors, 2nd ed. by Janet R. Carpman, Myron A. Grant and Deborah A. Simmons. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities by AIA Academy of Architecture for Health, Washington, DC: The American Institute of Architects, 2001. Healthcare Architecture in an Era of Radical Transformations by Stephen Verderber and David Fine. Yale University Press, 2000. Healthcare Design—A quarterly magazine with design articles and presentations of recent projects Health Facilities Review, 1992-1993 and subsequent issues by AIA Academy of Architecture for Health. Washington DC: AIA Press. Hospitals and Health Networks—A monthly journal of the American Hospital Association. Includes occasional articles on construction. Innovations in Healthcare Design: Selected Presentations from the First Five Symposia on Healthcare Design ed. Sara Marberry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995.

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Journal of Healthcare Design—Published from 1988-1998, contains presentations at the annual symposium on Health Care Design. Modern Healthcare—A weekly journal for health care executives with frequent articles on design and construction and an annual design awards program. Online articles from 1994. Performance Failures in Health Care Facilities. Preliminary Report by Earle Kennett. Washington, DC: AIA/ACSA Council on Architectural Research, 1988. Sustainable Federal Facilities: A Guide to Integrating Value Engineering, Lifecycle Costing, and Sustainable Development by the Federal Facilities Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

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Hospital
by Robert F. Carr NIKA Technologies, Inc. for VA Office of Construction & Facility Management (CFM) Last updated: 04-21-2008

Overview
"A functional design can promote skill, economy, conveniences, and comforts; a nonfunctional design can impede activities of all types, detract from quality of care, and raise costs to intolerable levels." ... Hardy and Lammers Hospitals are the most complex of building types. Each hospital is comprised of a wide range of services and functional units. These include diagnostic and treatment functions, such as clinical laboratories, imaging, emergency rooms, and surgery; hospitality functions, such as food service and housekeeping; and the fundamental inpatient care or bed-related function. This diversity is reflected in the breadth and specificity of regulations, codes, and oversight that govern hospital construction and operations. Each of the wide-ranging and constantly evolving functions of a hospital, including highly complicated mechanical, electrical, and telecommunications systems, requires specialized knowledge and expertise. No one person can reasonably have complete knowledge, which is why specialized consultants play an important role in hospital planning and design. The functional units within the hospital can have competing needs and priorities. Idealized scenarios and strongly-held individual preferences must be balanced against mandatory requirements, actual functional needs (internal traffic and relationship to other departments), and the financial status of the organization.

VAMC Bay Pines, FL In addition to the wide range of services that must be accommodated, hospitals must serve and support many different users and stakeholders. Ideally, the design process incorporates direct input from the owner and from key hospital staff early on in the process. The designer also has to be an advocate for the patients, visitors, support staff,

ideally.8 volunteers. materials. . The basic form of a hospital is. and suppliers who do not generally have direct input into the design. Good hospital design integrates functional requirements with the human needs of its varied users. The hospital configuration is also influenced by site restraints and opportunities. based on its functions: • • • • • • bed-related inpatient functions outpatient-related functions diagnostic and treatment functions administrative functions service functions (food. Thus the physical configuration of a hospital and its transportation and logistic systems are inextricably intertwined. Certain relationships between the various functions are required—as in the following flow diagrams. and waste. The transportation systems are influenced by the building configuration. These flow diagrams show the movement and communication of people. and the configuration is heavily dependent on the transportation systems. supply) research and teaching functions Physical relationships between these functions determine the configuration of the hospital.

modified triangles. surrounding facilities. Nursing units today tend to be more compact shapes than the elongated rectangles of the past. Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness An efficient hospital layout should: • • • • • • • • Promote staff efficiency by minimizing distance of necessary travel between frequently used spaces Allow easy visual supervision of patients by limited staff Include all needed spaces. budget. but no redundant ones. is a principal element of the overall configuration. box conveyors. such as locating the surgical intensive care unit adjacent to the operating suite. and gravity or pneumatic chutes. recently reinforced by HIPAA. or budget. if possible—for direct access by outpatients Group or combine functional areas with similar system requirements Provide optimal functional adjacencies. staff. (The trend. and soiled material Make efficient use of space by locating support spaces so that they may be shared by adjacent functional areas. the form of the typical nursing unit. Compact rectangles. and number of beds to a patient room. New alternatives are generated by new medical needs and new technology. In a large hospital. or even circles have been used in an attempt to shorten the distance between the nurse station and the patient's bed. and supplies. These adjacencies should be based on a detailed functional program which describes the hospital's intended operations from the standpoint of patients.) Building Attributes Regardless of their location. .9 climate. which might include elevators. manual or automated carts. The chosen solution is heavily dependent on program issues such as organization of the nursing program. This requires careful pre-design programming. and available technology. and by making prudent use of multi-purpose spaces Consolidate outpatient functions for more efficient operation—on first floor. since it may be repeated many times. size. pneumatic tubes. recyclables. is to all private rooms. Provide an efficient logistics system. for the efficient handling of food and clean supplies and the removal of waste. all hospitals should have certain common attributes. number of beds to a nursing unit.

electrical. and bid. if properly planned. this provides continuing adaptability to changing programs and needs.10 VAMC Albuquerque. with well planned directions for future expansion. and plumbing distribution. designed. be designed on a modular system basis. Be open-ended. NM Flexibility and Expandability Since medical needs and modes of treatment will continue to change. and easily modified mechanical and electrical systems Where size and program allow. For large projects. for instance positioning "soft spaces" such as administrative departments. The VA Hospital Building System also allows vertical expansion without disruptions to floors below. . This system also uses walk-through interstitial space between occupied floors for mechanical. rather than highly specific ones Be served by modular. hospitals should: • • • • • Follow modular concepts of space planning and layout Use generic room sizes and plans as much as possible. such as the VA Hospital Building System. with no first-cost premium. easily accessed. adjacent to "hard spaces" such as clinical laboratories.

keeping in mind that some colors are inappropriate and can interfere with provider assessments of patients' pallor and skin tones. (See VA Interior Design Manual. The characteristics of the patient profile will determine the degree to which the interior design should address aging. and stress-free as possible. comfortable. particularly some psychiatric patients (for in depth survey of research related to Color in Healthcare Environments. loss of visual acuity. A hospital's interior design should be based on a comprehensive understanding of the facility's mission and its patient profile. other physical and mental disabilities. Every effort should be made to make the hospital stay as unthreatening. The interior designer plays a major role in this effort to create a therapeutic environment. or agitate patients and staff. and abusiveness.) Some important aspects of creating a therapeutic interior are: • • • Using familiar and culturally relevant materials wherever consistent with sanitation and other functional needs Using cheerful and varied colors and textures. disorient older or impaired patients. Admitting ample natural light wherever feasible and using color-corrected lighting in interior spaces which closely approximates natural daylight .11 Cross-section showing interstitial space with deck above an occupied floor Therapeutic Environment Hospital patients are often fearful and confused and these feelings may impede recovery. see CHER).

texture. Cleanliness and Sanitation Hospitals must be easy to clean and maintain. Patients. if federally funded or owned. Building elements. color. Much of this circulation should be controlled.12 • • Providing views of the outdoors from every patient bed. the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) In addition to meeting minimum requirements of ADA and/or UFAS. . and staff all need to know where they are. and finish transitions to avoid dirt-catching and hard-to-clean crevices and joints Adequate and appropriately located housekeeping spaces Special materials. The new antimicrobial surfaces might be considered for appropriate locations. both inside and out. and elsewhere wherever possible. visitors. be designed so as to be easy to use by the many patients with temporary or permanent handicaps Ensuring grades are flat enough to allow easy movement and sidewalks and corridors are wide enough for two wheelchairs to pass easily Ensuring entrance areas are designed to accommodate patients with slower adaptation rates to dark and light. Accessibility All areas. as well as artwork and signage. marking glass walls and doors to make their presence obvious Controlled Circulation A hospital is a complex system of interrelated functions requiring constant movement of people and goods. This is facilitated by: • • • • Appropriate.) For an in-depth view see WBDG—Therapeutic Environments. and use without asking for help. A patient's sense of competence is encouraged by making spaces easy to find. see VA Signage Design Guide. what their destination is. such as integral cove base. durable finishes for each functional space Careful detailing of such features as doorframes. casework. and pattern should all give cues. photo murals of nature scenes are helpful where outdoor views are not available Designing a "way-finding" process into every project. finishes. and details for spaces which are to be kept sterile. should: • • • • Comply with the minimum requirements of the Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and. identify. and how to get there and return. (As an example.

day rooms.) It is important in enhancing the hospital's public image and is thus an important marketing tool.13 • • • • • • • Outpatients visiting diagnostic and treatment areas should not travel through inpatient functional areas nor encounter severely ill inpatients Typical outpatient routes should be simple and clearly defined Visitors should have a simple and direct route to each patient nursing unit without penetrating other functional areas Separate patients and visitors from industrial/logistical areas or floors Outflow of trash. including incapacitated patients. consultation rooms. and detail Bright. generously-scaled public spaces Homelike and intimate scale in patient rooms. . Sustainability Hospitals are large public buildings that have a significant impact on the environment and economy of the surrounding community. recyclables. and both should be separated from routes of patients and visitors Transfer of cadavers to and from the morgue should be out of the sight of patients and visitors Dedicated service elevators for deliveries. and staff Safe control of violent or unstable patients Vulnerability to damage from terrorism because of proximity to highvulnerability targets. and textures Use of artwork Attention to proportions. They are heavy users of energy and water and produce large amounts of waste. scale. A better environment also contributes to better staff morale and patient care. natural materials. food and building maintenance services Aesthetics Aesthetics is closely related to creating a therapeutic environment (homelike. and soiled materials should be separated from movement of food and clean supplies. attractive. hospitals have several particular security concerns: • • • • Protection of hospital property and assets. or because they may be highly visible public buildings with an important role in the public health system. Aesthetic considerations include: • • • • • • Increased use of natural light. including drugs Protection of patients. and offices Compatibility of exterior design with its physical surroundings Security and Safety In addition to the general safety concerns of all buildings. color. Because hospitals place such demands on community resources they are natural candidates for sustainable design. open.

they must follow the local and/or state general building codes. These regulations put new emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy and may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information. both paper and electronic. and locating kitchens and dining areas on inpatient units so family members can prepare food for patients and families to eat together. designing hospitals as all-inclusive "wellness centers" Use of hand-held computers and portable diagnostic equipment to allow more mobile. VA's Design and Construction Procedure: Natural Disaster Non-Structural Resistive Design State laws requiring earthquake resistance. federal facilities on federal property generally need not comply with state and local codes. but follow federal regulations. both in designing new buildings and retrofitting existing structures New HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) regulations address security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). Need to balance increasing attention to building security with openness to patients and visitors Emergence of palliative care as a specialty in many major medical centers A growing interest in more holistic. Like other buildings. Many states adopt the AIA Guidelines for Design and Construction .9 of VA's HVAC Design Manual is a good example of hospital energy conservation standards that meet DOE requirements. and a general shift to computerized patient information of all kinds. design must comply with the individual state licensing regulations. This might require computer alcoves and data ports in corridors outside patient bedrooms. This might include providing mini-medical libraries and computer terminals so patients can research their conditions and treatments. as well as patient accommodations.14 Section 1. patient-centered treatment and environments such as promoted by Planetree. decentralized patient care. However. Also see LEED's (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) Green Building Rating System for sustainability standards for construction projects. Preventative care versus sickness care. Relevant Codes and Standards Hospitals are among the most regulated of all building types. Emerging Issues Among the many new developments and trends influencing hospital design are: • • • • • • • • • • The decreasing numbers of general practitioners along with the increased use of emergency facilities for primary care The increasing introduction of highly sophisticated diagnostic and treatment technology Requirements to remain operational during and after disasters—see. for example. To be licensed by the state.

Major Resources Websites • • • • American Hospital Association—Information generally focused on financial and organizational issues. American . American Society of Interior Designers and The University of Minnesota—The first centralized clearinghouse for design and human behavior research on the Web. Office of Facilities Management Technical Information Library contains many guides and standards. but includes good information on health care statistics and other resources. Regulations of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) also affect the design of hospitals. and thus that volume often has regulatory status. which in the past have frequently been based on the three regional model codes. The Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) apply to federal and federallyfunded facilities. they must also meet federal standards. they must meet standards of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Among them are: • Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). American Hospital Association. and construction of their facilities. and operations for the healthcare industry. the federal government and JCAHO refer to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) model fire codes. Since hospitals treat patients who are reimbursed under Medicare. They are not greatly different from ADA requirements. Federal agencies that build and operate hospitals have developed detailed standards for the programming. design manuals of technical requirements. including Standards for Health Care Facilities (NFPA 99) and the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). listed below as a resource. construction. master specifications. room finishes. particularly in laboratory areas. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) applies to all public facilities and greatly affects the design of hospitals with its general and specific accessibility requirements. equipment lists.15 of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities. and standard details. are now often being based on the model International Building Code (IBC). Green Guide for Health Care™—A best practices guide for healthy and sustainable building design. and to be accredited. Many of these standards are applicable to the design of non-governmental facilities as well. Hospitals for a Healthy Environment—A four-member partnership between the Environmental Protection Agency. design. space planning criteria. including: o Design Guides for planning many different departments and clinics. State and local codes. Generally.

and finishes Design Guide for Improving Hospital Safety in Earthquakes. Leibrock. Marraccini & Patterson. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Rockville. Emergency Department Design: A Practical Guide to Planning for the Future by John Huddy and Michael T. Healthcare Facility Plannning: Thinking Strategically by Cynthia Hayward. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1996. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Washington. with occasional articles on design and construction Hospitals. 2001.: Aspen Publishers. Healthcare Design .16 Nurses Association. Hospital Interior Architecture: Creating Healing Environments for Special Patient Populations by Jain Malkin. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Lammers. Design Details for Health: Making the Most of Interior Design's Healing Potential by Cynthia A. Myron Grant. FAAHC. 2005. Washington. 2001.. Health Facilities Review 1992-1993 and subsequent by AIA Committee on Architecture for Health. ed. maintenance. DC: AIA Press. by Owen B. and environmental services community. 2000.. Health Facilities Management—A monthly journal of the American Hospital Association's Health Forum. 1997. The Planning and Design Process.S. Rapp. DC: The American Institute of Architects. 2007. by Janet Carpman. 1992. Hospitals and Health Networks—A monthly journal of the American Hospital Association covering general health care news. Stephen Kliment.S. 2nd ed. Inc.. AIA. Society for the Arts in Healthcare (SAH)—National and international advocacy group for the integration of the arts into the healing healthcare environment. Inc. U. FEMA. and Healthcare without Harm to educate healthcare professionals about pollution prevention. 2nd Edition . Inc.—Innovative design solutions in key areas such as lighting. Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities by AIA Academy of Architecture for Health. Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors. Hardy and Lawrence P. acoustics. Floods. Green Building Council • • Publications • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Building Type Basics for Healthcare Facilities .. Marberry. and High Winds: Providing Protection to People and Buildings. ed. ACHA. Government Printing Office. Development Study—VA Hospital Building System by Building Systems Development and Stone.. Inc. Washington. Irving. DC: U. rev. Texas: ACEP (American College of Emergency Physicians) 2000. construction. Sarah O. 1977. It serves the health facility operations. Inc. 1999. and Deborah Simmons. Health Admnistration Press and the American College of Healthcare Executives. Healthcare Design—A quarterly magazine with design articles and presentations of recent projects . New York: John Wiley & Sons. color. Md.

2nd ed. Equipment. Modern Healthcare—A weekly journal for healthcare executives with frequent articles on design and construction and an annual design awards program. and planning tips. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1980. Inc. . Online archives of articles back to 1994. Time Saver Standards for Building Types.. Tools • SpaceMedGuide-A Space Planning Guide for Healthcare Facilities—a popular planning tool providing state-of-the-art planning methodologies. 2002. by Jain Malkin.17 • • • Medical and Dental Space Planning: A Comprehensive Guide to Design. New York: McGraw-Hill. by Joseph De Chiara and John Callender. and Clinical Procedures. 3rd Edition . industry benchmarks.

for VA Office of Construction & Facility Management (CFM) Last updated: 04-22-2008 Overview Nursing homes serve patients requiring preventive. the majority for life. although often using canes. therapeutic. but no longer require hospitalization. Nursing homes present special design challenges in that for most residents the nursing home is not just a facility. are often classified into intermediate and skilled nursing units. skilled nursing facilities meet the more demanding medical standards to qualify for Medicare as well as Medicaid support. but indeed their home. or sections of them. Inc. Most residents are frail and aged. Nursing homes also care for a smaller percentage of convalescent patients of all ages. rarely leave the premises at all. and rehabilitative nursing care services for non-acute. Carr NIKA Technologies. both physical and emotional. but not bedridden. . walkers. Intermediate-care facilities have just enough nursing to qualify for Medicaid. moreover. definitions related to Medicare/Medicaid standards. Nursing homes. The reality is that in most cases the residents will live there for the rest of their lives and. or wheelchairs. Specialized clinical and diagnostic services are obtained outside the nursing home. The cognitively impaired are frequently housed separately in Alzheimer Related Dementia (ASD) units. Stays are relatively long. These patients are in long-term recovery from acute illnesses.18 Nursing Home by Robert F. The nursing home becomes their entire world in a sense. The challenge is to design a nursing home that is sensitive and responsive to long-term human needs and well-being. long-term conditions.

Consequently. To achieve the appropriate nursing home environment every effort should be made to: . View enlarged plan Building Attributes A nursing home operates primarily in a patient-care mode rather than a medical mode. Missouri Architect: Kennedy Association Inc.19 Floor Plan of Missouri Veterans Home—St. It is especially important that the design address aging and its accompanying physical and mental disabilities. James. and the longterm stays typical of nursing home residents greatly increase this impact. The architect and interior designer must have a thorough understanding of the nursing home's mission and its patient profile. The principal attributes of a well designed nursing home are: Homelike and Therapeutic Environment Inherent in any institutional stay is the impact of environment on recovery. including loss of visual acuity. its more important attributes are those focusing on the general well-being of its residents rather than high-tech considerations.

NY. and use Provide higher lighting levels than typical for residential occupancies Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness The nursing home design should: • • • Promote staff efficiency by minimizing distance of necessary travel between frequently used spaces Allow easy visual supervision of patients by minimal staff Make efficient use of space by locating support spaces so they may be shared by adjacent functional areas.purpose spaces Western New York State Veterans Home Batavia. rather than institutional. keeping in mind that some colors are inappropriate and can disorient or agitate impaired residents Provide each resident a variety of spatial experiences. calendars. and by making prudent use of multi. In addition to operational practices and careful choice of furniture. identify. and the pervasive odors can give an impression of uncleanliness and poor operation to family and visitors. and by use of clocks. choice. and personalization of one's immediate surroundings Alleviate possible disorientation of residents by providing differences between "residential neighborhoods" of the nursing home. Kideny Architects Cleanliness and Sanitation An odor-free environment is a very high priority in nursing homes. varied colors and textures. and other "reminders" Encourage resident autonomy by making their spaces easy to find.20 • • • • • • • Give spaces a homelike. control. including access to a garden and the outdoors in general Promote traditional residential qualities of privacy. facility design can help odor control by: . size and scale with natural light and views of the outdoors Create a warm reassuring environment by using a variety of familiar. since many residents are occasionally incontinent. nonreflective finishes and cheerful.

Identify frequently used destination spaces by architectural features and landmarks which can be seen from a distance. durable finishes for each space used by residents Proper detailing of such features as doorframes. and elements such as fish tanks. then dining space must be apportioned among those floors. with the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) Be designed so that all spaces. colors. including storage units and operable windows. but will require the assistance of canes. which may need to exceed nominal design levels Attention to Way-finding A consistent and well thought out system of way-finding helps to maintain the residents' dignity and avoid their disorientation. art. or wheelchairs. walkers. and finish transitions to avoid dirt-catching and hard-to-clean crevices and joints Adequate and appropriately located housekeeping spaces Effective ventilation. are easily usable by residents in wheelchairs Be equipped with grab bars in all appropriate locations Be free of tripping hazards Be located on one floor if feasible. pattern. and artwork. signage. preferably at grade. furnishings. and how to get there and back. or greenery Avoid prominent locations and high visibility of doors to spaces which patients should not enter Use simple lettering and clear contrasts in signage (See VA Signage Manual) Clearly identify only those rooms that residents frequent Accessibility Many residents may be ambulatory to varying degrees. texture.21 • • • • • Adequate and highly visible toilet rooms in key locations near spaces where residents congregate The use of appropriate. if federally funded or owned. as well as signage. as well as symbols. should: • • • • • Comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) and. and equipment. It should: • • • • • Use multiple cues from building elements. To accommodate these residents. crutches. casework. both inside and out. to help residents understand where they are. If residents' bedrooms must be located on more than one floor. not centralized Security and Safety Design to address security and safety concerns of nursing homes includes: • Use of non-reflective and non-slip floors to avoid falls . birdcages. all spaces used by them. what their destination is.

natural materials. This can often be effectively provided within or adjoining an inpatient nursing facility. open. and textures Use of artwork Attention to proportions. and thus that volume often has regulatory status. but follow federal regulations. design must comply with the individual state licensing regulations. It is also a major factor in a nursing home's public image and is thus an important marketing tool for both residents' families and staff. However. Managed care programs for the aged are being developed to prevent. federal facilities on federal land generally need not comply with state and local codes. scale. both paper and electronic. institutionalization. New HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) regulations address security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). nursing homes must follow the local and/or state general building codes. Many states adopt the AIA Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities. listed below as a resource. To be licensed by the state. and detail Bright. or at least postpone. State and local . not hospital-like Exterior compatibility with surroundings Emerging Issues There is a growing recognition of the need for dementia day care. Relevant Codes and Standards Like other buildings. There is a need for better non-medical residential facilities for the frail but independent elderly. These regulations put new emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy and may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information.22 • • • Control of access to hazardous spaces Control of exits to avoid residents leaving and becoming lost or injured Provision of secure spaces to safeguard facility supplies and personal property of residents and staff Aesthetics Aesthetics is closely related to creating a therapeutic homelike environment. color. as well as patient accommodations. generously scaled public and congregate spaces Homelike and intimate scale in resident rooms and offices Appropriate residential exterior appearance. Aesthetic considerations include: • • • • • • • Increased use of natural light.

equipment lists. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) applies to all public facilities and greatly affects the design of nursing homes with its general and specific accessibility requirements. Library. Kennedy Assoc. . Many of these standards are applicable to the design of non-governmental facilities as well. including: o Design Manuals of technical requirements. MO. room finishes. or fund. Office of Facilities Management Technical Information Library contains many guides and standards. nursing homes have developed detailed standards for the programming. space planning criteria.23 codes. The website is not focused on design issues. Generally. and to be accredited. the federal government and JCAHO refer to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) model fire codes. Inc. facilities must also meet federal standards. Federal agencies that build and operate. which in the past have frequently been based on the three regional model codes. and standard details. They do not greatly differ from ADA requirements. design. including Standards for Health Care Facilities (NFPA 99) and the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101). To care for residents who are reimbursed under Medicare or Medicaid. are now often being based on the model International Building Code (IBC). but includes much background information and statistics. Among them are: • Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). James. Major Resources Websites • American Health Care Association—This organization represents the long-term case community. they must meet standards of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). The Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) apply to federal and federally funded facilities. St. master specifications.. Missouri Veterans Home. and construction of their facilities.

Design of Long-Term Care Facilities by Aranyi and Goldman. Green Guide for Health Care™—A best practices guide for healthy and sustainable building design. color. and finishes Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors. Myron Grant. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc. Design for Dementia by Margaret Calkins. Owings Mills. MD: Johns Hopkins Press. Hutchinson. MD: National Health Publishing.—Innovative design solutions in key areas such as lighting. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 2nd Edition by Janet Carpman. Design Details for Health: Making the Most of Interior Design's Healing Potential by Cynthia A.24 • • American Society of Interior Designers and the University of Minnesota—The first centralized clearinghouse on the web for design and human behavior research. 2001. 1997. Boston: Butterworth Architecture. 1999. construction. Tex. 1997. 1996. Publications • • • • • • • • • • • • Contemporary Environments for People with Dementia by Cohen and Day. Nursing Home Design by Benjamin Schwarz. by Joseph De Chiara and John Callender.: Dowden.A. Washington. 2nd ed. Nursing Home Renovation Designed for Reform by Lorraine Hiatt. 1980. and Ross. Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities by AIA Academy of Architecture for Health. 1991. Time Saver Standards for Building Types. Pa. 1993. acoustics. Koncelik. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.... Inc. 2001. and Deborah Simmons. 1976. Stroudsburg. Baltimore. and operations for the healthcare industry. Inc. New York: Garland Publishing. Designing the Open Nursing Home by J. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Hospital Related Facilities for the Elderly by Alicen Hall. 1988. DC: The American Institute of Architects.: Texas A&M University. Designing for Alzheimer's Disease: Strategies for Creating Better Care Environments by Elizabeth Brawley. Lubbock. New York: McGraw-Hill. . 1980. Leibrock.

and schedule. benefits. diligent project planning. goals. Recognizing the importance of these qualities in satisfying clients' expectations. and effective oversight of the delivery process. budget. Architect-Engineer Qualifications—On December 11. from inception to turnover. Project Planning and Development—Contains guidance on how to plan and deliver a project. USACE Project Managers Guide USAF Project Management Online Handbook . Major Resources Federal Agency Links • • • • • DOE Project Management Process (PDF 28 KB) NASA NPG 8820. Standard Form 330 (SF330) was released by the federal government. Project Delivery and Controls—Contains descriptions of procedures and practices used to manage project scope.2F-Facility Project Requirements Standard Form 330. the Project Management section offers guidance for the entire delivery team to successfully and effectively carry out a high performance building project. click on one of the following areas to begin your exploration: • • • • Project Delivery Teams—Contains guidance on assembling and effectively managing the project team. 2003. Note: Terminology and processes described within this section of the WBDG typically refer to federal projects. but may be applicable to other public sector institutions with adaptation for local standards of professional practice. replaces SF 254/255 and emphasizes qualifications-based selection for the procurement of A/E services. and principles.25 Project Planning. Building Commissioning—Provides an overview of commissioning drivers. Management and Delivery Last updated: 04-04-2008 Introduction Successful project management requires team leadership and coordination. which architects and engineers use to present their qualifications and experience when seeking federal projects. While this section is still under development. The new form.

contractors. Levy.S. on time. Government buyers are able to publicize their business opportunities by posting information directly to FedBizOpps via the Internet. maintenance. New York: John Wiley & Sons. monitor and retrieve opportunities solicited by the entire federal contracting community. Federal Facilities Council (FFC)—A cooperative association of 24 federal agencies responsible for facility design. Program Management Procedures by Construction Management Association of America. engineers. management. and evaluation.. PPT is offered by the U. Through one portal—FedBizOpps (FBO)— commercial vendors seeking federal markets for their products and services can search. 2002. Inc.000. Construction Management Institute (CMAA)—An association representing the construction management profession. 1997. Spinner. Project Management Institute (PMI)—The largest association of project management professionals from across all business and industry sectors. Fisk. General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects. Managing the Construction Project. Others • • Architectural Practices—A free resource for architects. Project Management in Construction by Sidney M.. Project Management. McLean. . project specific. Trauner..26 • VA Project Managers Handbook Publications • • • • • Construction Project Administration by Edward R. A Practical Guide for the Project Manager by Theodore J. It provides tools and advice to help architects manage projects effectively. management. Principles and Practices by Pete M. 1993. Inc. VA: 2003. Prentice-Hall. McGraw-Hill. Inc. material manufacturers. acquisition. construction contractors. and within budget. and delivery of building projects. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning. Organizations • • • • Construction Industry Institute (CII)—A consortium of public and private facility owners. New York. and other members of the building community. Jr. 1992. FedBizOpps—The single government point-of-entry (GPE) for federal government procurement opportunities over $25. Tools • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

specialty consultants. . A-E designer. contracting officer. and peer reviewer(s). Delivery team members should be identified in the Project Management Plan (PMP) and typically will include a project manager. This branch of the WBDG has been developed to assist stakeholders in capital design and construction programs in understanding how project teams are selected. support staff.27 • University of Maryland Project Management Program—Provides project management education and research Project Delivery Teams by the WBDG Project Management Committee Last updated: 03-15-2007 Overview Every capital project has a unique set of program goals and technical requirements that demand assembling a specialized mix of core team members and other stakeholders (a stakeholder is a party with a vested interest in a project). procured/contracted. and coordinated for successful project delivery. construction manager. The extent of professional disciplines and technical specialists (often called Program Advocates) represented on the government delivery team will vary depending on the extent of the managing agency's annual capital design and construction program and associated management/professional. Successful project management involves continuous leadership of the team through successful project planning and development and through project delivery and control. construction contractor. owner/client representative. delivery teams in federal projects will typically consist of government delivery team members (federal government employees) and contract delivery team members (private sector firms and their employees). Assembling a Project Delivery Team Except for minor repair and maintenance projects that are carried out by professional services staff internal to an agency or institution.

funds for site purchase. rather than lowest priced.) NMCARS . Marine Corps projects.S. design fees. Advertisement. and selection are followed by contract negotiation and award. Contracting for each phase of work may only occur after funds are requested in agency budgets and appropriated/authorized. The selection and procurement of contracted delivery team members on federal projects are regulated by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Navy and U. AFCESA manages the planning and design phases of USAF projects. . offer. and USACE manages U.S. The "Brooks Bill" is a procurement method that allows award to the best qualified. selection stages of submissions. and both professional and construction services are advertised in FedBizOpps.Federal Acquisition Regulations—applies to projects delivered through most "civilian" agencies.28 Contracting and Acquisition Project Managers work closely with agency contracting officers in assembling the project delivery team. Acquisition Regulations specify procedures for advertising work. (NAVFAC manages U. but only contracting officers (often referred to as the "CO") are permitted to contract for professional and construction services on behalf of the government.S.Veterans Affairs Acquisition Regulations—applies to projects managed by the Veterans Affairs Administration. evaluation. Many agencies have developed and adopted standard forms for professional services and construction contracts. and contractor evaluation and selection criteria. There are several types of acquisition regulations that apply to design and construction contracts for Federal projects: • • • • FAR .Navy Marine Corps Acquisition Regulation Supplement VAAR . Depending on the scale of a project. and construction costs may be spread over several budget cycles. Army projects and the construction phase of USAF projects. Federal budget cycle considerations will also impact the project planning process. Project Managers need to have familiarity with acquisition and contracting regulations and procedures applicable to the managing agency.Defense Acquisition Regulations Supplement—applies to Department of Defense (DOD) projects. DFARS .

function properly. Careers in Government Federal agencies advertise all job announcements for architecture. Because project requirements and solutions evolve during the design phase (and even into the construction phase) a high degree of continual coordination among delivery team members is needed for an integrated team effort that will result in projects that are on time. and exceptional communication and interpersonal skills. Major Resources . internships and mentoring. development. scheduling. Commissioning Plans. and Contracts. codes and regulations. RFPs. and construction/project management positions in USAJobs. For more information on a particular agency's programs contact a representative directly through the Participating Agencies section of the WBDG Home Page. Information on annual salaries (by grade and step) for federal positions can be found at the Office of Personnel Management. and meet the project owner's expectations. contract law. engineering. Project Management Practices and Standards Successful project management of a major. These professional skills are necessary for effective and successful project leadership and delivery team management. visit Project Management Institute—Career Headquarters. promoting career advancement opportunities. Each agency offers programs in professional development. in budget. complex design and construction program requires mastery of a body of knowledge (BOK) including skills and abilities in project planning. design. For additional information on careers in Project Management.29 Defining Roles/Responsibilities and Team Management Project Managers develop and define roles and responsibilities of each delivery team member through the use of Project Management Plans. Scopes of Work. agency handbooks/guidelines. cost management.

Construction Bidding: Strategic Pricing for Profit. 7th Edition by Richard H. Federal Agency Links • • • • Standard Form 330. and Delivering Construction Management Services by Charles B. monitor and retrieve opportunities solicited by the entire Federal contracting community. McGraw-Hill. The new form. FedBizOpps—FedBizOpps.. Architect-Engineer Qualifications—On December 11.30 • • • Federal Acquisition Regulation FARSite Contracting Laboratory—Information of DOD acquisition procedures.000. Glenn A. VA: 2003.gov is the single government point-of-entry (GPE) for Federal government procurement opportunities over $25. Inc. 2003. and S. CM: Developing. 1998.. Virginia: Reston Publishing Co. Government buyers are able to publicize their business opportunities by posting information directly to FedBizOpps via the Internet. . Inc. Thomsen. replaces SF 254/255 and emphasizes qualifications-based selection for the procurement of A/E services.. Marketing. The CM Contracting System . 1981. Standard Form 330 (SF330) was released by the federal government. 1992. New York: John Wiley & Sons. USACE Project Managers Guide USAF Project Management Online Handbook VA Project Managers Handbook Publications • • • • • • • Building Construction Handbook Virginia: Reston Publishing Co. 2005. which architects and engineers use to present their qualifications and experience when seeking federal projects. Adrian.. McLean.Fundamentals and Practices by C. NY: John Wiley & Sons. 1981. Prentice-Hall. Construction Contracting: A Practical Guide to Company Management. Edwin Haltenhoff. Capstone: The History of CM Practice and Procedures by Construction Management Association of America. Keoki Sears. CM: The Construction Management Process by James J. Sears. New York. Clough. 1993. Through one portal—FedBizOpps (FBO)— commercial vendors seeking Federal markets for their products and services can search. 2nd Edition by Park and Chapin.

VA: 2002. 2005. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning. McLean. O'Brien. VA: 2001. 1992. 1978. Second Edition by Andrew M. Contract Administration Procedures by Construction Management Association of America. Jon M. Driscoll. 2000. Arizona: 1989. Paulson. and delivery of building projects. New York. 2001. Professional Construction Management (Third Edition) by Donald S. Construction Management. Project Team Communication Technologies • ExtranetNews—A comprehensive listing of electronic Project Team coordination tools Tools • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. Esq. Muller. 1996. Construction Management Standards of Practice (Fourth Edition) by Construction Management Association of America. McGraw-Hill. a Professional Approach by Kavanagh. and within budget. 2002. Wickwire. BNI Publications. Inc. and Thomas J. Construction Management: Law and Practice by Michael C. General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects. Pena and Steven A. Prentice Hall. 1995. Loulakis. on time. Wiley Law Publications. McGraw-Hill. project specific. Civitello Jr. Outsourcing Management Functions for the Management of Federal Facilities Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. National Construction Law Manual by James Acret. Parshall.31 • • • • • • • • • • • Construction Dictionary by National Association of Women in Construction. . NY: John Wiley & Sons. McLean. Contractor's Guide to Change Orders.. Problem Seeking: An Architectural Programming Primer. Barrie and Boyd C. PPT is offered by the U. management. Guide to Federal Procurement by the American Institute of Architects. 4th Edition by William M.S.

Design-Build. and schedule. budget. include Traditional (Design/Bid/Build). which are driven by the project's scope. and business environment. and project phasing. and Lease/Build. funding requirements. These "Delivery Methods". This section of the WBDG Project Management Branch provides guidance on integrated planning and development processes to establish an owner's expectations for project scope.32 Project Planning & Development by the WBDG Project Management Committee Last updated: 09-05-2006 Overview Excellence in Project Management is achieved through effective management of a complex range of issues unique to each project. and schedule. evaluation of project alternatives. design. Bridging. budget. budget authorization cycles and/or financial impacts. construction. social. Contemporary institutions and organizations are increasingly realizing that traditional forms of management—based on the same approach to every project—cannot accommodate the ever-changing landscape of today's economic. Delivery Methods There are many approaches to achieve successful project design and construction. Project Requirements Project inception and preliminary planning require thoughtful definition of goals and needs (Project Scope). CM (also called CMc. and initial occupancy phases of a project. The selection of a delivery . master planning to accommodate anticipated future needs. identification of site requirements. It also provides guidance on managing the delivery team during the planning. or Construction Manager as Constructor).

33 method will in turn influence the Delivery Team composition. a high level of owner coordination is needed to manage the entire delivery team through the project's design phases. review of key submissions and deliverables for compliance with program goals and design objectives. technical requirements. resources. and management programs. schedules. and appropriate application of the owner's design standards and criteria. Construction Stage Management • • • • • Project coordination/communication o RFIs o Change order management o Conflict resolution Inspections Submittal reviews Schedules Payments Building Commissioning . Design Stage Management Once a design team has been assembled (procured). Design management requires oversight of schedules and budgets. verification of incorporation of construction phase functional testing requirements. Project Management Plans A Project Management Plan (PMP) is commonly used to document key management parameters in a central location and is updated throughout the project focusing on recognition of changes in program planning and management of those changes. It includes definition of an owner's program goals. budgets. verification of incorporation of stakeholder review input. and management plan. budget. schedule.

2003. ReCommissioning. and LEED Certification. This is achieved by documenting the owner's requirements and assuring those requirements are met throughout the entire delivery process. Building Commissioning procedures may include: Commissioning Plans.S. VA. comprehensive operation and maintenance (O&M) documentation. Retro-Commissioning. Organizations • • • • Building Commissioning Association Construction Management Association of America Design Build Institute of America Project Management Institute Scheduling Software • • • • Method123 Project Planning Kit Microsoft Project Pacific Edge Primavera Systems Tools • Construction Waste Management Database . Total Building Commissioning. Major Resources Publications • • • AIA Handbook on Project Delivery Capstone: The History of CM Practice and Procedures by the Construction Management Association of America. McLean.34 Commissioning (Cx) is a systematic process of ensuring that building systems perform interactively according to the design intent and the owner's operational needs. This involves actual verification of systems performance and integration. Project Planning Guide by the U. Systems Commissioning. Pre-installation Performance Testing/Commissioning. General Services Administration. and training of the operating personnel.

and within budget. on time. Sample Construction Related Forms Construction Phase Forms o o o o o o o o o Change Request Log Contractor's Daily Report Request for Information (RFI) RFI Log—Sample Points of Contact Preconstruction Conference—Sign In List Preconstruction Conference—Checklist and Minutes Construction Inspection—Checklist Design Requirements/Provisions/Considerations—Checklist Construction Documents Checklists .S. PPT is offered by the U. project specific. General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning. and delivery of building projects.35 • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. management.

The Commissioning Process. the commissioning process formalizes review and integration of all project expectations during planning. constructors.36 Building Commissioning by the WBDG Project Management Committee Last updated: 04-27-2007 Introduction Building Commissioning is a rapidly emerging A-E-C project management practice that is being embraced by public and private organizations because of its benefits in improved project delivery results. tailored operating manuals. verification. Commissioning Definitions (PDF 26 KB. guidance. and assemblies meets defined objectives and criteria". This section of WBDG organizes commissioning information. systems. 3 pgs) Benefits . design. standards. and managing risks to critical functions performed in. or by. and occupancy phases by inspection and functional performance testing. and documenting that the performance of facilities. verifying. facilities. and resources under three broad principles. and commissioning providers to achieve optimal results from the commissioning process. Plan the Commissioning Process. Commissioning uncovers deficiencies in design or installation using peer review and field verification. Definition ASHRAE Guideline 0. and principles and general commissioning guides. and oversight of operator training and record documentation. goals. It is important to note that all three principles are applied over the life-span of a capital design and construction project. Commissioning is therefore an "umbrella" process for all the planning. Commissioning is a quality assurance-based process that delivers preventive and predictive maintenance plans. benefits. and training procedures. and that it takes a multi-disciplined effort involving owners. construction. environmental health. including Determine Project Performance Requirements. delivery. defines commissioning as "a quality-oriented process for achieving. and resources. design professionals. Commissioning also accomplishes higher energy efficiency. Essentially. and occupant safety and improves indoor air quality. and Document Compliance and Acceptance. This WBDG page provides an overview of commissioning drivers.

improved workplace performance due to higher quality environments. . the cost of not commissioning can be measured by the cost of downtime. all projects can potentially need some level of commissioning. reduced risk from threats. Investing in green construction pays for itself 10 times over. which are best provided by the commissioning process. and prevention of business losses. and $6. another factor driving demand for commissioning is the desire to obtain certification through the U. Corporations use commissioning on projects to prevent "down-time" that can adversely impact bottom lines and business continuity. optimize energy use. ensures adequate O&M staff orientation and training. In addition to the performance needs of mission-critical facilities. Commissioning beyond the basic prerequisite requirement can earn an additional LEED point.5 thousand per hour for airline reservation operations.45 million per hour for brokerage operations. The study. A LEED certified building might include highly efficient power and lighting systems. and improves installed building systems documentation. Organizations that have researched commissioning claim that owners can achieve savings in operations of $4 over the first five years of occupancy as a direct result of every $1 invested in commissioning—an excellent return on investment. $89. While projects with special performance needs require commissioning. Meanwhile. the cost of not commissioning is equal to the costs of correcting deficiencies plus the costs of inefficient operations. Drivers Governmental projects commonly employ commissioning because mission critical facilities support essential public infrastructures.S. investment in such sophisticated building technologies must be accompanied by rigorous construction quality assurance and performance verification measurement. reduces operating costs. Manufacturers use commissioning because of high levels of environmental controls needed in process manufacturing and to ensure occupational safety in hazardous settings. reflects the most definitive cost-benefit analysis of green building to date. according to the research firm Dataquest.37 Commissioning assists in the delivery of a project that provides a safe and healthful facility. photovoltaic and active/passive solar technologies. From an owner's perspective. For mission-critical facilities. Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. conducted by the Capital E Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with input from a number of state agencies. which reaches an average of $26 thousand per hour for the package shipping industry. Commissioning benefits owners' through improved energy efficiency. according to an October 2003 study prepared for a group of more than 40 California government agencies. improves energy performance. Green design helps reduce building costs while providing for a more comfortable indoor environment. research indicates. USGBC adopted the LEED standard to improve energy efficiency and environmental performance in buildings—and commissioning is a prerequisite for LEED certification.

installed. and Consequences . and design solutions for a proposed project. Proposed designs and constructed work can only be evaluated against objective criteria and measures that are embodied in well-documented project requirements." This definition accurately depicts commissioning as a holistic process that spans from pre-design planning to post-construction operation and can be thought of as a checks-and-balances system. Deliver buildings and construction projects that meet the owner's needs. and operating buildings that work as intended. Verify that operation and maintenance personnel and occupants are properly trained 6. Project development is an "iterative" process where building performance decisions are refined to successive levels of detail over the course of project delivery. Accordingly. acceptance and training. ASHRAE (The American Society of Heating. and capable of being operated and maintained to perform in conformity with the design intent… Commissioning begins with planning and includes design. start-up. CM/CA or Owner/CA). there are three overarching principles in the Commissioning Process that begin at project inception and continue through Occupancy and Operations. delivering. and can be applied throughout the life of the building. Maintain facility performance across its life cycle Commissioning Principles Regardless of the extent of commissioning that is determined as appropriate for a project (Number or complexity of systems commissioned) and the approach utilized (Independent CA. Risks. scope. Define and document requirements clearly at the outset of each phase and update through the process 2.38 Commissioning Goals Commissioning is often misinterpreted to focus solely on testing during the end of the construction phase. the goals of commissioning are to: 1. But commissioning is actually a collaborative process for planning. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers) defines commissioning as "…the process of ensuring that systems are designed. Establish and document commissioning process tasks for subsequent phase delivery team members 4. Verify and document compliance at each completion level 3. A-E/CA. construction. at the time of completion 5. goals. functionally tested. Key commissioning activities supporting this principle include: • • Understand Needs of Special Building Types Define Threats. Determine Project Performance Requirements Every project goes through Pre-Design and Design Stages that establish an owner's needs.

Commissioning Schedules. development and approval of Commissioning Plans. Testing. and What" of key delivery team decisions throughout the planning and delivery process. Similar results can be expected in other facilities. However. and Training on Commissioned Systems Compile Key Commissioning Documentation Application Currently. Key commissioning activities supporting Document Compliance and Acceptance include: • • • Document all Levels of Project Development and Acceptance Emphasize Inspection. and Functionality Establish a Commissioning Approach and Scope Establish Commissioning Budgets Establish Commissioning Plans Establish Commissioning Schedules Establish Testing and Inspection Plans Develop Commissioning Specifications Determine Special Testing Needs Establish Re-Commissioning Plans Document Compliance and Acceptance Commissioning serves as the historical record of an owner's expectations for project performance throughout the project delivery process. all new or renovation building programs can benefit from some level of commissioning. Commissioning documents the establishment of standards of performance for building systems. The purpose of commissioning documenting is to record the "Why. and verifies that designed and constructed work meets those standards. For complex building types with highly . and Testing and Inspection plans. Key commissioning activities supporting this principle include: • • • • • • • • • Establish Goals for Quality. including review and acceptance procedures. no building code requirements exist at a national level for Building Commissioning. documentation requirements. How. Efficiency. Planning the Commissioning Process includes identification of special testing needs for unique or innovative assemblies and measures that will assure adequate O&M Training. depending on mission and systems criticality. Recent case studies conducted in private sector facilities have shown that the Building Commissioning Process can improve new building energy performance by 8% to 30%.39 • • • Determine Key Program Goals and Objectives Recognize Systems Criticality to Achieving Goals Conduct Key Commissioning Programming Activities Plan the Commissioning Process Commissioning involves the systematic process of planning delivery team member roles and responsibilities and tasks for all project phases and activities.

It is highly recommended that project teams who employ the Building Commissioning Process should follow the process outlined in ASHRAE Guideline 0. However. and documentation. formal Building Commissioning Processes will prove most valuable. Guideline 0 has been adopted by both ASHRAE and NIBS and does not focus upon specific systems or assemblies. and USACE have adopted formal requirements. Mission Critical Facilities have special needs for protecting their mission continuity and occupants. and thorough project testing. rigor in planning and execution.2005. operational training. NAVFAC. including GSA. standards or criteria for commissioning of their capital construction projects. But regardless of commissioning approach and system focus. Industry Guidelines This section of the Whole Building Design Guide is based primarily on the Commissioning Process recommended in ASHRAE Guideline 0 . Some governmental agencies.40 integrated building systems. the extent of commissioning utilized will depend on project funds available. . it always requires clear definition of performance expectations. NIBS Guideline 3 (Draft Version)—Total Building Commissioning (TBC) Process Conclusion The commissioning process can be applied in a variety of approaches focusing on building systems/assemblies and can be customized to suit project needs. but presents a standard process that can be followed to commission any building system that may be critical to the function of a project. The NIBS Total Building Commissioning Program is currently working with industry organizations to develop commissioning guidelines for various systems and assemblies.

Alexandria. case study. PECI. Green Building Council Publications • • Building Commissioning: The Key to Quality Assurance (PDF 1 MB) U. 1997. 2006.41 Relevant Codes and Standards • • • ASHRAE Guideline 0-2005: The Commissioning Process—the industry-accepted Commissioning Guideline. 2005. New construction overview. 77 pp. . San Diego Gas & Electric. Phone: (703) 684-1446. U.S. 44 pp. benefits. NIBS Guideline 3-2006: Exterior Enclosure Technical Requirements for the Commissioning Process. process. and case studies. Commissioning retrofits and existing buildings: overview. Energy Design Resources—Sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company. utility. ISBN: 1-890956-28-7. tool kit of new and existing commissioning application materials. and building-services professionals committed to developing and promoting commissioning practices in California Commissioning For Better Buildings in Oregon by Oregon Office of Energy / PECI. The Building Commissioning Handbook 2nd Edition. by John A. Heinz. VA: APPA: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers. PE. Oregon Office of Energy—Benefits of Commissioning. PE and Richard B. and Southern California Gas. Organizations • • • • ASHRAE—A leading organization in the development of standardized commissioning guidelines Building Commissioning Association—A leading professional association for membership and certification of building commissioning practitioners Commissioning Specialist's Association (UK) U. The Building Commissioning Guide. 1998. process and case studies.S. Department of Energy Rebuild America Guide Series. Additional Resources Agencies • • • • • • California Commissioning Collaborative—a group of government. Southern California Edison. and the full text of Commissioning for Better Buildings in Oregon Portland Energy Conservation. National Institute of Building Sciences. General Services Administration.S. Casault. Federal Energy Management Program—Offers programs and resources for energy efficiency in operation of federal facilities. Inc.

Phone: (503) 230-7334. Phone: (403) 497-3770. and within budget. Commissioning Guide by Public Works Canada.S. Instructions for Architects and Engineers by State of Washington. April 1999. December 2004. 1993.42 • • • • • • • Commissioning Four New Science Laboratory Buildings (U. E-mail: peci@peci. Tehesia Powell and David Claridge of Energy Systems Laboratory. Guidelines for Incorporating Commissioning into Energy Savings Performance Contracts PECI. 1995. General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects. 1997. equipment replacements. 12 pp. project specific. Hannah Friedman and Tudi Haasl of Portland Energy Conservation Inc. October 2000. and Terry Sharp of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. and delivery of building projects. / Phoebe Caner. on time.. . Phone: (360) 902-7272. Inc. Texas A&M University.org Tools • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. Commissioning case studies with detailed "lessons learned" information. Derived from a database of 175 case studies of commissioning of new construction. development. (PECI)—Provides workshop announcements and conference information. Training and Other Resources • • • • ASHRAE—offers an ongoing series of commissioning workshops Building Commissioning Association NCBC—a national commissioning conference incorporating integrated research. Norman Bourassa and Mary Ann Piette of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Cost-Effectiveness of Commercial-Buildings Commissioning: A MetaAnalysis of Energy and Non-Energy Impacts in Existing Buildings and New Construction in the United States by Evan Mills. ~70 pp.. of General Administration. initial deployment. Dept. and upgrades in existing facilities. Phone: (503) 248-4636. of WA) by Bonneville Power Admin. PPT is offered by the U. Commissioning Guidelines. and information on building commissioning Portland Energy Conservation. management. 1997. Division of Engineering & Architectural Services. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning. What Commissioning Can Do For Your Building? PECI. A Practical Guide for Commissioning Existing Buildings by Tudi Haasl of Portland Energy Conservation Inc. Portland Energy Conservation Inc. Western Region.

Health care facilities are highly sensitive to temperature and relative humidity. and operated properly to achieve their projected energy savings. the level of project and/or systems criticality must also be determined. schedule. while data centers demand reliable power. as are museums. the commissioning program is initially scoped at the same time that the owner's team determines initial project performance requirements. internal security. The Commissioning Process involves a systematic means of verifying that the critical systems are installed. In organizations without an in-house planning staff. and maintained in optimal condition. Sustainable buildings with highly energy efficient mechanical systems must be designed. In organizations with inhouse planning staffs. Governmental facilities have special requirements for access control. This WBDG page provides guidance and resources on determining commissioning needs and requirements. In this stage. Laboratories require fume hoods to operate correctly. It is essential that the Pre-Design Stage programming documents also include Quality Assurance strategies and budgets to verify that delivered systems and assemblies meet performance expectations. .43 Determine Project Performance Requirements by the WBDG Project Management Committee Last updated: 02-28-2006 Introduction A proposed building's scope. functioning. constructed. Recommendations Understand Needs of Special Building Types The focus for commissioning varies based on the purpose of the building. based on an owner's requirements and risk management strategy for the activities and mission housed in a building. a commissioning provider with experience in the building type can be instrumental in determining initial requirements and performance objectives. and communication technology that are essential to their function. and budget are developed in Pre-Design Stage programming documents.

and flexibility—as well as other design objectives and building system attributes. finish. maintainability. and equipment to examine business goals and facility mission as determinants of its programming goals and objectives.44 Virtually any building project will have building systems. Programming for commissioning requires going beyond the simple allocation of space. assemblies or features that could benefit from commissioning. To date. enclosure. commissioning has been used most often on the following building types: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Auditoriums Call centers Classified sites Colleges and universities Co-location sites Command and control centers Data centers/computer rooms Health care facilities High rises Laboratories Libraries Mail processing centers Munitions plants and storage Museums Network operation centers Optic transport facilities Process manufacturing facilities Large retail facilities Storage and distribution centers Switch facilities Telecommunications and Microwave/radio tower facilities Trading floors Web-hosting telecom sites Zero/Low energy building Determine Key Program Goals and Objectives Commissioning of mission-critical facilities is often focused on ensuring high levels of reliability. power quality. Design objectives and functional characteristics that need commissioning to verify building performance may include: • • • • • • • Accessibility 24x7 facility reliability Adaptability Building pressurization control Energy efficiency goals Flexibility in audio visual systems Functionality .

.45 • • • • • • • • • • • Maintainability Redundant and resilient HVAC systems for climate control Reliability Scalability Security/Safety Serviceability Sophisticated detection and fire suppression systems Space and organizational process functionality Structured raceways for flexible cabling installations Sustainability Survivability Define Threats. It is important for the owner. and testing and verification of the operating systems under various conditions. The project owner must guide the project team in establishing priorities by which project success will be measured. and consequences and impacts that a system failure may have on the overall mission performance of a facility. or building feature supports key program goals and facility mission. the project team must have a clear understanding of overall key business objectives. and the need for its performance verification through commissioning. This may necessitate high-performance HVAC system design that provides constant airflow direction and pressure differentials between interior spaces—under all operating conditions. assembly. Risks. For example. construction quality assurance. buildings with a high risk of airborne contamination must be designed for enhanced occupant safety measures. design. Recognize Systems Criticality to Achieving Goals System criticality. This type of building functionality can only be achieved through systems based planning. is determined by examining how each system. hazards. and Consequences In order to determine performance expectations and measures. occupant threats and risks. or qualified experts to define business risks.

Yet. Building Engineering Reports.999 percent power reliability. Usually the decision to commission specific building systems is made during the Design Development phase of a project. therefore.83 milliseconds can shut down or even damage computers. Feasibility Studies. Commissioning of missioncritical power systems. The OPR . typical utility reliability is 99 percent. Requirements for these buildings may be as stringent as 99. Routine quality assurance is needed for all building components. but may also occur in concept design or Construction Documents as project performance requirements and Design Intent Documentation evolves. A power interruption of only 8. P-100 indicates critical Program-System relationships that must be addressed within Building Systems Programming Directives to designers Another example is the need for Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) equipment in mission-critical facilities. and Program Development Studies. By comparison.46 The GSA Program Goals Matrix in Facilities Standards for Public Buildings. which means just five minutes of unscheduled downtime per year. For commissioning to be successful. Conduct Key Commissioning Programming Activities Many design and construction programs execute careful planning and programming that is embodied and encompassed in Master Plans. some building programs execute planning and programming only minimally. programming documentation must summarize or include the Owner's Project Requirements (OPR) that are both general and specific to critical requirements. Special Studies. focuses on ensuring high levels of reliability as well as power quality.

and sequence of operations. size. . If program or mission elements change during the span of project delivery. focusing on design features critical to overall building performance. It describes the technical approach used for systems selections. ASHRAE Guideline 0 . and budget. complexity.2005 (Annex J) provides a general format for developing an Owner's Project Requirements (OPR) which includes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Project schedule and budget Commissioning scope and budget Project documentation requirements (submissions and formats) Owner directives Restrictions and limitations User requirements Occupancy requirements and schedules Training requirements for owner's personnel Warranty requirements Benchmarking requirements Operations and Maintenance criteria Equipment and systems maintainability requirements Quality requirements for materials and construction Allowable tolerances for facility systems operations Energy efficiency goals Environmental and sustainability goals Community requirements Adaptability for future facility changes and expansion Systems integration requirements Health. integration. the OPR should be updated to reflect changes in building performance requirements. hygiene. and indoor environmental requirements Acoustical requirements Vibration requirements Seismic requirements Accessibility requirements Security requirements Aesthetics requirements Constructability requirements Communications requirements Applicable codes and standards Note: This is a general list of programming documentation that will vary by project depending on scope. The Basis of Design (BOD) is a narrative and analytical documentation prepared by the design A-E along with design submissions to explain how the Owner's Project Requirements (OPR) are met by the proposed design. An OPR is developed for an owner/user audience while the BOD is typically developed in more technical terms.47 is a summary of critical planning and programming requirements and owner expectations that is updated by the commissioning team as the project evolves.

qualifications. Some owner groups are beginning to task commissioning authorities with operating facilities for up to one year after turn-over to conduct seasonal testing and systems optimization. and maintain the systems and assemblies. O&M Manuals are typically prepared by the construction contractor at the turn-over phase of a project. O&M contracts planning and procurement. design. containing commissioning and commissioning documentation be prepared for commissioned buildings. tests. and specification of the commissioned systems. submittal requirements for commissioned systems.48 Commissioning Specifications Requirements are developed to outline commissioned systems and equipment performance benchmarks. Training Requirements—An important element in the commissioning process is ensuring that O&M personnel are properly trained in operation. start-up. Evolving Certification Programs and Standards Building projects are increasingly requiring performance certifications such as LEED. O&M personnel must be trained in the knowledge and skills needed to operate a facility in conformance with its design intent. ASHRAE GL-0 recommends that a "Systems Manual". turnover procedures. Energy Star. system integration details. and others. providing occupant safety to visitors and workers in public facilities has been a driving force to deliver and commission facilities with enhanced building safety measures. initial construction contractor inspection procedures. care. but are often inadequate to fully explain how a complex facility should be operated. operate. construction contract training specification development and commissioning authority contract responsibilities. adjustment. This trend is not expected to decrease. Training needs must be addressed in the early planning stage to inform operating personnel about staffing budgets and hiring. allowing for an overlap in O&M contract start-up and training. The project team must discuss and . OSHA. A best practice is to develop a Systems Manual Outline simultaneous with selection. owner training. Systems Manual Requirements—When determining commissioning requirements. Systems Manuals should provide all the information needed to understand. but will likely increase the standard of care necessary in the design and operation of all forms of public and corporate buildings. it is also important to define documentation needs that will facilitate and support operation of commissioned systems. Emerging Issues Increased Emphasis on Occupant Security/Security In the post 9/11 environment. SPIRIT (USACE). and required maintenance of commissioned systems and equipment. The Systems Manual should be the repository of information on updates and corrections to systems and assemblies as they occur during the Occupancy and Operations Phase. and final documentation requirements.

Raised Access Floor Design Guide (GSA to publish in summer 2005) Organizations • • • Building Commissioning Association (BCxA)—A leading professional association for membership and certification of building commissioning practitioners National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB)—Certification program and manuals Portland Energy Conservation. and delivery of building projects. management. . Continuous Commissioning The benefits of Retro-Commissioning. and Version NC 3. Relevant Codes and Standards • ASHRAE Guideline 0 . project specific. Continuous Commissioning. USGBC is developing additional certification standards for Existing Buildings. Tools • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. and within budget. However. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning. such as Texas A&M Energy Systems Lab. Fewer studies are available to demonstrate the cost benefits of commissioning new construction. threats and risks to operational/business continuity. and Systems Optimization are well documented in annual energy savings in studies conducted by many institutions. on time. PPT is offered by the U. and health and systems degradation and inefficiency often warrant the added expense of utilizing the Commissioning Process. occupant safety. Interiors.0 for New Buildings. Inc.49 decide on certification requirements in planning and design phases so that a commissioning for certifications can be included in the OPR and Commissioning Plans. Inc.2005: The Commissioning Process—The industry accepted model Commissioning Guide Additional Resources • • • • GSA Building Commissioning Guide GSA Project Planning Guide Portland Energy Conservation.S. General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects.

This WBDG page provides information on common commissioning documentation practices and resources related to commissioning specific systems and assemblies. selection of alternatives. commissioning documentation provides the basis for evaluation and acceptance to proceed to the next development level. and integration of the design components.50 Document Compliance and Acceptance by the WBDG Project Management Committee Last updated: 02-27-2007 Introduction It is often said that commissioning is all about good project documentation. In the Planning and Development phase of a project. Recommendations Document all Levels of Project Development and Acceptance Requiring documentation of results and findings of the commissioning process at all project delivery stages and phases provides a record of the benefits received from commissioning. Testing. refinement of application. The purpose of commissioning documenting is to record the standards of performance for building systems. retuned. Emphasize Inspection. It also provides documentation to be used in the future to troubleshoot problems and optimize operating strategies. Commissioning documentation becomes the road map for the success criteria to be met by facilities that are put in service. Commissioning is a team effort to document the continuity of the project as it moves from one project phase to the next. and Training on Commissioned Systems . and to verify that what is designed and constructed meets those standards. and operations throughout the facility's life. planning and programming documents begin to define an owner's requirements for building performance. It documents the Owner's Project Requirements (OPR) in the beginning of the project and records compliance. commissioning documentation becomes the benchmark to ensure that the building can be maintained. an historical perspective is created that explains the iterative process of determining the agreed-to project requirements at each step of the development process. As each decision is made. or renovated to meet future needs. At post-occupancy. acceptance. When the entire project delivery process is documented in a consistent manner. Decision making is an "iterative" process made over the course of a project through analysis of options.

review. BOD. and accept the results and documentation. The Commissioning Authority may be tasked with conducting special testing of commissioned systems beyond what is required in specification requirements. integrated systems testing should examine systems as a whole in order to evaluate overall design and compatibility. A draft set of system readiness checklists (SRCs) and verification test procedures (VTPs) is included in the commissioning specification to communicate to the bidding contractor the level of rigor that can be expected during the testing phase of the commissioning process. diagnostic tools. and guidelines for energy accounting. with reallife conditions simulated as much as possible. The Commissioning Authority coordinates and witnesses commissioned systems verification tests to verify that the systems operate in accordance with the design intent. Further. Ultimately. Retesting specific systems and/or system components takes place once the respective deficiencies discovered during the first test are resolved. During functional performance testing and operator training. the commissioning team moves to the forefront. Compile Key Commissioning Documentation Commissioning documentation is generated throughout the project delivery process. Commissioning documentation that will be included in the Commissioning Report is normally shown in a table format with responsibilities of individual team members who will prepare. A partial list and descriptions of key commissioning documentation includes: • Owner's Project Requirements (OPR)—For commissioning to be successful programming documentation must summarize the OPR that is both general and specific to critical requirements. and features. Deficiencies discovered during verification testing are documented and logged by the Commissioning Authority in corrective-action reports. including benchmarks for energy use and equipment efficiencies. assemblies. schedules. The team also supervises operations staff training on commissioned systems and equipment. If program or mission elements . and inspections and test results are included in a Commissioning Report. and key documentation such as OPR. the team prepares extensive documentation on systems.51 An essential element of the commissioning process is field verification inspection and testing of commissioned systems. Cx Plans. and organizes warranty information. The SRCs are detailed checklists for documenting that each system is prepared for testing. The team verifies the performance of building systems based on detailed test procedures developed by the commissioning team and determines the most efficient equipment settings. The OPR is a summary of critical planning and programming requirements and owner expectations that is updated by the commissioning team as the project evolves. start-up and shutdown procedures. The VTPs are a detailed set of instructions and acceptable results for thoroughly testing each system. Testing must be performed not only in normal operating modes but also under all possible circumstances and sequences of operation. seasonal operational issues.

USACE Spirit. or governmental agency testing and inspection. design review comments. Inspection Reports—Commissioning Inspection Reports should be prepared regularly to document progress of the work on commissioned building systems. An OPR is developed for an owner/user audience while the BOD is typically developed in more technical terms.that have been raised by members of the Commissioning Team during the course of the Commissioning Process. and sequence of operations. and other test results specified for the commissioned systems. Certification Documentation—Owners sometimes require their facilities to achieve certifications such as Energy Star. Functional Test Reports (FTP). Submittal Review Comments—Concurrent with the design team and owner review. equipment. Special attention should be given to substitutions and proposed deviations from the contract documents and Basis of Design documentation. if applicable) will also prepare inspection reports pertaining to all building systems and components. or operational issues. they become critical to an owner's project expectations and may be included as commissionionable elements. equipment. a designated commissioning team member reviews products and systems submittals for compliance with the Owner's Project Requirements. It describes the technical approach used for systems selections. the OPR should be updated to reflect changes in building performance requirements. • • • • • • • . Test Data Reports—Test Data reports contain results of the Testing and Inspection Plans and include Pre-Functional Test (PFT) reports. and technologies. Design Review Comments—Comprehensive reviews targeted to critical systems at all design phase submissions are an important aspect of commissioning documentation. and Inspection Reports. along with minutes. and building assemblies and building components they are interfaced with. Issue Logs and Reports—Issues Logs and Reports are a formal and ongoing record of problems or concerns-and their resolution. The construction delivery team (and owner's representative (CM). focusing on design features critical to overall building performance. integration issues or operational issues that are then captured in Issues Logs for discussion and clarification of performance expectations. integration issues. while commissioning reviews are focused to commissioned systems. Basis of Design (BOD)—The BOD is a narrative and analytical documentation prepared by the design A-E along with design submissions to explain how the Owner's Project Requirements are met by the proposed design. they explain the thought process and rationale for key decisions in the commissioning process. When such performance certifications are required as part of a design or construction contract. These reports will normally produce functional issues. Issues Logs should be included in Commissioning Reports because.52 change during the span of project delivery. LEED. Submittal review comments on commissioned systems will often generate issues for coordination between integrated systems. Reviews for code compliance and constructability will pertain all systems of all projects. integration.

Post Seasonal Testing—Due to weather conditions. Design Team. meeting minutes from all commissioning-related meetings. Designer Design Team Owner. as-built drawings. The Commissioning Authority also reviews the as-built drawings. building features. corrective action reports. Document Input By Provided By Reviewed / Approved By Used By Notes TABLE D-1 Documentation Matrix Phase Pre-Design Owner's Project Requirements Commissioning Plan O&M. assemblies. documentation. training documents and commissioning documentation be organized by building systems in a "Systems Manuals" for ease of access and use by building management staff. completed system readiness checklists. to verify that the documents turned over to the owner are accurate and reflect what was installed and tested.53 • • • • Commissioning Reports—The commissioning requirements. and equipment. Commissioning plans should therefore provide for off-season testing to allow testing. specifications. Owner . completed training forms. process. in particular the sequences of operations documentation for automated systems that are commissioned. Design Team may not be hired yet. and tests and inspection reports for commissioned systems. For example. CA CA Owner CA. Design Team Design Team may not be hired yet. certifications. design review comments—and resolution. Commissioning Report contents should be clearly defined in Commissioning Plans and include a narrative of the commissioning process. testing a boiler system might be difficult in the summer and testing a chiller and cooling tower might be difficult in the winter. Some owners find it is efficient to have the Commissioning Authority compile Systems Manuals for all systems—both commissioned and non-commissioned. It is critical that the operations and maintenance personnel have the knowledge and skills required to operate a facility in accordance with the owner's functional plan and the designed intent. ASHRAE Guideline-0 recommends that the Commissioning Report be included with O&M manuals in a Systems Manual. the design intent document. and findings are incorporated in a Commissioning Report that accompanies the construction contractor's turn-over documentation. The performance and testing of active solar systems is also dependent on seasonal conditions. and building features. blank verification test reports for future use. and optimization of integrated systems under the best conditions. Design Team CA. Owner. Users. not all systems can be tested at or near full load during the construction phase. submittals. O&M Training Documentation—During the Design Phase. training requirements for operations and maintenance personnel and occupants must be identified relative to commissioned systems. Systems Manuals—The Commissioning Authority reviews the project operations and maintenance (O&M) manuals to verify that commissioned systems and equipment information and documentation are included. Capital CA or Projects. equipment. balancing. ASHRAE Guideline-0 recommends that O&M manuals.

