The Performative Icon Author(s): Bissera V. Pentcheva Source: The Art Bulletin, Vol. 88, No. 4 (Dec., 2006), pp.

631-655 Published by: College Art Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25067280 . Accessed: 07/03/2011 11:36
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The
Bissera

Performative
V. Pentcheva

Icon

Icon

(ikon,

eiKcov) and

in Greek

is understood

as

image, also

repre

enameled

cover,

which

floods

the

eye

with

its radiance

and

sentation, a very

portrait. meaning

specific

In Byzantium as a portable

the word portrait

acquired of Christ, the

Virgin,
or steatite

and saints with scenes from their lives on wood panels
surfaces (Figs. 1-4).* such The as icon enamel, ivory, metal, was perceived mosaic, as matter and im

illuminated by the trembling flicker of can shimmer. When dles and oil lamps rather than the steady and harsh spotlights on the revetted of museum displays, the painted holy face
icon sinks and disappears in the shadow. These panels oper

precious

bued with
object taste, the was and portable

charis (^api?),
meant sound to be all

or divine

grace.2 As matter,

this

physically contributed Over the

portrait.

smell, Touch, experienced. to the of "seeing" experience sensual this sensory and years,

ate at the brink of the extramission and intromission models of visuality. They deny the tangibility and even visibility of the sacred image, while they appeal to the sense of touch through
the metal textured surface of their repouss? and enameled-filigree con revetments.7 they are luxury objects, relief icons are now

experience
the

(aesthesis) of the image has been
in fact and vision a surface smell. meant that This in resonates object Byzantium:

lost from view in
with thus a offers sound, us a

Because

scholarship.3 is icon The light, into

sidered exceptions
icon enamel, production. steatite,

among an otherwise
However, and ivory the integrate way the

largely panel-painted
relief icons in metal, theory of iconophile

wind, glimpse

touch, what

synesthetic

experience
refers through enced together, tion on synesthetic as

the whole body is engaged. The term as employed in modern art theory and psychology synesthesia in which
to concomitant the sound. stimulation Instead, sensation: of the another, use experience such the word as of color synesthesis to focus of senses. one sense experi (syn-, atten This Yet

the faithful images and the way they sensorially engage that these ob their tactile representations suggest through lead us instead to a jects, rather than being exceptions,
fundamental expectation and experience of icons as textured

I will

sensual aesthesis, plus consonant sensation: experience senses is very

apprehension) the simultaneity characteristic

surfaces in Byzantium. The relief icon, which dominated in the ninth and tenth centuries, most artistic production fulfilled the qualities of Byzantine tactile and sensorial closely
visuality.

of Byzantium.

it is rarely discussed
between the and

in medieval
the spiritual

studies. Whenever
is made, it is often

a link
drawn

its In its original through setting, the icon performed The radiance of light reflected from the gilded materiality. surfaces, the flicker of candles and oil lamps placed before
the and the image, music?these and sweetly fragrant inundated sensorial to excess, of incense, all senses. the the sounds In of prayer the icon access saturating of the and gave

primarily on the basis of the writings of Abbot Suger.4 to Byzantine image theory as it emerged in the According ninth century, the icon is the imprint (in Greek, typos) of
Christ's visible characteristics (appearance) on matter. The

material led

experience

to a transcendence

this very materiality

quintessential Byzantine image ideally should not be thought of as a painting created by brushstrokes but as an imprint? a typos impressed on a material surface. The relief icon to this theoretical model; most closely conformed it defined
Byzantium as the culture of the imprint, mold, or seal

to the intangible, invisible, and noetic.8 This phenomenolog inmodern ical aspect of the icon has been largely overlooked it to a glass-cage it as art, confining scholarship. By treating museum display, subjecting it to uniform and steady electric
lighting, dead.9 the icon has been deprived of life?its surface,

(Figs. 1-3). The relief icon also best responds
of vision known as extramission.5

to the prevailing
to this model,

theory
the

According

In Byzantine of definition presence admixture. and

culture, "performance." absence.10 itself

mimesis

is

the

word for an

closest admixture just the

to

the of an

It stands The icon

is active, constantly moving and sending eye of the beholder that touch the surfaces of objects. The eye seeks the light rays and expe tactility of textures and reliefs. Sight is understood
rienced as touch.6 Not surprisingly, Byzantine icons address

exemplifies (appearance),

such Byzan

While

an

absence

this tactile desire with and reliefs. They
pouss?, and filigree, gemstones.

their rich decoration, varied materials, employ a baroque pastiche of metal re
and of these champlev? panels also enamels, contain pearls, poetic

cloisonn? Some

in the metal surface (Fig. 21). inscriptions embedded of wood panel The later and better-known production covered with metal revetments (Fig. 4) differ sig paintings from the Middle Byzantine relief icon. In the latter, nificantly the holy figure projects in relief, whereas in the former, the sacred form recedes in darkness. It is painted on the flat surface of the wood and surrounded by a raised silver-gilt or

tine icon enacts divine presence (essence) in itsmaking and in its interaction with the faithful.11 A person's approach, and breath disrupt the lights of the candles and movement, oil lamps, making them flicker and oscillate on the surface of the icon, This glimmer of reflected rays is enhanced by the rising incense in the air, the sense of touch and taste, and the sound of prayer to animate the panel.12 The icon thus goes changing, and performing through a process of becoming, before These the faithful, shifting sensations triggered through sight, touch, sound, smell, and taste stir the faithful. They are then led to state and sensual experi project their whirling psychological ence (pathema, Tr?diq/xa) back onto the object to make the

A absence icon's and perfor (e/xi/fu^o? ypa</>ff). late llth-12th century.15 Using Christology. At the very center of this controversy lay the tension between matter and spirit. Venice (artwork in the public domain. provided by Art Resource. and tialist model affected the icon production of the post-Icono divine. they drew a connec tion between the icon and the incarnate Christ. Venice (artwork in the public domain. (Figs. (44 X 36 X 2 cm). basilica 17% X 14V6 X 3/4 in. Marco.532 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 1 Icon of gold. . an almost Eucharistie participatory knowledge of Christ's of icons divinely human presents an nature? The model. the Archangel Michael. into Animated a living by painting: the 7r?0T)/xa. NY) photograph by Cameraphoto.On the Limits of Representation in Byzantine Icono clasm. its late tained of mimesis antique tradition saturating objects embedded While in its rite gave rise all five senses are to a sensorially engaged. but it simulates divine essence through the interaction of its imprinted sur face with the changing ambience. Can the icon represent through God. 634-732). Treasury of the of S. The definition of the icon as absence has paradoxically tension presence. eighth-century Its major defense essentialist proponents Byzantine Mimesis: Essence and Appearance The Byzantine icon is a surface that has received the imprint of divine form. lurks heightened on the icon's that will the materiality surface be resolved between of in the this object. the icon shows the process visible The human original shape. a rich subtle performance. 730 to 843.5 cm). lending extension. The icon is just an imprint of form. late 10th century. (22 X 18. imitation of form. Byzantine mimesis is the imitation of pres ence. Sight.14 What remains to be explored is how this nonessen were John of Damaskos and Patriarch Germa (ca. liturgy the senses. Treasury of the basilica S. This nonessentialist of the icon definition in the ninth-century writings of Patriarch Nike developed of Stoudios. Charles Barber has al phoros and Theodore their theory in his excellent study Figure ready reconstructed and Likeness:. the Archangel Michael. provided by Art Resource. enamel on 2 Icon of of enamel on gold. Marco. 85/s X 7V4 in. through which mosaics the Logos acquires at Nikaia offer a an seventh-century example pr?figurai of this incarnational represented by dialectic the throne.16 The book. touch.13 icon has Because a tension mance faithful. hierarchy is established. 675-749) nos (ca. 6). sensu main the analysis. (mimesis) : the way it plays with appearances In contrast to our Western notion before as the the ally experienced. 5. The Incar nation manifests validity to the the divine acquiring visible and representation. dove. At imprint of the divine appearance the same time. photograph by Cameraphoto. a human By form. A emerges The from Byzantine my new meaning legacy the Eastern of a of of tactile Orthodox "living painting" visuality. NY) icon appear alive. and sound emerge as the senses through which the materiality of the icon as the is empirically formed. smell and taste give access to divine essence image theory emerged during the Iconoclastic Byzantine period. it turns projected an empsychos human graphe clastic period.

Mus?e (artwork public domain. 5 Mosaic Church of of the Hetoimasia. triptych. the Virgin is transformed in the apse. of icon of the processional Virgin Hodegetria. Hermitage inscription. Icon Gallery. photograph Archive. converge morphe. in. ivory. on the empheria sense of (oxrj/xa. early the iconophiles ninth centuries of the later part of the eighth a nonessentialist interpreta and developed i ftl 3rd J. NY) photograph ? tion of the icon. silver-metal tempera in the domain. on wood. appearance/likeness and its shape all empha jmop</>Tj. With the shape the of and Child the cross in the apse was replaced by the in image the of mid-eighth veneration cen in 843.'"20 Schema. 750-828) fined the icon as the imprint (typos) of the visible character istics matter: of Christ "Painting on matter. e^?peta) provided . the body of Christ. or the appearance corporeal represents imprinted form of the on one 4 Double-sided quarter revetment. provided by Art ?ir>#?^*Z&1*xz?. NY) X WA late 10th century. of silver to the golden-clad equat ing the icon with in the charges shows divine of traces essence. Ohrid. sometime reestablishment was charges of figurai representation counteract To the restored. ? The (Nikaia) (artwork in the public domain. making this The an essentialist figurai iconoclastic model representation it participatory exposed itself at Nikaia for the to idolatry.2 X 28.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 533 3 Harbaville (24.5 Resource. Paris in the cm). the 13th century. impressing its appearance (morphe) and its likeness (empheria).19 Patriarch Nikephoros de (ca. 9V? du Louvre. image of the Virgin aniconic tury.17 carnal the central They the light: catch ray of and light. State early 8th century. Petersburg) Museum. We into the Child held witness a metamorphosis in the arms of by us By fol lowing tesserae. Macedonia Scala. public Resource. 38V? X 26% in. photograph by Erich Lessing. Turkey provided Schmit by the Theodore St. (artwork by Art (schema) and depicted. most reflect Child light in likely made as Mary's they lead arms.18 of such intervention. idolatry in the incarnational model. the Koimesis of late 7th or the Theotokos. Iznik. (97 X 67 cm).

similar to covered from enclosed in containers Habitually were the miraculous images kept to the in contrast icon. through This object appearance. a seal into his matter. not the icon is likeness the essence.22 were and tangibly revealed available. and (literally impressed surface (bronze like a die) for a second or gold. (19. judge of Monastery. of the Virgin of Church and Child. available and from originates to men the from of letters looking at the model is understood as a primary imprint. from domain. the stone carver.1) 6 Apse mid-9th mosaic century. longer not copy essence. practices I In this passage. is thus (essence) A similar definition of the icon as an imprint of likeness on matter emerges in the writings of Theodore of Stoudios (759-826): after its prototype brings the The crafted icon modeled likeness of the prototype into matter and participates in its form by means of the thought of the artist and the impress of his hands. receives the miracle-working mactic points fully imprint of that which he contemplates. 508. of the theory in any other but not account theoretical over culture. Petersburg) appearance memory of of the prototype the artist. the form. regular which was always fully visually of images the ritual.8 X 17. photograph provided by the Theodore Schmit Archive. as Because these of divine These thaumaturgie presence. through which to defend the validity of icons. total It gave control a artistic line (divinely human lacking bearing miraculous practices. Athos. and bronze. ofMount in the (object cat. This is true of the painter. The stronghold ninth-century the extramission Constantinople in Byzan theory . 13. grasp. marble time on imprint for encaustic). At the same time. St.534 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 7 Seal attached Iviron to the memorandum of a Thessaloniki cm). of the that participates prototype. no.4 Mount Treasures Greece Athos. This miraculous model production of the icon becomes a process of double icon does not the nonessentialist images. lead. ? The State Hermitage Museum. silk veils. only at swift The cli and each the one who makes takes matter. The in of believe. 7% X 6% in. a belief in miraculous icons did exist in and this belief went against the theoretical defi Byzantium. nition images functioned access and away of were the icon perceived in a way sacred by sensual energy. conceptual comes set to the imprint of absence simulate presence on matter. icon as sa The The making (typos). Turkey (Nikaia) (artwork in the public domain. and Iznik. the Koimesis late of 7thearly 8th the Theotokos. In the has been next step.21 and presses it like Typos and Sphragis The nonessentialist model only act of the icon as a double the very in of image production imprint. as absence. exercised and As some ritual appearance participates in Christ's cred teristics energy and and therefore essence). prototype. In the does not reveal his hypostasis only the visible the charac icon be essence. public written in 927. icons they offered repositories to relics. impressed this impressed or onto form the is imprinted the material size The imprint the two nonessentialist are of connected relation by no between form. looks images from gold at the prototype.

