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DATES PERIOD SYRIA-PALESTINE EGYPT MESOPOTAMIA ASIA MINOR

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CA. 43,000 18,000 BCE UPPER PALEOLITHIC
CA. 18,000—8500 BCF EPIPALEOLITHJC
CA. 8500—4500 BCE NEOLITHIC
CA. 4500—3300 BCE CHALCOLITHIC Early stages of urbanization throughout the Near East
CA. 3300—2000 BCE EARLY BRONZE AGE
3300—3100 BCE Early Bronze I Earliest forms of writing
Full urbanization
Sumerian culture develops
3100—2700 BCE Early Bronze II In Egyptian sphere Political unification Floruit of Sumerian
Early Dynastic period culture
2700—2300 B CE Early Bronze III Flourishing city-states Old Kingdom Sargon of Akkad
Dynasties 3—5 Naram-Sin of Akkad
Gudea of Lagash
2300—2000 BCE Early Bronze IV Decline/abandonment First Intermediate Period Third Dynasty of Ur
of city-states
CA. 2000—1550 BCE MIDDLE BRONZE AGE
2000 1650 BCE Middle Bronze I—Il Revival of urbanism Middle Kingdom Amorite kingdoms
Invention of alphabet Dynasties 11—12 Shamshi-Adad of Assyria
(ca. 1813-1781)
Hammurapi of Babylon Rise of The Hittites
(ca. 1792-1750)
1650—1550 BCE Middle Bronze III Second Intermediate/
Hyksos Period
CA. 1550—1200 BCE LATE BRONZE AGEIn Egyptian sphere New Kingdom
Rise of Mitanni in north Dynasties 18—19
Ugarit flourishes Thutmose III (1479—1425)
Akenhaten (1352—1336)
Seti I (1294—1279) Hittites challenge Egypt
Rameses II (1279—1213) for control of Syria
Merneptah (1213—1203
Collapse of city-states Sea Peoples invasions begin Hittite empire collapses
Trojan War
CA. 1200—586 BCE IRON AGE
CA. 1200—1025 BCE Iron I Israel emerges in Canaan Rameses III (1184—1153) Resurgence of Assyria
Philistines settle on SW coast Tiglath-pileser I
Small city-states develop in (1114—1076)
Phoenicia, Syria, Transjordan
CA. 1025—586 BCE Iron II
CA. 1025—928 BCE Iron IIA United Monarchy in Israel
Saul (1025—1005)
David (1005—965)
Solomon (968—928)
CA. 928—722 BCE Iron IIB Divided Monarchy
Israel Judah
Jeroboam I Rehoboam Shishak I invades Palestine Rise of Neo-Assyrian
(928—907) (928—911) (925) empire
Omri
(882—871)
capital at Samaria
Chronology (continued)
DATES PERIOD SYRIA-PALESTINE EGYPT MESOPOTAMIA ASIA MINOR
Ahab Jehoshaphat Shalmaneser III (858—824)
(873—852) (867—846) Battle of Qarqar (853)
Jehu Athaliah
(842—814) (842—836)
Jehoash Adad-nirari III (811—783)
(836—798)
Jehoash
(800—788)
Jeroboam II Tiglath-pileser III (745—727)
(788—747) Assyrian conquest of the Levant
Hoshea Ahaz Shalmaneser V (727—722)
(732—722) (743/735- Samaria captured (722)
727/715)
CA. 722—586 BCE Iron IIC Judah Sargon II (722 705)
Hezekiah Sennacherib (705—681)
(727/715—698/687) Attack on Judah and
siege of Jerusalem (701)
Manasseh Egypt conquered by Assyria Esarhaddon (681—669)
(698/687—642) (671)
Josiah (639—609) Psammetichus I (664—610) Ashurbanipal (669—627)
Rise of Babylon
Jehoahaz (609) Neco II (610—595) Assyrian capital of
Nineveh captured (612)
Nebuchadrezzar II
(604—562) of Babylon
Jehoiakim
(608—598)
Jehoiachin
(597)
Zedekiah (597—586)
Capture of Jerusalem (586)
CA. 586—539 BCE NEO-BABYLONIAN Nabonidus (556—539)
Chronology (continued)
DATES PERIOD SYRIA-PALESTINE EGYPT MESOPOTAMIA GREECE AND ROME
539—332 BCE PERSIAN Cyrus II (the Great)
(559—530)
Some exiles return from Capture of Babylon
Babylon (538) Cambyses (530 - 522)
Second Temple built Capture of Egypt (525)
(520 - 515) Darius I (522—486) Greeks repel Persian
Xerxes (486—465) invasions
Nehemiah governor of Judah Artaxerxes I (465—424) Peloponnesian War
(ca. 445—430) Artaxerxes 11(405—359) (43 1—404)
332—63 BCE HELLENISTIC Seleucus I (312/311—281) Alexander the Great
controls Syria and (336—323)
Mesopotamia Defeats Persians at Issus
Ptolemy I (323—282) controls (332)
Egypt, Palestine, Phoenicia Occupies the Levant and
Egypt
Antiochus III (223—187) gains Rome gains control over
control of southern Syria, Greece (ca. 188—146; 146:
Phoenicia, and Judea from sack of Carthage and
Ptolemy IV (202—198) Corinth)
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(175—164)
Revolt of the Maccabees
(167—164)
Hasmonean rule of Judea
(165—37)
John Hyrcanus (135—104)
Alexander Janneus (103—76)
Salome Alexandra (76—67)
DATES PERIOD EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN ROME
63 BCE—330 ce ROMAN Pompey conquers the Levant (66—62)
Enters Jerusalem (63)
Julius Caesar named dictator (49); assassinated (44)
Herod the Great king of Judea (37—4) Octavian (Augustus) defeats Antony at Actium (31)
Rebuilds Second Temple (emperor 27 BCE— 14 CE)
(Herod) Antipas (4 BCE — 39 CE)
Life of Jesus of Nazareth (ca. 4 BCE—30 CE) Tiberius (14—37 CE)
Pontius Pilate governor of Judea (26—36) Gaius (Caligula) (37—41)
(Herod) Agrippa I (39—44) Claudius (41—54)
(Herod) Agrippa II (49—92) Nero (54—68)
First Jewish Revolt in Judea against Rome (66—73) Vespasian (69—79)
Jerusalem captured (70) Titus (79—81)
Domitian (81—96)
Nerva (96—98)
Jewish revolts in Egypt, Libya, Cyprus (115—118) Trajan (98—117)
Second Jewish Revolt in Judea against Rome (132—135) Hadrian (117—38)
Diocletian (284—305)
Constantinople becomes capital of empire (330) Constantine (324—37)
330—638 CE BYZANTINE Julian the Apostate (361—63)
Theodosius 1 (379—95)
Christianity official religion of empire
Rome falls to Visigoths (476)
Justinian (527—65)
life of Muhammad (ca. 570—632)
Arab conquest of Jerusalem (638)