Owner Owner Design Design Systems Manual Team. Design Team May also be provided by Project Manager / Owner's Rep. CA. Capital CA or Projects. Users. O&M. Outline-Expanded O&M. Design CA Team CA CA Owner Design Team N/A CA. CA Construction Specifications for Commissioning Design Team. CA Contractor may Design Team. CA. CA CA. Owner or CA. Users. Contractor may not be hired yet. Owner Owner Close of Phase report CA CA Owner Construction Owner's Project Requirements Update Basis of Design Update O&M. Owner or CA. Owner.54 May be included in OPR May be included in OPR May be only format at this phase Systems Manual Outline Training Requirements Outline Issues Log O&M. Contractors Design Team. Contractor Training Requirements In Specifications Design Review Comments Issues Log Issues Report Design Phase Commissioning Process Report Design Team or CA Owner. Designer Design Team Design Team Design Team Design Team or CA Owner CA. Design Team Design Team. CA. Design CA Team CA CA CA CA CA CA Owner Design Team Owner N/A Owner Design Team CA. Design Team Design Team. CA Owner or CA Owner Design Team O&M. Design Team. Designer Design Team Design Team Design Team Owner CA. Users. Owner . CA Contractors. Users. Capital CA or Projects. not be hired Contractor yet. Design Team Design Team. Owner Owner Issues Report Pre-Design Phase Commissioning Process Report Owner's Project Requirements Update Basis Of Design CA CA Owner CA CA Owner Close of Phase report O&M.

submittals.55 Design Team. if BIM offers a genuine solution to reduce errors and rework. As commissioning becomes a routine quality assurance process on projects. resulting in an as-built database that can be readily handed over to the building operator upon completion of commissioning. OGC's Geography Markup Language (GML) facilitates interoperability for users of geospatial technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS). Design Design Team. CA. but the industry's ability to absorb these IT advances has yet to change. and also concepts such as activities. and documentation. as-built documentation and operations information. The commissioning specification details specific responsibilities of the construction contractor and subcontractors for commissioning procedures. facility operators. Owner. The BIM standard could someday integrate CAD data with product specifications. verify. Contractor CA. Clearly. Owner. IFC-BIM lets architects. while improving building operations. aerial and satellite imaging. tests. and recommend owner acceptance of the specified inspections and tests. and sensor webs. checklists. CSI language for commissioning will continue to evolve to reflect standard industry practices. CA. Relevant Codes and Standards . and facility manager's work with (and store for down-stream users) tangible components such as walls and furniture. BIM is a simple concept—a master. shop drawings. construction managers. Contractors Contractor Design Team Contractor Commissioning Plan Update CA Submittal Review CA Comments Design Team ASHRAE GL-0 Table D-1 Documentation Matrix Emerging Issues Building Information Models (BIM) Building Information Models (BIM) based on NIBS International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) is an emerging technology that enables accumulation and management of facility life-cycle information. and costs. location services. Team. Construction Specification Institute (CSI) The Construction Specification Institute (CSI) has assigned commissioning to MasterFormat™ section number 01 91 00. global positioning systems (GPS). project records. The technology has moved forward. The role of an independent commissioning authority is to witness. intelligent data model. engineers. it will eventually change the way all project team members develop and share information over facility life-cycle phases. spaces. Owner. making printed O&M and Systems manuals virtually obsolete. document.

Phone: (301) 9779589. Publications • • • • • • • • • Commissioning Smoke Management Systems. 1994.org Procedural Standards for Buildings Systems Commissioning—Available from the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB) Additional Resources Organizationss • • • • • • Associated Air Balance Council (Primarily for how the TAB fits into the commissioning process)—AABC National Headquarters. 20877. Army Engineering and Housing Support Center. code. Feb. VA 22060-5516. Fax (503) 295-0820. Phone: (202) 737-0202.05. U. 1998. Building Commissioning Association (BCxA) International Alliance for Interoperability North America (IAI-NA)—A Council of the National Institute of Building Sciences National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB)—Certification program and manuals. Ft. CA 92182. Suite 312. Gaithersburg. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications. 1791 Tullie Circle. 8575 Grovemont Circle. E-mail peci@peci. California Institute for Energy Efficiency. GA 30329. San Diego State University. Continuous Commissioning Guidebook for Federal Energy Managers. Texas A&M Energy Systems Lab—Retro-commissioning process and software. The Cx process does not relieve the contractor and or A/E of record of any obligation. 921 SW Washington. Energy Engineering Institute. for sale. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Commissioning Guidelines. NE. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). 1996. GA 30329. 1991. FEAP-UG-GE-94/20. Engineering Research Laboratories. ASHRAE Guideline 5-1994— ASHRAE Publications Dept. Oregon 97205.56 • • • THE only standard is NIBS/ASHRAE Guidelines. Version 2. Atlanta. San Diego State University. October 2002. Inc. Phone (503) 248-4636.. 1791 Tullie Circle.S. Facilities Engineering Applications Program. or standard that must be achieved and maintained. Atlanta. The HVAC Commissioning Process . PECI. Portland Energy Conservation. NE. San Diego.ASHRAE Guideline 1. Belvoir.—Available from PECI. MD.00 10 Commissioning of HVAC Systems . NASA Reliability Centered Maintenance Guide for Facilities and Collateral Equipment Procedural Standards for Building Systems Commissioning Standard HVAC Control Systems Commissioning and Quality Verification User Guide. UFGS 02 62 16 Commissioning and Demonstration for Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) Systems UFGS 23 08 00. ASHRAE. Portland.

and delivery of building projects.S.57 Tools • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. and within budget. PPT is offered by the U. on time. management. General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects. Comment On This Page Email This Page • • Related Resource Pages • • • • • • Building Information Models (BIM) Energy Analysis Tools Energy Codes and Standards Facility Performance Evaluation (FPE) Indoor Air Quality and Mold Prevention of the Building Envelope View All Related (8) . project specific. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning.

when? How will the commissioned systems be tested. and Functionality The commissioning planning process should be accomplished at the same time that a project team Determines Project Performance Requirements. budget. and an owner's risk management strategy. responsibilities. goals for project quality. but the overall process. After the project delivery team has determined the essential project performance requirements. A different team member. efficiency. inspected. contracted program managers. and functionality can then be established. and a commissioning approach and scope can be developed. This page is about incorporating a project's performance requirements into a plan that defines the commissioning scope. The question of who should be responsible for planning and overseeing the Building Commissioning Process and specific commissioning activities will depend on the needs of each project and is somewhat driven by budget and expertise available within the project delivery team. Establish a Commissioning Approach and Scope There are numerous ways to assemble and structure a commissioning team. and objectives are constant. and documentation requirements. including owner representatives. The level and focus of commissioning efforts should be appropriate to a project's size. Recommendations Establish Goals for Quality. Efficiency. complexity. and if so.58 Plan the Commissioning Process by the WBDG Project Management Committee Last updated: 06-18-2007 Introduction Should an independent Commissioning Authority be retained. or design professionals may lead the commissioning effort at each stage of project delivery. process. principles. This WBDG page provides information on common commissioning planning practices and related resources. and documented? How much should be budgeted for commissioning and special testing services? Once a project delivery team has determined critical project goals and requirements. its housed mission. these questions are answered by planning the commissioning process. it is important that the commissioning authority maintain a position of impartiality to . Regardless of where the responsibility for building commissioning lies.

one for commissioning the Planning (Pre-Design) and Design stages and another for planning and executing Construction stage commissioning—after . verification tasked to the Commissioning Agent. the Building Contractor. NIBS Guideline 3-2006 Exterior Enclosure Technical Requirements for the Commissioning Process provides. Commissioning requires the active participation of the A/E. Construction Manager (CM) as Commissioning Authority)—This commissioning approach can be cost-effective and work well when the CM is independent of the contractor's team and has the needed technical experience on board. Many owner groups use "Not-at-Risk" CMs who act as an owner's agent to manage schedule. The CA will typically stress flexibility in design so that performance can be verified. type. Common approaches to structuring commissioning roles and responsibilities include: • • • A/E as Commissioning Authority (CA)—while not typical. and quality. and complexity". or responsibility of licensed professionals nor upon the obligations between Owners. The level of effort of the Commissioning Process and size of the Commissioning Team for a given building can be strongly influenced by such factors as the owner's preferred level of building quality. this is the most common approach to implementing the Building Commissioning Process. coordination. it may be appropriate to employ a Commissioning Authority under two separate contracts. and the Owner. the level of risk the owner will accept. The criteria for a good CA is a balance of lead engineering design experience with extensive field experience in installing and testing mechanical and electrical equipment and systems. Many professional services engineering firms are beginning to specialize in providing building commissioning. as well as building size. if the CA is properly qualified and positioned outside the specific project team within the firm.59 assure there is no conflict of interest. commissioning responsibilities and benefits of third-party commissioning services must be determined for each project. a Commissioning Agent. the CM may hire the Commissioning Authority as a subcontractor. The Commissioning Process structures the design and construction process to increase quality. many architectural and engineering firms now offer building commissioning as Additional Services to the basic design contract. with planning. On larger projects. resulting in no additional contract management responsibility by the Owner. The construction contractor is typically tasked with executing commissioning tests and inspections. witnessing. defining commissioning procedures. It does not require the Owner to employ a specific outside expert as the Commissioning Authority and nothing would prevent the Owner from selecting the project design or construction firm to do commissioning. cost. Since many owners' groups typically utilize A-E's and "not-at-risk" CMs for quality assurance. Independent Agent as Commissioning Authority—to date. "The Commissioning Process does not impinge upon the competency. authority. Design Professionals or Contractors contained in standardized contract forms or project-specific contracts. In some cases.

or new construction and the scope of commissioning services provided. Establish Commissioning Budgets Commissioning costs can range widely and are dependent upon many factors including a building's size.5 for complex laboratories and medical facilities1.) Allocation of costs (Will the budget allow for increased design fee.0 percent of the total operating cost.60 the full extent of systems commissioning and on-site technical services is determined. Key factors that can have a direct impact in developing a commissioning budget include: • • • • • • • When the commissioning process starts (during design. etc. and . In general. training time for O&M personnel.?) Type of project (design-build. modernization. commissioning plan. etc. the commissioning consultant's fee.0 to 5. New Construction Commissioning Costs. Additional information on Building Commissioning can be found in PECI.) Note: Some utilities now have programs offering incentives/rebates for owners that may offset costs for commission or re-commission of facilities. The plan is first developed in the Pre-design phase as a Design Phase Commissioning Plan and is updated at or near design completion and released as a Construction Phase Commissioning Plan.5 percent of the total construction cost for relatively simple projects such as office buildings to 1. assembly specific checklists. number of design reviews. the commissioning plan focuses on assuring the owner's performance requirements are incorporated and properly integrated in the prepared and accepted construction documents. Establish Commissioning Plans A written Commissioning Plan is essential to all commissioned projects and allows all project participants to anticipate and plan for commissioning requirements and milestones. A good rule of thumb for systems-based commissioning budgeting is between 2 and 4% of the construction cost of each system being commissioned. verification tests. O&M manual review. etc. construction. retrofit. spot checking the balancing report. etc. Details of systems teats and procedures. the cost of commissioning can range from 3. and whether the project consists of building renovation. or postconstruction) The number and complexity of systems to be commissioned Complexity of the systems The level of detail required during the commissioning process (Does it include documenting and witnessing all equipment start-up. For an existing building.?) Deliverables (design intent document. complexity. During the Pre-Design phase. plan and spec. the cost of commissioning new buildings range from 0. final report. increased contractor bids. 2/14/2002. The GSA Building Commissioning Guide includes a sample Scope of Commissioning Services suitable for use on public agency projects.

Commissioning Plans typically include the following sections or contents: • • • • • • • General Project Information Overview and Scope of the Project Commissioning Commissioning Protocols and Communications Commissioning Process. Detailed integration of commissioning activities and tasks with the construction schedule is critical to maintaining project milestones.61 testing and documentation responsibilities are incorporated in Construction Phase Commissioning Plans. A commissioning schedule is developed as a section of (or appendix to) a commissioning plan and is updated throughout the project. to keep commissioning activities off the critical path. The following chart illustrates how commissioning activities and tasks relate to typically occurring project activities. . including Team Responsibilities Commissioning Schedule Commissioning Documentation Appendices o Testing and Inspection Plans o Pre-Functional and Functional Test Procedures o Construction Checklists o Issues Logs Establish Commissioning Schedules The team works closely with contractors to integrate commissioning activities into the overall construction schedule. and to carry out site inspections with a focus on systems operations and maintenance. The objective of scheduling commissioning activities is to integrate and coordinate them with other construction phase activities.

1—Commissioning Process Flowchart Please see NIBS Guideline 3. which shows how the commissioning process relates to typical planning.62 ASHRAE GL-0-2005 Figure B. This is especially true with highly complex systems and automated controls. Establish Testing and Inspection Plans A building cannot be expected to operate optimally if the personnel in charge of operating and maintaining the building systems are unfamiliar with how to service the equipment and do not fully understand how and why the systems operate the way they do. . and construction activities. design. The commissioning planning process includes definition of the O&M training requirements.

Testing appropriate to a facility should be designed along four hierarchal levels: 1) Factory device testing. the commissioning team should carefully review means and methods for testing and verification to determine special testing needs that outside of normally provided commissioning services.63 responsibilities. under all probable risk scenarios. when the systems are fine tuned and operating as efficiently as possible). water penetration tests. and 4) Integrated system testing. When developing commissioning testing and inspection plans. the initially commissioned systems are retested on a regular basis. destructive testing of proposed assemblies to be commissioned (blast. Examples of such special testing include thermo graphic (Infrared) scans of existing or new construction to identify envelope integrity. Re-commissioning can only be applied to buildings that have been commissioned (or retro-commissioned) and requires a "baseline" performance measurement following the initial commissioning process (i. Construction contractor responsibilities for commissioning are defined in the commissioning specifications which must be coordinated with other commissioning team members when planning the commissioning process. whether needed or not. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling of airflows. the costs of commissioning can be approximately projected based on a percent range of construction costs. building pressurization tests. Develop Commissioning Specifications The Construction Specification Institute (CSI) has assigned commissioning to section number 01810. planning and managing the commissioning process. Emerging Issues Commissioning Authority Certification . Determine Special Testing Needs As previously noted. 2) Field component start-up.. and witnessing and documenting commissioning of specified systems and assemblies. wind. The commissioning specification details the roles and responsibilities of the contractors in the commissioning process throughout the project. and the like. 3) System interface testing. seismic). which tests the overall facility resilience. including failure mode. and documentation. Retro-commissioning is the commissioning of facilities that have never been commissioned. Re-commissioning is an essential element in operating buildings optimally and must be incorporated in initial planning and budgeting of the commissioning program.e. Establish Re-Commissioning Plans In re-commissioning. Commissioning services normally include elements of program review. A draft set of system readiness checklists (SRCs) and verification test procedures (VTPs) is included in the commissioning specification to communicate to the bidding contractor the level of rigor that can be expected during the testing phase of the commissioning process.

. Ottawa. PECI. 2005. Fax (503) 295-0820. a design intent document. are creating programs. U. Energy Mines & Resources. St of Maryland. TECHINFO—USACE Technical Information website University of Washington—University Commissioning guide specifications Publications • • • • • • AFETL 90-10 Commissioning of Heating. Phone (503) 248-4636. . Gov. 1995. 580 Booth St. Canada K1A 0E4. Ontario. ER 1110-345-723 Systems Commissioning Procedures Establishing Cx Fees. Contractor Quality Control and Commissioning Program—Guidelines and Specification. training and contract documents to assist their members in providing commissioning as additional client services. 921 SW Washington. 301-217-6071. 1993. Montgomery Co. Suite 312. 7th Floor.org Additional Resources • • • NIH Commissioning Guidelines & Commissioning Plan Oregon. Other organizations. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • AIA B211™—2004 Standard Form of Architect's Services: Commissioning— This fixed scope of services requires the architect to develop a commissioning plan. To earn CCP certification. ASHRAE. E-mail peci@peci. The CCP Program is underwritten in part by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance.05.2005: The Commissioning Process—the industry accepted model Commissioning Guide The Building Commissioning Guide. participants must complete an application process that is reviewed by the Building Commissioning Certification Board and pass a two-hour written examination. and commissioning specifications. based on the owner's identification of systems to be commissioned.. including The American Institute of Architects.S. General Services Administration.64 The Building Commissioning Association (BCxA) has created the Certified Commissioning Professional (CCP) program to raise professional standards and provide a vehicle for certification in the building commissioning industry. 1998. Canada. Oregon 97205. ASHRAE Guideline 0 . Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications. Version 2. Feb. C-2000 Program. Portland. Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems Guide Specification NIBS Guideline 3-2006 Exterior Enclosure Technical Requirements for the Commissioning Process Commissioning Specifications C-2000 Program.—Available from PECI. Energy Efficiency Division.

ASHRAE Publications Dept.pdf . General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects. URL http://www. DoD Tools • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. Building Commission ["Citing sources on the internet"]. Department of Energy. U. and within budget. PPT is offered by the U. Validation and Commissioning ASHRAE collection of 11 papers.S.65 • • • • • HVAC Systems Commissioning Manual. 1791 Tullie Circle. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning. VA 22021. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA). MIL-HDBK-353 Planning and Commissioning Wastewater Treatment Plants New Construction Commissioning Costs (PDF 144 KB) UFGS 23 08 00. SMACNA.00 10 Commissioning of HVAC Systems. Chantilly. NE. 4201 Lafayette Center Dr. and delivery of building projects. on time.org/attachments/guidebooks/commissioningguide. management. 1994. project specific. GA 30329... Bibliography 1.rebuild. 1994. Atlanta.S. Laboratory HVAC Systems: Design.

features. and quality. Effective scope management requires accurate definition of a client's requirements in the Planning and Development stage and a systematic process for monitoring and managing all the factors that may impact or change the client's program requirements throughout the project delivery process. In many ways. Successful project delivery requires implementation of management systems that will enable project delivery teams to control changes in the key factors of scope. and tools for managing the design and construction delivery process and for controlling key factors to ensure the client receives a facility that matches scope and quality expectations. delivered on time and within budget. and level of quality.66 Project Delivery & Controls by the WBDG Project Management Committee Last updated: 03-16-2007 Overview Effective project management includes strategies. function. tactics. project scope defines the boundaries within which the delivery team and the external stakeholders work. schedule. Cost Management . From project inception. Scope Management Project scope is defined as the work that must be done to meet a client's program goals for space. costs. scope management is the foundation on which the other project elements are built.

and continually monitored. coordinated. construction. tests. It requires a coordinated performance among the entire project team in order for a completed building program to fully satisfy a client's expectations. Schedule management interfaces directly with scope. cost. phases. turnover. Quality Control Quality control starts with matching expectations about quality levels with budget and scope during planning and design reviews and continues through construction delivery with a program of inspections. procurement strategies. Avoiding schedule slippage is a key objective of schedule management. Schedule Management A project schedule defines the process and establishes a timeline to be followed in delivering the project.67 Project costs are measured and analyzed in many ways throughout a project. costbenefit. and change order management through to claims avoidance and negotiation. value engineering. and certifications. the control of costs requires continual systematic cost management. These cost management processes start with the establishment of budgets that align with scope and quality requirements and continue with milestone estimates. However. and life-cycle cost are a few examples of how a project's cost-effectiveness can be evaluated. and quality management when team member roles and activities are defined. and activities assigned to each team member mapping them to a timeline that measures key milestones (dates) that are used to keep track of work progress. from planning and design to bidding. Building Commissioning . Comprehensive project schedules will identify all of the project's stages. First costs. and beyond.

Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structure. Nee. Scheduling Software • • • Microsoft Project Pacific Edge Primavera Systems . 1996. VA: Construction Management Association of America. 2000. Inc. Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives o o o o Cost-Effective Branch Historic Preservation Secure / Safe Building Commissioning Project Management Organizations • • • • • • • Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) Building Commissioning Association Construction Industry Institute (CII) Construction Management Association of America Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Society for the Advancement of Value Engineering Society for Cost Estimating and Analysis Publications • • • • • • • • AIA Handbook of Practice Construction Extension to a Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). 2001. John Wiley & Sons. Quality Management Guidelines. 2003.68 Building commissioning is an emerging quality assurance process that coordinates and integrates planning development and design decisions and verifies that the delivered facility operates efficiently and actually meets a client's project requirements. Format: CD-ROM GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study ISO 9000 Standard ISO 9000 in Construction by Paul A. McLean.. Project Management Institute. Project Management Institute.

General Services Administration's Public Buildings Service to assist public and private organizations in delivering quality projects. project specific. PPT is offered by the U.69 • Prolog Tools • Project Planning Tools (PPT)—A web-based resource that produces automated. Sample Construction Related Forms Construction Phase Forms o o o o o o o o o • • Change Request Log Contractor's Daily Report Request for Information (RFI) RFI Log—Sample Points of Contact Preconstruction Conference—Sign In List Preconstruction Conference—Checklist and Minutes Construction Inspection—Checklist Design Requirements/Provisions/Considerations—Checklist Construction Documents Checklists Comment On This Page Email This Page Related Resource Pages • • • • • • Construction Phase Cost Management Cost Impact of the ISC Security Criteria Earned Value Analysis Estimating Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) View All Related (6) Risk Management by Scott Cullen Hanscomb Faithful & Gould Last updated: 12-10-2005 .S. Commissioning Plans to enable efficient planning. and delivery of building projects. on time. management. and within budget.

risk management must rely on tools and techniques that help predict the likelihood of future events. because the business of building is inherently risky—the risk mitigation methods can be applied to project cost. which waits until critical problems develop and then implements an immediate (and typically expensive) response which may reduce the impact to the project but likely does not avoid losses as effectively as early risk response. Over time. modeled. To be effective. This tool is especially useful as a method of good project management and planning. especially as construction risk increases with the size of the project. safety.70 Introduction In design and construction. There are several types of risk that an owner should consider as part of risk management methodology. risk analysis can be described as a systematic methodology and ongoing process by which occurrences that may substantially affect the end product can be identified. or where the greatest time/cost savings can be made through reengineering and streamlined project management. The application of risk management procedures in construction can give early visibility to potential "problem areas" and opportunities. business or mission interruption. and allow the introduction of corrective actions. where effort and money can be expended early in the design and construction phases to reduce vulnerability. Risk management is an organized method of identifying and measuring risk and then developing. and monitored. the effects of these . managed. focusing the project team's attention on actions and resources where there is a major risk exposure. and schedule float in order to minimize losses to the project and increase the likelihood of the project being completed on schedule and within budget. monetary contingency. where problems are reduced as they are identified. Early risk identification ensures that design and team effort is concentrated in critical areas. as differentiated from the traditional approach to construction. and claims. insurance costs. quantified. which will allow for better management of future projects. selecting. The objective is proactive management of projects. schedule. and business operations. implementing and managing options for addressing risks. Good risk management procedures ultimately measure the team's confidence level in the project on an ongoing basis. risk management allows the project team to build a historical profile of risk based upon experience and lessons learned. quality/performance. These include: • • • • • • Schedule risk Cost risk Technical feasibility Risk of technical obsolescence Dependencies between a new project and other projects Physical events beyond direct control Risk management seeks to identify and ultimately control possible future events and should be proactive rather than reactive.

There are a number of software packages both publicly and commercially available. The random number generator accounts for the known estimate accuracy. After the project data have been input and checked. the computer program will calculate various contingencies for the overall project based on the probability of project underrun. A sensitivity analysis can also be prepared to vary the key risk parameters. Range estimating can be done in a rather simple fashion by selecting the 20 percent of the line items in an estimate that represent 80 percent of the cost then developing a range for each of those 20 percent and doing a simple process of adding the low and high ranges. it produces an overall contingency for the project with certain accuracy. However. a contingency amount of approximately $4 million represents 65% confidence in achieving that project cost. Once the program has completed its iterations (usually 1. one area that deserves closer scrutiny is the use of range estimating as a risk analysis tool. Tools and Techniques Paying attention to detail and implementing appropriate cost and schedule control systems will assist in risk analysis and management. and quantifies the probability of occurrence and potential impact of identified risks. Referring to the s-curve figure below as an example. The results can be used to produce a realistic representation. . of the project's total uncertainty and risks. Finally. This approach would give a more accurate projection of the logical highs and lows involved with 20 percent drivers. contingency should be increased such that total project cost is $51 million. Monte Carlo or risk analysis is used when establishing a baseline or baseline change during budget formulation.71 future events and methods to deal with these future events. For 80% confidence. Risk management is the responsibility of everyone involved in a project.000). The application of this type of quantitative risk analysis allows the construction project exposure to be modeled. The contingency developed from the Monte Carlo analyses should fall within the contingency allowance ranges presented previously. The estimator must subdivide the estimate into separate phases or tasks and assess the accuracy of the cost estimate data in each phase. Monte Carlo analyses and other risk assessment techniques use similar methodology to obtain contingency estimates. establish the range and then use any one of several available software packages to perform a Monte Carlo simulation and produce a risk profile. in graphic s-curve form. A more advanced approach could take the same 20 percent items. This type of an approach can establish contingencies for not only individual projects but for entire programs. it is possible to use a complete risk analysis package that includes range estimating and prepares a risk profile that estimates confidence ranges and contingency amounts.

Blackwell Publishers. typically in the range of 3-8%.72 Sample project cost s-curve Risk management with probabilistic modeling can be used to reduce project contingency from a guesstimate of 10-20% to a quantitatively determined amount. Inc. Risk Analysis: A Quantitative Guide by David Vose and Howard A. and the confidence level in project cost increases. the early release of contingency amounts may be achieved and the money may be invested elsewhere. January 1998. NY: John Wiley & Sons. As the project progresses. Major Resources Publications • • • Managing Risk in Construction Projects by Nigel Smith. New York. Blackwell Publishers. April 2000. Doughty. Risk Management and Construction by Roger Flanagan and George Norman. August 1993. ..

Operations and maintenance are combined into the one term O&M because an entity cannot operate without being maintained. the organization performing the O&M increases in size and complexity. therefore the two are discussed as one. The scope of O&M includes the activities required to keep the entire built environment as contained in the organization's Real Property Inventory of buildings and structures and their supporting facilities such as utility systems. At this time the Operations and Maintenance section offers guidance in the following areas: • • Real Property Inventory (RPI)—Provides an overview on the type of system needed to maintain an inventory of an organization's assets and manage those assets. Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS)—Contains descriptions of procedures and practices used to track the maintenance of an organization's assets and associated costs. Major Resources A.73 Facilities Operations & Maintenance by Don Sapp. drainage structures and grounds in condition to be used to meet their intended function during their life cycle. In all cases it requires knowledgeable and skilled management and skilled and trained technical personnel to perform the many varied O&M functions. operations of utility systems and grounds care. As the number of buildings and structures increases. Future updates to the Operations and Maintenance section will provide additional guidance in the areas described below. roads. These activities include routine and breakdown maintenance and repairs. Plexus Scientific Last updated: 04-21-2008 Introduction The operations and maintenance (O&M) of facilities covers all that broad spectrum of services required to assure the built environment is available to and will perform the functions for which they were designed and constructed. It varies from O&M of a single building to a complex of many buildings and structures or groups of complexes. parking lots. O&M is comprised of the dayto-day activities necessary for the built entities to perform their intended function. Planning and Design Phase .

and other O&M requirements that will aid in their operations and maintenance when the built facility is turned over to the O&M organization. 1999) DOD UFC 3-270-06 Paver Asphalt Surfaced Airfields Pavement Condition Index (PCI) DOD UFC 4-310-02N Design: Clean Rooms DOE/EE-0249 FEMP Low Energy Building Design Guidelines DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Chapter 3: O&M Management DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance: Pump Design / Selection DOE FEMP Utility Services Case Study—Thermal Energy Storage at a Federal Facility EPA I-BEAM—The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings. such as equipment access. • • • • • • • • • WBDG—Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE) DOE FEMP Commissioning Case Study—In-house Retro-commissioning at a DOE National Laboratory DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Chapter 7: Commissioning Existing Buildings FEMP O&M Continuous Commissioning Guidebook Energy Star® Buildings Manual Recommissioning Example Retro-Commissioning Scope of Work GSA . built-in condition monitoring.Exhaust System Design GSA 2003 Facilities Standards (P100)—Appendix 3: New Constructions and Modernizations B. During the planning and design phases. sensor connections. o Chapter . a Reliability Driver by Ray Oliverson. • • • • • • • • • • WBDG—Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE) Benchmarking.Ductwork cleaning/standards o Chapter .74 O&M activities start with the planning and design of a facility and continue through its life cycle. Construction Phase During the construction phase and prior to turnover of the facility for O&M operations and maintenance manuals are provided to the O&M organization and O&M organization personnel are provided training required for their O&M of the new facility.Succession Planning Mechanical Systems Commissioning Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology . O&M personnel should be involved and should identify maintenance requirements for inclusion in the design. SMRP Presented at the 8th International Process Plant Reliability Conference (October 26. Assurance that the manuals and training are provided is a part of the Building Commissioning process.

the O&M organization must operate the entities responsibly and maintain them properly. repairs.Section 5. and evaluate the day-to-day O&M activities and budget for the funds to support the organization's requirements. a room is too cold. Computer.) replacement of obsolete items. structures and supporting facilities is complex and requires a knowledgeable. rather than being applied independently. and proactive maintenance practices… These principal maintenance strategies. direct. safe. the O&M management must manage. well-organized management team and a skilled.75 • TM 5-697 Commissioning of Mechanical Systems for Command. Presented at the Energy 2003. (e. trouble calls. Communications. Many O&M organizations are now utilizing a Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) program that includes "the optimum mix of reactive. and effective performance of the facilities to meet their designated purpose throughout their life cycle. August 18. are integrated to take advantage of their respective strengths in order to maximize facility and equipment reliability. and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Facilities C.Sections 5.g. Control. Life Cycle O&M O&M of the elements included in buildings. In accomplishing these responsibilities. and grounds care. • • • • • • • • • • WBDG—Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE) DOD UFC 3-410-05N Heating Systems Operation and Maintenance DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: O&M Management .4 Measuring the Quality of Your O&M Program DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Types of Maintenance Programs . Surveillance. Intelligence." The O&M organization is also . predictive testing & inspection. O&M Approach The O&M organization is normally responsible for operating the utility systems and for maintenance of all of the built entities. CEM. The maintenance work may include preventative and programmed maintenance. well-trained work force. maintain.5 DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Types of Maintenance Programs .1 through 5.6 Reliability Centered Maintenance DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Chapter 8: Metering for Operations and Maintenance Energy Star®Operation and Maintenance (O&M) Reports FEMP "Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide" by Greg Sullivan PE..5 and 5. The utility systems may be simple supply lines/systems or may be complete production and supply systems. energy efficient. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. healthful. To accomplish these objectives. time.or interval-based. while minimizing life-cycle costs. and improve the facilities to provide reliable. The objective of the O&M organization should be to operate. condition-based. 2003 FEMP Operations and Maintenance Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology D.Section 3.

4 Predictive Maintenance DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: O&M Ideas for Major Equipment Types . Surveillance.6 to 9.Cooling Towers FEMP Operations and Maintenance Fans Maintenance FEMP Operations and Maintenance Lighting Technologies FEMP Operations and Maintenance Maintenance of Pumps FEMP Operations and Maintenance Steam Traps FEMP Operations and Maintenance Types of Motors Society for Machinery Failure Prevention Technology TM 5-617 Facilities Engineering .Section 9.e.6 Energy Management/Building Automation Systems DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: O&M Ideas for Major Equipment Types .9 Maintenance of Air Compressors Elevator inspection/repair Energy Star® Buildings Manual Fan System Upgrades Energy Star® Buildings Manual Lighting EPA I-BEAM—The Indoor Air Quality Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) is a guidance tool designed for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings. and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Facilities TM 5-692-2 Maintenance of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at Command. and Maintenance of Fire Protection Systems DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Types of Maintenance Programs .5 Cooling Towers DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: O&M Ideas for Major Equipment Types .6.Sections 9.VHA Directive 2006-056 .Section 9.Sections 9. Computers.10. and Reconnaissance (C4ISR) Facilities VA Boiler Plant Operations .Sections 9. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Air Force Instruction 32-1051 Roof Systems Management DOD UFC 3-600-02: O&M: Inspection.Section 5.6 to 9.76 normally responsible for maintaining records on deferred maintenance (DM). Communications. Intelligence.Section 9.4. i. Testing. Surveillance.VHA Directive 2003-050 VA Electrical Power Distribution System Operations .Maintenance and Repair of Roofs TM 5-692-1 Maintenance of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at Command. Control Communications.6.10.8 Maintenance of Chillers DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: O&M Ideas for Major Equipment Types . Intelligence.4. o Chapter . maintenance work that has not been accomplished because of some reason—usually lack of funds.6 to 9.3 Steam Traps DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: O&M Ideas for Major Equipment Types . Control.9 EMS Maintenance DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: O&M Ideas for Major Equipment Types .

but is so often performed by facilities maintenance organizations they become a part of their baseline. O&M organizations utilize Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) to manage their day-to-day operations and to track the status of maintenance work and monitor the associated costs of that work. and as such should not be funded with O&M funds but funded by the requesting organization. Non O&M Work Most O&M organizations also perform work that is not O&M. . but also to provide valuable information for preparing facilities key performance indicators (KPIs)/metrics to use in evaluating the effectiveness of the current operations and for making organizational and personnel decisions. These systems are vital tools to not only manage the day-to-day activities. This work is facilities related work that is new in nature. providing a compressed air outlet to a new test bench. • DOE FEMP Operations and Maintenance Best Practices Guide: Chapter 4: Computerized Maintenance Management System F. and other minor facilities work of like nature. Computerized Maintenance Management Systems In today's computer age. Examples of the work includes installation of an outlet to support a new copier machine.77 E.

Inventory records for ready reference have become easier to prepare and maintain as they are recorded in a computer database. management reports. As the inventory database/records have grown their use has expanded because the information can be more easily included in manage reports and other management documents and can be made available for use in other databases such as an operations and maintenance organization's Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS). The database may be located at a site/complex/campus or at a central location where the assets of the company/university/ government agency are maintained in total.78 Real Property Inventory (RPI) by Don Sapp. In fact in the federal government all agencies are required by Executive Order 13327. their value and limited other information maintained for ready reference. operations and maintenance (O&M) requirements and other requirements the organization may have. The inventory data on an asset will include information as determined by laws. Because of the expanded use of real property inventories (RPIs) they have become an important part of an organizations asset management. The computer RPI size of course depends on the number of facilities and how the organization chooses to maintain the database. At one time inventory records were maintained only in paper files with a list of assets. Federal Real Property Asset Management. These ready reference records have grown to include more information on each asset. . or otherwise managed by the agency. It will depend on the use of the data and what requirements have been placed on the organization such as information to meet tax requirements. government regulations and/or an organization's management. government regulations. to identify and categorize all real property owned. leased. Plexus Scientific Last updated: 3-17-2008 Introduction Know Your Assets and What They Cost! A system to maintain an inventory of an organization's assets/real property is required not only to know what assets the organization has that must be maintained but also to manage those assets and meet asset record and reporting requirements placed on an organization. The records should contain details of transactions that affect the organization's assets and should be maintained as permanent records for the life of each asset. With the dawn of the Computer age things have changed. Description In today's business environment RPIs are or should be maintained in computer databases with detailed inventory records maintained in paper files.

When by construction the RPI records should follow project delivery. purchase. book value. RPI Content The RPI of an organization should include the detail paper files identifying the asset and its cost including its initial acquisition and improvements. Acquisition and preparation costs of buildings and other facilities. The decision to enter an asset or improvement to an asset in the RPI is determined by the value set by law. A. at the time the asset is turned over to the owner for O&M. An example of government requirements is that capitalized value (book cost) of a facility includes all costs incurred to bring the facility to a form and location suitable for its intended use. as appropriate for the type of facility to be capitalized and included as the book value of a new asset or in the case of an asset improvement added to the facility's book value: • • • • • • Amounts paid to vendors or contractors. Engineering. lease. The cost may include the following. Transportation charges to the point of initial use. listing of improvements and their costs. Some other data that may be included is its location. its book value. utility systems. donation or any other source. Labor and other direct or indirect production costs (for assets produced or constructed). previous years O&M costs. asset's use (may be a code) and status. and surveys. type of facility (may be a classification code or simply included in its descriptive title). its facility number or address. Other asset data in the database will depend on the organization and its management. and in the case of government agencies General Services Administration (GSA) Usage Codes. its current replacement value. What is included in the book value of an asset will depend on tax laws and management requirements in the private sector and finical management rules and government regulations in the government organizations. Book Value (Cost) The initial entry in the RPI includes the book value with asset improvements that meet an organizations guidelines being added to the book value as they occur. The RPI for assets meeting the definition and value requirements imposed on the organization should then be maintained for the life of the asset whether in the private sector or in the government. architectural. Handling and storage charges. B. When by other means the RPI should start with the owners assuming O&M responsibility for the asset. and other outside services for designs. government regulation or the organization and the organizations definition of real property.79 The RPI paper files and database should start with the acquisition of the asset whether by construction. its capacity and its unit of measure (UOM). plans. roads and parking facilities. etc. In most cases real property includes land and anything permanently affixed to it. fences. The RPI database should include the asset's name (usually a descriptive title). such as buildings including their installed systems and building equipment and in some cases other installed equipment. . structures. specifications. including fees.

and administration of construction contracts and construction work. and that portion is not separately identifiable in the asset's records. 2) enlarges or improves its capacity or otherwise upgrades the asset to serve needs different from. and organization policy. Fixed equipment and related costs of installation required for activities in a building or facility. and Material amounts of interest costs paid. including civil service costs. including depreciation (per FMM 9091-5c. the original value of the replaced portion should be estimated and the book value adjusted accordingly.). Fair values of facilities and equipment donated to the Government. Capital Improvements Capital improvements to an asset are modifications whose cost equals or exceeds a value established by the organization or by law/regulation and 1) extends its useful life by two years or more or. This is particularly applicable where the organization is responsible for a complex or campus with numerous assets as found at large corporations. that periodic physical inventory are performed and that the records are reconciled based on the inventories. D. . If only a portion of the property is being replaced. regulation or the organization. regulations. Legal and recording fees and damage claims.80 • • • • • • An appropriate share of the cost of the equipment and facilities used in construction work. Direct costs of inspection. Application An RPI should be maintained by all organizations responsible for maintaining asset records. Capital Improvements are capitalized and increase the book value of the facility. The records should include detailed paper records and a database containing the asset information needed by the organization to meet reporting requirements and recurring request for information. the book cost of the asset should be appropriately adjusted to remove the original costs of items replaced where the costs exceeds a costs set by law. universities and government agencies. Maintaining the RPI The organization responsible for the RPI should develop and sponsor the establishment of guidance and procedures as required for the organization to ensure compliance with applicable laws. The guidance and procedures must include the assignment of responsibilities and establish controls necessary to ensure that the RPI records are kept current including the database. By having the data in a database reports and request for information can be answered easily without using manpower to extract the data from paper files. The costs of items replaced do not include the costs of removal but only the original book costs. supervision. C. or significantly greater than. those originally intended. Where a replacement occurs due to a capital improvement.

Customer Guide to Reporting Real Property Inventory Information (DOC 368 KB) Office of the Deputy Under the Secretary of Defense .S. Federal Real Property Asset Management (PDF 96 KB) Major Resources • • • • • Army Real Property web site GSA Office of Government Wide Policy.C.S. 483 and 484. as amended 41 CFR.81 Emerging Issues The security of the data in a database is an issue that most organizations have already faced with their computer systems but it is a continuing problem that must be faced in the computer world. For government agencies the following regulations apply: • • • 40 U. Federal Property Management Regulations Executive Order 13327. Relevant Codes and Standards In the private sector the federal and state tax codes establish requirements for asset records (RPIs) that must be maintained.Installations and Environement Real Property Inventory Requirements NASA's Real Estate Management Program Implementation Manual U. Department of Energy Real Property Asset Management (PDF 188 KB) Tools • Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE) . Database files in the public sector will be based on the organizations' requirements. Sections 202 and 203 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949. Chapters 101 and 102.

Widespread usage of IT systems in almost all disciplines eventually penetrated the construction and Facility Management industry as well. retrieved. A mature CAFM system combines and analyzes complex data to improve facility management practices throughout a variety of industries including government. Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems.e. CAFM systems consist of variety of technologies and information sources that may include object-oriented database systems. Building Information Models (BIM). Description Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) evolved in the late 1980's leveraging the PC to automate the collection and maintenance of Facilities Management information. as well as the strategic processes for facilities planning and management¹. Total Resource Management and Ozan Ozener. and report on facilities information. and infrastructural FM tasks when the facility or building is operational. Today most CAFM systems are web-based and provide a host of features including facilities related scheduling and analysis capabilities. and analyzed from a single data-store or collected from a variety of sources through technology interfaces or human transfer processes. healthcare. and industrial environments. . plan. educational. commercial. CAFM systems provided the facility manager with the tools to track. technical. manage. usage of high-end tools in FM practices increased in that sector. After the development of Internet-based database systems. Texas A&M Last updated: 11-26-2007 Introduction Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) is an approach in Facilities Management that includes creation and utilization of Information Technology (IT)-based systems in FM practice. and interfaces to other systems such as a Computer Maintenance Management System. Data may be stored.82 Computer Aided Facilities Management (CAFM) by Dan Eckstein. i. The CAFM system gives decision makers the ability to automate many of the data-intensive facility management functions and typically results in continuous cost savings and improved utilization of assets through-out their entire lifecycle. The usage of CAFM systems in Facilities Management practice aims to support operational and strategic facility management. all of the activities associated with administrative.

energy consumption. advanced automated Facilities Management functionalities and links between various external analysis packages. suitable for all situations. Interactive Database: Since the data in crucial in Facilities Management practice. The most common issues facing most managers today include: • • • • • • Shrinking maintenance budgets Resource constraints Political priorities Unfunded mandates Distributed data and data disparities Organizational stovepipes The challenge for facility managers is to overcome these obstacles by utilizing the resources available and convincing leadership that efficiencies and cost savings can be achieved with investments in technology. These tools usually provide a robust user interface to enable a user-friendly environment for data input. and analysis. CAFM systems in the market today can provide different tools to perform various tasks. some CAFM systems are equipped with new and intelligent interfaces. Additionally. A majority of CAFM systems on the market integrate industry standard CAD engines into the CAFM system to utilize common CAD file formats. plans and other visual documents. Application Most facility managers face a variety of constraints and challenges. Parallel to this. equipment locations. a typical CAFM system provides and maintains information on floor plans.83 A well developed CAFM system may include a variety of functions and features to meet the specific demands of the Facility Manager. Interactive Graphics: CAFM systems facilitate an interactive graphics module for basic drafting and modification of facility layouts. property descriptions. such as a well planned CAFM system. space utilization. The following features are common to most CAFM systems. Mature . and other critical infrastructure data that pertains to the sector it is serving. Components of Integrated CAFM Systems and Capabilities A typical CAFM system is defined as a combination of CAD and/or relational database software with specific abilities for facilities management. Although there is no ideal model. including spatial environments. the graphics data may be maintained in a format compatible with Geographic Information System (GIS) standards that will allow CAFM information to be accurately shared across multiple platforms. Data Management Tools: CAFM systems reuse existing data and are able to recognize and/or convert external data for their own use. editing. CAFM systems are based on fully developed relational databases that are designed around the functional requirements of the Facility or Space Manager.

fire equipment locations. janitorial. utilities monitoring. evacuation routes. Typical facility functions that a CAFM can benefit include the following: Strategic Planning: Tasks include analyses of property and space to provide capital planning of new or remodel assets to improve the mission of the organization. Usage Areas CAFM systems can be used for different purposes in Facilities Management practices. and other critical planning functions. equipment locations. utilization. Typical functions of this module include analysis on space dimensions.84 CAFM systems are important to enable the facility managers to become effective decision makers and provide effective management of facility information. The CAFM tools will usually aid the Facility Management in determining space requirements. Assessments: This function typically includes building condition inspections. encroachments. Planning. The mature CAFM system will help the facility's manager ensure the organization's assets are fully utilized at the lowest possible cost. Maintenance and Repairs: Tasks include monitoring routine repairs and preventive maintenance operations in the facility. and buildings attributes such as: • • • • • • • • Age Cost data Life expectancy Construction data Contract and Warranty data Building managers Telephone numbers Technology drops Operations: Tasks include tracking energy consumption. and risk assessments. security vulnerability. condition reporting. Space Inventory and Management: The CAFM should define and standardize space attributes and data elements as well as the physical asset inventories of the organization. construction costs. monitoring. such as a lock-out/tag-out program can also be managed in this module. environmental constraints. lighting management. Safety conditions. . Often these features have an interface for a GIS to achieve the benefits of a spatial reporting environment as well as CAFM. hazardous material locations. and grounds maintenance responsibilities and cost. while providing benefit to every phase of a building's lifecycle. and reporting capabilities of typical CAFM systems provide vital information to perform tasks in the facility management arena.

using standardized data that is shared across the enterprise. utilities. Fig. Fast and accurate reporting on critical facilities information. a mature CAFM system will provide benefits similar to those listed below: • • • • • • • • • • More efficient space utilization to achieve cost savings and potential reduction in asset inventories. . and building maintenance costs. and information improvement. This task typically includes the ability to manage the requirements for people. space. as well as the cost and move planning features. Specifically. Data standardization across the organization and the elimination of redundant information held by multiple organizations in various degrees of quality and accuracy. Improved project planning leading to reductions in A&E. technology access. Existing processes will become more efficient and streamlined. Disaster planning capabilities are significantly improved to reduce the potential for human injury or death in a disaster as well as to improve those required for operational recovery. Reduction in moving and relocation activities resulting in greatly reduced relocation costs. cost avoidance. Continuous improvement in facilities management efficiencies. construction.85 Space Forecasting: Includes the ability to determine current space utilization and to project future space requirements based on customer or mission requirements. The CAFM will give facilities managers the tools necessary to become more proactive instead of reactive to facilities' requirements and enable better decision making.² Benefits Benefits of CAFM usage in Facility Management tasks can be grouped in various areas. 1. Improve safety and environmental planning capabilities. 2000). reducing risk from accident and regulatory compliance violations. Usage of CAFM in the life cycle of a building² (Schürle and Fritsch. including quality of life. cost reduction.

Fritsch.. In: Proceedings of CIB W78's 22nd International Conference on Information Technology in Construction. IFCs (ISO PAS 16739) COBIE Major Resources Publications • • • Facility Management. T. Vol. ² Schürle. Robert Kevin Brown. D. • • • • • • U. Infrastructure. Dresden. and Environment (SDSFIE) International Alliance for Interoperability. Paul D. "Where does CAFM really help? Current fields of application and future trends according to system users". ISBN 3-86005-478-3.1 – CAFM Data Structures: A Review And Examples.S. 19-21 June 2005. Websites • FM Innovations Organizations • • • • • BOMA International FIATECH IFMA (International Facility Management Association) International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) NIBS (National Institute of Building Sciences) .. 33. Working Group IV/III. Edmond P. Germany. Lapides. (2000): IAPRS. Published by German Institute for Photogrammetry (ifp). 2nd Edition. 2005. Lennerts. A. BIM. CIB Publication 304. and Database file formats. Rondeau. ¹ Abel. National CAD Standard® CAD-GIS-BIM Open Standard—OWS-4 W3C Fourth Edition and XML 1. K. J. Boy. The Westin Bellevue.1 Spatial Data Standards for Facilities. Wiley. Germany.86 Relevant Codes and Standards Relevant standards for CAFM systems based on CAD. Stuttgart University. ISBN: 0-471-70059-2.. January 2006.

Reports were simple and costly to prepare. The system should provide for integrated processes giving the manager control over the maintenance of all facilities and maintainable equipment from acquisition to disposal. In today's maintenance world the CMMS is an essential tool for the modern facilities maintenance organization. Prior to the computer age paper records were maintained to track the work. equipment. subordinates and customers to track the status of maintenance work on their assets and the associated costs of that work. and easier to use and now provide tools to support improved maintenance practices.87 Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) by Don Sapp . With time computers have become more powerful. Facility professionals now have the tools to manage the planning and day-to-day operations and maintenance activities required for a single facility or a large complex. The system can provide reports to use in managing the organization's resources. providing all of the information required to manage the work. material. track the status of the work and analyze the recorded data for managing the work.Plexus Scientific Revised and updated by Dan Eckstein . less costly. the work force and the costs and provide management reports and historical data.Total Resource Management Last updated: 02-10-2008 Introduction Know What Work Has Been Done on Your Assets and What it Costs! Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) enable the facility manager. With the dawn of the computer age it was recognized computer software could be used to record work requirements. CMMS are utilized by facilities maintenance organizations to record and manage and communicate their day-to-day operations. Description The goal of a maintenance manager is to employ a management system that optimizes the use of scarce resources (manpower. produce reports and help control costs. preparing facilities key performance indicators (KPIs)/metrics to use in evaluating the effectiveness of the current operations and for making organizational and personnel decisions. and funds) to maintain the facilities and equipment that are the responsibility of the maintenance organization. The following lists what the system should do: .

A modern CMMS meets these requirements and assists the facilities maintenance manager with work reception. Include work tasks and frequencies. Record and maintain work history. Support each customer's mission. C. The manager should only acquire what is necessary to accomplish the maintenance organization's goals. multiple meters. evaluation. Preventive Maintenance (PM) schedule. inspection routes. Maintain maintenance inventory. The following paragraphs include details of capabilities that may be included in a modern CMMS. Operating Locations The CMMS may include an application that allows an operator to enter and track locations of equipment (locations in which equipment operates) and organize these locations into logical hierarchies or network systems. A. equipment downtime. Using locations allows for the tracking of the equipment's lifecycles (history) and provides the capability to track equipments' performance at specific sites. control. Resources . and Reduce costs through effective maintenance planning. and related documentation. safety procedures. performance. Equipment The CMMS may include a module that allows an operator to keep accurate and detailed records of each piece of equipment. measurement points. an existing system. Work orders can then be written either against the location itself or against the equipment in the operating location. Effectively interface and communicate with related and supporting systems ranging from work generation through work performance and evaluation. service contracts. Accommodate all methods of work accomplishment. planning. B. Such a system will also maintain historical information for management use. such as bill of material.88 • • • • • • • • • • Address all resources involved. This equipment data is used for managing day-to-day operations and historical data that can be used to help make cost effective replace or repair decisions. The manager should evaluate management data requirements and establish electronic data needs prior to acquiring a system or additions to. or replacement of. The data can also be used to develop additional management information. Ensure communication with each customer. This module would include equipment related data. The evaluation should include a return on investment (ROI) analysis before investing in additional or new CMMS capabilities. and reporting. such as building equipment downtime failure code hierarchies for use in maintenance management metrics. Provide feedback information for analysis. specification data (name plate).

item cost information. E. Allowing tag-out procedures to be associated to hazards or directly to locations. to preventative maintenance masters and to work orders. Grouping labor categories into common associations can help a manager assign work to particular shop rather than an individual.89 The CMMS may include a separate module to track labor resources. Printing safety plans automatically on work orders. and safety plans or work orders. Viewing and linking documents. such as mechanic. or plumber. electrician. Once hazards and precautions are entered they should be available for reference and data entry. reactively. Tracking hazards for multiple equipment and locations. flammability. Define tag identifications for specific equipment and locations. Defining lock-out/tag-out procedures. This feature will allow work planners the ability to see what tools are in stock and assign tools to various work categories to reduce research effort on the part of mechanics and technicians working in the field. including their craft or trade categories. Safety Plans With the emphasis placed on safety throughout Government and industry a capability for safety plans/planning may be included in a CMMS. D. The following capabilities should be provided: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Manual or automatic safety plan numbering. this module may include labor rates in order to capture and track true labor costs against any asset or piece of equipment. and the substitute or alternate items that can be used if necessary. Building safety plans for special work. Some CMMS recommend and provide the ability to track tools and provide basic tool-room management features as part of the inventory module. non-stocked. This module typically includes records for all maintenance personnel. Associating safety plans to job plans. Stocked. Additionally. and Material Safety Data Sheets for hazardous materials. Tracking hazardous materials for multiple equipment and locations. location of items. Associating multiple precautions to a hazard. Some CMMS will allow maintenance managers to also track skill levels and qualifications for each resources to help in planning and scheduling of work. equipment. The module should also allow the tracking of item vendors. contact. Defining safety plans for multiple equipment or locations. Tracking ratings for health. . Inventory Control An inventory control module may be included to allow an operator to track inventory movement such as items being moved in or out of inventory. and special order items could be tracked. or from one location to another.

Dispatching—In dispatching. A requester could enter minimal data and work control could enter additional information as required. I. Quick Reporting The CMMS could provide a rapid and easy means for opening. The work order number could be assigned manually or automatically. Preventive Maintenance . It could even split larger jobs over multiple shifts—automatically. The assignments would be created sequentially over the shift. blueprints. The data entry screen should be designed for minimal data entry.90 F. materials. including work plan operations. labor assignments would be planned for future shifts. The manager must evaluate data requirements and the practicality of adding modules. and pop-up tables should eliminate the need to memorize codes. labor assignments would be carried out as soon as possible. completion date. Each person's calendar availability would be considered when the assignments are made. failure codes. tools. and pop-up tables in the system should eliminate the need to memorize codes. The module would permit planning and dispatching. filling each person's daily schedule with priority work for the craft. • • Planning—In planning. equipment. reporting on. The module could provide the capability that would let a planner specify which labor to apply to specific work orders and when. Data should be entered once. The data should be entered once. Work Order Tracking A CMMS must include work order tracking because it is the heart of a work order system. and reporting work on small jobs after-the-fact. The module could provide the capability for a requestor to input a request. and downtime could all be reported. and closing work orders. this is dependent on how many modules are installed and how much information has been entered in the system. Labor. The tracking system should provide instant access to all of the information needed for detailed planning and scheduling. G. Of course. The system operator could interrupt work already in progress in order to reassign labor resources to more crucial work. related documents. and failure analysis. H. materials. costs. Work Management A work manager module may be a part of the CMMS. This system could begin tracking labor time from the instant the assignment is made. labor. J. Work Request A work request module should be an integral part of a CMMS. such as a trouble call. or it could be entered by the maintenance organization's work control.

Generate time-based PM work orders based upon last generation or last completion date. modifications. M. Next due date and job plans should be displayed. Consolidate weekly. monthly. and cost. use. It could include modeling capability and linkage to utility control systems. additions. rehabilitation. If a PM master has both time-based and meter-based frequency information. Trigger meter-based PM by two separate meters. It would include completed and canceled work orders. Specify the number of days ahead to generate work orders from PM masters that may not yet have met their frequency criteria. Print sequence job plans when wanted. Route PM with multiple equipment or locations. Permit overriding frequency criteria in order to generate PM work orders whenever plant conditions require. the program should use whichever becomes due first. This capability will allow the maintenance manager improved visibility of matters that can impact work planning and efficiency. metering. Should have the capability to be used with the system scheduler to forecast resources and budgets. It would contain summaries of PM. Procuring required material . construction. distribution. and other work affecting the configuration or condition of the items. Assign sequence numbers to job plans to tell the system which job plan to use when a PM work order is generated from a PM master. Create a PM against an item so new parts have PM automatically generated on purchase. repairs. Purchasing A mature CMMS may also include a Purchasing module to initiate the requisition of material against a work order and track the delivery and cost data of the item when the material arrives. allocation to users. Permit and track PM extensions with adjustments to next due date. The maintenance history records can be used to support proactive maintenance techniques such as root-cause failure analysis and reliability engineering. and quarterly job plans on a single master. L. and then update the other. K. Generate work orders in batch or individually for only the equipment wanted. Facility/Equipment History A history module may be included that would contain the maintenance histories of the facilities and equipment. Utilities A utilities module may be included that contains detailed information on utilities consumption.91 The following capabilities may be provided in a CMMS to manage a Preventive Maintenance (PM) program: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Support multiple criteria for generating PM work orders.

and planned work. Application A CMMS can be utilized in the management of a range of facilities from a single facility to a complex/campus. or requirements. additions. purchase orders. Maintenance managers today are able to use their CMMS for tracking transportation and fleet inventory . functions. Other managers are using their CMMS to track deployed assets such as computers and other IT equipment. rates. O. considering the full scope of asset management options. and accounting data. payment processing. It could include information on specifications. including software inventory on PC. It could cover both contracts for facilities maintenance and support services. Key Performance Indicators/Metrics The CMMS can be utilized to accumulate the data for KPIs for use in evaluating the organization's maintenance program. receiving. mileages. it provides a picture of each contractor's past performance. The CMMS must meet the needs. including maintenance history. Government furnished property. The importance of Selecting the Right Key Performance Indicators cannot be overstated. invoicing. Through their CMMS the track changes. Whatever system or set of modules are selected for use. quality assurance. schedules.92 outside the CMMS can often leave information gaps that can inhibit the effectiveness of work execution and result in redundant parts orderings and non-standard procurement practices. lease terms. P. constraints. They can also be used to manage the maintenance program for a grouping of equipment such as a fleet of vehicles. The KPIs must be based on data that can be obtained and provide meaningful information that will be utilized in managing the organization. Specialized Features Some CMMS providers have also developed specialized capabilities and features for particular business sectors. with a focus on consolidated IT solutions may a sensible course of action. When selecting a CMMS. Facilities Maintenance Contracts A CMMS may contain a contracts module that includes information on maintenance contracts. The systems are very versatile since most are in modular form for the various maintenance functions and can be customized to fit the particular application. careful consideration needs to be given to Functional Requirements and a sound deployment plan. and related matters. The purchasing module may include many functions such as a vendor master catalog. N. delivery orders issued. and opportunities of the business and be implemented in a way that users will welcome the technology and have a . and even request for quotations. current loading. The maintenance management organization must select the metrics to utilize in establishing their goals and to measure progress in meeting those goals. and movement of equipment. With other database files.

testing. Maintenance Resources provides CMMS reference articles from "What is CMMS?" and articles dealing with various aspects of CMMS. • • • • • • Datastream.com is designed to provide the CMMS end user community with information. Ivara Corporation. and training can not be over emphasized when bringing a new CMMS or upgrading an exiting system to an organization. An ROI calculator to determine an organizations potential savings from an improved management of their maintenance program is available at the following locations: • • • Business Industrial Network's CMMS ROI calculator. Proper configuration. . Two of the sites offering this type of information are Maintenance Resources and Cmmscity. Emerging Issues Failure of CMMS implementations is a continuing problem voiced by industry experts. To avoid this pitfall a thorough management study of the proposed or existing system is required to evaluate the use of such a system in their organization and to determine the costs benefits.. Those that have implemented CMMS programs without a complete study. Datastream and Maintenance Resources The following are some company web sites that offer CMMS software. Cmmscity. In evaluating the acquisition of a CMMS or adding to or replacing an existing CMMS an ROI should be performed to obtain data to justify the acquisition. IBM. Not all maintenance organizations require the use of a complete set of CMMS modules. typically fail to use the capabilities incorporated in the software and may eventually view the program as a failure. Champs Software. resources and education relating to preplanning purchases and making effective use of computerized maintenance management systems. There are many others that can be found on the Internet with a "CMMS" search. Davison Software. Major Resources The Internet provides a wealth of information for use in making CMMS implementation decisions. Avoiding the pitfalls in decision-making concerning implementing or modifying CMMS in a maintenance organization eans research must be a high priority. Inc.com. Micromain Corporation.93 vision for the benefits it brings.

Facilities Maintenance Management. Inc. fsc Limited and MaintSmart Software. .94 • • • TMA Systems. The National Aeronautics and Spaces Administrations (NASA) provides insight into the use of Facilities Maintenance Management Automation in Chapter 6 of their procedures requirements document. Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG) Resource Page Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) provides information and guidance on preventive maintenance and on selecting KPIs.

As such. functional/operational. and emerging issues relevant to that specific Space Type. each of these design objectives is presented in the context of the others throughout the Space Types pages as they apply. This section of the WBDG provides information and guidance organized by functional space types. all WBDG design objectives: accessible. aesthetics. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Atrium Auditorium Automated Data Processing: Mainframe Automated Data Processing: PC System Child Care Clinic / Health Unit Conference / Classroom Courthouse: Courtroom Courthouse: Enhanced Office Courthouse: Judicial Chamber Firing Range Food Service General Storage Hearing Room Joint Use Retail Laboratory: Dry Laboratory: Wet Library Light Industrial Loading Dock Lobby Mail Center Office Parking: Basement Parking: Outside / Structured Parking: Surface Physical Fitness (Exercise Room) Place of Worship . productive. cost effective. evaluated.95 Space Types There are many different types of spaces in a building. which complements the WBDG Building Types pages. and construction criteria. and appropriately applied within the spaces. and sustainable and their interrelationships must be understood. technologies. historic preservation. layouts. and each type of space has its own characteristics and requirements. For each Space Types page there is a discussion of the general attributes and requirements of the space as well as example configurations. secure/safe. Space Types pages are also linked to related Building Types pages and Resource Pages that explain strategies. Further.

96 • • • Plaza Private Toilet Warehouse .

Counseling services may include clinical mental heath counseling. and interviewing techniques. and abuse counseling. This drives the facility layout and functional space adjacencies. The support programs offered will vary widely and can include the following: • • • • Counseling. and program or counseling offices. Inc. Mion Lewis & Zimmerman Associates. dedicated storage spaces.97 Family Service Centers by Eric G. applying for loans. Last updated: 04-21-2008 Overview The Family Service Center is a community-based facility that provides educational and support programs primarily for adults and families. . Some facilities may include aid. These services include training and counseling for basic personal and family financial management such as balancing a checkbook. managing credit. marriage or other family counseling. Most of the facility's programs can be accommodated through three functional space types: classroom and training space. Community orientation. and building support spaces. Additional functional areas include administrative spaces.or charity-based services such as a food bank or financial aid. etc. Space Types and Building Organization A Family Service Center must accommodate both public spaces and very private spaces. Military Family Service Centers support the programs required by the Department of Defense (DoD) Instruction 1342. These services include resume preparation assistance. Building Attributes A.22 Family Centers and must meet specific requirements defined in UFC 4-730-01. These services provide information on local community services and recreational opportunities. Financial management. job search assistance. resource rooms (library/computer labs). Employment support. Family Service Centers and supporting documents.

They include the following: • • • • • Clinical counseling offices Group therapy rooms Program offices that require a high degree of privacy such as financial management Staff administrative offices and work areas and Building support spaces such as mechanical and electrical rooms . They include the following: • • Program offices for programs such as community orientation or employment support that do not require a high degree of privacy and Material aid such as a food bank or lending locker Private spaces are areas that customers will not normally enter or areas that a customer will only enter with a staff member and require a high degree of privacy. They should typically be located near the main entrance and include the following: • • • • Lobby/waiting area Classroom(s) Resource room and Public toilets Semipublic spaces are areas that customers need access to but will usually only enter accompanied by a staff member. Developed by DMJM Design. VA.98 Sample adjacency diagram for a family service center. Arlington. Public spaces are areas that customers need ready access to and may enter unattended by staff.

It should be designed to accommodate multiple computers with Internet access and the storage and easy retrieval of printed reference material. Since prime class time is limited to the early evening hours after work. use indirect lighting as main ambient lighting. Do not place a desk or other furniture between the customer and the staff member (see figure below). and Avoid "institutional" finishes. Provide acoustical privacy. Therefore. B. They also must feel that the information they share and the emotions they express will remain confidential. . Likewise. and colors. such as for community resources and recreational activities. Counseling and therapy spaces should use full-height partitions that extend to the underside of the structure and include materials that reduce sound transmission. consider providing a teaching kitchen as part of or in addition to the classrooms. the following design elements are critical: • • • • • • Physically separate private spaces from public spaces. they must not feel intimidated. a flexible design will provide facility managers with more options for running multiple classes. In the counseling and therapy spaces. staff members that are meeting with customers in their offices can easily take the customer into the resource room and set them up for independent research. textures. Staffed program offices are directly adjacent to the resource room so customers using the resources can easily ask questions and interface with staff. and nonthreatening. Provide a sense of welcome and arrival at the entrance. confidential. lobby. The classrooms are configured like typical training facility rooms and should be designed for flexibility of use. A beneficial additional space adjacent to counseling offices or group therapy rooms is a waiting and/or decompression room. and control desk. If budget allows. The resource room should also allow for display of informational brochures. The resource room shares many characteristics with a library. This room provides a private space for a distraught customer waiting to see a counselor or for a customer to compose him or herself after an emotionally difficult session prior to reentering the public spaces.99 Design the facility such that the entrances to the public spaces are clearly visible from the main entrance. The counseling spaces are similar to psychiatric facility spaces and should feel safe. The private spaces should not be located in high traffic areas. Design Considerations Key design goals and considerations for Family Service Centers include the following: Non-threatening Environment In order for customers to feel comfortable using the services of a Family Service Center.

Maintain a Safe and Healthy Environment Design the facility to accommodate equipment and operational strategies to both protect staff and customers and maintain a healthy environment. Also see the office space type for more information on staff space. Developed by DMJM Design. Outside of normal day-to-day operations. Consider the following critical elements: • • Prevent unauthorized access by potentially dangerous personnel Provide an internal.100 Sample private counseling office. Arlington. VA. Also review the psychiatric facility page for more information on HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) regulations that address security and privacy of protected health information. Include Appropriate Space for Staff Provide space to assist staff in developing and maintaining the center's programs and business. staff must be able to accomplish the following: • • • • Think and plan Meet and communicate Host visitors and Store equipment and records. silent duress alarm system with activation points at the reception desk and the counseling and therapy areas and the alarm signal at the .

Department of Defense • • • • • • DoD Instruction 1342. Staff-customer meetings will be performed in an expanded resource room or in dedicated interview rooms that can be reserved when a private meeting is necessary. and training facilities. it requires a smaller but more flexible facility design. Family Service Centers . This alarm system allows a counselor or staff member to signal for help. Family Centers Department of the Air Force: Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36. Staff will normally work in an open office setting rather than private offices since they will spend more time outside of the facility. Family Support Center Program Department of the Army: Army Regulation (AR) 608-1. 3009. Community Service Program UFC 4-730-01. as appropriate.101 management areas. flexibility is critical since programs will change as the community served evolves and grows: • • • Provide movable partitions and numerous data ports and electrical outlets in the classrooms Orient as many program offices as possible around the resource room Design for the changing nature of work Emerging Issues One approach to the management of family service centers encourages staff to spend more time out in the community versus in the facility. Also review the codes and standards for the aforementioned related building types: psychiatric facilities. libraries. Provide easily-cleaned finishes Use nontoxic building materials and improved maintenance practices Ensure good indoor air quality and ample natural light • • • Flexibility As with any program-based facility. Relevant Codes and Standards • Standard federal and state building codes apply.22. If this operational approach is followed.

particularly overnight staff. While all Community Services facilities share a common purpose in the service of public needs. and Return on investment is of paramount importance and can be enhanced through the use of renewable energy sources and sustainable design principles. Police firing ranges. However. each facility is very specialized and the functional requirements are extremely varied. the range of Community Services facility types is vast and varied: . and to maintain operations in critical community service facilities such as police and fire stations. several design issues have gained increased attention over recent years: • • • Quality of life issues for staff. Anti-terrorism/force protection measures are vital to protect life. it is that the exterior architectural message should respect the cultural tastes and history of the community served. If there is one unifying theme to these building types. facilities such as museums. facilities such as police and fire stations. the specification of nontoxic building materials. comprise many spaces that are intended to be occupied only by highly trained professionals. while sometimes being partially open to the public. and youth centers are recreational in nature. and Fire-fighting apparatus bays and equipment maintenance rooms. and the quality of finishes and the environment they create. and health and safety concerns for patrons drive issues such as daylighting. Emerging Issues As with all public buildings and buildings with a 24-hour staff. Classification As noted. protect physical assets. and are open and welcoming in design character. For example. Spaces such as the following will represent unsafe or high-risk areas to the general public: • • • Police holding cells.102 Community Services Overview The Community Services building type is distinguished by the wide range of different facility types that fall under it. accommodate the general public. visitor centers. Therefore. the design and functional layout of these facilities will vary widely.

103 • • • • • • • • • • • Auditoriums Banks/Credit Unions Central Laundry/Dry-Cleaning Facilities Community Centers Fire Stations Fitness Center Museums Police Stations Post Offices Visitor Centers Youth Centers .

such as office spaces. or medical laboratory spaces. medical diagnostic categories I. For a complete list and definitions of the design objectives within the context of whole building design. Outpatient Clinic. Sub-space types. II. or overnight care are provided require Institutional Occupancy construction types and are not included. if federally funded or owned. invasive procedures. See Health Care. in-patient services. To . Typical features of clinic/health unit space types include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined below. Hospital. Nursing Home. Space Attributes The Clinic/Health Unit space type should provide a sanitary and therapeutic environment in which patients can be treated by medical practitioners quickly and effectively. and filing and storage areas are included. and Psychiatric Facility for more information about inpatient and specialized care facilities. For more information. Accessible • All areas should comply with the minimum requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and. Functional / Operational • Cleanliness and Sanitation: The cleanliness of a facility is not only related to a patient's medical recovery. Clinics where general anesthesia. see WBDG Accessible Branch and Comply with Accessibility Requirements (historic facilities). but can also affect the perceived level of care. private toilets. darkroom revolving door systems. with the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS). click on the titles below.104 Clinic / Health Unit by WBDG Staff Last updated: 03-13-2007 Overview The Clinic/Health Unit space types are facilities where outpatient ambulatory health services are provided. radiological diagnostic services (including special structural elements and radiation shielding on ceiling and floor areas). This space type does not include provisions for invasive surgery. and III equipment (including exam lights and medical gas systems).