11). Dumbarton Oaks. public domain. diameter 1 in. (object in the public domain. writing and painting) was understood ar<f>payi<. photograph Washington.C. IVs (object in. In contrast to has never been applied the acheiropoietoi. Byzantine 9 Pliers with intaglio relief of a saint. provided Washington.C. It has been explored most prominently by Herbert Kessler in connection with the acheiropoietos of Christ (miraculous image not made by human hands. a<j>payU) furnish The not die just and a its imprint for (eKTweojULa. By completed analogy. penetrating transformed The icon then the physical into becomes longer remains. inviolate state of the letter (Fig. photograph provided by the Arthur Sackler Museum.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 535 8 Seal blank. a shell a it produces matter. lead. D. Arthur Sackler Museum. This shell is intaglio on the heads of the pliers absence that is then imprinted on reifying in relief the shape of ab absence turns into a projection.8 cm). were cluded. 9). Washington. D. 11).23 instance. After being heated. (r. placing negative in which a body once resided but equivalent to the negative (Fig. Mass. The silk cords were first threaded the parchment and then strung through the lead through the seal's channel. a The sacred leaves body physical imprint. tine Many secured documents. It is created like a coin or seal. photograph Collection.C. bishop of Thebes. Byzantine Washington. 10.9 cm). the making only in the of a seal or a coin exemplifies twos. a of graphe also became sphragis. without. D. blanks were placed between the valves of iron pliers (Fig. this process.5 cm). 10. The pliers were struck shut with a hammer.C. the seal the icon as a created appearance through a double of the prototype.C. space. 6% X 6V6 in.) 11 Coin with the impressed Constantine Dumbarton domain. heir. Here. 9). the acheiropoietos partici the which a seal. 10. 7) .6 (object in the bequest of Thomas Whittemore. Cambridge. 8). is space. It is this form of the warm metal surface. in a memo Yet the typos/sphragis concept regular icon. in Oaks.5 cm).4 X 15. sence (Figs. visuality. The typos/sphragis concept is not new. impressing a on the softened surface of the lead (Figs.. by Dumbarton D. the public Dumbarton domain. metaphor the relation between Christ and the icon but also a process By lacking dis that entirely the concept of the icon as absence. VII Oaks. Christ's material form. the divine touch. 11th century. the pliers embedded in the lead and closed the parchment. imprint and participates Again.). (object by Dumbarton % in. The graphe (encompassing as a seal (sphragis. Byzantine Collection. manifesta no the materialization a reified.25 This thauma turgie object is allegedly the product of a single imprint of the divine form and essence. Washington. hand. While relief the silk cord creating the metal relief. maps essence. 11). (2. made): the imprint 1951. As an extension of the divine bears essence. iron. poietos. the seal is still in its original position. Cambridge) (typos) of the Holy Face on a material surface.C. (2.24The characteristic Byz antine sealing practice was to use lead blanks with a channel going through their diameter (Fig. (17. with once For their writing was con pates in like an intaglio impressed on the body functions surface (Figs. 10 Seal of Peter.) Oaks. affixed with a cord at the edge of It completes the writing and ensures the the parchment.) images of Christ and Emperor diameter gold. Harvard University Art Museums. The relief paradoxically of sensual.31. the to the icon is randum by a judge of Thessaloniki written in 927. with the Virgin Episkepsis. provided D. in the public Oaks. (1. a-. Collection. Writing and sealing thus became linked in Byzantium. manifestation for it. photograph Oaks. diameter D. the form sensory of absence. provided by Dumbarton Washington. 945-59). .

icons tangible icon materializes (the New imperial of Emperor Basil I (r. by the hands of the artist into a material sacred portrait It presents can be seen to function policy. offers it in turn to the touch of the "eyes and lips" of the faithful. model an insight at into the the In core art this of icons in the ninth interpretation. As the gate to the Great Palace. and sensual. it like a seal into his active eye the into of the artist form sacred of an touch shape impressing gathered a the memory set up in 843. theory sources describing the Chalke incident of 730. The Relief For relief greater has been icons Icon from than (a typos) would have easily been burned in accordance with the incident of 730 or 814. Perhaps paintings. survive imbalance in in metal. imprinted ure. would have had a strong symbolic value by alluding to the Calf (Exod. having received the imprint (typos) of absence. in Byzantium. Paradoxically. for hands.31 By contrast. icons Iconoclasm. example to the the "touched the preferred eye casting with desire experienced. Already in his discussion of the sixth-century decoration of .26 As the chancel barrier through tioned metal-repouss? angels. of the craftsman.33Enamel medallion Church) icons of Christ appeared in the Chapel of the Savior in the palace. and ineffable Its external (divine essence). 32:20). It charges provides is realized and sensually materially experienced. form tangible Marie-France developed has correctly justify argued that the legend placement Empress eyes. the prophets. 867-86) . takes into account Further the written confirmation record. while the visible addresses itself just to the eye. that can be tical that makes By contrast. image The internal The manifestation which metal? that sent its surface reaffirms "touching" Touch authenticates prototype. It was probably peared on imperial coinage in 843. which the icon and makes the imprint neutralizes access to appear of idolatry. it hung or to the fact that the image itself was made of in 1959. The Chalke Christ marked the final triumph of orthodoxy and celebrated the renewed alignment of imperial power with image veneration.39 However. it immune ance. sacred its an on places emphasis than on the visible rather relief. the imprint.34 These instances demonstrate a continuing tradition foundation called Nea Ekklesia absent objects to fig gives it Therefore. shifts would ultraviolet all wreak havoc light. legitimacy. is compen the exterior temperature on wood.36 it acquired endary past for the Chalkites. The most important icon in this period was the Chalkites Christ set atop the Brazen Gates of the imperial palace. to emulate Leo III. the actions Chalkites of his was time during the iconophile the invention of a leg Through that which matter. Cyril Mango was a painted panel panel because painting the is not iconoclasts suited for it to the fire.Moreover. to It self-consciously apprehensible draws attention the to absence. was allegedly taken down on the orders of Emperor Leo III in 730. all of these if we issues identify are the Chalkites A bronze as a metal or copper relief icon resolved. the Chalkites validity or truth of the image is itsmatter. iconoclast legendary a new Finally. indeed. medieval art. senses. They the saint. In the rays making over the the and presses icon. of tactile us a similar project the Byzantine visuality theory its the rays sensually of vision seeks a and framework icon presents onto an visible versus of luxury relief icons in both Hagia Sophia and the churches and chapels of the Great Palace. a reference Chalkites^ to the it have been refers Brazen Gates a metal and over Neoplatonic a material manifestation to copper what is a eye is immaterial priori internal. after in Hagia in metal repouss? adorned the epistyle of The model absence. to the eleventh ivory. it casts source some in the written doubt was on the existence Auz?py in order to of a Chalke Christ Eirene's in about 730. looks interim period. tangi sated by the materially manifested of the icon that is ble. Sophia. gates:40 The passage mentions the icon and its location produced Iconoclasm. the most profound the icon as reified Its absence lack of is imbued essence with materiality.37 What did this icon look like? Could relief bronze. It is this materiality overlooked in the recent studies of Byzantine image theory.536 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 tion making present of absence. negative the Chalke imperial in of visually and tangibly defined this same and propagated image that reap quently surface. have argued Scholars. icon. and So steatite far."30 casts and optical return. 787-814. to deterioration. of such an icon for the first Moreover."29 is present in the passage takes quoted from Theodore at the prototype. the period numbers attributed a different the ninth enamel. and the Virgin.27 The tangible appeals to and mobilizes all five senses. the shape. it tangible. The impressed Byzantine terms. tenth and-coin-based furnishes theory. Its It story summarizes the entire Iconoclastic period (730-843). the Life of Saint Stephen the Younger (written about 809). and this act of public aggression against images signaled the outbreak of Iconoclasm in the capital. would in the eyes of iconoclasts have justified the icon's destruction biblical Golden as an orthodox act of pulling down the idols.35 Since this story is not and mentioned appears by any contemporary record only eighth-century after 800.28 eloquent According extramission. the Apostles. panel to wood's vulnerability which interpretation. this centuries. is the reality internal of the this The icon. Then in 814 Emperor Leo V removed this image from the again gates in an attempt predecessor. absence. In fact. notably. in medieval attempt intangible in general express than the the Byzantine of the paradox particular versus the rather the invisible (in which my analysis differs from that of the existing scholarship on medieval image theory) . touch) is thus This first image Like (the imprinted intaglio. and the function is in order. fueled by op visuality. he contemplates. vestige it is subse of internal.32 Similarly. It is our modern culture's obsession with making things visible. of a building. In of this hypothesis one of the two can be found earliest Byzantine in tradition. Paul the Silentiary men disks with the figures of Christ. same materiality lips. its surface. fire would have been the its burning only and perhaps best way to destroy it. of Stoudios: receives the "[the artist] imprint of matter. of Byzantine after the image and seal centuries. the icon appears as a copper relief at the image.38 icon?a but typos} is this Its name. It and understanding also of the icon through tangible versus the the the seal-making versus intangible In invisible. with egg and tempera likeness: palpable. Burning. humidity.

which resulted in his deposition. 11). the Chalke Christ also to its nonessen fulfilled Byzantine image theory.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 537 In these days [the patriarch Anastasios.48 the icon and Christ. surface. under stood as the ideal icon. Such a commemorative image would be quite appro the epigram written by Patriarch Methodios Similarly. King David emerges as a and idea vice captures versa: the as a recipient of of the icon's climate ninth-century images the Athenian. These words have hitherto been interpreted as a The bronze Byzantium statue did and discredited not produce as corrupt information because statues of three-dimensional where Constantinople. refers to the gates. and seals evokes (Fig. 7r6kr?) is in the feminine to singular and the subsequent from plural of this object as holy suggest that the subject of description the relative clause is not the Brazen Gates but the Chalkites icon. vision of emu If the . the Savior he at saw a vision. its first definition of The an intaglio same word on a metal also surface in appears is connected in order th? descrip separated by natures.50 These to be panel the canonical In painting. The icon became the medium through which Christ appeared and judged the emperor: "One night as [Emperor Maurice] was of sleeping. in the model feminine While gender. face was rendered while holy on matter."44 icon is called a copper relief slab (stele chalke. The roundel icon evokes in its shape the very arguments used to defend its legitimacy. 12). 582-602) ment by Christ. nonessen on matter. the Psalter imprint th? activate of absence came and Christ Jesus sources Later also indicate In the Patria circular validates veneration Chalkites. his Psalter by extension. The an ideal devotional medallion object panel thus becomes protected by form and theory from charges of idolatry. when Emperor Maurice dreamed of his judg (r. which could be interpreted as a metal icon adorned with glass tesserae or even enamel. tation on the gold identity to reigns identity yet between but solidus (Fig. imperial policy had just firmly em braced icon veneration. coins Moscow. the Given tympanum of an imaginary polemical arch recall depiction the of the manuscript's shape current of Christ or the saints. Theophanes the story by ahistorically inserting the Chalkites embellished icon?the very object that was most likely first placed ?t the gates almost two centuries later. interpret. thereby linking image and text visually. subject the to clause is rather difficult syntax of the dependent It is introduced by a relative pronoun (kv oicnrep). Finally. As a typos. and. gr. so. 10. it is likely that the preface miniature of the Khludov Psalter is not just a an author portrait (King David as the poet of visualization of the Psalms) but is possibly meant to configure in two-dimen sional form a memory image of the Chalke gate and Chalke Christ.47 What is the importance of identifying the Chalkites with a metal relief icon? This was the most prominent icon in Con stantinople image sources policy. and the only other word in the main clause is "icon" (eiKC?v). of images. The Chalkites Christ established the in 843. The rest of the passage states how this icon was decorated with mosaics by Empress Eirene. in the period 787-814. icon took it by mosaics. Michael Glykas in the twelfth cen tury reinforces the idea of the Chalkites as a metal relief icon by calling it an imprint (ekt?tt?uiio) . In Byzantine iconophile writings the legitimacy of the icon is frequently argued on the basis of the imperial coin. King David dressed and strums the strings of joined protector protection. begins act his most lating prominent public this of the miniature reading preface with of a miniature image as a veneration. In fact. 12). its form would It symbolized have been pro Therefore. the Byzantine Chalkites relief of Christ on a metal surface. 11). The priate for the particular patron of the manuscript: most likely Patriarch Methodios. images do not resemble what we consider look for an the icon: shape of a employing in the Khludov of the form icon as rectangular coins and the wood seals. it [the icon] is called the Chalke (the Copper One). where due to its relief character. ottj?tj XakKrf). Underneath in imperial attire sits on a throne with through of This his lyre. a depiction of a youthful the tympa (Fig. the ideal icon is an imprint (typos) left by an intaglio (Figs. political events and its avid defense of irhages. seal of affirmation The medallion icon and its setting in the Khludov Psalter within a gate.41 The which as a relief. the Chalkites interpretation served as of the written for the in the feminine singular singular. ring The to the relative locale. the metal It means object an in the quoted imprint. father of this Kavallinos. pronoun where the can icon then be translated as refer is set. A voice from the relief spoke.42 Byzantine metal relief icon. differ in nature: a material in Theophanes' tion of the Chalkites Chronographia (early ninth century).49 in the mid-ninth Similarly. relief.51 His epigram adorned the Chalkites. sometime between 843 and 847 identifies the orthodox im [Christ] with imprints [ty ages as typoi: "I am representing the likely surrounded poi]. too. The passage narrates the events of 602 CE. immediately attempted down and throw into the fire the authoritative icon of Christ our Lord. Just as the Greek word stele presents figures in low icon displays a bas relief. read the following: "In the so-called Chalke Gates a copper stele of our Lord Jesus Christ was erected by Constan tine the Great. If my is correct."43 a copper icon of our Lord and relief of various icon for the on representations tialist definition Hence. down. hanging above the imperial gates. 129) have Psalter a round (State Historical shape that Museum.] having become to take the leader of heresies. incised Both draw attention the to as epigram the textured letters and imprinted surface. is restored The manuscript begins Christ set within an arch num. It is quite possible that the Chalkites was medallion-shaped. yet the rest of the sentence has a during and after Iconoclasm. the The Now [empress] emperor decorated Eirene Leo with [III].45 Yet the Byzantine choice of words is quite clear. Divine and imperial are the seal of the icon. we the topography of Constantinople. the Chalke he was gates before standing was ? crowd and the icon standing divinely human hypostasis. at the place. According a representation in relief: tialist definition. (a compilation sources edited about 995)."46 This poetic inscription most Chalkites icon. the around Savior him. Both The Both are linked by one same represent substance reciprocity the same versus a and engraved to the produce stamping a coin. the Greek a switch for gate the (pyle. the majority of icons depicted century Khludov cod. A reci procity is established between the emperor and his represen The word used passage is charakter to describe (xotpoLKTr\p).