105 maintain a sanitary environment. and lockers typically will be integrated into the clinic environment. this space type will require emergency battery backup for 25% of lighting. with sprinklered protected construction and GSA Acoustical Class C2. Secure / Safe • Emergency Backup Systems: Typically. For more information. coat storage. spaces should be easy to clean and maintain. copier areas. Flexibility must also be a basic feature of any health care facility to keep it from rapid obsolescence in the face of changing needs and technologies. Relationship and flow diagrams created at the beginning of the design process will ensure a sensible programming of space. Acoustic and Visual Privacy: The new HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accessibility Act) regulations address the security and privacy of "protected health information" (PHI). Refer to individual utility requirements for specific medical equipment. and may affect location and layout of workstations that handle medical records and other patient information-both paper and electronic-as well as patient accommodations. Flow diagrams created in the beginning of the design process should address controlled access areas. Use durable finishes and sterile/antimicrobial surfaces as necessary. . These regulations put new emphasis on acoustic and visual privacy. SF Factor 240 Tenant USF Qty. Office support spaces such as workrooms. Occupancy: The occupancy classification for the Clinic/Health Unit space type is Business Occupancy B2. see WBDG Therapeutic Environments. file rooms. Example Program The following building program is representative of Clinic/Health Unit spaces. HEALTH UNIT Description Tenant Occupiable Areas Entry Lobby Waiting Reception/Registration Payee Window General Patient Care 1 1 1 120 60 60 120 60 60 684 Sum Tenant SF Space Actual Usable Each Req'd. • Productive • • Efficiency and Flexibility: The layout of the Clinic/Health Unit should promote prompt and reliable medical attention.

840 1.840 1 60 60 216 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 120 108 40 60 60 20 60 120 324 40 60 60 20 60 60 Example Plans The following diagram is representative of typical tenant plans.200 1.106 Physician Office/Consult Exam Room Nurse Work Area Patient Toilets Clean/Supply Room Medications Storage Soiled Utility Room Medical Records Medical Records Files Staff Support Spaces Staff Toilet (Male) Staff Toilet (Female) Staff Break Room Housekeeping Tenant Suite Tenant Usable Areas 1 1 1 1 60 60 60 36 60 60 60 36 1.200 1. .53 1.

GSA International Building Code Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards Department of Veterans Affairs (VA): Office of Facilities Management Technical Information Library contains many guides and standards. and consultants should consider exceeding the applicable requirements whenever possible: • • • • • • Americans with Disabilities Act Guidelines for the Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities by AIA Academy of Architecture for Health. Note that the codes and standards are minimum requirements. including clinics. Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service.107 Example Construction Criteria For GSA. 5 pgs). including: Design . 2001. Washington. engineers. the unit costs for the Clinic/Health Unit space type are based on the construction quality and design features in the following table (PDF 57 KB. DC: The American Institute of Architects. Architects. P100. Relevant Codes and Standards The following agencies and organizations have developed codes and standards affecting the design of health facilities. This information is based on GSA's benchmark interpretation and could be different for other owners.

Research Facilities Design Objectives Accessible. by Janet R. 2000.. Adjusting.. Project Planning and Development Publications • • • • • AIA Academy of Architecture for Health (AAH)—Contains AAH newsletters. Design That Cares: Planning Health Facilities for Patients and Visitors. satellite outpatient clinics.108 Guides for planning hospital based ambulatory care clinics. and other documents related to health care design Architectural Graphic Standards. Harold Sleeper. Innovations in Healthcare Design: Selected Presentations from the First Five Symposia on Healthcare Design ed. Myron A. Inc. Inc. master specifications. 2000. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Functional / Operational. Sara Marberry. space planning criteria. Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process. . Inc. 10th Edition by Charles Ramsey. 2nd ed. 2001. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers. Sustainable Products and Systems Section 23 05 93: Testing. Inc. Health Care Facilities. This information library also includes Design Manuals of technical requirements. Stephen A. Building Type Basics for Healthcare Facilities ed. 1995. and Balancing for HVAC. Educational Facilities. reports.. community based outpatient clinics.. and ambulatory surgery clinics. Simmons. Secure / Safe. Kliment. room finishes. Carpman. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Productive. Major Resources WBDG Building Types Community Services. Building Envelope Design Guide Project Management Building Commissioning. Training Facility. and John Hoke. New York: John Wiley & Sons. and standard details. Office Building. Child Development Centers. Youth Centers. Grant and Deborah A. Cost-Effective. equipment lists.

many disciplines provide a specialized technical service that is not always well coordinated with other aspects of the project. you will be able to work together better. Design Discipline Pages are also linked to related Resource Pages. legal definition. Each design discipline has a different set of skills. professional standards. Each Design Discipline page provides information and guidance from a 'whole building' perspective. design. With this knowledge in hand. technologies. and management process. integrated design. and throughout the life cycle of the project to achieve a holistic solution that may yield multiple benefits.109 Design Disciplines Every building project has a unique set of program goals and technical requirements that demand assembling all the stakeholders and a team of professionals in various design disciplines. the codes and standards governing or affecting their practice. and lists of numerous resources relating to each discipline. This Branch also offers insight into creating opportunities for successful project delivery through a coordinated. Each design discipline is encouraged to review the other design disciplines.' or integrated. identify gaps and omissions. other emerging issues facing the professional discipline. and resolve issues holistically. Design Objectives. . 'Whole building. their roles and responsibilities in the emerging integrated design process. each page includes a discussion of the discipline's professional services. and construction programs understand how building design disciplines are organized and practice. By expanding your knowledge of their roles and responsibilities. Building Types. In addition. • • • • • • • • • • • Architecture Cost Estimating Fire Protection Engineering HVAC and Refrigerating Engineering Information Technologies Engineering Interior Design Landscape Architecture Planning Plumbing Engineering Architectural Programming Structural Engineering This Branch of the WBDG has been developed to assist participants in planning. and Space Types that explain strategies. design as a process requires the various stakeholders and disciplines to coordinate and interact as early as possible in the process. Traditionally. and issues that drive how they operate in the building process. each professional will be able to move beyond conventional practice to a more comprehensive. and emerging issues relevant to that specific Design Discipline. integrated practice. construction.

cost effective. Accessible Pertains to building elements. productive. A truly successful project is one where project goals are identified early on and where the interdependencies of all building systems are coordinated concurrently from the planning and programming phase. and sustainable and their interrelationships must be understood. please contact us for more information: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Archaeologist Site Engineer Civil Engineer Surveyor Demolition Specialist Waste Management Specialist Soils Engineer Seismic Engineering Blast Resistance Expert Electrical Engineer Lighting Designer Building Envelope Specialist LEED® Specialist Commissioning Agent Historic Preservation Specialist Conveyance Specialist Space Planner Productivity Specialist Acoustical Engineer Design Objectives Each design objective described herein is significantly important. functional/operational. yet it is just one aspect of what it takes to achieve a successful project. secure/safe. If you are a qualified professional and would like to develop a Design Discipline Page for any of the following disciplines. Related topics: • Provide Equal Access . Each of these design objectives is presented in the context of the others throughout the WBDG web site. aesthetics. Further.110 More Design Disciplines Pages will be posted when they are available. historic preservation. evaluated. heights and clearances implemented to address the specific needs of disabled people. and appropriately applied. all WBDG design objectives: accessible.

system performance as well as durability and efficient maintenance of building elements.111 • Plan for Flexibility: Be Proactive Aesthetics Pertains to the physical appearance and image of building elements and spaces as well as the integrated design process. rehabilitation. Historic Preservation. Related topics: • • • Utilize Cost Management Throughout the Planning. or reconstruction. Related topics: • • • • Engage the Appropriate Language and Elements of Design Engage the Integrated Design Process Select Appropriate Design Professionals Design Awards Cost-Effective Pertains to selecting building elements on the basis of life-cycle costs (weighing options during concepts. Related topics: . Related topics: • • • Account for Functional Needs Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration Meet Performance Objectives Historic Preservation Pertains to specific actions within a historic district or affecting a historic building whereby building elements and strategies are classifiable into one of the four approaches: preservation. restoration. Design. and Development Process Use Economic Analysis to Evaluate Design Alternatives Consider Non-Monetary Benefits such as Aesthetics. and value engineering) as well as basic cost estimating and budget control. Security. and Safety Functional / Operational Pertains to functional programming—spatial needs and requirements. design development.

systems. Related topics: • • • • • • Optimize Site Potential Optimize Energy Use Protect and Conserve Water Use Environmentally Preferable Products Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices . lighting. workspaces. Related topics: • • • • • Integrate Technological Tools Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces Design for the Changing Workplace Promote Health and Well-Being Provide Comfortable Environments Secure / Safe Pertains to the physical protection of occupants and assets from man-made and natural hazards. and technology.112 • • • • Apply the Preservation Process Successfully Update Building Systems Appropriately Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs Comply with Accessibility Requirements Productive Pertains to occupants' well-being—physical and psychological comfort—including building elements such as air distribution. Related topics: • • • • Plan for Fire Protection Ensure Occupant Safety and Health Resist Natural Hazards Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets Sustainable Pertains to environmental performance of building elements and strategies.

this standard was based upon research done by the University of Illinois and funded by the Easter Seals Research Foundation. and employment are not easily achievable by many. as we maneuver through society.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. the federal government has taken steps to address accessibility and its enforcement in facilities designed. or achievable only with the intervention of a third party.. yet independent access to programs. the access that most of us take for granted is difficult. altered. accessibility is a civil rights issue for many people with disabilities and for our society. 1776 In daily life.. The timeline below details many of these steps. Since 1968. when the Architectural Barriers Act was passed. It served as an important reference for private entities and local and state governments.113 Accessible by the WBDG Accessible Committee Last updated: 04-28-2008 Overview "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal. ." . For millions of people with disabilities. July 4.Declaration of Independence. impossible. Released in 1961. Physical access is historically the arbiter of success and the source of opportunity in education. These roots lie in the structure and implementation of laws dealing with accessibility. The first nationally recognized accessible design standard American National Standards Institute (ANSI) A117. Thus. and social freedom. We live in what is considered an independent society. In 1974. or leased using certain federal funds. facilities. built. History of Accessible Building Design The accessibility movement has common roots with the civil rights movement and the Civil Rights Act of 1964. the standard received federal input when the Department of Housing and Urban Development joined the Secretariat of the committee in charge of the standard. employment. nothing is more important yet taken for granted more often than access.

8 altered.1 Accessible and Usable 1 Buildings and Facilities—Became the private sector model for a technical standard for accessible features. and in the employment practices of federal contractors Section 504—Each agency has its own set of section 504 regulations that apply to its programs. program accessibility. Requirements common to these regulations include reasonable accommodation for employees with disabilities. Agencies that provide federal financial assistance also have section 504 regulations covering entities that receive federal aid. This document was most recently updated and published in 2003. It covers facilities in the private sector (places of public accommodation and commercial facilities) and the public sector (state and . stated that uniform standards must prevail for establishing the right to vote 196 Architectural Barriers Act (ABA)—Requires that facilities designed. constructed. 198 Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS)—Contains accessibility scoping 4 and technical requirements implementing the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 198 Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA)—Requires adaptable features in certain 8 covered multi-family dwellings with 4 or more units 199 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)—Prohibits discrimination on the basis of 0 disability. 196 Civil Rights Act—Made racial discrimination in public places illegal. establishes design requirements for the construction or alteration of facilities required to be accessible. or leased with certain federal funds be accessible to persons with disabilities 197 Rehabilitation Act—Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in programs 3 conducted by federal agencies. in programs receiving federal financial assistance. effective communication with people who have hearing or vision disabilities.114 (Courtesy of Bill Brack) Milestones of Accessible Design Requirements 196 American National Standard Institute (ANSI) A117. and accessible new construction and alterations. required 4 employers to provide equal employment opportunities. in federal employment.

115 local government facilities). ADAAG addressed places of public accommodation and commercial facilities in the private sector. As originally published in July 1991. ADAAG was updated in September of 1991 to cover transportation facilities in the private and public sectors. Title I—Access to workplace Title II—State and local government services Title III—Places of public accommodation and commercial facilities Title IV—Telecommunications: hearing or speech impairments Title V—Miscellaneous instructions to Federal agencies that enforce the law 199 Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines—Provides minimum technical and scoping 1 criteria for compliance with the FHA 199 American with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG)—Contains 1 scoping and technical requirements for access to buildings and facilities by individuals with disabilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Definition and Goals of Accessible Design (Courtesy of Bill Brack) . 199 ADA Accessibility Guidelines—Amended to include guidelines for state and local 8 government facilities and building elements designed for children's use 200 ADA Accessibility Guidelines—Amended to include guidelines for play areas 0 200 ADA Accessibility Guidelines—Amended to include guidelines for recreation 2 facilities 200 Help America Vote Act—Regulates equipment and voting booths for equal access 2 voting areas 200 Equal Opportunity Commission Management Directive 715—Provides a roadmap 3 for creating effective equal employment opportunity (EEO) programs for all federal employees as required by Title VII and the Rehabilitation Act 200 ADA and ABA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities—Updated and 4 published in the Federal Register in July of 2004 Summary information about these regulations is available at the Department of Justice's Guide to Disability Rights Laws.

the requirements for both ADA and ABA facilities will be made more consistent. or leased with federal funds. Plan for Flexibility: Be Proactive Being proactive by planning for flexible design features and products will increase the likelihood of providing equal access over the life cycle of the facility. but also those temporarily disabled due to an injury as well as any other potentially debilitating condition. Emerging Issues Revision of ABA and ADA Accessibility Guidelines The U.116 If we live long enough. Two principles of accessible design are: • • Provide Equal Access Accessible design benefits all of us at some point in our lives.S. contact the Department of Justice or the U. The guidelines under both laws have been combined into one rule entitled Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines that contains three parts: a scoping document for ADA facilities. The updated guidelines were published as a final rule in the Federal Register in July of 2004. a scoping document for ABA facilities. built. The number of Americans having a disability is projected to grow rapidly as our population ages. The goal of accessible design is to provide equal use of the built environment for all people. high performance buildings.S. For information about compliance with accessibility guidelines and standards for a particular facility. One outgrowth of this is that the line between who is and who is not a person with a disability will steadily erode. The accessibility guidelines issued under the ABA primarily address facilities in the federal sector and others designed. altered. Access Board. Access Board's guidelines issued under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) have been completely updated and revised. all of us may eventually have a disability that requires a modification of the built enviroment. The ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) cover the construction and alteration of facilities in the private sector (places of public accommodation and commercial facilities) and the public sector (state and local government facilities). and a common set of technical criteria that the scoping sections will reference. We must redefine and redirect our traditional understanding of designing for accessibility to not only include those persons permanently disabled. Revision of Accessibility Standards . As a result. Note: Information in these Accessible pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. The Accessible branch of the WBDG is designed primarily to provide insight and raise awareness on accessible design issues.

Until an agency revises its standards. see the Access Board's Links Page. the current standards will remain in effect. telecommunications equipment. Housing and Urban Development. Access Board. Key responsibilities of the Board include developing and maintaining accessibility requirements for the built environment. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • ADAAG 104 "Reference Standards" section ASME A17. Legislation. For more information.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. International Existing Building Code. and electronic and information technology.1 Safety Code for Elevators and Escalators ASME A18. transit vehicles. and enforcing accessibility standards for federally funded facilities.1 Safety Standard for Platform Lifts and Stairway Chairlifts International Code Council (ICC)—ICC is the secretariat for the ICC/ANSI A117. • • • • • • • • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) ANSI A117. and Department of Defense. Access Board (Access Board).117 The federal agencies that are responsible for setting the standards to enforce the ADA and ABA are revising their standards so that they are consistent with the updated guidelines. NFPA 101 Life Safety Code Major Resources The major resource for guidance on accessible design is the U. etc.S. NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code.S.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines Help America Vote Act Rehabilitation Act Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) . Federal Mandates. The responsible agencies for the ABA are the U.S. Department of Justice and Department of Transportation. International Building Code. International Residential Code ICC Code Requirements for Housing Accessibility (CRHA)—Provides an opportunity for safe harbor in compliance with accessibility requirements in the federal Fair Housing Act National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)—NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code. contact the U. The Access Board is an independent federal agency devoted to accessibility for people with disabilities. providing technical assistance and training on these guidelines and standards. the responsible agencies are the U. For additional resources. Postal Service. General Services Administration.S. For the ADA.

and leisure activities.S. affect their . While removing architectural barriers may allow people with disabilities to circulate within and around a facility. 26 May 1994 (Revised 1 June 1997). Army—TI 800-01 Design Criteria. commerce. and state and local government programs and services.118 Organizations • • • ADA&IT Technical Assistance Centers Adaptive Environments Center for Universal Design Federal Agencies • • • • • • • • ADA Information Line for documents. Provide Equal Access by the WBDG Accessible Committee Last updated: 04-28-2008 Overview For Americans with disabilities. 20 July 1998. Department of Justice (DOJ)—DOJ offers technical assistance on the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and other ADA provisions applying to public accommodations and commercial facilities. Navy—NAVFAC PDPS 94-01. Barrier Free Design Accessibility Requirements.S. HUD's website also addresses access under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. access means simply being able to use. and referrals: (800) 514-0301 (voice) (800) 514-0383 (TTY) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO)—HUD enforces the Fair Housing Act and has issued guidelines under this law (the Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines) which cover multi-family housing. Chapter 7. such as transportation. Many of its technical assistance letters are available online. also provides information on how to file ADA complaints. enjoy. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)—Accessibility Program General Services Administration (GSA)—National Accessibility Program U. including businesses. Information is also available on how to file a complaint with HUD under the Fair Housing Act.S. Provision for Individuals with Physical Disabilities. U. Section 4. nonprofit service agencies. questions. other factors. including work. Air Force—Air Force Center of Expertise for Accessibility U. and participate in the many aspects of society.

providing equal access is required. VA. Designers and other suppliers of services and goods need to provide equal access for all without undermining the needs of people with disabilities. Equal access offers individuals the occasion to improve the quality of life and standard of living for themselves. . How Do We Achieve "Equal Access"? Equal access must be an integral part of the life-cycle process (planning. design. An accessible built environment provides the opportunity for all people to fully participate in and contribute to their families. Arlington. and technology. All stakeholders on the project should work together from the start to coordinate and optimize the design of the site and the building. It also means offering all users the same provisions for privacy. accessibility standards. and maintenance) of buildings and facilities. buildings and facilities.119 ability to fully participate in activities. their families. construction. programming. Photos before and after the renovation by: Eric Taylor on behalf of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Why Provide "Equal Access"? Providing equal access removes discrimination and protects human rights. The renovated Post Office at Ronald Reagan National Airport provides equal access to the intake windows. to varying degrees. not an afterthought. and other people in the world. and safety. Finally. operation. What is "Equal Access"? Providing equal access means ensuring all individuals can make use of transportation. and society. programs and services. Accessible features should blend with the design. and accessibility guidelines. employment opportunities. in order to meet applicable building codes. Design professionals can promote equal access by incorporating accessible features throughout a building's program. security. communities. A building and its site should be designed as an integrated whole.

Organizations . in Federal employment. and technology. telecommunications equipment. transit vehicles.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines Rehabilitation Act Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) Major Resources WBDG Products and Systems Fenestration Systems—Exterior Doors The major resource for guidance on accessible design is the U. The Access Board is an independent federal agency devoted to accessibility for people with disabilities. furnishings. providing technical assistance and training on these guidelines and standards. or modified anytime in the life of the building until they are coordinated and evaluated with the other elements and systems in the whole building package and with all parties involved. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) ANSI A117. benefits.120 rather than as a collection of isolated systems (see also WBDG Functional—Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration). and in the employment practices of Federal contractors. Keep in mind that "equal access" applies to programs. and enforcing accessibility standards for federally funded facilities. Key responsibilities of the Board include developing and maintaining accessibility requirements for the built environment. transportation. see the Access Board's Links Page. employment opportunities. and electronic and information technology. in programs receiving Federal financial assistance. services. The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in aspects of all programs conducted by Federal agencies. Design and construction decisions impact accessibility. deleted. equipment. fixtures.S. Single building elements or systems should not be added. For additional resources. Access Board (Access Board).

S. also provides information on how to file ADA complaints. Information is also available on how to file a complaint with HUD under the Fair Housing Act." April 5. and state and local government programs and services. Version 2.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. HUD's website also addresses access under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. ICC Code Requirements for Housing Accessibility (CRHA)—Provides an opportunity for safe harbor in compliance with accessibility requirements in the federal Fair Housing Act. including businesses. Provision for Individuals with Physical Disabilities. Section 4. Army—TI-800-01. Department of Justice (DOJ)—DOJ offers technical assistance on the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and other ADA provisions applying to public accommodations and commercial facilities. North Carolina State University: 01 Apr 1997. Chapter 7. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)—Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO)—HUD enforces the Fair Housing Act and has issued guidelines under this law (the Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines) which cover multi-family housing. and referrals: (800) 514-0301 (voice) (800) 514-0383 (TTY) Department of Defense (DOD): U. Air Force—Air Force Center of Expertise for Accessibility U. Others Special thanks to Lex Frieden for his inspiring words in the speech "Toward a Barrier Free World for All. Many of its technical assistance letters are available online. . Department of Transportation (DOT)—People with Disabilities Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)—Accessibility Program General Services Administration (GSA)—National Accessibility Program Publications • • Mechanical Lift Analysis (Accessibility Method for Accommodation of Physically Disabled People in the U. nonprofit service agencies. Courthouse Courtrooms) The Principles of Universal Design. questions. 20 July 1998.S.S. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)—NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code Federal Agencies • • • • • • • • • • • ADA Information Line for documents.121 • • • International Code Council (ICC)—ICC is the secretariat for the ICC/ANSI A117.0 by The Center for Universal Design. 2001.

) are life-cycle cost-effective. An owner may talk about the ultimate design providing a "user-friendly work environment" and "future flexibility." What exactly does this mean? Physically. these concepts are demonstrated with spaces that can be easily modified and that can serve a variety of purposes for a diverse group of users. when the planning. and concept design are being shaped and molded.) accommodate future technologies (See also WBDG Productive—Integrate Technological Tools. Universal Design and Visit-Ability . Flexible design principles include spaces that: • • • • are easy to modify (See also WBDG Productive—Design for the Changing Workplace. there may be many goals.) can serve multiple uses and/or users (See also WBDG Functional—Account for Functional Needs. See also WBDG Productive and WBDG Functional.122 Plan for Flexibility: Be Proactive by the WBDG Accessible Committee Last updated: 04-28-2008 Overview During the early stages of developing a building. programming. Flexibility in accessible design manifests in the concepts of Universal Design and VisitAbility described below.

These ideas must not be used interchangeably. According to the Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University." (Mace) . or significant additional cost. Student Union. without the need for adaptation. Universal design concepts developed over the years promote environments. and the built environment more usable by as many people as possible at little or no extra cost. Universal Design advocates addressing human needs within the mainstream of building and product design. University of Arizona—Tucson. Many of the design features that are user-friendly and flexible are simply good design practices. building components. one should note that providing Universal Design features in a building does not necessarily mean that one has complied with the legal and regulatory accessibility criteria. and features designed to be "usable by all people. the intent of universal design is to simplify life for everyone by making products. Universal Design benefits people of all ages and abilities. rather than requirements of a building code or accessibility standard or guideline. communications. "flexibility" manifests in the concepts of Universal Design and Visit-Ability described below. AZ In accessible design. specialized design. to the greatest extent possible. As such.123 This grade level building entrance utilizes universal design priciples. including those contained in the UFAS and ADAAG.

32-inch clear width at user passage doors. and a bathroom or powder room on the entrance level. on average and depending on the type of foundation.124 The campus master plan at Carnegie Mellon University incorporates the principle that "All improvements to the physical environment shall adhere to the concept of universal design. guide the design process. refers to including basic barrier-free features in single-family homes so that they can be visited by relatives. Routes through visit-able homes should also be a minimum of 36 inches wide. For example. it costs approximately $150 extra for a zero-step entrance when it is included at the time of design and construction. A visit-able home includes a zero-step entry. Features and systems that contribute to greater usability in the future should be integrated into the design at the onset of the project. and others who may have disabilities. The Center for Universal Design provides a comprehensive list of resources on their website. a movement started by Atlanta-based Concrete Change. and educate both designers and consumers about the characteristics of more usable products and environments. easily negotiate spaces and hallways. Visitors with a disability can enter the home through an accessible entrance on an accessible route." The Center for Universal Design at North Carolina State University defines Universal Design principles to include: • • • • • • • Equitable Use Flexibility in Use Simple and Intuitive Perceptible Information Tolerance for Error Low Physical Effort Size and Space for Approach and Use ©1997 NC State University. .000 and can be much higher. according to Concrete Change. friends. Visit-Ability Visit-Ability. and enter and use the bathroom. Modifications to achieve a zero-step entry to an existing home could cost at least $1. An Additional Benefit of Flexibility: Life-Cycle Cost-Effectiveness Studies have shown that the additional cost of providing many accessible features in new construction is minimal when compared to adding accessible features during alterations to existing construction. The Center for Universal Design These seven principles may be applied to evaluate existing designs.

WBDG Design Objectives Cost-Effective. For additional resources. University at Buffalo. transit vehicles. and enforcing accessibility standards for federally funded facilities. Through information and education. Sustainable Organizations and Associations • • American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)—A nonprofit membership organization dedicated to addressing the needs and interests of persons 50 and older. Historic— Comply with Accessibility Requirements. AARP seeks to promote independent living and aging-inplace. advocacy and service. telecommunications equipment. dignity. see the Access Board's Links Page. providing technical assistance and training on these guidelines and standards. and purpose.0 Accessibility can be used during the design process to evaluate the benefits of providing accessible design features and products. and electronic and information technology. The Access Board is an independent federal agency devoted to accessibility for people with disabilities. Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDEA). School of Architecture and Planning. NY—The Center is dedicated to improving the design of environments and products by making them .1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines Rehabilitation Act Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) Major Resources The major resource for guidance on accessible design is the U. such as ADA Design Assistant and CodeBuddy Version 5. Access Board (Access Board).S. See also WBDG Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA). Productive—Design for the Changing Workplace. Functional / Operational—Account for Functional Needs. AARP enhances the quality of life for all by promoting independence. Among other things. Productive—Integrate Technological Tools. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) ANSI A117.125 Design and analysis tools. Key responsibilities of the Board include developing and maintaining accessibility requirements for the built environment. Buffalo.

S. Section 4. as well as slide shows and video tapes to supplement print resources. information.126 more usable. Chapter 7. Salmen and Julie Quarve-Peterson.. questions. HUD's website also addresses access under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. public and commercial facilities. 1995.S. As a result of its advocacy. Concrete Change—An Atlanta-based organization that started the visit-ability movement. Army—TI-800-01. Air Force—Air Force Center of Expertise for Accessibility U. Information is also available on how to file a complaint with HUD under the Fair Housing Act. New York. New York. including businesses. and promotes universal design in housing. and appealing to people with a wide range of abilities. safer. They have an extensive publications list including material on many aspects of accessible and universal design. • • Federal Agencies • • • • • • • • • • • ADA Information Line for documents. nonprofit service agencies. and referrals: (800) 514-0301 (voice) (800) 514-0383 (TTY) Department of Defense (DOD): U. 1996. and technical assistance center that evaluates. also provides information on how to file ADA complaints.S..S. Covington and Bruce Hannah. and state and local government programs and services. 20 July 1998 Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)—Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO)—HUD enforces the Fair Housing Act and has issued guidelines under this law (the Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines) which cover multi-family housing. develops. . Many of its technical assistance letters are available online. Concrete Change is dedicated to promoting visit-ability in all singlefamily homes across the U. visit-ability legislation in several cities and towns across the U. Center for Universal Design—A national research.S. throughout their life spans. Department of Transportation (DOT)—People with Disabilities Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)—Accessibility Program General Services Administration (GSA)—National Accessibility Program Publications • • The 1995 Accessible Building Product Guide by John P. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Department of Justice (DOJ)—DOJ offers technical assistance on the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and other ADA provisions applying to public accommodations and commercial facilities. and related products. Inc. Inc. Access by Design by George A. requires that single-family homes incorporate basic barrier-free design. Provision for Individuals with Physical Disabilities. NY: John Wiley & Sons.

127 • • • • • • • The Accessibility Checklist—User's Guide by Susan Goltsman. Version 2. Gilbert. NY: McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Other aesthetic developments such as the Romanesque. Puerto Rico.C. Toledo U.0. Universal Design Handbook by Wolfgang F. New York. North Carolina State University: 01 Apr 1997. Originating from the Greek. aesthetics is the term used since classical times for the study of beauty and the nature of the beautiful. In the . Credits: Finegold Alexander + Associates. The ADA Answer Book by Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA). Vitruvius the renowned Roman architect declared that all architecture must possess commodity.S. Timothy A. Inc. firmitas. Raleigh. 1992. Courthouse Courtrooms) The Principles of Universal Design. The Principles of Universal Design. Gothic. Mace. 2001. ASLA. Version 2. NC: North Carolina State University Mechanical Lift Analysis (Accessibility Method for Accommodation of Physically Disabled People in the U. ASLA and Wohlford. and GSA. Aesthetics by the WBDG Aesthetics Subcommittee Last updated: 04-28-2008 Overview aes•thet•ics: 1: a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful and with judgments concerning beauty… Figure 1: Jose V. CA: MIG Communications. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Berkeley. The Center for Universal Design (1997).0 by The Center for Universal Design. New York. 1992. Preiser and Elaine Ostroff. In 1 B. 1991. firmness. and Ronald L. and venustas). The Accessible Housing Design File by Barrier Free Environments.. Steven D. and delight (utilitas. Post Office and Courthouse. Baroque and Neoclassical periods occurred over the next several centuries..E.S. FAIA. Old San Juan.

(See WBDG pages on Form. other buildings. the result being the Aesthetic Movement and a new freedom in design. and personal or cultural inclination. Expressionism." The study of aesthetics continues to evolve as social. Hi-Tech and Post-modernism to name a few. enterprise. planners. and stability of the American Government. Additionally the aesthetic architectural language or architectural expression selected by the architect. Architects. and public judgment in its many forms. writers. a good design will be accountable to the users' needs. Issued by the Kennedy Administration. So based on this triad. interior designers. Yet no matter what expression is selected. Beginning with a correctly formulated problem (or program) developed with the client's participation to design reviews involving the . Suitland. Functionalism. architecture. Figure 2: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. poets. The 21st Century brought Art Nouveau. Satellite Operations Facility. former Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan. it states that federal buildings must be "efficient and economical" as well as "provide visual testimony to the dignity. However. or client will vary with consideration of context and program. and aesthetics. what qualifies as a beautiful building or place is open to a considerable amount of personal interpretation. What is most notable today is that there is much variety in the expression of aesthetics occurring simultaneously. vigor. the constructional means selected for the building or project. Style. and the larger community. Most designers would also agree that aesthetically satisfactory architecture most often comes from an integrated approach. MD. the client's budget. but also to interiors and the surrounding context including the landscape. landscape architects.) It is essential to consider aesthetics not just as it applies to the building façade. political. design professionals. and Materials. and architects began to turn again to aesthetic concerns and to place more emphasis on ornament and the past. then Special Assistant to the Secretary of Labor. Credits: Morphosis and GSA. wrote in 1962 the Guiding Principles for Federal Architecture. Art Deco.128 second half of the 19th Century. Additionally it is important to understand the vocabulary of aesthetics and how to apply it to the design process or project. the Bauhaus. particularly that of including "delight". and even industrial or technological developments contribute to new views on art. and design and their manifestations in the built environment. designers. and other design professionals today have the obligation to address these issues.

solution. technique. and planning—may have formal predilections which will be evident in their portfolios. These programs offer insight into aesthetic choices and values at a given time in history. and language by which architectural aesthetic decisions are made. engineering. Army—Installation Design Guides . accessible. Major Resources Federal Agencies • • • Department of Defense (DOD): DOD—UFC 3-120-10 Interior Design U. Figures 1 and 2 demonstrate the variation in aesthetic solutions to very different architectural and aesthetic programs. For more information see Design Award Programs. Just as important is the firm's demonstrated ability to conduct an inclusive. etc. and industry trade associations. and to produce buildings which are responsive to client and user needs. landscape architecture. Towards this end. this process leads most effectively to the best aesthetics AND cost-effective. The appearance of the result may. interior design. users are encouraged to investigate three essential principles of aesthetics and design: • • • Engage the Integrated Design Process The integrated design process involves steps that foster successful integration of the many factors and design disciplines that influence good building design. sustainable. derive from the satisfaction of these functional requirements. This branch of the WBDG is designed primarily to help those not familiar with architectural design terminology understand the basic process. and full and constructive participation of all members of the design and delivery team will help assure the best results.S. The appropriate application and thoughtful integration of these elements are key to achieving high quality facilities. the federal government. Select Appropriate Design Professionals Individual architectural design firms—including architecture. functional/operational. and well organized design process. comprehensive. in the end. Engage the Appropriate Language and Elements of Design The language of design describes fundamental visual elements of architecture and design. highperformance buildings.129 delivery team to Facility Performance Evaluations conducted with building occupants. Note: Information in these Aesthetics pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. These steps provide an orderly flow that build on each other. The result of successfully integrating the three principles often leads to exemplary projects that are awarded through Design Awards Programs sponsored by professional societies. secure/safe.

In most cases. In part to help define the boundaries of professional and aesthetic responsibility. the trade association or organization publishes industry guidelines about the legal.130 • • • • • • U. and engineers. Commission of Fine Arts—The Commission of Fine Arts was established by Congress in 1910 as an independent agency to advise the Federal and District of Columbia governments on matters of art and architecture that affect the appearance of the nation's capital. Air Force—Achieving Design Excellence General Services Administration: Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. This form replaces SF 254/255. ethical. Section A. Associations The work of many building professionals impact aesthetics decisions. Chapter 1. Architect-Engineer Qualifications—Architects and engineers use this form to present their qualifications and experience when seeking federal projects and emphasizes qualifications-based selection for the procurement of A/E services.Interior Design ER 1110-345-122 NAVFAC—MIL-HDBK 1190 Facility Planning and Design Guide. interior designers. each of these professions is represented by a national trade association. Section 2 Standard Form 330. Organizations • • National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC)—The National Capital Planning Commission provides overall planning guidance for federal land and buildings in the National Capital Region U.S. and aesthetics role of their members in the building design process. P-100. Chapter 5. Profession Architects Association The American Institute of Architects (AIA) Society of American Registered Architects National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA) American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) Council for Interior Design Accreditation (CIDA) International Interior Design Association (IIDA) National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ) Landscape Architects American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) Interior Designers . lighting designers. landscape architects.1.S.S. These include architects. 1987 U. Army Corps of Engineers—Engineering and Design Regulation .

movements and the international political and . USA. New York. Peter Ozolins (Editor). Inc. England: Phaidon Press Limited. New York. Architecture For Dummies by Deborah K. Design Professionals and the Built Environment: An Introduction by Paul Knox (Editor). 2nd Edition by John Pile. Stern. 10th Edition by Charles Ramsey. Dietsch and Robert A.—Brings together many of the world's leading names from the UK. Architectural Graphic Standards. NY: John Wiley & Sons. NY: John Wiley & Sons. 2002. Inc. London. 2000. and Asia. the history of interior design encompasses numerous styles. The Four Books of Architecture by Andrea Palladio and translated by Robert Tavernor and Richard Schofield. February 2001. Dover Publications. this is the first book to fully reflect the move towards a more synthetic approach in professional and student courses.—Much like the history of art. ISBN: 0-471-98515-5.131 Lighting Designers Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) Professional Engineers American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Society of Heating. Harold Sleeper. Europe. ISBN 0714830003. August 2004. M. Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Structural Engineers Association International (SEA) Planners Others American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) American Planning Association (APA) ASIS International Associated General Contractors (AGC) of America Audio Engineering Society (AES) Building Commissioning Association Building Owners & Managers Association International (BOMA) Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) Foodservice Consultants Society International (FCSI) International Facility Management Association (IFMA) Publications • • • • • • The Aesthetic Movement by Lionel Lambourne. 1965. ISBN: 0471-46434-1. A History of Interior Design. and John Hoke. 1996...

Interior Graphic Standards by Maryrose McGowan (Editor-in-Chief). Sara Ishikawa. textiles. specialized online archive of carefully composed photographs of prominent projects. This lavishly illustrated book will be of interest to anyone who appreciates interior design as well as antiques. New York. space planning. Oxford University Press. 1977. ISBN: 0-47114044-9. furnishings and textiles. decorative objects and the general evolution of the space where we work and live. • • • • • Glossary of Architecture Terms • • • archiseek online architectural resources Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online Illustrated Architecture Dictionary Sample of Great Buildings and Architecture • • • • Architecture and Interior Design Through the 18th Century: An Integrated History by Buie Harwood. Corky Binggeli. with Max Jacobson. NY: John Wiley & Sons. NY: John Wiley & Sons. lighting.. and Shlomo Angel. Ching. furniture design. 2003. and practices of landscape detail. 1960. motifs. Ingrid Fiksdahl-King. furniture. approaches. acoustics. 2nd Edition by Francis D. It includes new and updated material on finishes.132 social developments that have informed or challenged its evolution. Inc. The Ten Books on Architecture by Pollio Vitruvius and translated by Morris Hicky Morgan. holistic approach to the theories. lighting. Inc. New York. design details.—Ching's illustrated introduction to interior design is now completely revised to be even more clear and accessible. the book outlines landscape detail as a primary . and Case Studies by Niall Kirkwood. Interior Design Illustrated. Murray Silverstein. August 1999. The ArcSpace image archive includes brief descriptions of cutting-edge design. interior surface treatments. Kirkwood clearly demonstrates the role that landscape detail plays in the design process. The Art of Landscape Detail: Fundamentals. workstations. 1988. Kelsey Kruse (Graphics Editor). ISBN: 0-471-47376-6. sustainability. Exhibit reviews give a taste of architectural gallery installations. A fresh. On the Art of Building in Ten Books by Leon Battista Alberti and translated by Joseph Rykwert and Neil Leach. With the support of a wealth of graphic and written material taken from historic and contemporary landscape design work.. MIT Press. October 2004. Bridget May and Curt Sherman. Going beyond theoretical considerations. interior architectural features. and decorative accessories through many centuries—from antiquity to the 18th century—from the many regions of the world. this single-source reference allows readers to compare and contrast architecture. architekturphoto provides a large-scale. NY: Prentice-Hall. color. interior design. and much more. Practices. Exceptionally comprehensive. textiles. New York. K. December 2001. Dover Publications. A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander.

Weimar University's Innovative Housing (in German) Website allows you to search by criteria. architect.. Inc. try using the Babelfish translator to get a crude approximation. Pick "Kriteriensuche" or "Suche". If you have trouble reading a foreign site. both pragmatic and poetic. the book seeks to identify built urban design projects and traces the evolution and separation of American urban design theories up to the end of the twentieth century. NY: John Wiley & Sons. The Great Buildings Collection The Phaidon Atlas of Contemporary World Architecture is a gorgeous new compendium of recent design from around the globe. it's sold in its own carrying case. • • • • Engage the Appropriate Language and Elements of Design by the WBDG Aesthetics Subcommittee Last updated: 04-28-2008 Overview . This coffee-table book is so heavy.133 design activity. It includes contemporary designs. ISBN: 0-47198345-4. The Evolution of American Urban Design: A Chronological Anthology by David Gosling. and writings in an attempt to identify future directions of the next century. or name of project. projects. New York. using a range of built landscape design examples. December 2002. Covering a 50-year span.

It was this aspect of his work that attracted his most famous protégé. Louis. For many. formal and compositional desires must be weighed in the light of technical. It can be more difficult to evaluate its aesthetic success. or making a hinge). Indeed.134 Detail of Louis Sullivan's Wainwright Building—St. designers must be aware that no matter what design language is used. this shared terminology is very much at the heart of aesthetic communication. Sullivan is often described as one of the greatest ornamental detailers in American architectural history. Complicated. bringing light into a room. Frank Lloyd Wright. An architectural language is a vocabulary of forms arranged according to a particular grammar. to the designer. "Form follows function. Chicago architect Louis Sullivan wrote. particularly those uncomfortable with the subjective and decorative dimension of design. . The point is that while it is appealing to reduce design decision making to a brief set of rules or axioms. the use of the language and terms can be dismissed as jargon. nearly all designers agree it is impossible to do so. like most professionals. this was an appealing message. and remains one of the best known architectural aphorisms today. Countering Sullivan's position. To assist in this process. Indeed. economic. The Language of Design It is relatively easy to determine if a given design contains the right square footage or the right number of rooms. and often conflicting. The particular forms used become the 'words' of the language and how those forms are put together is the 'grammar' of the language. getting people from the first floor to the second. it has also been argued¹ that there is no such thing as a purely utilitarian object—that there are always at least two ways of meeting the same functional objective (for example. Once a choice between these two alternatives has been made. MO In the late nineteenth century." This dictum became one of the rallying cries of twentieth century modern design. What Sullivan implied was that design—or in his phrase. To the uninitiated. and social constraints. architects and other designers share a language and vocabulary that helps them reduce complex ideas into short phrases or highly charged terms."—is a natural consequence of meeting functional requirements. an aesthetic consideration has come into play. key players on the project team must be able to understand and communicate well with each other (visually and verbally) to produce successful solutions. But even a cursory look at Sullivan's own architecture reveals that his work is far from purely functional. The architect is responsible for the design integrity of the building and will make decisions and selections which support this integration. But. "form.

or the International Style. Floor. durability. impact on the environment. Archetypical Building Elements • • Vertical: o Wall. Materials Both exterior and interior building materials should be selected based upon their appropriateness for the building type. . In architecture. historical styles are often dignified by a specific name such as the Baroque. and the prevailing architectural design and character of the installation. Quoin. the fundamental visual elements of design that these terms describe are explained below. Column. Capital o Openings: Window. Arch. Door Horizontal: o Plinth. the Victorian. Beam Lintel. Mass refers to the volume defined by a structure relative to its surroundings and to its solidity and weight. climatic conditions.135 It is beyond the scope of the WBDG to provide a comprehensive list of design terms and their definitions. Form Mass and shape define form. However. Shape is the composition and complexity of the surface planes. Orders o Base: Shaft. Roof Style A distinctive manner of expression or fashion.

P. NY: John Wiley & Sons. London. Snow. How Buildings Learn by Stewart Brand. 1994. Murray Silverstein. Inc. New York. Ching. England: Studio Vista. includes the active and continuing participation of users. Space. New York. Rasmussen. 1959. M.K. NY: Cambridge University Press. NY: John Wiley & Sons. 1977. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. or "whole building" design process. New York. code officials. An integrated process. NY: Viking. and design decision making include the following: Publications • • • • • • • • Architecture For Dummies by Deborah K.. 1969. The Nature of Design by David Pye. 3rd Edition by Francis D. Glossary of Architecture Terms • • • archiseek-online architectural resources Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online Illustrated Architecture Dictionary Sample of Great Buildings and Architecture • The Great Buildings Collection Engage the Integrated Design Process by the WBDG Aesthetics Subcommittee Last updated: 02-08-2006 Overview The design of buildings requires the integration of many kinds of information into a synthetic whole. Dietsch and Robert A. New York. The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution by C. and Shlomo Angel. building technologists. The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment by Reyner Banham. 1964. with Max Jacobson. 1959. Ingrid Fiksdahl-King. Sara Ishikawa.136 Major Resources Useful introductions for the layman to architectural design. London. the design process. Oxford University Press. Stern. Experiencing Architecture by S.E. Inc.. & Order. A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander. 2002. Architecture: Form. England: Chapman & Hall Ltd. 2007. cost .

experience with the type. See also WBDG Project Management and Programming. and consultants from many specialized fields. and arrive at a space program around which design activity can develop. The Integrated Design Process Preparation for the project can be led by many players but generally comes from the user/client who identifies the need for building on the basis of quantifiable requirements for space and budgetary capacity to undertake the activity. and satisfactory references are met. Such suggestions are meant to stimulate thought and discussion. consistent. The resulting Schematic Designs produced at this stage show site location and organization. Once the Pre-design activities are complete. structural engineers. The best buildings result from active. Gradually a design emerges which embodies the interests and requirements of all participants while also meeting the overall area requirements which the project budget will have established during Pre-Design activities.) The integrated design process enables project team members to work together from the project outset to develop solutions that have multiple benefits. it is often useful to have a cost estimate performed by a professional cost estimator at this point. mechanical and electrical engineers. both spatial and technical. space allocation. in consultation with his or her team of sub-consultants.137 consultants. general building shape. For larger projects.their individual insights made at this point can prevent costly changes further along in the process. a construction manager or a general contractor may be engaged at this point. civil engineers. and an outline specification which makes an initial list of components and systems to be designed and/or specified for the final result. On larger projects. assuming other prerequisites like bonding capacity. may produce initial graphic suggestions for the project or portions of it. For smaller projects. A. A needs assessment often accompanies this planning activity—it can describe existing space use. not necessarily to describe the final outcome. Depending on the size of the project. Involvement of sub-consultants is a critical part of the process at this stage . develop realistic estimates of requirements. one or more possible builders may perform this service as part of a preliminary bidding arrangement—selection can be made on the basis of an estimate at this stage. . a cost estimate can be part of the selection process for a builder. the architect or other prime consultant. organized collaboration among all players. (See the Design Disciplines branch of the WBDG to learn more about the role of design disciplines in the whole building process. specifications specialists.

But it depends on: 1. Decisions previously made may require clarification. rigorous attention to detail 3. and substitutions must be evaluated. Such information is especially useful when further construction of the same type is contemplated by the same user. Contract Documents are never perfect—clarifications will be required. pricing. No set of contract documents can ever be perfect. and construction. Here the full range of functions in the building is evaluated and the design and construction team can be called upon to make changes and adjustments as needed. Decisions continue to be made with the appropriate contributions of all players. User requirements may change. active collaboration among all team members . necessitating changes in the building—these changes require broad consultation among the consultants and sub-consultants. clear and continuous communication 2. Changes in scopes during this phase will become more expensive once pricing has begun. it is often useful to conduct a Post-Occupancy Evaluation to assess how the building meets the original and emerging requirements for its use. If changes affect the operation of the building. in order to assure compliance with the budget and to check the bids. The conclusion of this phase is a detailed design on which all players agree and may be asked to sign off. permitting. the designers and other members of the team must remain fully involved. and added costs. Bids taken at this point may be used as a basis for selecting a builder. Such a model is neither new nor exceptional. The Development of Contract Documents involves translating the Design Development information into formats suitable for pricing. but high quality can be achieved by scrutiny. prior to or simultaneous with bidding. along with careful coordination among the technical consultants on the design team. suppliers' information must be reviewed for compliance with the Contract Documents. Changes to the contract documents invite confusion. The design team is responsible for assuring that the building meets the requirements of the Contract Documents. Mistakes can be prevented and successes repeated. Greater detail is considered for all aspects of the building. After the general contractor is selected and during the Construction Phase. accountability to the initial program needs by the design team and the client. it is especially important that the user/client be involved. and incorporation into the contract documents and the building.138 Design Development enlarges the scale of consideration—greater detail is developed for all aspects of the building—the collaborative process continues with the architect providing graphic focus for the various contributors. Cost estimates by an estimator may be made at this point. errors. This summary describes the standard operation of the integrated project team. After the building is fully operational. but the building's success at meeting the requirements of the original program can be assessed by the construction management team or third parties in a process known as Commissioning.

assessing compliance with the contract documents by managing appropriate inspections. The Architect acts as the lead designer in most building projects. early involvement is essential and the civil engineer is frequently hired directly by the owner in advance of the rest of the design team. and assuring compliance with the budget. This person can be an architect. B. This person may come from within the organization commissioning the project or may be hired as a consultant. The Civil Engineer is essential for understanding the land. Multidisciplinary Project Team Team Members in a process like this may include the following: The Owner's Representative: this person must speak for the owner and be prepared to devote the time needed to fully advocate. He or she provides the progressively more precise and detailed suggestions for the form of the result and manages the production of the contract documents. or specifically a consulting Construction Manager. assuring compliance with the program. a general contractor. The architect assists in the evaluation of requests for payment by the builder. In some cases. and regulatory aspects of any construction project. submissions approvals. The Integrated. clarify. defend. soil. It is beneficial for this person to be involved from the beginning of the project.139 —adherence to these principles will assure the best result. . the architect hires some or all of the sub-consultants. coordinating the subconsultants. in larger projects the owner may contract directly with some or all of them. The Construction Manager: this professional is hired on a fee basis to represent the logistics and costs of the construction process. The architect usually participates in the construction phase of the project. and evaluations by the subconsultants. and develop the owner's interests. The civil engineer prepares his or her own contract documents and assesses compliance of the work with the contract documents.

Like all contributors to the integrated design process. and specialization of the project will suggest the kinds of additional experts who will be needed. materials and component specialists. Good buildings result from an appreciation by all involved of the importance of formal consistency throughout the design. on larger or more complex projects. In either case. The simplicity in massing of the Seagram Building by Mies van der Rohe in New York City. but can also be involved as an independent consultant. complexity. and illumination aspects of the project. sustainability consultants. is supported by the building's subtle and spare details at every level. and Electrical Engineers can be engaged by the architect as part of his work or. they should be involved early enough to include their suggestions and requirements in the design. not so late that their contributions must be remedial. ventilating and air-conditioning and the power. Specialized Consultants should be involved as needed by the special requirements of the project.140 The Landscape Architect is often part of the civil engineer's resources. for example. may be engaged separately by the owner. the landscape architect should be involved early in the project to assess natural systems. Design attention is applied to the massing and the drinking fountains. how they will be affected by the project and the best ways to accommodate the project to those systems. materials handling. audio-visual. Results The best buildings in history are the result of high degrees of consistency at all levels of their realization. and technical specialists like kitchen. . Each produces his or her own portions of the contract documents and should be involved in assessing their part of the work for compliance with those documents. C. Mechanical. These may include specifications writers. signal. the site plan. and parking. heating. and the door details. They are responsible for the structural. The size. Consulting Structural.

Courthouse in Seattle. Accessible.com—Articles related to Integrated Design Process . Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives Aesthetics. Click here to download the WBDG Case Study Template (MS WORD 48 KB). Sustainable Project Management Project Delivery Teams. Aesthetics—Select Appropriate Design Professionals.com—Integrated Design Process Buildinggreen. Productive. Among them are: • • • • Center for Neighborhood Technology DOE's Strategic Computing Complex EPA's New England Regional Laboratory U.S. Building Commissioning. Historic Preservation. Functional / Operational. Secure / Safe. Navy's Building 33 You are encouraged to share your project successes and challenges by submitting a case study write-up. New York. CostEffective.S.141 Left: The Seagram Building by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The WBDG features successful projects that have engaged the integrated design process in the Case Studies section. And Right: This U. NY in 1950s. Frank Lloyd Wright referred to this process as "organic design"—he used the phrase to refer to the integral relationship in good architecture between the parts and the whole— setting out the architect's obligation to assure consistency throughout the project and at every level of detail. Project Delivery and Controls WBDG News The "Whole Building" Design Approach Publications • • Betterbricks. Washington by NBBJ won a 2004 GSA Citation Award for architecture and interior design and an honor award for construction excellence. Project Planning and Development.

Successful designs are the result of an integrated design process that addresses not only client needs and requirements. The clinic's unique design promotes efficient and cost-effective medical care. and welfare building requirements. E Source. Department of Energy. Consulting Specifying Engineer. but also climate. . McChord Air Force Base. and quality while complying with public health. safety. Dec. context. 2000. Building in today's marketplace is a complex undertaking requiring many different skills and materials. and enhances quality of life for military personnel in an environment equal to off-base civilian facilities while adhering to Air Force design standards and guidelines. The capabilities of the architects and engineers (A/Es) on the integrated design team constitute the single most important factor in determining the success of the overall design—from image and attributes of the building and landscape to construction costs and life-cycle costs.142 • • • • • • "Efficiency and Comfort: An Integrated Approach" by Clark Bisel and Peter Simmonds. Consulting Specifying Engineer. Jan 1998. "Finding the Opportunities in Integration" by Anil Ahuja. WA. Well qualified design professionals who understand these complexities can deliver thoughtful and innovative designs that satisfy the client's programmatic needs while addressing the unique characteristics of a given site and community. Sept. Select Appropriate Design Professionals by the WBDG Aesthetics Subcommittee Last updated: 04-24-2008 Overview Design professionals play a critical role in the quality of our built environment. 2001. ER-00-15. Medical Clinic. Section 4. "Strategic Issues Paper: Energy-Efficient Buildings: Institutional Barriers and Opportunities" by Amory Lovins.S. Integrated Building Design for Energy Efficiency by DOE Building Technologies Program. E Source. 1992.1 Integrated Building Design by U. 1994. Sept. Green Federal Facilities. "Integrated Building Design" by Ira Krepchin.

the development of a world-class workplace. Every design and construction project is unique. existing facilities surveys. there are two main methods for selecting design professionals: Qualifications-Based Selection and Design Competitions. The selection of the design team should be undertaken as early in the life of a project as possible. environmental studies and reports. A. Therefore. while expending the taxpayers' dollars effectively and efficiently. construction documentation. a public owner's primary concerns are to get the best available design services and outcome. and Air Force Surgeon General-Facilities. They are encouraged to address the needs of the community and to work within the context of broader issues—not just the functionality of a facility. feasibility and programming studies. LEED certification. in addition to the standards phases of design. might include Building Information Modeling. with a variety of services required to transform the generalized concept into reality. When selecting a design professional. the individuals responsible for selecting the design professional should have an understanding of the needs of a specific project and should be able to evaluate the achievements of the potential firms. but first. Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. sustainability. Design services. bidding and negotiations. government agencies are often committed to design excellence. and construction. and to conduct a fair and equitable selection process. and its representation of the federal government to the public. the selection of a qualified building professional becomes a reflection of how tax dollars will be spent. Pre-design services might include site selection.143 Credits: NBBJ. Selection panels evaluate firms on criteria such as . and the realized. For public projects. built project will be a testament to how well thought-out the selection process is. A building project is a long-term investment. These factors contribute to defining the scope of work for projects. its responsiveness to our limited resources. Building design professionals can assist in defining the project at the outset in terms that provide meaningful guidance for design. standard phases include pre-design. Seattle District U. and commissioning. which in turn inform the selection of appropriate design professionals and delivery team composition. concept design. and the legacy that quality federal buildings provide. but its appropriateness to the surrounding landscape. In either method. Federal sites and buildings are with us for centuries. design development. It is important to begin the process of selecting design professionals with a consideration of delivery method. the selection panel should ensure the selection of the best available firm for the project. and site. Army Corps of Engineers.S. programmatic. schedule. it is then the responsibility of the agency to negotiate the best value for those services. A/E teams and customer agencies are encouraged to explore new technologies and foster alternative solutions to the numerous challenges of designing a facility. Selecting Design Professionals When a building project is initiated by an agency representing the public. A qualified design professional can guide an owner through the intricacies of the design process. and budget issues. Once that selection has been made.

Be clear about what will be expected of the design team and what evaluation factors will be used to select them. make sure you know who is in charge and how the team is structured. the selection of a qualified building professional becomes even more important. and international firms. When selecting a design professional.When a building project is initiated by an agency representing the public.L. 92-582). 3. Complex needs may be addressed by a complex team. and conduct a fair and equitable selection process. a website that lists government-wide notices for all types of services. or "short-listed. commonly referred to as the "Brooks Act". a national magazine. that requires that architects and engineers be selected for projects on the basis of their qualifications subject to negotiation of fair and reasonable compensation. 2. Federal project solicitations are announced in FedBizOpps. The owner prepares a description of the project to be built or problem to be solved. it is important that any procurement for professional design services take into consideration: • • • The goals of the project. Recognizing the need for a qualifications-based approach to procuring design services. portfolio review. The design team's suitability for the project. Qualifications-Based Selection (QBS) Qualifications-Based Selection . but that his/her experience demonstrates a competency in projects of similar complexity or context. and any specialty disciplines that will be required. referred to as a preliminary scope of services. Statements of qualifications are evaluated and several individuals or firms are selected. construction.S. The owner invites design professionals to submit statements of qualifications for the project at hand. Engineering News Record. a public owner's primary concerns are to get the best available design services. level of commitment to project. publishes an annual listing of the top design. Solicitations for qualifications and requests for proposals should be specific about the goals and parameters of the project. and overall customer service. This does not mean an AE must have done the same type of project. Most states and numerous local jurisdictions also use Brooks Act procedures. the anticipated scope of work.gov. Selection panel members must be highly qualified professionals with experience in design and construction related fields. the U. Congress established as federal law in 1972 (P.144 previous experience. Qualifications-Based Selection (QBS) usually involve the following steps: 1. past performance. To ensure the selection panel will make a well informed choice. awards and recognitions. . Who is in charge." for further consideration.

145 4. usually highly regarded or recognized architects. There must also be a significant benefit to the project to use a competition as this selection vehicle also costs more. A Three-Stage competition incorporates the same components as the One. An example of this is the proposed Federal Courthouse in Rockford. team interviews are also held. A Two-Stage design competition is also open to all design professionals. During Stage II. there must be sufficient time in the project schedule to produce and evaluate conceptual designs. Design Competitions A design competition is a method of awarding a design contract based on design excellence and is a permitted selection method allowed by FAR 36. the selected firm is chosen by a jury from all submitted entries. The goal of the first stage is to solicit design portfolios from Design Firms and Lead Designers. or in some cases. Florian. this type of competition is not used very often. IL. won by Freidrich St. two-stage. such as monuments or those of unusual national significance. the agency may evaluate firms based on their conceptual design of a project. a three-stage process: • • • In a One-Stage design competition. are invited to submit a design on a project. An example of this is the World War II Memorial Competition. These are usually design teams headed by an architectural firm with a registered architect at the helm.and Two-Stage competition. Competitions are structured as a one-stage. won by Koetter Kim Architects. who then makes the final selection. Design competitions are typically used for significant Federal projects. Based on the jury evaluation of the submitted portfolios. The individuals or firms are then interviewed and ranked according to an evaluative scoring system. The evaluation of the design concepts by an . however final selection is made following completion of a "vision" for the project. Invited design competitions are competitions where a selected group of design professionals. There are two types of federal design competitions: • • Open design competitions are open to all design professionals. This is often the last stage of a qualifications-based selection process. Since selection of the design firm takes longer when a competition is used as the selection method.602-1b. When the use of a design competition is approved by the agency head or designee. Because of the nature of projects that lend themselves to Federal Design Competitions. The winner is then awarded the design contract. and submit additional written material on the teams for further evaluation by the agency's A/E Evaluation Board. The highest ranking competitors are then invited to form complete A/E teams. a short-list of Design Firms and Lead Designers is selected to proceed to Stage II. A final ranking of the teams is completed by the A/E Evaluation Board.

vigor. Because of the additional expense associated with preparing project "vision" submittals. see WBDG Running a Design Competition. Design Recognition Architecture has a robust tradition of awards and recognition for design. Each year. B. many of the periodicals. . will be used by the A/E Evaluation Board to prepare the final ranking of the Stage III Teams. (Courtesy of Cannon Dworski Architects) U.S. teams are compensated with an amount that is specified in the original announcement in FedBizOpps. journals. planning. General Services Administration's (GSA) Design Excellence Program streamlines the way GSA selects architects and engineers for construction and major renovation projects.gov . For information on how to run a design competition. enterprise. NV was designed via GSA's Design Excellence Program. and stability of the American National Government. Major emphasis should be placed on the choice of designs that embody the finest contemporary American architectural thought". stage two is completion of AE teams followed by team interviews. reduces GSA's evaluation time. as well as the evaluations of the Stage I and Stage II components. and organizations affiliated with the profession hold open competitions under which firms anonymously compete for architecture. and lowers costs for both the government and the competing private firms. There is also a procedure in place for limited and full design competitions. Stage 1 is the selection of a short list of lead designers.146 independent jury. It is a qualifications-based selection process that simplifies proposal requirements. The Design Excellence Program recognizes the GSA's commitment to the "Guiding Principles for Federal Architecture" which states that "The policy shall be to provide requisite and adequate facilities in an architectural style and form which is distinguished and which will reflect the dignity. and research awards and recognition. urban design. This Federal Courthouse in Las Vegas.

see WBDG Aesthetics—Design Awards. or to the designer/design team. engineers. See Section on Design Competitions. For more information and a listing of agency and industry-sponsored design awards. Participation in Design Competitions Design competitions can bring many different design ideas. See the Periodical list below. lighting designers. design. some publishing houses routinely publish monographs or reviews of architectural design. Examples of this are the Vietnam War Memorial in Washington DC. They include: • • • • • MIT Press Oxford University Press McGraw-Hill Princeton Architectural Press Wiley Publishers Architectural catalogue Periodicals Mass market and trade periodicals present articles and photographs of current projects and current issues. less established architects to gain acclaim and win projects that they might not have been awarded under a qualifications-based selection process. a 21-year old undergraduate architecture student at Yale University. awarded to Maya Ying Lin. practice. In addition. and publicity to a project.147 Design Award Programs Design award programs serve as the vehicle to honor the creative strengths of building design professionals and to publicize the enduring results of their efforts. This may include architects. urban designers. and theory. interior designers. and . an issue. landscape architects. innovations. Publications Winners of design awards and competitions are often published in professional journals and architectural periodicals where they receive additional publicity and recognition. Professional Organizations The involvement of many building professionals has an impact on aesthetic decisions throughout the design and construction process. and the Evanston Public Library Competition. These articles can be a useful tool in gaining an understanding of contemporary architectural practices and practitioners. Often they present the latest in contemporary theory. an international design competition won in 1991 by 28-year old Joseph Powell. They broaden the field of opportunity for client and architect alike and can often be a means for younger. and technologies—from urban planning principles to smart buildings and materials—as well insights on specific building types. C.

In most cases. In part to help define the boundaries of professional and aesthetic responsibility. the trade association or organization publishes industry guidelines about the legal. ethical.148 representatives from throughout the construction industry. Profession Architects Association The American Institute of Architects (AIA) Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA) National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) Society of American Registered Architects American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) Council for Interior Design Accreditation (CIDA) International Interior Design Association (IIDA) National Council for Interior Design Qualification (NCIDQ) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) International Association of Lighting Designers (IALD) Landscape Architects American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) Interior Designers Lighting Designers Professional Engineers American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Society of Heating. and aesthetic role of their members in the building design and construction process. Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) American Society of Plumbing Engineers (ASPE) American Society of Sanitary Engineering (ASSE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) Structural Engineers Association International (SEA) Planners Others American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP) American Planning Association (APA) Building Commissioning Association Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) Major Resources WBDG Design Disciplines Applicable to all pages within the Design Disciplines branch . each of these professions is represented by a national trade association.

Design Excellence Program National Endowment for the Arts National Institutes of Health. State and Local Government Affairs. Environmental Design and Construction Landscape Architecture Metropolis Design Competitions • • AIA Guide to Architectural Design Competitions by The American Institute of Architects.S. January 2003. Office of Research Facilities U. and Qualifications-Based Selection in the Public Sector by The American Institute of Architects. Air Force. construction. A-E Services with Air Force U. Available: The American Institute of Architects Committee on Design.com—An electronic journal of architecture and design updated daily on the Internet Design Build Magazine Engineering News Record—A national magazine that publishes an annual listing of the top design. Department of State. Architects USA designguide.com . Office of Overseas Buildings Operations Organizations/Associations • Mayor's Institute on City Design Architecture/Engineering Periodicals • • • • • • • • • • Architectural Record Architectural Review Architecture Magazine Contract Design Designarchitecture. Locating an architect AIA Issue Briefs: Qualifications-Based Selection in the Federal Sector. WBDG Running a Design Competition Selecting Design Professionals • • • • • American Architecture The American Institute of Architects.149 Federal Agencies/Organizations • • • • • General Services Administrations. The American Institute of Architects.S. January 2001. and international firms.

January 1992. and The American Institute of Architects. Publications on the Sociology and Structure of the Architecture Profession • • • Architects and Firms: A Sociological Perspective on Architectural Practice by Judith R. The American Institute of Architects. National Society Professional Engineers. New Jersey: Princeton Architectural Press. Cambridge. Selecting Architects and Engineers for Public Building Projects: An Analysis and Comparison of the Maryland and Florida Systems. Professional Engineers in Private Practice.S. 1984. Architect-Engineer Qualifications—Architects and engineers use this form to present their qualifications and experience when seeking federal projects and emphasizes qualifications-based selection for the procurement of A/E services. This form replaces SF 254/255. The American Institute of Architects. Architecture: The Story of Practice by Dana Cuff. 1988. 1991. U. Cambridge. Resource booklet to selecting an architect. Architects You and Your Architect by The American Institute of Architects. NSPE Publication Number 1976. Massachusetts: MIT Press. State and Local Government Affairs. Standard Form 330. Architectural Practice: A Critical View by Robert Gutman.150 • • • • • • Qualifications-Based Selection: A Process for the Selection of Architects by Public Owners by The American Institute of Architects. . Princeton. Blau. Questions and Answers on the Procurement of A/E Services by Public Owners. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

For example. Buildings today are. In economic terms. communication terminals. .151 Cost—Effective by the WBDG Cost-Effective Committee Last updated: 04-03-2007 Overview "We no longer build buildings like we used to. They are incredibly expensive tools that must be constantly adjusted to function efficiently. in foreword to Ruegg & Marshall. nor do we pay for them in the same way. it is impossible to summarize cost-effectiveness by a single parameter. The economics of building has become as complex as its design.. data manufacturing centers. life support systems. the HVAC system alternative that satisfies the heating and cooling requirements of a building at the minimum life-cycle cost. Determining true cost-effectiveness requires a life-cycle perspective where all costs and benefits of a given project are evaluated and compared over its economic life.. 1990) Every owner wants a cost-effective building." (Wilson. and much more. But what does this mean? In many respects the interpretation is influenced by an individual's interests and objectives. • • • • • Is it the lowest first-cost structure that meets the program? Is it the design with the lowest operating and maintenance costs? Is it the building with the longest life span? Is it the facility in which users are most productive? Is it the building that offers the greatest return on investment? While an economically efficient project is likely to have one or more of these attributes. a building design is deemed to be cost-effective if it results in benefits equal to those of alternative designs and has lower life-cycle costs. is the cost-effective HVAC system of choice.

and Development Process As most projects are authorized/funded without a means of increasing budgets. Costs can be more readily quantified than benefits because they normally have dollar amounts attached. energy/utility use. Consider Non-Monetary Benefits such as Aesthetics. and basic economic assumptions. non-monetary issues can override quantitatively available cost comparisons. of a federal courthouse) or energy security. given that it may replace a conventional roof? The following three overarching principles associated with ensuring cost-effective construction reflect the need to accurately define costs. In some cases. In other instances. operation and maintenance and future system replacements. An aspect of cost management is a cost control practice called Value Engineering (VE). VE is a systematic evaluation procedure directed at analyzing the function of materials. for example. these non-monetary issues are used as tiebreakers to quantitative analyses. The methodologies of life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) will typically offer comparisons of total life-cycle costs based upon net present values. Security. establish what economic tools and models will be used to evaluate these building investment parameters.152 The federal government has numerous mandates that define program goals with the expectation that they be achieved cost-effectively. Savings-to-Investment Ratios. This will ensure that the budget supports any first-cost premium that a life-cycle cost-effective alternative may incur. it is essential that the project requirements are set by considering life-cycle costs. Benefits are difficult because they often tend to have more intangibles. The challenge is often how to determine the true costs and the true benefits of alternative decisions. Design. Internal Rate of Return. it is essential to continually test the viability of its assumptions by employing cost management throughout the design and development process. Nevertheless it is difficult to accurately value certain non-monetary building attributes. At the beginning of each project. Once a budget has been established. processes. and Payback. and building equipment for the purpose of achieving required functions at the lowest total cost of ownership. what is the economic value in electric lighting savings and productivity increases of providing daylight to workplace environments? Or. • • • Utilize Cost Management and Value Engineering Throughout the Planning. what is the value of saving historic structures? Alternately. For example. what is the cost of a building integrated photovoltaic system (BIPV). facility investment decisions typically include projected cost impacts of. systems. Historic Preservation. benefits. The objective of a LCCA is to determine costs and benefits of design alternatives to facilitate informed decision-making. renewable energy . such as formality (for example. and Safety Most economic models require analysts to place a dollar value on all aspects of a design to generate final results. Use Economic Analysis to Evaluate Design Alternatives In addition to first costs. Other methods usually used as supplementary measures of cost-effectiveness to the LCCA include Net Savings.

Energy.153 application. Facilities Standard for the Public Buildings Service. 1990. design. Building Economics for Architects by Thorbjoern Mann. Air Force Military Construction and Family Housing Economic Analysis Guide 1996. and Delivery Publications • • • • • • • • • A Guide to Integrating Value Engineering. ISBN 0-442-00389-7. and quality. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. Sustainable Project Management Project Planning. 224 pgs) NIST HB 135 1995 Edition. and operation of facilities that balance cost. 1992. P100 (GSA)—Chapter 1. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.7 Life-Cycle Costing GSA LEED® Cost Study Life-Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (PDF 9. scope.73MB. 2001. Note: Information in these Cost-Effective pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. Productive. Management. ISBN 0-442-26417-8.a Executive Order 13423. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Building Economics: Theory and Practice by Rosalie Ruegg and Harold Marshall. and Transportation Management" National Energy Conservation Policy Act OMB Circular A-94—Guidelines for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs WBDG Design Objectives Aesthetics. high performance buildings. Life-Cycle Costing and Sustainable Development Federal Facilities Council. Major Resources Mandates • • • • Code of Federal Regulations. P120 (GSA) . Secure / Safe. Project Estimating Requirements. construction. 10 CFR 436. NAVFAC Economic Analysis Handbook 1993. These cost-effectiveness principles serve as driving objectives for cost management practices in the planning.

ASTM. 5th ed. program finalized. and Development Process by the WBDG Cost-Effective Committee Last updated: 04-28-2008 Overview Throughout a project's planning. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (FEMP) Utilize Cost Management Throughout the Planning. Define the scope. Cost Management is employed as a means of balancing a project's scope and expectations of quality and budget. The firm charged with managing the costs of the project should ideally be hired directly by the owner. 2004. Monitor and manage the balance of these three components throughout the life of the project Cost Management encompasses more than cost estimates however—it includes Risk Management and in the federal arena in particular. Therefore early in the project an assessment of risk is crucial to establish the budget parameters within which the project must be completed. The calculation of project contingencies should be based on an assessment of the risk surrounding the project (site issues. Others • U. design started.154 • Standards on Building Economics. design. quality. Design. and so forth) then contingencies can be reduced and the range of estimated final cost narrowed.S. can include Earned Value Analysis. As risks are mitigated (site investigation is done. and budget are aligned 3. Planning Phase . availability of bidders. Ensure that the scope. the level of quality desired. and the budget 2. Risk Assessment and Management are important as identified risks on construction projects are typically financial in nature. method of procurement. market survey completed. The approach can be summarized as requiring the following three steps: 1. and construction phases. and should be independent of both the architect/engineer and the construction contractor. ASTM Stock #: BLDGEC04. ISBN# 0-8031-3148-8. general market conditions etc). early in the process.

it is important to monitor the estimated cost of the project by employing a series of increasingly precise cost estimating techniques that coincide with further development of design and construction details. expressed as written programmatic requirements. so the establishment of an appropriate budget is critical. A project must start right in order for it to finish right. with neither the owner. Construction Manager as Constructor (CMC) (also known as CM at Risk). impact on schedule and A/E time and redesign costs. The options available today are more numerous than in the past—Lump Sum. the scope set and the quality expectations documented. This is a critical stage in the cost management process—an inaccurate budget can doom a project to continual stress and compromise. with budget constraints in order to establish its overall scope (size) and quality expectations. Design/Build and so forth. A common mistake at this stage is to take a program of areas and apply those to historical costs without making adjustments for the myriad factors which affect construction costs—size of the project. both building owners and designers must agree on an anticipated cost of the project at bid award. . Design Phase Chesapeake Bay Foundation Philip Merrill Environmental Center—Annapolis. Value Engineering should also be considered at this stage. The method of procurement selected should be identified at this stage. method of procurement. etc. Any changes to the program at this early phase have very little. end-user nor design team being completely satisfied at the end. so the method selected should also be factored in to the project budget. Each method has pros and cons relative to cost and risk. MD Once an initial budget has been established. Preliminary Estimates are employed in the early planning phases of a proposed project to match an owner's needs. Early in the planning stages. price increases since the date of the data used. but the benefits in terms of solidifying the program and establishing project goals can be huge. renovation versus new. overall quality of the space envisioned. location (has a market survey been done?).155 Cost Management differs from Building Economics in that it is typically concerned with the initial costs—or first costs—of accomplishing new construction or renovation projects. if any.

or will the major subcontractors be at capacity and therefore likely to bid high. A market survey should be carried out on sizable projects to determine where the bidders will come from—is the local market sufficiently large to accommodate the project. working hours. and adjustments made to ensure the overall budget is on track. noise restrictions and so forth) and that the use of proprietary materials is minimized. in many instances this does not happen. wherein an independent review team analyzes the construction documents for completeness. by reference to a published price book or trade manual). if at all? Earned Value Analysis is a useful tool in cost management. however. and can be included in a risk assessment to determine a range of bids expected. systems. In a particularly volatile market.g. cost-effective design solutions. The preparation of the bidding documents is also crucial in an overall cost management strategy. the use of unit prices for changes and any other clauses that may affect the final cost of the project. the drawings should be 100% complete. resolve conflicts or to complete the design. The specifications should also be reviewed to ensure that the General Requirements included in division 1 are not overly restrictive (e. Movements between components are common. leading to a so-called final estimate that really does not represent the scope of work being bid. Often the estimate is not adjusted to account for these design changes. Changes arise from a number of different sources—unforeseen conditions. without tracking where costs are changing. Construction Phase At the bid stage. owner-generated changes. Also a read of the market at bid stage is still useful. however. in that costs for each component of the project (in a Work Breakdown Structure. Similarly future cost planning can be improved by the use of Earned Value Analysis. the budget is in danger of being exceeded leading to re-design or extensive value engineering. The drawings and specifications should also go through a constructability review. On large projects it is common practice for an owner to employ a construction manager or professional estimator to continually update project estimates and provide feedback on budget impacts of decisions on major design elements.156 Intermediate Estimates are employed at various stages of project design development as part of ongoing cost management. or WBS) can be tracked against the initial budget. and as a means of evaluating competing alternative construction assemblies. and general code compliance. drawing errors and .g. coordination between disciplines. notice requirements for delays. During construction the focus shifts from predictive cost estimating to reactive cost management of any changes in the work. and materials. the use of bid options may allow the owner some flexibility in achieving the budget on bid day. by tracking where the money really goes in a project. Consideration should be given to contract clauses that govern changes in the work and how they will be valued (e. The estimate should therefore be adjusted during bidding to reflect the same information the bidders receive. allowable mark-ups on changes by the various levels of contractors and subcontractors. leading to addenda being issued to clarify details.

PE.. Inc. 1992. Building News International website From Concept to Bid…Successful Estimating Methods by John D. MA: R. either generated by the design team or the general contractor. where one of the parties proposes a better-value substitution (sometimes known as Value Engineering Change Proposals or VECPs).. Bledsoe. Changes should also be reviewed by the design time for entitlement—is it really a change to the scope and are there any credits due? Then the agency Construction Manager or independent cost consultant should review the pricing against the contract and industry norms. code issues or contractual claims.S. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Post-Occupancy Evaluation To provide data for future cost management. Earned Value Analysis is often used in this phase to determine at any given point in time the likely financial and schedule outcome of the project. and require the general contractor to first review change proposal from subcontractors before compiling and forwarding to the owner. Also changes can arise from on-going proactive cost management. Means Company.157 omissions. 2002. leading to an independent government estimate for presentation to the general contractor. an evaluation is often carried out to prepare a detailed cost analysis of the completed project and to develop lessons learned to inform future design decisions. PhD. Inc. Kingston. agree a format with the general contractor. Major Resources Associations • • • • American Society of Professional Estimators (ASPE) International Cost Engineering Council Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis (SCEA) Publications • • • • • • Architect's Essentials of Cost Management by Michael Dell'Isola.S. GCCRG—General Construction Cost Review Guide GSA Project Estimating Requirements R. For all reviews of changes the owner should first establish the ground rules as delineated in the contract documents. Means website Others . New York.

UFC 3-700-02A Construction Cost Estimates by DOD. federal. Define the problem and the objective. 2. building owners wishing to reduce expenses or increase profits utilize economic analysis to improve their decision making during the course of planning. Today. As a result. and building services with a goal to lower costs. . P-442 Economic Analysis Handbook by NAVFAC.S. Moreover. Army. taking into account any constraints. and constructing a building. assemblies. state. P-120 Project Estimating Requirement for the Public Buildings Service by GSA. designing. as the nation's largest owner and operator of built facilities.158 • • • • • • • ER 1110-3-1300 Military Programs Cost Engineering (PDF 90 KB. Historical Cost Analysis Generator (HAG)—Used by the Tri-Services to collect historical costs on awarded military construction projects Micro Computer-Aided Cost Engineering Systems (MCACES) by U. facility planners and designers began to use economic analysis to evaluate alternative construction materials.S. Use Economic Analysis to Evaluate Design Alternatives by the WBDG Cost-Effective Committee Last updated: 04-28-2008 Overview During the energy crisis and inflationary cycles of the 1970s and 1980s. Army Corp of Engineers. Identify feasible alternatives for accomplishing the objective. was faced with increasing initial construction costs and ongoing operational and maintenance expenses. The Economic Analysis Process The steps to estimate the economic consequences of a decision. the federal government. SuccessEstimator by Tri-Services. and municipal entities have all enacted legislative mandates—in varying degrees—requiring the use of building economic analysis to determine the most economically efficient or cost-effective choice among building alternatives. are summarized below: 1. as listed in Ruegg's and Marshall's Building Economics—Theory and Practice. 24 pgs) by U. 1999.

e. Compile data and make assumptions called for by the economic analysis method(s) and risk analysis technique. Select a technique that accounts for uncertainty and/or risk if the data to be used with the economic method are uncertain.159 3. MEP systems and building envelope). 8. Select a method or methods of economic analysis. and choosing the alternative with the lowest LCC. 5. cool roofing. Types of Economic Analysis Methods There are many methods available to calculate specific economic performance measures. considering all significant costs over the economic life of each alternative (expressed in equivalent dollars). The other methods described below are usually used as supplementary measures of cost-effectiveness to the LCCA. Compare the economic consequences of alternatives and make a decision. Value Engineering The solar photovoltaic system. 7. 4. then comparing them..000 in its first year of operation. the level of effort which is warranted. and energy efficiency upgrades installed at Alameda County's Santa Rita Jail have resulted in net savings of $410. Determine whether an economic analysis is necessary. 6. (Courtesy of R. these methods allow the planning and design team to analyze the economic consequences of particular design decisions and fairly evaluate alternative approaches. Solari) . LCCA is particularly useful in evaluating building performance from an energy consumption perspective (i. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) is the basic method recommended in 10 CFR 436A and OMB Circular A-94 for evaluating the economic performance of federal investments in buildings or building systems. It involves computing the Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) for competing design alternatives. taking into account any non-quantified effects and the risk attitude of the decision maker. Used appropriately. and if so. Compute a measure of economic performance.

processes. That is. or maintainability?" VE is concerned with elimination or modification of anything that adds costs without contributing to the program functional requirements. state and municipal entities have all ratified legislative mandates requiring building economics analysis be performed on most capital investment programs. Value Engineering (VE) is a systematic evaluation procedure directed at analyzing the function of materials. what does it do?. If the VE effort results in sufficient reduction in initial costs. and while the two practices serve separate purposes. Relevant Codes and Standards In varying degrees. and Safety. Major public works projects may undergo both VE studies and LCCA. Historic Preservation. occupant comfort and performance." Also. what must it do?. Some of the key federal mandates and standards are listed below. Security. what does it cost?. It is important to understand that while some alternatives are quantifiable. Refer to the WBDG page on "Consider Non-Monetary Benefits such as Aesthetics. savings may allow selected LCC alternatives to be adopted within the overall program budget. all project alternatives considered should be technically sound and practical. "Value Engineering is a team approach that analyzes a function by systematically developing the answers to such questions as: what is it?. reliability. what other material or method could be used to do the same job without sacrificing required performance or degradation to safety.160 Apart from. qualitative elements such as better aesthetics and increased worker productivity can also influence the economic analysis and decision-making process. or system attributes. systems. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) . historic preservation. and the like may be key design objectives that drive budget decision making and contribute enhanced value to the project. but related to economic analysis methods. For example. note that economic analysis needs to be combined with thorough architectural and engineering analyses. Aesthetics. and must meet the project's performance requirements. their consideration of design alternatives is often interrelated. VE can be utilized to reduce initial costs of design features other than those under study in a LCCA. materials. and building equipment for the purpose of achieving required functions at the lowest total cost of ownership. Perhaps the most challenging aspect of a VE analysis is the evaluation of the nonquantifiable benefits of design. Reductions in a project's scope or quality to get it into budget are not considered VE—those decisions are simply "cost cutting". value engineering can be used to complement a life-cycle cost analysis when selected LCC alternatives cannot be adopted without exceeding the project budget. According to VE experts Kirk and Dell'Isola. the federal government. thus optimizing the long-term cost-effectiveness of the project as a whole. environmental impact.

Value Engineering OMB Circular A-131—Value Engineering Public Law 104-106. Value Engineering Parts and Clauses (PDF 126 KB.Office of Federal Procurement Policy. Building Economics for Architects by Thorbjoern Mann. Cost-Effective—Consider Non-Monetary Benefits such as Aesthetics. 193 pgs) Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Chapter 7 .Value Engineering Value Engineering Program Guide for Design and Construction PQ-250 GSA.2 MB. Provides guidance on LCCA for military construction design. OMB Circular A-94-Guidelines for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs Value Engineering (VE) • • • • • • • DOD 5000.8-H. Security. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.7 .248. ISBN 0-442-26417-8. Part 52. and Safety Publications • • • • • Architect's Essentials of Cost Management by Michael Dell'Isola. Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs and Major Automated Information System Acquisition Programs (PDF 2. Historic Preservation. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Facilities Standard for the Public Buildings Service P100 .Chapter 1. Inc. 1990. 27 pgs) Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR).C. Value Engineering Handbook GSA P-120 Project Estimating Requirements for the Public Building Service . Title 41 .Public Contracts. DOD 4245.LifeCycle Costing by GSA. Part 48.161 • • • • 10 CFR 436 Subpart A—Federal Energy Management and Planning Programs.. 3 pgs) 1991. ISBN 0-442-00389-7. and Development Process. 2002. Methodology and Procedures for Life-Cycle Cost Analyses DOD Tri-Services Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) on "Criteria/Standards for Economic Analyses/Life-Cycle Costing for MILCON Design" (PDF 265 KB. Building Economics: Theory and Practice by Rosalie Ruegg and Harold Marshall. New York. Section 432 . 1992.). New York.S. Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives Cost-Effective—Utilize Cost Management Throughout the Planning. Design. New York. NY: John Wiley & Sons.2-R. Section 4306 of the National Defense Authorization Act— Value Engineering for Federal Agencies United States Code (U.

eVALUator: Building Life-Cycle Cost Assessment Program by DOE. Other Quantifiable Benefits . NIST Handbook 135. Army Corps of Engineers in support of DOD funding requests. PE. benefits should be as important as costs and deserve to be brought to the attention of decision makers. For password contact lawrie@dilbert. Consider Non-Monetary Benefits such as Aesthetics. Life-Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program by Sieglinde Fuller and S.R.S. of these as costs and benefits to facilitate informed decision making. Department of Energy Federal Management Program. In analyses. Historic Preservation. 1995. NY: McGraw-Hill. Army Reverse Engineering Handbook (Guidance and Procedures) NAVFAC P-442 Economic Analysis Handbook Others • • • • • Federal LCCA Software Tools: Building Life-Cycle Cost Program Version 5 (BLCC5)—an economic analysis tool developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology for the U.S.edu. National Institute of Standards and Technology. 1995.me. AIA and Alphonse Dell'Isola. New York.. Costs can be more readily quantified than benefits because they normally have dollar amounts attached. and Safety by the WBDG Cost-Effective Committee Last updated: 02-01-2007 Overview The essential aspects of conducting a life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) and determining the cost-effectiveness of any given construction alternative are the identification of all the relevant inputs and outputs and quantification. when possible.162 • • • • Life-Cycle Costing for Design Professionals. Second Edition by Stephen Kirk. Army Corps of Engineers. Benefits are difficult because they often tend to have more intangibles.S.S.uiuc. Peterson. Security. Life-Cycle Cost in Design WinLCCID Program—developed for MILCON analyses by the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory of the U. Inc. ECONPACK for Windows—an economic analysis tool developed by the U. MIL-HDBK-115A DOD Handbook U.

These ratios may be compared for several different alternatives to assist in selection of the most cost-effective. . under certain conditions. Although they are most difficult to assess. 2. However.g. this method must suffice. but it is often susceptible to quantification and thus provides a potential measure of benefits associated with the investment. Explain all differences in detail. and other similar qualitative advantages. Owners of the West Bend Mutual Insurance credited the energy efficient strategies implemented in the new Headquarters Building. 1. written and accurate descriptions of qualitative benefits must be done. Non-Quantifiable Benefits Despite best efforts to develop quantitative measures of benefits. The goal is not always quantified. Identify the benefits common in kind but not to the same degree among the alternatives.000 (cost). number of kilowatt-hours of electricity produced per year. typical output of this type would be number of kilowatt-hours of electricity produced (benefit) or completed aircraft overhauls (benefit) per $1. qualitative statements can make a positive contribution to the analysis.163 Many investment decisions. have a stated goal defined in terms of required or expected output (e. preservation of cultural and historical resources. number of aircraft overhauled per year). A Benefit/Cost Ratio (BCR) may be determined when the output from the investment can be quantified and a uniform annual cost derived from the life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA). especially in industrial applications. Identify all benefits associated with each alternative under consideration. and if the following guidelines are observed. safety and security of the building occupants. This is the least preferred method of analyzing benefits due to its subjectivity and inherent lack of precision. Using the examples provided. Certain projects may provide benefits such as improved quality of the working environment. IN for 99% reduction in personnel complaints about IAQ and 16% improvement in productivity. West Bend. there are situations that simply do not lend themselves to such an analysis. these benefits should be documented and portrayed in a life-cycle cost analysis. In such instances. Give complete details.

164 To formalize the inclusion of non-monetary costs or benefits in the decision-making process, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) should be employed. AHP is one of a set of multi-attribute decision analysis (MADA) methods that consider non-monetary attributes (qualitative and quantitative) in addition to common economic evaluation measures when evaluating project alternatives. Standard Practice E 1765 Guidelines for Applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis of Investments Related to Buildings and Building System published by ASTM International presents a procedure for calculating and interpreting AHP scores of a project's total overall desirability when making building-related capital investment decisions. Following these general guidelines will help to enhance the difficult task of documenting these intangibles that are measured in non-economic terms like aesthetics, safety, or morale, and enhance the value of benefit/cost analyses and make informed decisionmaking easier.

Quantifying Negative Aspects
It is also noted that in addition to benefits, information concerning negative aspects of alternatives, quantified where possible, should also be included to ensure the objectivity and completeness of the analysis. This information is important in decision making and possibly to the community at large; and may be a determining factor in deciding between possible investment alternatives.

Externalities
Externalities (also referred to as external effects or spillovers) are an important class of outputs that may be benefits or disadvantages. They are generally defined as outputs involuntarily received or imposed on a person or group because of an action by another and over which the recipient has no control. Air pollution is an example of an externality that is not a benefit. The recipients accrue potential health, aesthetic, and other disadvantages from a polluter for which they receive no compensation. For most investment decisions (particularly with respect to the public sector), it is not necessary to analyze in depth externalities such as environmental impacts and community economic impacts as part of the life-cycle cost analysis. These aspects of alternatives being considered are usually treated in detail as part of the Environmental Impact Assessment/Environmental Impact Statement process or environmental documentation associated with local and state processes for addressing environmental impacts of construction projects. However, the mention of anticipated impacts (both quantified and qualitative) in life-cycle cost analysis documentation is appropriate.

Summary
There is no standard or recommended format prescribed for benefit analysis information. What is important is the content; and in the case of benefits, content is critical. No

165 analysis is truly complete unless it addresses benefits attending all the alternatives under consideration.

Relevant Codes and Standards
• •

Facilities Standard for the Public Buildings Service, P100 - Chapter 1.7 - LifeCycle Costing by GSA. Standard Practice E 1765-98 Guidelines for Applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to Multi-Attribute Decision Analysis of Investments Related to Buildings and Building System published by ASTM International. Standards on Building Economics, 5th ed. ASTM International, 2004. ASTM Stock #: BLDGEC04, ISBN# 0-8031-3148-8.

Major Resources
WBDG

Design Objectives
Cost-Effective—Utilize Cost Management Throughout the Planning, Design, and Development Process, Cost-Effective—Use Economic Analysis to Evaluate Design Alternatives, Productive

Publications
• •

GSA P-120 Project Estimating Requirements for the Public Building Service NAVFAC P-442 Economic Analysis Handbook

Functional / Operational
by the WBDG Functional / Operational Committee Last updated: 04-29-2008

Overview

166

Exterior lateral bracing created open interior spaces at the John Hancock Building— Chicago, IL Courtesy of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill LLP A client's/owner's intent to develop a project is derived from a need, a purpose or mission, and a desired result. When the design and use of a facility serves the people who use them and the programs it houses, the project is functionally successful. Program and functionality are also characterized by building type. When designs fall short of this goal, the cost can be modest to extreme, but the failures are generally noted more significantly than the expected successes. A clear understanding of the functional and physical requirements of a project is essential to ensuring its success. Development in the building sciences in the late 1900's has pointed to the need to refocus on programming, designing, constructing, and operating facilities that function well, while at the same time incorporating new technologies, and creatively meeting other design objectives such as sustainability, accessibility, safety, energy, and environmental (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®)). Post-occupancy evaluations have shown that early programming and design decisions have significant impact on the functional quality, and long-term efficiency and effectiveness of buildings, initially and over their life cycle. By adopting a methodical approach that extends through all phases of a project, from pre-design through owner occupancy and operation to disposal, with checks at each stage of the process to ensure validation of decisions to meet the owner's program and design requirements, buildings can be functionally successful and thus more safe, productive, and inspiring places that enhance work and/or livability. This branch of the WBDG is designed primarily to help those not familiar with architectural and engineering design understand the basic process, technique, and language by which functional decisions are made. A building that functions as it is intended is the underpinning of a quality "whole" building. The qualities of such a building may not even be noticed or recognized, but a poorly functioning building can be costly to correct, if the opportunity to correct ever becomes available. There are three overarching principles associated with ensuring functional building design and operations:

167

Account for Functional Needs Accounting for spatial needs is a primary element of the planning process that translates to an owner's spatial and service requirements for a building or facility. This process seeks to establish goals; collect and analyze facts; establish functional relationships; uncover and test concepts; determine needs; and state the problem. There is also a need to design for flexibility of programmed space. Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration A successfully designed building that functions properly in all respects is composed of building systems, materials, and technologies that are selected and integrated to be mutually supportive as a cohesive "whole" system. Meet Performance Objectives Meeting performance objectives is not achieved by simply a "Final Inspection" of the finished product, but is a sustained effort from inception and planning through turnover and operation to assure the delivery of a project that satisfies all of the owner's functional and operational requirements. There are many aspects involved in assuring performance objectives are met, from assembling a qualified project delivery team; to adequately coordinating team member roles and responsibilities; to instituting systematic quality assurance programs, like Building Commissioning.

Relationship of Function/Operation and Cost
Care should always be used when undertaking cost management practices (i.e., Value Engineering, cost cutting, etc.) not to compromise the functional or operational performance of the interrelated and often interdependent systems.

Design Lessons Learned
Key to improving the facility planning, design, and delivery process is continual improvement of team performance through learning from and avoiding repeated design errors, omissions, or flaws in project execution. "Lessons Learned" is a common term that refers to an organization's compilation and publication of the lessons for the knowledge and benefit of future project teams. Design of facilities that meet or exceed the functional expectations of owners and facility managers will require the application of these principles as well as thorough understanding of historical precedent and knowledge of current design practices for the building type. Note: Information in these Functional pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality, high performance buildings.

Major Resources

168

Codes and Standards
• • •

Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, P100, GSA—Establishes integrative performance standards for federal facilities. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System™ is a program of the U.S. Green Building Council. Standards on Whole Building Functionality and Serviceability by ASTM. 2000. ASTM Stock #: WBDG2000, ISBN# 0-8031-2734-0.

Publications

• •

Architectural Graphic Standards, 10th Edition by Charles Ramsey, Harold Sleeper, and John Hoke. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000—The most widely recognized reference manual for architectural design guidance on planning, design standards, building systems, materials, methods, and construction techniques. The Architect's Studio Companion: Rules of Thumb for Preliminary Design, 4th Edition by Edward Allen and Joseph Iano. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals by ASHRAE Handbook Committee. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 2001. ASHRAE Handbook of Systems and Equipment by ASHRAE Handbook Committee. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc. 2001. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Buildings, 10th Edition by Ben Stein, John S. Reynolds, Walter T. Grondzik, Alison G. Kwok. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. Project Planning Guide, The, by the U.S. General Services Administration, Public Building Service, Washington, DC, 2004. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types, 4th Edition by Joseph DiChiara and Michael Crosbie. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 2000—A comprehensive reference for building type design guidance, including sample projects with plans and illustrations of functional features and details.

Associations
The following are major associations representing design professions that publish resources and set practice standards for the planning and design of facilities.
• • • • •

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) American Planning Association (APA) American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) American Society of Interior Designers (ASID)

169
• • • •

American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) SAVE International

Account for Functional Needs
by the WBDG Functional / Operational Committee Last updated: 03-13-2007

Overview

Primary Systems diagram of the Wieden + Kennedy Ad Agency building—Portland, OR Courtesy of Allied Works Architecture Programming should begin with a clear definition of the work activities to be performed. Accounting for functional needs is a primary purpose of the planning process that defines an owner's functional and physical requirements for each spatial element in a building or facility. This process seeks to state the problem; establish goals; collect and analyze facts; establish functional relationships; uncover and test concepts; and finally state the problem to direct a course of action. Adequate programming performed in the project planning phase will clearly delineate functional requirements and relationships of occupant activities and spaces required for all supporting building systems and equipment.

170 However, a truly functional building will require a thorough analysis of the parts of the design problem and the application of creative synthesis in a solution that integrates the parts in a coherent and optimal operating manner. 'Whole Building' design is characterized by a design solution that functions well from an occupant activity and building systems point of view. There are several key steps in the development of project requirements that fully describe the design problem. They are:
• • • • • •

Understand how the work processes support the mission and purpose of a facility; Define spatial requirements for occupant activities and equipment; Understand functional relationships among the programmed spaces; Anticipate installation, O&M practices, spatial change, and replacement of building equipment; Accommodate information technology (IT), communication, and other building systems equipment; and Consider serviceability (clearance) requirements.

Effective programming will include all pertinent stakeholders to ensure "Whole Building" functions have been identified. Conducting programming and design charrettes with these stakeholders is an effective means of enhancing integrated functionality and mutual agreement on a design approach.

Recommendations
Understand How the Work Processes Support the Mission and Purpose of a Facility
• • • •

Determine facility use, occupancy, and activities to be housed. Balance the owner's needs and goals for space, quality, budget, and time. Set owner's design objectives in the early planning stage. Reference building type guidelines. See also WBDG Building Types.

Define Spatial Requirements for Occupant Activities and Equipment
• • • • •

Consult all pertinent stakeholders for their requirements. Consult planning guides and specialists on programmed activities. Document all regulatory requirements, such as building codes, accessibility laws, ATFP, etc. Explore the possible necessity of making spaces flexible to accommodate changes in business practices, work activities, and technologies. Consider building operations and maintenance activities in the design of spaces.

Understand Functional Relationships Between Program Spaces

and Replacement of Building Equipment • • • • • Incorporate structural and mechanical systems as integral parts of early design concepts. Ohio. Examine patterns of activity in facility program and consider how those patterns create spatial relationships. electrical. Spatial Change. Plan infrastructure for flexible spatial modifications or "churn".. spatial volume. Consult facility O&M personnel in the programming and early design stage.171 • • • • • Engage user groups in facilitated discussions to brainstorm solutions. offices. support areas. fixtures. Account for physical security requirements in the layout of space planning. Incorporate IT system needs as an integral part of the design concept. and seminar rooms with fully accessible mechanical. It includes core science research labs. operated. texture. See also WBDG Aesthetic Opportunities and Aesthetic Challenges. Accommodate network support and servicing requirements in the design of spaces. See also WBDG Accessible—Plan for Flexibility. Vontz Center for Molecular Studies—Cincinnati. and materials. Accommodate Information Technology (IT). Design for configuration flexibility within workspaces that promotes occupant productivity.000 gsf. and building equipment (FF&E) can actually be installed. $35 milllion interdisciplinary research center is designed to accommodate neuroscience and cancer research. views. Leverage opportunities for quality environmental aesthetics such as natural light. and support spaces between the main . Communication. and Other Building Systems Equipment • • • • Determine the owner's goals and needs for spatial and mechanical support of the organization's IT program. Account for structural loads (dead and live) of building systems and equipment. and replaced. Operation. Ensure that mechanical system equipment and furniture. Anticipate Installation. Consider impacts of building systems and engineering needs on spatial relationships in both occupied and unoccupied spaces. This 150.

obstructions).172 laboratory floors.. Problem Seeking. Design for vehicular clearances in building design (e. 2003. ramps. docks. A Pattern Language by Christopher Alexander. and Shlomo Angel. Ingrid Fiksdahl-King. 2003. 1969. Courtesy of BHDP Architecture Consider Serviceability (Clearance) Requirements • • • • • Design for vehicular clearances in the site design (e. Washington. parking). Joel Ann Todd and Sheila J. drives. 1977. 1987. gates. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). For spatial requirements related to fire safety (ingress/egress): Building Officials and Code Administrators International (BOCA) International Code Council (ICC) International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI) Major Resources Publications • • • • A Handbook for Planning and Conducting Charrettes for High Performance Projects by Gail Lindsey. Hayter. Paper published in Federal Facilities Council (FFC) Report #145. Design for durability. . Oxford University Press. Interior Graphic Standards New York: John Wiley & Sons. with Max Jacobson. Murray Silverstein.g. Third Edition by William Pena (CRSS).. Consult facility O&M personnel in the design process.. Inc. Design for maintainability (including housing of maintenance equipment).g. DC: AIA Press. Sara Ishikawa. Emerging Issues • • • • Computer-based space programming applications Appropriate accommodation for the changing nature of work (productivity) Virtual workplaces and increased use of "Hoteling" for flexible space Building Information Modeling (BIM) (defining object functionality for facility life cycle) Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • Functionality and Serviceability Standards: Tools for Stating Functional Requirements and for Evaluating Facilities. doors.

. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Programming for Design: From Theory to Practice by Edith Cherry. Volume I by General Services Administration.. Inc. Contact Office of the Chief Architect. New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold Co. 1998. Associations • • • • • • American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) The American Institute of Architects (AIA) American Society of Interior Designers International Interior Design Association National Charrette Institute National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) Others • • CCB documents and publications (for Building-Type Design Guides) Compendium of Lessons Learned CD. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types. Inc. 2000.173 • • • Professional Practice in Facility Programming by Wolfgang Preiser. July 2001. 1992. McGraw-Hill. 4th Edition by Joseph DiChiara and Michael Crosbie. GSA Public Buildings Service. Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration by the WBDG Functional / Operational Committee Last updated: 05-02-2008 Overview ..

like individual instruments in an orchestra. and Consider how the facility will be operated and maintained. but could not be heated and cooled properly. The parts of a building. An integrated design solution will: • • • • • Develop design concepts that meet functional needs of the building program. the selection of a ceiling light fixture has implications that must be considered in terms of light as well as energy use. heat." Richard Neutra A successfully designed building has also been compared to a beautiful symphony. that an office space had a beautifully designed interior and state-of-the-art furniture and computer equipment. and radiation. materials. Understand the integral relationship of form and function. and its needs for installation. Davies Symphony Hall in San Francisco Recommendations . Seek design solutions that fully integrate product/systems. For example. Evaluate product/system selection for the specific application. and products incorporated into a design must be "integrated" in a supporting way to create a unified whole that achieves the desired functional purpose. for instance. noise. Like musical instruments. Imagine. You cannot determine where a tree stops being beautiful and starts becoming utilitarian. See 'Whole Building' Design Approach. its role in the greater whole of the design. coordination with other building systems and O&M serviceability. An integrated solution results from a methodical design approach that considers the characteristics and properties of each system or product. The lack of adequate climate control would be as apparent as if a loud "off-key" note were played during a symphony. building systems.174 Centre Georges Pompidou—Paris. have the capacity to make up a whole that is greater than if they were played alone. France (Courtesy of Rogers and Piano) "There is no separation of utility and beauty.

Develop design concepts that provide the user with a clear sense of the facility's functional purpose. or solar shades. air distribution systems) can serve as unique design opportunities in shaping the facility's form and aesthetics. Chesapeake Bay Foundation's John Philip Merrill Environmental Center—Annapolis. • • • Accept environmental conditions as a primary influence on the building's form. For example. Address functional requirements and aesthetic goals through integrated solutions. in the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's John Philip Merrill Environmental Center. Facilitate discussions with users to evaluate and test assumptions made involving functional issues. See WBDG Aesthetic Opportunities and Aesthetic Challenges. Understand the Integral Relationship Between Form and Function The glazed wall on the south contributes to passive solar heating and daylighting. information technologies. See WBDG Planning and Conducting Integrated Design (ID) Charrettes. Explore a variety of design solutions and consider the merits of each alternative on the basis of functional performance. furniture. equipment. MD (Courtesy of David Harp/Chesapeake Bay Foundation) Functional characteristics of building systems (e. . fixtures. communications. Understand design implications and space needs of unique "mission critical" activities requiring permanent construction as compared to more flexible spaces that can be configured to support multiple activities and functions.g.175 Develop Design Concepts that Meet Functional Needs of the Building Program • • • • • Understand the needs of occupants required to perform programmed activities (space. Track decisions to maintain focus on design intents.). environmental qualities.. the need for sun control resulted in an interior shading system that mimics sailboat rigging and an external structure supporting a "Brise Soleil". etc.

Emerging Issues • Increased use of extranets and new communication tools that enhance interdisciplinary design coordination . and storage. including Aesthetics and Functional/Operational. More Look at design problems as unique opportunities for creativity and innovation. loading docks. Carefully research the owner's equipment requirements and integrate them with the design. Plan for eventual replacement of major systems components. HVAC filters. and surfaces requiring scheduled cleaning. including easy access to light fixtures. When resolving conflicts in the design and selection of products and systems. Also see WBDG Accessible—Plan for Flexibility. Give careful thought to designing delivery drives. Consider How the Facility Will Be Operated and Maintained • • • • • • Anticipate the needs of the building-cleaning program. Select materials and products that are compatible with design objectives for both appearance and function. including refuse storage and disposal. See WBDG Aesthetic Opportunities and Aesthetic Challenges. See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices and Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM). Design for regular building systems maintenance. coordinate with consideration of opportunities and impacts affecting design and constructability of all involved building systems. and storage rooms.176 Evaluate Product/System Selection for the Specific Application • • • • • Select systems and products that are "use-appropriate" and support functional goals of individual spaces as well as the entire facility. • • • Adopt a 'Whole Buildings' approach—Systems integration involves the awareness of all affected trades and disciplines. sensors. Provide adequate space for maintenance equipment. materials. Design with functional attributes of systems and products in mind. Allow ample maneuvering room and clearance width and height. Seek Design Solutions that Fully Integrate Product/Systems Integrated design strikes a balance between all design objectives. especially for facilities with longer expected/designed service life (such as institutional and governmental buildings). Avoid a "one size fits all" design approach. Consider energy conservation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in the selection of systems and equipment.

Rush.. The Integrated Workplace: A Comprehensive Approach to Developing Workspace by Office of Real Property in the Office of Government wide Policy of the U. operation. ButterworthHeineman. Inc. Princeton. 96 pages. Green Building Council. Fenestration Systems Branch. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Oct. New York: McGraw-Hill. 4th Edition by Edward Allen and Joseph Iano. '99. Construction Materials Evaluation and Selection by Harold Rosen and Philip Bennett. The Building Systems Integration Handbook by Richard D. Environmental Control Systems by Fuller Moore. IR142-2. Kam Wong.S. Harold Sleeper. to identify ... May 1999. and Robert Wortman." and then provides specifics on more than 22 maintainability best practices as well as 16 tools to help in implementing the best practices. Harris. Fundamentals of Building Construction: Materials and Methods. 2000.. Major Resources WBDG Products and Systems Wall Systems Branch.. 2003. repair/alteration. Inc. and John Hoke.—Designed to assist owners and others by providing specific instructions on using tools for improved design for maintainability. Design for Maintainability Guidebook by Construction Industry Institute (CII). Atria Systems Publications • • • • • • • • • Architectural Graphic Standards. Dictionary of Architecture and Construction by Cyril M. 1985. and disposal life cycle Relevant Codes and Standards • The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System™ is a program of the U. New York. construction. Roofing Systems. 1991. Ronald Woodhead. Inc.177 • • Use of object-oriented CAD programs (Building Information Modeling) to check for conflicts Trend towards using "Total Building Commissioning" throughout the planning. Inc. Includes a self-assessment that will define the user's "level of maintainability. New York: John Wiley & Sons. design. 1993. 2000. Design & Planning of Engineering Systems by Dale Meredith. NJ: Prentice-Hall. New York: McGraw-Hill. Inc. Oct 1999. General Services Administration. NY: John Wiley & Sons..S. 10th Edition by Charles Ramsey. Inc. 1979. Developed by GSA's Office of Real Property to provide guidelines to help federal agencies define important issues and needs for an organization's workspace.

through turnover and operation. 1997. Checks website The Extranet List (by Extranet News) Meet Performance Objectives by the WBDG Functional / Operational Committee Last updated: 04-29-2008 Overview Meeting performance objectives is a sustained effort from inception and planning.specs. Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data by Donald Watson. and to define the basic elements of the Integrated workplace— people. and space—and discusses how each of these should be considered when providing new or reconfigured offices. • Associations • • • • • Building Commissioning Association (BCA) Construction Industry Institute (CII) Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) Fully Integrated and Automated Technology (FIATECH) Specification Consultants in Independent Practice Others Products and Systems Information Sources • • • • • ARCAT CMD First Source Pierpoint Building Poducts and Materials by Sweets Network 4. from assembling a qualified project delivery team. There are many aspects involved in assuring performance objectives are met. to . technology. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc..178 measurement tools that can be used to track the workplace's effects on people and organizations. and John Hancock Callender. Michael Crosbie. to assure the delivery of a project that satisfies all of the owner's functional requirements.com Communications Technologies and Tools • • • Design Intent Tool (by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories) Dr.

Facilitate good communication between project team members during programming and throughout the facility acquisition process. design for sustainability. Document all performance expectations. fire safety needs). Clearly describe all functional needs and design intents.179 adequately coordinating team member roles and responsibilities to instituting systematic quality assurance programs. maintainability. Institute a project delivery quality assurance (QA) program. Address information technology (IT) and communication needs—both current and future.g. The ability of a building to perform in a way that fully meets an owner's functional expectations—both qualitative and quantitative—requires a coordinated effort by a multidisciplined team of experts who understand and apply a 'Whole Buildings' design approach. Establish Design Objectives and Priorities that Will Drive Design Concepts • • • • Set performance goals for both building envelope and building systems. physical security vs. Identify mission critical programs and requirements. Understand the role of Facility Management and Operations. Communicate owners' special knowledge of what works well and what does not. and Use Facility Performance Evaluations (FPE's)..e. Some practical ways to approach developing a proactive performance assurance program for a project include: • • • • • • Assure that appropriate programming occurs. Look for unique aspects of the project to feature and enhance. Establish design objectives and priorities that will drive design concepts. Review "Lessons Learned" to leverage corporate knowledge and assure past mistakes are not repeated. Recommendations Assure that Appropriate Programming Occurs • • • • • • • Facilitate discussions with key stakeholders in establishing project requirements and goals. Define qualitative and quantitative performance measures (e. etc. Reconcile conflicting priorities (i. like an appropriate level of Building Commissioning.) Review "Lessons Learned" to leverage corporate knowledge and assure past mistakes are not repeated .

Understand the Role of Facility Management and Operations • • • • Involve O&M staff in all design phases. . make sure operating budgets are addressed. Focus enhanced performance assurance measures on mission critical systems and features. Anticipate what it will take to maintain and operate the facility. • • • • • • • Conduct thorough owner reviews of A-E designs and documentation. Include training of facility operators on the interdependent function of systems integration. Identify owner's tests and certification expectations.180 • Several organizations have compiled "Lessons Learned" on past projects that are available in the following resources. See WBDG Sustainable—Optimize O&M Practices. Use the building commissioning process. o GSA Compendium of Lessons Learned o GSA Facilities Performance Tool o NAVFAC Facility Quality Survey [requires NAVFAC account access] o NIBS Building Operations Manuals o VA Technical Library o VA Design Alerts & Quality Alerts Institute a Project Delivery Quality Assurance (QA) Program This Environmental Management System (EMS) enables facilities engineering personnel to maintain comfort and ventilation levels at the high standards set by the stakeholders at the beginning of the project. Hire an owner's representative. as appropriate. Establish owner's measurable quality standards and metrics for performance expectations. See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices. Bring forward special knowledge and experiences of O&M staff into the design phases. if necessary. See WBDG Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process. to oversee performance assurance. Perform energy analysis in design phases. Track critical decisions to focus on design intents.

Use prototypes to evaluate the performance of designs to be repeated. Use Facility Performance Evaluations (FPE's) • • • Seek feedback from users and include it in performance optimization efforts through Post-Occupancy Evaluations. Assure functional reliability through continued monitoring and analysis. Document O&M procedures that contribute to optimal facility performance.181 • • Consider O&M stakeholders as partners in the performance optimization program. and acting to correct degradation. It is the "Operating Manual" so to speak. OMSI (Operations & Maintenance Support Information) is NOT monitoring and analysis. More Emerging Issues • • • • • Computer-Aided modeling for predicting performance Building Commissioning procedures Re-commissioning and continuous commissioning Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Savings from Continuous Commissioning Program in laboratory building at Texas A&M University Relevant Codes and Standards • ASTM Standards on Whole Building Functionality and Serviceability (2000) .

Standing Committee on Organizational Performance and Metrics. Locke Science Publishing Co. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research (Vol. Spillinger in conjunction with the Federal Facilities Council. White. DC: National Academy Press. DC: National Academy Press.. Washington. Report #145. Problem Seeking. and Edward T. Report #139. Harvey Rabinowitz. 145. Functionality and Serviceability Standards: Tools for Stating Functional Requirements and for Evaluating Facilities—Paper published in Federal Facilities Council (FFC) Report No. 1987. Washington. Third Edition by William Pena (CRSS). 1999. 1988. Energy Systems Laboratory. Texas A&M University Usable Buildings Trust (UK) . DC: AIA Press. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1-18) edited by Andrew Seidel. Learning From Our Buildings by the Federal Facilities Council. National Research Council. Post-Occupancy Evaluation by Wolfgang Preiser. 2001. Washington.182 Major Resources Publications • • • • • • Adding Value to the Facility Acquisition Process: Best Practices for Reviewing Facility Designs by Ralph S. Associations • • Building Commissioning Association (BCA) International Facility Management Association (IFMA) Others • • Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES).

Tall ceilings.183 Historic Preservation by the WBDG Historic Preservation Subcommittee Last updated: 04-29-2008 Overview Tacoma Union Station. objects. The surrounding landscape is often an integral part of a historic property. structures. Some practical and/or intangible benefits of historic preservation include: • Retention of history and authenticity o Commemorates the past o Aesthetics: texture. The Archaeological Protection Act established the public mandate to protect these resources. Tacoma. and caution is advised whenever major physical intervention is required in an extant building or landscape. Not only can significant archaeological remains be destroyed during the course of construction. as identified in the National Register for Historic Places. archeological sites. may be irreparably damaged. and historic districts. Congress established the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966. designed or natural. WA. which mandates the active use of historic buildings for public benefit and to preserve our national heritage. craftsmanship. generous daylight. and grand ceremonial spaces give historic buildings enduring investment value and make them attractive for a variety of uses. but the landscape. include buildings. Realizing the need to protect America's cultural resources. Cultural resources. style o Pedestrian/visitor appeal o Human scale .

g. etc. Additional Standards and Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Resources— landscapes. restoration.184 • • • • • • Increased commercial value o Materials and ornaments that are not affordable or readily available o Durable.. the Standards are the guiding principles behind sensitive preservation design and practice in America. . high quality materials (e. are maintained by the National Park Service. and reconstruction. Four Treatment Approaches Within the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties there are Standards for four distinct approaches to the treatment of historic properties: preservation. Rehabilitation acknowledges the need to alter or add to a historic property to meet continuing or changing uses while retaining the property's historic character. rehabilitation. Today. The Secretary of the Interior has identified professional qualification standards for a variety of preservation disciplines. Reconstruction re-creates vanished or non-surviving portions of a property for interpretive purposes. archaeological and maritime resources. Work on historic properties requires specialized skills. and repair of existing historic materials and retention of a property's form as it has evolved over time. while removing evidence of other periods. old growth wood) Retention of building materials (refer also to WBDG Sustainable Branch) o Less construction and demolition debris o Less hazardous material debris o Less need for new materials Existing usable space—quicker occupancy Rehabilitation often costs less than new construction Reuse of infrastructure Energy savings o No energy used for demolition o No energy used for new construction o Reuse of embodied energy in building materials and assemblies Following passage of the NHPA. Preservation focuses on the maintenance stabilization. Restoration depicts a property at a particular period of time in its history. the Secretary of the Interior established Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties to promote and guide the responsible treatment of historic structures and to protect irreplaceable cultural resources.

specifically historic buildings and properties. but the overall approach to work on the building falls under one specific treatment." corresponding to specific treatments.185 While each treatment has its own definition. To develop a treatment plan. Generally. the least amount of change to the building's historic design and original architectural fabric is the preferred approach. Therefore. Original drawings. one could "restore" missing features in a building that is being "rehabilitated. to ensure the maximum protection of America's cultural resources. Determine the appropriate treatment for a historic property BEFORE work begins. photographs. These assessments also examine the building or property as a whole to establish a hierarchy of significance. they are interrelated. Zoning establishes preservation priorities. which can greatly diminish its integrity. it is useful to identify four major preservation design topics for the Whole Building Design Guide: . or "zones. For example. and other archival documents are used to determine the original appearance of missing features to be replicated within restoration zones. Of concern to design and preservation professionals is the cumulative effect of various seemingly minor changes to a cultural resource over time. Treatment Plan Alexander Hamilton Custom House. at project initiation. a decorative lighting fixture may be replicated or an absent front porch rebuilt." This means that if there is sufficient historical documentation on what was there originally. This includes making sure that the proposed function for the historic property is compatible with the existing conditions in order to minimize destruction of the historic fabric. site assessments are conducted to identify character-defining features and qualities.

architects. Execute. Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs—The accommodation of new functions. Investigate. • • • • Apply the Preservation Process Successfully—The preservation process involves five basic steps: Identify. seismic.186 San Francisco Court of Appeals. changes in technology. Onsite surveys identify significant features to be retained as part of a comprehensive preservation plan. Professional Qualifications for Historic Projects . The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties 36 CFR 61. owner/occupants. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation 36 CFR 68. spaces and features. and preservation professionals. and improved standards of protection provide challenges to the reuse of historic buildings and sites. Develop. San Francisco. Successful preservation design requires early and frequent consultation with a variety of organizations and close collaboration among technical specialists. Designers must address life safety. CA. Designers must provide access for persons with disabilities while meeting preservation goals. Update Building Systems Appropriately—Updating building systems in historic structures requires striking a balance between retaining original building features and accommodating new technologies and equipment. Building system updates require creativity to respect the original design and materials while meeting applicable codes and tenant needs. Comply with Accessibility Requirements—Accessibility and historic preservation strategies sometimes conflict with each other. and security issues in innovative ways that preserve historic sites. Relevant Codes and Standards Federal Mandates • • • 36 CFR 67. and Educate.

Sep 1983 Executive Order 11593. 45 pgs) Department of Defense Conservation Program Department of the Army: AR 200-4 Cultural Resources Management (Oct 97) Center of Expertise for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Structures U.S. Preserve America National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 Section 106. Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment (1971) Executive Order 13006. 36 CFR Part 800. Environmental Conservation Program (3 May 96) (PDF 200 KB.S. Air Force: . Under Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act The Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation (As amended and annotated by the National Park Service) Major Resources WBDG Historic Preservation—Additional Resources Federal Agencies • • • • • • • • • • • • • Department of Defense (DoD): DoD Instruction 4715. Army Corps of Engineers—Tribal Affairs and Initiatives U. SECNAV 4000.S. Locating Federal Agencies in Historic Buildings in Historic Districts in Our Central Cities Executive Order 13287.187 • • • • • • • 48 FR 22716. The Secretary of the Interior's Professional Qualification Standards. January 1997.35A Department of the Navy Cultural Resources Program (9 Apr 01) (PDF 120 KB. Protection of Historic Properties Section 110 For a list of other Federal Historic Preservation and cultural resource laws click here Standards and Guidelines • • • Cultural Resource Management Guideline. 17 pgs) U. Army Environmental Center—Cultural Resources Department of the Navy: Naval Facilities Engineering Command Historic and Archaeological Resources Protection Planning Guidelines. NPS-28 Guidelines for Federal Agency Responsibilities.3.

building restoration and cultural resource management in the United States & Canada.S.) (PDF 707 KB. General Services Administration—Historic Preservation Organizations/Associations • • • • • • • Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO) National Trust for Historic Preservation National Preservation Institute Smithsonian Institution Architectural History and Historic Preservation Division Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations Publications • Federal Historic Preservation Laws National Park Service. 39 pgs) Department of Veterans Affairs: Office of Facilities Management—Historic Preservation Heritage Preservation Services National Park Service National Register of Historic Places U.188 • • • • • • • • Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence—Cultural Resources Air Force Instruction 32-7065 Cultural Resources Management Program (1 June 2004. Other • PreservationDirectory.com—an online resource for historic preservation. Historic Preservation by the WBDG Historic Preservation Subcommittee Last updated: 04-29-2008 Overview .

WA. and caution is advised whenever major physical intervention is required in an extant building or landscape.g.. Cultural resources. include buildings. Congress established the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966. and grand ceremonial spaces give historic buildings enduring investment value and make them attractive for a variety of uses. old growth wood) Retention of building materials (refer also to WBDG Sustainable Branch) o Less construction and demolition debris o Less hazardous material debris o Less need for new materials Existing usable space—quicker occupancy Rehabilitation often costs less than new construction Reuse of infrastructure Energy savings . archeological sites. Some practical and/or intangible benefits of historic preservation include: • • • • • • • Retention of history and authenticity o Commemorates the past o Aesthetics: texture. Tall ceilings. generous daylight. style o Pedestrian/visitor appeal o Human scale Increased commercial value o Materials and ornaments that are not affordable or readily available o Durable. as identified in the National Register for Historic Places. Realizing the need to protect America's cultural resources. Tacoma. high quality materials (e. The surrounding landscape is often an integral part of a historic property. The Archaeological Protection Act established the public mandate to protect these resources.189 Tacoma Union Station. structures. but the landscape. designed or natural. which mandates the active use of historic buildings for public benefit and to preserve our national heritage. objects. craftsmanship. may be irreparably damaged. and historic districts. Not only can significant archaeological remains be destroyed during the course of construction.

and repair of existing historic materials and retention of a property's form as it has evolved over time.190 o o o No energy used for demolition No energy used for new construction Reuse of embodied energy in building materials and assemblies Following passage of the NHPA. etc. Four Treatment Approaches Within the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties there are Standards for four distinct approaches to the treatment of historic properties: preservation. the Secretary of the Interior established Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties to promote and guide the responsible treatment of historic structures and to protect irreplaceable cultural resources. are maintained by the National Park Service." This means that if there is sufficient historical documentation on what was there originally. Additional Standards and Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Resources— landscapes. one could "restore" missing features in a building that is being "rehabilitated. a decorative lighting fixture may be replicated or an absent front porch rebuilt. For example. Preservation focuses on the maintenance stabilization. archaeological and maritime resources. and reconstruction. the Standards are the guiding principles behind sensitive preservation design and practice in America. Restoration depicts a property at a particular period of time in its history. Today. Rehabilitation acknowledges the need to alter or add to a historic property to meet continuing or changing uses while retaining the property's historic character. rehabilitation. While each treatment has its own definition. restoration. Reconstruction re-creates vanished or non-surviving portions of a property for interpretive purposes. they are interrelated. Work on historic properties requires specialized skills. while removing evidence of other periods. The Secretary of the Interior has identified professional qualification standards for a variety of preservation disciplines. but the overall approach to work on the building falls under one specific treatment. Treatment Plan .

San Francisco. which can greatly diminish its integrity. it is useful to identify four major preservation design topics for the Whole Building Design Guide: San Francisco Court of Appeals. or "zones. ." corresponding to specific treatments.191 Alexander Hamilton Custom House. This includes making sure that the proposed function for the historic property is compatible with the existing conditions in order to minimize destruction of the historic fabric. to ensure the maximum protection of America's cultural resources. Original drawings. Zoning establishes preservation priorities. These assessments also examine the building or property as a whole to establish a hierarchy of significance. Determine the appropriate treatment for a historic property BEFORE work begins. site assessments are conducted to identify character-defining features and qualities. and other archival documents are used to determine the original appearance of missing features to be replicated within restoration zones. photographs. the least amount of change to the building's historic design and original architectural fabric is the preferred approach. Of concern to design and preservation professionals is the cumulative effect of various seemingly minor changes to a cultural resource over time. specifically historic buildings and properties. Generally. Onsite surveys identify significant features to be retained as part of a comprehensive preservation plan. Therefore. CA. To develop a treatment plan. at project initiation.

Protection of Historic Properties Section 110 For a list of other Federal Historic Preservation and cultural resource laws click here Standards and Guidelines • • Cultural Resource Management Guideline. Locating Federal Agencies in Historic Buildings in Historic Districts in Our Central Cities Executive Order 13287. and preservation professionals. Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs—The accommodation of new functions. 36 CFR Part 800. Professional Qualifications for Historic Projects 48 FR 22716. NPS-28 Guidelines for Federal Agency Responsibilities. changes in technology. and improved standards of protection provide challenges to the reuse of historic buildings and sites. architects. The Secretary of the Interior's Professional Qualification Standards. Building system updates require creativity to respect the original design and materials while meeting applicable codes and tenant needs. Protection and Enhancement of the Cultural Environment (1971) Executive Order 13006. Designers must address life safety. Update Building Systems Appropriately—Updating building systems in historic structures requires striking a balance between retaining original building features and accommodating new technologies and equipment. Successful preservation design requires early and frequent consultation with a variety of organizations and close collaboration among technical specialists. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties 36 CFR 61. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation 36 CFR 68. Comply with Accessibility Requirements—Accessibility and historic preservation strategies sometimes conflict with each other. Execute. Develop. Sep 1983 Executive Order 11593. and security issues in innovative ways that preserve historic sites. owner/occupants. seismic. Designers must provide access for persons with disabilities while meeting preservation goals. and Educate. spaces and features.192 • • • • Apply the Preservation Process Successfully—The preservation process involves five basic steps: Identify. Under Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act . Preserve America National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 Section 106. Investigate. Relevant Codes and Standards Federal Mandates • • • • • • • • • • 36 CFR 67.

S.193 • The Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation (As amended and annotated by the National Park Service) Major Resources WBDG Historic Preservation—Additional Resources Federal Agencies • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Department of Defense (DoD): DoD Instruction 4715.35A Department of the Navy Cultural Resources Program (9 Apr 01) (PDF 120 KB. 45 pgs) Department of Defense Conservation Program Department of the Army: AR 200-4 Cultural Resources Management (Oct 97) Center of Expertise for the Preservation of Historic Buildings and Structures U. January 1997. 39 pgs) Department of Veterans Affairs: Office of Facilities Management—Historic Preservation Heritage Preservation Services National Park Service National Register of Historic Places U.S.S. Army Corps of Engineers—Tribal Affairs and Initiatives U. General Services Administration—Historic Preservation Organizations/Associations • • • • • • Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers (NCSHPO) National Trust for Historic Preservation National Preservation Institute Smithsonian Institution Architectural History and Historic Preservation Division .S.) (PDF 707 KB. SECNAV 4000. Army Environmental Center—Cultural Resources Department of the Navy: Naval Facilities Engineering Command Historic and Archaeological Resources Protection Planning Guidelines. Air Force: Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence—Cultural Resources Air Force Instruction 32-7065 Cultural Resources Management Program (1 June 2004. Environmental Conservation Program (3 May 96) (PDF 200 KB.3. 17 pgs) U.

building restoration and cultural resource management in the United States & Canada. Federal Preservation Officers (FPO) for properties under federal ownership or control.194 • Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations Publications • Federal Historic Preservation Laws National Park Service. archaeological sites. These organizations process the nominations and then forward them to the National Register of Historic Places in Washington. and preservationsensitive project.com—an online resource for historic preservation. a property—either public or private—is considered historic if it meets a set of criteria established by the National Register of Historic Places. economically viable. Apply the Preservation Process Successfully by the WBDG Historic Preservation Subcommittee Last updated: 04-30-2008 Overview Work on historic buildings. To ensure a balanced. and Tribal Historic Preservation Officers (THPO) for properties on tribal lands or with tribal interests. landscapes. a division of the National Park Service that lists cultural resources worthy of preservation. A. or other cultural resources. the outline below should be followed. This process differs from work on existing buildings or on new construction and should be considered in concert with other project goals requiring close collaboration between preservationists and design disciplines. Initial Project Planning Stage Determining What Makes a Building Historic and Who Makes this Determination In the United States. The nomination process is initiated by a property owner and/or interested citizen in collaboration with the following entities (these entities also determine if a property is eligible for listing): State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs) for properties in their state. . Other • PreservationDirectory. DC for final approval. requires knowledge of a unique process of compliance and review.

A listed building may also become eligible for tax credits and other financial incentives. or through the National Register of Historic Places. Resources that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type. or are "individually listed" for their architectural and/or historical merit. is that the property be at least 50 years old. Resources that have yield or may be likely to yield information important in prehistoric or history. state. Buildings are either located within the boundaries of a designated "historic district". although there are exceptions to this rule.g. A completed register nomination form may be a valuable source of information on a building's (or other resource's) history. FSA-OWI Collection. or D. A general threshold for eligibility in the National Register. The four principal eligibility criteria are: A. Charlottesville. VA. or method of construction. which necessitates investigation and historical research requiring qualified preservation professionals. archaeological site). landscape. Credit: Library of Congress. which are used by those involved in the decision making process on local. state and federal levels. or state or local registers. Reproduction number. LC-USF35-1326 Eligible properties that meet these criteria and successfully complete the formal nomination process are then "listed" in national. There are also local and state registers who evaluate their resources in a similar manner. and/or local registers. e. Thomas Jefferson. or that possess high artistic values. 1768 to 1782. period. Resources that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past. John Collier Photographer. Monticello. or B. or that represent the work of a master. Procuring qualified preservation professionals can make the . Prints & Photographs Division. or C..195 Eligibility for listing in the National Register is based on a set of criteria. Conduct Investigation and Research Completing a state and/or national historic register nomination requires general knowledge of the resource type being considered (building. or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction. Resources that are associated with the events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of historic. Nominations are generally available through State Historic Preservation Offices.

how? Gamble House. CA. and alterations. Preparing a nomination should be done in consultation with the consulting agencies (State Historic Preservation Office. The plan delineates which areas require special protection or which areas first merit rehabilitation. The preservation management plan guides future maintenance.) There may also be regulations. the Federal Preservation Office. and the Tribal Historic Preservation Office) to make certain all requirements are met. it is very important to understand its history before any construction begins.196 process more efficient. Consider the following: • • • • • • • When was it built? With what materials and methods was it built? Who was the architect or designer? What are its architectural characteristics or features? o Are these features unique in some way? What is their condition and will they be lost if not repaired in a timely manner? Are original drawings or other planning documents for a building still available? Has the building changed over time? If so. Nominations for federal properties in certain historic districts must also be reviewed by the local historic preservation commission. This document records a resource's history. and applicable codes that must be followed. what are the most important features to preserve if work is completed. Greene and Greene. Pasadena. The following are sources to aid in archival research concerning the property: . guidelines. 1909. (Refer to section on Form a Qualified and Experienced Project Team in Section B below. repairs. Some also provide detailed guidance for rehabilitation or adaptive use. why it is significant. An excellent planning tool for successfully completing a project for any historic resource is to develop a Preservation Management Plan. (Courtesy of National Park Service) Archival research to verify the original appearance of the building and site is helpful in establishing preservation priorities and in preparing treatment alternatives. Understand the History of a Property For the long-term preservation of a historic property.

and genealogical societies Local Sources • Local preservation commissions. then studies must be conducted to determine the potential effect of the work on the property. Protection of Historic Properties: Section 106 regulations require that the head of any federal agency "prior to the approval of the expenditure of any federal funds on the [construction] undertaking … take into account the effect of the undertaking on any [historic] district. Section 106 and Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act Section 106. is on federal land. more simply.197 National Sources • • • • • • • American Association of State & Local History American Historical Association Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS)—for architectural drawings Historic Americal Engineering Record (HAER)—for architectural drawings Library of Congress National Archives National Register of Historic Places—National Register Research State Sources • • • State Historic Preservation Offices State Nonprofit Preservation Alliances State archives. permits. libraries. determine ahead of time who must review the preservation project and learn what is required for approval (at all governmental levels). The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation establishes policy on this process. Guidelines. then mitigation and/or remedial plans must be made. compliance involving a variety of public agencies may be required. land. or feature) will be adversely affected by the work. structure. Or. libraries Determine the Regulation. If any historic or cultural resource (building. object. grants. or object". building. structure. if federal funds are used to do work on an individual property. site. as well as a plan to suitably document any resource to be lost. Compliance with federal preservation laws is mandatory if the property is using federal funds. leases. . newspapers. 36 CFR Part 800. and Standards That Affect the Proposed Work When work is proposed for a historic property. historical societies. newspapers. or is under the jurisdiction of the federal government. historical societies. or licenses (even if the historic resource is privately owned). To save time and money. archives.

Local Compliance For information on compliance to local regulations. refer to the following: • • • • The Conservation Easement Handbook: Managing Land Conservation and Historic Preservation Easement Programs by Janet Diehl and Thomas S. or cultural resources. Barrett. For more information on easements. permitting board. and protection of historic properties" for all properties owned by or under the jurisdiction of the agency. and to ensure that the property's intrinsic values will be preserved for future generations through subsequent ownership. archeological. refer to the following: • • • • The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Federal Preservation Officers (FPO)—For projects affiliated with an agency of the federal government State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPO) Tribal Historic Preservation Officers (THPO)—For projects affiliated with a property located on or owned by a Sovereign Tribe recognized by the United States federal government Legal Agreements Sometimes there are historic easements. These arrangements are established to protect significant historic. Land Trust Alliance. Façade Easements Preservation Easements—An Important Legal Tool for the Preservation of Historic Places What is a Historic Preservation Easement? There are also binding commitments that federal agencies make with specific regulators that must be taken into consideration. or county clerk) National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) . For more information on compliance with Section 106 and Section 110. and nomination to the National Register of Historic Places.198 Section 110: Section 110 regulations require that each federal agency establish and maintain a "preservation program for the identification. evaluation. covenants. or other legal agreements placed on historic properties that can restrict work undertaken. thus providing responsible management of current and future historic properties under their care. mechanisms of title transfer. refer to the following: • • • Certified Local Governments Historic Preservation Review Boards (contact local historic or preservation society.

such as those listed in the WBDG Mandates/Reference section. Capitol Courtesy of Architect of the Capitol The terms "character-defining" or "architectural character" refer to all those distinctive elements and physical features that comprise the appearance of every historic building.S. New codes are now being developed for older structures on local. district. and national levels. or neighborhood Plan o Spatial definition and volume Envelope o Roof profile o Window and door pattern o Elements and assemblies . landscape features. and/or facilities division for immediate requirements that must be adhered to. Federal Agencies must adhere to other mandates. Federal employees embarking upon a project involving a historic building in addition to checking with the agency's Federal Preservation Officer (FPO). craftsmanship.199 Codes Compliance—Building Codes and Historic Buildings Until recently. Consider the following in identifying the character defining features of the historic property: • • • Site o Setting. significant older buildings often qualify for zone or code variances if provisions are not explicitly made for historic buildings in the state or local code. preservation office. Additionally. interior spaces and features. materials. Identify the Character-Defining Features of the Historic Property U. building codes were generally written exclusively for new construction with few provisions made for historic buildings and their unique requirements. state. These include those listed in the Codes & Standards. should check with their environmental compliance office. as well its site and environment. features. decorative details. Character-defining aspects of a historic building include its massing.