The sacred figure painted in tempera lacked relief and functioned primarily optically (Fig. fols.5S Consequently. acquired toponymie Once the its own name Hodegetria weekly occurred mostly the became liturgical proces is understood luxury a cult interaction ambience. signifi tradition. picture Parrhasios. and. cod. finally. silver-gilt surface decorated famous icon. so they were not the focal point of public ceremonies. on a material in what surface.56 challenged his perceptualist theory.52 Wood panel paintings allowed for unlimited expansion of size. painter which Zeuxis deceives creates the a birds. The image is not the imitation of form but pos rather the imprint of form. In the best examples. it established processions. In this period carried in public processions (litaniai). icon: The ideal Byzantine metal relief. 129. the icon (Fig. State Historical century. this perception derives from the Natural History of Pliny the Elder (23-79 CE). with the history and gemstones. icon emerges as a Chalke in a medallion Traced to its source.58 imprint replica. pattern. icon of Christ and King Moscow. pattern. legitimacy. 4). These processional icons (later referred to as in Byzantium from to ritual. Ernst Gombrich has offered the best-known discussion of painting as a naturalistic. preface miniature. individual The and encompasses mark. mid-9th lv. the As the This Eastern perception imprint earlier. shape. pearls. from the private to the public.54 The on a same definition surface creating of a brush mimetic situation changed in the late tenth century when icons and led to a appeared in imperial and liturgical processions new demand for the larger size and accessibility of the image in large public gatherings. of the ideal (typos) to a from the decree. type. painting (graphe) is best understood and sphragis). photograph ? by the State Historical Museum. dictionary mark. Typos spreading decree pression. Moscow) Chalkites at the Bronze Gates is correct. form.538 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 12 Khludov Psalter. by into Byzantine mesis extension. All meanings are inter . The small size and luxury materials system of of use. culture. these relief icons conformed to a more intimate in turn paints deceived as he a curtain attempts so skillfully to draw the that Zeuxis curtain himself to is see in order the supposed graphe as the painting marks of behind the it. mimetic pictorial copy of the Although Norman Bryson and other scholars have world. as icon?as mentioned simulation insight mi Byzantine through the Hodegetria development ographie on small focus of type this (the One Who Leads the Way). a dominance the ninth and tenth of relief icons over panel paintings centuries is also evident in the contem icons were not porary function of images. 2r (artwork in the public domain. exact of the imprinted form (typos) with a standard entries range the changing of definitions and follows: state im image. of Finally. the first example of a monastery in Con its identity in an icon rather than a relic stantinople investing of the Mother of God. One gradually proceeds individual mark to the state. In one of his anecdotes the grapes. most of Constantinople's as imprint (ty practice.57 in the Byzantine theory and emerges consisted filigree The of an enameled designs. rite. mold. without relief and the icons. virtuoso His mimetic competitor. 4). are as representation. gr. this metal cover The image of the world also obtains in the Renaissance theory of Leon Battista Albert! written in 1436.55 In recent times. example. Museum. in Marian devotion was shaped through icons and icon the Byzantine capital sion. medallion David. icon depictions cance as copies in this manuscript sharing in the Chalkites's acquire greater form. model. Only the revetment preserved the aesthetic of the luxury metal relief icon. then all medallion Painting In modern painting and as Imprint Western as culture of we the are the markings to conceive of predisposed on a material brush surface. signa) had the effect of shifting the perception from a medallion relief image in Byzantium painted panel (signori). exemplifies Until the late tenth century. from the particular to the cultural. of presence gives of an paint ing?and. they have not questioned the understanding of painting as a pictorial form of art: brushstrokes By contrast.

limitlessly ducible. cultural linking identity. graphe tempera theory because and could The body multiplicity shapes and practices in its signaled making reciprocity the metal actual to of produc the latter typos. Saint are Michael's as at Chonai S. symbolic is nonmimetically and spirit on the diverse surfaces of and sensorially sensually taste. for it is an glass. It. repouss?) The Archangel purple tunic covered is and lavish use of materials (Figs. the angel is fire and spirit. the perfect by the compare sensation impressed. enfigured are textures touch. 13). to what and matter. examples as dissemblance. and The incised of a form surface by the the of 13. Imitation-pearl strings delimit all frame the enamel plaques and gemstones (Figs. His enamel icon its definition. the only truthful form of representation it is the imprint of absence. 13) . need imprint prede Graphe in the of the material the surface termines Byz importance so antine perception of the icon. on tactile because a material impression a texture both and are simultaneously grapheis surface: Sight of and the it and oppose a mimetic a desire in a naturalistic the angel's than enamel figuration appearance. incised. Only through (Fig. from image the At gold itself the same surface sends off time. powder. imprint. The face extends outward the most. A subtle tension emerges between the figure projecting in relief and the sunken central plaque. but its materiality of surfaces. combats the Tactility The The senses.59 and the reproduction as a cultural Byzantium ensures as the typos:. of graphe as imprint This understanding engages actual leaves sound. congealed it acquires glass or the mass. both as the touch. negative the imprint (typos).THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 539 linked metal. Gargano). image production to ritual practices and The icon belongs to a group of luxury objects looted from the palace in Constantinople when the city fell to the Cru Muraro have saders in 1204. matter substance a to what present fills an empty longer Both shell and gives there. of speech endless The secures space. image. incarnated. 13-15). is an imprint image is the of letters inscribed. antine impression enly As placed an definition in a metal mold. in an imperial stands frontally. no materiality rests in him. this available hapticly ample gaze. they form giant touch . materially simulate the angel's and saturated presence. Monte For instance. and sound. Andr? Grabar and Michelangelo commented on the "unusual" betrays medium once again and our technique modern of precon this icon.61By nature. physical a relief. by thin. Once the powder is fired into becomes glass. the relief icon of the Archangel might have been more characteristic of the Middle Byzantine ception period enamel production. Marco is one It of the few a extant displays mastery of this examples of metal techniques exquisite (enamel filigree. and imi for the Archangel. Icon's Materiality and the Sense of Touch textured surfaces of the Byzantine icon engage as demonstrated by the sensual appeal of the five the late (Figs. dressed with a gem-studded sash called a loros with the relief icon. A chasm (Chonai) and a shrine carved in the rock (S. style. Human beings can grasp him only through the imprint shrines he leaves on and matter. script impression/trace can a surface matter onto 21). of responds that beyond reality representation: symbolic angel's of higher heav for the contemplation allows is thus a The enamel icon itself matter. Alois Riegl referred to the tactile qualities as the true aspect of an object as opposed to the illusion the optical frame. This is one of the filigree Byzantine of matter to depict of filigree functions in existence. understood authentic impression. and imprint. repro form. too. of perception unites image graphe of visible characteristics as graphe: letter. With other in a gesture one hand of he holds His a scepter enormous and wings lifts the press tangible: divine display intercession. the an enamel and fired icon to a high to a temper the Byz writing. as Catherine's of of icon. tenth-century enamel relief of the Archangel Michael 1. imprinted be realized and abstract ideas accessed. yet this projection is imme attested diately movement checked and by the palm arrests the turned to the viewer. The (extramission) viewer's active eye gaze sends and seeks off the the rays practical tactility that touch vener of the the The surfaces emanating "animated" of objects.63 As discussed earlier. through Just as so. image all form.62 For relics giving this reason. forms shape giving the materiality is no absence. Just on matter. icon of the one who re-presentation of the is fire and angel's spirit offers It a dissemblant of glass nature. 14). 15). The undulating most The exquisite excess tempera a vivid is pushed. They perceptually as to be embodied. at the St. Marco fire senses on is even Its closer to the truth. the and decree. imprint. and present of the the model icon the acts is an rite in too. appearance through relief icons best embody While enameled the icon as imprint. panel painting continued in the period collection Sinai.60 with right of However. like a of cells functions el's underlying metal foundation into this grid The glass powder poured intaglio. The the in a material enam that icons should be primarily identified with paint ings. enamel textured materiality beyond lief icons (Fig. re The As enamel than wood panels painted with tempera. made that modes has Touch. Their reaction The coin or seal model why after Iconoclasm enamel (typos/sphragis) of the icon explains became the medium par excel lence. of the imprint of an intaglio on imprint becomes time and of visible characteristics of a icon than set of the imprint Both rather practice emerges as and the fossils: contact absence. ature. surfaces imprint inundate of the faithful imprint traditions. because painting sight. gives theory a palpable imprint of divine appearance shape by displaying form. is made presence. Gargano perceived optical experience. relief of the is rendered as a is outlined. to divine of the absence.66 It is this hap tic aspect generated through (relief and textured surfaces) that engages both the Byzan tine ation icon's theory of the textures. By in S. "imprinting" a figure in relief. served Mount compete tion the concept of to be produced by Monastery the pre on not to the sides (Fig. of vision icon. tangibility the relief to the angel's present icon as a typos becomes gestures ritual tation uniformity culture mold. after icons Iconoclasm. The S. visualizes to the glitter the and rays in of that a light the sense imprints left by him on the landscape.65 dissemblant fire?a The material imprint of the unfigurable semblance nature of fire of the created by dissemblant Archangel's and The to the reproduced icon. displayed Nor could that warm imparts wax materialization encaustic. on matter.64 Rather the set to palette knife. It stops projection. gold repouss? surface is enlivened with a pearly dot profile.

making the dazzle of the icon the air with their tremble. snow white. Their inlaid design was of the finest tive of craftsmanship. enamel and purple silk were the two most highly valued Byzantine exports. aspect is visible and vision color of equivalent The receives of enamel this. is an the announces. image. it still attests to the high quality and craftsmanship Constantinopolitan Similarly. NY) provided by Art by capture becomes The which th? viewer. intense movement. reads: "five VII to the Fatimid caliph's mother bracelets inlaid with glass in five colors: deep red. sky blue. Color In the and Light and the Sense of Sight color. the eleventh-century body-centered ritual. the tenth is is ers. Byzantine Akritis.540 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 13 10th Icon of century. these the garment. and sources. tenth As of color. Resource. and deep azure. glittering effect gives rise to a sense that the image is is thus fully engaged in animated. in on matter. and prostration).67 The proskynesis sets off the optical as the approach of the faithful disrupts breathing and movement. or. we learn became expressed to be is expected the manner aspasmos congealed. enamels armor. gemlike the signature Byzantine venerated: (kiss) and proskynesis (lighting of candles. as visible aspect of traits light. "color appearance Digenis borders the what light. They were fashioned with the best goldsmith's work. a set of enamel bracelets given by Emperor Michael in the 1070s. both defining a the sign of from an Arabic source. The space the between exchange icon of in and gaze beholder and touch. Not medium After surpris in the activated desire a Byzantine to through touch is also icon it becomes enamel century. This shimmer ing. mold.72 objects they gave such decorate Being were a on subject as the the of the twelfth of Byzantium. making the cross. The Book of Gifts and Rarities. The body of the worshiper the spectacle of the icon's performance/mimesis. photograph Cameraphoto. central (artwork panel late in the public domain. jet black."71 the Arab importers While rather this text than us the gives the Byzantine perspec export wicks agitated lights dance off the metal revetments. impressed as Suida. saddles. the Archangel Michael. century epic in the production.70 A description of one such gift. most material century encyclopedia. It a is glass packed in a metal mass.69 sparkling where of fringe to the most dynamic coruscating . in teriality firing. exemplifies best at in this material this ma form?the luxury clothing."68 Looked corporeal. ingly.

of the (artwork in the public domain.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 54I 14 Icon of the Archangel Michael. head the look of gems such. describe provided and A colored into a glass mimics metal important form and and for color in Byzantium qualities of the brilliance than its hue. photograph is Words light-emitting by Cameraphoto. glittering two most As plaque. elements radiance. NY) effect. the medium perception a substance rather in Byzantium: characteristic passage in Digenis Akritis relates: "the glittering violets were the color of the sea with its calm ruffled by a light . The always combines of color set the late 10th century. by Art Resource.

The the visible characteristics of this chang surface. radiance."73 These words do not define the hue. photograph by Cameraphoto. Radiance is most highly valued. Both courts. instead con flowers constantly emerge fluttering in their and shimmering changing. In the same passage the as gleaming and shining: "a meadow is described garden beneath the trees with its many colors bloomed brilliantly gleaming with The the flowers. ing vibrancy denotes flected the sweet light from surfaces: a polymorphous sense of smell and sound."74 roses on and the The The glitter of surfaces betrays surfaced dominant ued to be in Early in Byzantine the two most in the Christian art aesthetics.75 significant and celestial the "jeweled ceremony Gold elements terrestrial and that and remained contin appear as both myrtles. earth. roses were reflected sweet-scented a purple-tinted in turn the narcissus. ornament color of milk. sight paired with inflation" and purple in it. provided by Art Resource. narcissus prominently . century. NY) breeze.542 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 15 Icon of the Arch angel Michael. Color becomes their colors the re juring a picture of the shimmer of ruffled water. late 10th wing porphyreos (artwork in the public domain.

and encompasses and purple spectrum to blue nature iridescent. such radiance. This appearance fire. is paradoxically as?malos (bodiless) spirit. the deepened by the dazzle of purple color is overwhelmed the presence of divinity. Enamel is achieved matter semblant uscating kinetic (fc?kro?. 16. Paris. word green. photograph by Giraudon. and each batch could differ in hue and satura tion. 2r) showing Emperor III Botaneiates Nikephoros (originally Michael VII Doukas) textures of the fabric in (Figs. it performs divine presence. The S. 18. fire to fossilized The icon The tongues of fire contained an iridescent angel. 17). purple domain. of the the alternation silk. The worshiper is equated whirled through the many changes of the sardonyx under the it as flesh. The late-tenth-century enamel icon of the Archangel ex to ically linked to chimeo (^et/xeco). describ ing metal's reaction is another to (?jL Ta\X. polymorphous porphyreos exemplifies change and makes it a the Byzantine fitting actor love for glitter in Byzantine mimesis.79 or irvpetvyri?) from sea or the captures colors of this the changing quality. turbulent by its glitter. energetic. Coislin cod. ranging The spectacle the from fiery. 19). the body of the pending chalice can glow like burning ambers (Fig. spectacle of light and gold. by Auxerre from the same period A late purple. TTop(j>vpeo<. With of each gold step and and purple gesture. surging expresses the a Por waters the limited of and of derives heaving. to act like fire. coruscating effect of purple complements This fascination with gold radiance and but the glitter of gold. The the fabric. pyravges unlike term. purple in Like it has meaning gold. When filled with wine. enhance At the the same radiance time. can easily be explained has a more a changing. 79. 20) . blood. gold and provided in the public (object Art Resource. when likened armature. body. while blood. again with the idea of change introduced by . 18) or coagulate into a deep blood color (Fig. "to freeze. and the St-Eus?be. ever-moving being evepyov&o?. This as light into matter. the diminishing liquid gradually reveals an enamel icon of Christ at the bottom of the bowl light. icon constantly matter into empty. its translucent fiery body of sardonyx gives the impres sion of live flesh: the body of Christ.\a>u. transforms is reified before in enamel the viewer and gold. phyreos of a stormy luminous English hues black.76 The contrasting crease the visibility of the eagle design in the Auxerre frag (shroud ment. 13-15).81As it is consumed. The spectrum of hues is ar ranged to perform. suggesting the cup to drink the wine. who in a golden of imprint is fire and on matter. 19). also be glitter of derives phonet enameled (xvfJbeio)). visually to the human body of Christ. as one lifts gold. Gold as an and purple are employed fragment kept in imperial at Auxerre eleventh-century of Saint Germanus. its opposite: paradoxically thus presents ploits the same shifting fiery vibrancy of the Byzantine por phyreos (Figs. Byzantium. a ma the murex.78 The Greek word for purple (porphyreos or pyravges. the whole gold. 11th century. Marco) is set of gold and the chalice in a tenth of NY) century Byzantine gold enamel mount (Figs. Marco icon uses purified through in cor substance frozen fire and dappled through to in order and the angel's gold purple perform essence: a dynamic. "to alloy. which are followed in turn by feathers dappled in ruby red and emerald green (Fig. Auxerre) from contemporary depiction of such cloth in the miniature the Homilies of John Chrysostomos (Biblioth?que Nationale de France.evT?<?). Finally. the body dressed revealing its vibrancy in the purple of hues and silk will animate shimmer. and The affinity between purple and gold ismade prominent in the way they are paired on luxury objects."82 According the latter. Byzantine rosy red. The from word chimio dematerialized in Greek. silk. Through its changing appearance. fol.77 ble character imitates both fire that and The highest-quality dye was derived from culture-specific muta waters. Therefore. enamel icons and liturgical as chalices 16 Imperial silk with eagle designs. ?eiKiWjro?) .80 De on the intensity and position of light.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 543 embody silks. the medium imitates the effect of the shimmering and reflective surface through of ice. The tunic and feathers of the wings play with the mutability of Byzantine purple: the deep green of the dalm?tica is picked up in the outer rim of the feathers.ov) temperature term used changes. Church of St-Eus?be. gr. 15)." by the scintillating chimevtos yet (. Besides silks and imperial accoutrements. rine mollusk. experiencing and divinity. For instance.84 to designate Metallon gems and mosaic cubes.83 The polymorphy of this glittering metal and enamel is also captured in the Greek word metallaxo (fieTaWaCo)). The enamel could be a dis fire. it could the wine becomes (Fig. gushing of fire. the Patriarchs antique (in the employ sardonyx treasury the fiery splendor bowl of known S.