The goal of preservation is to protect the historic integrity of an individual building and its surroundings. National Park Service: The Illustrated Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings—the online version of the book. Courtesy of National Park Service. their protection is a priority. The print version is available through the Government Printing Office. Once the important features of a property are identified. . The design process should respect and respond to the historic features. National Park Service: A Checklist for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings Fit the Program to the Historic Building This former rail station depot was converted to a hotel with reception areas. This program fit the extant building well.200 Envelope materials Finishes o Interior materials o Color and texture o Decoration (ornamentation and artwork) o Fixtures and furnishings o • Following are recommended sources to aid in the investigation and to help identify a building's most salient features: • • • • • National Park Service: Preservation Brief 17—Architectural Character: Identifying the Visual Aspects of Historic Buildings as an Aid to Preserving Their Character National Park Service: The Walk Through—Identifying the Visual Character of Historic Buildings National Park Service: The Good Guides—A group of websites developed by the National Park Service to help people new to the preservation field understand how to care for historic buildings.

changing the plan. These individuals include . Therefore. Department of Interior qualification standards for the applicable preservation professions. or adding an addition that will adversely affect the historic construction? Are there alternative approaches that will save more historic fabric? Is it feasible to adapt this property to meet the programmatic needs? Is it possible to satisfy federal. at a minimum. B. and technical studies concerning repair and alteration of historic material and spaces should be prepared only by firms and individuals meeting. and local regulations and compliance that deal with historic preservation? Instead of demolishing the former train shed. The selected preservation professionals should have experience working on similar historic preservation projects (e. planning documents. assembling an experienced. Courtesy of National Park Service. Photo of indoor ice arena: Audrey Tepper For more information. and understanding their unique requirements. Planning Stage Form a Qualified and Experienced Project Team A historic property's architectural integrity and successful long-term preservation rest on decisions made throughout the entire design and construction process. it was converted into an indoor ice arena. competent project team is extremely important.201 Consider the following: • • • • • • • Will the building's proposed new use compromise its integrity? Can the design include provisions for protecting the property from the wear and tear associated with active use? What should tenant do to ensure long-term protection of the resource? Does it involve removing too much of the original architectural materials. This should also be done in accordance with the Secretary's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. state. This program fit the extant building well. click here. Historic building surveys..g. the same building type or property).

preservation architects. this type of document may also be referred to as an Integrated Cultural Resource Management Plan (ICRMP) and Building Preservation Plan (BPP). including: • • • • • Federal Preservation Officer (FPO)—For Federal Agencies. click here.202 but are not limited to architectural conservators. and addressing how the building is to be treated. preservation engineers. For additional information on preservation management plans. GSA Preservation Professionals Construction Contractors State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO)—SHPOs often have lists of individuals with this type of experience. establishing preservation priorities." In government agencies. a "Cultural Landscape Report or Inventory" may also need to be prepared. Some agencies also have preservation professionals on staff or on contract. who. Prior to construction. Federal regulation requires development of individual preservation management plans if the property is federally owned or uses federal funds. it is essential to create a planning document outlining the significance of a historic building. documenting the qualities and elements that contribute to its historic character. what. The plan can take many forms. where) o Archival Research (including historic drawings and photographs if available) Site Survey Information Statement of Significance Identification of Character Defining Features Documentation of Existing Conditions o Captioned and Mapped Photos of Existing Conditions (interior and exterior) o Description of Existing Physical Conditions (on the interior and exterior) Materials Analyses o Overall Conditions Assessment . This type of plan is often called a "preservation management plan" or "Historic Structures Report. There are many sources for finding good expertise in historic preservation. and other allied preservation professionals. In addition. architectural historians. Some agencies have developed criteria and procedures for evaluating the competency of preservation professionals and construction contractors. but MUST include the following types of information: • • • • • • Key Historical Information (when. How to Find Preservation Professionals Develop Individual Preservation Management Plans Continuing the preservation process with sound preservation planning is the next course of action.

in accordance with the Secretary of the Interior's Standards. historic significance. and restoration of building) Feasibility Study for Reuse of Building Narrative History of Use (construction campaigns. Including Paint Analysis. The goal is to make the best possible use of existing historic features. and historic integrity. Preservation zoning establishes a hierarchy based on architectural merit.203 Structural Analysis Fabric Analysis. or the extent to which original materials and design remain intact. minimizing the need for interventions that might compromise the historic character of the building or site. Masonry Recommendations for Appropriate Treatments Future Compliance Requirements (where applicable as required by law) o o • • The following types of information may be included in a preservation management plan or Historic Structures Report: • • • • • • • • • • Disaster Mitigation/Management Plan Preservation Maintenance Plan Establishment of Preservation Zones Design Concept (for preservation. These zone categories are then correlated to appropriate levels of treatment. rehabilitation. large or small. and additions) Description as Built Project Scope of Work and Specifications Structural Analysis Life-Cycle Analysis Plan Suitable Spaces for Program Needs This late 19th century hotel ballroom conversion into a parking garage is not a suitable use or program for this type of highly articulated finished space. Comprehensive planning is encouraged so that all changes. alterations. as opposed to piecemeal alterations undertaken without regard to long-term effects. are part of a well-integrated building plan. Courtesy of National Park Service Preservation management plans identify character-defining qualities and establish preservation priorities for matching program functions to specific buildings or spaces. The proportion of .

allowing continued public access to ceremonial courtrooms. Therefore. the State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) in which the property is located must be .204 zones dictating a stricter vs. Design Development Stage Design to Minimize Changes to Historic Property Federal Courthouse. The underlying philosophy behind any preservation project is to keep to a minimum the proposed changes to a historic property. a building's historic character and design unity. any changes should play a secondary role to the historic property and new work must not dictate what occurs on site. the more suitable the program. For its long-term protection. under the guidance of an experienced preservation professional or team. rather than detract from. If a historic property is on federal land or using federal funds and changes are proposed. seek uses and tenants suited to the building. PA. every space is highly significant and all changes must be taken with great care. Adding an adjoining or freestanding annex has enabled many federal courts to remain in historic courthouse buildings. The less modification required by the proposed program. Suitable uses are functions that minimize the need to alter character-defining features or spaces. feasibility studies are undertaken to assess the financial and practical achievability of treatment options. The role of the preservation design team or specialist is to help ensure that these changes contribute to. first consider options that enable the historic building to continue serving the function for which it was originally constructed. C. upon the ability to successfully integrate old and new so that the property retains its historic character and the parts still relate to the whole. to a great extent. The success of which rests. Scranton. Whenever changing building occupancy or functions. Accommodating new functions demands ingenuity. Other buildings can accommodate greater change while still maintaining their historic character. Buildings well matched to their tenants and functions require very little change. more lenient design approach is unique to each building. In addressing changing space requirements. In some buildings. When the historic function is no longer viable. the historic property must always come first.

the construction team should consist of qualified contractors and subcontractors with experience working on similar historic properties.205 consulted to comply with Section 106. GSA has developed contract language and evaluation criteria to verify the competency of architectural and engineering firms. Ensure Fire Safety During Construction Many historic buildings are destroyed as a result of fires during construction. GSA's preservation project management online guidance also includes a model scope of services for architectural and engineering design work involving historic buildings. For more detailed design guidance. and ensure that fire doors remain closed. On-site supervision with regular inspections ensures that historic fabric is not at risk. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards provide the framework for responsible preservation design. as well as. construction contractors that propose to work on historic buildings. D. visit the GSA Historic Buildings website. Leave pathways to exits clear. is critical. Fire-safe clean-up. For additional information on temporary protection see the National Park Service TechNote section on Temporary Protection. Additional supervision may be required while high risk construction activities are underway. Construction Stage Provide Temporary Protection Construction activity during the course of a project can damage historic resources. including removal of flammable solvents and rags and debris. refer to the following WBDG pages: • • • Update Building Systems Appropriately Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs Comply with Accessibility Requirements Select Competent and Qualified Contractors Similar to the selection of the project team. . For more information. Select contractors early enough to include them in developing solutions that meet the project goals (where the contract process so permits). Technical guidance is available to help resolve common preservation challenges. Fire suppression systems must be maintained and augmented when appropriate. providing temporary protection of a building or site during this time should be incorporated in planning and construction documents. Therefore.

civil). mechanical. to the consultants (architectural. Leases should also include procedural guidance for Section106 compliance when alterations are unavoidable. The better informed one is the more likely one is to treat the property with care. This type of information may be included in leasing documents and through the development of tenant guidelines. Occupancy Stage Modify Leasing Agreements and Provisions Tenants must know what they can and cannot do prior to leasing. Regular on-site supervision and good communication between the preservation team and the construction team can protect a historic building while construction is underway. The costs of these installations can be offset by reduced effort required to respond to questions and complaints. . structural.206 Educate Workers and Public on Significance of Historic Property Educating everyone involved in the project—from the property owner. Wayside signs or exhibits describing construction/preservation work can generate interest in the project while building good will among tenants and visitors who are inconvenienced by construction. and to the eventual property users—about why the property is worthy of preservation is vitally important. Transporting furniture and office equipment can often cause damage unless care is taken to protect important features during increased levels of activity. Historic properties must also be protected when tenants move in or relocate to a property. electrical. operational guidelines should be developed for not only tenants. Once again. plumbing. but also for the building staff. to the contractors and laborers. accommodations for temporary protection should be made early on in the planning process and in construction documents. Sometimes features worthy of preservation are uncovered as work progresses and this can ensure these and other important elements are not compromised. These guidelines should provide: • • • • Documentation on building systems Facilities management programs to record important information on the operation of a building or property Schedules for cyclical maintenance and custodial procedures Schedules for regular inspections of important features E. Develop Building Maintenance Manual For the long-term protection of a historic resource.

noting that some activities are inappropriate for the property. Update Individual Preservation Management Plans Technical guidance provided in the preservation management plans and other preservation plans should be periodically updated to ensure that the plans reflect current conditions.S. as amended through 1992 Section 106. Develop specific special events guidelines. exhibitions. such as using a museum for a social event. should be provided. some activities may be inappropriate. preferably by the firm who prepared the original plan. Updates should be undertaken by a specialist firm meeting the Department of Interior qualification standards. Ensure that the property (or lessee) is adequately insured to cover any damage. Determine beforehand who is responsible for protection and incidental damage as a result of leasing out a space. The following actions are recommended to minimize the effects of special events on the historic property: • • • • • • Confer with code officials to determine the types of activities that are appropriate for the space. National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Caring for Your Historic Building .. exceptions. Establish that lessees should submit in advance how they propose to use a historic property. Temporary protection of the architectural fabric and landscapes when equipment is moved in and out. 36 CFR Part 800.g. and when the space is being used. Consider mandatory security deposits. Protection of Historic Properties Section 110 Standards and Guidelines • • National Historic Landmark Designation National Park Service. parties. Establish a permitting process when public or private buildings are leased for uses beyond their usual function. Updating also ensures that recommendations take into account technical advancements in treatment technologies that may have occurred since the plan was initially created.). etc.C. Ensure that appropriate on-site supervision is present throughout the event and clean-up. demonstrations. 470 et seq. These activities increase the wear and tear on a property and can damage an historic resource. Relevant Codes and Standards Federal Mandates • • • 16 U.207 Develop Special Events Policies Historic properties are often used for special events (e.

and Applicable Codes That Will Affect the Proposed Work Vermont Department of Labor and Industry's Fire Prevention and Building Code Compliance for Historic Buildings: A Field Guide Major Resources WBDG Historic Preservation—Additional Resources Publications General • For more information about the preservation field in the United States please see the ICOMOS Document. International Conference of Building Officials. maritime resources. 1997. Guidelines. and other cultural resources Federal • General Services Administration Historic Preservation Technical Procedures State/Local • Contact your State Historic Preservation Officer Codes • • • • • • • • • • • 1997 Uniform Code for Building Conservation 2001 Maryland Building Rehabilitation Code 2003 International Building Code California Historic Building Code (2001) HUD's Guideline on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies Massachusetts Building Code Section 780 CMR 3409.0 (2000)—Historic Building exceptions New Jersey Rehabilitation Sub-Code (1999) Uniform Code for Building Conservation by International Code Council. Refer also to Section A. A Brief Overview of Preservation in the USA .208 • • • • • Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Treatment of Historic Properties National Register Nomination Process Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Buildings Standards and Guidelines also exist for: archaeology. of this page Determine the Regulations.

1994. Conserving Buildings: Guide to Techniques and Materials. Jr. Thomas S. Preservation Brief Series Investigation • • • House Histories: A Guide to Tracing the Genealogy of Your Home by Sally Light and Margaret Eberle (Illustrator). National Park Service. Technical Guidance • • • • • • • • • Association for Preservation Technology International (APTI) Bulletin Conservation of Historic Buildings. Page 15: Historic Structures Report (PDF 94 KB. Yeomans. 2001. Martin E. McDonald. 5. Golden Hill Press. Third Edition by Bernard Feilden. Architectural Press: July 2003. Smart Codes: A New Approach to Building Codes by Elizabeth G. Boston. MA: Architectural Press. Butterworth-Heinemann. 1997. Vol. Barrett. No. 2003. Third Edition (Conservation of Historic Buildings) by Bernard Feilden. Weaver. 29 pgs) by Frances Joan Mathien. Preservation Brief 35—Understanding Old Buildings: The Process of Architectural Investigation by Travis C. Forum News: May/June 2001. Codes • • Building Codes for Heritage Buildings Heritage Society of British Columbia— Examples of historic building codes and some code exceptions. Ontario Ministry of Citizenship. Culture. National Register Bulletins and Brochures Note #1: Eight Guiding Principles in the Conservation of Historic Properties Architectural Conservation Notes. A Design Management Perspective by Stephen Emmitt and David T. and Recreation.7. September 1989. Janet. CRM (Cultural Resources Management Bulletin) Issue 1984 7-01. Cultural Landscapes Charrette Background Paper English Heritage Publications GSA Preservation Note Series Historic Scotland Technical Publications National Park Service National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT) National Park Service. . Revised Edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.. Specifying Buildings. Preservation Management Plans • • The Conservation Easement Handbook: Managing Land Conservation and Historic Preservation Easement Programs by Diehl. Land Trust Alliance.209 • • • Conservation of Historic Buildings. National Park Service. Inc. Pianca.

1994. 2001. The Process of Architectural Investigation. Golden Hill Press. Preservation Brief 35 by Travis C. Special Events Policies • • The Lincoln Memorial: Guidelines for Special Events and Demonstration. "building systems" are new additions that must be incorporated with as much sensitivity to the original fabric as possible. Historic Structures Reports: A Management Tool for Historic Properties—Seminar National Preservation Institute. Jr.—available through the National Park Service. National Capital Parks-Central (NACC). Northeast Document Conservation Center. Preservation Plan for the Cruiser Olympia—Example of an individualized preservation plan Specifying Buildings. more recently constructed buildings. Sally Light. September 1989. October 1996. For example. decorative ventilation grilles and switch plates may contribute to a building's significance as much as marble wainscoting or decorative stenciling. such as early 20th century commercial buildings. Butterworth-Heinemann. McDonald. Margaret Eberle (Illustrator). Understanding Old Buildings.) Sherelyn Ogden. December 1996 by National Park Service. David T. Stephen Emmitt. What is Preservation Planning? (As it pertains to collections. However. Washington. Lincoln Memorial Park or National Capital Region Office. Yeomans.210 • • • • • A Historic Structure Report Symposium Proceedings by Lonnie J. National Park Service. Training • • • • Advisory Council for Historic Preservation 106 Training National Council for Preservation Education National Preservation Institute. House Histories: A Guide to Tracing the Genealogy of Your Home. Preservation Maintenance: Understanding and Preserving Historic Buildings—Seminar Update Building Systems Appropriately by the WBDG Historic Preservation Subcommittee Last updated: 04-30-2008 Overview For many historic structures. DC. may contain early systems that may be historic themselves and can be reused. The American Institute of Architects Press. Hovey. December 1996. . A Design Management Perspective.

decisions must be made in a systematic and coordinated manner. An understanding of the building's most important spaces and features is critical to evaluating preservation tradeoffs and preserving character-defining qualities.g. Changes—both big and small—can have a significant cumulative impact over time. such as HVAC. and avoid or minimize intrusions in primary architectural spaces. it may be possible to lessen the impact on a building's integrity and retain as much of the original building fabric as possible. Since new mechanical and other related systems. utilitarian spaces vs.g. information and communication technologies. Following are four basic principles to keep in mind when upgrading systems in historic properties: • • • • Sympathetic Upgrades: Building systems upgrades should be sympathetic to the architect's specific design intent. secondary. It is better to install new equipment in secondary or tertiary spaces. primary. preservation zones are defined within the individual preservation management plan. such as electrical and fire suppression. While it might not be always possible to completely conceal the presence of new technology. o Design zone systems that will allow repairs to be done without disrupting the entire building.e. Retention of Historic Fabric: 'Work around' the historic fabric as much as possible. electrical. of restoring lobbies and other significant spaces previously altered. such as special use rental or increased rental rates. giving a hierarchy of significance to the building's spaces and features (i. highly finished spaces. For example. design systems efficiently enough to fit into existing openings or be accessible off site. e. Life-Cycle Benefit: Long-term preservation emphasizes life-cycle benefits of reusing historic properties and planning for changing needs. Early Planning During the initial design phase.211 Careful planning is required to balance preservation objectives with interior systems.. As such. Basements and attics are usually good locations for horizontal routing of systems. reuse ducts to avoid replacement costs. .. o Take advantage of financial benefits of historic properties.. Reversibility: Building systems upgrades should be installed to avoid damage to —or to be removable without further damaging—character-defining features and/or finishes. can use up to 10% of a building's square footage and 30%-40% of an overall rehabilitation budget. e. plumbing. and tertiary spaces). and conveyance systems. o Explore alternatives that will allow the reuse of existing system elements. consider the following: o Minimize intrusions and long-term impact on historic materials as future repairs and replacements are made. Care must be taken during initial project design and periodic upgrades to avoid the incremental loss of integrity. o Complex systems will require more maintenance to perform properly. The basic mind-set prescribes forethought and respect for historic materials. structural systems.

Retain any existing historically significant features.. radiator enclosures. a museum has different climatic needs than an office building. and janitorial closets. and finishes. etc. Recommendations A. such as original registers. color. use this opportunity to improve on the placement and function of a building's systems so as to emphasize the building's integrity. by reusing existing ductwork. Ventilation. Ensure that the addition of HVAC systems and other repairs will not corrupt the building's structural integrity. and utility closets are good for vertical routing of systems. radiators. Photo courtesy National Park Service Choose a system and/or equipment that is appropriate for the use of the building. General • • • • • Retain original architectural configurations. If disturbance is unavoidable. janitorial closets can be good locations for electrical equipment. pilasters. escutcheons. Notice the detrimental affects to both the scale and windows of the room. Be aware that some basements may contain valuable archeological sites that should not be disturbed. and use existing penetrations and chases to the greatest extent possible. such as vaulted and ornamental ceilings. Also. . For instance. the replacement should match the design. Where possible. HVAC—Heating. and Air-Conditioning Installation of a dropped ceiling in a historically significant room. Match the finished appearance of the space to the original. texture. and materials of the original. surfaces. and capitals.212 existing chases such as fireplaces. flues. vents/air intakes.

unobscured window from the exterior. o In some cases. rather than a single. Photo courtesy National Park Service • • Avoid the need for new ductwork. o Configure ductwork to be as flat as possible and to avoid disrupting the symmetry of the space. o Avoid reconfiguring ceilings (e.213 Distribution System Ductwork retrofit. slope or pocket out the ceiling with sufficient depth to retain the original appearance of a full. especially in lobbies. The insensitively installed ductwork detracts from the hallway's scale and obscures the transoms. step. away from window heads. o Where appropriate. move the position of the ductwork. suspended ceilings) to accommodate air distribution. Rather than puncturing decorative elements. corridors. o Avoid running ductwork along or across corridors. . If service areas are not available. never in primary spaces. Explore zoning using multiple. smaller ducts. such as in industrial or other utilitarian buildings. exposed ductwork may be appropriate. disturb as little original fabric as possible and minimize the visual impact. o Retain decorative millwork and other character-defining features. larger profile duct system. carefully place in secondary areas. by examining ductless alternatives such as split systems and pipe systems with reuse of existing ducts for ventilation. o Configure ceilings to avoid obscuring the full height of windows and interior or exterior transoms. or spaces with vaulted or other decorative ceilings that would otherwise have to be obscured.g. and other circulation spaces. o Install in attic or basements first. o Retain full window height so that exterior appearance is unaltered. If new ductwork is unavoidable.

install locks and/or stops if required to control tenant use. Consider the architect's original energy conservation methods. Photos courtesy National Park Service Building Envelope • • • • • • • Retain window operability. Carefully consider insulation options. rather than the primary façade or landscape. if chosen. Use operable windows for natural ventilation during temperate spring and fall months whenever possible. install them with sensitivity to the historic fabric. Install wall or ceiling mounted equipment in secondary or tertiary spaces. be mindful of the original structure's inherent tolerance to moisture. crawl space. and airflow patterns). such as operable windows. And Right: A bad example of ductwork installation obscures either windows or transoms or both. overhangs. o Use weather stripping and insulating doors and windows. . ensure that the chosen method/materials will not create condensation in a building's interior. instead of replacing or sealing windows. Locate any exterior building equipment adjacent to a secondary or tertiary façade or landscape. attic vents. vibration and noise). etc.g. Consider the appropriateness of moisture vapor barriers.214 Left: A good example of ductwork installation does not obscure windows or transoms. o Landscaping is a low cost method of camouflaging new HVAC equipment. (e. Maintain good breathability/permeability of the envelope. o Are weather stripping and storm windows appropriate? Retain original ventilation systems. porches. Equipment • • • Install air handlers and other equipment in locations that will least affect building occupants and activities (e.g. Incorporate these features into the overall energy conservation plan.

in some historic buildings this approach can enable retention of ornamental ceilings and features: • • • • • • • Consider wireless solutions. Although not appropriate for all buildings and spaces. Avoid altering doors and windows for climate control. Reuse existing conduit and wiring chases to the greatest extent possible. Today's modern office buildings incorporate raised floors that allow easy access to wiring systems. These systems have exponentially increased the need for easily accessible wiring raceways. Hide roof-mounted equipment from the street or other obvious vantage points (a site study can indicate good locations). Avoid obscuring or altering decorative cornice and other character-defining features.215 Remotely locating new equipment may be necessary if there are archeological or historic landscape features immediately adjacent to a building. consider locating computer servers off-site. Design for flexibility of layout. Ensure that the addition of information and communication technologies and other repairs will not corrupt the building's structural integrity. o • • B. such as basements or existing windowless rooms. retrofit existing doors in a reversible and compatible manner instead of replacing them. Wiring Distribution • • • • Retain decorative millwork and other character-defining features. Do not install exposed wiring systems. Ensure that the wiring and associated equipment are easily accessible so that they may be periodically replaced and updated. Use existing vertical chases to run IT cables. consider raceways hidden by historic cornices and mouldings. and Cooling Historic Buildings Problems and Recommended Approaches. For security. For small and/or highly significant buildings. Computer Rooms • • • • Locate servers in appropriate climate-controlled tertiary spaces that minimize intrusion. For ornamental spaces. Ventilating. Install computer and IT wiring that can easily be reversed. . Information and Communication Technology Information technology systems are complex and constantly changing. A detailed discussion of installing HVAC equipment in historic buildings can be found in Preservation Brief 24: Heating.

. Photo courtesy National Park Service • • • • • • Retain as much original fabric as possible when installing new systems (i. they should be retained and preserved in situ. The lighting levels and equipment should be appropriate to the building's current or planned use while respecting the original fabric. Ensure that copies of wiring diagrams are available to building managers and external locations. Lighting/Electrical Historic lighting levels may not be appropriate for current or planned use of a historic building and the installation of new lighting systems may be necessary. Retain and reuse original. and smallest size cabling to minimize the need for future intrusive replacements.216 • • • • Create a maintenance plan with strict standards for installation of new wiring and equipment.. character defining switch plates and other accessories. terrazzo. This rehabilitation project reused the architect's original lighting scheme and extant fixtures. use alternate light sources from removable fixtures. such as task lighting and torchiéres. Select high-quality. Conserve and rewire existing fixtures and accessories. Use existing electrical chases. Even if original fixtures will not be electrified and/or used. highest speed. parquet. Do not drill marble. If original fixtures cannot produce the amount of light required. and other finished flooring. drill in corners to minimize impacts and run wiring along baseboards. o Install new chases within or behind walls or vertically in secondary or tertiary spaces. Retrofit existing light fixtures with reflectors to increase light output. If unavoidable. especially in ornamentally significant spaces. Interior Lighting Preserve and reuse historically significant light fixtures. do not needlessly puncture a decorative plaster ceiling or molding.e. Design for flexibility and expansion. when it may be as feasible to relocate a fixture or junction box). Inconspicuous sconces or unobtrusive perimeter ceiling lighting are preferable to eye-catching modern fixtures. C.

Install in non-intrusive areas and use it to highlight historic features of a building. raking light rather than large spotlights. Use accent lighting as an effective way to highlight architectural features. If installing exterior lighting features. such as light poles or lower light sources. o Use gentle.217 • • • If using historically sensitive replacements that are wired for modern energy loads and light output. Left: Before—A dropped ceiling drastically affects the architect's original intent and grand scale of this space. o Replicas of original lighting fixtures can be designed to accommodate energy efficiency and multiple light sources. choose historically appropriate options. Plumbing . outside lighting will have implications on landscape design. Consider security and accessibility requirements. Incorporate the original light color in new lighting plans. Mount on existing poles or structures. D. Do not flood fa…ades with excessive light. Right: After—The removal of the dropped ceiling restored the architect's intent and has a much more pleasing and commercially desirable impact. Photos courtesy National Park Service Exterior Lighting • • • • • • • Consider landscape features when designing exterior lighting schemes. Ensure that the addition of interior lighting systems and other repairs will not corrupt the building's structural integrity. Ensure that the addition of exterior lighting systems and other repairs will not corrupt the building's structural integrity.

and wall cavities. Photo courtesy National Park Service Prior to initiating a plumbing upgrade. Otherwise. layout. If they are not historic. E. install them in closets. When repairing/replacing existing pipes. Avoid primary fa…ades and rooms if pipes must be affixed to the interior or exterior of a building. such as floor and wall tiles. service rooms. then take care to preserve them: • • • • • • Retain and preserve historically significant configuration.218 Some plumbing elements such as this radiator are historic. and plumbing elements. However. such as moldings. they should be located inconspicuously and they should complement adjacent finishes. it is important to ascertain whether these traditionally utilitarian spaces are in fact historic and must be preserved. do not damage adjacent finish materials. such as bathroom and kitchen fixtures and features. and features. Do not cut through character defining features. then rehabilitate them with sensitivity to the surrounding historic building materials. if plumbing elements are historic. Conveyance Systems . o If new pipes must be installed and are visible. finishes. Use existing pipe runs in their original location. wainscoting. Ensure that the addition of plumbing systems and other repairs will not corrupt the building's structural integrity. etc.

For instance. is an example of a structural system that is inseparable from the aesthetic impact. will the alteration have the same thermal expansion coefficient as the existing structural system?). Also. . it may be necessary to add an entirely new structural system or to strengthen the existing system with modern innovations. The Brooklyn Bridge. Photo courtesy National Park Service Elevators and escalators may also contribute to a building's historic significance. the building housed only a small family. finishes. for instance. elegant moldings. o Replicate the original structural system. it's important to note that a structural system itself may be historic and may require sensitivity when altering or repairing it. if not all. F. However. catalogue. Consider the 'physics' of a proposed repair (i. and details for later re-installation. Plan a use for the building that doesn't necessitate an augmented structural system. Combine code requirements and preservation concerns. First ascertain whether these features are historically significant: • • • • Reuse existing components to maximum extent possible. and materials.219 All or part of a conveyance system may be historic. exotic wood veneers within elevator cabs and bronze and brass switch plates. Ensure that the addition of conveyance systems and other repairs will not corrupt the building's structural integrity. such as post and beam systems and trusses. often original features can be slightly modified to meet code requirements. For instance. develop creative solutions to meet life/fire safety requirements as well as historic preservation goals. whereas originally. such as exotic wood paneling. Ascertain whether the building's structure or structural components are integral to the character-defining features of the building: retain as much of the original structural form and features as possible..e. it may be necessary to remove existing finish materials. this elevator cab has several character defining features. a new structural system might be installed to accommodate the larger crowds associated with a museum. floor indicators. If structural intervention is necessary: • • • • • • When structural systems have historic architectural significance. Preserve extant features of historic structural systems. Retain original fixtures. and metal air vents. Carefully remove. particularly finish elements. To access the structural system. and handrails. Examples are original. if necessary. many historically significant conveyance systems still retain some. their original elements. Structural When updating a building's structure. it is preferable to retain and repair as much of the original structural system as possible. and store original adjacent features. features.

replace missing or deteriorated materials in-kind. Productive—Design for the Changing Workplace Publications • • Preservation Brief 24: Heating. of a building's structure are historic and rehabilitate appropriately. Preservation. Photos courtesy National Park Service Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives Historic Preservation—Additional Resources. Structural Analysis of Historic Buildings: Restoration. Historic Preservation—Apply the Preservation Process Successfully. examples include replicating cast iron columns. Productive—Integrate Technological Tools. Historic Preservation—Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs. Use reversible repair and maintenance methods. Ventilating. o If substitute materials are unavoidable. they should convey the same form. and Adaptive Reuse Applications for Architects and Engineers by J.220 • • • • • Sensitively reinforce structural systems. . and overall visual appearance as the historic feature. and Cooling Historic Buildings Problems and Recommended Approaches National Park Service. Ensure that the addition of building systems and other repairs will not corrupt the building's structural integrity. if any. Stanley Rabun. Document any structural features that are too deteriorated to retain. Structural elements are an inherent part of the architect's intent. When selectively repairing a structural system. spray in ureaformaldehyde foam would be inappropriate for a historic structural system. design. determine which parts. for instance. sister principle structural components rather then replace them.

fire. curators. See also WBDG Whole Building Approach.A. synergistic. performance solutions developed in a collaborative environment will produce the best results. preservation officials. finishes. However. AZ offers an imaginative solution for vehicle barriers: a row of lush palm trees. Recommendations .J. Because historic buildings are each a unique case. security and code officials. Structural Repair and Maintenance of Historical Buildings III by C. Designers.B. McGraw-Hill Text: March 1995. and building occupants should be involved early on in the planning and design process.221 • • Structural Aspects of Building Conservation (McGraw-Hill International Series in Civil Engineering) by Poul Beckmann and Robert Bowles. Frewer (Editor). and collections in the design and implementation of safety and security measures. Computational Mechanics:. Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs by the WBDG Historic Preservation Subcommittee Last updated: 04-30-2008 Overview This federal courthouse in Tucson. cost effective. These trees provide a structural barrier and welcome relief from the desert sun in an otherwise spartan plaza. Brebbia and R. facility managers. it is important to address the protection of the building's historic spaces. Most building projects place a higher priority on the protection of building occupants and assets than on the preservation of cultural resources. This allows the project team to look at issues holistically and remain flexible to the challenges of the historic property. May 1993.

Select and locate fire suppression systems to minimize water and subsequent mold damage to historic fabric. help reduce water damage. mist systems. corridors. Alternative suppression systems such as dry systems (where lines are not filled with water). Careful and sensitive installation of suppression systems is critical to the preservation of the character of historic spaces. These codes address the following issues. additional means of egress should be carefully located to preserve significant spaces while providing a minimum of two means of egress. Application of these codes should be done in consultation with code authorities and preservation experts. Operational Considerations: Include operational and management solutions for life safety and historic preservation when designing the systems. water sensitive collections are present. ceremonial entrance experience. Fire and Smoke Separation: Design smoke separation to avoid subdividing or obscuring significant spaces.222 Incorporate Life Safety Codes The primary codes that address life safety are NFPA 101. For these reasons the input of qualified structural . Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures. depending on type of use: • • • • • Egress: Preserve the primary. Fire and Smoke Detection: Early detection of heat and smoke is critical to extinguishing fires with minimum damage to historic resources. Life Safety Code. General Services Administration. this can result in damage to historic finishes. This publication provides guidance on location of detection devices unobtrusively. Public Buildings Service. However.1—Fire Safety Retrofitting. Un-reinforced masonry construction. and NFPA 914. and time delay with alarms prior to activation. NFPA 914 addresses performance approaches and equivalencies for achieving code compliance. main. entry areas. See the WBDG Secure/Safe—Plan for Fire Protection. Ensure that staff and occupants are trained to respond promptly and summon additional resources in event of an emergency situation. is particularly susceptible to damage in seismic events. See also Technical Preservation Guideline 3. the International Building Code. Halon systems may be useful in small. U. Where existing stairs cannot be brought into compliance without significantly changing the character of the spaces. Fire Suppression Systems: The purpose of fire suppression systems is to cover all surfaces evenly. Evaluate fire loads to determine appropriate protection. Integrate Seismic Upgrades Increased concern about seismic risk has led to more stringent requirements that can negatively impact historic buildings. Use computer modeling to identify high-risk areas. contained areas where high-value. A number of states have enacted rehabilitation and historic building codes that may lessen the alteration of historic material. The challenge of seismic upgrades in historic buildings is to accommodate strengthening in ways that do not interfere with the building fa…ade or the volume and features of significant public spaces. common to many historic buildings and structures. Very early response/detection systems can eliminate the need for suppression systems.S. 2001. such as stairways.

Provide Building Security A new concept design for security at the Federal Triangle in Washington. National Park Service. (Refer also to WBDG Historic—Update Systems Appropriately. PE. Care must be taken to avoid significant alteration to historic landscaping. Terry Wong. Structural section). DC beautifies the sidewalk by incorporating barriers into garden walls. Look. a threat/vulnerability assessment and risk analysis should be conducted to determine the potential threats and acceptable levels of risk. In regards to historic preservation. AIA.223 engineers with knowledge of and experience in preservation of historic buildings is essential. Seek opportunities to create amenities that are seamless with historic character. Consider the following issues when designing security against terrorism for a historic property refer also to WBDG Retrofitting Existing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats: • Site Planning: The goal for site planning is to maximize standoff distance for potential large explosive devices and to provide clear zones adjacent to the building to facilitate observation of small explosive devices.. Before security measures are designed. physical. Impact-engineered site . General building security involves technical. Seek opportunities to create public spaces that address security measures and enhance historic character (e. and Preservation Brief 41: The Seismic Retrofit of Historic Buildings: Keeping Preservation in the Forefront by David W. Wherever possible: Coordinate proposed seismic upgrades with other structural improvements such as strengthening of buildings to prevent progressive collapse as part of anti-terrorism force protection measures. and Sylvia Rose Augustus. wherever possible: • • • Integrate security design to minimize visual and other impacts on the historic fabric of the building. This inviting landscape includes new amenities such as benches and sculptural features. (Refer also to WBDG Seismic Design Principles). A principle goal of the entry experience is to maintain a setting that is welcoming to the visitor.g. and operational solutions with appropriate redundancies. standoff distances reduce the need to modify buildings).

Remote Delivery Facility and Metro Entrance Facility . • • • • Example: Pentagon Renovation Program . For guidance on sensitive building systems upgrades. including ceiling elements and tiles. In general. Heating. o Materials and products exist that resemble historic materials but may offer more security. Building modifications need to consider the threat level. o Some historic architectural elements. Ventilation. and review of design alternatives as they relate to preservation issues. Replacement of historic doors can often be avoided by closing an entrance or providing an additional set of doors to provide the required protection. Installing emergency generators for existing historic fixtures can eliminate the need for intrusive secondary lighting systems. Furring in of exterior walls should be avoided where it impacts historic finishes or changes the volume and proportions of significant spaces. refer to Historic—Update Building Systems Appropriately. Architecture o Replacement of historic windows can frequently be avoided with the addition of blast-resistant interior storm windows and/or blast curtains to prevent glass fragmentation hazards (refer also to WBDG Glazing Hazard Mitigation and Retrofitting Existing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats). light fixtures and equipment. Structural: Prevention of progressive collapse is required for buildings of three stories or more. they should comply with code and be compatible with the original design. should be secured or reinforced to prevent injury and loss in security or seismic events. For guidance on sensitive building systems upgrades. and Air-Conditioning (HVAC): HVAC systems must be installed and protected to prevent the entry of external contaminants. and blast resistant doors may be required in some situations. structural analysis. Notification devices and detection equipment should be integrated to avoid damage or disruption of historic finishes. For guidance on sensitive building systems upgrades. They also should allow for the isolation of contaminants and the exhaust of smoke in support of building evacuation. If new features are required. refer to Historic—Update Building Systems Appropriately. o Internal layout of spaces is important to provide entry control and protection of critical resources.224 furniture and appropriately designed bollards can enhance both site amenity and security. make every effort to minimize impact on the historic fabric of the building. Electrical: Electrical issues relate to provision of power and emergency lighting as well as means of mass notification. refer to Historic—Update Building Systems Appropriately. o Doors are generally required to open outward.

Arlington. including energy. Reuse resources Use renewable energy sources Create a healthy working environment Build facilities of long-term value Protect and/or restore natural environment Pentagon Reservation with Metro entrance facility (left) and remote delivery facility with landscaped parade ground (right foreground) . Photo Courtesty of DoD Pentagon Renovation (PENREN) Goals for Sustainable Construction • • • • • • • Use resources efficiently Minimize raw material resource consumption. both during the construction as well as throughout the life of the facility. VA. land and materials. water.225 Pentagon Remote Delivery Facility and Metro Entrance Facility.

Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. The design of the MEF uses landscaped dirt berms to mitigate the potential effects of a blast. Pentagon Metro Entrance Facility (MEF) The MEF was a congressionally mandated security project to relocate the Pentagon bus station further from the building and to create a secure screening facility for visitors entering the Pentagon. The RDF is registered as a pilot project with the U. Green Building Council. The façade of the RDF replicates the look and feel of the original Indiana limestone used on the exterior of the Pentagon in the 1940s.000 square foot shipping and receiving facility adjoining the Pentagon. A landscaped roof provides new green space with indigenous vegetation and water reuse in what was once an asphalt parking lot. The Pentagon was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1992. including the Mall Terrace façade. The MEF is the first Department of Defense facility to receive Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED™) certification from the U. The facility includes a building control system for energy efficiency and indoor air quality. Self-cleaning Tefloncoated fiberglass canopies protect pedestrians from the foul weather and will not fragment in the event of an explosion (as is the case with glass or other less flexible materials. it actually improved site lines to the Pentagon's historic Mall Terrace. The RDF significantly improved the physical security of the Pentagon by providing a secure consolidated location to receive and screen thousands of items shipped to the building each day. Balancing the security needs of the Department of Defense while creating a welcoming and historically sensitive "front door" to the Pentagon is a difficult balancing act made possible with sustainable solutions. By conforming the one-story receiving facility to the shape of the existing site. This landmark protects five contributing architectural features of the Pentagon.226 Pentagon Remote Delivery Facility (RDF) Remote delivery facility with landscaped parade ground The RDF is a 250. The roof landscaping also reduces storm water volume on the site and heat loading of the facility. The following features design and construction features contribute to the LEED Certification: • At least 50% of waste was diverted from landfill .S. bordered by two highways.S.

227 • • • • • • • • • Electric vehicle outlets installed Vegetation covers half the open space restoring life back to the site High reflectance Energy Star roofing installed 20% savings in energy consumption Over 50% of the building materials were assembled within 500 miles Over 50% of the materials contain recycled content 21% of wood-based materials were FSC certified Permanent CO2 monitoring systems installed Registered as a LEED project The National Capital Planning Commission and Commission of Fine Arts cited the MEF as an exemplary project. LEED points earned on the RDF and MEF projects combine to certify the entire Pentagon Reservation under the U. the façade of the MEF matches the existing exterior of the Pentagon to complement the appearance of the historic building.g. Like the RDF. Designers incorporated skylights to bring natural light into the facility thereby reducing the use of artificial lighting. certified wood. LEED for Existing Buildings. PENREN adhered to the Secretary of Interior's Standards throughout the design and construction of the project. Green Building Council's pilot program. terrazzo. recycled content ceiling panels). The MEF was subject to review by the Virginia State Historic Preservation Officer and other governmental review commissions since the Pentagon is a listed National Historic Landmark. Metro entrance facility (fiberglass canopy) with Pentagon security entrance and visitor screening center (terrazzo structure adjacent to Pentagon building) PENREN chose finish materials for the security entrance and visitor center that enhance sustainability of the facility (e. The skylights allow visitors and personnel to see the monumental façade of the Pentagon (restored during the project) when ascending the escalators from the security area into the Pentagon proper.S. Emerging Issues Smart Codes .

The general intent of life safety codes is to ensure prompt escape of building occupants. alarms. the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 914 Code for Fire Protection in Historic Structures provides alternatives. The code addresses construction features such as the a) width. two important trends are converging to support flexible approaches to egress code compliance: 1) alternative codes for historic and non-historic existing buildings and 2) technological advances that compensate for fire safety deficiencies and offer less intrusive solutions for prescriptive code compliance. onerous enough to discourage investment in older urban areas. fire protection features such as smoke detection devices. has led states such as New Jersey (New Jersey Rehabilitation Sub-Code [1999]) and Maryland (Maryland Building Rehabilitation Code) to adopt Smart Codes. In addition. and architectural features that give a building its historic character. model code publications.228 Although fire safety improvements—particularly early warning detection and quick response suppression—help to reduce the risk of devastating historic building losses. for meeting the intent of the NFPA Life Safety Code within the framework of the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. length. including performance-based approaches and operational solutions.S. to a safe area. In 2000 the U. contents. as well as methods for calculating the fire resistance of general classes of archaic materials and assemblies for which no documentation is available. occupancy and operational features such as emergency evacuation planning. The 2000 edition also includes an array of details developed by English Heritage for upgrading the fire resistance of wood panel doors. Increasing recognition that compliance with prescriptive codes written principally to guide new construction. Relevant Codes and Standards Life Safety . The document has found widespread acceptance among code officials and has been incorporated into numerous state and local building codes. and fire precautions during construction. This guide provides fire ratings for a wide variety of materials and assemblies found in buildings from the nineteenth to the mid-twentieth centuries. in the event of a fire. their potential to compromise historic fabric often leads to resistance against egress code compliance. and (U. and fire suppression systems. Department of Housing and Urban Development released an updated and expanded edition of Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies with the expressed goal of promoting the preservation and reuse of America's older housing and building stock. and fire resistance of exit paths and b) ability of construction materials to contain fire and prevent its spread.S.) National Fire Protection Association standards. Fortunately. The intent of NFPA 914 is to ensure prompt escape of building occupants while minimizing the impact of fire and fire protection on the structure. or Rehabilitation codes that provide flexibility to achieve life safety goals without wholesale building reconfiguration.

S. 07 January 1998. Massachusetts Building Code Section 780 CMR 3409. Secure / Safe Branch Publications . VA Design Manual—Structural Design Manual for Seismic Retrofit Projects. International Code Council. 2002. Technical Preservation Guideline 3. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Department of State: Physical Security Standards Handbook. Veterans Affairs Administration. General Services Administration.S. NFPA 914—Code for Fire Protection of Historic Structures. 2003.229 • • • • • • • • • 1997 Uniform Code for Building Conservation 2003 International Building Code Guideline on Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies. 2001. National Fire Protection Association. Security and Anti-terrorism • • • • • • • Department of Defense: UFC 4-010-01 DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings General Services Administration (GSA): Facilities Standards for the Public Building Service. (For Official Use Only) National Capital Planning Commission's Urban Design and Security Plan Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives Historic Preservation—Additional Resources. adopted 1998 & revised 2000. Vermont Department of Labor and Industry's Fire Prevention and Building Code Compliance for Historic Buildings: A Field Guide Seismic Upgrades • • • California Historic Building Code (2001) FEMA 356-Prestandard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings. A groundbreaking performance code written for rehabilitation projects and widely recognized as a model by code promulgation bodies. 2001. ASCE/FEMA. U. 2000.0 (2000)—Historic Building exceptions New Jersey Rehabilitation Sub-Code.1—Fire Safety Retrofitting. Chapter 8. U. P100. International Existing Building Code. U.S. Public Buildings Service.

Compliance is required in these areas. landscapes. 1997. . but the accessibility standards (such as Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) and American with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG)) are more flexible when applied to historic buildings.230 • • • Building Security: Handbook for Architectural Planning and Design edited by Barbara Nadel. 1997. EPA Headquarters. From Building Conservation Website. persons with disabilities should experience sites. Providing access (exterior and interior) for persons with disabilities in ways that preserve the character of the historic property is a challenge and requires creativity and collaboration among the project team members. DC. New York: McGraw-Hill. 41. and spaces in the same manner as other users whenever possible. Preservation Brief No. Department of the Interior. buildings. The Seismic Retrofit of Historic Buildings: Keeping Preservation in the Forefront. Comply with Accessibility Requirements by the WBDG Historic Preservation Subcommittee Last updated: 04-30-2008 Overview Ariel Rios. Washington. 2004.S. UFAS and ADAAG provide alternative solutions that allow retention of original historic fabric (such as narrow corridors). However. National Parks Service. U. The ramps at this historic federal building were sensitively designed to provide equal access while preserving the building's original fabric. (Photo: GSA) Most historic buildings were not originally designed to accommodate people with disabilities and special needs. Strategic Fire Protection in Historic Buildings by Richard Forrest.

consider on-grade entrances or down-grade sloping ramps that connect to interior elevators. Arlington. historic landscapes. unique issues that must be resolved in order to provide accessibility in historic buildings will be discussed in this section. Exterior accessibility can be accommodated by providing a wheelchair accessible path from safe and accessible parking to a significant entry to the building. VA) • • • • • Preserve the intended entry experience of historic sites and buildings for everyone. Recommendations The following are the primary areas related to accessibility design requiring special care: Accessible Routes and Clearances Areas in front of this community center were regraded to allow access to the building via landscaped ramps. (Photo: Arlington County. Accessible routes do not have to be altered if they provide adequate turning radius at intervals. o Wherever possible. Modifications that limit impact on the historic character of a building while still meeting code are preferable. . Doors and Hardware • Provide access without removing character-defining elements such as doors and hardware. o As an alternative. o This may require locating an accessible entrance elsewhere. design solutions that use on-grade entrances or low slope ramps integrated into the site to avoid the requirement for railings at abrupt level changes. Construct new ramps and railings of compatible materials and design. Preserve visual symmetry where applicable.231 While accessible design is covered in WBDG Accessible Branch. or informational exhibits. VA.

primary corridors.232 • • Avoid replacing historic hardware wherever possible. Where it is unavoidable. removing. . In such cases. Program Accessibility • Alternatives to Physical Access: House museums and significant spaces within historic buildings may not be adaptable for physical access. and damaging historic signs and finishes. Free-standing signage is often an acceptable alternative to mounting signs on historic fabric. For more information. refer to the following: o National Endowment for the Arts. visual access and/or program access to such spaces may be adequate alternatives. Avoid altering. design new doors and openings to be compatible with the materials and detailing of nearby historic doors. Alternative solutions to hardware replacement include such techniques as keeping the door open during normal business hours and electric door openers. unisex restrooms to eliminate the need for modifying existing bathrooms with historic finishes. relocation of these functions to accessible areas is allowed and avoids major adverse renovations. Avoid widening door openings. Avoid penetrating historic material. Signage • • Signage should be integrated into the historic building fabric in ways that preserve the historic character. models. Interior Public Spaces • • • • Preserve the hierarchy and historic character of significant spaces including entrances. Preserve character-defining features and spatial qualities of ceremonial lobbies. and stairs. Office for AccessAbility o Smithsonian Institution Accessibility Design Guidelines for Exhibits For accessibility to programs and employment. atria. Look for alternative routes. o Installation: Installation of signage should be carefully executed to avoid damage to finishes. lobbies. Methods include visual presentations. • Restroom Design • When restrooms are part of the character of the historic building and cannot be readily modified due to clearances or level changes. Avoid detrimental modifications to primary entrances in seeking to meet security and accessibility solutions. Maintain historic primary entrances. accessible. and providing exhibits in accessible spaces. consider adding appropriately located.

(Photo: GSA) • Either new or existing elevators provide vertical accessibility. When this is needed designs should respect the historic fabric. Consider: o Call buttons: Although the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) require call buttons at 42". Vertical Accessibility Example of a well-designed modification of a historic railing to comply with accessibility requirements. railings on stairways need to be raised to comply with accessibility requirements. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities(ADAAG) Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) Major Resources . an ADA modification can often be sought for buttons up to 54" in height when appropriate side access is available. o Stair Railings: In some cases. Often elevators are a significant element of the fabric of a historic building.233 • Serif letters may be used if the font size is large and there is high contrast with the background. Accommodating required clearances and control heights are often issues. See Smithsonian Guidelines for Accessible Exhibit Design for more information.

questions. Army—TI 800-01 Design Criteria. Access Board National Center on Accessibility Smithsonian Institution Accessibility Program Smithsonian Guidelines for Accessible Exhibit Design Guidelines for Universal Design of Exhibits Publications . Safe / Secure—Plan for Fire Protection Federal Agencies • • • • • • • • • • Department of Defense (DoD): U. and referrals: (800) 514-0301 (voice) (800) 514-0383 (TTY) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Accessibility Program General Services Administration (GSA) National Accessibility Program Organizations/Associations • • • • • U.Building Accessibility .S. Army—Installation Design Standards.S. Historic Preservation— Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs. Provision for Individuals with Physical Disabilities.May 2004 U. including businesses. also provides information on how to file ADA complaints. Chapter 7. Section 4. Barrier Free Design Accessibility Requirements. nonprofit service agencies. Air Force—Air Force Center of Expertise for Accessibility Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO)—HUD enforces the Fair Housing Act and has issued guidelines under this law (the Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines) which cover multi-family housing. ADA Information Line for documents. 26 May 1994 (Revised 1 June 1997) U.S. 20 July 1998 U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ)—DOJ offers technical assistance on the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and other ADA provisions applying to public accommodations and commercial facilities. Navy—NAVFAC PDPS 94-01. Many of its technical assistance letters are available online. Historic Preservation—Additional Resources.S. Chapter 3.234 WBDG Design Objectives Accessible. Section 8 . and state and local government programs and services. HUD's website also addresses access under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.

if not impossible. Jester and Sharon C. Vermont: Historic Windsor. and collaboration—the building blocks of productivity. daylighting. Hayward. and the workforce have changed dramatically in the past two decades. It is often hard to quantify the impacts of specific components of the indoor environment on productivity. management practices. Park. DC was designed to maximize flexibility. and continual demands for innovation have created pressures for the workplace to catch up with the changing nature of work. and Thomas C. Windsor. Productive by the WBDG Productive Committee Last updated: 04-30-2008 Overview The Alternative Workplace Laboratory at the GSA headquarters building in Washington. Wise use of space also means creating the right context for concentration. It means designing for flexibility to enable space to change as work groups and projects evolve. Technological advances. Jester. because individual and group work effectiveness is tied to many different factors—including compensation levels. communication. such as the presence or absence of team rooms. natural meeting . 1992. allowing new occupants to change the space to fit their group end individual needs. demographic shifts. It is difficult. This does not just mean cutting costs. and environmental comfort. work practices. revised 1993. to isolate individual physical factors.235 • • Accessibility and Historic Preservation Resource Guide by Judith L. National Park Service.. Preservation Brief 32: Making Historic Properties Accessible by Thomas C. Organizational effectiveness today means using space more wisely. learning. Organizations. Inc. AIA. compilers.

" Note: Design strategies that increase user satisfaction and that improve individual and group work effectiveness should therefore be considered not as cost 'extras. such costs are typically.00 per square foot per year for energy. for providing greater flexibility) would pay for itself if it generated a modest 1% increase in salary "productivity. in order of magnitude: • • • $200 per square foot per year for salaries $20 per square foot per year for amortized bricks and mortar costs. an additional $2 per square foot per year for bricks and mortar costs (e.' but as productivity investments that enhance an organization's overall success." One way to do such "factoring" is to consider the total life-cycle costs of a workplace each year.g. In private sector offices. the long-term cost benefits of a properly designed.07 MB. In this situation. an increasing number of studies are beginning to suggest that support for communication and collaboration as well as for individual cognitive activity are fundamental aspects of organizational productivity. . and $2. 167 pgs) that "since people are the most important resource and greatest expense of any organization. This problem is exacerbated in the case of whitecollar workers whose "output" is knowledge or insight that cannot be easily quantified. user-friendly work environment should be factored into any initial cost considerations. or control over the environment. Nonetheless.236 places. The GSA agrees and concludes in The Integrated Workplace (PDF 3.

Note: Information in these Productive pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. An effective workplace should be designed to support and enhance the health and well-being of its occupants. natural light. and by providing connections to the natural environment. Provide Comfortable Environments A workplace designed and operated to provide the highest achievable levels of visual. and tools that function consistently and are properly maintained. exciting places to work and live by encouraging adaptability. Value Engineering for Federal Agencies Major Resources WBDG . Design for the Changing Workplace Providing spaces with flexibility. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • Executive Order 13423. Also. Energy. Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces Reliability is one of the greatest concerns for building occupants—it directly affects their safety. social support. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. health. and thermal comforts for its occupants is the underpinning of worker effectiveness. Parts 48. Value Engineering Federal Acquisition Regulations. improving comfort. There are five fundamental principles of productive building designs: • • • • • Promote Health and Well-Being Indoor environments strongly affect human health. equipment. Workers must be able to rely on building systems.237 Buildings can be more effective. highperformance buildings. Integrate Technological Tools Effectively integrating technological tools and distribution networks required in today's office environments to enable workers to perform their duties starts first and foremost with properly designed pathways and spaces. Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses OMB Circular A-131 Public Law 104-106. supporting sense of community. and Transportation Management" Federal Acquisition Regulations. and comfort. workplace productivity strategies support sustainable design principles and should be taken on balance for the longevity of systems considered. Sustainable design principles help achieve this objective. Parts 52. and view. acoustic. and technology to promote new ways of working is a cornerstone of change and innovation. Section 4306.

Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) Federal Agencies • • • EPA National Center for Environmental Research Integrated Workplace Program. 2001. 2004. 32(6):510-528. June 2002. Maryland. U. Project Management Building Commissioning Tools Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC).1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix. Office of Governmentwide Policy.S. Collaborative Knowledge Work Environments by Judith Heerwagen. U. ASHRAE Workshop on Indoor Environment and Productivity by ASHRAE. Kevin Kampschroer. Office of Real Property Workplace 20·20. Daylighting and Human Performance by Lisa Heschong. Life. and Vivian Loftness. ASHRAE Journal. . General Services Administration Organizations • • • • • • Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture The American Institute of Architects American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) International Facility Management Association (IFMA) Corporate Real Estate Network (CoreNet) National Research Council of Canada—Institute for Research in Construction—A leading international organization studying the effects of environmental comfort on occupant productivity Publications • • • • The Agile Workplace: Supporting People and Their Work by Gartner. Kevin Powell.S. Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 22 Industry Sponsors.Baltimore. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool. General Services Administration. Building Research & Information.238 Building / Space Types Applicable to all building types and space types. June 1992. especially those regularly occupied or visited. LEED® Version 2.

2000. Personal Control and the Positive Correlation to Increased Productivity" (PDF 170 KB. Ontario: 1:231-36. Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. 3 pgs) by Satish Kumar. New Adventures in Office Space: The Integrated Workplace . Proceedings of Indoor Air '90: Fifth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate by Gary Raw and Michael Roys. 3 pgs) by William J.E. The Integrated Workplace: A Comprehensive Approach to Developing Workspace (PDF 3.07 MB. 1993. Ontario. Green Buildings. Member ASHRAE and William J. "Environmental Satisfaction. April 2002. 1995.E. February 2002. How IEQ Affects Health. Toronto. Finland: 6:3-13. Organizational Success and Occupant Productivity by Judith Heerwagen.S. May 2002.. P. Further Findings from the Office of Environment Survey: Productivity. "Relationships Between the Indoor Environment and Productivity: A Literature Review. NY: Center for Architectural Research.16 MB. Fisk. PA: Carnegie Mellon University. P.S. Rensselaer's West Bend Mutual Study: Using Advanced Office Technologies to Increase Productivity by Walter Kroner. ASHRAE Journal. Sensharma. 167 pgs) by Office of Real Property in the Office of Governmentwide Policy of the U. Troy. . General Services Administration. et al. ASHRAE Journal. Proceedings of Indoor Air '93: Sixth International International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate by David Wyon. Helsinki.S. One of the most carefully documented studies on increases in productivity as a result of improved environmental quality. Total Workplace Performance: Rethinking the Office Environment by Stanley Aronoff and Audrey Kaplan (eds. 1997.. 1994. 1992. Canada: WDL Publications. 2000.239 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • DOE Building Studies by the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics.A Planning Guide by the Office of Real Property and Office of Governmentwide Policy of the U. P100 by the General Service Administration (GSA). Member ASHRAE. IEQ and the Impact on Building Occupants (PDF 105 KB. General Services Administration.). Ph. Integrated Systems: Increasing Building and Workplace Performance by BOMA International Foundation. Environmental Protection Agency. Productivity (PDF 220 KB. Antique Collectors Club. May 1999. Fisk.D. Member ASHRAE. "Greening the Building and the Bottom Line: Increasing Productivity Through Energy-Efficient Design" (PDF 1. Building Research & Information. Healthy Buildings and their Impact on Productivity. 28 (5/6): 353-367. Ottawa." ASHRAE Transactions by N. 1996. Pittsburgh. 16 pgs) White paper by Johnson Controls Personal Environments. Sustainable Building Technical Manual by the United States Department of Energy and the U.. 1998. et al. The New Office: With 20 International Case Studies by Francis Duffy. 1990. 17 pgs) White paper by Rocky Mountain Institute.

HVAC. security. and the Buffalo Organization for Social and Technological Innovation (BOSTI).000 office buildings throughout the United States during a five-year period.240 • • Using Office Design to Increase Productivity by Michael Brill. and can adjust power delivery to building occupation patterns. global. and secure infrastructure that will support the growing and evolving demands of business and government in the 21st century. database. 1995. clean power. A major study of the relationship between productivity and user satisfaction in 6.com Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics—Carnegie Mellon University Center for the Built Environment—The Contribution of Building Design and Operation to Productivity. and the market will be strong for high performing buildings having: • • • Power supply systems that provide flexible service. media. and fire alarm—should enable whole building control and performance optimization. purchasing the appropriate server. They must leverage these evolving information technologies to match the specifications of their stakeholders. Others • • • • BetterBricks. Wire management systems that enable quick and low-cost reconfiguration. Jossey-Bass. lighting. reliable. Integration of wireless products as they become commercially viable. router. Demands on the building's data pathways will be heavy. University of California at Berkeley The Workplace Forum—DEGW. and other technologies that sustain their work. and . Assuring flexibility to accommodate the dynamic nature of telecommunications systems starts first and foremost with properly designed pathways and spaces. et al. Workplace by Design: Mapping the High-Performance Workscape by Franklin Becker and Fritz Steele. 1994. Interoperability across building systems—including power. organizations have to stay current. To stay in business. A private site dedicated to information on emerging office environments Integrate Technological Tools by the WBDG Productive Committee Last updated: 05-05-2008 Overview Integration of information technology and building architecture calls for a robust.

) • • • • • • • Assure that technological solutions respond to the changing nature of work. Recommendations Provide Distributed Data. and Workplace. Security. See also WBDG Changing Nature of Organizations. including both internal and external ability. including data and voice. Provide distributed Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) for clean and reliable power. copper). wireless. security.241 • Distributed computing environments that have reliable cooling compatible with human comfort. and environmental information (e. but maximize local control by occupants. fiber optics. Consider wireless and mobile technologies to support the changing nature of work. Power. Monitor work environmental conditions with central systems. and Environmental Services for Central Communications and Continuity of Operations Desktop video conferencing (Courtesy of MDL Corp. See also WBDG Productive—Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces. high-speed access to the desktop for data. Employ Distributed Modular Cabinets with Plug and Play Interfaces . Consider emerging technologies to provide secure. through distributed Ethernet-IP networks with centralized backup.g. Consider desktop video and Internet-based conferencing to provide on-going contact for dispersed work groups. Voice. Modifiable. Video. Vertical Power and Telecom Cores • • Provide modular power panels with appropriate open riser space. Design Accessible.. Work. voice. Merge all low voltage systems.

Design service neighborhoods to meet or exceed current standards. House servers. Simplify the ease of relocating modular boxes in relation to ceiling. power. Modifiable Services • • • Base capacities on maximum occupancies. Use 3D modeling to facilitate integration. recyclability). HVAC. interiors to integrate systems. maintainability. Select systems to be compatible with Internet-based applications. in environmentally controlled modular cabinets. floor. etc. o Bring services to the desktop as required by users. Optimize plenum real estate. networking. Select terminal units that provide services—data. and energy and material efficiency. Select IT System and Components for Energy and Material Conservation • • Design for longevity (expandability. and voice (and environment where possible)—in reconfigurable boxes for just-in-time modifications. Conduct a multidiscipline "charrette" with structural. fire. Consider sub-metering of power to address customer requirements for tracking energy usage. bridges. o Provide relocatable modular outlet boxes with flex connectors to respond to changing densities.242 • • • • Provide modular racks and plug-in hardware within office suites versus closets and hard wiring. • • • • Consider overhead cable trays and/or underfloor wire baskets for increased flexibility and accessibility. and carpet tiles. Provide Re-Configurable Plenum Systems Under floor air distribution system installed in a renovated facility. but distribute and deliver as needed. disassembly. Design Kit-of-Parts for Efficient. . Manage wiring under floor or vertically through patch panels.

and Estimating w/Change TI 800-01 Design Criteria TM 5-683/MO-116/AFJMAN 32-1083 Electrical Interior Facilities U. enabling every worker to have the very best in environmental conditions. General Services Administration: GSA Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service.243 Mobile office for the intelligent workplace—well-applied technology can ensure a leap in both technical and environmental quality.S. Bonding. P100 Major Resources . Volume 1 of 2 MIL-HDBK-1012/3 Telecommunications Premises Distribution Planning. and Shielding for Electronic Equipment and Facilities. Carnegie-Mellon University) Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ANSI/TIA/EIA-568 Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard ANSI/TIA/EIA-569 Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunication Pathways and Spaces ANSI/TIA J-STD-607-A Commercial Building Grounding (Earthing) and Bonding Requirements for Telecommunications FIPS PUB 174 Federal Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard FIPS PUB 175 Federal Building Standard for Telecommunication Pathways and Spaces TIA TSB72 Centralized Optical Fiber Cabling Guidelines TIA TSB75 Additional Horizontal Cabling Practices for Open Offices Department of Defense: AFH 32-1084 Facility Requirements ER 1105-2-100 Planning Guidance Notebook MIL-HDBK-419A Grounding. Design. (Courtesy of Center for Building Performance & Diagnostics.

1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix. and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers High Performance Commercial Buildings—A Technology Roadmap by U. 1999.244 WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to all building types and space types. May 1999. Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces by the WBDG Productive Committee Last updated: 04-30-2008 Overview Reliability is a great concern for building occupants and organizations. As workplaces evolve in response to changes in organizational structure and work practices. Environmental. Absence of reliability directly affects personal security and well-being.S. reliability needs to take into consideration the multiplicity of spaces that . especially those regularly occupied or visited. The Integrated Workplace: A Comprehensive Approach to Developing Workspace by Office of Real Property in the Office of Governmentwide Policy of the U. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool. Life-Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) Trade Shows • • Comdex—IT trade show NeoCon—Trade fair for interior design and facilities management Publications • • • • ARCHI-TECH magazine—Bridging the Gap Between Design and Technology Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy. LEED® Version 2. General Services Administration.S. as well as mission critical work. Department of Energy. Project Management Building Commissioning Tools Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC).

Provide adequate training and resources to use and/or maintain systems. building mass. including fire/emergency. HVAC. life. See also WBDG Functional/Operational Branch. Building and information systems that disrupt workflow will not be tolerated. institutional or commercial. The workforce of the future will demand workspace and tools that amplify their abilities and help them compete effectively for the best work. and voice delivery systems (and related equipment and tools). etc. worker productivity can be improved or maintained. . and organizational objectives without operational uncertainty.. fire suppression. operable windows.). This applies to all facilities whether public or private. People increasingly expect work settings to fully support pursuit of individual. Provide ease of access for maintenance and repair of systems. security. This calls for systems that perform reliably with good maintenance support. large or small. Recommendations • • • • • • • Provide freestanding (local) system alternatives for individual user access and control. through raised floor system). Provide systems that minimize reliance on building management/maintenance personnel. natural ventilation. Organizations and their workers are entitled to work places that enable them to remain productive and in-touch at all times. and/or purpose. When the workplace is supported by high performance systems that require minimal maintenance or downtime and have back-up capabilities to ensure negligible loss of service. and smoke alarm. data. lighting. data. voice. Consider dual-fuel back up for critical building systems. circumstance.g. lighting. power. energy recovery. power. interoperability. regardless of location. and intuitive operation and maintenance. These systems need to function consistently and be properly maintained. Select systems based on optimum performance. building access. etc. team.245 support individual and group work.g. Provide networked computerized building systems sensors to monitor and manage control of the following systems: HVAC. Consider displacement air supply system that are zoned appropriately for ventilation purposes (e. Maximize interoperability of different manufacturers' systems and products (including parts interchangeability). safety. HVAC • • • • Maximize conditioning through natural means/methods (e. Building users must be able to rely on facility hardware and software for health.

etc. Update computer hardware and software periodically. Lighting Workers at the Philip Merrill Environmental Center in Annapolis. etc. fiberoptics. Zone power circuits to separate ambient and task lighting.) for critical function areas.).246 • Provide building automation systems that are remotely accessible by facilities managers to determine problem locations and monitor environmental conditions without disturbing workers. wind. Consider emergency back-up lighting systems (generator. Utilize long-life lamps and quality fixtures. Consider Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) or other back-up systems (e. • • • • • • Maximize use of daylighting and related lighting control devices (shades.). Utilize occupancy and light level sensing/control devices to extend lamp life. Consider distributed power systems for on-site power generation (e. Power Supply • • • Provide building surge protection to safeguard data systems and critical electronic equipment. fuel cell. light shelves. Consider telecommunication equipment back-up systems (battery power.g. solar power systems). Consider emerging lighting technologies such as low voltage lighting systems. . etc. Telecommunication Systems/Equipment (voice/data) • • • • Support distributed computing (see also WBDG Productive—Integrate Technological Tools). plenum rated). etc. solar.). battery. and light emitting diodes (LEDs) that provide quality lighting with greater reliability.g. Maryland. microturbines. Provide interchangeable voice/data cabling (category 5+ or higher. enjoy access to daylight and views from all areas of the building.

Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)—the concept of developing a maintenance scheme based on the reliability of the various components of the system or product in question. etc.) to access and/or control IT. energy-efficient. reliability ranks almost as high as cost as a top "quality indicator" when selecting building systems and equipment. to promote internal mobility and access to emergency services. eye scans. space. fingerprints. reduces system reliability and is clearly a chief motivator for purchasing quality equipment. See also WBDG Productive—Integrate Technological Tools. Provide low power usage emergency egress lights and LED illuminators with rechargeable battery (back-up gel cell). wind." often selected due to lower first costs. hydro. and biomass power systems. "Problem prone equipment. and property. where feasible. See also WBDG Secure/Safe Branch. data. Emerging Issues Fuel cell power plant installation at South County Hospital—Wakefield. Provide security systems with back-up capability for emergency signals and communication. Provide hardwired smoke alarms with back-up battery power. and environmentally responsible back-up power sources have lead to advancements in fuel cell technology. For most building owners and operators. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)—the integration of all departments and functions across an agency/company onto a single computer system that can serve all those different departments' particular needs. RI (Courtesy of UTC Fuel Cells) Increasing demands for renewable.247 • • Consider wireless systems. solar. Implementing a preventative maintenance program using RCM can greatly reduce the cost of ownership of a product or system. . Security/Safety • • • • • Provide identification/verification systems (such as card key.

and Wayfinding E 1670 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Management of Operations and Maintenance E 1679 Setting the Requirements for the Serviceability of a Building or BuildingRelated Facility E 1693 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Protection of Occupant Assets E 1700 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Structure and Building Envelope E 1701 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Manageability Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to all building types and space types. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool. and identify retrofits for existing buildings and central plant facilities. optimize energy use.Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) Publications . Life.248 Continuous Commissioning—an ongoing process to resolve operating problems. Project Management Building Commissioning Tools Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC). improve comfort. Continuous commissioning ensures that the building and systems operate optimally to meet the current requirements.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix. LEED® Version 2. Access. which supports worker effectiveness. especially those regularly occupied or visited. Relevant Codes and Standards ASTM Standard Classifications and Practices • • • • • • • • • • • E 1334 Rating the Serviceability of a Building or Building-Related Facility E 1660 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Support for Office Work E 1662 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Sound and Visual Environment E 1665 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Facility Protection E 1666 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Work Outside Normal Hours or Conditions E 1669 Serviceability of an Office Facility for Location.

greater flexibility in work locations. Workplaces have responded with many new options. and changing business relationships. designers have sought to create a new generation of "flexible" buildings and workplace environments within buildings that have infrastructures and structures that fully support change while sustaining new technologies. including more teaming and informal interaction spaces. The changing nature of work means greater mobility for workers. Reliability-Centered Maintenance. 2nd Edition by John Moubray. Center for the Built Environment. NASA Reliability Centered Maintenance Guide for Facilities and Collateral Equipment Nature's Power on Demand: Renewable Energy Systems as Emergency Power Sources by Roberta F. University of California at Berkeley. Others • • • • • Blame it on Enterprise Resource Planning! by D. a multiplicity of workspaces within and external to buildings.249 • • • • The Integrated Workplace: A Comprehensive Approach to Developing Workspace by Office of Real Property in the Office of Governmentwide Policy of the U. more supports for virtual individual and group work. Jagadish.S. Works' Reference Site Design for the Changing Workplace by the WBDG Productive Committee Last updated: 06-11-2007 Overview In this electronic/information age. increased dependence on social networks—and greater pressure to provide for all of these needs and behaviors in a leaner and more agile way. and more focus on fitting .V. ISBN: 0831131462. more attention to integrating learning into everyday work experience. Carnegie Mellon University Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) I. The National Center for Appropriate Technology. work teams form and reform to meet organizational needs.T. and multi-capable individuals and teams. Buildings and interior spaces need to be flexible to anticipate and support this changing nature of work. Industrial Press. Within the past few years. technological innovations. The Intelligent Workplace. 2001. Stauffer. October 1995. May 1999. greater use of geographically dispersed groups. General Services Administration. The Contribution of Building Design and Operation to Productivity Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics. Indian Express Newspapers.

which can help achieve flexible spaces. and data. voice. and generous horizontal plenum spaces with relocatable. lounge area with TV and a pool table. spatial. Provide distributed. user-based services to ensure technical. Provide systems that are controllable and adjustable by the users without burdensome reliance on outside contractors. and environmental quality in the rapidly changing electronic office.250 the workplace to the work rather than vice versa. Left: GSA's Public Buildings Service (PBS) workplace renovation incorporates a space for relaxation that includes an exercise room. satellite closets. Incorporate sustainable design principles. Many workplaces are also incorporating spaces that encourage relaxed engagement with colleagues to reduce stress and promote a sense of community. Recommendations Design for Flexibility • • • • Provide flexibility for delivering power. See also WBDG Productive—Integrate Technological Tools. Personal control features include overhead personal air jet diffusers and task lighting. which can be controlled from the occupant's desktop computer. Innovations and Solutions Directorate . Courtesy of Public Works Government Services Canada. The space is used for group social events as well as breaks. vertical cores. And Right: The PBS space also has a daylit café where workers gather at lunch time or for meetings throughout the day.

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Support Mobility
• • •

Consider wireless technology and mobile phones to enable workers to move effortlessly among spaces as their needs change. Provide a multiplicity of spaces for individual and group work. Provide connections to internal networks and to the Internet throughout the workplace. See also WBDG Productive—Integrate Technological Tools.