dissemblant Although only Pikilia and essence. 2r (artwork in the public domain. The spectator ing materials and textures: the only by the escalates diversity the of sensory shimmer It is as if one had entered heaven itself with no one barring the way from any side. The of own in this mimesis makes state a the excited enamel: spectacle worshiper essence very the of reproduce the in subject effect of surfaces. before this of and the scintillating gemstones a the scintillating of metal. the visitor stays as if rooted [to with wonder. meaning "diversity. they make him unwilling to move further in. in one of muting of this object." an arresting sight of varied and shifting ing colors. It is in this splendor that a vision . 13. vision vision of change. shining . and was illuminated by the beauty in all forms utterly motion. and the all around like that so many everything stars. the spinning polymor it as Synesthetic Vision (HoLKi\ia) a symbolic imprint. of the icon equates ceaselessly the essence moving of the being depicted riencing These the to the psychological are materially state of the subject expe generated. photograph th?que Nationale through his whirling about in all directions and being constantly astir. For the 17 Homilies Botaneiates. The spectator reeling on causes a the subject reciprocal projec tion of his or her experience appear animate. impressions. fol. In trying to grasp ject. and smells. before the and gaze repouss?) and touch."88 ground] The of the interior approach is stirred overload. so is one It seems itself is in ecstatic around. in a whirl. The whirling diversity spectacle his/her depicted angel. Through (mimesis) of changing appearances. all gained through chang living. In fact. enamel. mosaic. dazzling Marco icon. is The transfixed spectator the incessant by is first enchanted by the diversity "Arresting and of veins turning in the exterior marble towards themselves the revetment: spectator's gaze. this diversity is optically and hapticly configured through the use of gold. The perfor Pikilia is at the core of both the spectacle (mimesis) of the enamel icon of the Archangel of the and the description and fragrant meadow in Digenis Akritis. The morphous before the quality of light and the transformative nature icon of the Archangel this poly exemplifies that melts into fire and freezes into glass revetments. sensual textures. is orchestrated silver. de France.90 spinning In a similar way.86 that constantly changed light This kinetic effect of the Byzantine relief icon defies modern difficulties because photography and display and gives rise to the icon's mimesis. 810-after 893) of the Pharos church in the Great Palace.85 This changing in the Greek word pikilia and touch is captured sight (ttoikiXIol). (Figs. the model scanning. perform effect of gold. according across in more to the the of extramission surface. trans the effect of ambient light. its performance this icon with life. the icon of the Archangel enacts is continuously that arise from in both form presence.89 The rich aesthetic silks. making astir. Paris. marble to in order substance gaze. vision in whose (pikilia) emerges architectural in the ekphra surroundings this enamel icon resided. of fire and touch also spirit. personal condition is transferred to the object. amazed. which he is forced to experience by the variegated spectacle on all sides. The visitor round sensations back onto the object. On the S. and shimmering light.544 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 surfaces The icon (filigree. changes cloisonn?. A similar synesthetic seis of palatial churches. in and shimmering surfaces imbue light-emitting. gemstones. and a variety of metal image. to to a the agitated spectator of the Archangel icon is dazzled by the of sensations triggered by this object. energized. Grabar remarked that the catalog descriptions under the Archangel's image was photographed under enormous reflections of of the shimmering multiple the expression of the face. France. imagines that his spectator. The gems and gold enamel mutually reinforce other in creating a vision of splendor: photismos. Its vision (pikilia). whirl of the visitor imaginary aesthetic sensations. of energetically to take attempt the ob vision. it conveys the angel's kinetic essence spectacle.87 In the description provided by Photios (ca. phous and polychromatic Pikilia seduces the moving eye. sensations mance each of shimmer and radiance is fulfilled on the surface of the relief icon. Nationale de of John Chrysostomos. Paris) is circling Biblioth?que 79. The gives rise diversity dynamic of textures polychromacity that appeals of matter. glimmering.. moves an the eye. 3rd Emperor Nikephoros provided by the Biblio III church of the 11th century. a spec tacle of light (Figs. 14).. and fixing his eyes on the sight before him. gr. but taking his fill of the fair spectacle in the very atrium. quarter Coislin cod. glass (with hues ranging from green to dark purple). subtly 13-15).

and draw attention gemstones. Treasury of the basilica of S. paradise of the raised filigree It is encoded enamel in the revetments repouss? gold of On icons. which surround icon. of half golden vibrant green. surface Byzantine (Fig. and to the material ask in exchange gifts. paradise. but especially (chrysos. 21). these tangible riches evergreen gardens to be granted of Eden: a place of rest in the imagined "give me enjoyment in the ver icons stirred the faithful the verdant paradise of to imagine divine in the radiance Another of gold enamel delights. the the creator of verdant paradise the plants Eden. enliv pearly and halo of the angel with vibrant ening the background 14). ^ptxr?c) chloe.?o? delights shining gold on the material material which vision to of through imag icon of displays garden the Archangel (also in the treasury of S.91 and the again written as an epigram for an icon: "I contemplate the Golden seem to In the Eden of the icon. photograph by the Procuratoria provided San Marco. century. 22). sardonyx glowing 8% enamel. blue. In its pikilia.94 dant green of divine evTpvtyav fie rp ^?o-n]. radiate tines ^Aon. in amber (22 X 17 cm). Manuel The image of gemstones gold . light. pearls. Marco) a more literal enameled image of Eden: a peristyle with green. (object di in the public domain."93 is materially fashioned by art icon they display vegetal and flower motifs. and red blossoms set in a golden as a dissemblant the means armature vision of (Figs. glitter (Fig. the leaves half of the ginkgo the tree in autumn. to brilliance connection between gardens according the icon's decoration (epigrams) written on is fully explained the surfaces of in the metric some Byzantine prayers icons hue. Marco. fresh green (chloe) and gold were for them equivalents. or yellow. They gold. Venice) of emerges. shades. Like the first green of spring that appears in its brightness as gold.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 545 18 Chalice of the Patriarchs. categorized which They means shimmer color "the radiant and first green Since of the rather spring") Byzan than sparkle. 2."92 The surface the of the icon appears and verdant paradise radiant [deia? rpv<\rr\<. for silver. The Archangel dot profile of this delicate gold file coruscates. Gold and green (chloros. ble paradise. sparkling for the This blossoms icon evoke the evergreen of is a material incarnation Edenic of gardens the ineffa and reconfigured as gold. voiced in the fourteenth-century poem of The same idea is Philes. ^?copo?. shimmering the icon emerges on a glittering as a ine this ineffable place of rest and delight. gold Venice X 10th 6% in. The paradise. for both are connected through brilliance.

and spiritually flashing inexplicably by the hand of God with many colors as if of linen-white and divine purple light. spectacle color exists The tents is beyond without the saints the tangible as radi form. and in the joints plants beautifully and who of every culti in saw and immaterially. sardonyx glowing in purple shades (object in di San the public domain. light. dirt at all on adorned it. the same celestial There. Yet.* ?'* ^i?t?^. And with golden its floor was flashing tiles. photograph by the Procuratoria provided Marco.546 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 ?. gleam not as the brightest air which was like lightning of sort.95 describable them with pleasure divine sending and joy inexpressible those filling happiness. parable. while the synesthetic vision (pikilia) ismaterially gener ated the ant. vt* . . these flashing were very. The blossoms extraordinary perfume: gleaming gold tiles outlined by of these flowers fill the space self-generated of We came to a courtyard. and the And arising from there we journeyed saints. ation. which was wondrous and incom immaterial light: to the abodes of the subject if from the to enumer sun's rays. on the icon.96 .wn** *. vated. radiate with in ineffable plants.^1^^^^? ?3?rfV *r*:s* *m*^M* V o!* -3\\ 19 Chalice of the Patriarchs. it. Venice) surface appears in many of the tenth-century visions of par The floors with an are of immaterial adise such as the Life of Basil the Younger (Vita Basilii Iunioris). and there was no like lightning. realm. very many. those golden and they were tiles there fragrant and abounding illuminated were flowering in forth and fruits.

girt in belts like loroi with color from heaven's rainbow and like lightning.. Av^wraibc). which seeks to make it tangible. itwas beautifully and constructed from emerald. Maastricht (artwork in the public domain. mouth. immaterial description. . beyond and words. sun (rf?to?: r??ux^?yyo?. their feet snowy. Maastricht) The angels appear in scarlet tunics with loroi radiating the colors of paradise. e?aorpairT?)). ?ktx?.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 547 20 Chalice of the Patriarchs. ray (avy?j: (?xoTavy??. taste beyond expression and recount. unspoken. perfume beyond fragrance. aKTtvoei?ff?. and beyond taste and smell. [The table was] 30 pech?is large. table decked out for the feast. gold (xpwr??: Xpwo^aTj?.98 clad in cloaks ured" in the Archangel's icon. ?Lavy??a. inexpressible. About thirty words for light come up in this ekphrasis. the icon falls short of the celestial exactly in itsmateriality. engaged eyes. their shape under flashing iridescence and radi changing ance. An imperfect embodiment that evokes the immaterial perfection of heaven (Figs. All five senses are images that emerge in this vision are polymorphous. emitting flashing and on this table there were also visible red gemstones lying like dishes set with gold like lightning. ir??iaKO?). Basiliek of the Virgin with an epigram van Onze Lieve Vrouwe. (?xoTotvy??). vision but is addressed the effect to the fingers. irepiavy?C?). medallion with Christ at the bottom of the bowl (artwork in the public domain) The emerald. by human beauty inexpressible by human voice and inaudible for hearing. inexpressible sweetness. is titillat ingly invisible to sight. im possible yond to render reason in human words. quarried of scintillating is laid with ruby dishes framed in gold: quarried rays. intangible to touch. a?yX. which were similar to all the precious stones and gold that come from paradise. r??MH^?yyo?) . lightning and (aorpair?}. fire (itvp: imp?iao-iia. lxop<t>os. inaudible to hearing." The and polychromatic vision (pikilia) reifies out polymorphous of light immaterially created. On their heads they carry luminous gold crowns: century that mos In contrast to this immaterial celestial icon of Michael exploits a material is reflected that bounces from off the metal bodies. and Paradise glass is light. 1. and nose. TT <J>o>to i?tj?. radiance aoTpairo (X. unseen. buildings.). A list of words and phrases " reveals how this immaterial pikilia affects the body: [visions] inexperienced.. experience. This whirling ears. an extraordi nary effort is placed on sensual experience. within the Vita Although Basilii Iunioris.13). and on their heads they were wear flashing ing diadems of gold which were exceedingly glorious and variegated with gems and precious The pearls like sunbeams. xpwavy?C?).97 21 Enkolpion (pectoral pendant) inscribed on the frame.9 (?HuTeiv??. photograph provided by Basiliek van Onze Lieve Vrouwe. noetic.% OL<rr?)p. ?a/uLirry?ovo?. the realm of paradise is ineffable. and surfaces in paradise. in the pikilia. beings that be can human xpwavyi??)) . Light conveys the ineffable es sence of souls. </>?)to/3o?o?. VTwp<?<.afi7rpvv?)9 aaTpairro)."100 This synesthesis lacks not . They derive from light (</>a>?: pL<t>o)T?(rixevo<. the tenth splendor of light surfaces?a materially photis "en-fig [The servants/angels were] immaterially dyed scarlet and filled with all beauty. fra richly nuanced and grance of violets and roses beyond human knowledge sweet indescribable recount. be held and pleasure hands.

By contrast. to high they literature praying are prayers in before meant it. of 24). the means. icon this experience replicates Its lush decoration and through epigrams material. The other figure is beginning about to sound his trumpet to initiate the reading of the of Psalm Psalms.104 All epigrams syllables. so the instance. mance other were experience resembles For gifts. is so sion stimuli. and One figures the across space the audience above book directs 1 on the facing folio. of Prayer: The Circuit While all five senses are engaged in the pikilia of paradise. photograph by Cameraphoto. is of Similarly. 12). visual. tautological. 13). reverberates bouncing (Fig.102 The aural. and to avail itself of the sound of the faithful Poetic to be inscriptions pronounced. music also and prayer. provided by Art Resource. 2: the garden of paradise (artwork in the public domain. Music and writing coexist as King David strums the chords on his lyre. The sound of flanking brings his tune him. rously visceral. the its gaze grows Two in more into and the accompaniment appear of page the above open to the of the musicians the arch. Robert signification exploits meaning and Byzantium's the in dome. this profoundly articulation.103Most of these poems material teasing. essence Nelson as and the church has recently and defined itself is the depicted figure?in the Arch angel (Fig. the in off the the The Pharos vaulted curves same interiors of perception "It seems arches. associ ating the act of praying with and the imagined melodious The image triggers The to the pronounced. Psalter the faithful prayer In Byzantine quintessential are corporeally a record of culture. in the of of that everything circling icon's Byzantine insofar the tinue arch. on the string of transformed of a silent of lips activated The of genres often corporeal experience the moment the multisensory the Psalms sound begin and that sight to pronounce by the poem. stresses sonorous the which at the means same that point. 21 ). standardized ensuring sound churches. into replicating material it."105 system of is in ecstatic motion. because level and the the the position image angel and ensures transfers it through action the the his of the continuation received own supplicant. particular an not it does lose its music. demonstrate tangible a de The Sound Byzantium. found a sonorous in Photios's ekphrasis church: The shape faithful's of the needs and wishes sacred for help materialize this case. Illustrated In the furnish of the preface miniature Khludov Psalter. gains inaudible.101 poetic of sound. Archangel architecture it captures the express vault. represent like books the the icon. and testing in the way it expres icons. of prayer. from of The a the sonorous human of a this sound of the lyre a prayer its music. tactile. are similar performative. to as around. 23). sent with Byzantium. performance: the memory letters performance. sensations experienced. this perception. Ineffable. example experienced.106 circular paradigm of spatial the forms sphere: con of the the faithful. The presence body. this sensorial agitation is created by ineffable stimuli. then come record be linked sound script. The link between Psalms. NY) letter was resulting and linked experience to the smell and was simultaneously taste of the gifts. This perfor composed uniformly create will everyone and all prayers framework. for it continues epigram. which was meant on icons are will to be read aloud of put the form twelve the same (Fig. of request power of Simulta the to a he confines These as prayer the culture supports higher intercession. olfactory. page characters then be to can the a is voice. mative magic. He The is shown raising his hand not only receives in a gesture the prayer circular the the same intercession. imprint. signification. of immaterial. established epigrams through of icons the Davidic materializes in the (Fig. that the triggered sensual in perfor of letters the experience of writing. inscription transforming contributes the icon a Byzantine domes. David poems. prayer's sire to imagine image mance form of prayer. but with his own stance and hand movement replicates neously. spond contain are written in the frame of overload bodily reality so yet beyond to re and the central encircling customizing image to a not Even when the panel does request. of reading sound 22 Detail of Fig. and semidomes generates a prayer. sight and sound are linked (Fig. the ineffable. letter and visualizes this action the by perfor sono repetitive. its efficacy. Music visually emanates from this miniature. shaping matter by impressing its circular seal of . Both being While epigram the the image reinforces a graphe.548 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 The in icon their thus process sets of up a circle: and the a mirror imagined Psalms These of reflecting response.