Enable Informal Social Interaction
• • • •

Provide multiple places to meet and greet. Consider providing informal workspaces in cafeterias. When designing cafes and coffee nooks, locate them centrally along well traveled pathways to encourage use and interaction. Design the circulation system with informal communication opportunities in mind.

Flexible spaces and services support multiple spatial configurations and densities, and allow for rapid and easy spatial change.

Design for a Variety of Meeting Sizes and Types
• • • • •

Provide enclosed rooms to support groups of different sizes. If open informal spaces are used, make sure that they are separated from individual quiet spaces. Consider sharing meeting spaces among private offices. Provide visual display technologies and writing surfaces for group work. Consider the use of dedicated project rooms for some types of group work.

Support Individual Concentration
• •

If open spaces such as pods or bull pens are used, provide attractive acoustically sound rooms for individual concentration as needed. Locate concentration booths close to work spaces.

252

Zone space for range of quiet and interactive needs.

Support Stress Reduction and Relaxation

Consider spaces for relaxation and playfulness.

Emerging Issues
Increasingly, compatible and packaged building components are available on the U.S. market that meet these goals. Several vendors market systems comprising raised floors, plug and play wire management components, and demountable wall systems as a single package. Open controls protocols such as LonTalk and BACNet, which allow communication between different types of building systems (HVAC, lighting, security, fire alarm, and power), are being adapted to an increasing number of products. This will enable a wider range of cost-effective possibilities for user control over a common network.

Relevant Codes and Standards
• • • • • • • • • • • •

ANSI/TIA/EIA-569 Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces ASTM E 1334 Practice for Rating the Serviceability of a Building or BuildingRelated Facility ASTM E 1663 Classification for Serviceability of an Office Building for Typical Office Information Technology ASTM E 1679 Practice for Setting the Requirements for the Serviceability of a Building or Building-Related Facility ASTM E 1692 Classification for Serviceability of an Office Facility for Change and Churn by Occupants Department of Defense: DG 1110-3-122 Design for Interiors, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers MIL-HDBK 1004/7 Wire Communications and Signal Systems MIL-HDBK 1190 Facility Planning and Design Guide TM 5-805-13/AFM 88-4, Chapter 9 Raised Floor Systems U.S. General Services Administration: GSA Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, P-100

Major Resources
WBDG

253

Building / Space Types
Applicable to all building types and space types, especially those regularly occupied or visited.

Project Management
Building Commissioning

Tools
Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC), LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool, Life-Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID)

Organizations

Telecommunications Industry Association—The leading U.S. nonprofit trade association serving the communications and information technology industry

Publications
• • •

• •

Green Federal Facilities: An Energy, Environmental, and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers High Performance Commercial Buildings—A Technology Road Map by U.S. Department of Energy, 1999. The Integrated Workplace: A Comprehensive Approach to Developing Workplace by Office of Real Property in the Office of Governmentwide Policy of the U.S. General Services Administration, May 1999. Sustainable Building Technical Manual, DOE USAF Environmentally Responsible Facilities Guide

romote Health and Well-Being
by the WBDG Productive Committee Last updated: 05-02-2008

Overview

254

The office of the World Resources Institute utilizes a mixture of elements to provide a healthy work environment. (Photo by Alan Karchmer Courtesy of HOK) Indoor environments strongly affect human health. For example, the EPA estimates that the concentration of pollutants (like volatile organic compounds) inside a building may be two to five times higher than outside levels. A 1997 study by W.J. Fisk and A.H. Rosenfeld (Estimates of Improved Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments. Indoor Air Vol. 7, pp. 158-172) reports that the cost to the nation's workforce of upper respiratory diseases in 1995 was $35 billion in lost work plus an additional $29 billion in health care costs. The study estimates that more healthful indoor environments could reduce these costs by 10%-30%. Indoor environments also have strong effects on occupant well-being and functioning, especially attributes such as the amount and quality of light and color, the sense of enclosure, the sense of privacy, access to window views, connection to nature, sensory variety, and personal control over environmental conditions. Designing to enhance psychological well-being will therefore have positive impacts on work effectiveness and other high value outcomes, such as stress reduction, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. To reap the fiscal, physical, and psychological benefits of healthy buildings, projects must have a comprehensive, integrated design and development process that seeks to:
• • • • •

Provide maximum access to natural daylight and views to the outdoors Provide superior ventilation Control sources of indoor air contamination Prevent unwanted moisture accumulation, and Enhance the psychological and social aspects of space.

Implementing sustainable design principles will also help achieve these objectives.

Recommendations

255

Daylight enhances the psychological value of space at Owens Corning World Headquarters—Toledo, OH (Courtesy of Owens Corning)

Provide Maximum Access to Natural Daylight and Views to the Outdoors
• •

• • •

• •

Use a daylighting analysis tool to help guide the design process. See also WBDG Daylighting. Design windows to allow daylight to penetrate as far as possible into a room. Consider using light shelves (solid horizontal elements placed above eye level, but below the top of the window) to reflect daylight deep into a room. Design windows to provide views out from most spaces. Design for diffuse, uniform daylight throughout the room. Avoid glare. Avoid direct beam sunlight in continuously occupied spaces; however sun "spots" in other, shared or public spaces, are desirable and psychologically beneficial. Consider interior (shades, louvers, or blinds) and exterior (overhangs, trees) strategies to control glare and filter daylight. Consider shared daylight through glazed interior walls. Integrate daylighting with the electric lighting system. Provide controls that turn off lights when sufficient daylight exists. Consider dimming controls that continuously adjust lighting levels to respond to daylight conditions. Design floor plate depth to allow access to windows and views. Consider the security implications of window, glazing, and door locations. See also WBDG Designing Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats and Retrofitting Buildings to Resist Explosive Threats.

Provide Superior Ventilation
• • • • •

Design the ventilation system to exceed ASHRAE Standard 62: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Minimize recirculation while assuring energy efficiency through energy recovery. See also WBDG High-Performance HVAC. Ensure that ventilation air is effectively delivered to and distributed throughout the 'breathing zone.' Consider individual controls. Provide local exhaust for restrooms, kitchens, janitor's closets, copy rooms, etc. Consider installing CO2 sensors to provide real time monitoring of air quality.

256
• •

Consider separating thermal conditioning from ventilation in order to vary delivery of air volume separate from temperature for better comfort. See also WBDG Natural Ventilation.

Control Sources of Indoor Air Contamination
• • • • • •

• •

Test the site for sources of contamination: radon, hazardous waste, fumes from nearby industrial or agricultural uses. See also WBDG Air Decontamination. Locate air intakes away from sources of exhaust fumes (e.g. from buses, cars, or trucks). Consider security implications of the location of building air intakes. Consider recessed grates, "walk off" mats, and other techniques to reduce the amount of dirt entering the building. Specify materials and furnishings that are low emitters of indoor air contaminants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Allow adequate time for installed materials and furnishings to "outgas" before a new workplace is occupied. Assist the process by running the HVAC system continuously at the highest possible outdoor air supply setting after materials and furnishings have been installed to adequately "flush out" the facility. (The exact timing may vary for different materials.) Consider "modular zoning" for air distribution in order to avoid cross contamination. Install proper barriers between occupied and construction zones in renovation projects in order to protect worker health.

Prevent Unwanted Moisture Accumulation
• • • •

Design the ventilation system to maintain the indoor relative humidity between 30% and 50%. Design to avoid water vapor condensation, especially on walls and the underside of roof decks, and around pipes or ducts or windows. Design buildings with proper drainage and ventilation. See also WBDG Mold and Moisture Dynamics and Air Barrier Systems in Buildings.

Enhance the Psychological Effects of Space
• • • •

Design to allow workers to move freely from solitary work to group action as work requires. Provide mobile technologies (phones, computers, wireless connectivity) that support new work styles and work practices. Design to reduce stress and facilitate mental rest breaks. Provide workers the means to make meaningful changes in their immediate environments (e.g. through personalization and control over the immediate environment to the extent possible).

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• •

Provide spatial features that support visual and acoustical privacy but allow opportunities for informal encounters. Provide an interesting visual environment and, at the same time, design for a balance between visual access and visual enclosure. Provide views of natural vegetation, indoors or outdoors, when possible. Strive to create a 'sense of place' such that the workplace has a unique character that engenders a sense of pride, purpose, and dedication for individual workers and the workplace community.

Relevant Codes and Standards
• • •

ASHRAE 129 Measuring Air Change Effectiveness ASHRAE Standard 62 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality ASTM D 6245 Standard Guide for Using Indoor Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Evaluate Indoor Air Quality and Ventilation

Major Resources
WBDG

Building / Space Types
Applicable to all building types and space types, especially those regularly occupied or visited.

Design Objectives
Accessible, Aesthetics, Cost-Effective, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation, Secure / Safe, Secure / Safe—Ensure Occupant Safety and Health, Secure / Safe— Provide Security for Occupants and Assets, Sustainable, Sustainable—Use Environmental Preferable Products, Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality, Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

Project Management
Building Commissioning

Tools
Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC), LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool, Life-Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID)

Provide Maximum Access to Natural Daylight

DOE/EE-0025 Windows & Daylighting Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lighting Research Center. Daedalus (Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences).119) Green Seal Sustainable Building Technical Manual (p. IV. pp. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Sustainable Building Technical Manual (p. and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers (p. New York: Horizon Press.99) U. 44) Prevent Unwanted Moisture Accumulation • • • Association of Heating. Edited by Joseph Barry. Environmental.13. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers ASTM International EPA National Center for Environmental Research UFC 3-440-06N Cooling Buildings by Natural Ventilation NISTIR 5329 Manual for Ventilation Assessment in Mechanically Ventilated Commercial Buildings Sustainable Building Technical Manual (p. Ander. Vol.S.61) Control Sources of Indoor Air Contamination • • • • • • • • • Carpet and Rug Institute Environmental Building News EPA Indoor Air Division EPA Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy. 199-215.258 • • • • • • Daylighting Performance and Design by Gregg D. I. IV.7) Provide Superior Ventilation • • • • • • Association of Heating. IV. . 1960. 89. How to Look at Architecture by Bruno Zevi. New York: Van Nostrand. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Desiccant Cooling Technology Resource Guide NISTIR 4821 Envelope Design Guidelines for Federal Office Buildings: Thermal Integrity and Airtightness Enhance the Psychological Effects of Space • • Architecture as Space. Green Building Council LEED® USAF Environmentally Responsible Facilities Guide (p. 1957. 1995. The Changing Concept of Proportion by Rudolph Wittkower.

Heerwagen.. Ph. Member ASHRAE and William J.K. L. and Mark J.E.D.2. IEQ and the Impact on Employee Sick Leave (PDF 113 KB. 5 pgs) by Olli Seppänen. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Malkin.M. Ph. Murray Silverstein. Member ASHRAE..G. Buildings. Productivity (PDF 220 KB.D. ASHRAE Journal.. Ventilation Rates and Health (PDF 115 KB. . Member ASHRAE. Productivity and Well-Being: What are the Links?" by Judith H. Reed. K. William J.S. July 2002. Fellow ASHRAE.E. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces by William Whyte. R. Sieber.T. DG 1110-3-122 Design Guide for Interiors (p. March 1998. Wallingford. 1954.E. Space. August 2002. Petersen. WA—paper presented at The American Institute of Architects Conference on Highly Effective Facilities. ASHRAE Journal. Construction by Christopher Alexander. Member ASHRAE. Ohio. September 2002. 4 pgs) by Satish Kumar. Sara Ishikawa. Publications • • • • How IEQ Affects Health.J. Fisk. Oxford University Press: 1977. P. Fisk. 3 pgs) by William J. and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition (3rd edition) by Sigfried Giedion. Seattle. Fisk. A Pattern Language: Towns. Washington. May 2002. M. T. P. Wilcox. HVAC Characteristics and Occupant Health (PDF 430 KB. 4 pgs) by W. 1980. Time. DC: Conservation Foundation..259 • • • • • • • • "Design. P.1) Environmental Design Research Association Geometry of Design: Studies in Proportion and Composition by Kimberly Elam. ASHRAE Journal.R. Cincinnati. Crandall. ASHRAE Journal. and L. M. Stayner. M. Mendell. Mendell. Space Versus Place: The Loss and Recovery of Proportionality in Architecture by Terrance Galvin. Battelle/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

D. This Resource Page presents both the scientific fundamentals of clean air. building design. and can also improve the health of the day-to-day air in a modern facility. as well as provide updated codes and resources for those who wish to gain more in depth knowledge. Assistant Professor of Environmental and Chemical Engineering. cruise ship disease outbreaks. a number of source documents from government and professional association websites where up-to-the-minute information can be obtained are also provided. Biological and chemical terrorism.. vis-à-vis filtration and UV. between $2 to $4 billion savings from reduced allergies and asthma.260 Air Decontamination by Greg Lesavoy. increased indoor air quality could result in the following monetary savings: • • • • estimated potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 billion to $14 billion from reduced respiratory diseases. and $20 to $160 billion can be saved from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. . and the benefits and obstacles associated with these technologies. Fisk of the Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Consultant. Since the field is in considerable flux. and epidemics of asthma and allergies. Yale University Updated by WBDG Staff Last updated: 05-05-2008 Introduction Americans spend nine out of ten hours indoors. This Page was written to provide a general understanding of air decontamination technologies for practitioners that may be new to this field. PE. Description In the report "Review of Health and Productivity Gains from Better IEQ" written by William J. Ph. Removing biological pathogens and toxic chemical compounds from air—air decontamination—has been a recognized need for decades and has mostly been accomplished through ventilation. health and productivity. Airflow and ventilation are already key factors in worker comfort. all have made the issue of healthy air critical. toxic molds. and indoor air commonly contains higher concentrations of airborne chemical contaminants and pathogenic microbes than outdoor air. sick buildings. and Jordan Peccia. Air security is the next frontier. $10 to $30 billion in savings from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms. It also briefly discusses a number of other technologies that have been offered as solutions. and energy efficiency.

Air Filtration The simplest solution to disinfecting the air is to capture offending particles in a filter mesh of some kind. Active decontamination technologies such as ultraviolet light (UV) and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have previously been used for germicidal air cleansing in infectious disease wards and laboratories. The relevant size measurement used in aerosol science is the aerodynamic diameter.4 µm.3 µm (micrometers) in size. with smaller particles captured to varying degrees. layout. to the integrity and protection of air controls. while fungal spores are at the upper end of the range and can be larger than 20 µm.5 to 10 µm. However applying these decontamination processes or other experimental technologies to the high airflow ventilation systems of modern office buildings presents a new set of challenges. ranging in size from 0. and the organization. This parameter is more useful for predicting aerodynamic behavior of a particle in air. It requires a fundamental rethinking of many elements of HVAC design. and construction of the active decontamination components for the systems themselves.01 µm to 0. This diameter is usually different from the actual particle size of microorganisms. Bacteria range in size from 0. and accounts for the non-spherical nature of the cells. A. Deadly pathogens like the bacterial Bacillus Anthracis spore powder used in the anthrax cases generally range from 1 to 6 µm. The development of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters has made it possible to efficiently clear the air of particles down to 0. from the location and security of air ducts. Viruses are the smallest.261 The economic and public health benefits combined with today's interest in protecting the population from weapons of mass destruction have prompted renewed interest in methods of removing infectious or allergenic microorganisms from the air we breathe in indoor environments. .

Handling is especially important if there are suspected pathogens in the fibers of the filters. or a manufacturer's bad quality batch.01 µm. HEPA filters are made from numerous synthetic fibers that are laid down in overlapping. the installation of HEPA filtration in the plenums of major building HVAC systems has a significant impact both on airflow throughput and energy consumption. health effects caused by live microorganisms (infectious disease). As airflow twists and turns through the overlapping threads. are both mitigated. Additional costs to consider are the replacement and disposal of the filters. spores. and those effects that can be caused by live or dead microorganisms. HEPA filter fibers The idea is not to restrict particle passage by capturing target pathogens between closely spaced threads." these particles lodge into the filter elements and are captured. 1. such as allergies. HEPA filters will work well (99. Thirdly. can significantly reduce performance and endanger an entire building's population. 2. HEPA filters are widely used in clean rooms and in portable room air purification units. Fig. The slower particles will hit the threads and be stopped. or toxins that are in particle form—will not be able to keep up due to their greater inertia in relation to air molecules. Because the aerodynamic diameter of a virus ranges down to 0. many viral agents will not be removed at a high efficiency. random order.262 Fig. Since the synthetic fibers are designed to be "sticky. and leaks or poorly fitting frames can destroy the integrity of the filtration system. Finally.97% efficiency) for particles down to about 0. There are a number of limitations with HEPA filters that make it essential to combine filtration with other technologies in order to ensure effectiveness in a ventilation system. installation quality is of critical importance. Because HEPA filters capture the microorganisms. virus particles. First. Secondly. but to divert and convolute the passageways of airflow. . even a tiny puncture in a filter.3 µm. heavier objects—such as bacteria.

Electrostatic filters precipitate particles out of the air by passing contaminated air through a highly charged field (ionizer). ozone is itself a dangerous pollutant with significant risks. the maximum removal efficiency was 81%. UV radiation works by damaging the DNA and other cell components of a microorganism to the point that the cell cannot replicate. B. one of the first Nobel Prizes in Medicine was awarded to a doctor from Denmark. for recognizing and using the UV bactericidal effect of the sun in treating infectious skin . an ionizer and a collector. bacteria and fungi removal has been tested in smaller ozone free electrostatic precipitators. Ozone will be produced in large quantities in any industrial electrostatic application. Niels Ryberg Finsen. Ultraviolet Irradiation The ability of UV radiation—a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from 100nm400nm—to inactivate biological pathogens has long been known. and therefore they are not infectious. Smaller size microorganisms were more difficult to remove. In 1903. Three key factors make this a good home technology but less effective in large buildings: 1) electrostatic systems need to slow the air flow substantially to allow all particles to be charged—an issue which is possible with exhaust pollutants but may be impossible to achieve in big HVAC systems. and 3) a byproduct of the process. making the use of this technology more tentative for virus removal. The ionizer gives a positive charge to dirt particles in the incoming airstream. 3. they just cannot replicate. An electrostatic precipitator contains two components. 2) these filters require large amounts of energy per volume of air decontaminated. The resultant outgoing air is cleaned and purified. Cells that have been exposed to UV may still be viable. Graphic source: Precision Graphics.263 Fig. Particles are charged and then captured on electrode plates with the opposite charge (collector). which then adhere to a negatively charged collector. Recently. Another well-known filtration technology is based on electrostatic precipitation. For the precipitators tested.

mostly in health care settings. and base decontamination systems designs on tested parameters in order to ensure maximum effectiveness.g. The results are encouraging. construction. UV has also been used in the disinfection of air. UV irradiation is commonly used in the disinfection of drinking water. relative humidity. making this work in an HVAC system requires coordination between dampers (in order to slow the passage of the air enough to allow all particles to receive a sanitizing ray of UV light) and the UV light itself. this ability has not been documented or quantified. Rates derived from agents suspended in water or irradiated on agar plates generally underestimate the airborne inactivation rate. Because of the constant airflow in modern ventilation systems. allergenic) disease. Although to a lesser extent. Furthermore. The wavelength is near optimal for damaging nucleic acid (DNA. The inactivation effectiveness can be very high (greater than 90%) for bacteria. In other cases. Inactivation rates used for the design of UVGI systems should be determined from experiments where the microorganism has been aerosolized. In many cases. a major research study funded in part by the U. independent scientific investigators have begun to do fundamental research into the biological decontamination of airstreams to update this science. The microorganisms are still there. and a focus of air decontamination must now include securing air streams in ducts and HVAC systems from outside infiltration.7 nm. it may lead to the expensive over-engineering of a system or unwarranted increases in operational costs. there is a significant difference between addressing disease-causing organisms in a laboratory setting. the location of the decontamination UV array is of crucial importance because of the potential for air eddies and corners of ducting to allow some of the flow to pass through untreated.S. Viruses were not tested in the study but research in the author's laboratory indicates that a highly UV-resistant virus (bacteriophage MS2) is less resistant to UV radiation (in air) than bacterial Bacillus Subtilis spores (regarded as the most resistant bacteria to UV radiation). and in the case of some microorganisms. Department of Energy titled "Defining the Effectiveness of UV Lamps Installed in Circulating Air Ductwork" attempted to determine the effectiveness of UV germicidal radiation in inactivating bacteria and spores in a "typical" HVAC duct environment. However. this may provide a desirable factor of safety. Westinghouse developed UV bulbs. bacteria and their spores. lamp design. In November 2002. Ultra Violet Germicidal Irradiation or UVGI generally refers to UV wavelength of 254. may still contain the ability to cause noninfectious (e. and design of UV systems must be of paramount importance. While there is potential for UV to destroy allergenic sites on the surface of a bioaerosol. Anecdotal health information as well as laboratory research suggests it is an effective technology for inactivating airborne viruses. although efficacy is less so for more resistant bacterial and fungal spores. RNA). Since the threat of this kind of terrorism has only recently been realized. and since then a great deal of experimental work has been done to prove their germicidal efficacy.264 disease. While this kind of attention to detail might not be necessary in installations primarily concerned with improving the day-to-day healthiness . Laboratory research has also determined that air temperature. and ballast engineering have significant impacts on the effectiveness of these systems. and ensuring that deadly biological warfare pathogens are completely removed from an airstream. flow rate. UV irradiation by itself does not clean air. In the 1930s. HVAC systems designers and control contractors will have to factor these components into their plans. Installation.

PUV is also effective on very hazardous and "hard-to-break" toxic organic compounds and odors from water. subtilis spores2 for bacterial spores. Because of this disintegration action on a microorganism. Dose value is for known UV-resistant species of each organism type. . or surfaces without producing ozone at a very high speed.5 for viruses. 4. air. UV germicidal dose required to inactivate 99% of microorganisms at 50% relative humidity in air. in order to control the spread of a deadly bio-terrorist pathogen (such as anthrax or smallpox) the design of a UVGI system is of critical importance. Aspergillis versicolor1 is used for fungi. Fig. subtilis3 for vegetative bacteria. The effectiveness of UV light as a germicidal agent has resulted in two other techniques for decontamination. B. B. Pulsed UV can sterilize and disinfect by producing greater than 6 log kills of microorganisms spores and organic compounds. Pulsed UV (PUV) involves pulsing UV lamps at high power at regular intervals. Advantages and limitations of this method are compared with those of other established sterilization methods. and Adenovirus4.265 of air. this pulsed UV sterilization method is named as the Pulsed UV Disintegration (PUVD). It is shown that only the Pulsed UV light of a broad spectra can effectively do this work while Pulsed White Light (PWL) plays no role. which appears to have certain advantages of very high inactivation rates for most known microorganisms. These systems use mercury-free flash lamps that emit pulses at such high energy that the cells are actually physically destroyed. To have this mechanism work. a microorganism undergoes momentous overheating and disintegration. This technology is being increasingly applied for air and surface sterilization and decontamination due to the powerful use of advanced UV light lamps and efficient energy consumption. This is a procedure. In this case. the rate of the energy deposition into a microorganism (the fluency rate) must be higher than its rate of cooling to a surrounding media.

A single spore treated to two pulses of 33 kW/cm². In this scenario. Untreated spores of A. A single spore treated to 5 pulses of 5 kw/cm² each. Note how the spore top was ruptured by an escape of the overheated content of the spore. Niger. 6. Filtered air would rise through many stories and receive lethal UV (solar) doses of natural sunlight as it passed up the columns. This process is called passive solar decontamination. Note also the crater around the spore. 5B. Note craters around spores formed by sinking of heated spores into the PET substrate.¹. buildings would be constructed with UV transparent walled air passages that surround the outside of the structure.266 Fig. 5A. After being decontaminated by sunlight. Spores of Aspergillus Niger treated to two pulses at 33 kw/cm². open lamp. 5D. Note the deformation of the spore and the absence of any cratering around the spore. Alex Wekhof) Fig. it would enter the building's HVAC system and be .² (Photos courtesy of Dr.¹ Fig. Alex Wekhof) Another technique that has been suggested in building design is to use the natural UV component of sunlight to treat air. Fig. Fig.² (Photos courtesy of Dr. 5C. (6A) Untreated and (6B) treated Bacillus Subtilis spores.

This can be an effective procedure in the aftermath of a biological attack. If used at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards. C. may be useful for decontaminating air in buildings. but requires vacating the building. inactivation rates from sunlight are quite slow (even in Arizona). The EPA has issued several warnings concerning UVGI companies that make unsubstantiated claims as to the effectiveness of their technology. or other biological pollutants. ozone applied to indoor air does not effectively remove viruses. and involves the use of synthetic catalytic compounds that lose effectiveness over time as they are saturated with the gas molecules. the process has yet to be tested on airborne pathogens. or on a day-to-day basis. bacteria." states: "Available scientific evidence shows that at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards. This is an intriguing possibility. sunlight is not an effective disinfectant. In the case of spores. This can be an effective post-incident response. and then forcing massive quantities of outside air into the facility. One process is called ozonation. because ozone in the earth's atmosphere filters out the most effective germicidal portion of solar radiation. ozone has little potential to remove indoor air contaminants. While there may be applications in decontaminating a room. Ozone reacts with organic particles and pathogens. this technology is not applicable to flow in a ventilation system.267 cooled (or heated) and distributed throughout the building. The public is advised to use proven methods of controlling indoor air pollution. Photocatalytic oxidation is another sterilization technology and is based on the production of several highly reactive short-lived chemical compounds—oxygen-based . The EPA lists ozone as a priority air pollutant and warns that levels of ozone required to inactivate airborne microorganisms would be in excess of the current ozone standards. however. "Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners: An Assessment of Effectiveness and Health Consequences. This is the process of flooding a building with clean outside air in order to expunge and dilute contaminated air. While there have been successful water sterilization systems developed using ozone. ozone generation is energy intensive. doors. Ozone is piped into an air chamber where it is thoroughly mixed with air. For example. and access ways. The EPA publication. New/Experimental Technologies A number of other technologies." No white paper or peer reviews have ever been published confirming these claims. mold. Indeed. Additionally. spores have evolved to withstand harsh environments and contain tremendous DNA repair capabilities. opening all windows. oxidizing microorganisms and other chemical toxins. new or at a more experimental stage. Removing the ozone from the airstream is complex." Another decontamination technique related to filtration is air purging. but does nothing to secure a facility during an attack. be careful of reports by sterilization and decontamination companies making claims such as "the simultaneous emission of ultrasound or ultrasonic waves and ultraviolet light complement each other and can effectively sterilize either organic or inorganic items in a non-liquid environment.

The DoD has established "DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings" that require the limitation of airborne contamination within its buildings. Activated charcoal is charcoal that has been treated with oxygen to open up millions of tiny pores between the carbon atoms. once all of the bonding sites are filled. and highly vulnerable areas like mail rooms and lobbies. Activated charcoal is good at trapping other carbon-based impurities ("organic" chemicals). high enough efficiency for fail-safe bio-terror applications has not been demonstrated. Carbon adsorption operates by virtue of the large surface area of activated carbon and the tendency for these surfaces to trap and hold onto large organic molecules. operation. At present it appears that UVGI technology when used in conjunction with filtration is an effective option for building managers to consider for cost effectively offering a level of protection from airborne microorganisms within the building envelope and interior systems. It also means that. While power consumption is low. Advances in manufacturing techniques have resulted in highly porous charcoals that have surface areas of 300-2.—so they pass right through. While carbon adsorption is a common technology in VOC removal from airstreams its effectiveness in removing biological pathogens in a ventilation application is not known. nitrates. and integrated into the design process. At that point you must replace the filter. Application It is hard to imagine a location where healthier. etc.268 radicals and ions—that are effective in microorganism disinfection and neutralizing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or other chemical aerosols. Many other chemicals are not attracted to carbon at all—sodium. AC filters can be a breeding ground for microorganisms. While biological terrorism may be an isolated occurrence. Oxidant coatings can be put in paints on walls or used to coat HEPA filters. A grain of activated carbon has a tremendous amount of surface area. should be fitted with second and third stage decontamination systems. These reactive compounds are produced by applying short wavelength light (sunlight works well) to titanium dioxide (TiO2) coatings. the result/performance of any upgrade is dependent on the installation. safer air would not be desirable. Another chemical filtration technology that has been proposed is the use of activated carbon (AC) filters. Secure rooms. as well as things like chlorine. and continuing maintenance. When proper measures are chosen for buildings. Air decontamination creates a safe and healthy environment for its occupants and has real economic impact because of its dual use from a security and environmental . The effectiveness of photocatalytic oxidation has been well documented in publish research. protecting airflows in buildings. an activated charcoal filter stops working. Usually the microorganism is completely destroyed. It is possible that photocatalytic oxidation may have a place in decontamination systems of the future. At a minimum. cleaner. The return on investment from upgrading air handling systems far outweighs the costs. low pressure drop filtration system. modified or newly constructed buildings should be equipped with some type of efficient. makes a great deal of sense. This means that an activated charcoal filter will remove certain impurities while ignoring others.000 square meters per gram. safe havens. while greatly improving the health of the occupants from things as simple as the rhinoviruses that cause colds.

USAF Installation Force Protection Guide Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): • • • • • FEMA 386-7 Integrating Manmade Hazards into Mitigation Planning FEMA 426 Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings FEMA 427 Primer for Design of Commercial Buildings to Mitigate Terrorist Attacks FEMA 428 Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks FEMA 429 Insurance.1 Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Department of Defense: • • • • • UFC 4-010-01 DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings FM 3-19. and focus more on the fundamental science behind each technology. NAVFAC MIL-HDBK-1013 series Tri-Services Unified Facilities Guide Specifications (UFGS)—UFGS. Relevant Codes and Standards ASHRAE • • • • Guideline 1 Guideline for the Commissioning of HVAC Systems Standard 52 Method of Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particular Matter Standard 62 Minimum Acceptable Ventilation Requirements Standard 90. Current opinion is that guidelines and standards will be published that will include air decontamination system upgrades or modifications rather than new requirements to the building codes. Use caution with data presented on websites that are not substantiated by peer review literature or results from well-documented experiments. are for use in specifying construction for the military services. and Regulation Primer for Terrorism Risk Management in Buildings . value engineering many times compromises health and security risks. Web information provided by government agencies and professional societies is the most reliable and is usually based on peer reviewed research. The Worldwide web is an important source of further information on this topic. Technical peer reviewed research journals are also reliable sources.269 perspective.30 Physical Security—Sets forth guidance for all personnel responsible for physical security. organized by MasterFormat™ divisions. When designing buildings. Finance. Several UFGS exist for sustainability and security/safety-related topics.

permissible exposure limits. Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use. and Balancing for HVAC.A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings FEMA 453 Design Guidance for Shelters and Safe Rooms GSA • Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. OSHA Air Contaminants—Examines air contaminants. Productive—Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces.1000. GSA Mechanical and Air Handling Requirements.270 • • FEMA 452 Risk Assessment . Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR Part 1910. Productive— Promote Health and Well-Being. Chapter 5 Other Standards • • • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)— Provides threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents and biological exposure indices. Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality. Building Envelope Design Guide Project Management Building Commissioning. Project Delivery and Controls Organizations . Adjusting. Design Objectives Cost-Effective. Additional Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable and relevant to all building types and space types. Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately. Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments. P100. Project Planning and Development. Project Delivery Teams. Functional / Operational. Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Products and Systems Section 23 05 93: Testing.

in-depth material on building security issues American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS)—Locates security specialists and provides the Crisis Response Resources link to find information related to terrorism and building security American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA)—Information on emergency planning and security assessments Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)—Health guidance for CBR agents Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) International Facility Management Association (IFMA)—Information on security-related training courses Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory—Website with advice for safeguarding buildings against chemical or biological attack National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)—Health and safety guidance. 1979. As cited in reference 16. recognizing potential CBR events. Also provides information on conducting building security assessments. common symptoms. Air cleaners. publications. Biological.S.—Provides procedures and checklists for developing a building profile and performing preventive maintenance in commercial buildings Chemical. Equipment.271 • • • • • • • • • • • • The American Institute of Architects (AIA). . and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).—Unclassified document describing potential CBR events. Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers by EPA.S. Biological. 2005. up-todate. Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Homeland Security and the Indoor Environment website—Provides many links and references to security and air issues U. P100 by GSA. ASHRAE Handbook and Product Directory by American Society of Heating.—Establishes design standards and criteria for new buildings. and information for making preliminary assessments when a CBR release is suspected Facility Standards for the Public Buildings Service. Refrigerating. or Radiological Attacks by NIOSH. major and minor alterations. differences between agents. General Services Administration (GSA) Publications • • • • • • Anthrax-Contaminated Facilities: Preparations and a Standard for Remediation by the Congressional Research Service. Building Security Through Design Resource Center—An AIA resource center that offers architects and others. and work in historic structures for the Public Building Service. and training information U. Radiological Incident Handbook by CIA.

O. L and M. Werth. H. (2001).. 4.S.—Draft report provides recommendations for owners and managers of existing buildings TI 853-01. Report # ARTI-21CR/610-40030-01. Kowalsiki. 12 Jan 2002. Inactivation of airborne viruses by ultraviolet irradiation. . WP. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Bahnfleth. Defining the effectiveness of UV lamps installed in the circulation air ductwork. and M. Photoreactivation of airborne Mycobacterium Parafortuitum. 2001. Jensen. Douglas VanOsdell and Karin Foarde (2002). IUVA News. 3. 2. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Wekhof. Phone: (916) 984-6551. Applied Microbiology. Peccia. 5. 67: 4225-4232. UVGI design basics for air and surface disinfection. M. Trompeter.—Document presents a variety of ways to protect building occupants from airborne hazards Figure 4 Footnotes 1. Hernandez. Figures 5 and 6 Footnotes 1. Franken. 2. USA.M.. Miller. J. Protecting Buildings and Their Occupants from Airborne Hazards (DRAFT) by U. J. 35: 728-740. (2001). (2001). Effects of relative humidity on the ultraviolet inactivation of airborne bacteria. (2001). 3:4-7. A. 12: 418-421. W.. "Pulsed UVB Disintegration (PUVBD): A New Sterilization Mechanism for Broad Medical-Hospital and Packaging Applications. Hernandez." Proceedings of the First International Congress on Ultraviolet Technologies. J.272 • • Risk Management Guidance for Health and Safety under Extraordinary Incidents by ASHRAE Presidential Study Group. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. S. June 15-17. Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology. (1964). Washington DC. Peccia. SteriBeam Systems GmbH.J.

Minimize background noise from the building's HVAC system and other equipment. Implementing sustainable design principles will also help achieve these objectives. building projects must have a comprehensive. . Provide opportunities for privacy and concentration when needed in open plan offices. Limit transmission of noise from outside the workplace by designing high sound transmission class (STC) walls between work areas and high noise areas inside and outside the building. During the facility design and development process. Uncomfortable conditions in the workplace—too hot. Provide user controls. too noisy. and Provide furniture and equipment that will enhance worker comfort and performance. too light. Enclose or separate group activity spaces from work areas where concentration is important. integrated perspective that seeks to: • • • • • Provide a superior acoustic environment Maintain optimal thermal comfort Create a high quality visual environment.273 Provide Comfortable Environments by the WBDG Productive Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview Physical comfort is critical to work effectiveness. too cold. and physical and psychological well-being. too much glare—restrict the ability of workers to function to full capacity and can lead to lowered job satisfaction and increases in illness symptoms. Recommendations Provide a Superior Acoustic Environment • • • • • • Reduce sound reverberation time inside the workplace by specifying sound absorbing materials and by configuring spaces to dampen rather than magnify sound reverberation. Provide sound masking if necessary. satisfaction. too dark.

configuration. and Visual Interest) . One solution for providing quality thermal and ventilation comfort is enhanced ventilation terminal control system with multi-zone VAV box terminal controls and individual airflow controls (personal air-conditioning). and energy savings. if appropriate to the location. Daylighting. controllable shading to avoid "hot spots" caused by direct sunlight. Evaluate the use of access floors with displacement ventilation for flexibility. Analyze placement. and type of windows and skylights and provide adequate. and consider adjusting the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 55 to account for the impact. Innovations and Solutions Directorate) Create a High Quality Visual Environment (Including Lighting. especially spaces where teams or groups meet. Analyze room configurations and HVAC distribution layouts to ensure all parts of a room are receiving adequate ventilation. Provide individual air and temperature controls at each workstation. Consider providing individual environmental controls in these rooms. Incorporate natural ventilation. personal comfort control.274 Provide Quality Thermal and Ventilation Comfort • • • • • • • • At a minimum. (Courtesy of Public Works Government Services Canada. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Consider providing a temperature and humidity monitoring system to ensure optimal thermal comfort performance. comply with American Society of Heating. Utilize CO2 sensors to assess the air quality of spaces to adjust ventilation.

See also WBDG Psychosocial Value of Space. Control or eliminate glare from ceiling lighting and windows. aretwork. D. Light vertical surfaces/walls to increase the perceived brightness of the space. (Courtesy of Public Works Government Services Canada. Avoid both uniformity and visual chaos. textures. Provide views and access to the outdoor environment for all occupants. Ontario. This photo shows an informal work area at the Herman Miller Front Door in . heat gain.275 Low-glare retrofit lenses. Assure a visually appealing environment through the appropriate and wellbalanced use of scale. colors. and glare. Ottawa. where possible." Consider individually controlled task lighting for each workstation that properly illuminates the task. adjustment of ceiling light using advanced lighting systems technologies. Integrate natural and electric lighting strategies. patterns. Provide individual control of task lighting and. Provide connections to indoor and outdoor nature where possible. • • • Left: Workplace environments with well balanced color and patterns are pleasant and appealing. Canada. C. Innovations and Solutions Directorate) • • • • • • • Provide as much natural daylight as possible for occupants while avoiding excessive heat loss. Howe Building. Balance the quantity and quality of light in all work areas and design for "uniformity with flexibility. and plants. and provide controls that optimize daylighting/electric lighting interaction.

Aesthetics. Sustainable.276 Holland. ergonomically designed chairs and keyboards). unfortunately. Sustainable—Use Environmental Preferable Products. Secure / Safe. For telecommuting workers. Install glass panels in workstation walls to provide access to daylight and views. workspace layout. Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Project Management Building Commissioning . Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to all building types and space types. Secure / Safe— Provide Security for Occupants and Assets. ergonomic. Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality. body mechanics. Michigan. a common site in many work environments. And Right: The beige cubicle environment lacking color embellishment or pattern is. computer equipment placement. Provide Furniture and Equipment that Will Enhance Worker Comfort and Performance • • • • • • Adapt furnishings to the work to be done. Historic Preservation.g. work surface heights. Cost-Effective. Functional / Operational. Specify furnishings that support good posture. especially those regularly occupied or visited. and work techniques for the tasks to be accomplished (e. Secure / Safe—Ensure Occupant Safety and Health. Design furniture configurations that allow workers variable views for visual relief. Relevant Codes and Standards • American Society of Heating. and ventilation. and has the necessary technological tools. light levels. not the other way around. Design Objectives Accessible. Provide workstations that allow users to adjust seating. the sponsoring organization should assure that the home office is comfortable.

Life-Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID) Provide a Superior Acoustic Environment • • • • • • • • • • • • Acoustical Society of America American Speech-Hearing-Language Association DG 1110-3-122 Design Guide for Interiors (p. 3-59) Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the USA National Council of Acoustical Consultants National Research Council of Canada Reference Materials—NIH Design Policy and Guidelines (p.121) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Lighting Research Center. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Carnegie Mellon Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics Federal User's Manual (p.5) Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy. Environmental. 15) Sustainable Building Technical Manual (p. 10-1) UFC 3-440-06N Cooling Buildings by Natural Ventilation University of California-Berkeley. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Light Right Consortium. and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers (p.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix.277 Tools Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC).75) TM 5-803-2/NAVFAC P-970/AFM 19-10 Environmental Protection Planning in the Noise Environment UFC 3-450-01 Noise and Vibration Control Maintain Optimal Thermal Comfort • • • • • American Society of Heating. IV.5. Battelle/Pacific Northwest Laboratory TI 811-16 Lighting Design Provide Furniture and Equipment that Will Enhance Worker Comfort and Performance . Environmental. P100 (p. and Economic Resource Guide for Federal Facility Managers (p.37. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool. 123) GSA Facilities Standards for the Public Building Service. p. LEED® Version 2. Center for the Built Environment Create a High Quality Visual Environment • • • • • • • • • Designlights Consortium Energy Star®—EPA Federal User's Manual (p. 3-1) Greening Federal Facilities: An Energy.

278 • • • DG 1110-3-122 Design Guide for Interiors (p.7.1) EP 385-1-96 USACE Ergonomics Program Procedures Occupational Health and Safety Administration .

fires. The first step in this process is to understand the various threats and the risks they pose. construction. indoor air quality. floods. and continuity of operations from multiple hazards. radiological. architects. acts of terrorism. tornados. materials hazards. earthquakes. Today. resources. chemical or biological threats. This effort identifies the resources or "assets" to be protected." and establishes a likely consequence of occurrence or "risk. etc. and project managers. DC The design and construction of safe and secure buildings continues to be the primary goal for owners. highlights the possible perils or "threats. Designing buildings for security and safety requires a proactive approach that anticipates —and then protects—the building occupants. and the impact these measures have on the design. and fires. nuclear. Their selection will depend on the security requirements. terrorist acts. in recognizing concern for natural disasters. spills or leaks of hazardous substances. . the design team must take a multi-hazard approach towards building design that accounts for the potential hazards and vulnerabilities. There are a number of defined assessment types to consider that will lead the project team in making security and safety design decisions. building owners and other invested parties select the appropriate safety measures to implement." Based on this assessment and analysis. and natural disasters (hurricanes. and use of the building. demonstrations and civil disorders. acceptable levels of risk. engineers. the cost-effectiveness of the measures proposed.279 Secure / Safe by the WBDG Safe Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview Concrete bollards are integrated into the street design in front of the White House— Washington. medical emergencies. power failures. Applicable multi-hazard events include: bomb threats.). structure.

For example. and operations from disasters. tornados. the public is even more interested in efforts to protect people. fall protection. to ensure a given facility is protected from unwanted intruders. ergonomics.280 Most security and safety measures involve a balance of operational. This presents both benefits and challenges. electrical safety. it is useful to identify four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design: • • • • Plan for Fire Protection Planning for fire protection for a building involves a systems approach that enables the designer to analyze all of the building's components as a total building fire safety system package. high performance buildings. detect. Ensure Occupant Safety and Health Some injuries and illnesses are related to unsafe or unhealthy building design and operation. technical. delay. because much of the same information that can be used to gather support for mitigation . Emerging Issues Information Sensitivity As a result of the heightened level of interest in homeland security following the attacks of 11 September 2001. and other natural disasters. from the impacts of hurricanes. a primarily technical approach might stress camera surveillance and warning sirens. and physical safety methods. When they are addressed at the beginning of a project.S. earthquakes. Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets Effective secure building design involves implementing countermeasures to deter. including repairing damaged buildings and infrastructure. In practice. safety measures can usually be integrated into the total design efficiently and cost-effectively. and accident prevention. buildings. all approaches are usually employed to some degree and a deficiency in one area may be compensated by a greater emphasis in the other two. Consistent with areas of professional responsibility. A significant percentage of this could be saved if our buildings properly anticipated the risk associated with major natural hazards. taxpayers pay over $35 billion for recovery efforts. It also provides for mitigating measures to limit hazards and prevent catastrophic damage should an attack occur. Resist Natural Hazards Each year U. a primarily operational approach might stress the deployment of guards around the clock. while a primarily physical approach might stress locked doorways and gateways. and deny attacks from human aggressors. blizzards. floods. Note: Information in these Secure/Safe pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. These can usually be prevented by measures that take into account issues such as indoor air quality.

which may impede emergency egress in case of fire. Development and Training on Occupant Emergency Plans Occupant Emergency Plans should be developed for building Operations staff and occupants to be able to respond to all forms of attacks and threats. Clearly defined lines of communication. and federal laws. and operational procedures are all important parts of Emergency Plans. Renewed Emphasis on Chemical. Examples include Blast Resistive Glazing. Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives Historic Preservation—Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs . or others with malevolent intent. Balancing Safe and Secure Design Requirements There are times when design requirements addressing all the various threats will pose conflicts in arriving at acceptable design and construction solutions. responsibilities. particularly when the building is part of a critical infrastructure or system. and Radiological Threats Because of increased concern with post 9/11 international terrorism. project delivery teams must carefully maintain the security of any information that pertains to vulnerabilities. planners and designers of a wide variety of building types and spaces now consider strategies to mitigate CBR threats. Biological. The WBDG page Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets explains this type of occupant threat and reviews design solutions to mitigate them. but may also restrict emergency egress. For that reason. and access control measures that prevent intrusion. Emergency Plans are an essential element of protecting life and property from attacks and threats by preparing for and carrying out activities to prevent or minimize personal injury and physical damage.281 can also be of use to potential terrorists. and conducting actual drills. Good communication between fire protection and security design team specialists through the entire design process is necessary to achieve the common goal of safe and secure buidings. saboteurs. training Organization personnel in appropriate functions. instructing occupants of appropriate responses to emergency situations and evacuation procedures. This will be accomplished by preemergency planning. establishing specific functions for Operational staff and occupants. state. Legal counsel should be obtained on how best to protect such sensitive information from unauthorized use within the provisions of applicable local.

Washington. Lemer. National Research Council. 30 pgs) Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations by Bruce D. DC: National Academy Press. Websites • The Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP) Secure / Safe by the WBDG Safe Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview . 1991. The White House. February 2003. Editors. Building Research Board. DC: National Academy Press. United for a Stronger America: Citizen's Preparedness Guide (PDF 647 KB. 1988. FEMA 386-2.282 Tools LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool Publications • • • • • • • • • Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. McDowell and Andrew C. Washington. Understanding Your Risks: Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses. FEMA 386 Series. FEMA 452 Risk Assessment—A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings International Building Code Mitigation Planning How-To Guide Series. P100 by the General Services Administration (GSA). National Research Council. Protection of Federal Office Buildings Against Terrorism by the Committee on the Protection of Federal Facilities Against Terrorism. Committee on Risk Appraisal in the Development of Facilities Design Criteria. The National Strategy for "The Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets".

" Based on this assessment and analysis. indoor air quality. technical. architects. engineers. acts of terrorism. and natural disasters (hurricanes. and the impact these measures have on the design. a primarily operational approach might stress the deployment of guards around the clock. and use of the building. earthquakes.). terrorist acts. fires. DC The design and construction of safe and secure buildings continues to be the primary goal for owners. Today. all approaches are usually employed to some degree and a deficiency in one area may be compensated by a greater emphasis in the other two. the design team must take a multi-hazard approach towards building design that accounts for the potential hazards and vulnerabilities. power failures. construction. medical emergencies. and project managers. spills or leaks of hazardous substances. safety measures can usually be integrated into the total design efficiently and cost-effectively. Designing buildings for security and safety requires a proactive approach that anticipates —and then protects—the building occupants. Most security and safety measures involve a balance of operational. For example. while a primarily physical approach might stress locked doorways and gateways.283 Concrete bollards are integrated into the street design in front of the White House— Washington. chemical or biological threats. a primarily technical approach might stress camera surveillance and warning sirens. floods. demonstrations and civil disorders. Their selection will depend on the security requirements. radiological. In practice. There are a number of defined assessment types to consider that will lead the project team in making security and safety design decisions. in recognizing concern for natural disasters. and physical safety methods. the cost-effectiveness of the measures proposed. etc. and continuity of operations from multiple hazards. and fires. to ensure a given facility is protected from unwanted intruders. resources. materials hazards. . tornados. The first step in this process is to understand the various threats and the risks they pose. This effort identifies the resources or "assets" to be protected. building owners and other invested parties select the appropriate safety measures to implement. When they are addressed at the beginning of a project. acceptable levels of risk. highlights the possible perils or "threats." and establishes a likely consequence of occurrence or "risk. nuclear. Applicable multi-hazard events include: bomb threats. structure.

fall protection. Balancing Safe and Secure Design Requirements . saboteurs. These can usually be prevented by measures that take into account issues such as indoor air quality. blizzards.S. Resist Natural Hazards Each year U. because much of the same information that can be used to gather support for mitigation can also be of use to potential terrorists.284 Consistent with areas of professional responsibility. or others with malevolent intent. detect. from the impacts of hurricanes. Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets Effective secure building design involves implementing countermeasures to deter. and accident prevention. Legal counsel should be obtained on how best to protect such sensitive information from unauthorized use within the provisions of applicable local. delay. taxpayers pay over $35 billion for recovery efforts. and other natural disasters. high performance buildings. It also provides for mitigating measures to limit hazards and prevent catastrophic damage should an attack occur. Note: Information in these Secure/Safe pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. Emerging Issues Information Sensitivity As a result of the heightened level of interest in homeland security following the attacks of 11 September 2001. electrical safety. A significant percentage of this could be saved if our buildings properly anticipated the risk associated with major natural hazards. project delivery teams must carefully maintain the security of any information that pertains to vulnerabilities. buildings. particularly when the building is part of a critical infrastructure or system. the public is even more interested in efforts to protect people. and operations from disasters. earthquakes. including repairing damaged buildings and infrastructure. tornados. ergonomics. and deny attacks from human aggressors. and federal laws. it is useful to identify four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design: • • • • Plan for Fire Protection Planning for fire protection for a building involves a systems approach that enables the designer to analyze all of the building's components as a total building fire safety system package. For that reason. Ensure Occupant Safety and Health Some injuries and illnesses are related to unsafe or unhealthy building design and operation. This presents both benefits and challenges. floods. state.

. P100 by the General Services Administration (GSA). which may impede emergency egress in case of fire. Biological. establishing specific functions for Operational staff and occupants.285 There are times when design requirements addressing all the various threats will pose conflicts in arriving at acceptable design and construction solutions. instructing occupants of appropriate responses to emergency situations and evacuation procedures. Examples include Blast Resistive Glazing. planners and designers of a wide variety of building types and spaces now consider strategies to mitigate CBR threats. Emergency Plans are an essential element of protecting life and property from attacks and threats by preparing for and carrying out activities to prevent or minimize personal injury and physical damage. responsibilities. Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives Historic Preservation—Accommodate Life Safety and Security Needs Tools LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool Publications • Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. Renewed Emphasis on Chemical. Clearly defined lines of communication. training Organization personnel in appropriate functions. and conducting actual drills. The WBDG page Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets explains this type of occupant threat and reviews design solutions to mitigate them. and access control measures that prevent intrusion. Development and Training on Occupant Emergency Plans Occupant Emergency Plans should be developed for building Operations staff and occupants to be able to respond to all forms of attacks and threats. and operational procedures are all important parts of Emergency Plans. but may also restrict emergency egress. and Radiological Threats Because of increased concern with post 9/11 international terrorism. This will be accomplished by preemergency planning. Good communication between fire protection and security design team specialists through the entire design process is necessary to achieve the common goal of safe and secure buidings.

building and fire codes are intended to protect against loss of life and limit fire impact on the community and do not necessarily protect the mission or assets. These systems are effective in detecting.. DC: National Academy Press. Fire protection engineers must be involved in all aspects of the design in order to ensure a reasonable degree of protection of human life from fire and the products of combustion as well as to reduce the potential loss from fire (i. 30 pgs) Uses of Risk Analysis to Achieve Balanced Safety in Building Design and Operations by Bruce D. and controlling and/or and extinguishing a fire event in the early stages. or solve problems brought upon by new projects with unique circumstances.286 • • • • • • • • FEMA 452 Risk Assessment—A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings International Building Code Mitigation Planning How-To Guide Series. 1988. National Research Council. cost-effective passive and automatic fire protection systems. that is. Washington. February 2003. National Research Council. Building Research Board. Protection of Federal Office Buildings Against Terrorism by the Committee on the Protection of Federal Facilities Against Terrorism. United for a Stronger America: Citizen's Preparedness Guide (PDF 647 KB. The analysis requires more than code compliance or meeting the minimum legal responsibilities for protecting a building. containing. Therefore. DC: National Academy Press. Planning for fire protection in/around a building involves an integrated systems approach that enables the designer to analyze all of the building's components as a total building fire safety system package. organizational operations).e. Editors. Websites • The Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP) Plan for Fire Protection by the WBDG Safe Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview The United States has the highest fire losses in terms of both frequency and total losses of any modern technological society. The National Strategy for "The Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructure and Key Assets". FEMA 386 Series. Washington. McDowell and Andrew C. it is necessary to creatively and efficiently . Lemer. real and personal property. FEMA 386-2. 1991. Committee on Risk Appraisal in the Development of Facilities Design Criteria. The White House. information. Understanding Your Risks: Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses. New facilities and renovation projects need to be designed to incorporate efficient.

o Provide rapid access to various features such as fire department connections (FDCs). and area Exposures/separation requirements Fire ratings.)—to be utilized by the design team. key boxes. etc. allowable height. Site Requirements—A quality site design will integrate performance requirements associated with fire department access. hose valves. The Fire Protection Engineer should be involved in all phases of design. including statutory requirements. voluntary requirements addressing owner's performance needs. Building Code. elevators and stairs. and requirements that are sometimes imposed by insurance carriers on commerical projects. and systems . suppression. Recommendations Issues to address in developing a successful fire protection design usually include: Design Team—It is most important that the project delivery team include a Fire Protection Engineer with adequate experience and knowledge in fire protection and life safety design.e. etc. from planning to occupancy.287 integrate code requirements with other fire safety measures as well as other design strategies to achieve a balanced design that will provide the desired levels of safety. • • Fire department access o Design buildings with uncomplicated layouts that enable firefighters to locate an area quickly. at a minimum will address the following elements: • • • Construction type. and separation distances and site/building security.. annunciators. o Accommodate the access of fire apparatus into and around the building site Fire hydrants Coordinate with security measures Building Construction Requirements. materials. Design Standards and Criteria (i.

at a minimum will address the following elements: . at a minimum will address the following elements: • • • • • Exit stairway remoteness Exit discharge Areas of refuge Accessible exits Door locking arrangements (security interface) Fire Detection and Notification System Requirements. at a minimum will address the following elements: • • • Detection Notification Survivability of systems Fire Suppression Requirements.288 • • • Occupancy types Interior finish Exit stairway enclosure Egress Requirements.

could potentially require a new approach to codes and standards. and AHJs working together in a collaborative manner to achieve performance-based design solutions.289 • • • Water supply Type of automatic fire extinguishing system o Water-based fire extinguishing system o Non-water-based fire extinguishing system Standpipes and fire department hose outlets Emergency Power. at a minimum will address the following elements: • • • • Engineered smoke control systems Fireproofing and firestopping Atrium spaces Mission critical facility needs EMERGING ISSUES Balancing Safe and Secure Design Requirements The terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 have caused design and engineering professionals to address integrated fire protection and security measures for the building site as well as within the building. and Exit Signage." including a greater emphasis on life-cycle cost as an engineering community and building code objective. The Society of Fire Protection Engineers has developed and published (in collaboration with NFPA) the SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings and the SFPE Code Official's Guide to Performance-Based Design Review (developed and published in collaboration with ICC). For example. . at a minimum will address the following elements: • • • Survivability of systems Electrical Safety Distributed Energy Resources Special Fire Protection Requirements. Lighting. owners. designers. special consultants. Another example is the increased need to coordinate HVAC design and proper automatic emergency operations in the event of a fire or chemical/biological/radiological (CBR) event. A growing movement to "sustainability. perimeter protection measures must be well-designed to ensure that fire departments can still access sites and buildings. Performance-Based Design (PBD) The success of any complex project hinges on getting all the stakeholders.

NIST—a compendium of research and position papers on multi-hazard evacuation theory Major Resources Standards and Code Organizations • • • • • • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ASTM International FM Global International Code Council. consult with the appropriate federal agency or the Contracting Officer.Evacuation. (UL) Associations • • American Fire Sprinkler Association (AFSA) Automatic Fire Alarm Association (AFAA) . 1974 P.L. 93-498—Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act. Inc.L.L. Legislation • • • • OMB Circular A-119—Federal Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities P. P100 GSA: Fire Safety Retrofitting in Historic Buildings by Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and General Services Administration. 1989. for minimum and recommended fire safety measures. 1988 P. 100-678. Section 21—Public Building Amendments. HUD: Fire Ratings of Archaic Materials and Assemblies VA: Design Manual: Fire Protection Other Publications • Fire Publications . 102-522—Fire Administration Authorization Act of 1992 (aka Federal Fire Safety Act) Federal Guidelines • • • • • DOD: UFC 3-600-01 Design: Fire Protection Engineering for Facilities GSA: Facilities Standard for the Public Building Service. For non-federal projects consult with the appropriate building code and fire code official. (ICC) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Underwriters Laboratories Inc. For federal projects.290 Relevant Codes and Standards Building codes and fire codes vary across the nation.

the potential for indoor air quality problems. Fire Administration. exposure to hazardous materials. engineers. However. Modern buildings are generally considered safe and healthy working environments. and facility managers to design and maintain buildings and processes that . and accidental falls beckons architects. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Ensure Occupant Safety and Health by the WBDG Safe Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview Threats to occupants from indoor air contamination can be studied in Computational Fluid Dynamics.291 • • National Fire Sprinkler Association (NFSA) Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) Laboratories • NIST Building and Fire Research Lab Universities • • • Oklahoma State University School of Fire Protection and Safety University of Maryland Fire Protection Engineering Worcester Polytechnic Institute Fire Protection Engineering and Center for Fire Safety Studies Others • • NAVFAC Community of Interest for Fire Protection Engineering U.S. occupational illnesses and injuries.

In addition. Notably. Use registered design professionals and accredited safety professionals to ensure compliance with safety standards and codes. and falls. construction. Provide good indoor air quality (IAQ) and adequate ventilation. Prevent occupational injuries and illnesses. • • • • • • • • • Provide designs that eliminate or reduce hazards in the work place to prevent mishaps and reduce reliance on personal protective equipment. See Standards and Code Organizations. operations and maintenance. Provide engineering controls in place rather than rely on personal protective equipment or administrative work procedures to prevent mishaps. Perform proper building operations and maintenance. including work process analysis and hazard recognition to develop solutions that provide healthy built environments. having no undue physical stressors. Ensure electrical safety from turn-over through Operations and Maintenance. and welfare (HSW) of building occupants has expanded beyond disease prevention and nuisance control to include mental as well as physical health (see Productive) and protecting the ecological health of a place (see Sustainable) through the creation of places that enable delight and the realization of human potential. Modifications must be in conformance with life safety codes and standards and be documented. consideration of HSW issues should be an integral part of all phases of a building's life cycle: planning. safety. Recommendations Provide Designs that Eliminate or Reduce Hazards in the Work Place to Prevent Mishaps • • • • Provide designs in accordance with good practice as well as applicable building. Prevent slips. renovation. trips. the design team must engage an integrated approach. Prevent falls from heights. safety. Therefore. volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. fire. .g. Conduct preliminary hazard analyses and design reviews to eliminate or mitigate hazards in the work place. Protecting the health. rather than relying on personal protective equipment and administrative or process procedures to prevent mishaps. and lead and asbestos in older buildings). building designs must focus on eliminating or preventing hazards to personnel. Eliminate exposure to hazardous materials (e. Analyze work requirements and provide ergonomic work places to prevent workrelated musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD). as well as meeting other project requirements. and final disposal.292 ensure occupant safety and health.. and health codes and regulations. design.

Provide fall protection for all maintenance personnel especially for roof-mounted equipment such as HVAC equipment and cooling towers. storing. and handling of materials. . such as built-in anchors or tie-off points. Design a means for safely cleaning and maintaining interior spaces and building exteriors. for all interior and exterior areas. Provide proper ventilation under all circumstances. both natural and artificial. Provide certified tie-off points for fall arrest systems. See WBDG Accessible Branch. Comply with applicable regulatory requirements such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards. cleaning products. Design for safe replacement and modifications of equipment to reduce the risk of injury to operations and maintenance staff. Provide for receiving. repair. and eliminating confined spaces when designing buildings and processes. Prevent Falls from Heights • • • Provide guardrails and barriers that will prevent falls from heights in both interior and exterior spaces. All OSHA standards are available in the 29 Code of Federal Regulation) (1926—Construction. such as combustibles. Trips. office supplies. Ensure Electrical Safety • • Ensure compliance with the National Electrical Code (NEC).293 • • • Integrate safety mechanisms. and allow for natural lighting where possible. Provide adequate space for maintenance. Prevent Occupational Injuries and Illnesses • • • • • • Consider work practices. Select exterior walking surface materials that are not susceptible to changes in elevation as a result of freeze/thaw cycles. Provide adequate illumination. Comply with all regulatory and statutory requirements such as the Americans with Disabilities Act. See Daylighting and Energy Efficient Lighting. Mitigate noise hazards from equipment and processes. into the building design. Prevent Slips. employee physical requirements. and perishables. See High-Performance HVAC and Natural Ventilation. and expansion in electrical rooms and closets. especially for large mechanical systems. and Falls • • • • Provide interior and exterior floor surfaces that do not pose slip or trip hazards. and 1910—General Industry). Designate safe locations for installation of RF equipment such as antennas on rooftop penthouses.

and maintenance. asbestos. but landscape and turf pest management as well. This should include not only interior pest management. remove. or manage in place hazardous materials such as lead.. lighting. Evaluate all areas where ground fault circuit interruption devices may be needed. Provide adequate space for hazardous materials storage compartments and segregate hazardous materials to avoid incompatibility. Specify high-visibility colors for high voltage ducts and conduits. etc. etc. Incorporate integrated pest management (IPM) concepts and requirements into facility design and construction (e. Consider use of sampling techniques for hazardous substances in all phases of the project to include planning. construction.294 • • • • • • Provide adequate drainage and/or containment from areas with energized electrical equipment. Consider occupant operations and materials in designing ventilation and drainage systems. See Sustainable O&M. use of proper door sweeps.) and require the use of IPM be performed by qualified personnel during all phases of construction and after the facility is completed. . Consider response of emergency personnel in cases of fires and natural disasters. Substitute high hazardous products with those of lower toxicity/physical properties. Label all electrical control panels and circuits. Install non-conductive flooring at service locations for high voltage equipment.g. design. isolate. Eliminate Exposure to Hazardous Materials • • • • • • Identify. trash compactors.

Perform Proper Building Operations and Maintenance . See WBDG Functional Branch. Prevent return air plenums/systems from entraining air from unintended spaces. and sewage ejector pits). industrial pollutant sources. Locate outside air intakes to minimize entrainment of exhaust fumes and other odors. to preclude water intrusion that may contribute to mold growth. Accept the principle that one size does not fit all employees. Provide task lighting at workstations to minimize eye fatigue. chairs.g. Consider providing break areas to allow the employees to temporarily leave the work place. See Accessible— Plan for Flexibility. Select furnishings. and equipment that are ergonomically designed and approved for that use. (e. See Green Products. including caulks and seals. such as fuel-burning equipment or garages. grass cutting and ground maintenance activities. Consider using worker comfort surveys in the design phase to help eliminate work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Consider the use of carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring equipment if there are CO sources. Avoid interior insulation of ductwork. Ensure the integrity of the building envelope. Provide Good Indoor Air Quality and Adequate Ventilation • • • • • • • • • • • Consider ventilation systems that will exceed minimum ASHRAE standards. Design separate ventilation systems for industrial and hazardous areas within a building. Specify materials and furnishings that are low emitters of indoor air contaminants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Recognize and provide specially designed industrial ventilation for all industrial processes to remove potential contaminants from the breathing zone. See Energy Efficient Lighting. Provide air barriers at interior walls between thermally different spaces to prevent mold and mildew. Consider the indoor relative humidity in the design of the ventilation system. Minimize lighting glare on computer monitor screens. Air may be supplied through single. in the building..or dual-duct constant air volume (CAV) or variable air volume (VAV) systems.295 Typical ventilation system design for fume hood systems in laboratories. Design equipment and furnishings reflective of work practices in an effort to eliminate repetitive motions and vibrations as well as prevent strains and sprains. cooling tower blow-offs. vehicle exhaust. Provide Ergonomic Workplaces and Furniture to Prevent Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) • • • • • • • Design work places that make the job fit the person.

is submitted to the building owner/operator prior to building occupancy. Potential exposure of building occupants to molds from contaminated HVAC systems. remains a serious concern. The Department of Labor stated that it would not hold employers responsible for health and safety violations that occur in home workplaces other than home offices. U. Require building maintenance personnel to maintain the HVAC air infiltration devices and condensate water biocides appropriately. Follow manufacturer recommendations for proper building operations and maintenance. especially. the Department of Labor said that employers would not be held liable for health and safety violations occurring in the homes of telecommuting employees. interior and exterior of the building. .S." New York Times. to prevent excessive humidity in system components. for example. Require the use of integrated pest management (IPM) for all pest management services. • • • • • • Ensure all maintenance and operation documentation. Special care must be exercised in HVAC design. especially during maintenance and renovation projects. Decides. Reaction to exposure can range from negligible to severe among building occupants and can frequently be very difficult to definitively identify as a causal factor for occupants' symptoms. fireworks being manufactured in the home or other activities involving the use of hazardous materials. but it can lend to good indoor air quality and prevent "sick building" syndromes. Emerging Issues During the last week of January 2000. 28 January 2000. Monitor chemical inventories to identify opportunities to substitute green products.296 Proper preventative maintenance (PM) not only improves the useful life of the systems and building structures. especially an equipment inventory. See Sustainable O&M Practices. See "Home Office Isn't Liability for Firms. Include safety training of operator personnel as part of the construction contractor's deliverables.

29 CFR 1910 Code of Federal Regulations for General Industry (pertains to post-occupancy) Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 29 C.297 Cotton-pleated filters are possible safe. and condensate pans continues to result in infections of building occupants on a regular basis.1 et seq. cost-effective alternatives to conventional fiberglass filters Fiberglass is used extensively in building construction. 29 CFR 1926 Code of Federal Regulations for Construction (pertains to construction phase) Ensure Electrical Safety . especially for insulation and sound attenuation in HVAC systems. Mechanical engineers must be vigilant to avoid system designs that may promote the growth of legionella sp. At a minimum. 29 U. § 651 et seq. A number of studies are currently investigating the long-term effects of inhalation exposure to fiberglass.S.. Part 1903.F. fiberglass exposed to the air stream in an HVAC system will shed particles and serve as a matrix for collecting dust and dirt that act as a substrate for microbial growth. Ventilation Standards American National Standards Institute and American Industrial Hygiene Association Industrial Ventilation. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • • ANSI Z9 Series. cooling towers. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.R. Contamination of domestic hot water systems.C. Considerable concern exists regarding the potential adverse health effects of inhaling fiberglass fibers. A Manual of Recommended Paractice American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists International Building Code International Code Council NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code National Fire Protection Association Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act 1970. They invariably result in employee apprehension and media attention. The results of such infections can range from mild to fatal and affect one or many employees.

§ 1910. 29 CFR 1910-Subpart S. 14.261 (Nov.298 • • Occupational Safety and Health Administration. codified at 29 C. 65 Fed. Legionnaires' Disease Provide Ergonomic Work Places to Prevent Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSD) • • EP 385-1-96 USACE Ergonomics Program Policy Final Rule on Ergonomics Program. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Provide Good Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and Adequate Ventilation • • • • • • • • ASHRAE Standard 52—Method of Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter ASHRAE Standard 55—Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy ASHRAE Standard 62—Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality: Sets the minimum acceptable ventilation requirements.2. Ventilating. 68. Reg. Air Conditioning and Dehumidifying Systems UFC 3-410-04N Industrial Ventilation NISTIR 5329 Manual for Ventilation Assessment in Mechanically Ventilated Commercial Buildings OSHA Technical Manual—Section III.F.R.1—Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings UFC 3-410-02N Heating. 2000). Renovation and Repair of Installed Asbestos Cement Products EP 1110-1-11 Engineering and Design Asbestos Abatement Guideline Detail Sheets EPA 20T-2003 Managing Asbestos in Place EPA 560/5-85-024 Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings EPA 560-OPTS-86-001 A Guide to Respiratory Protection for the Asbestos Abatement Industry VA VHA Program Guide 1850. Sections 301 to 309 UFC 3-560-10N Safety of Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems Eliminate Exposure to Hazardous Materials • • • • • • • • • AFI 32-1052 Facility Asbestos Management ASTM E1368 Standard Practice for Visual Inspection of Asbestos Abatement Projects ASTM E2356 Standard Practice for Comprehensive Building Asbestos Surveys ASTM E2394 Standard Practice for Maintenance. ASHRAE Standard 90.900 Perform Proper Building Operations and Maintenance .