The letters imprinted on the metal surface announce: "Drink ye all of it..THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 549 W:??W~? wm ''MMj mi i*y ?*? 23 Homilies of John Chrysostomos. the face of each participant transforms into the gleam of budding roses: The mixed wine in those immaterial and sun-bright cups was gleaming intensely like burning hot coals. 79. I hear the echo of the musical tones of this wonder. filled with nectar of ambrosia and brought it near his own mouth to drink. together: graphe as the imprint of form on mat ter. monk reading the homilies to the emperor. and when someone received in his hands that wondrous and flashing cup. And through the voice bearing the melody in space. 1 g^fe&^ (2 bis)r (artwork iri the public domain. the sense of taste emerges. painting and writing. Figure and letter. Drinking this divine substance. the other into a sound carried in space. . gr. Marco. photograph provided by the Biblioth?que Nationale de France. touch. Coislin cod.110 more illumi As Theodore Hyrtakenos wrote in a letter to his friend in the fourteenth century: "gazing at the letter. For the Byzantines. I feel I see you in front of me and fill up with your sweet traits like honey. Paris. like . for this ismy blood of the New which is shed for many for the remission of sins" A similar synesthetic Testament. 18. it tries sensual through is the writer.109 of an absent letters. drinking. The are gathered at an Edenic symposium. Biblioth?que Nationale de France. that stirs the five senses and triggers syn experience of hearing and taste described in Vita Basilii Iunioris synesthetic experience could also be demonstrated the Eucharist cup at S. he was filled with the sweetness of the Holy nated. souls of pass They around a glowing chalice with a nectar of ambrosia. The referent In the case of prayers. and sound could be linked to smell and taste (Figs. 19).??pp Smell and Taste: The Transformation The sonorous icon brings the two aspects of graphe. one translates into scintillating light..108 The oral performance of letters and prayers (epigrams) de on a pends multisensory to reconstitute presence stimuli. emerges the saints in the vision of the Vita Basilii Iunioris. and music is a topos in letter writing."107 This con nection between the pleasure of reading/hearing the voice of the writer. by It can show how sight. In the case of experience. An inscription is enameled on the golden rim. graphe becomes the performa empsychos tive image/writing esthesis. Spirit. this absent In both entity cases. fol. His a rose gleamed from emerging face and the he was calyx. Paris) :. it is the invisible and intangible God.

and knowl simultaneously. late 10th century (photograph by Erich Lessing.116 the worshiper loses his or her iden when tity. Sacred of honey in the mouth sensation of the faithful. poured he into felt his substance sensorially a perfect means divine through which to experience the olfac presence: intangible yet palpably present through comes tory sense. and the As these words are pronounced (Matt.118 that luxury icons like the enameled panel of Arch settings angel Michael performed. Then words become body. 26:27-28). in the synesthetic becomes trans (pikilia) these formed pation in this climactic moment in the Eucharist replicates of the liturgy. and turned a sweetness He mouth. and Like this taste.550 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 psalter easily and quickly and had learnt the whole heart in a few days. variety The of Book smells of Ceremonies are and spices reveals many instances to the court. (Pss. and spices traditionally accompanied Perfumes. and from that hour on he memorized carried by the crowd. to the more recog It is in such aromatic imperial and liturgical ceremonies. of the liturgy. followed by his riences the taste of honey new ability to learn all the Psalms by heart in a miraculous matter of days: For as the boy got up from the ground icon pleasant of our than Savior honey in prayer. prayer) and aspasmos (kiss) give rise enunciation tion of taste of and prayer. resorts to an icon of Christ. the the Like of reference the Davidic taste: to the honey poems. partook of the sweetness and gave the thanks to Christ. ensures edge of God. "partake" to this trans It refers the Eucharist. and see that God is good. tial approach to God. burning. Divine knowledge becomes sensorially through the body. an almost this intuition of presence of the is achieved icon. This hearing. es sence. where or are a distributed nized the grace of God. triggered by proskynesis (prostration.113 of it by to Paul Speck. dissolving sacred 24 Domed interior of the monastery church of Hosios Loukas. experiential smell. he expe in his mouth. corporeal agitated sensations. The sweet smells are part of the synesthetic vision (pikilia). sense when God's voice directly 118:103) indicates the moment reaches the supplicant and grants him or her forgiveness. appearance. takes this place experience in the pro (path ema. bridge incense between affords a the human participatory. At icon the 18:11. the Com Similarly. to sound in the eration. into As such. touch. during the liturgy. frustrated in his attempt to learn all the Psalms. NY) that of the bread and wine transformed into body and blood of the icon. in the climactic moment the supplicant is exhorted with Psalms 33:8: "taste munion. smell. incense be smoke: smell an be An account of such a spectacle of senses is found in the Life of Saint Theodore of Sykeon (d. Sound The in turn precipitates experience of the the sensa icon olfactory smell. While from material present essence. This metamorphosis cess this metamorphosis He of prayer.117 incense. the hands touching the icon and the lips kissing its surface link words with taste. or simply waft in the ceremonial . has Incense argued. which is addressed to the partici pant. provided by Art Resource. The role of the icon is equated presence translates into the to the effect of prayer. and divine experien In a similar way. the wine fills up the lips mouth. (metalamvano. essence.m touch the surface of the chalice. 7r?0T)/xa) back of or she onto the worshiper then the projects icon. the excerpt about the icon that According caused the sensation of honey after the saint had prayed to it was interpolated in this passage during Iconoclasm: the asso ciation during The of the icon with psalms that period. The partici the metamorphosis de is more difficult to gauge. apprehended This sensual aspect of the Byzantine rite is fully integrated in the way not the icon operates. provides As a scribed in the vision of Vita Basilii Iunioris where the saints' faces alight as they feel the sweetness of the Holy Spirit after imbibing the nectar of ambrosia. sweetness in the the sonorous of Psalms honey. The vision recipient of of the wine. smell divine engages knowledge. burning the smoke accompanies of incense prayer. triggers same time.114 panel becomes the channel and prayer was established of direct divine response.112 The saint."115 Taste leads to participatory knowledge of God. The textures of the icon taste trigger are a engaged synesthesis: sight. with is fJi TOikafx?av(o). Sounds become taste and ven Sight and touch. into the sacred presence The performance of the and sharing icon is equated in the to Greece. usually formative The verb associated moment used. in the sweetness of of Sykeon participates Saint Theodore God. After praying for help. Like taste. 613) (Vita Theodori Syceotae). yet it is linked to taste and the Eucharistie ritual and stems from the integration of the icon in the Susan liturgical Harvey rite. visual and olfactory spheres. through Eucharistie Smell comes ineffable is affective transformed yet experience yet intangible. or better.

T. 94305."120 medicinal. Pentcheva. is also sentations in all media. touch. these rare phenomenon performing because some political.K. on a living reconstitutes and taste. P. This broader use of the term arose from Otto De Byzantine mus's concept of "spatial icons". campaigns. The the moment that last the fragrances Moreover. to coins. 1993).119 on imperial ics includes cense. bitter amber. intangible of sensual "givenness" synesthetically perfumes. scents and diplo were invisible and intangible to the faithful. U. such as the Eucharist chalice of the Patri at S.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 55! space. the icon's instability. polymorphy shimmering grance imbue light. "Isis and Mary in Early Icons. thus ence. transferred From onto being reified sensually the graphe. Another. such as Carl Nordenfalk. a materially the most stages object. touch. the corporeal. Her Her work focuses on medieval theory and Byzantine corporeal matter taste the perform the essence experience of possible Both sensorial participa and smell hook Icons and Power: The Mother of God in Byzantium State University Press. Trubner. with it emerges climax: dens of the palace and of paradise (Fig. Sight. in order the human perform. 2006) explores the interaction (Pennsylvania between imperial power and the cult of Mary [Department ofArt and Art History. with its con centration paradoxically of materiality?an a vision reveals rich excess of the of materiality The that concept immaterial. is the covering. Liz James Press. Yet it is problematic.124 As a result in the liturgy. (University Park: Pennsylvania from the Greek are mine. assortment even spices and cin presence becomes saturated dry. brings to the faithful the scent of salvation. sacred presence.125 This dynamic begins with the icon's surface. icon's magic thus resides in the circular dynamic it elicits. Power in the Middle Ages itself in a complex synesthetic vision (pikilia). Marco imperial This mimesis of surfaces light. Byzantine Mosaic Decoration: Art in Byzantium (London: K. This fascination with aromatics betrays the in which both the imperial and sensually rich environment liturgical Unlike ceremonies our were set.126 In he a argues similar . air. The circle of human preserving the is completed. making sound. Pentcheva is assistant image the icon and begins praying. power. smells. pleasures sight. the face the Its rich sachar. being. 13). a variety of cinnamon other functions: of of second This rich underneath. various musk.edu]. creates (pikilia) that affects and saturates the the faithful. served matic. icon is dependent The object hearing. a taste the intu stem smell professor at Stanford University. The Byzantine tautological. pure ground namon and wood. manifests These panel. New York: A. phys ical agitation (ir?Q^iia) experienced by the faithful is simul taneously empsychos acteristics. the "colors" isflowers Greek word usually employed to designate icon is. lozenges and spices (Fig. The body itself in space before Byzantine to gaze. bissera@ stanford. Bissera V. "The Five Senses in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art. Caratzas. list of mastic. olfactory was neutrality linked with its in to regard aromatic attire to contemporary in enamel ited" image. Unless otherwise translations indicated." in Art and Text in Byzantine Culture. 3-9. itself be of transform seal or Taste Notes This article presents an excerpt from my forthcoming book. imagined individual. Starting with the Greek word alithia or alathia (a-." in Images of the Mother of God: Perceptions (Aldershot. By contrast. by and giving it a material experi affirming as sur icon It rises as the moist quality. it an and empsychos. and the tangible dissolve into a spiritual vision of partaking in the sacred. a vision of graphe. The icon operates like other liturgical objects. redolent an "inspir of fra offered as gifts. forth (New York: Cambridge University . appearance and the make holy. Marco. first and function sensorially grasped as the material veil The absence. saffron. Through this crucial and smell. and most recently Thomas Mathews. see Ernst "The Cult of Icons in the Age before Iconoclasm. images included especially monumental painting and mosaic. tease into out The through This visual form and and haptic color aspects of the memory or real. 2. perfumes. display and smell form Taste the the of three aspects and this of the paradise answer to present experience a prayer. of akaQeia). closed system of signification. 21). sound the As wine into affirmation pours smell of from and the taste. aloes being?textures enced. scents. 1. and changing sounds by the shifts in ambient synesthetic vision of the Archangel likely shared the and the court chapel same aromatized air of in which scents. which includes repre gate. a mere absence. "enflowered": virtually filled with the complex per fume the of of icon aroma fragrant subtly wafting blossoms." fournal of theWarburg and Courtauld Institutes 48 (1985): 1-22.: Ash of the Theotokos in Byzantium. Stanford University. it resided perfumes. of an trigger and sound the divine. The polychromatic surface of the enameled (avOa). "Epigrams on Icons. perfume. rich The imprint the icon of becomes visual an char icon pres experience performative of divine space. Aspects ofMonumental 1948.122 also the flowers enhanced the sensual effect of the elaborate conjure and enameled golden filigree an of the gar image fragrant human of sight and touch is coupled with hearing sense the to be activated is taste. and provide request a proleptic request and access divine to divine response delight. icons. ton Oaks Papers 8 (1954): 83-150. reverberating it with life. without." Dumbar Kitzinger. unconcealedness aAfjfleia. touch. cup. of the icon as surface resembles Martin Heidegger's defini tion of truth. The most military elaborate account The appears extensive in the section aromat frankin way. inundates The effect incense. sight. This performance corporeal apprehension. this by the materially triggered synesthetic pleasure experienced faithful leads to something like Eucharistie transformation. reprint.127 In its original context. Earlier studies on sensual apprehension art focused on in medieval the depiction of the five senses. and engage While Bissera V. the intimate engagement of proskynesis (reveren preclude tial bowing) and aspasmos (kiss) that is tied up with the identity of a icon. coming) 3. Maria Vassilaki broader definition. senses of These alight. and touch.123 A Circle Completed As the worshiper approaches five ition from and tory. ed. for many of the in this definition. recent work has to the sensual effect of art and architecture: drawn attention Liz participatory knowledge of the performance/mimesis of the icon. Stanford. the icon uncovers that surfaces of the the a divine can be vision "ointments. It is in metamorphosis. a smell. from frescoes and mosaics current in Byzantine studies. sound. Similarly. ed. This sensual. Demus. Sensual Splendor: The Icon in Byzantium State University Press). For the definition of icon as a portable devotional object. in Greek. are embedded archs and comes God. that truth lathia. Calif.121 authority The Byzantium icon at S. 2005).

Seeing Medieval Art (Toronto: see the article of mimesis as performance. "Descriptio Sanctae Sophiae. U. Micrologus. 4. 5. ed. ideas ex 6. Toronto: University of Toronto 312-1453 Press. 11. ro?? reQeu)py)fxevov t?v tvttov ?ireT?ev el? to 7Tp?)T?TVTrov. mel. Leslie Brubaker. 99. Treasures ofMount Athos (Thessaloniki: Organiza tion for the Cultural Capital of Europe. 332. 101-31. Deltion tes Christianikes Archaiologikes Hetaireias 17. described in soot and dirt. and Ambo of Hagia Sophia. For instance. Robert Nelson's essay pioneering suggests that while both intromission and extramission were known in By extramission appears to be the dominant zantium. For the wide use of seals in Byzantine society. 1990)." in The Holy Face and theParadox of Representation. Wendy ed. Bog tibule of the Imperial Palace of Constantinople (Copenhagen: trykkeri. 340-42. sec. 330. the Holy the Invisible by Copying 25. esp. 30. and the Pre-eternal Annunciation "The Chalkoprateia Logos. Barber. The Art of the Byzantine Em lines 691-720. Die Koimesis-Kirche von 1903). 1857 66). 271. Figure and Likeness. 143-68. bk. concern about the draining of to the standard museum display. in Kessler. forthcoming. see Pentcheva. the Construction 1997). 8. 357D: "En tj ypa<j>i) t? crc?iiariK?v eXSo? r?V avr?v ypa(j)ovevov 7Tap?o-Tr?cri. see Gary Vikan and Security in Byzantium: Locking. 1899). Pentcheva. 2002). see Martin culture's privileging 28." "The Church Ritual as a Synthesis of the Arts" 12. in Kessler. Concepts that are again surprisingly close to the notion of the embod of viewer and viewed are in Mer iment of ideas and the interaction 130-55. 4 (1993-94): 165-70. sec. 2. thus can draws attention 26. Conrad Rudolph. L'abb? Suger. and epistyle pouss? work and adorned with pearls and gems. (Munich: Heimeran. 107-23. 7.1. Spiritual Seeing. b?JLO?(?(TlV TT/VV?. 50. The in the "to touch with the eyes and lips*' is recorded expression mid-tenth century. Robin Cormack." See also idem. Barber. Sight as touch resonates with Maurice Merleau-Ponty's in Merleau-Ponty... 5. 2002). I thank Lela (Berkeley: University this study to me. 14. Performing Byzantium. Dominique D. Villa Spelman Colloquia. Hinrichs. 196. 1993). 24-51. Jeffrey Kosky (Stanford: Stanford University Press. Poirel. No systematic study of vision in Byzantium needs to be addressed in the future.: Northwestern Press. 508. in Bekker.: Ashgate. University 1968). "Visual Textuality: The Logos as Pregnant Body and Building. re were all covered in gilded-silver templon barrier. 104-48.TfV e'i'?TJ^e KUl /XeTeCT^Ke T?? T7)V Kai x LP0<> ?iavoia? XOLpaKTffpo? ?ke?vov ?l? Tff? T?T?T6XV?TOV ovtw? ? t?v vaTT?ixay?xa' ovt(o? b ?wypaQo?.K. "Epigrams on Icons". 1-148. reprinted of Pennsylvania Invisibility inMedieval Art (Philadelphia: University Press. 1959). Bissera V. Kessler. eXa?ev v\j\v. State Univer Mother of God in Byzantium (University Park: Pennsylvania of Relics. Pentcheva. 10. no. 1998). 87. and Jean-Claude logique dans les ?crits de Suger. de Gruyter.552 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 in Byzantium. 306-58. Antirrheticus II. Christian Descamps 1994). Kirche von Nikaia. bk. Schmit. See n. 13. in Prokop. zur christlichen Legende. ed. 5 vols. 29-31. this veil lifted itself to reveal the animated (empsychos) im Icons and Power: The age of the Virgin beneath. For a discussion of Vision in Twentieth-Century Thought Jay. trans. 2002). Christusbilder: Untersuchungen Dobschutz. 32. Die Koimesis the ray as gray (grau and hellgrau). Die Koimesiskirche inNic?a. at length in Bissera V.K. 95-111. Being Given: Towards a Phenomenology of Givenness. Women. de l'ic?ne du Christ de la "La destruction 35. L. 2003). Wulff. in Theophanes continuatus. "The Chancel Barrier. Ibid. 72-81. Nelson. U. Downcast Eyes: The Denigration of California Press. Figure and Likeness." Res 45 (2004): 225-38. ed. 21. Pavel Florensky." Otto Veh." V. and Rico Franses. This is a subject that 5. 1963). leau-Ponty. "Configuring Face. Pentcheva. ed. thank Robert Harrison 9. 3 vols. for Harvard Uni barton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies. the famous icon of the "usual miracle" was always covered with a silk in Constantinople Church of the Virgin on on some Fridays the Holy Spirit allegedly descended veil. For an understanding of empsychos graphe as images inhabited by the to figures of speech. Paul the Silentiary. vol. of Stoudios. ed. 1976). I for introducing me to this work. Solea. exists. Marie-France Auz?py. The sanctuary. Art of the Byzantine Empire. Gerhard Wolf." in Visuality before and beyond the Ekphrasis and Vision Renaissance Press. "Sense and Sensibility '"When All That Is Gold Does Not (2004): 523-37. Charles Byzantine in Barber. "The Performance sity Press. reprint. 33 (Bonn: Impensis ed. Natalie Blanchardi. 194. (1999): 258-85. Cyril Mango. When the image. see David Lind of berg. of Orthodox Faith. 154-60. A.. 10 (Florence: Sis cinque sensi. Mango. See Herbert Kessler.-Denis: Abbot Suger's Program and theEarly Twelfth Press.C: Dum Dumbarton 2 (Washington. 70-81. Nicoletta Misler Salmond. 87-88. hav Most likely the tesserae were silver. Margaret Mullett forthcoming). (London: Reaktion. (Berlin: W. Jean-Luc Marion." pressed Visible and the Invisible (Evanston. Theodore 357D: ri?vTC?c ?? tj eiKOiv tj ?7]fXLovpyov[jL?v% fX Ta(f) poii?vr} arrb rov^ 6L? TTpC?TOTVTTOV." in Artistes et philosophes: ?ducateurs? ed. ed. Byzantine Collection. (1986. Artistic Change at St. pire 1993). ed. in Mullett. 11. 1980). (Leipzig: J. 2000).-P. no. 39. Century Controversy over Art (Princeton: Princeton University th?o "Pens?e de l'art et pens?e Bonne. 4 James. and Women 92. The revetted icon is explored Sen For preliminary find sual Splendor: The Icon in Byzantium. 129-51. Xydis. altar tables. Karakatsanes. 19. 2004). 23. Xp?xreov Kai t?v x???. trans. sec. see Bissera Holy Spirit or as pictorial equivalents at the Blachernai. esp. C. Sacred Shock: Framing Visual Experience in Byzantium (University Park: Pennsyl vania State University Press. o-^rfjLia te Kai fxop^v evrvTTovpievr} Kai tj]v kyn^?peiav. 64-87. 246. trans. ou r?alit?. PG). vol. Spiritual Seeing. still covered ing lost their luster and shimmer. re Italiano di Studi sull'Alto Medioevo. 13-24. 1157-213." Byzantion 60 (1990): 445 Chalc? de L?on III: Propagande in Icons. Kessler and 6 (Bologna: Nuovo Alfa." sented toRobin Cormack. in Icon and Word: The Power of Images in Byzantium. ed. The way the icon self-consciously resem of sacred energy (essence). in Beyond Vision: Essays on thePerception of Art / Pavel Florensky. of Western of sight. "The Icon of the 'Usual Miracle' Res: Journal of Anthropology and Aesthetics 38 (2000): 34-55. See also Broadview Press. John Nesbitt. 5.k ov avbpi?vTa 8T)iuovpy6$v. prism through to operate. 87 (2004): 331-41. Trustees versity. (Paris: Migne. le manifeste gothique de Saint Denis et la pens?e victorine (Turnhout: Brepols.J. The in "The Intertwining?the Chiasm. For the Byzantine definition on the self-fashioning of Michael Psellos in by Eustratios Papaioannou (Aldershot. 2002). Corpus Scriptorum Historiae (hereafter Byzantinae The 1838). ed. Theories of Vision from Al-Kindi toKepler (Chicago: University Chicago Press. Graybill for introducing 29. 100. 13. and Theodor Nikaia: Das Bauwerk und die Mosaiken 1927). continuatus. and Schmit. Herbert Kessler. Im manuel Bekker. Vita Basilii Imperatoris. Figure and Likeness: On the Limits of Representation Iconoclasm (Princeton: Princeton University Press." and the Metamorphosis inMorfologie sociali e culturali in di Studio Europa fra tarda antichit? e alto medioevo." Art Bulletin 29 (1947): 1-24. Migne. Die Koimesiskirche inNic?a und ihreMosaiken (Strassburg: Heitz und M?ndel. "To Say and to See: which vision was perceived in Byzantium. have begotten thee in the womb before see Cyril of the Incarnation For a discussion symbolism at Nikaia. and Glenn Peers. 130-55. 2004). D. cat. Theophanes The Art of the Byzantine Empire. synthronon. Settimane 45 (Spoleto: Centro del Centro Italiano di Studi sull'Alto Medioevo. Weberi. 1-17. Patriarch Nikephoros. idem. in Patrolog?a cursus completus: Se 20. Studies Pre Glitter.. vol." in "Women and Icons. 16. 1977). 2 vols." Mango.ovt?o? 6 kidoykvQo?. 109:3). 18. (1918). See also S. 2000). trans. Performing Byzantium. 1997). Anthony Eastmond and Liz James (Alder of essays / shot. Only metal could have created the light that would have actual glimmer and flicker in the early morning into a visual reality: "I of the mosaic ized the prophecy inscription the morning star" (Ps. Oaks.: Ashgate. no. "The Intertwining. Only isolated voices have expressed the icon's meaning when subjected "The Aesthetics See Sharon Gerstel. trans. Men and Eunuchs: Gender in Byzantium (London: Routledge. celing any claims for the presence in the Latin West and displayed bles the way images were fashioned "Real Absence: before 1140. 15. ries graeca (hereafter. Early Medieval Art of Vision." Art Bulletin Antirrheticus II. col. For ancient Greek thought on vision. 108-42. 33." Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 23 The Brazen House: A Study of the Ves and Cyril Mango. and the Trier Ivory. 107-37. 2001). to matter. printed 27. Vita Basilii Imperatoris. of "The Chalke Gate. 2006). 326. CSHB). See Ernst von liturgical treatise of the Mandylion. 31. . the Past." Art History 27. 34. Oskar Wulff. Sealing and Weighing. 17. Ibid. 112**. Mango. ings. Byzantine Aesthetics (London: John Murray. See also the collection vol. B. 161 vols. in PG. 24. 21 above. 111. 13 (Paris: Centre Georges Pompidou. vol. and idem. 83. Spiritual Seeing: Picturing God's 1998). Werke.otve\a?e kva7r (T(f)payiaaTo t??tov kv Tff v^-XI at the Blachernai 22. col.. (New York: Cambridge University and Gervase Mathew.