Sustainable Publications • Anthrax-Contaminated Facilities: Preparations and a Standard for Remediation (PDF 82 KB. Inc. Functional / Operational. (BOCA) FM Global International Code Council. (UL) . 19 pgs) by the Congressional Research Service. Federal Agencies and Programs • • • • • • • Consumer Products Safety Commission National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)—The Federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury. (ICC) International Conference of Building Officials. Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being. National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) OSHA Emergency Preparedness/Planning Info OSHA eTools and Electronic Products for Compliance Assistance OSHA Legionnaires' Disease Design Guidance Standards and Code Organizations • • • • • • • • • • • • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ASTM International American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Building Officials and Code Administrators International.2. Inc.299 • • ASHRAE Guideline 1—Guideline for the Commissioning of HVAC Systems VA VHA Program Guide 1850. Inc. (SBCCI) Underwriters Laboratories Inc. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Major Resources WBDG Design Objectives Accessible. The Institute is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments. Inc. 2005. (ICBO) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) National Electrical Contractors Association (NECA) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Southern Building Code Congress International.

terrorism and foreign military power are referred to as "threats" by the intelligence community. While the occurrence of these events cannot be precisely predicted. and function due to disasters. property. their impacts are well understood and can be managed effectively through a comprehensive program of hazard mitigation planning. work methods. Also offers Professional Development Seminars and Technical Sessions. and other hazards. Designing to resist any hazard(s) should always begin with a comprehensive risk assessment. The fundamental goal of mitigation is to minimize loss of life.300 Associations and Organizations • • • • • • • American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Institute for Safety Through Design (ISTD)—Established in 1995 by the National Safety Council's Business and Industry Division. This process includes identification of the hazards present in the location and an assessment of their potential impacts and effects on the built environment based on existing or anticipated vulnerabilities and potential losses. Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) Others • RiskWorld Resist Natural Hazards by the WBDG Safe Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview Buildings in any geographic location are subject to a wide variety of natural phenomena such as windstorms. International Society for Occupational Ergonomics and Safety (ISOES) National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care National Safety Council (NSC)—A leading source of safety and health information in the United States. however. the Institute works toward improving the design and development of all processes involved in industrial operations. and delivery of services. It is common for different organizations to use varying nomenclature to refer to the components of risk assessment. products. For example. while hurricanes and floods are referred to as "hazards" by emergency managers. floods. training. including equipment. systems. Mitigation refers to measures that can reduce or eliminate the vulnerability of the built environment to hazards. earthquakes. tooling. facilities. both are simply forces that . whether natural or man-made.

properties. All mitigation is local. some or all of the issues outlined below should be considered in order to protect lives. death. Risk reduction techniques should address as many applicable hazards as possible. Most mitigation measures.301 have the potential to cause damage. maximizes the protective effect of the mitigation measures implemented. prioritized. This can range from prevention of nonstructural damage in frequent minor ground shaking to . mitigation initiatives are most effective when they involve the full participation of local stakeholders. Depending on the hazards identified. and the specific performance requirements for the building. fall under the jurisdiction of local government. and injury. This approach should be incorporated into the project planning. This approach. whether structural or regulatory. and function is to design buildings that are disaster resistant. known as multi-hazard mitigation. property. is the most Cost-Effective approach. how it can affect the built environment. the location and construction type of a proposed building or facility. and operations from damages caused by natural hazards. Proactively integrating mitigation measures into new construction is always more economically feasible than retrofitting existing structures. and what the potential losses could be. and loss of function in the built environment. and optimizes multi-hazard design techniques with other building technologies. RECOMMENDATIONS Design professionals agree that the most successful way to mitigate losses of life. design. and implemented. Earthquakes Building design will be influenced by the level of seismic resistance desired. When incorporating disaster reduction measures into building design. the fundamental process of identifying what can happen at a given location. Later in the building's life cycle. the structure can be designed to resist hazard effects such as induced loads. Additionally. Regardless of who is conducting the risk assessment." A variety of techniques are available to mitigate the effects of natural hazards on the built environment. remains essentially the same from application to application. additional opportunities to further reduce the risk from natural hazards may exist when renovation projects and repairs of the existing structure is undertaken. Only after the overall risk is fully understood should mitigation measures be identified. and development at the earliest possible stage so that design and material decisions can be based on an integrated "whole building approach. Basic principles underlying this process include: • • • The impacts of natural hazards and the costs of the disasters they cause will be reduced whether mitigation measures are implemented pre-disaster (preventively) or post-disaster (correctively).

The Additional Resources section of this page includes several FEMA publications for designing community shelters. and the incorporation of levees and floodwalls into site design to keep water away from the building. Differential Settlement (Subsidence) . Hurricanes. and bracing of nonstructural components. Flood mitigation techniques include elevating the building so that the lowest floor is above the flood level. roof drainage design should minimize the possibility of ponding water. All roofs and walls must therefore shed rainwater. relocation of the building.302 prevention of structural damage and minimization of nonstructural damage in occasional moderate ground shaking. elastomeric dampers. roof trusses and gables should be braced. and existing buildings with flat roofs should be inspected to determine compliance with this requirement. For example. energy dissipating devices such as visco-elastic dampers. Rainfall and Wind-Driven Rain One of the primary performance requirements for any building is that it should keep the interior space dry. braced frames. and diaphragms. When planning renovation projects. and even avoidance of collapse or serious damage in rare major ground shaking. base isolation. and Tornadoes The key strategy to protecting a building from high winds caused by tornados. and "residential safe rooms" for occupant refuge during windstorms. proper site selection away from floodplains. and doors and windows should be protected by covering and/or bracing. and to design the structure to withstand the expected lateral and uplift forces. constructed to protect a large number of people from a natural hazard event. including roofs and windows. Should buildings be sited in flood-prone locations. and gust fronts is to maintain the integrity of the building envelope. Recommendations for addressing rainfall and wind-driven rain can be found in the International Building Code (IBC) series. designers should consider opportunities to upgrade the roof structure and covering and enhance the protection of fenestration. hurricane straps should be used to strengthen the connection between the roof and walls. and design requirements are the same everywhere in this respect. or making uninhabited or non-critical parts of the building resistant to water damage. These performance objectives can be accomplished through a variety of measures such as structural components like shear walls. hurricanes. they should be elevated above expected flood levels to reduce the chances of flooding and to limit the potential damage to the building and its contents when it is flooded. and hysteretic-loop dampers. Flooding Flood mitigation is best achieved by hazard avoidance—that is. dry flood-proofing. or making the building watertight to prevent water entry. Typhoons. For example. wet floodproofing. moment resisting frames.

and utility lines and connections should be stress-resistant. underground fluid withdrawal. hardwood trees are less flammable than pines. constructing channels. Techniques for reducing landslide and mudslide risks to structures include selecting non-hillside or stable slope sites. and earthquakes. louvers. and noncombustible awnings can help reduce this risk. fire-resistant shutters or drapes. and deflection walls. timely warnings. and soil reinforcement using geo-synthetic materials. and organic soil drainage and oxidation. Overhangs. . but dual. Fire is a natural process in any wild land area and serves an important purpose. and flood hazards can be exacerbated. eucalyptus or firs). landslides. shear walls. landslide. basements and other below-ground projections should be minimized. Although a tsunami cannot be prevented. mudflow. Vents. community preparedness. and avoiding cut and fill building sites. and balconies can trap heat and burning embers and should also be avoided or minimized and protected with wire mesh. erosion. and earth reinforcement techniques such as dynamic compaction can be used to increase resistance to subsidence damage and to stabilize collapsible soils. drainage systems. The tsunami wave may come gently ashore or may increase in height to become a fast moving wall of turbulent water several meters high. A cleared safety zone of at least 30 feet (100 feet in pine forests) should be maintained between structures and combustible vegetation. Windows allow radiated heat to pass through and ignite combustible materials inside. Only fire-resistant or non-combustible materials should be used on roofs and exterior surfaces. Forest Fires As residential developments expand into wild land areas. shrubs. hydrocompaction. and effective response. In subsidence-prone areas. evergreens. Landslides and Mudslides Gravity-driven movement of earth material can result from water saturation. slope modifications. including geotechnical study of the site. the tsunami wave may only be a few inches high. Roofs and gutters should be regularly cleaned and chimneys should be equipped with spark arrestors. people and property are increasingly at risk from wildfire.303 Ground subsidence can result from mining. foundations should be appropriately constructed. porches. Subsidence mitigation can best be achieved through careful site selection.or triple-pane thermal glass. retention structures. or volcanic activity. sinkholes. When retrofitting structures to be more subsidence-resistant. geo-fabrics. if ground cover is burned away. and other openings should be covered with wire mesh to prevent embers and flaming debris from entering. however. planting groundcover. and trees should be used for landscaping (for example. Tsunami A tsunami is a series of ocean waves generated by sudden displacements in the sea floor. and fire-resistant ground cover. In the deep ocean. the impact of a tsunami can be mitigated through urban/land planning. eaves.

hoods. When a change in use or occupancy occurs. Additionally. designers should augment the codes and standards to consider the importance of nonstructural elements. and best practices will guide the design of buildings to resist natural hazards. and other damage to a building's foundation may also improve the quality of runoff water entering streams and lakes. ice. but compliance with regulations in building design is not sufficient to guarantee that a facility will perform adequately when impacted by the forces for which it was designed. wind.. and their combinations. rain. Finally. then. and electrical and mechanical systems. rainstorm. Initially. Indeed. snow. For new buildings. standards. and earthquake loads. parapets and balcony railings. because they may account for more than 70% of the value of a building. and mission of the building. mudslide. • • • International Building Code (IBC) Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Given that hazard mitigation is at the core of disaster resistance. special mitigation requirements may be imposed on projects in response to locale-specific hazards. codes. Relevant Codes and Standards Regulations. ASCE 7-02— includes model requirements for dead. by not only preventing losses but serving the higher goal of long-term community sustainability. that are suitable for inclusion in building codes National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) . insurers and the public) because a critical mass of facilities were built before multi-hazard construction measures were incorporated in modern building codes. i. the designer must determine whether this change triggers other mitigation requirements and must understand how to evaluate alternatives for meeting those requirements. live. flood. For example. individual evaluation of the costs and benefits of specific hazard mitigation alternatives can lead to effective strategies that will exceed the minimum requirements. windows.304 Emerging Issues Hazard Mitigation and Sustainability Unsustainable development is one of the major factors in the rising costs of natural disasters. code requirements serve to define the minimum mitigation requirements. erosion control measures designed to mitigate flood. assets. building codes were developed solely to prevent or reduce the loss of life and property due to fire in buildings. many design strategies and technologies serve double duty. soil.e. Cost of Mitigation Measures in Retrofits The cost of incorporating multi-hazard mitigation measures in existing buildings is an issue of increased importance (for designers.

S. 1994) Public Law 95-124. the 2000 International Code. still use earlier versions of the ICC predecessor codes—UBC. such as California. Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000 Earthquake • • • • • • Executive Order 12699. 1990) Executive Order 12941. Examples of such codes include: • • • Miami-Dade County Code Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC) UBC 1997—1997 marked the end of an era: the final publishing year of the Uniform Building Code. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Public Law 101-614.305 Many states and municipalities have also adopted supplemental codes to meet local requirements for multi-hazard protection. Seismic Safety of Federal and Federally Assisted or Regulated New Building Construction (January 5. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act Of 1977. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act (1977) United States Code Title 42. Tornado Shelters Act (2003) Flood • Public Law 93-234. The 2000 International Building Code is part of the nation's first-ever single set of comprehensive and coordinated building safety codes. National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program Reauthorization Act (1990) Public Law 103-374. Seismic Safety of Existing Federally Owned or Leased Buildings (December 1. Typhoon. Authorization and Amendment (1994) Public Law 106-503. General Multi-Hazard • Public Law 106-390. Department of Defense: UFC 3-440-05N Design: Tropical Engineering . BOCA and SBC. Many states. and Tornado • Public Law 108-146. Earthquake Hazards Reduction Authorization Act (2000) Hurricane. Chapter 86. National Flood Insurance Act (1968) Rainfall and Wind-Driven Rain • • • • National Institute of Standards and Technology: NISTIR 4821 Envelope Design Guidelines for Federal Office Buildings: Thermal Integrity and Airtightness U.

Colorado U. Typhoon. Growing Smart project American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Applied Technology Council (ATC)—A nonprofit organization dedicated to developing and promoting state-of-the-art.S. Texas Tech University. TX Wind Load Test Facility. user-friendly engineering resources and applications for use in mitigating the effects of natural and other hazards on the built environment Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Mitigation Division Institute for Business and Home Safety (IBHS) Multi-hazard Mitigation Council (MMC)—A program of the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Natural Hazards Center. Clemson. SC Flood • • • Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM) National Flood Insurance Program (FEMA) National Imagery Mapping Agency (For Flood Mapping) Forest Fires • Color Country Interagency Fire Management Area . University of Colorado. Boulder. and Tornado • • • • National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) Protective Glazing Council (PGC) Wind Engineering Research Center.306 Additional Resources Organizations and Associations General Multi-Hazard • • • • • • • • • • American Lifelines Alliance American Planning Association. Clemson University. Geological Survey (USGS) (For Flood and Seismic Mapping) Earthquake • • • Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC)—Established by the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) to develop and promote building earthquake risk mitigation regulatory provisions for the nation Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) FEMA HAZUS (Hazards US) modeling Hurricane. Lubbock.

DC: John Henry Press. 1999. FEMA 136) Papers on Communication Lifelines (1987. 6 volumes: Papers on Water and Sewer Lifelines (1987. 2006. Washington. FEMA 138) . Mileti. Dennis S. Federal Emergency Management Agency: Mitigation Resources for Success CD-ROM (FEMA 372) Planning for a Sustainable Future: The Link Between Hazard Mitigation and Livability (FEMA 364) Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Rebuilding for a More Sustainable Future: An Operational Framework (FEMA 365) Understanding Your Risks: Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses (FEMA 386-2) The Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP): Guide for an Action Plan to Develop Regional Disaster Resilience. ICSSC RP 4) ICSSC Guidance on Implementing Executive Order 12941 on Seismic Safety of Existing Federally Owned or Leased Buildings (1995. FEMA 74) Communities at Risk (FEMA 83) Non-Technical Explanation of the 1994 NEHRP Recommended Provisions (1995. ICSSC TR-17) Federal Emergency Management Agency: Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage. Earthquake • • • • • • • • • • • • • Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC)/National Institute of Science and Technology: Standards of Seismic Safety for Existing Federally Owned or Leased Buildings (1994. ICSSC RP 5) How-to Suggestions for Implementing Executive Order 12941 on Seismic Safety of Existing Federal Buildings. A Handbook (1995. FEMA 135) Papers on Transportation Lifelines (1987.307 • • • • • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) The Fire Safe Council Firewise National Interagency Fire Center National Wildfire Programs Database Publications General Multi-Hazard • • • • • • • • • Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. FEMA 137) Papers on Power Lifelines (1987. FEMA 99) Abatement of Seismic Hazards to Lifelines: Proceedings of a Workshop on Development of an Action Plan. A Practical Guide (1994.

FEMA 157) NEHRP Handbook of Techniques for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings (FEMA 172) Establishing Programs and Priorities for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings: Supporting Report (FEMA 173) and Handbook (FEMA 174) Financial Incentives for Seismic Rehabilitation of Hazardous Buildings—An Agenda for Action Volume 1: Findings. and Volume 3: Applications Workshops Report (FEMA 216) Benefit-Cost Model for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Hazardous Buildings Volume 1: A User's Manual (FEMA 227) Home Builders Guide to Seismic Resistant Construction (FEMA 232) Development of Guidelines for Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings—Phase 1: Issues identification and Resolution (FEMA 237) Seismic Rehabilitation of Federal Buildings: A Benefit/Cost Model Volume 1: A User's Manual (FEMA 255) and Volume 2: Supporting Documentation (FEMA 256) NEHRP Guidelines for Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings—Commentary (1997. and Regulatory Issues and General Workshop Presentations (1987. FEMA 154) Typical Costs for Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings Volume 1: Summary. FEMA 274) Evaluation of Earthquake Damaged Concrete and Masonry Buildings (FEMA 306/307/308) NEHRP Handbook for the Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings (1998. Second Edition (1995. Recommended Seismic Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing Welded Steel Moment-Frame Buildings (FEMA 351) Recommended Post-Earthquake Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded Steel Moment-Frame Buildings (FEMA 352) . FEMA 139) Papers on Political. FEMA 143) Guide to Application of the 1991 NEHRP Recommended Provisions in Earthquake-Resistant Building Design (1995. Second Edition (FEMA 156) Typical Costs for Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings Volume 2: Supporting Documentation. Legal.308 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Papers on Gas and Liquid Fuel Lifelines (1987. and Recommendations (FEMA 198). Economic. Conclusions. FEMA 140) Rapid Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards: A Handbook (1988. Volume 2: State and Local Case Studies and Recommendations (FEMA 199). FEMA 310) Promoting the Adoption and Enforcement of Seismic Building Codes (FEMA 313) Case Studies: An Assessment of the NEHRP Guidelines for Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 343) An Action Plan for Performance Based Seismic Design (FEMA 349) Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New Steel Moment-Frame Buildings (FEMA 350) Federal Emergency Management Agency. Social.

Department of Veterans Affairs: VA Natural Disasters Nonstructural Resistive Design (formerly CD-54) Flood • • • • • • • • • Federal Emergency Management Agency: Design Guidelines for Flood Damage Reduction (FEMA 15) Elevated Residential Structures (FEMA 54) Installation Guide for Manufactured Housing (FEMA 85) Floodproofing Non-Residential Structures (FEMA 102) Reducing Losses in High Risk Flood Hazard Areas: A Guidebook for Local Officials (FEMA 116) Repairing Your Flooded Home (FEMA 234) Engineering Principals and Practices for Retrofitting Floodprone Residential Structures (FEMA 259) Above the Flood: Elevating Your Floodprone House (FEMA 347) .309 • • • • • • • • • • • • Recommended Specifications and Quality Assurance Guidelines for Steel Moment-Frame Construction for Seismic Applications (FEMA 353) A Policy Guide to Steel Moment-Frame Construction (FEMA 354) Pre-standard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 356) NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings. and Tornado • • • • • • • • • • • Federal Emergency Management Agency: Coastal Construction Manual (FEMA 55) Homeowner's Guide to Retrofitting (FEMA 312) Taking Shelter From the Storm: Building a Safe Room Inside Your House (FEMA 320) Design and Construction Guidance for Community Shelters (FEMA 361) FEMA Building Performance Assessment Team (BPAT) Reports for various hurricanes U.S. Department of Defense: UFC 3-110-03 Roofing UFC 3-440-05N Design: Tropical Engineering U. Department of Veterans Affairs: VA Natural Disasters Nonstructural Resistive Design (formerly CD-54) Seismic Design Requirements (Structural) (H-18-8) Hurricane. 2006. 2 volumes and maps (FEMA 368 and 369) Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12) (2003.S. Typhoon. FEMA 454) U. FEMA 395) Designing for Earthquakes: A Manual for Architects (Dec. Army Corps of Engineers: TI 809-4 Seismic Design for Buildings TI 809-5 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation for Buildings U. 2000 Edition.S.S.

S. Department of Defense: UFC 3-110-03 Roofing U. Department of Veterans Affairs: VA Natural Disasters Nonstructural Resistive Design (formerly CD-54) Landslide. Mudslide • • Federal Emergency Management Agency: Landslide Loss Reduction: A Guide for State and Local Government Planning (FEMA 182) Progressive Collapse • • UFC 4-023-03 Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse FEMA Technical Library—Offers many PDF format documents on Disaster Preparation and Prevention NOTE: To order FEMA publications that are not available online. request by title or document number from the FEMA Publications Warehouse at (800) 480-2520 Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets by the WBDG Safe Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview . Army Corps of Engineers: Engineering and Design Water Control Management (1982. ER 1110-2-240) Life-Cycle Design and Performance of Structures for Local Flood Protection (ETL 1110-2-361) U.S. 2007. FEMA 543) Technical Bulletin series (FEMA TB 1-10) U.310 • • • • • • • • • • Protecting Building Utilities From Flood Damage (FEMA 348) Design Guide for Improving Critical Facility Safety from Flooding and High Winds: Providing Protection to People and Buildings (Jan.S.

Oklahoma City's Alfred P. That is. criminals.g. are incorporated into the design of the new Oklahoma City Federal Building. The most prominent of these are the DOD Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) UFC 4-010-01 DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings and Interagency Security Committee (ISC) Security Design Criteria. produced recommended minimum standards for security at federal facilities. including 52 security standards addressing such items as parking. and made Americans aware of the need for better ways to protect occupants. assets. lighting. The study listed recommendations for upgrading federal building security. most designers agree that security issues must be addressed in concert with other design objectives and integrated . and buildings from human aggressors (e. disgruntled employees. Murrah Federal Building once stood. the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks demonstrated the country's vulnerability to an even wider range of threats and reasserted heightened public concern for the safety of workers and occupants in all Building Types. Many federal agencies responding to these concerns have adopted an overarching philosophy to provide appropriate and cost-effective protection for building occupants. protective glazing. located north of where the former Alfred P. and structural hardening.311 Security measures. More recently. and Atlanta's Centennial Park. Murrah Federal Office Building. vandals. However. shook the nation. Some federal agencies have issued their own security design standards. A Department of Justice study called "Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Facilities". bollards. and closed circuit television monitoring. such as setbacks. physical barriers. decision makers should strive to make smart choices and investments that will lessen the risk of mass casualties resulting from terrorist attacks. There are currently no universal codes or standards that apply to both public and private sector buildings. (Designed by Ross Barney + Jankowski Architects and Atkins Benham) The bombings at New York City's World Trade Center. conducted in response to a Presidential directive and issued one day after the 19 April 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. while it may be cost prohibitive to design a facility to a worse case scenario. and terrorists). It divided federal sites into five security levels ranging from Level 1 (minimum security needs) to Level 5 (maximum).

" This concept provides for increasing levels of security from the outer areas of the site or facility towards the inner. fingerprints. Oftentimes the countermeasures work on the layered defense concept or "Onion Philosophy. vulnerability assessment. Some or all of the issues outlined below need consideration for effective security design and building operations. and decisions made based on recommendations from a comprehensive threat assessment. remote controlled gates. mail bombs. package bombs Ballistic threats: Small arms. Weapons of mass destruction (chemical. anti-ram barriers o Traffic control. ID cards Protection of information and data o Acoustic shielding . and radiological) Cyber and information security threats Recommendations Basic to realizing an effective security plan and design is the implementation of appropriate countermeasures to deter. and deny attacks. infrared) Personnel identification systems o Access control. drive-by shootings. Some items to consider include: • • • • Compound or facility access control o Control perimeter: Fences. acceptable levels of risk. Unauthorized Entry (Forced and Covert) Protecting the facility and assets from unauthorized persons is an important part of any security system.312 into the overall building design throughout the process to ensure a quality building with effective security. biological. bollards. and hydraulic barriers. high-powered rifles. more protected areas. anti-ram hydraulic drop arms. assets. detect. appropriate countermeasures should be implemented to protect people. and risk analysis. Depending on the building type. and mission. This concept is known as multi-hazard design. parking o Forced-Entry-Ballistic Resistant (FE-BR) doors and windows Perimeter intrusion detection systems o Clear zone o Video and CCTV o Alarms o Detection devices (motion. delay. biometrics. acoustic. etc. Types of attack and threats to consider include: • • • • • • Unauthorized entry (forced and covert) Insider threats Explosive threats: Stationary and moving vehicle-delivered.

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o o

Shielding of electronic security devices from hostile electronic environment Secure access to equipment, networks, and hardware, e.g. satellites and telephone systems

Insider Threats
One of the most serious threats may come from persons who have authorized access to a facility. These may include disgruntled employees or persons who have gained access through normal means (e.g., contractors, support personnel, etc). To mitigate this threat some items to consider include:
• •

Implement personnel reliability programs and background checks Limit and control access to sensitive areas of the facility

Explosive Threats: Stationary and Moving Vehicle-Delivered, Mail Bombs, Package Bombs
Explosive threats tend to be the criminal and terrorist weapon of choice. Devices may include large amounts of explosives that require delivery by a vehicle. However, smaller amounts may be introduced into a facility through mail, packages, or simply hand carried in an unsecured area. Normally the best defense is to provide defended distance between the threat location and the asset to be protected. This is typically called standoff distance. If standoff is not available or is insufficient to reduce the blast forces reaching the protected asset, structural hardening may be required. If introduced early in the design process, this may be done in an efficient and cost-effective manner. If introduced late in a design, or if retrofitting an existing facility, such a measure may prove to be economically difficult to justify. Some items to consider include:
• •

The design team should include qualified security and blast consulting professionals from the concept stage forward. Provide defended standoff with rated or certified devices such as fencing, bollards, planters, landscaping, or other measures that will stop persons, if required, and vehicle delivered threats. Consider structural hardening and hazard mitigation designs such as ductile framing that is capable of withstanding abnormal loads and preventing progressive collapse, protective glazing, strengthening of walls, roofs, and other facility components. Design the facility with redundant egress and other critical infrastructure to facilitate emergency evacuation and control during an event.

Ballistic Threats
These threats may range from random drive-by shootings to high-powered rifle attacks directed at specific targets within the facility. It is important to quantify the potential risk and to establish the appropriate level of protection. The most common ballistic protection

314 rating systems include: Underwriters Laboratories (UL), National Institute of Justice (NIJ), H.P. White Laboratory, and ASTM International. Materials are rated based on their ability to stop specific ammunition (e.g., projectile size and velocity). Some items to consider include:
• • •

Visual shielding, such as opaque windows or screening devices Ballistic resistant rated materials and products Locating critical assets away from direct lines of sight

Weapons of Mass Destruction: Chemical, Biological, and Radiological (CBR)
Commonly referred to as WMD, these threats generally have a low probability of occurrence but the consequences of an attack may be extremely high. While fully protecting a facility against such threats may not be feasible with the exception of very special facilities, there are several common sense and low cost measures that can improve resistance and reduce the risk from the WMD threat. Some items to consider include:

Protect pathways into the building o Control access to air inlets and water systems o Provide detection and filtration systems for HVAC systems o Provide for emergency HVAC shutoff and control o Segregate portions of building spaces (i.e., provide separate HVAC for the lobby, loading docks, and the core of the building) o Consider providing positive pressurization to keep contaminates outside of the facility Provide an emergency notification system to facilitate orderly response and evacuation.

Cyber and Information Security Threats
In today's world, business continuity and mission function rely heavily on the transmission, storage, and access to a wide range of electronic data and communication systems. Protecting these systems from attack is critical for most users ranging from individuals, businesses, and government agencies. Some items to consider include:

Understand and identify the information assets that you are trying to protect. These may include personal information, business information such as proprietary designs or processes, national security information, or simply the ability of your organization to communicate via email and other LAN/WAN functions. Protect the physical infrastructure that supports information systems. For example, if your computer system is electronically secure but is vulnerable to physical destruction you may not have achieved an adequate level of protection. Provide software and hardware devices to detect, monitor, and prevent unauthorized access to or the destruction of sensitive information.

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Development and Training on Occupant Emergency Plans
Occupant Emergency Plans should be developed for building Operations staff and occupants to be able to respond to all forms of credible attacks and threats. Clearly defined lines of communication, responsibilities, and operational procedures are all important parts of Emergency Plans. Emergency Plans are an essential element of protecting life and property from attacks and threats by preparing for and carrying out activities to prevent or minimize personal injury and physical damage. This will be accomplished by pre-emergency planning; establishing specific functions for Operational staff and occupants; training Organization personnel in appropriate functions; instructing occupants of appropriate responses to emergency situations and evacuation procedures; and conducting actual drills.

Emerging Issues
Balancing Security and Sustainability
Providing for sustainable designs that meet all facility requirements is often a challenge to the design community. With limited resources it is not always feasible to provide for the most secure facility, the most architecturally expressive design, or energy efficient building envelope. From the concept stage through the development of construction documents, it is important that all project or design stakeholders work cooperatively to ensure a balanced design. Successful designs must consider all competing design objectives.

Designing for Fire Protection and Physical Security
Care should be taken to implement physical security measures that allow Fire Protection forces access with to sites and buildings and building occupants with adequate means of emergency egress. GSA has conducted a study and developed recommendations on design strategies that achieve both secure and fire safe designs. Specifically, the issue of emergency ingress and egress through blast resistant window systems was studied. Training was developed based on this information and is available at the GSA Public Buildings Service—Building Security Technology Web site.

316 Integrated security systems can offer more efficient access and control. (Courtesy of Integrated Security Systems, LTD)

Integrated Systems
In recent years, there has been a general trend towards integrating various stand-alone security systems, integrating systems across remote locations, and integrating security systems with other systems such as communications, and fire and emergency management. For example, CCTV, fire, and burglar alarm systems have been integrated to form the foundation for access control.

Relevant Codes and Standards
Highly complex security system design is still neither codified nor regulated, and no universal codes or standards apply to all public and private sector buildings. However, in many cases, government agencies, including the military services, and private sector organizations have developed specific security design criteria.

Mandates
• •

Executive Order 12977, "Interagency Security Committee" Interagency Security Committee (ISC) Security Design Criteria—Unites all Federal protective design requirements (For Official Use Only)

Federal Guidelines
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Department of Defense: DOD Security Engineering Manual (For Official Use Only) FM 3-19.30 Physical Security—Sets forth guidance for all personnel responsible for physical security NAVFAC MIL-HDBK-1012/3 Telecommunications Premises Distribution Planning, Design, and Estimating UFC 1-200-01 Design: General Building Requirements UFC 3-520-01 Design: Interior Electrical Systems UFC 4-010-01 DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings UFC 4-010-02 DoD Minimum Standoff Distances for Buildings (FOUO) UFC 4-023-03 Design of Buildings to Resist Progressive Collapse USAF Installation Force Protection Guide General Services Administration (GSA): Facilities Standards for the Public Building Service, P100, Chapter 8. Other "official use only" documents may be obtained from the Office of the Chief Architect GSA Guidelines for Progressive Collapse Department of Veterans Affairs (VA): Physical Security Design Manual for VA Facilities: Mission Critical Facilities

317
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Physical Security Design Manual for VA Facilities: Cost Estimates for Physical Security Enhancements Department of State: Architectural Engineering Design Guideline (5 Volumes) (For Official Use Only) Physical Security Standards Handbook, 07 January 1998 (For Official Use Only) Structural Engineering Guidelines for New Embassy Office Buildings, August 1995 (For Official Use Only) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): FAA Order 1600.69 Security Risk Management Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): FEMA 386-7 Integrating Manmade Hazards into Mitigation Planning FEMA 426 Reference Manual to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings FEMA 427 Primer for Design of Commercial Buildings to Mitigate Terrorist Attacks FEMA 428 Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks FEMA 429 Insurance, Finance, and Regulation Primer for Terrorism Risk Management in Buildings FEMA 430 Site and Urban Design for Security FEMA 452 Risk Assessment - A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential Terrorist Attacks Against Buildings FEMA 453 Design Guidance for Shelters and Safe Rooms

Others
• • • • • •

Department of Commerce Administrative Orders: Inspector General Investigations, DAO 207-10 Occasional Use of Public Areas in Public Buildings, DAO 206-5 Security Programs, DAO 207-1 Designing for Security in the Nation's Capital by the National Capital Planning Commission (NVPC). October 2001. Guidelines for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Attacks by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Vulnerability Assessment of Federal Facilities by Department of Justice.

Private Sector Guidelines
• •

Design of Blast Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities by American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 1997. Structural Design for Physical Security, State of the Practice by Edward Conrath, et al. Alexandria, VA: Structural Engineering Institute of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 1999.

Major Resources

318

WBDG

Products and Systems
Fenestration Systems—Exterior Doors

Security Centers
• • • • • • • • • •

Anti-Terrorism Force Protection (DOD) (Limited access) Defense Threat Reduction Agency Department of Defense (DOD) Anti-terrorism body—Pentagon's J34 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) All-Hazard Mitigation Program on Anti-terrorism Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC), Security Engineering Center of Expertise ESC66 - E-mail: securityeng@nfesc.navy.mil USAF Electronic System Center (ESC), Hanscom AFB U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Electronic Security Center U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Protective Design Center U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Organizations and Associations
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) Security Resource Center American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Society of Industrial Security (ASIS) Battelle Memorial Institute, National Security Program Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Federal Facilities Council (FFC) Standing Committee on Physical Security and Hazard Mitigation (Sponsored by National Academies of Science) International CPTED Association (ICA) National Academy of Sciences National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Postal Security Action Group (PSAG) Protective Glazing Council (PGC) Security Industry Association (SIA) Society of American Military Engineers (SAME) The Infrastructure Security Partnership (TISP) U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM)

Trade Journals/Magazines

Architectural Design for Security and Security and Technology Design by Donald M. Rochon. June 1998.

319
• • • • •

Designing for Crime and Terrorism, Security and Technology Design by Randall I. Atlas. June 1998. Government Security Security Magazine Security Solutions Online: Access Control and Security Systems Security through Environmental Design, Security and Technology Design by Robert Pearson. September 1997.

Training Courses

FEMA E155—Building Design for Homeland Security

Others
• • • •

Anthrax-Contaminated Facilities: Preparations and a Standard for Remediation by the Congressional Research Service. 2005. Creating Defensible Space by Oscar Newman. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, April 1996. National Symposium of Comprehensive Force Protection, Society of American Military Engineers (SAME), Charleston, SC, Oct 2001. Lindbergh & Associates. Protecting Building Occupants from Biological Threats—Website from the Center for Biosecurity of UPMC that includes useful information about biological threats to building occupants, practical steps for reducing risk, and costs and benefits of risk reduction measures, along with a wealth of related materials and additional resources.

As economy and population continue to expand. Source: Levin. water. healthy. and productive while minimizing their impact on the environment. synergistic approach that considers all phases of the facility life cycle. This "sustainable" approach supports an increased commitment to environmental stewardship and conservation. and results in an optimal balance of cost. Systematic Evaluation and Assessment of Building Environmental Performance (SEABEP). (1997) Recent answers to this challenge call for an integrated. 1997. they also generate waste and potentially harmful atmospheric emissions. prevent environmental degradation caused by facilities and . buildings not only use resources such as energy and raw materials. environmental. and raw materials. designers and builders face a unique challenge to meet demands for new and renovated facilities that are accessible. secure. H. societal. paper for presentation to "Buildings and Environment".320 Sustainable by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview Building construction and operation have an enormous direct and indirect impact on the environment. Paris. 9-12 June. and human benefits while meeting the mission and function of the intended facility or infrastructure. The main objectives of sustainable design are to avoid resource depletion of energy. As illustrated in the figure below.

parking. concerns for energy security increasing. safe. EPA's New England Regional Laboratory (NERL) achieved a LEED Version 1. Protect and Conserve Water In many parts of the country. transportation methods. and energy use. Optimize Energy Use With America's supply of fossil fuel dwindling. Use Environmentally Preferable Products A sustainable building should be constructed of materials that minimize life-cycle environmental impacts such as global warming. Siting for physical security has become a critical issue in optimizing site design.321 infrastructure throughout their life cycle. and utilize renewable energy resources in federal facilities.0 Gold rating. See WBDG Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives. increase efficiency. comfortable. The location. Site design for security cannot be an afterthought. or treat site-runoff. From conception the project was charged to "make use of the best commerciallyavailable materials and technologies to minimize consumption of energy and resources and maximize use of natural. orientation. fresh water is an increasingly scarce resource. use water efficiently. and perimeter lighting must be integrated into the design along with sustainable site considerations. resource depletion. including consideration of the reuse or rehabilitation of existing buildings. and human toxicity. and create built environments that are livable. • • • • Optimize Site Potential Creating sustainable buildings starts with proper site selection. and landscaping of a building affect the local ecosystems. These environmentally preferable materials are defined by Executive Order 13101 to be "products or services that have a lesser or reduced effect on . control. The location of access roads. Along with site design for sustainability. A sustainable building should reduce. it must be addressed in the preliminary design phase to achieve a successful project. MA While the definition of what constitutes sustainable building design is constantly changing." Chelmsford. and the impact of greenhouse gases on world climate rising. there are six fundamental principles that nearly everyone agrees on. vehicle barriers. recycled and non-toxic materials. and reuse or recycle water for on-site use when feasible. it is essential to find ways to reduce load. and productive.

Designers are encouraged to specify materials and systems that simplify and reduce maintenance requirements. and reduced energy and resource costs. Among other attributes. • • RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS • • • ASTM E2432—Standard Guide for the General Principles of Sustainability Relative to Building Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PDF 1. comfort. Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Incorporating operating and maintenance considerations into the design of a facility will greatly contribute to improved working environments. and Transportation Management" Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to most building types and space types. and radiological attack. energy. higher productivity. and toxic chemicals and cleaners to maintain. Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) of a building has a significant impact on occupant health. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. they contribute to improved worker safety and health. a sustainable building should maximize daylighting.322 human health and the environment when compared with competing products or services that serve the same purpose. and avoid the use of materials with high-VOC emissions. Energy.9 MB. high— performance buildings. and are cost-effective and reduce life-cycle costs. reduced disposal costs. Products and Systems Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers: . biological." As such. Additional consideration must now be given to ventilation and filtration to mitigate chemical. 550 pgs) Executive Order 13423. require less water. Design Objectives Information in these Sustainable pages must be considered together with other design objectives and within a total project context in order to achieve quality. have appropriate ventilation and moisture control. and achievement of environmental goals. and productivity. reduced liabilities.

S.S. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool.323 • • • • • • • • • • • 01 10 00 (01100) Summary 01 30 00 (01300) Administrative Requirements 01 74 19 (01351) Construction Waste Management 01 40 00 (01400) Quality Requirements 01 41 00 (01411) Regulatory Requirements 01 42 00 (01421) References 01 50 00 (01500) Temporary Facilities & Controls 01 78 53 (01780) Sustainable Design Close-Out Documentation 01 91 00 (01810) Commissioning 01 79 11 (01821) Environmental Demonstration and Training 01 78 23 (01830) Operation & Maintenance Data Project Management Building Commissioning Tools Building Life-Cycle Cost (BLCC). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) High Performance Buildings. Sustainable Federal Buildings Database Federal Agencies • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding Department of Defense U. ERDC – CERL—Sustainable Design and Development Resource website U.S. Project Planning Tools (PPT). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) High Performance Buildings Database. Navy uses the WBDG Sustainable Branch as its primary sustainable development resource. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FEMP Sustainable Design and Operations FEMP Interagency Sustainability Working Group Smart Communities Network—Green Buildings . Construction Waste Management Database. Navy—The U. Army.S.S.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix. LEED® Version 2.S. Life Cycle Cost in Design (LCCID). Army Sustainability website U. U. Decision Support Tools for Green Building. Air Force – AFCEE—Sustainable Development website Department of Energy Building Technologies Program. Army. U.

Department of Energy. Office of Governmentwide Policy. General Services Administration.S.S. Dec 2003.S.S. Office of Real Property.S. GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study High Performance Building Guidelines by New York City Department of Design and Construction. General Services Administration.S. College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. 2003. Sustainable Facilities Guide by U. Innovative Workplace Strategies by U. Green Building Costs and Financial Benefits by Gregory Kats. 2005. Oct 2004. Managing Your Environmental Responsibilities: A Planning Guide for Construction and Development by U. Office of Real Property. Environmental Protection Agency. publications. e design Online—The journal of the Florida Design Initiative Environmental Building News Environmental Design & Construction Magazine Field Guide for Sustainable Construction by the Pentagon Renovation and Construction Program Office. 2001. Air Force . Department of Defense. NASA Sustainability website National Park Service Greening of the National Park Service website Sustainability News website Publications • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • eco-structure Magazine—A bi-monthly magazine dedicated to improving the environmental performance of buildings and their surroundings. Office of Real Property. Green Buildings—Guidelines for Creating High-Performance Green Buildings by Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 1999. General Services Administration. Twin Cities Campus.S. April 1999. 2004. Office of Real Property—This website has links to tools.324 • • • • • • • • • • • Environmental Protection Agency Green Buildings website Greening EPA website General Services Administration Sustainable Design website Sustainable Development Program website. presentations and videos developed by GSA to assist agencies in transforming the way they do business. Sustainable Development and Society by U. Real Property Sustainable Development Guide by U. Department of Energy and U. Minnesota Sustainable Design Guide by Regents of the University of Minnesota. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Governmentwide Policy. 1996. Greening Federal Facilities Guide by U. Sustainable Building Rating Systems Summary Sustainable Building Technical Manual by U.S. Office of Governmentwide Policy.

2004. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center. and Sustainable Development by Federal Facilities Council.gov—FedCenter. construction. Implement: Seattle's Sustainable Building Tool Optimize Site Potential by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 05-01-2008 Overview . DC: National Academy Press. a program of the National Environmental Education & Training Foundation (NEETF). FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities. UB High Performance Building Guidelines by the University at Buffalo. Green Building Program. is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE). and operation in a way that aligns environmental responsibility with business success.S. construction and marketing.325 • • Sustainable Federal Facilities: A Guide to Integrating Value Engineering. City of Austin. Washington. from putting together a business case to design. Organizations • • • Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) U. The State University of New York. Green Building Council (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System Others • • • • • • Building Green from Principle to Practice—Online resource created by the Natural Resources Defense Council guides building professionals through green building process.S. FedCenter. to help companies understand and address building design. 2001. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office.S. and the U. the U. LifeCycle Costing. TX Green Building Advisor Greener Buildings—A website produced by Green Business Network.

carpool staging. Restore the health of degraded sites by improving habitat for indigenous species through native plants and closed-loop water systems. locate buildings in areas of existing development and consider renovating existing buildings and historic properties. Encourage alternatives to traditional commuting. the impact on local ecosystems. Creating sustainable buildings starts with proper site selection. Reduce heat islands using landscaping and building design methods.326 Green roofs can effectively absorb most rainfall events. The location of a building affects a wide range of environmental factors—as well as other factors such as security and accessibility—like the energy consumed by occupants for commuting. brownfields. Photo courtesy of Don Horn. reverse the urban heat island effect. If possible. Chicago. Incorporate transportation solutions along with site plans that acknowledge the need for bicycle parking. among others are key issues that must be addressed. parking. and provide wildlife habitat. and perimeter lighting. Chicago City Hall. Sustainable site planning should consist of a whole system approach that seeks to: • • • • • • • Minimize development of open space by the selection of disturbed land. Location of access roads. Control erosion through improved landscaping practices. vehicle barriers. Minimize habitat disturbance. or building retrofits. It is imperative that Federal agencies maximize the restorative impact of site design and building infrastructure while meeting the project's other requirements. and proximity to mass transit. and the extent to which existing structures and infrastructures are utilized. Recommendations Minimize Development of Open Space • • Retrofit an existing building Use disturbed land/brownfields . IL. and Consider site security concurrently with sustainable site issues.

parking lots. See also WBDG Acheiving Sustainable Site Design through Low Impact Development Practices. 33: Formerly a gun turret plant at the Navy Yard in Washington. daylighting. Control Erosion Through Improved Landscaping Practices • • • Use vegetation. consider incorporating . Consider Energy Implications in Site Selection and Building Orientation • • • • Site buildings to be able to integrate passive and active solar strategies. Maximize daylight use. ventilation. dry climates.g. design for storm water retention features on site like pervious pavement. etc. Integrate landforms and landscaping into the site planning process to enhance resource protection. particularly in warm climates.327 Naval Facilities Engineering Command Headquarters. In hot. this facility was renovated into a 4-story office building featuring energy efficient envelope. Finish the facility's roof with light-colored materials to reduce energy loads and extend the life of the roof. Capture storm water runoff on site. Take advantage of natural ventilation. Use vegetated swales and depressions to reduce runoff. Reduce Heat Islands Using Landscaping and Building Design Methods • • • Maximize the use of existing trees and other vegetation to shade walkways.). Ensure that shading devices do not block critical ground level sight lines for security. DC. Bldg. solar. See also WBDG Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives for Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED). parking lots. lighting. and stabilization techniques to prevent erosion.. and other open areas. grading. Investigate potential impact of future developments adjacent to the site (e. like the southwestern states. Ensure that site work and landscaping are integrated with security and safety design. consider covering walkways. and other open areas that are paved or made with low reflectivity materials. and HVAC systems as well as environmentally preferable materials.

328 green roofs into the project. walking. See also WBDG Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water. See also PROACT Fact Sheet on de-icing. carpool parking. In northern climates. Reduce building and paving footprints. Limit site disturbance to a minimal area around the building perimeter. Minimize Habitat Disturbance • • • • • • Keep land disturbance to a minimum and retain prime vegetation features to the extent possible. and high emissivity roofing can lower roof surface temperature by up to 100°F. and provide refueling/recharging facilities for alternative fuel/electric vehicles. Use non-toxic snow and ice removal methods. high-reflectance. Energy Star® Roof-compliant. Use porous alternatives to traditional paving for roads and walkways. Use a roofing product that meets or exceeds Energy Star standards. including locating buildings adjacent to existing infrastructure. Restore the Health of Degraded Sites • • Focus on restoration of degraded areas. increasing the existence of healthy habitat for native species. and telecommuting. Design for Sustainable Transportation • • • Site the building with public transportation access in mind and limit on-site parking. decreasing the amount of heat transferred into a building. site parking and pedestrian areas so that they have sun exposure for assistance in melting the snow or ice. Balance Site Sustainability with Site Security/Safety . Make provisions for bicycling. Plan construction staging areas with the environment in mind. Conserve water use through xeriscaping with native plants.

See also WBDG Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives. It relates to controlling sprawl. Emerging Issues Smart Growth is an issue that concerns many communities around the country. earth dikes and sediment basins). and reduce heat islands while also serving as physical barriers to control access to a building and to deflect the effects of a blast. manage stormwater. and other natural hazards. mudslides. and Transportation Management" Department of Defense: UFC 3-210-10. Parking: Outside/Structured. reusing existing infrastructure. "Locating Federal Facilities on Historic Properties in Our Nation's Central Cities" Executive Order 13423. and locating places to live and work near public transportation. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. Implement erosion control measures to stabilize the soil (e. "Federal Space Management" Executive Order 13006.. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • • Executive Order 12072.329 • • • • Consider installing retention ponds and berms to control erosion. 2005 Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to all building types..g. torrential rainstorms. Parking: Surface . Low Impact Development General Services Administration: P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. installing pervious paving) and/or to retain sediment after erosion hasd occurred (e. Use native or climate tolerant trees to improve the quality of the site as well as provide protection by obscuring assets and people. Energy. It is more resourceefficient to reuse existing roads and utilities than build new ones far out from cities in rural areas.g. seeding and mulching. These help to reduce the negative impacts on water and air quality as well as mitigate potential damage to a building's foundation and structural system due to floods. Smart growth preserves open spaces and farm lands and strengthens the development of existing communities and their quality of life. Applicable to the following space types. creating walkable neighborhoods.

1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix.13 (01354) Environmental Management 01 41 00 (01411) Regulatory Requirements 01 42 00 (01421) References 01 50 00 (01500) Temporary Facilities & Controls 02 41 13 (02220) Selective Site Demolition 31 10 00 (02230) Site Clearing 31 31 00 (02360) Soil Treatment 32 10 00 (02700) Bases. Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality. Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water.17. Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products. Ballasts. July 2001." March 1996. Functional / Operational. Pavements 32 12 43 (02795) Porous Paving 10 81 16.12 (01353) Noise and Acoustic Management 01 57 19. Historic Preservation— Comply with Accessibility Requirements. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool Minimize Development of Undeveloped Open Space • • • Environmentally Green… Economically Green: Tools for a Green Land Development Program by the National Association of Home Builders Research Center. Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use. Sustainable— Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Products and Systems Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers: • • • • • • • • • • • • • 01 74 19 (01351) Construction Waste Management 01 57 19.330 Design Objectives Accessible—Provide Equal Access. "Use of Risk-Based Decision-Making in Underground Storage Tank Corrective Action Programs.net—Green infrastructure is a strategic approach to conservation that addresses the ecological. Secure / Safe. social and economic impacts of sprawl .13 (02872) Bat Houses 32 90 00 (02900) Planting Project Management Building Commissioning Tools LEED® Version 2. GreenInfrastructure. EPA OSWER Directive 9610.

Stop Sprawl Campaign.S.org Reduce Heat Islands Using Landscaping and Building Design Methods • • • • Energy Star® Labeled Roof Products. Restore the Health of Degraded Sites • • Xeriscape. Maryland Department of the Environment. Sierra Club.com Heat Island Group. January 2007. EPA Low Impact Development website Xeriscape. Coast Guard Environmental Management Division (G-SEC-3). Brownfields Redevelopment and Directed Growth Smart Growth Network • • Control Erosion through Improved Landscaping Practices • • • Beneficial Landscaping Guidance by the U. EPA Green Roofs for Healthy Cities Greenroofs.org USACE Technical Note ERDC TN-05-DRAFT No-Water Urinals. Transportation Issues Zion National Park Case Study by National Renewable Energy Laboratory As part of redesigning the visitors' experience at Zion National Park.331 and the accelerated consumption and fragmentation of open land. This website is hosted by The Conservation Fund in partnership with USDA Forest Service. Design for Sustainable Transportation • • • Centre for Sustainable Transportation—The Centre for Sustainable Transportation was founded to provide leadership in achieving sustainable transportation in Canada. including: Good Lighting Fixtures Outdoor Lighting Regulations National Wildlife Federation Obtrusive Lighting Guide by Lighting Consultancy And Design Services. clean . Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Minimize Habitat Disturbance • • • • • • International Astronomical Union (IAU) Commission 50's Working Group on "Controlling Light Pollution" International Dark-Sky Association (IDA)—IDA's mission is to preserve and protect the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark skies through quality outdoor lighting. IDA has many resources and information on outdoor lighting and light pollution prevention.

Smart Growth • • • • • A Smart Growth Reader by the American Planning Association. Automobile traffic. the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities. the U.5 million annual visitors throughout the area. which was causing damage to the air and ecosystem of the park.S. was minimized. Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study Urban Land Institute Optimize Energy Use by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 05-02-2008 Overview .332 running propane buses were designed to shuttle the park's 2. Environmental Protection Agency Smart Growth Network Urban Land Institute Others • • • • • FedCenter.gov—FedCenter. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network Smart Growth. is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE). and the U. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. See also Case Study: Zion National Park. Smart Communities Network.S.

buildings in the United States consume 42% of America's energy and 68% of its electricity. photovoltaics. increase efficiency. and utilize renewable fuel resources in federal facilities.333 2004 ASLA Award Recipient (Photo: Nancy Rottle) On an annual basis. passive solar heating. Currently. building projects must have a comprehensive. . buildings generate 35% of the carbon dioxide (the primary greenhouse gas associated with climate change). and geothermal. fossil fuel resources. Specify efficient HVAC and lighting systems that consider part-load conditions and utility interface requirements. the vast majority of this energy is produced from nonrenewable. integrated perspective that seeks to: • • • Reduce heating. and 25% of the nitrogen oxides found in the air. Employ renewable energy sources such as daylighting. and lighting loads through climate-responsive design and conservation practices. it is essential to find ways to reduce load. With America's supply of fossil fuel dwindling. 2004 ASLA Award Recipient (Photo: Nancy Rottle) During the facility design and development process. and the impact of greenhouse gases on world climate rising. 49% of the sulfur dioxide. concerns for energy supply security increasing (both for general supply and specific needs of facilities). Furthermore. cooling.

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Optimize building performance by employing energy modeling programs and optimize system control strategies by using occupancy sensors and air quality alarms; and Monitor project performance through a policy of commissioning, metering, and annual reporting.

Recommendations
Reduce Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Loads through Climate-Responsive Design and Conservation Practices
• •

Use passive solar design; orient, size, and specify windows; and locate landscape elements with solar geometry and building load requirements in mind. Use high-performance building envelopes; select walls, roofs, and other assemblies based on long-term, insulation, and durability requirements.

Employ Renewable or High-Efficiency Energy Sources
• • •

Evaluate the use of common, on-site renewable energy technologies such as daylighting, solar water heating, and geothermal heat pumps. Investigate the use of emerging, on-site renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. Evaluate purchasing electricity generated from renewable sources or low polluting sources such as natural gas.

Specify Efficient HVAC and Lighting Systems

• • • •

Use energy efficient HVAC equipment and systems that meet or exceed 10 CFR 434. For Department of Defense facilities, use refer to the standards within UFC 3-400-01, Design for Energy Conservation. Use lighting systems that consume less than 1 watt/square foot for ambient lighting. Use Energy Star® approved products or products that meet or exceed Department of Energy standards. Evaluate energy recovery systems that pre-heat or pre-cool, in-coming ventilation air in commercial and institutional buildings. Investigate the use of integrated generation and delivery systems, such as cogeneration, fuel cells, and off-peak thermal storage. See also WBDG Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Microturbines.

Optimize Building Performance and System Control Strategies
• •

Employ energy modeling programs early in the design process. Use sensors to control loads based on occupancy, schedule and/or the availability of natural resources such as daylight or natural ventilation.

335
• •

Evaluate the use of modular components such as boilers or chillers to optimize part-load efficiency and maintenance requirements. Evaluate the use of Direct Digital Controls.

Monitor Project Performance
• • •

Use a comprehensive, building commissioning plan throughout the life of the project. Use metering to confirm building energy and environmental performance through the life of the project. See also WBDG Facility Performance Evaluation.

Emerging Issues

Roof-mounted PV on carport, North Island Naval Base, San Diego, CA

Sustainability and Energy Security
Increased security of energy supply and distribution systems have become an important component of national security after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Today, power generation is still mostly handled by massive centralized plants, which are inevitable targets, and electricity moves on vulnerable lines. Measures to minimize energy consumption can contribute to increased energy security directly and indirectly. For example, energy conservation and efficiency results in using less energy far more efficiently to do the same tasks. In addition, obtaining more energy from sources that are inherently invulnerable because they are dispersed, diverse, and increasingly renewable (see WBDG Distributed Energy Resources, Fuel Cell Technology, Microturbines, Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), Daylighting, Passive Solar Heating) is an essential part of a comprehensive energy security strategy. More

Relevant Codes and Standards
• • •

Energy Codes and Standards Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PDF 1.9 MB, 550 pgs) Executive Order 13423, "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management"

336
• • •

Executive Order 13221, "Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices" U.S. General Services Administration: P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service, 2005

Major Resources
WBDG

Building / Space Types
Applicable to most building types and space types, especially high energy users such as Health Care Facilities, Hospital, Research Facilities, Automated Data Processing: Mainframe, Automated Data Processing: PC System, Laboratory: Dry, Laboratory: Wet

Design Objectives
Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process, Cost-Effective, Functional / Operational, Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately, Productive, Secure / Safe, Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential, , Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water, Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products, Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality, Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices

Products and Systems
Section 23 28 13: Commercial—Kitchen Hoods, Section 23 31 00: HVAC Ducts and Casings, Section 23 05 93: Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing for HVAC, Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

01 91 00 (01810) Commissioning 03 30 00 (03300) Cast-In-Place Concrete 03 40 00 (03400) Precast Concrete 04 20 00 (04200) Unit Masonry 07 20 00 (07200) Thermal Protection 07 30 00 (07300) Steep Slope Roofing 07 50 00 (07500) Membrane Roofing 07 92 00 (07900) Joint Sealants 08 14 00 (08210) Wood Doors 08 50 00 (08500) Windows 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 12 10 00 (12100) Art 48 14 00 (13600) Solar Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment

337
• • • • • •

48 15 00 (13600) Wind Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 48 30 00 (13600) Biomass Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 14 20 00 (14200) Elevators 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment 23 30 00 (15800) HVAC Air Distribution 26 50 00 (16500) Lighting

Project Management
Project Planning and Development, Building Commissioning

Tools
LEED® Version 2.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix, LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool. See also Tools: Energy Analysis.

Minimize Energy Consumption
• • • • • •

Energy Design Resources Energy Star®, EPA Energy Star® for New Building Design Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), DOE High—Performance Buildings, U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program WBDG case studies: Center for Neighborhood Technology; EPA New England Regional Laboratory; NAVFAC Building 33

Employ Renewable or High-Efficiency Energy Sources
• • •

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics Program, Sandia National Laboratory Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) and CREST (Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology)

Specify Efficient HVAC and Lighting Systems
• • • •

10 CFR 434 Subpart A ASHRAE 90.1 FEMP Buying Energy Efficient Products Lighting Research Center

Optimize Building Performance and System Control Strategies

338

WBDG: Productive, Functional / Operational—Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration, Functional / Operational—Meet Performance Objectives U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), OE/EE-0157: International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP)

Others

• • •

FedCenter.gov—FedCenter, the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center, is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, and the U.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities. Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study

Optimize Energy Use
by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 05-02-2008

Overview

2004 ASLA Award Recipient (Photo: Nancy Rottle)

339 On an annual basis, buildings in the United States consume 42% of America's energy and 68% of its electricity. Furthermore, buildings generate 35% of the carbon dioxide (the primary greenhouse gas associated with climate change), 49% of the sulfur dioxide, and 25% of the nitrogen oxides found in the air. Currently, the vast majority of this energy is produced from nonrenewable, fossil fuel resources. With America's supply of fossil fuel dwindling, concerns for energy supply security increasing (both for general supply and specific needs of facilities), and the impact of greenhouse gases on world climate rising, it is essential to find ways to reduce load, increase efficiency, and utilize renewable fuel resources in federal facilities.

2004 ASLA Award Recipient (Photo: Nancy Rottle) During the facility design and development process, building projects must have a comprehensive, integrated perspective that seeks to:
• • • •

Reduce heating, cooling, and lighting loads through climate-responsive design and conservation practices; Employ renewable energy sources such as daylighting, passive solar heating, photovoltaics, and geothermal; Specify efficient HVAC and lighting systems that consider part-load conditions and utility interface requirements; Optimize building performance by employing energy modeling programs and optimize system control strategies by using occupancy sensors and air quality alarms; and Monitor project performance through a policy of commissioning, metering, and annual reporting.

Recommendations
Reduce Heating, Cooling, and Lighting Loads through Climate-Responsive Design and Conservation Practices

Use passive solar design; orient, size, and specify windows; and locate landscape elements with solar geometry and building load requirements in mind.

340

Use high-performance building envelopes; select walls, roofs, and other assemblies based on long-term, insulation, and durability requirements.

Employ Renewable or High-Efficiency Energy Sources
• • •

Evaluate the use of common, on-site renewable energy technologies such as daylighting, solar water heating, and geothermal heat pumps. Investigate the use of emerging, on-site renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. Evaluate purchasing electricity generated from renewable sources or low polluting sources such as natural gas.

Specify Efficient HVAC and Lighting Systems

• • • •

Use energy efficient HVAC equipment and systems that meet or exceed 10 CFR 434. For Department of Defense facilities, use refer to the standards within UFC 3-400-01, Design for Energy Conservation. Use lighting systems that consume less than 1 watt/square foot for ambient lighting. Use Energy Star® approved products or products that meet or exceed Department of Energy standards. Evaluate energy recovery systems that pre-heat or pre-cool, in-coming ventilation air in commercial and institutional buildings. Investigate the use of integrated generation and delivery systems, such as cogeneration, fuel cells, and off-peak thermal storage. See also WBDG Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Microturbines.

Optimize Building Performance and System Control Strategies
• • • •

Employ energy modeling programs early in the design process. Use sensors to control loads based on occupancy, schedule and/or the availability of natural resources such as daylight or natural ventilation. Evaluate the use of modular components such as boilers or chillers to optimize part-load efficiency and maintenance requirements. Evaluate the use of Direct Digital Controls.

Monitor Project Performance
• • •

Use a comprehensive, building commissioning plan throughout the life of the project. Use metering to confirm building energy and environmental performance through the life of the project. See also WBDG Facility Performance Evaluation.

Emerging Issues

9 MB. energy conservation and efficiency results in using less energy far more efficiently to do the same tasks. diverse. Today. Research Facilities. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. General Services Administration: P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. power generation is still mostly handled by massive centralized plants. "Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices" U. Microturbines. San Diego. and electricity moves on vulnerable lines.341 Roof-mounted PV on carport. Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV). CA Sustainability and Energy Security Increased security of energy supply and distribution systems have become an important component of national security after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. Energy. Hospital. and Transportation Management" Executive Order 13221. Measures to minimize energy consumption can contribute to increased energy security directly and indirectly. For example. More Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • Energy Codes and Standards Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PDF 1. obtaining more energy from sources that are inherently invulnerable because they are dispersed. Automated Data Processing: Mainframe. especially high energy users such as Health Care Facilities.S. Laboratory: Dry. Automated Data Processing: PC System. In addition. 2005 Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to most building types and space types. which are inevitable targets. Passive Solar Heating) is an essential part of a comprehensive energy security strategy. North Island Naval Base. and increasingly renewable (see WBDG Distributed Energy Resources. Daylighting. Laboratory: Wet . Fuel Cell Technology. 550 pgs) Executive Order 13423.

Cost-Effective. Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential. Section 23 31 00: HVAC Ducts and Casings. Adjusting. Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 01 91 00 (01810) Commissioning 03 30 00 (03300) Cast-In-Place Concrete 03 40 00 (03400) Precast Concrete 04 20 00 (04200) Unit Masonry 07 20 00 (07200) Thermal Protection 07 30 00 (07300) Steep Slope Roofing 07 50 00 (07500) Membrane Roofing 07 92 00 (07900) Joint Sealants 08 14 00 (08210) Wood Doors 08 50 00 (08500) Windows 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 12 10 00 (12100) Art 48 14 00 (13600) Solar Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 48 15 00 (13600) Wind Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 48 30 00 (13600) Biomass Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 14 20 00 (14200) Elevators 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment 23 30 00 (15800) HVAC Air Distribution 26 50 00 (16500) Lighting Project Management Project Planning and Development. Productive. and Balancing for HVAC. Building Commissioning Tools LEED® Version 2. Secure / Safe. . Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water. Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately. Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Products and Systems Section 23 28 13: Commercial—Kitchen Hoods. .342 Design Objectives Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix. See also Tools: Energy Analysis. Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality. Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products. Section 23 05 93: Testing. Functional / Operational.

Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study . OE/EE-0157: International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Others • • • • FedCenter. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. EPA New England Regional Laboratory. U.343 Minimize Energy Consumption • • • • • • Energy Design Resources Energy Star®. NAVFAC Building 33 Employ Renewable or High-Efficiency Energy Sources • • • National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics Program. Sandia National Laboratory Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP) and CREST (Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology) Specify Efficient HVAC and Lighting Systems • • • • 10 CFR 434 Subpart A ASHRAE 90. EPA Energy Star® for New Building Design Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Functional / Operational—Ensure Appropriate Product/Systems Integration. the U. Department of Energy (DOE).gov—FedCenter. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program WBDG case studies: Center for Neighborhood Technology. DOE High—Performance Buildings.S.1 FEMP Buying Energy Efficient Products Lighting Research Center Optimize Building Performance and System Control Strategies • • WBDG: Productive.S. is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE). EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. Functional / Operational—Meet Performance Objectives U. and the U.S. the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center.

and Apply the FEMP Best Management Practices for Water Conservation. Recommendations Reduce. TX include landscaping with native. Photo courtesy of Don Horn. Reducing water consumption and protecting water quality are key objectives of sustainable design. alone. To the maximum extent feasible. and federal agencies must seek to: • • • • • • Reduce. or indigenous. Control.5 billion and $1 billion annually. and reused on-site. and Establish waste treatment and recycling centers. it is estimated that expenditures for water and sewer run between $0. and treat surface runoff. purified. and Treat Surface Runoff . for example eliminate lead-bearing products in potable water. control. Improve water quality. used. The protection and conservation of water must be considered throughout the life of the building. Water conservation strategies implemented at the Post Office in Ft. Worth. Use water efficiently through ultra-low flow fixtures. plantings and rainwater catchment basins. elimination of leaks. and other actions. This is critical because consumption of water in many areas of the country exceeds the ability of the supplying aquifer to replenish itself. water conserving cooling towers. federal facilities should increase their dependence on water that is collected.344 Protect and Conserve Water by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 05-02-2008 Overview Within the federal sector. Recover non-sewage and gray water for on-site use.

Use ultra water-efficient plumbing fixtures and integrate other water-saving devices into buildings. Design landscape for water efficiency through use of native plants tolerant of local soil and rainfall conditions. o Reduce and filter surface runoff. roof water. and groundwater for on-site activities. Meter water usage. caulk around pipes and plumbing fixtures. o Use vegetated swales and depressions to reduce runoff. o Use pervious paving materials. Design Waste Treatment and Recycling Programs • • Use biological waste treatment systems to treat waste on-site. Eliminate materials that are lead-polluting. Use gray water. Consider incorporating green roofs into the project. Use Integrated Pest Management to reduce water pollution from pesticides. Per . Protect Water Quality • • • Install water quality ponds or oil grit separators as storm water runoff filtration systems. Install water-conserving cooling towers designed with delimiters to reduce drift and evaporation. Use groundwater from sump pumps.345 • • • • Use low impact development principles. Use Water Efficiently • • • • • • • Incorporate efficiency in construction specifications. Apply the FEMP Best Management Practices for Water Conservation Part of a water management plan includes identifying opportunities for water conservation at a facility. Use roof water and groundwater for on-site activities. employ measurement and verification methods. Some are construction related and some are O&M related. Recover Non-Sewage and Gray Water for On-Site Use • • • Use non-sewage wastewater. conduct annual checks of hoses and pipes. comply with the Department of Energy's International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) for water use. Reduce evaporation through scheduled irrigation at dawn and dusk. Consider storm water events in the overall management of surface water runoff. Use non-toxic bathroom and kitchen cleaning products. Eliminate leaks.

areas that cannot handle the large volumes of water due to antiquated systems. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. Leak Detection. BMP #1—Public Information and Education Programs BMP #2—Distribution System Audits. or during extreme cold or hot weather where conventional hydrant pipes can freeze or break. Dry hydrants are non-pressurized suction pipe systems that are permanently installed in ponds or lakes and use the untreated water. dry hydrants allow fire departments to be much more efficient by providing close water sources to fire risks. they are capable of supplying water in the case of natural disasters such as hurricanes and tornadoes when electricity lines are knocked down.346 the requirements of Executive Order 13423. Utilized in areas that lack conventional fire protection. S. or during peak use seasons when there is low water pressure. Also. Environmental Protection Agency. 550 pgs) Executive Order 13423. instead of municipal water. Emerging Issues Dry Fire Hydrants One of the synergistic technologies for achieving water conservation and fire safety is a dry fire hydrant. dry fire hydrants help to save precious drinking water and conserve energy by using rainwater that does not need to be processed to be used for fighting fires. and study references for the effective design of storm water management systems. to fight fires.9 MB. More Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • Clean Water Act Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PDF 1. and Transportation Management" Department of Defense: . developed under a grant from the U. contains best management practices. FEMP recommends implementing at least four of the following ten Best Management Practices (BMPs) for water conservation at federal facilities. and Repair BMP #3—Water Efficient Landscaping BMP #4—Toilets and Urinals BMP #5—Faucets and Showerheads BMP #6—Boiler/Steam Systems BMP #7—Single-Pass Cooling Systems BMP #8—Cooling Tower Systems BMP #9—Miscellaneous High Water-Using Processes BMP #10—Water Reuse and Recycling The International Storm Water Best Management Practices (BMP) Database. Energy. Since dry hydrants are installed below frost line and do not require electricity.

Laboratory: Dry. Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential. Secure / Safe. Productive. Clinic / Health Unit. Cost-Effective. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool Federal Agencies . especially high water users such as Health Care Facilities. Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use. Functional / Operational. 2005 Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to most building types and space types. Hospitals.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix. Low Impact Development UFGS 01 57 23. Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately. Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products.347 • • • • UFC 3-210-10. Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Products and Systems Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers • • • • 31 25 73 (02635) Stormwater Management by Compost 32 90 00 (02900) Planting 12 10 00 (12100) Art 22 40 00 (15400) Plumbing Fixtures Project Management Building Commissioning Tools LEED® Version 2. Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality. Laboratory: Wet Design Objectives Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process. Temporary Storm Water Pollution General Services Administration: P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. Research Facilities.