"bronze. On Painting/Leon 1991).. reprint. 40. 1996). 2001). "La destruction 37. 1. 2 vols. 100. Figure and Likeness. Miniatjury Khludovskoi Psaltyri (Moscow: Isskustvo. 1. in PG. 4. 94. in La vie d'Etienne le Jeune par Etienne le Diacre.K: Variorum. no. (1928-38. KO0710?. 109-43." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 42 (1988): 1-11. vol. Digenis Akritis 7. U. 1997). 113. has offered a similar translation in La vie d'Etienne leJeune.. Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era (ca. vol. 45. Theophanes. vol. 1997). The daisy-pattern The medallions frame around the plaque with the cross ismodern. For 53. esp. color and light the more subjec to a great degree on those chance tive ones. Ibid. Mass. Mango. 828-29: reprint. Muraro and 1886). and John of Damaskos. 73 (rock crystal vessels caged in gold enamel. Ghada al Hijjawi al-Qaddumi. 1977). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press. Adler. Icons and 70. ed.555 (saddle and reins).v. 49. 1996). is dated to the late tenth century. Battista Alberti. 181: "Whereas the optical qualities disap pear in the dark. . De imaginibus. An Annotated Survey. Techniques of the Ob server: On Vision and Modernity in theNineteenth Century (Cambridge. but they no longer form their original sequence. U. with a recent revision of the dating of some of these icons in Leslie Brubaker and John Haldon. Catalogue of Byzantine Coins in theDumbarton Oaks Col lection and in theWhittemore Collection.220-22 (gilded spear with blue enamel). Greek-English Lexicon: A Supplement (Oxford: Clar and Anthony endon Press. 52. 160-61. 8 (Bonn: Dr. Greek Press. vol. 39.C: Dumbarton Oaks. 2 vols. Cecil Grayson (London: Art and Illusion: A Study of thePsychology of Pictorial Books. Catherine (Athens: Ekdotike Athenon. Lexicographi Graeci. naissance Anachronism. p?oa Te Kai ?ivpaivai' / Ta p??a yff? eTvyxavov Trop(j)vpo?a(j)o<. 62. See Peers. (golden hems enameled with pearls). 2 vols. D. as are the enamels. 45. 79 (New York: Con tinuum. 1988). 6-7. and ed. no. liey?\ov sense of an icon in metal relief is lost in Mango's and Scott's The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor. Sinai: Treasures of the Monastery of Saint Manaphes. Immanuel Bekker (Bonn: Impensis ed. Apologeticus pro sacris imaginibus. 2 (2003): 223-33. ed. Patriarch Nikephoros." The Brazen House. 89-125. 1990). between 38. in PG. are out of sequence. The Greek word chalkeos (x?AKeos) does not distinguish cop per and bronze. Visual Polemics in theNinth-Century Byz antine Psalters (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. I. (Chicago: University 45-60. 1436. II tesoro di San Marco in Venezia. 25-26. 1990). 7 (Aldershot. Philip Grierson. no. 36. Stuart Jones. toT$ avQediv aCTTpaTTTCuV. 86 (enameled gemstones. Teubner. 100: 'ev ToirroL? oiw e^oixnariKO? tff? aip?creaj?. J. no. Scott. R. 4. 63. vol. (Venice: F. Book of Gifts and Rarities: Kitab al-Hadaya wa al-Tuhaf trans.: MIT Devant Vimage: Press." Yet.239-40 (saddle and bridle). epigram for the Chalkites odev irepiypatytov ere kol? yp?<?)0)v tOttol?.28-29: t?l Xa iracrTpaTTTOvTa xpoGv etyov 0ak?aar?<. / ev yakr\vr\ Wo o AeijLLwv </>ca?p?<?edakke t?Sv 8?v?po)v 74. 58. The 42. 623. eds. De Sancto Spirito 18. See Antonio Pasini.23-27: mroKaTu) / TroiK?kr)v eycov TT)vxpo?v. 97 (enamel bracelets). See also Simon Hornblower Spaw forth. see Pentcheva. 3. al The passage is discussed in Liz Press. he has suggested Chalke image was a bronze relief. 5. 41 and Robert Scott. 252-55. Byzantine Enamels from theFifth to the Thirteenth Century (Green cat. 65. Trf? 'Adiqvaias. and ed. 60. Konstantinos ed. 10. James. ed. and ed. and pearls). thirteenth century. 2. Treasures of Venice (Milan: Skira. Mass. cat. KCi? kdOV TTOtkOLTLOV T^f LK?VLT?? (T?)Tr]pO<? ck Totr^apaKTffpo? roi) Trapecrrc?TOLavrtj^' k ? (?xuvt) yeyove The dedv Ka? auyfrfpos thaGjv 'l^aduXpiar?i? keyovaa. and Georges Didi-Huberman. vol. the evolution Power. s. ev olcnrep ?i? t?v kql? rrvpi 7] ?yia Xo??. bk. Painting (London: Reaktion. 6. with gold enamel). 47. 1. 37-59. Light and Color in Byzantine Art (Oxford: Clarendon 1996). Elizabeth Jeffreys. 559. (1966. Norman Bryson. 73. 55. 1264A. 177. vol. Byzantina. Cyril Mango Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor: Byzantine and Near Eastern History.164 University 4. no. The Brazen House. 61. Leipzig: Teubner. and Scott. 44. tovto 8? ?art to 1971). M. Cormack. no. translation. Michelangelo Andr? Grabar. Immanuel Bekker. Journal of Early Chris Suidae 69. Marie-France Byzantine Auz?py." 67. Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott.. 623. 116. 173-90. the tactile qualities remain.: New York Graphic Society. Transfor mation of the Classical Heritage. 439-40: VOV CiVTCfi} 6??6V OTnOKJlCtV. esp. for the latter depend in which the perceiving circumstances subject finds itself. trans.. simply states: "They also killed a few of the emperor's men who had taken down the Lord's icon which was [set] above the great Bronze Gates. 1992). 1. 73-74. Berger. Marfa V. cat. the Chronographia of Theophanes. de Minuit. The icon. The central plaque Marco 1984). and The Treasury of San cat. 26-27. Liddell 59. no. 29 (Cambridge. A. 12. gold vessels).kt? keyerai. 219: ev rff keyofx?vxi Xa?Ktf (Leipzig: B. trans. "The Witness Kiev. 1988). The second source. Question pos?e aux fins d'une histoire de l'art (Paris: ?ditions 1990). 1.. Vision and Painting: The Logic of the Gaze (New Haven: Yale University Press. 1968). Birmingham Byzantine toman Monographs. 65. Birmingham and Ottoman Monographs. 3 (Aldershot. Corrigan. Grabar. the medallion image came to be understood icon of Christ already in the late seventh century. 50ff. avpa?. and Shrouds ev ?x?q: 43. 108-9. 82 (enamel vessels). H. nos. the other the Virgin and Child. There are roughly seventeen depictions of icons. ed. Death Masks. Hahnloser (Florence: Sansoni. See Kathleen Corri of John the Baptist on an Early Byzantine Icon in gan. no. Basil of Caesarea. Subtle Bodies.. 1976). 2001). t?vto ?ori t? bpaT?v. 126-27: Weberi. the Soul: Icons. 1968). 48. ed. 7 (Cambridge: Cambridge Press. 50. Untersuchungen zu den Patria Konstantinupoleos. Jonathan Crary. fourteen of which display the image in a medallion icon. 1963). 1995). ? tttt]<? aakevo?JLevr)<. OTTJATJ KVplOV 7]jJiiuVTTjaO^XpiOT?tT XahK*?? ^\v TC??? TTCip? TOIT KTiad?l& ? de Kecav o TTcnj)p to?T puey?kov Kcjvo-ravT?vov 'H be vvv ?i? if/ri^i?wv bpejpi?viq ravrr)v Kcnr\yayev. and ed. 97. (Milan: Olivetti. 10. 51..45. 140-46. 163. 56. and Liddell." Theophanes. Preger 1901). as the canonical In fact. Visual Polemics. 1996). Brazen House. 75. pt. Kai Xpf?p<a' t? y?p ev tyf emp?vela xp?l?a TOVTOv ?if/eic avTika\x?avovTai. 1998)." in Abis Riegl: German Essays on Art History. ed. Fra Ang?lico: Dissemblance and Figuration.: Ashgate. of Califor 32 (Berkeley: University nia Press. Robin 68. Pliny. 108-42. ireip?tTai ?pa??iievo? TrapevOv rr}v ? o-7Totiktjv eiK?va XpiaTd??To??(deoi?r}iL&v ri)v iopv?jL6vriv virepdev tQv ?acrikiK?iv ttvXQv. Ernst Gombrich. which was replaced after 843 by a Poikila mosaic. 1997). Art Bulletin 87 (2005): 403-15.v. 1992). The Monastery of Saint Catherine onMount Sinai: The Icons (Princeton: Princeton University Press. 74-76. Rudolf Habelt. Dominic University Janes. lines 64-66. 126. 42. eds. Alois Riegl.K. Gert Schiff. 410. "Late Roman or Oriental. "Color and Meaning in Byzantium. Chronographia. 1998). Albrecht Berger has also translated the passage using "bronze statue. Bekker. vol. Glenn Peers. Georges Didi-Huberman." 445-92. Conn. wich. Digenis Akritis. 1971). Digenis Akritis 7. Scepkina. in PG. s. 10-15. col. God and Gold in Late Antiquity (Cambridge: Cambridge Press. 69D. nos. col. (New York: Pantheon Representation 57. trans. vol. / y?kaKTO? e&TLk?ov xpo?v o? v?pKiaaou ev fiepet. lexicon. Ta / li?v v?)07] v?pKMj&a. The outside frame is Venetian. of processions 72. Muraro and Grabar. 62 (a belt no. Liz James. Patriarch Methodios. 74-75. ed. Greek-English Lexikon. 28. with icons. both are discussed 122. KareveyKai XapaKTrfpa irapaot?vPai. 1983). Penguin. Washing 454-55. 71. trans. shape. ton. 167-71. i? TTp ^??K'?fV TwXj]V T?V KOipL?)yL V eOiVTOV 7Tap OT?T?!. relying on the evidence of the that the original Life of Saint Stephen the Younger. The transverse bands are Byzantine. esp. Klaus Wessel. 89-91." esp. Subtle Bodies: Representing Angels in Byzantium.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 553 de l'ic?ne du Christ de la Chalc?. "typos. Ka?akkivov eiKoov T?iTXpio-Totr ?vi(TTop7)dr) trapa E?pr)vr?<. Auz?py. 680 and Ot 850): The Sources. The reverse side is the cross is part of the original back of the icon. AD 284-813 Press. 1836). 32. Treasures of Venice. CSHB. 131-34. "Jeweled inflation" refers to the appropri 54. Mango. Ibid. 5 vols. 66. 4. See the recent discussion Nagel of Re "Interventions: Toward a New Model and Christopher Wood. Natural History bk. 17. Theodor Scriptores Originum Constantinopolitarum. Auz?py 193. Harvard Middle Eastern Monographs. G. in Mango. (Oxford: Clarendon 41. 1960). 1. 64. Ongania. no. Extent and delimitation are thus the more objective qualities. 3. 4 vols. and Kathleen Corrigan. possibly Byzantine. in Barber. Only three show a rectangular two of these depict Saint Peter. 407 and note 28 (referring to the writings of Theodore of Stoudios). Michaelis Glycae Annales. 191. 65-69. trans. catalog entry in // tesoro di San Marco. no.: Harvard University Press. Vita Stephani Iunioris. esp. col. 141-47. Todd of Chicago Press. and Kurt Weitzmann. English Lexikon (Oxford: Clarendon and H. the German Library." tian Studies 11. 35." has been identified In the eyes of outsiders Byzantium correctly as the of Alexander culture of the imprint. 46. Cambridge Medieval Classics. 777C: r?? tBv imepovpav??ov ovv?fie?ov evTVTrcuTLK?iq cru/ui?oAotc 6K(j)aivea6aL. Chronographia.

?d?aTov. Evans and William D. evfypocrvvr) Kal eimp?rreLav T Kal T)bovr)V yk?)craxi ?vdpo)7rivxi ?ovyKpLTOv wpat?TT/T? /XVptOjLLtKTW? y??m? avT?KOVO~TOV. 146-49. cat.Qai\ odaai ?>? ai T/?iaKai aKTTve?'. and Franses. "When All That Is Gold. ovbel? bvvaTai ctKaTav?riTo?. catalog entry in Hahnloser. of the role of these metric (1911): nos. Rosamond Press. 185. and Franses. again in the discussion see Amy Papalexandrou. 1. 2. and Wessel. 84.. bir\yr\o~ao. For a discussion prayers. 4-5. II tesoro di San Marco. Sacred Shock. V. / ev tjt? (f)vT?:TexvLKB? rfpfxoo-fx?va / boKoVcri KVKkoVv Tf/? JE??p< t?v in Andr? Grabar. God and Gold. d'Ath?nes. ed. Kal pimoq ev avtQS ov Trpoafjv to Kal ar)p aaTpaTr??JLOp^)o<. 1990). 44-45: 01 b? vrn)percfvVTe<s avroV. 104. ? 7r?vT0)q iraOeTv t?v 0eaTJ)v r? iravrax?Bev to?? Be?jiaToc. vol. Byzantium. 95. ed. 73..oXo? kKTTeTrXr\yixevo<. On the wandering gaze in ekphraseis. Trans. see Pentcheva. Hetaireias Spou Makedonikon don. voV? koX koyo? oC bvvaTat ?v$p6)7nve<. Greek-English Lexicon. . 109.. 76. Helen C. and Jannic Durand. Discussed des icones byzantines du Moyen ?ge." Jahrbuch der ?ster Painting: A Refutation reichischen Byzantinistik 52 (2002): 271-85. the dis 39-64. 225-38. of a building written ekphrasis presents and received from the point of view of a subject moving through "Das Raumerlebnis des Naos im Spiegel der Ek space. 20-21. veavicTKOL (?pd?Oi iraw kivyxavov. usually only the to receive Communion patriarch and the emperor would continue directly from the chalice.T)vevT?)<. Trans. 79.. of see Mathew. no. bp iL?vois kpei?ojv r? ?jipbara TTpoai?v kjJLTTLTrX?^jievo^ ?CTT7]K?V. physical Idea. kevKol &el x??v. 88. ibid. Manuelis see Alexander 78. and Alice-Mary Talbot. 3-89 Iunioris).?p<\>oi<. voi. with paradise. 3. antine Aesthetics. vol. Margaret Mullett. 1. with bibliography. a description In Byzantium. Evans (New York: Metropolitan of Art. Denis Sullivan. ci ?paxeioves avrtSv Kal ci b?KTvkoi. 96. see 150-51. ?v?K<f>pacrTO<. Patriarch Nikephoros col. d'?tudes Byzantines et Post-Byzantines. eveubeV. 77. "Precious-Metal with paradise in late antiquity. 129-30. God and Gold. cr<f>?8pa crty?bpa ?jlt] <f>ai8poT?Tiqv \moK???xevai ?pidpA$. 36-46: ??Treip?crTo?. is identi icon from Sinai. TravT?Ta ?wv Kal p?bcjv kv oo-<f>pr)cr i Kal v?crp. with the The Art of the Byzantine Empire. Vita Basilii Iunioris. 92.. 37. ??KTlVa? . the chalice's exquisite synesthetic experience served for the select few.. 84-86. and Nicolette "The Truth in 125-28. Already into spiritual antiquity. tc Kai ?v K?iT)'yf/T?)?. For the association of purple with gold 1759-60. Robert Taft. So far. 99." For this icon. 4. crel ?X??'ol TTpoKeifievoi bi?xpvo'oi kKTrefXTTOvaa(fxoTo?okovs. 1967). Color and Culture: Practice and Meaning from Antiquity toAbstraction (Boston: Bulfinch Press. For a similar use and divinity. in Photiou Homiliai. from Aleksandr N. see George Sotiriou and Maria Sotiriou. See Pentcheva. 86. the entries in Liddell and Scott. and Mo Webb.D. see 139-52. of the Body. Homily X. vol. kekaToyLT\?x?vr\ Kal KaTeaKevao-fx?vri. 87. 97. rand.. eds. 74. 81. On the concept of the moving eye in extramission.. Is Gold. nos. Sullivan et al. 126-31. in PG. sec. Trans. Metaphor.554 ART BULLETIN VOLUME LXXXVIII NUMBER 4 ation of imperial splendor in church ritual in the course of the fourth century. no. Les rev?tements en or et en argent epy?TT\v. 72-73. Yet enamel presents polymorphous glitter and privileges dazzle over hue. God and Gold." "Text in Context: Eloquent Monuments Word and Image 17." in Byzantium: Faith and Power." Sbornik' Otdelenija russkago jazyka i slovesnosti Imperators hovnago Vita Basilii (henceforth. Sullivan et al. 5.Trepir\vya?. t?/x ?>o?*toV. God and Gold. esp. aireipov Trkr)povp. ?<j>pao-T?)?. On the creation of the visual equivalent of this genre "Visual Textuality. vov TrepiKeKO(T?jLr)iJL xpwaV. Ga (Auxerre silk). "Epigrams aspect and circular performative I am concerned structure. suppl. For the scriptural tradition of associating whiteness see Janes. 243 Museum 51.. Thus. John Gage. The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era. ?K y?kaKTO? oit? (frvpa??vTos KaTao-ev?ada?. 531-39. ordinary body remains were transformed environments. Biblioth?que de l'Institut Hell?nique et Post-Byzantines 7 (Venice: Institut de Venise. the same cussion has focused only on mosaics. (Oxford: Oxford University with bibliography. ylverai. Byzantine 94. oto?t/v ?vkco? ?e?afjbfxevriv Kal 7r?errjc wpai?rrjToc r?ijL<l>ieo-iJL?voi Treirkripwixevriv. Laourdas. 23. On Byzantine ed. Kal avTr\ r\v ?k kiOov o~iLap?ybov oip??ox. figs. and transparency 99. (Paris: Mus?e du Louvre/?ditions Hazan. Collection de l'Institut Fran?ais 100 (Athens: Institut Fran?ais d'Ath?nes. Oskar Wulff. vol. 101. by the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. Kal avekbir)yr\Tov ?KaTavor)To? aicrdr)o. s. 101: Spoudon. 6. The Treasury of San Marco. 3 vols. KpaTeTcrdai irap? ?pprfro?. 179-85. KopwfraV. 65-66: Xpv&ffv de pG? tt/i> JE?e/x Tff? eiK?vos. jects (relics) by being staged in sensually enhanced "'The Little Blue Flower Is Red': Relics and Patricia Cox Miller. Janes. the roots of both "to alloy" and "to freeze. kvxvi>TO?CbiKal <W??? ?k iravTwv TBv evTijxojv kiO v Kal xpvo~6iv tQv ck toI? irapabeiaov k?epxojJL?vcjv Kal b?xoio^>epeV. Trans." Neos Hellenomnemon Spyridon Lambros. to elvai kol? avrb irepL?iv??&dai kvrevOev r? re ?XXa ev eKcrravei Kai Kal 7rai^To?a7raT^ irepicrTpo^aV. Enamels. ibid. 89. 843-1261 (New York: Museum of Art. Grabar. an image of the Virgin 82. vol. avf&v xpwfx: e<f>epov ev kidois koI fxapy?poic TrokvT??xoLs cocrei ?okal k?av biabr\ixaTa TTavevrrpeireo-TaTa Kal TTOiK?kavrr?pxovTa. 776D. "Das Raumerlebnis des Naos. Sullivan et al. purple. koli 7rpo? eaur?? kiricrTpefyovcrai ?? odrrep r?? ?ipeis ovv?xovcrai ovK kdeXeiv iroidvcrai tov ?earrjv irpo? r? iL Tax(opr}aai toV KaXXd?? Oeajutaro? ? ?XX' kv otvr? irporepiev?o-fiaTL kvS?repa. Kai toT? TToXvp." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 50 (1996): was re 209-38. The connection the icon and the Davidic Psalms will appear between of the sense of taste. 101: 'fk elavrbv y?p tov ovpavbv pL7}8evb<.Lavdp?)Trivr?<. axnrep e? r)kiaKr?<. k?yos ?p?Teis bir\yecrao~Bai'y ?ireipo?. 3 (2001): 259-83. Kai toV. ed.ev amo. University bridge: Cambridge 103. 30. 185. 1991). 3. Wixom. t?JSvxpvo~o<j)av?j5v eKeiv v irkaKBv vTff\pxov <j>vr? apixov?ais v (?pai s k^r?vdLO-jxeva T?avTt??a tBv r\bvrrv?(x)v Kal ?ykaoKap TTe(f)VTovpyriii va. 2 vols. see Wulff. 16. (987-1152) 2005). The Art of the Byzantine Empire. see Pentcheva. on the nature of cherubims. late ob See the 213 86." 8 93. Political power in Byzantium translated into the fullness of sensual delight. 98." 13-24.. no. On the orality of Byzantine . 143 (Coislin 79). y?p otKeiai? ovvex?crL KLvqaecriv. Vesselovskji. For porphyreos and pyravges. aveKk?kr\Toc\ ?vepixiqvevT vor\T?<. koj akademii nauk' 46 (1889-90). sec. d'?tudes 1975). and Ruth phrasis." of literature in the twelfth century. La France Romane au temps des premiers Cap?tiens borit-Chopin. 83. biavo?as tt\v evocrpXav. 85. Oxford Dictionary Kazhdan." 13-24. w? ?v Tt? euroi k?kklvov tovtov? ib?)v. 72-74. Helen C. r?bovrJ<. Byz 90." Byzantinische Zeitschrift $? (1929-30): "The Aesthetics of Sacred Space: Narrative. 12 (Thessaloniki: Hetaireias 1959). Peers. kiMTpoa?dvPToc Kai iravTax?dev K?XXecriv <w? aorpoi? wrofyaivoyLevois AoKeT?? Xonrbv TTepiXa?j?TTOixevo<. Trans. See also "When All That of the dazzling effect of gold to emphasize power 89. For the association of gold and green see Janes. no. Pikilia in (ttoikiXiol) has a long tradition in Byzantium. "Byzantine Communion Spoons: A Review of the Evidence.. 1956-58). "Epigrams on Icons. and the link it preserved between imperial power and divinity. 100. of Heresy in a Sinai Icon." "Writing in Early Medieval McKitterick (Cam Literacy in Early Medieval Europe. 80. toV. Eve Borsook. 39: 'Air?pavTes oltv 6K T0ev km r?? T??v ayi&v crevas avrai be rjcrav irokkal eiTopevdrjixev. irka?l. Mango. 1 (2002): 3-18. ?HTTTep Tt? kppL???lx?vO? T? QOLVILOLTI 89. Photios. ed. 7rpoo"?>7roi?. cat. tion in Ekphraseis of Church Buildings. "Razyskanija v oblasti russkago du stiha. 25. On a twelfth-century a word that conflates fied as ^ei/iei/n]. Mango. 43: eyyiora Tp?ire?a jmey?oTTfTrr?xe(?v Tpi?Kovra. "OMapKiavos k&?l? 524. . 1993). A. kv k?yq> ?(j)paaTov. 84-86. Emmanuel Miller (Amsterdam: Hakkert. 100." Journal of Early Christian Studies 8 (2000): Poetizing 36. ?o-TpairoeubeV. esp.. TToiKiX?a ?iaCerai ei? avrb t? bp(?p. ?jnr)Oa?ji?dev kp. James. see also Philae Carmina." Here. a(/)pao"To? t/?vtt/to?. Photios. 149 Metropolitan see also Danielle For Auxerre. ev be toV. ol b? Trabes avtBv xwvoetbeV. 28.. "Precious-Metal "Epigrams on Icons". 26-27. Icon Revetments." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 53 (1999): 59-74. Makedonikon in Photiou Homiliai. Stamatina McGrath. em be toV. Janes.. On the performative and the Byzantine Beholder. aKtTvos Kai o>? k ?ixraov al be ?k [ivpio?a^cov a?ykr)v acrTpaTTTOwai. 91. 50. and Du Byzantines Hell?nique Icon Revetments. 100. Pentcheva. irepLe?(uo~p. 121. Homily X. Eikones tes mones Sina. 159-65. ed." 247. nature of epigrams. of Meta "Rhetoric and Reality: Mosaics des kunsthistorischen Instituts in Florenz 44. 20. 2004).(x)v Ib?ai eTreKeivro. Byzantium. ovvokov.. Light and Color. Press. Kai votjtS?? acnp?movcrai. 1997). as Expressions 84. Kal 6vpiiqb?a<. 128. in Uses of 102. 1261-1557." 534-35. epigram's on Icons. ?vep[Xf}V VTOV Kal O?KOX? ?v pp. 107-17. ?vkai cr piaTiK?dv x^P^v abvvaTov. 156-85. In fact. I TToptyvpa? deia? a?y?rj? onDAco? to use their draft transla for allowing me thank Alice-Mary Talbot tion. ibid.evov to oiKeTov <j>avT??eTai Tr?BiqfjLa.?e?ir}Ku)<.?voi ?wvaq K T?&ovpaviov (ocnrep kcjpovs to?ov tt]v evxpoiav KeKTrux?vov? Kal airao-TpaTTTOvTac. Trahoulia." Mitteilungen no. b? tQv ?v?biov avrBv loraTo Sullivan et al. 42: Eio-r?k0oiiev eis Tiva irepiavkov ??vov Kal iravTekSs k^rjkkayfjb?vov Kai r\v to b?irebov avro?r e^aarp?irrov.

chap. 2005). Hagiographica. "The Origin of the Work of Art. 44: ??v 8e b krrl t?ls ?vXoi? eKeivoL? rfXio^eyyecn oivo?.fxeXBv a. 2001).TO Tff? KOUV?f??taOTJKTJ?T? VTTepVp. 2 vols. 1991). Paul Speck has contested the seventh-century date of the passages about icons in this life and argued instead that these references were or early ninth century. Patristic Greek Lexicon (1961. 160 (bk. 1935). Kal t@ <j)?)To?bXov KvXiKa. bk." 269-70. ?changes. Jo hann Jacob Reiske. Habelt. Hapap. see Constance David Howes. Supplements 1998). 245-46. For an anthropological point of view. the role of orality in Byzantine literature. De ceremoniis aulae byzantinae. See nn. dv?jiia?jba. Ephrem. Theodore Hyrtakenos. 1 (1998): 109-28. (New York: Harper guage. 36. Classen. 'O 8? yvov? rrfv x?nv yXvKVT7)Tos Kal vxapio-Tr)0~a<. 2006). Pss. 159. no. et cot? MCCIX parmi les mansucrits les Opuscules grecs et contenant letters anecdotes de Th?odore l'Hyrtakc?nien. Nationale. 13. no. Blackwell Press. Being Given: Towards a 127. Oxford: Clarendon Press. vey. Speck. Lan Heidegger.THE PERFORMATIVE ICON 555 literature. 5 (2001): 849-61. This follow the text and num and the following biblical quotations (1935. Michel Balard et al. Aroma. ?O?q)ar? fian Tairrr\v irpocrfiyaye rfiya?e (oairep pb?ov ?pTi Trpbo~(?Trov avroV Kal ?ri rrXeov kXap." "The Scent of a Martyr. 2 (2002): 423-44.-J. no. Festugi?re. De ceremoniis. 438 (bk. vol. Paris. 199 -221. 1994). Kp?KOv. Three Byzantine Saints (Oxford: B. 179. 28). 81 above. ed. and ed. tion: Ancient Christianity and the Olfactory Imagination. 175-91. 121. of California 42 (Berkeley: University Press. 1. Rigaud. Transformation of the Classical Heritage.eTaXa?oiv Tff? or?/mcm avrcfi?. Theological Studies 48. 161-79. Trans. and idem." on writing and drinking (letter no. "Trace per una storia d?lia lettura ? idem. Robert Nelson. On the connec tion between odors and dreams and the imagined world of the be yond. ed. Festugi?re." "Writing in Early Medieval above. phenomenon. cat. The translation comes from the King James Version. trans. letter no. Marco enamel icon. Thompson. reprint. 104 above. 123. See also Cavallo. 108. reprint. trans." in Eastmond Text. "Byzantine Art vsWestern Medieval Art..iqv. yp?pifxacnv. una storia della lettura ? Bisanzio. Reiske. trans. (Vienna: ?sterreichischen 1990). existing only in the sensory domain of sight and 175. KLvv??x(?fxov akr)Qiv?v TTp?dTovKal bevrepov." 425-26. and James to Novum Testamentum.r\p?v. quoted "Notice et extraits d'un volume de la Biblioth?que Theil. and idem. ed. 19-25 ao?t 2001. See n. nales: Histoire et Sciences Sociales 4." 426. On Phenomenology .KpO?to~Bai <$>Qbyyo)v Tff? dva?iacr?aq into Italian and discussed in Cavallo. 48 (Brussels: Soci?t? des Bollandistes. 59-71.. Ephrem on the Scent of Salvation. ed. His in the mid-eighth interpolated theory brings the date of the text closer to the context and use of the S.I iroXXGv eKXvv?pLevov et? ?^eaiv appuaTiBv. Kai Tff? ?xeXixp&s oifs kpLcfropeTtrdai creipijVoc. Mullett.7rpvveTo." in Byzance et le monde ext?rieur: Contacts. 255-70. Kal T&v kp. Martin of Nelson. Abraham Malherbe. Byzantina Sorbonensia. kvavTevi?c?v toV. ed. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus: Three Treatises on Imperial Military Expedi 28 tions. Aroma. "Trace per Translated Tj^oiT?. 48 (Brussels: Soci?t? des Bollandistes. 8e t? to?j meTv. Tc$Xpio~T<$airo Tff? ?opa? eKeiviq? evK?X??s Kal etyiadid? ?ireo'T'qdL^e to ipaXTr?piov. Constan tine Porphyrogennetos. Alfred Rahlfs bering of the Greek Septuagint. in the Medieval World. Subsidia Hagiographica. in contrast to the complex hearing. Byzantinae." "Byzantine Art vs Western 124. TTpoa?xovTi Kal 8eo???v?). 126. Aroma: The Cultural History of Smell (London: Routledge. 16: Iltere e? avrd? navres' T?VTOpuOi) kcTTlTO ?LjUL?. 115. 11. Ritual and Knowledge in The Early Church and Its Context: Essays inHonor of Ever Christianity. "Wunderheilige und Bilder: Zur Frage des in Poikila Byzantina. 89) and John Mavro Metaphrastes (letter no. Sullivan et al. A. 90 (Leiden: Brill. 468: 108-9.i?v KO." Numen 49 (2002): 193-211. no. 122. On see Har the association of perfume with salvation and paradise. see Classen et al. "Incense Offer in Ancient ings in the Syriac Transitus Mariae. "Art and Lies: shaped the imagined realm of paradise.. 120. 33:8: "Taste and to the conclusion 125. 155-58. Baynes. For an excellent analysis revealing how the lavish imperial ceremonial see Liz James. Corpus Fontium Historiae Akademie der Wissenschaften. kv bXiyai? Tj/x?pai? airav avrb eKpiadcjv. see also Charles Du ?jLVp?criiaTakoiu?. "St. Harvey. 118." see Guglielmo Cavallo. Druck. An rossignol et l'hirondelle: and Mullett. A. 11: 'Avaor?im yo?v avrt$ 6K toV e??Qov?. Frederick Norris. Image and Imagination and James. Posuel. reprint. ki?avov. 96). cr?xap. Kal TfjeiKbvi To?rX(uff?po<." Lire et ?crire ? Byzance. 113. On the contemporary of power and smell. 1688. Icon and Word. in Elizabeth Dawes and Norman H. Harvey will offer an extensive study on the role of scent in late antiquity in her forthcoming Scenting Salva monograph. R. 62. 111. 156-85. On 110. and Anthony Synnott. 42. 1971). Vie de Th?odore de Sykeon. apuTrap. 1970). Haldon. Vie de Th?odore de Syke?n. Subsidia 112. Graz: Akademische 1958). Actes de trois s?ances du XXe Congr?s International des ?tudes Byzantines. ." Notices et Extraits des et Autres Biblioth?ques 6 (1800): Manuscrits de la Biblioth?que Nationale 1-48. 105. in Fran?ois Jean Gabriel de la Porte-du 107.r]pLOv ev akeiTTT?. Conforming Medieval Art. v?KTapo? api?pocriac . Kal ^vkoKLvv?pLCjpiov. Vita Theodori Syceotae. Kal birr?v?Ka rt? avTc5v ?m x??jt>a? k???aTo ttjv dav?iaaT7]v eKe?vr\v Kal Tr TrXr)pa)pi?vr?v. 9-10 (Bonn: Impensis ed.-J. KaTrv?crjxaTa Oi?^opa. en Occident. ed." in Poetry. Varia III Beginns der Bilderverehrung. Thought.. 119. fi?crxov. Albert Hofstadter and Row. 109. Geoffrey Lampe. ed. John F. "St. ed. (xao-T?xr)v. Weberi. Similarly. esp. 163-247. 114." fragrance of the Byzantine and the concomitant imperial and liturgical ceremonial image of par adise. Vita Basilii Iunioris. see n. relations. see Classen et perception al. 11. "Le Byzantinische Zeitschrift 95.. Bisanzio. 95. the saturated see Marion. see that God is good. 1). Septuaginta. 1. de 21 (Paris: Publications la Sorbonne. Bibelstiftung. of Givenness. The Treasury of San Marco. discusses Symeon "Writing in Early Medieval Byzantium. 1948). chap. Stuttgart: Deutsche 116. Constantine Porphyrogennetos. 1829). esp. "Incense Offerings". CSHB. t tf XP0La irornpioi? KLpv?fievo? kpvOp? TJVpaK?o~iiaTi Xiav evTrvpio? aTrao-TparrTC?v. ?vkakor)v vyp?v Kal ?. 75: 'Eyc? 8'. i) adeTo yXvKvrr)Ta r)8vrepov jut??lto? kyxvd?ttrav kv rQ To?Tdeo?r Kal p. avrbv cr? ?Xeireiv T)yo?p. the modern utopia created by Hollywood is "totally inodorate.. and Suzanne Evans. 88-89 106." Journal of 117. tG>v KaXvK(ov vire?eXdc?v. Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae graecitatis (Lyons: Anis son. Byzantium. . Susan A. For the specialized Cange." (Bonn: Dr. "Trace per pous on writing and music una storia della lettura ? Bisanzio. 1970).. terms." ett Ferguson.