2 MB. Coast Guard Environmental Management Division (G-SEC-3). U. Section on Water The Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting (PDF 1.5 MB. showerheads. 10 pgs) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): Office of Water (OW) Office of Wastewater Management (OWM) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Water Use Efficiency Program Publications • • • • • • • • • • Beneficial Landscaping Guidance (PDF 1. GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study High Performance Building Guidelines by New York City Department of Design and Construction. Organizations • • • • • American Rainwater Catchment Systems Association (ARCSA) Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) USACE Technical Note ERDC TN-05-DRAFT No-Water Urinals (PDF 94 KB. FEMP Product Energy Efficiency Ratings (PEER) by U. 88 pgs) by Texas Water Development Board. Center for Sustainable Buidling Research. Department of Energy. EPA Storm Water Management for Construction Activities: Developing Pollution Prevention Plans and Best Management Practices (PDF 4. January 2007. Chapter on Water Management (PDF 182 KB. urinals. 3 pgs).9 MB.S.S.348 • • • • • • Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding (PDF 149 KB. EPA NPDES General Permit for Storm Water Discharges From Construction Activities—Fact Sheet (PDF 461 KB.S. 35 pgs) by the U. Green Building Council (USGBC): Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System Others • FedCenter. 39 pgs) by U. EPA Permitting Stormwater Discharges from Federal Facility Construction Projects—Fact Sheet (PDF 108 KB.gov—FedCenter. April 1999. Twin Cities Campus. Pages for water efficient fixtures include faucets. 2 pgs). EPA. is a collaborative effort between the Office of . 1992. 38 pgs).S. the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center. 6 pgs) Minnesota Sustainable Building Guidelines by Regents of the University of Minnesota. College Design.

Low Impact Development. During the facility design and development process. EPA Smart Communities Network—Water Efficiency. Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Water Wiser—The Water Efficiency Clearinghouse • • • • • • • Use Environmentally Preferable Products by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 05-02-2008 Overview The composition of materials used in a building is a major factor in its life-cycle environmental impact. recyclability." directs Federal agencies to use recycled content (see EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Program.349 the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE). environmentally preferable. Recycling. federal projects must have a comprehensive. agencies must consider a broad range of environmental factors including: waste prevention. DOE Strategic Computing Complex (SCC)—case study on the WBDG Water Efficiency. do not adversely affect health. S. Executive Order 13101. life-cycle cost. and study references for the effective design of stormwater management systems. it is no longer sensible to throw away much of what we consider construction waste. and Federal Acquisition. and do not deplete limited natural resources. Green Seal—Standards for environmentally responsible products including water efficient fixtures International Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMP) Database— Developed under a grant from the U.S. product descriptions and standards. Federal facilities must lead the way in the use of environmentally preferable products and processes that do not pollute or unnecessarily contribute to the waste stream. "Greening the Government Through Waste Prevention. and ultimate disposal. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. and the U. the "waste" from one generation can become the "raw material" of the next. the use of recycled content.) When developing specifications. the BMP Database contains best management practices. the U.S. Using a "cradle-tocradle" approach. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. As the growing global economy expands the demand for raw materials. integrated perspective that seeks to: . and bio-based products. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities. Environmental Protection Agency.

Evaluate Environmental Preferability Using LCA • • Consider trade offs among multiple environmental impacts (e. manufacturing. global warming. and equipment whenever possible. Ensure that the windows and doors meet the new facility's security and energy requirements.e.g. and Equipment • • Use reconditioned products and equipment. . That is. or reuse. Evaluate if components of existing buildings or facilities. can be incorporated in any new construction. such as windows or metal door frames.. Limit construction debris. Recommendations Renovate Existing Facilities. Section 6002. Eliminate the use of materials that pollute or are toxic during their manufacture. Products. and encourage recycling during the construction process. products. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1994. Specify materials harvested on a sustained yield basis such as lumber from certified forests.350 • • • • • • • • Renovate existing facilities. Maximize the Recycled Content of All New Materials • Use EPA-designated recycled content products to the maximum extent practicable —required under the 42 USC §6962. and Give preference to locally produced products and other products with low embodied energy content. indoor air quality) when determining environmental preferability. See WBDG Energy Analysis Tools. Evaluate the environmental preferability of products using the cradle-to-cradle. transportation. Encourage the use of recyclable assemblies and products that can be easily "deconstructed" at the end of their useful lives. Employing LCA Tools like ATHENA and BEES can simplify the process and give more credible results. life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach. such as furniture. raw materials acquisition. look at the "big picture" rather than simply shifting problems from one impact to another.. use. That is. whenever economically feasible and resource efficient. use. installation. Consider trade offs among life-cycle stages (i. and waste management) when determining environmentally preferability. resource depletion. encourage the separation of waste streams. especially from a postconsumer perspective. Maximize the recycled content of all new materials. look at the "big picture" rather than simply shifting problems from one life-cycle stage to another. such as historic structures or used furniture.

or Reuse . use materials and assemblies with the highest percentage available of post-consumer or post-industrial recycled content. o Pollution Prevention. Use. o Comparison of Environmental Impacts. certified through third-party agencies. Compare environmental impacts when selecting products and services. Within an acceptable category of product. Evaluate the substitution of bio-based materials or products. evaluate the use of materials and assemblies with low embodied energy content. Limit Construction Debris • • Require the development and implementation of a plan for sorting construction waste for recycling. o Environmental Performance Information. Examine multiple environmental attributes throughout the product and service's life cycle. Within an acceptable category of product. Eliminate the Use of Materials that Pollute or are Toxic During Their Manufacture. such as agriculturalfiber sheathing. o Environment + Price + Performance = EPP. Follow the EPA's five guiding principles established to help Executive agencies identify and purchase environmentally friendly products and services. Use products and assemblies that minimize disposable packaging and storage requirements. Encourage the Use of Recyclable Assemblies and Products • • • Within acceptable levels of performance. evaluate the use of de-mountable or deconstructable products and assemblies. which promotes Federal Government procurement of products and services that have reduced impacts on human health and the environment over their life cycle. Include environmental considerations as part of the normal purchasing process. Collect accurate and meaningful environmental information about environmental performance of products and services. Establish a waste management plan in cooperation with users to encourage recycling. Specify Materials Harvested on a Sustained Yield Basis • • Use timber products obtained from sustainably managed forests. Emphasize pollution prevention as part of the purchasing process. Investigate providing locations at the project site for organic waste composting. o Life-Cycle Perspective/Multiple Attributes. for inert or non-recycled alternatives.351 • • • • Purchase environmentally preferable products as described in EPA's Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) Program.

and use. Give Preference to Locally Produced Materials with Low Embodied Energy Content • • Evaluate the use of locally produced products to stimulate local economies and reduce transportation burdens. Evaluate the cost of comparable security measures before making your final decision. include only the security measures identified by assessment and analysis. To qualify for the label. a Federal rule is under development specifying that the USDA will establish a new "USDA Certified Biobased Product" label. transport. To prevent unnecessary use of resources in a project. bio-based products must be evaluated for life-cycle environmental and cost performance by the NIST BEES tool. bio-based content. the increased use of materials and products is inevitable. Evaluate the use of materials and assemblies whose manufacture does not pollute or create toxic conditions for workers. More Preferring Bio-based Products Section 9002 of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (Public Law 107171. Eliminate the use of asbestos. designers are encouraged to conduct threat/vulnerability assessments and risk analysis. designers and builders are encouraged to specify and use environmentally preferable products to the maximum extent feasible.352 • • • • Within an acceptable category of product. For example. use materials and assemblies with the lowest level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). cost performance. Eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as refrigerants in all HVAC systems. See WBDG Evaluating and Selecting Green Products. 2002) confers Federal purchasing preference to bio-based products on the basis of five criteria: environmental performance. For high-risk and critical facilities. Emerging Issues Balancing Sustainability and Security/Safety To ensure that security strategies are appropriately implemented for the desired level of protection. See WBDG High-Performance HVAC. and PCBs in all products and assemblies. Evaluate the use of materials and assemblies that require minimum "embodied" energy for raw materials acquisition. technical performance. installation. May 13. See also WBDG Secure/Safe—Ensure Occupant Safety and Health > Provide Good Indoor Air Quality and Adequate Ventilation and > Eliminate Exposure to Hazardous Materials. lead. manufacture. and availability. as part of the Pentagon renovation work after the 9/11 terrorist attacks concrete rubble from damaged parts of the building were crushed into gravel and reused as aggregate under concrete slabs. In such cases. In support of this legislation. .

Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential. Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Products and Systems Section 07 41 13:Metal Roofing. Optimize Energy Use. Secure / Safe. 2005 Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to most building types and space types. Design Objectives Aesthetics—Engage the Integrated Design Process.S. Sustainable— Protect and Conserve Water. Functional / Operational. Cost-Effective.353 Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • • • ASTM E 2129—Standard Practice for Data Collection for Sustainability Assessment of Building Products Executive Order 13423. and Transportation Management" ISO 14040 Series—Life-Cycle Assessment Standards Department of Defense: DOD Green Procurement Program (GPP) Green Procurement Requirements Overview U. General Services Administration: P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. Section 07 92 00: Joint Sealants. Energy. Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately. Productive. Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers • • • • • • • • • • 01 67 00 (01611) Environmental Product Requirements 01 74 13 (01740) Progress Cleaning 01 78 23 (01830) Operation & Maintenance Data 05 05 00 (05050) Common Work Results for Metals 06 05 73 (06070) Wood Treatment 06 10 00 (06100) Rough Carpentry 06 16 00 (06160) Sheathing 06 20 00 (06200) Finish Carpentry 06 60 00 (06600) Plastic Fabrications 06 90 00 (06700) Alternative Agricultural Products . Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality.

this publicly available database allows users to objectively review and compare analysis results that are based on similar data collection and analysis methods. EPA Environmental Building News Environmental Design & Construction Magazine Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers—The Guide provides model language that is intended to assist users in achieving green building goals as may be determined by the individual agency and project.354 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 07 92 00 (07900) Joint Sealants 08 14 00 (08210) Wood Doors 09 29 00 (09250) Gypsum Board 09 30 00 (09300) Tiling 09 51 00 (09510) Acoustical Ceilings 09 65 00 (09650) Resilient Flooring 09 65 16. It is being developed by EPA with the Federal Environmental Executive and the Whole Building Design Guide. Green Building Resource Guide by John Hermannsson.S. Green Procurement Program (GPP). Defense Logistics Information Service Green Products Network . LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool • U. Taunton Press. LEED® Version 2.13 (09654) Linoleum Flooring 09 68 00 (09680) Carpeting 09 72 00 (09720) Wall Coverings 09 90 00 (09900) Painting & Coating 10 21 13. 1997. Building Commissioning Tools Construction Waste Management Database.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix.19 (10170) Plastic Toilet Compartments 10 14 00 (10400) Signage 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 12 10 00 (12100) Art 12 48 13 (12482) Entrance Floor Mats and Frames 12 59 00 (12700) Systems Furniture Project Management Project Planning and Development. Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database—Created by NREL and partners. Use Green Products • • • • • • • • Choose Green Report—Various product recommendations by GreenSeal Energy Star®.

Environmental Resource Guide by The American Institute of Architects (AIA). Inc. GreenSpec™—The Environmental Building News Product Directory GSA Federal Supply Service Environmental Products and Services Guide Guide to Resource Efficient Building Elements by Tracy Mumma.com—An online source for green and sustainable building materials and furnishings. Products. 1997. and both multi-unit and single-family residential designs: new construction or renovation. Athena Institute—The Estimator lets designers assess the environmental implications of industrial. MT: National Center for Appropriate Technology's Center for Resourceful Building Technology. American Forest & Paper Association Limit Construction Debris • • • California Integrated Waste Management Board Case study: EPA New England Regional Laboratory Construction and Demolition Debris. Joseph A. eGuide version of book available online. and Equipment • Case study: NAVFAC Building 33 Evaluate Environmental Preferability Using LCA • • • BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability). case studies. EPA . office.org—Excellent repository of building materials. Demkin (Editor). and innovative techniques A Sourcebook for Green and Sustainable Building. oikos® Green Building Source—Green product information PATHNET. EPA Specify Materials Harvested on a Sustained Yield Basis • • • • • Forest Certification Resource Center Forest Stewardship Council United States (FSC) Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) SmartWood (SW) Sustainable Forestry Initiative. Missoula. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Environmental Impact Estimator.. EPA Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program (EPP).355 • • • • • • • GreenSage. 1996. NIST—BEES measures the environmental performance of building products by using the lifecycle assessment approach specified in ISO 14000 standards. Maximize the Recycled Content of All New Materials • • Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG). institutional. City of Austin Green Builder Program Renovate Existing Facilities.

Reuse. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. EPA National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) Research Center—Construction Waste Management Public Works Technical Bulletins. Others • • • • • • FedCenter.S. the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center. National Association of Home Builders Research Center. Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study U. collect and process recyclable debris from construction projects.gov—FedCenter. and Recycling of Demolition Waste Residential Construction Waste Management: A Builder's Field Guide by Peter Yost and Eric Lund. Municipal Solid Waste Management. Army Corps of Engineers: PWTB 200-1-23 Guidance for the Reduction of Demolition Waste Through Reuse and Recycling PWTB 200-1-27 Reuse of Concrete Materials From Building Demolition PWTB 420-49-30 Alternatives to Demolition for Facility Reduction PWTB 420-49-32 Selection of Methods for the Reduction. is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE). Reuse. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities. and Recycling by Triangle J Council of Governments. the Database is a free online service for those seeking companies that recycle construction debris in their area.S. Created in 2002 by GSA's Environmental Strategies and Safety Division to promote responsible waste disposal.S.356 • • • • • • • • • • Construction Waste Management Database. the U. Green Building Council (USGBC): Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) by the WBDG Sustainable Committee . January 1997. GSA—The Database contains information on companies that haul.S. U. and the U. WasteSpec: Model Specifications for Construction Waste Reduction.

Supply adequate levels of ventilation and outside air to ensure indoor air quality. airconditioning (HVAC) system designs that are effective at controlling indoor humidity. and Provide quality water. comfortable employees are invariably more satisfied and productive. Federal facilities should be constructed with an appreciation of the importance of providing highquality. Prevent airborne bacteria. During the facility design and development process. Avoid the use of materials high in pollutants. this simple. interior environments for all users. . Healthy. compelling truth is often lost. Value aesthetic decisions. and operating and maintenance practices. Assure acoustic privacy and comfort through the use of sound absorbing material and equipment isolation. it is easy to forget that the ultimate success or failure of a project rests on its indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Unfortunately. Create a high performance luminous environment through the careful integration of natural and artificial light sources. for it is simpler to focus on the first-cost of a project than it is to determine the value of increased user productivity and health. Provide thermal comfort with a maximum degree of personal control over temperature and airflow. California In the struggle to build cost-effective buildings. mold. Control disturbing odors through contaminant isolation and careful selection of cleaning products.357 Last updated: 05-02-2008 Overview The Thoreau Institute of Sustainability at the Presidio—San Francisco. integrated perspective that seeks to: • • • • • • • • • • Facilitate quality IEQ through good design. and building envelope design that prevents the intrusion of moisture. federal projects must have a comprehensive. ventilating. such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or toxins. such as the importance of views and the integration of natural and man-made elements. construction. and other fungi through heating.

Demand that individual buildings or facilities are consciously integrated into their natural and man-made context. safety. the O&M staff ensures that pressure differentials are maintained to avoid the undesirable flow of contaminants from one space to another. See also WBDG Aesthetics and Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being.358 Note: IEQ encompasses indoor air quality (IAQ). which focuses on airborne contaminants. While HVAC systems may be designed to isolate operations (kitchens. The Operations & Maintenance (O&M) and cleaning staff can also avoid creating IEQ problems by choosing less noxious materials during repair and cleaning activities. and O&M Practices Acceptable IEQ is often easiest to achieve if "source control" is practiced. as well as other health. the designer may select building products that do not produce noxious or irritating odors. acoustics. . and electromagnetic frequency levels. etc. Provide Thermal Comfort • • • • Use ASHRAE Standard 55—Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy as the basis for thermal comfort. ergonomics. See also WBDG Productive— Provide Comfortable Environments. and energy savings. Understand moisture dynamics as a key criteria in the selection of wall and roof assemblies. and design exterior entrances with permanent entryway systems to catch and hold dirt particles. dry cleaners. and comfort issues such as aesthetics. Construction. Value Aesthetic Decisions • • • Appreciate the importance of providing windows in all occupied spaces for view and natural ventilation. ancient preferences. but also over the life of the building. Recommendations Facilitate Quality IEQ through Good Design. lighting. See also WBDG Air Barrier Systems in Buildings. not only during building construction. See also WBDG Psychosocial Value of Space. and connections to the patterns of nature and the mind. Evaluate the benefit of specifying high-performance windows to increase mean radiant temperature (MRT). Design spaces around basic human needs. For example.) from other occupancies. Evaluate the use of access floors with displacement ventilation for flexibility. See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices. potable water surveillance. See also WBDG Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential. personal comfort control.

exhaust fans. Consider installing loading dock purge fans. Investigate immediately when there is a moisture condition.359 Supply Adequate Levels of Ventilation and Outside Air • • • • • • • • • • Design the ventilation system to exceed ASHRAE Standard 62: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. The building envelope must be carefully designed to prevent intrusion of water and to dry if intrusion should occur. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in office environments should be below 2 ppm. It is recommended that there should be less than 700 spores in a cubic meter of air. Prevent Airborne Bacteria. either from a leak or flood. The system must be designed to have the capacity to dehumidify at the 1% Humidity Ratio and mean coincident dry bulb temperature. OSHA regulates levels of CO for industrial locations. Ensure the number of spores in the indoor air is less than the outdoor air. biological. It must also incorporate barriers that control vapor and air infiltration. HVAC system should be installed with filters with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 7. Implement a construction management program that ensures key ventilation components are protected from contamination during construction. Coordinate ventilation and air filtration with chemical. Prevent vehicles idling near the facility during normal operations. Investigate the use of a permanent air quality monitoring system. Ensure fresh air intakes are located away from loading areas. During operation. A good description of various types of heating and ventilation systems can be found at: WBDG High-Performance HVAC and Natural Ventilation. replace filters on periodic basis. ASHRAE acceptable level of carbon dioxide (CO2) for an indoor office environment is 1000 ppm ("normal" CO2 outside level is about 300 to 400 ppm). and control interior humidity at both extreme and low load conditions. Mold. See also WBDG Air Decontamination. Investigate the use of separate outside air and conditioned air distribution systems. This will ensure that adequate ventilation rates have been achieved prior to initial occupancy. Commission HVAC systems to ensure they operate and perform as designed. and radiological concerns and locate outside air intakes so they do not conflict with physical security requirements. Ensure parking lot/garage usage cannot generate pollutants that affect fresh air intake or pedestrian traffic. and other contamination points. and Other Fungi Prevention of mold and fungi is dependent upon effective HVAC and building envelope design and construction. . • • • Carefully consider the envelope of the building to prevent moisture infiltration. The HVAC system must be able to control interior humidity conditions over a wide range of outdoor conditions.

If conditioned air is required due to high end finishing work. 10th Edition. consider isolating and negatively pressurizing the construction area if work is being performed that would result in dust. See also WBDG Evaluating and Selecting Green Products. See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices. and . paints. high sound transmission loss walls. fumes. convenient. or odors. Remove asbestos-containing material or contain it in a manner that precludes the possibility of future exposure. and equipment sound isolation. cabinetry. Create safe. If an area in an occupied building is being renovated.e. Avoid the use of small diameter ducts with high velocity airflow. paints. floors. plastics. wall panels. Avoid the Use of Materials High in Pollutants • • • • • • • Limit the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in such products as cleaners. i. It can attack surfaces of certain elastomers.360 Limit Spread of Pathogens For health care facilities: • • Implement proper maintenance procedures to prevent nosocomial infections. the air should be directly exhausted to the exterior environment and not returned to the fan. and adhesives. In areas where it is prevalent. section on Acoustical Design for more information. and secure storage spaces for housekeeping chemicals. This will help limit lower atmosphere ozone generation. These systems introduce an unobtrusive background sound that reduces interference from distracting office noise. Consider removing restroom doors to reduce the chance of acquiring infections. Avoid products containing formaldehyde. carpet. commonly associated with duplicating and printing processes. Ensure office equipment installed emit minimal odors or pollutants. coatings. and ceilings. Assure Acoustic Privacy and Comfort • • • Minimize noise through the use of sound-absorbing materials. and provide added return air grills in these areas. Note that some level of HVAC "noise" can serve as a background white noise source. See Architectural Graphic Standards. See also WBDG Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments. sealants. Control Disturbing Odors through Contaminant Isolation and Product Selection • Directly exhaust copying and housekeeping areas. include measures to control and mitigate radon buildup. eliminating the need for sound masking systems. Consider sound masking systems.. Ozone acts as a power oxidant.

. federal judge's private chambers. For newly installed or temporarily suspended domestic water systems. o Comply with ASHRAE Standard 62 for proper ventilation. Use light color on walls and locate windows properly. Minimize disturbing odors through contaminant isolation and careful selection of cleaning products. lamps. fixtures. e. o Are isolated from the return air system of surrounding areas to prevent pollutants from spreading to other areas. Use task/ambient systems that provide reduced levels of diffuse. Substitute magnetic fluorescent lamps with high-frequency electronic ballasts to reduce flickering. Provide Quality Water • • • • • Comply with EPA Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for the levels of various metals and bacteria in potable water systems. follow "start-up" procedures by flushing all down stream outlets. Ensure maintenance procedures are in place to remove all trash and recyclables from the building on a regular basis rather than storing them within the building for prolonged periods of time. Design cooling tower and building air intake placement so air discharged from the cooling tower or evaporative condenser is not directly brought into the facility's air intake. Supplement natural light with integrated. In special cases where smoking is permitted. such as visual display terminals (VDTs). Most people do not need lighting in excess of 300 lux (a unit of illumination). Reduce direct glare from both natural and man-made sources in the field of view —particularly in spaces with highly reflective surfaces. Prohibit smoking in all areas of the building. • • • • Create a High—Performance Luminous Environment • • • • • • Use daylighting for ambient lighting wherever feasible. ensure that the spaces: o Have lower pressure than adjacent areas.g. Control domestic water temperature to avoid temperature ranges where legionellae grow: keep domestic water temperatures above 140°F (60°C) in tanks and 122°F (50°C) at all taps (faucets and showers).. and controls. and supplement with task lighting. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a known carcinogen. and aid in sulfide and chloride corrosion of metals. general illumination.361 pigments. Conduct periodic 'maintenance flushing' to proactively control drinking water issues. Possible health hazards caused by ozone include eye and mucous membrane irritation as well as chronic respiratory disease. high-performance ballasts.

Several indoor environmental quality strategies. electrical currents. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) website Balance IEQ Strategies with Security Requirements Since the terrorist attacks of 9/11. including the project's environmental goals. and transformers. DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings Air Force: Air Force Engineering Technical Letter ETL 04-3 Design Criteria for Prevention of Mold in Air Force Facilities. Be Aware of Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) are generated by forces associated with electric charges in motion. and by microwaves. General Services Administration: P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. radio waves. There are no federal standards limiting occupational or residential exposure to EMF at this time.362 • Consider a closed loop system instead of an open system to reduce the potential of exposure at the cooling tower. such as dedicated ventilation systems and tight building envelopes. 2005 .1—Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Department of Defense: UFC 4-010-01. building owners and occupants have placed greater emphasis on facility security and safety. high performance facility. facility designers and managers should consult the following resources to find out the latest scientific research and recommendations on dealing with EMF exposure: • • EMF RAPID—Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless. ASHRAE Standard 90. security and safety measures must be considered within a total project context. and International voluntary occupational exposure guidelines. EMF are thought to cause cancer. However. U. can be employed to help designers achieve an integrated.S. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • • • • • • • ASHRAE Guideline 1—Guideline for the Commissioning of HVAC Systems ASHRAE Standard 52—Method of Testing Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particular Matter ASHRAE Standard 55—Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy ASHRAE Standard 62—Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality—Sets the minimum acceptable ventilation requirements.S. only various U. however there is insufficient evidence to prove this. See also WBDG Balancing Security/Safety and Sustainability Objectives.

Libraries. and Balancing for HVAC.11 (01352) Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management 01 67 00 (01611) Environmental Product Requirements 01 74 13 (01740) Progress Cleaning 05 05 00 (05500) Common Work Results for Metals 06 05 73 (06070) Wood Treatment 06 10 00 (06100) Rough Carpentry 06 16 00 (06160) Sheathing 06 20 00 (06200) Finish Carpentry 06 60 00 (06600) Plastic Fabrications 06 90 00 (06700) Alternative Agricultural Products 07 10 00 (07100) Dampproofing & Waterproofing 07 20 00 (07200) Thermal Protection 07 30 00 (07300) Steep Slope Roofing 07 50 00 (07500) Membrane Roofing 07 55 63 (07530) Vegetated Protected Membrane Roofing 07 92 00 (07900) Joint Sealants 08 14 00 (08210) Wood Doors 08 50 00 (08500) Windows 09 29 00 (09250) Gypsum Board 09 30 00 (09300) Tiling . Library (Space Type). Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 01 57 19. Office Design Objectives Aesthetics. Federal Courthouse. Secure / Safe. Sustainable—Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices Products and Systems Section 23 28 13: Commercial—Kitchen Hoods. Auditorium. Health Care Facilities. Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential. Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately. Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products. Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water. Productive. Office Building. Section 23 05 93: Testing. Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use. Section 23 31 00: HVAC Ducts and Casings. Courthouse: Courtroom. Adjusting. especially for Child Development Centers.363 Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to most building types and space types. Training Facility. Conference / Classroom.

Refrigerating.13 (09654) Linoleum Flooring 09 68 00 (09680) Carpeting 09 72 00 (09720) Wall Coverings 09 90 00 (09900) Painting & Coating 12 10 00 (12100) Art 12 59 00 (12700) Systems Furiture 22 40 00 (15400) Plumbing Fixtures 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment 23 30 00 (15800) HVAC Air Distribution Project Management Building Commissioning Tools LEED® Version 2. Green Building Council: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System . LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool Facilitate Quality IEQ through Good Design and O&M Practices Federal Agencies and Laboratories • • • • • • Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).364 • • • • • • • • • • • 09 51 00 (09510) Acoustical Ceilings 09 65 00 (09650) Resilient Flooring 09 65 16. Indoor Air Quality website Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL).S. Indoor Air Quality website Organizations and Associations • • • • • American Society of Heating. Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) ASTM International Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) U.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Pages Matrix. Indoor Environment Department website National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA): OSHA.

e-mail: iaqinfo@aol.S.S. and references to multi-zone modeling publications. NY: Earth Day New York. City of New York Department of Design and Construction. "Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers" by U. New York. FedCenter. NIST—Contains software tools for performing multi-zone analysis (e. 2000. Indoor Air Quality Information Clearinghouse Direct inquiries: Phone (800) 438-4318. CONTAMW).. information on the applications of multizone modeling. Others • • • • • • • • • • Aerias—Online resource dedicated to promoting better human health and better business through IAQ awareness. I-BEAM contains text. Multizone Modeling website. Fax: (703) 356-5386. 1999. animation/visual. "Indoor Environmental Quality" by John J. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. EPA and National Institute for Safety and Health. Inc. Jr. I-BEAM updates and expands EPA's existing Building Air Quality guidance and is designed to be comprehensive state-of-the-art guidance for managing IAQ in commercial buildings.gov—FedCenter. Lessons Learned: High Performance Buildings.com. is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE).S. Sustainable Building Technical Manual (DOE/EPA) Value Aesthetic Decisions • WBDG: Aesthetics.g. Productive Provide Thermal Comfort • WBDG: Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments . the U. Leitner and William Esposito. CIH. and the U. and interactive/calculation components that can be used to perform a number of diverse tasks. GSA LEED® Applications Guide GSA LEED® Cost Study High Performance Building Guidelines. Ambient Group. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center.365 Design and Analysis Tools • • IAQ Building Education and Assessment Model (I-BEAM) Computer Software— I-BEAM is computer software for use by building professionals and others interested in indoor air quality in commercial buildings. FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities. multi-zone modeling case studies.

DoD Minimum Anti-Terrorism Standards for Buildings Prevent Airborne Bacteria. The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality by EPA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (6604J) and United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. May 2002. EPA Greenguard Environmental Institute Certified Products . EPA Document #402-F-94-003. revised July 1990. Mold. April 1995. 25 pgs) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing. and Fungi • • • Air Force: Air Force Engineering Technical Letter ETL 04-3 Design Criteria for Prevention of Mold in Air Force Facilities. Supply Adequate Levels of Ventilation and Outside Air • • • • • • • • • WBDG: Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being EPA Document #402-K-93-007. Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical. Biological.366 • MOIST 3 software—Computer software that predicts the one-dimensional transfer of heat and moisture. April 2003. IESO also offers certification programs to promote awareness and compliance to the established standards. NAVFAC White Paper on Carbon Monoxide UFC 4-010-01. Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical. or Radiological Attacks by Department of Health and Human Services. Molds & Fungi website Limit Spread of Pathogens • WBDG: Health Care Facilities Avoid the Use of Materials High in Pollutants • • • Cleaning Products Pilot Project (CPPP). Biological. EPA (PDF 388 KB. MOIST can also be used to generate guidelines and practices for controlling moisture. or Radiological Attacks by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Volume 1 for the assessment of indoor air quality includes seven standards on two topics: Mold Sampling and Assessment of Mold Contamination. The IESO Standards of Practice. Indoor Environmental Standards Organization (IESO)—IESO is a non-profit organization that provides a national forum for the development and publication of voluntary consensus standards for the assessment of indoor environments. EPA National Center for Environmental Research Fact Sheet: Ventilation and Air Quality in Offices by EPA Office of Air and Radiation (6607J). OSHA. allowing users to investigate the effects of various parameters on the moisture accumulation within layers of the construction.

Ph. Malkin. Wilcox. Member ASHRAE. Fisk. July 2002.D. T.. Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments IESNA RP-5 Recommended Practice of Daylighting Windows and Daylighting Group. ASHRAE Journal. Ventilation Rates and Health (PDF 115 KB.D. ASHRAE Journal. Biological. M. . Fisk. Member ASHRAE and William J. IEQ and the Impact on Building Occupants (PDF 105 KB. Mendell.. Publications • • • • • How IEQ Affects Health.J. HVAC Characteristics and Occupant Health (PDF 430 KB. August 2002. P. May 2002. 3 pgs) by William J. IEQ and the Impact on Employee Sick Leave (PDF 105 KB. Productivity (PDF 220 KB. Fellow ASHRAE. R. M. 3 pgs) by Satish Kumar. Fisk. ASHRAE Journal.. Member ASHRAE.. M. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Provide Quality Water • • EPA Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) NAVFAC Information on Legionella or Legionnaire's Disease Balance IEQ Strategies with Security Requirements • • • WBDG: Secure / Safe—Provide Security for Building Occupants and Assets Guidance for Filtration and Air-Cleaning Systems to Protect Building Environments from Airborne Chemical.M.S. Biological. Sieber. ASHRAE Journal.K. May 2002. and Mark J. Ph. or Radiological Attacks Guidance for Protecting Building Environments from Airborne Chemical. K. Member ASHRAE.E.D.T. 10th Edition Create a High—Performance Luminous Environment • • • WBDG: Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being. Mendell. P. Member ASHRAE and William J..E. P. September 2002. P.367 • • GreenSeal Product Recommendations Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) IAQ Product Certification Program Assure Acoustic Privacy and Comfort • • WBDG: Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments Architectural Graphic Standards. William J. L. or Radiological Attacks by Department of Health and Human Services. Petersen. Stayner. 3 pgs) by Satish Kumar. 4 pgs) by W.. and L.G. Reed. Ph.R. Member ASHRAE. Wallingford. Crandall.E. ASHRAE Journal.E. 5 pgs) by Olli Seppänen. Fisk. April 2002.

health. and productivity of their occupants in mind. Employ Environmentally Preferable Landscaping Practices • Landscape with native. and with an understanding of the next generation's need to reuse and recycle building components. preventive maintenance program to keep all building systems functioning as designed. and Maintenance Staff in Sustainability Principles and Methods • • Implement a comprehensive.368 Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices by the WBDG Sustainable Committee Last updated: 05-02-2008 Overview No matter how sustainable a building may have been in its design and construction. operations and maintenance should seek to: • • • • • Train building occupants. plants. safety. it can only remain so if it is operated responsibly and maintained properly. moisture. The use of toxic cleaning products can deteriorate indoor air quality. waste. and maintenance staff in sustainable design principles and methods. Buildings must be operated and maintained with the security. comfort. Provide operations support to facilities managers and maintenance crews to answer questions and offer additional information. or indigenous. Throughout the building's life cycle. Reduce waste through source reduction and recycling to eliminate disposal offsite. and Minimize travel by supporting telecommuting programs and enabling teleconferencing. temperature. Recommendations Train Building Occupants. water. Use automated monitors and controls for energy. and ventilation. Purchase cleaning products and supplies that are resource-efficient and non-toxic. . failure to test sensor control points can compromise energy efficiency. Facilities Managers. facilities managers. and poor training can lead to early system failures. See WBDG Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM).

Purchase Cleaning Products and Supplies that are Resource-Efficient and Non-Toxic • • • • • Use cleaners that biodegrade rapidly.369 • • • • • • Develop a Pest Control Plan. Use Automated Monitors and Controls for Energy. service schedule for each building or site.g. Adopt green meeting practices. or luminance sensors to control lighting and other functions. IPM has been mandated on federal property since 1996 by Section 136r-1 of Title 7. which includes information about: materials and equipment for service. Enable power-down features on office equipment (e. Look for products that are concentrated. United States Code. and commercial pesticide applicator certificates or licenses. and Ventilation Monitors and Controls • • • • • Use schedule. Temperature. and equipment when not in use. Keep air ducts clean and free of microorganisms through a structured program of preventive maintenance. method for monitoring and detection.35) as a required service for agencies subject to the authority of the General Services Administration (GSA). any structural or operational changes that would facilitate the pest control effort. Water. Consider composting/recycling yard waste. Minimize site disturbance. occupancy. Use on-site composting of organic materials. Where unavoidable. and is cited in Title 41 of the Code of Federal Regulations (102-74. Reduce Waste Through Source Reduction and Recycling • • • Start a comprehensive recycling program with source separation and occupant incentives. using less packaging for more power. Waste. Use timers for heating/ventilation/air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. use non-toxic outdoor fertilizers and pesticides. Moisture. . Use integrated pest management (IPM) practices in facilities and landscaping to reduce the use of pesticides and herbicides. See also WBDG Evaluating and Selecting Green Products. See also WBDG Sustainable O&M Practices. See also WBDG Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential.. Use landscaping products with recycled content as required by EPA's Comprehensive Procurement Guidelines (CPG) for landscaping products. Use non-toxic pest control for indoor spaces and plants. Energy Star® computers). Turn off the lights. Turn off computer monitors when not in use. computers.

Designate shuttle/bus stops in safe and accessible areas close to the facility.S. Productive—Provide Comfortable Environments. Sustainable—Use Environmentally Preferable Products. Support teleconferencing and videoconferencing through proper operations and maintenance of communication systems. Sustainable—Optimize Site Potential. Productive—Promote Health and Well-Being.370 Support Practices that Encourage Sustainable Transportation or Minimize Travel • • • • • Install sufficient bike racks to meet demand. and Transportation Management" Executive Order 13221. Productive—Assure Reliable Systems and Spaces. "Strengthening Federal Environmental. "Energy Efficient Standby Power Devices" U. Sustainable—Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality Products and Systems Building Envelope Design Guide—Sustainability of the Building Envelope Federal Green Construction Guide for Specifiers: • 01 91 00 (01810) Commissioning . Functional / Operational. Secure / Safe—Ensure Occupant Safety and Health. Energy. Support telework (aka telecommuting) programs by providing hotelling spaces (flexible and well-equipped office spaces that teleworkers can use when they come into the office) and properly operating and maintaining telework centers. Relevant Codes and Standards • • • • Executive Order 13423. Historic Preservation—Update Building Systems Appropriately. Sustainable—Optimize Energy Use. Provide sufficient parking spaces for carpools/vanpools. Productive. Productive —Design for the Changing Workplace. Sustainable—Protect and Conserve Water. General Services Administration: P100 Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service. Design Objectives Aesthetics. 2005 Major Resources WBDG Building / Space Types Applicable to most building types and space types.

FedCenter replaces the previous FedSite as a onestop source of environmental stewardship and compliance assistance information focused solely on the needs of federal government facilities. Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory.19 (10170) Plastic Toilet Compartments 11 13 00 (11160) Loading Dock Equipment 11 30 00 (11450) Residential Equipment 11 28 00 (11680) Office Equipment 12 48 13 (12482) Entrance Floor Mats and Frames 12 59 00 (12700) Systems Furniture 48 14 00 (13600) Solar Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 48 15 00 (13600) Wind Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 48 30 00 (13600) Biomass Energy Electrical Power Generation Equipment 14 20 00 (14200) Elevators 22 40 00 (15400) Plumbing Fixtures 23 70 00 (15700) Central HVAC Equipment 23 30 00 (15800) HVAC Air Distribution 26 50 00 (16500) Lighting Project Management Building Commissioning Tools LEED® Version 2. the Federal Facilities Environmental Stewardship and Compliance Assistance Center.gov—FedCenter.1 Credit / WBDG Resource Page Matrix.371 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 01 78 23 (01830) Operation and Maintenance Data 32 90 00 (02900) Planting 06 20 00 (06200) Finish Carpentry 09 29 00 (09250) Gypsum Board 09 30 00 (09300) Tiling 09 51 00 (09510) Acoustical Ceilings 09 65 00 (09650) Resilient Flooring 09 65 16.13 (09654) Linoleum Flooring 09 68 00 (09680) Carpeting 09 72 00 (09720) Wallcoverings 09 90 00 (09900) Painting & Coating 10 21 13.S.S. EPA Federal Facilities Enforcement Office. and the U. Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings Memorandum of Understanding . the U. LEED®-DoD Antiterrorism Standards Tool Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices • • FedCenter. is a collaborative effort between the Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (OFEE).

Federal Supply Schedule – GSA Schedule 073—Schedule 073 (Food Service. and cleaning products (including biodegradable products) for daily cleaning-products that keep facilities clean in an environmentally friendly manner. Water.372 • • • Pennsylvania Green Building Maintenance Manual by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in partnership with Green Seal and Department of General Services' Property Management.S. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Green Building Rating System—Existing Buildings. outdoor recycling containers.S. EPA . Moisture. Hospitality. Facilities Managers. Coast Guard Environmental Management Division (G-SEC-3). Use Automated Monitors and Controls for Energy. and Maintenance Staff in Sustainability Principles and Methods • IFMA Certification Program for Facility Managers—Maintenance and operations management is one of eight competency areas evaluated in becoming a Certified Facility Manager. Temperature." Green Seal South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) U.S. and industrial trash storage containers. Train Building Occupants.S. EPA Includes several Cleaning Products Pilot Projects on cleaners listed under "Solvents. Also available are office recycling containers and waste receptacles. Energy Star®. Purchase Cleaning Products and Supplies that are Resource-Efficient and Non-Toxic • • • • • Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP). General Services Administration. Waste. Green Building Council. An ideas exchange among facility managers is available on an advertising-supported web page. GSA Integrated Pest Management Program GSA Landscape Management Program Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Food Production Fact Sheet by EPA. Employ Environmentally Preferable Landscaping Practices • • • • Beneficial Landscaping Guidance by the U. Operations and Maintenance—Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) U. EPA and National Institute for Safety and Health. and Cleaning) offers a variety of cleaning equipment and accessories. and Ventilation Monitors and Controls • • Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers by U.

23 October 2000.S.R. T. EPA Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics GSA Recycling and Waste Reduction Fact Sheet Planning Environmentally Aware Events. Petersen. M.G. Mendell. ASHRAE Journal. M. Section 359—Congressional Federal Telework Mandate 2001 (Part of the Department of Transportation Appropriations Act of 2001). K.K. Malkin.com Support Practices that Encourage Sustainable Transportation or Minimize Travel • • • • E-Commutair.M. and L. Sieber. The Telework Coalition (TelCoa) Publications • HVAC Characteristics and Occupant Health (PDF 430 KB. EPA Office of Solid Waste Waste News.373 Reduce Waste Through Source Reduction and Recycling • • • • • EPA Office of Solid Waste Green Meetings. September 2002. Crandall. Berkeley Interagency Telework/Telecommuting website. the Teleworking Impact Estimation Tool from the Consortium on Green Design and Manufacturing. . 4 pgs) by W. GSA/OPM Public Law 106-346. L. Reed. Wilcox.J. M. Wallingford.T. Stayner. University of California. R.

from Architect? A Candid Guide to the Profession) Beginning in the seventeenth century. (Courtesy Roger K. traditional cultures and languages. to estimate costs. with the rise of professionalism. NCARB." (Roger K. Gardner." who balanced art. Planning. AIA University of Maryland School of Architecture. form. With the nineteenth century expansion of scientific knowledge. style and craft to achieve his vision.149. to assemble labor and materials. architecture and construction were united by the cultural intentions of a "Master Builder.374 Architecture by Julie Gabrielli. the evolution of other technically oriented disciplines such as . with little distinction between designers and builders. Lewis) "The regulated profession of architecture is relatively new. Roger K. and the fast-paced changes of the 21st century. form. Construction was an integrated craft in which the master mason or master carpenter knew how to design. its rich history. and Preservation Last updated: 04-23-2008 Introduction The modern profession of architecture echoes with its origins. Yet there have been architects for as long as societies have built. the discipline of architecture became increasingly specialized. Through antiquity. and to erect structures from foundation to roof. materials. LEED and Amy E. the same word was used for both architect and builder. In ancient. science. to manage the construction process. p. Lewis. Lewis illustrates that architects balance ideas. and function.

In pursuit of professional status. as architects are usually responsible for orchestrating and coordinating the work of many disciplines during the design phases. Architect's Role . It is not unusual for architects also to be involved in the early stages of project feasibility. choose the site. This specialist role now forms the basis of most widely accepted modern definitions of architectural practice. and otherwise decide on highest and best uses. to help clients define a program. images. the profession made conscious efforts to distance architects from contractors. architects wanted no longer to be perceived as craftspersons. For instance. Each state or jurisdiction creates its own requirements for each of these aspects of the discipline. aesthetic. buildings. and ethical aspects of making cities. In the United States. safety. echoes of the "Master Builder" remain. use of the title "architect" and the provision of professional services. all states have regulations that govern conditions of licensure. cultural definitions characterize the ways in the discipline responds to social. Still.375 engineering. Description Legal and Cultural Definitions The discipline of architecture has both legal and cultural definitions. A "whole building" approach must necessarily incorporate both sets of disciplinary definitions. During the 19th and 20th centuries. the United States Department of Labor defines architects as licensed professionals who transform space needs into concepts. and welfare of the public. succinctly summarized by The American Institute of Architects. the discipline of architecture became more focused on questions of basic functionality and aesthetics. While legal definitions mandate the ways in which the profession is responsible for safeguarding the health. and plans of buildings to be constructed by others. and the corresponding introduction of more complex construction systems. registration. and landscapes.

Professional malpractice concerns have led liability insurance companies to encourage.) With whole building design. According to some industry analysts. "Toward Architectural Practice in the 21st Century. For example. The term recasts the . (Courtesy Roger K. (Carl Sapers. has been termed byBill Reed as the "Composite Master Builder". "construction supervision" became "construction observation. and "construction management"." in Harvard Design Magazine. and be responsible for all building-related knowledge. the architect's role has been further limited by the idea that buildings are commodities. implement. architects to limit activities to design. including "design/build". as did the Master Builder of old. Lewis. along with the process by which the design team works together. consisting of assemblies of standard materials and systems best understood by their suppliers and constructors. this standardized approach to efficient building design is not necessarily synonymous with the requirements for whole building design.376 Sometimes beauty and functionality are in tension. Lewis) Today." moving the architect further away from the risks associated with construction activities. Integrated. and project participants are all integral team members. It requires a design process in which the users. Fall 2003/Winter 2004) However. such as Carl Sapers. and cultural knowledge base has such breadth and depth that it is no longer in the best interest of the project for one discipline to hold. Planning. owners. New forms of project delivery. highperformance design requires both efficiency and innovation. Kingman Island Environmental Education Center competition finalist (Courtesy University of Maryland School of Architecture. the project team can be guided once again by a collective vision. the required legal. come out of a belief that architects are no longer able to stay abreast of complex information in order to lead the design process on the owner's behalf. technical. The Composite Master Builder An innovative approach to efficiency: a prefabricated structure for an ecologicallysensitive site. "bridging". and Preservation. This structure. even implicitly force. as seen by Roger K.

A cast of specialists worked together to design building systems using the building section as a tool. Kingman Island Environmental Education Center competition finalist (Courtesy University of Maryland School of Architecture. and local code and fire officials. . and Preservation) The Team Needs a Leader The legal obligations of the profession. building users. and operations and maintenance staff. Architects in the United States have historically been bound by comprehensive legal requirements and responsibilities for the building design. project managers. tradespeople. and depending on the complexity of the project. safety. construction professionals. and landscape architects. Arguably. comprehensive training in holistic problemsolving. including cost estimators. design team members such as programmers. mechanical. allowing them to function as if they were one mind. such as structural. This presumes that architects maintain at minimum a clear overview of the project team's work. The intention is to bring all of the specialists together. as Mario Salvadori says. such as planners. can include: • • • • • • site professionals. the most effective way to discharge this public duty is to oversee and coordinate the work of the project team. and interior designers. the "reciprocal ignorance" of the specialists in the design and building field. civil and environmental engineers. building systems experts. and welfare. including financial managers. They are legally obligated to safeguard the public health. and craftspeople. The cast of specialists is potentially quite large. Planning. The process avoids. architects. and building science and performance engineers. owners. fire protection. and an understanding of broad cultural concerns make architects ideally suited for the leadership of design teams.377 historical single Master Builder as a diverse group of professionals working together towards a common end.

shaping while acting as a repository of cultural meaning. as well as by The American Institute of Architects (AIA). Planning. Continuing education is a lifelong endeavor for practicing architects and is mandated in many jurisdictions. buildings incorporate the culture that created them. architects need to understand and work collaboratively with other disciplines. and Preservation) As leaders and participants in the design process. Architects are both specialists and generalists. architects hold a comprehensive understanding of the project context and can help the design team move beyond mere problem-solving. professionals and members of the community—benefits from the process itself. Some studios participate in service-learning projects to build structures for deserving clients. . which ideally enables them to communicate effectively with other specialists while maintaining the "big-picture" view of the project goals. Its core skills are learned and re-learned. and even clients and regulatory officials. and Architecture 600/611 Comprehensive Studio and Advanced Technology at the University of Maryland's School of Architecture. in an iterative process that incorporates history. Examples include Studio 804 at the University of Kansas School of Architecture and Urban Design. To this end. As Churchill said. and other social and cultural factors. Everyone involved—students. "We shape our buildings. In addition to health. and Process for Whole Building Design Holistic building design comes out of a comprehensive understanding of the project context. The built environment is both "mirror and lamp". and Preservation. safety. faculty. Many excellent examples of interdisciplinary design studios exist in the United States. Architectural education teaches both abstract and concrete problem-solving. technology. thereafter they shape us. These studios involve students. and welfare considerations. as well as a holistic approach to design problems. practicing design and engineering professionals. Planning. theory.378 The profession emphasizes comprehensive training in the arts and sciences. Kingman Island Environmental Education Center competition finalist. Education." With their knowledge of the arts and culture. architects need to pursue education and training throughout their professional careers. (Courtesy University of Maryland School of Architecture. Typically. as well as the cross-pollination of ideas and techniques. Training.

" is critical to establishing a project vision and maintaining momentum throughout the design and construction process. November 2004." (EBN. The practice of seeking out training in the various aspects of leadership of an integrated design team. and Preservation) In daily practice. to address issues such as: • • • • • • • • accessibility aesthetics cost-effective solutions functional and operational considerations preservation of cultural artifacts productive environment for users safety and security environmental sustainability. peer review. early and regular. and learning about new materials and products. management courses. and post-occupancy review. "The lead designer must be skilled in nurturing and giving form to the collective vision. critical skills are needed to assume this role. "Integrated Design" feature article) Project charrettes for the Kingman Island Environmental Education Center establish early and regular interaction among design team members. (Courtesy University of Maryland School of Architecture. However.379 this education involves technical training. workshops. structured interaction of the "Composite Master Builder. Not all architects are comfortable with this role. Planning. The whole team interaction focuses on collaborative. legal and liability issues. which is more akin to that of a midwife than to that of an individual artist. Current practitioners of integrated design. Emerging Issues Evolution of Building Types . such as Terry Brennan of Camroden Associates. rather than expressing his or her own vision. observe that architects have the intention to become cooperative but lack the skills. which was addressed in a recent article in Environmental Building News. such as workshop facilitation. integrated problem solving. is not yet common. Activities might include charrettes.

Beginning with the subject of buildings themselves. and changes in practice to accommodate a diverse populace. Lewis' view of emerging issues (Courtesy Roger K. Sustainable design takes these concerns further in advocating a beneficial relationship between the built and natural environments. Smart Growth. cultural preservation is seen as equally important to building fabric preservation and conservation. . Additionally. airports. inventive real estate investment and development schemes. Cities. high-rise apartment buildings. shopping malls. and an abiding interest and concern for our cities and landscapes. living machines. It is common to see evolution of building and program types. and Landscapes Evolutions in current architectural practice also include a re-commitment to community and public service.380 Roger K. Department stores. the cataloguing of building types is a practice as old as the discipline. and adaptive reuse of waning types. Building types evolve in response to cultural change—new programmatic needs. and trends in the historic preservation of cities and buildings. Lewis) The context of architectural practice is always evolving. urban redevelopment. recent events that challenge norms of an equitable accessibility as well as secure facilities and environments. as a mirror of a culture. Both find articulation in "smart growth" initiatives. and recycling centers have changed our building and urban landscapes. train stations.

sustainable design takes a "cradle-to-cradle" view. the tilt towards a sustainable practice might well be thought of as an expected standard of practice. especially as it relates to changes in the workforce. and broad concepts of waste and renewal of natural and technical systems. building science and performance. designed by Amy E. combining antique timbers with 21st century technologies—a "wondrous hybrid". zoning.381 Left: Cultural preservation and resource conservation in action at the Bradley residence. science. and use. Gardner AIA. Impact of Technology Globalization of practice. encompassing issues such as those connected to planning. material resource management. and practice. (Photo by the authors) In fact. and the use of sophisticated three-dimensional computer programs to design buildings raise questions and challenge current modes of project delivery. Discussions of these concepts is persuasively argued by William McDonough and Michael Braungart in Cradle to Cradle. energy sources. and building codes. (Photo by the authors) And Right: In the Brown residence designed by Julie Gabrielli. The outsourcing of design and drawing labor overseas. has the potential to dramatically change the discipline. and invention. . Trends in computer-aided building design and manufacturing figure prominently in any discussion of project delivery methods. labor. the robotic manufacturing of building components and materials. management.

in which two-dimensional symbols that stood for building elements are replaced by three-dimensional objects with embedded information. but also the relationship between design team members. As architects moved the discipline towards a profession and away from a craft. Prior to the twentieth century. Project Delivery Methods Architectural projects can be executed through a variety of project delivery methods. It did so through representing three dimensional building elements with an assemblage of two dimensional symbols such as lines. However. there was a single project delivery method—the architect won a commission. and oversaw the building of the project. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an objectoriented CAD system. partnerships. These qualities allow for a degree of interconnectedness during design and documentation phases not readily achievable in two-dimensional CAD systems. FAIA. and construction entities and the relationship between design and construction activities. and communicate information about buildings are positioned to have a dramatic impact on the practice of architecture. is the move towards Building Information Modeling." Nevertheless changes in the way that design teams conceive. all during the design and documentation phases of a project. produced drawings for design and construction. However. for example. for multiple building systems to be coordinated.382 Norman Foster's Swiss Re Headquarters in London demonstrates sophisticated building technologies developed through advanced modeling systems. capable of representing elements of construction. Ken Sanders. for materials and quantities to be known and referenced to each other. The initial purpose of computer drawing systems was to automate two dimensional drafting. and timely decision making. different project delivery methods . pulled labor and materials lists together. owners. Industry experts predict that BIM will revolutionize not only the delivery of design and documents. This allows for multiple views to be generated. observes in the September 2004 issue of Architectural Record: that "the critical path isn't BIM. develop. but rather process innovation squarely focused on people. (Photo by the authors) A significant current trend in computer programs for building design and documentation. shared expertise.

Design-bid-build is a method by which project delivery is separated into three distinct phases: a project is designed and documented with drawings and specifications. competitively bid to multiple general contractors. However. management of the delivery team throughout the various phases of the project from inception to initial occupancy. It encompasses the evaluation. to name a few. and management of all contractors. Design-build is a project delivery method in which a single entity (for example a general contractor in a joint venture with a design team including architects and engineers) holds a single contract with an owner for both the design and construction of a project. selection. the construction management method is a process that involves the coordination and management of the entire process via a single entity—from site survey through occupation. guided by a contract with the owner of the project." Conclusion . offering information on these methods for owners and architects. This orchestration is achieved through the architectural project manger. time and fee tracking. Finally. development of the design. Contracts Both project delivery methods and internal project management roles are evolving in a manner commensurate with evolutions in digital technologies. Currently. contracts evolve following events in construction and professional case law.383 developed to accommodate the changing relationship between architects and craftspeople. Currently. In order to assist owners and the construction industry by establishing accepted definitions of project delivery methods. Project Management within the Architect's Office Project management is also a significant term within architectural practice. The goals of project management include the orchestration and integration of an overlapping set of issues including project scope. the coordination of other design disciplines. Similarly. design-build. client relationships. and construction case law. and construction management. schedule and budgets. team members' design and drawing work. the AIA and the Associated General Contractors of America jointly created a document entitled "Primer on Project Delivery". a conductor of sorts. more than 90 documents authored by The American Institute of Architects constitute an industry standard for contracts and project administration forms—according to the AIA. the work of all disciplines and relationships needs to be orchestrated—architectural design. each method may be summarized to capture a flavor of the intent. as well as the administration of the project budget relative to the implementation of design. In the execution of a project. "a significant body of case law concerning contracts for design and construction is based largely on the language of AIA standard forms. building technology. three project delivery methods dominate in the United States: design-bid-build. and then built by the general contractor.

and the Charlestown General Assembly in 1740 required brick and stone for exterior walls. Relevant Codes and Standards History of Building Codes Roger K. High-performance. there have been codes governing the design and construction of buildings. Some codes.384 The changing context of architectural practice points to challenges to and opportunities for whole building design. As a tool to aid in this process. the new performance-based building codes give the design team more flexibility in meeting requirements. 18th Century AD. earthquakes. Until recently. many subsequent codes were established in reaction to dramatic events such as fires. Still other codes established rules for materials or systems: the Lord Mayor of London in 1189 required party walls between buildings. provided for loss replacement as a sort of insurance policy. allowing the objectives of whole building design to be met in a holistic fashion. such as the Code of Napoleon. its builder is sentenced to death). (Courtesy Roger K. . most building codes have been prescriptive. effectively casting design professionals in the role of negotiators between the owner's ideas and the realities of codes. Lewis captures the complexity and magnitude of code requirements. While Hammurabi had rather onerous requirements for quality (for instance. if the owner is killed by a building. Evolutions such as BIM have the potential to facilitate—or further complicate—integrated work. integrated building design recently started leading design teams away from this "just barely legal" approach. Areas of evolution should be carefully analyzed for potential avenues for integrated rather than episodic action. and floods. Lewis) Since at least the Code of Hammurabi in the 18th Century BC.

for meeting requirements of various credits. and the International Conference of Building Officials. Inc. member of ICC Southern Building Code Congress International. (SBCCI).S.'s first unified comprehensive and coordinated building codes. A. • • • • American Forest and Paper Association (AFPA) (formerly the National Forest Products Association) American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) APA . List of Standards and Organizations Many of these organizations have voluntary standards for quality assurance. the Southern Building Code Congress International.The Engineered Wood Association (APA) . Code Organizations: • • • • • • International Code Council (ICC) International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO). The result of their merging was the International Code Series—part of the U. Building Officials and Code Administrators International. Others publish standards that are referenced by the LEED Green Building Rating Guide. U. member of ICC International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Underwriters Laboratories (UL) B.S. Codes: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Americans with Disabilities Act Guidelines (ADAAG) CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code International Code Series: International Building Code (IBC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) International Fire Code (IFC) International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) International Mechanical Code (IMC) International Plumbing Code (IPC) International Property Maintenance Code (IPMC) International Residential Code (IRC) National Building Code (BOCA NBC) National Fire Protection Association codes (NFPA) National Electric Codes (NEC) Uniform Building Code (UBC) 2. List of Codes The international Code Council (ICC) was formed from the joining of publishers of National and Standard Building Codes.385 1.

(NAAB) Related Organizations • • • • Architecture Research Institute.S. Department of Agriculture.386 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • American Society of Heating. Department of Energy (DOE) U. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) U.S. Forest Service.S.S. Federal and Non Government Databases for Standards and Regulations • • Whole Building Design Guide—Mandates/References Whole Building Design Guide—Construction Criteria Base Major Resources Professional Associations • • • • • Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ASCA) The American Institute of Architects (AIA) American Institute of Architecture Students (AIAS) National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) National Architectural Accrediting Board. Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) U. Inc. Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) Congress for the New Urbanism (CNU) .Construction Criteria Base (CCB) Underwriters Laboratories (UL) U. Department of Commerce. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) 3. National Technical Information Service (NTIS) U. Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) ASTM International Architectural Woodwork Institute (AWI) American Wood Council (AWC) Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Institute of Building Sciences . Inc.S.

Lewis) History/Theory • • • • A History of Architecture: Settings and Rituals. Batsford. 1945. New York. 1995. London. Scribner's Sons. . NY: C. 1994. NY: Oxford University Press. 1673-1968 by Harry Mallgrave. A History of Architectural Theory: From Vitruvius to the Present by HannoWalter Kruft.S. NY: Princeton Architectural Press. 2nd edition by Spiro Kostof and Greg Castillo.387 • • • • • • • • • • Department of Energy (DOE): Energy Sources Energy Efficiency National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB) National Association of the Remodeling Industry (NARI) National Organization of Minority Architects (NOMA) Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) Urban Land Institute (ULI) U. UK: B. New York. (Courtesy Roger K. New York. Green Building Council (USGBC) Links to Other Organizations through NCARB Bibliography Resources are central to a knowledge-based practice of architecture. Sir Banister Fletcher's History of Architecture by Sir Banister Fletcher. New York. 2005. NY: Cambrige University Press. Modern Architectural Theory: A Historical Survey.T.

Glass Construction Manual by Christian Schittich. Ed. et al. Concrete Construction Manual by Friedbert Kind-Barkauskas. Ontario: Canadian Wood Council. Steel Construction Manual by Helmut Schulitz. Boston: Birkhauser. DC: NCARB. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Detail. 1993. Ed. Ed. Ed. Boston: Birkhauser. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. NY: E&FN Spon Press. 1993. 2003. Detail. Boston: Birkhauser. Glass in Building by David Button and Brian Pye. MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. 2004. 1999. Building Envelope by Randall Stout and Michael Garrison. Basel. Roof Construction Manual by Eberhard Schunk. et al. NY: University Press. 2001. Basel. Technology. Basel. Basel. Ed. 2001. Materials. 2002. John Ray Hoke. Detail. Boston: Birkhauser. Building in Wood: Construction and Detail by Götz Gutdeutsch. and Assembly • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Architectural Graphic Standard by Charles George Ramsey. et al. Newton. Detail. Building Skins: Concepts. NY: John Wiley & Sons. New York. New York. Boston: Birkhauser. Washington. Reprint Edition by Richard Rush. Boston: Birkhauser. Façade Construction Manual by Thomas Herzog. 2000. et al. Boston: Birkhauser. Basel. Architectural Expression of Environmental Control Systems by George Baird.. Timber Construction Manual by Thomas Herzog. Boston: Birkhauser. The Architect's Studio Companion.. Harold Reeve Sleeper. with William Bobenhausen. Layers. Boston: Birkhauser. 1993. 3rd Edition by Edward Allen and Joseph Iano. Detail. Basel. 1993. Basel. et al. 1998. Canada: EEBA. Basel. Fitch. et al. EEBA Builders' Guides by Joe Lstiburek and Betsy Pettit. Basel.388 Building Science. 1996. Boston: Birkhauser. Boston. Sustainable Building Environments • • American Building: The Environmental Forces that Shape It by James M. et al. Building Systems Integration Handbook. Inc. Structure and Detail by Heinz Krewinkel. 10th Edition. . 2000. Detail. New York. 2001. Ed. Boston: Birkhauser. Basel. Ed. 2001. Detail. Masonry Construction Manual by Günter Pfeifer. Basel. Detail. Inc. 2004. 1991. 1999. Wood Reference Handbook: A Guide to the Architectural Use of Wood in Building Construction Ottawa. Glass Buildings: Material. 2000. Laminated Timber Construction by Christian Muller. 2004. Ed. MA: Butterworth Architectural Press. New York. Material by Christian Schittich. Moisture Control Handbook by Joe Lstiburek and John Carmody.

2nd Edition by G. Wind & Light. 1992. Jenifer L. Ecological Design by Sim Van der Ryn and Stuart Cowan. Reshaping the Built Environment by Charles Kibert. London. 2nd Edition by Baruch Givoni. NY: Whitney Library of Design/Watson-Guptill. The Technology of Ecological Building by Klaus Daniels. UK: E&FN Spon Press. Cambridge. Environmental Tradition: Studies in the Architecture of Environment by Dean Hawkes. Cradle to Cradle by William McDonough and Michael Braungart. New York: Chapman & Hall. New York. Boston: Birkhauser 2002. Design with Climate by Victor Olgyay. Paradigms and Case Studies by James Steele. New York. 1979. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1993. New York. Ander. NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Washington. 1981. Daylighting for Sustainable Design by Mary Guzowski. NY: J. Wiley & Sons. A Golden Thread: 2500 Years of Solar Architecture and Technology by Ken Butti and John Perlin. Maureen Cureton. McManigal. Seal. London: Thames and Hudson. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill. DC: Island Press.. New York. New York. Sustainable Architecture: Principles. 1999.389 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Architecture and the Environment: Bioclimatic Building Design by David Lloyd Jones. NJ: Princeton University Press. Green Development by Alex Wilson. NY: North Point Press. 1997.. Inc. Inc. Princeton. New York. Woodstock. Climate and Architecture. New York. Brown and Mark DeKay. 2001. NY: McGraw-Hill. Browning. Detailing Light by Jean Gorman. 1996. Chicago. NY: AMS Press. Climatic Building Design by Donald Watson and Kenneth Labs. New York: Overlook Press. 2001. Sun. L. 2002. MA: MIT Press. Hoboken. Inc. DC: Island Press. 1997. Boston: Birkhauser. Inc. 2000. Eco-Tech by Catherine Slessor. Lisa A. Design With Nature by Ian McHarg. IL: University of Chicago Press. Man. 2003. 1980. Climate and Architecture by Jeffrey Ellis Aronin. Thermal Delight in Architecture by Lisa Heschong. New York. 1979. New York. 1998.Z. Basel. 1995. NY: McGraw-Hill. NY: John Wiley & Sons. 1984. New York. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Daylighting Performance and Design. 1996. The Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment by Reyner Banham. . Hunter Lovins. 1998. Basel. Washington. 2nd Edition by Gregg D. 1963. and William D. Sustainable Architecture and Urbanism by Dominique Gauzin-Muller. NY: John Wiley & Sons..

Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing Kolarevic. Inc. MA: MIT Press. et al. and Assembly a. New York. Architectural Practice: A Critical View by Robert Gutman. Technology. Neil. Lewis. Architecture: The Story of Practice by Dana Cuff. MA: MIT Press. Architect's Essentials of Contract Negotiation by Ava Abramowitz. NJ: Princeton Architectural Press. General: • • • • • • • • Building Envelopes. Performative Architecture: Beyond Instrumentality Kolarevic. Branko and Malkawi. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press. Minneapolis. MN: University of Minnesota Press. A Theory for Practice: Architecture in Three Discourses by Bill Hubbard. New York. 1992. 2002. 2004. 2000. Branko Ed. NY: Taylor & Francis. Materials. Cambridge.. Eds. 1988. 2004. Architecture: Chapters in the History of the Profession. MA: MIT Press. Ali. and Augenbroe. Godfried.. Eds. Materials: .390 Practice • • • • • • • • Architect? A Candid Guide to the Profession by Roger K. Princeton. In the Scheme of Things: Alternative Thinking on the Practice of Architecture by Thomas Fisher. 2003. NY: Taylor & Francis. Architect's Handbook of Professional Practice by Joseph Demkin. London. NY: Taylor & Francis. New York. New York. 2004. Cambridge. Digital Tectonics Leach. Webliography Building Science. 2000. Digital Technologies • • • • Advanced Building Simulation Malkawi. Inc. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Reprint Edition by Dana Cuff and Spiro Kostof. Cambridge. New York. UK: Wiley-Academy Press.org Building Science Corporation DOE: Building Energy Codes ebuild HUD User: Building Technology Toolbase Services Whole Building Design Guide—Mandates/References Whole Building Design Guide—Construction Criteria Base b. 1998. 1995. NY: John Wiley & Sons. 2004. Eds. Ali.

com High-Performance Buildings Research Institute for the Built Environment NAHB Research Center: Guide to Developing Green Builder Programs OIKOS: Green Building Source Sustainable Buildings Industry Council Sustainable Sources b. Sustainable Design Guidelines: • • • Green Building Challenge National Park Service U. General: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BuildingGreen.com .com Built Green Center for the Built Environment Center for Resourceful Building Technology Development Center for Appropriate Technology DOE: Building Energy Codes Eco-Home™ Network Green Building Alliance Green Matrix Greener Buildings Greenroofs. Green Building Council (USGBC) c.Engineered Wood Association (APA) Canadian Wood Council Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) Hardwood Information Council Natural Building Resources Structural Board Association (SBA) Sustainable Building Environments a.S. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: • • • • • • Alternative Energy Store American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Energy and Environmental Building Association (EEBA) EnergyStar GreenGoat HomePerformance.391 • • • • • • • • • American Concrete Institute (ACI) American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Architectural Woodwork Institute (AWI) APA .

New York. eds. Ed. 2000. GA: Greenway Communications. Evans. New York. 1991. New York. 2004. 3rd Edition by Cyril Harris. Encyclopedia of Architecture: Design. and Jennifer Y.. Recycling: • • • • GreenGoat Recyclers' World ReDo: Reuse Development Organization Steel Recycling Institute Journals • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AIArchitect Architecture Architecture Week Architectural Digest Architectural Record Architectural Review Archis Building Design and Construction Detail Dwell Ecotecture. Cramer.392 • • RReDC Energy Tidbits The Source for Renewable Energy d. NY: Whitney Library of Design. NY: Dover. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Sturgis' Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture and Building: An Unabridged Reprint of the 1901-1902 Edition by Russell Sturgis. . Engineering & Construction by Joseph Wilkes and Robert Packard. NY: McGraw-Hill.com Environmental Building News Environmental Design and Construction Fine Homebuilding Harvard Design Magazine Metropolis Residential Architect Traditional Building Wood Design and Building Dictionaries and Encyclopedias • • • • • Almanac of Architecture & Design Library 2005 by James P. New York. Atlanta. 1989. Inc. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Architects and Architecture by Dennis Sharp. Dictionary of Architecture & Construction. 1989.

New York.S. DOE Building Energy Codes Program. NY: Brunner-Routledge. Design and Analysis Tools • • • • • Energy-10 IES "Virtual Environment" (IES (USA) Limited) REScheck (U. insight.393 • Multilingual Dictionary of Architecture and Building Terms by Chris Grech. Residential Compliance) TRNSYS . 1998.(TRaNsient SYstem Simulation Program) VisualDOE (Architectural Energy Corporation) Training Education and Continuing Education See: Professional Organizations above Acknowledgements –Credit and gratitude to Roger K. Lewis FAIA for wisdom. and the use of his cartoons –Credit and gratitude also to George Holback AIA for the ideas in the section on the the History of Building Codes .

S. Coast Guard (USCG) . Browse Alphabetically Browse by Category Code Compliance Cost-Estimating Design & Analysis Energy Analysis Life-Cycle Costing / Assessment Life-Cycle Management / Maintenance Professional & Construction Services Program & Project Management Specification Aids Browse by Agency Use Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA) Army Corps of Engineers (COE) Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Interior (DOI) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) General Services Administration (GSA) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) U. These pages offer information on a variety of desktop or Web-based tools used in the building industry.394 Tools Welcome to the Tools section of the Whole Building Design Guide.

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