You are on page 1of 6

INTELLIGENCE

“Intelligence is a trait or a set of traits that characterizes some people to greater extent than
others” (Psychometric theories)

Components of intelligence are very close to the information processing skills, their difference
lies in the concepts of individual differences and assessment.

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
- stable, consistent ways in which people are different from each other

PSYCHOMETRICS
- Is the field that evolves the assessment of individual differences

PSYCHOMETRIC APPROACH
- Development of standardized tests of intelligence. (THORNDIKE, 1997)

INTELLIGENCE A SINGLE ATTRIBUTE OR MANY ATTRIBUTES?


FACTOR ANALYSIS
Identifies cluster of tasks or test items (called FACTORS) that are highly correlated with one
another but unrelated to other clusters of items.

CHARLES SPEARMAN (1927)


1st to use factor analysis to try to determine whether intelligence is one or many abilities
Concluded that a general mental ability contributes to performance on many kinds of tasks.
Proposed intelligence has 2 aspects:
a) General Ability
b) Special Abilities

LOUIS THURSTONE
Factor-analyzed test scores obtained by 8- graders and college students.
He identified 7 fairly distinct factors that he called: Primary mental abilities

SPATIAL ABILITY NUMERICAL REASONING


WORD FLUENCY MEMORY
PERCEPTUAL SPEED VERBAL MEANING
INDUCTIVE REASONING

J.P GUILFORD
Proposed there are as many as 180 distinct mental abilities. According to his structure-of-
intellect model: 5 kinds of intellectual contents, 6 types of mental operations or actions that can
be performed, 6 kinds of intellectual products or outcomes of thinking

Example of factor analysis:


Items given to a group of people which include many required verbal skills and many that require
mathematical skills. People who do well on any verbal item also do well on other verbal items,
and those who do well on any math problem also do well on other math problems. Therefore,
those who do well on verbal problems and vice-versa. In this case, math performance does not
correlate highly with verbal performance and factor analysis would reveal a “verbal ability
factor” that is distinct from a “math ability factor”. By contrast, correlations among the items
revealed that those people who do well on any item in the test tend to do well on others, as well
as it would seem that one general ability factor underlies performance on both verbal and math
problems.

FLUID VS CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE: RAYMOND CATELL & JOHN HORN

FLUID INTELLIGENCE
Ability to use one’s mind actively to solve novel problems
Skills involved: Reasoning
Seeing relationships among stimuli
Drawing inferences
CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE
Use of knowledge acquired through schooling and other life experiences
Measures:
Tests of general information
Word comprehension
Numerical abilities
Some consensus viewed intelligence as a hierarchy that includes:
• general ability factor @ the top that influences how well people do on a wide range of
cognitive tasks.
• few broad dimensions of ability that are distinguishable from one another in factor
analysis
• large number of specific abilities that influences how a person performs specific
cognitive tasks that tap the specific activities.

HOW TEST ARE CONSTRUCTED AND EVALUATED


CHINA, Emperor Ta Yu
Criteria must be: RELIABLE, VALID, STANDARDIZED

RELIABILITY
Extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance
VALIDITY
Extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure.

2 important forms:
CONTENT VALIDITY
It is a test’s ability to test a broad range of the content that is to be measured.
CRITERION VALIDITY
A test’s ability to predict an individual’s performance when measured by other measures, or
criteria of an attribute.

STANDARDIZATION
Involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test and developing
norms for the test.

NORMS
Established standards of performance for a test expressed as average scores based on the
performance of a large and representative sample of people.
According to Sue, 1990 : “ Need to ensure that the tests are standardized for a person’s particular
ethnic group and to put the test results in an appropriate cultural context”

INTELLIGENCE TEST: BINET TEST


In 1904 French Ministry of Education asked Alfred Binet to devise a method of identifying
children who were unable to learn in school. Binet and student Simon Theophile developed an
intelligence test referred as the 1905 SCALE. Binet developed the concept of MENTAL AGE
(MA) WILLIAM STERN, 1912 Devised INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT
Consists of a person’s mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100
MA = CA à IQ: 100
BELOW MA, BELOW CA à IQ: more than 100
BELOW 100 à BELOW AVERAGE

LEWIS TERMAN
Applied Sterns IQ concept to the test, developed extensive norms and provided detailed, clear
instructions, problems on the test.

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
Is a symmetrical with a majority of cases falling in the middle of the possible range of scores and
few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range.

STANFORD-BINET
Published in 1985 (Thorndike, Hayan and Sattler, 1985)
Is given to individuals from the age of 2 through adulthood
It includes wide variety of items, some requiring verbal responses and others nonverbal
responses.
Analysis of the individual’s responses in terms of 4 content areas:
Verbal reasoning
Quantitative reasoning
Abstract/visual reasoning
Short-term memory
General composite score is obtained to reflect overall intelligence

WECHSLER SCALES
Developed by David Wechsler
To test children between the ages of 6 and 16
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R)
To test children from the ages 4 to 6 ½
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
Items are group according to 11 subscales of which 6 are verbal and 5 nonverbal
DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT
Evaluate how well children learn new materials when an examiner provides them with competent
instruction (Campione et. al., 1984; Lidz, 1997)
Provides information what traditional IQ tests provide about a child’s intellectual competence and
likely achievement (Day et. al.,1997; Lidz, 1997)
FEUERSTEIN’S LEARNING POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT DEVICE
Asks children to learn new things with the guidance of an adult who provides increasingly helpful
cues.

EARLY FACTOR APPROACHES


CHARLES SPEARMAN (1927)
Proposed that intelligence has 2 factors

TWO - FACTORY THEORY


Children have both general intelligence which he called g and a # of specific types of intelligence
which he called s.

MULTIPLE FACTORY THEORY


L.L THURSTONE’S THEORY
Intelligence consists of 7 primary abilities

GARDNER’S THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE: HOWARD GARDNERS


Rejects the idea that a single IQ score is a meaningful measure of human intelligence.
BOOK: Frames of Mind, Gardner (1983)
Believes that each of 7 intelligences can be destroyed by brain damage, that each involves unique
cognitive skills and that each shows up in exaggerated fashion in both the gifted and idiots
savants. He also believes that it is during this early time in life that parents can make an
important differences in how a child’s intelligence develops.

IDIOTS SAVANT
Individuals who are mentally retarded but who have unbelievable skill in a particular domain,
such as drawing, music, or computing. Cannot be explained by theories that emphasized
intelligence to distinct structure in the brain arguing that 7 intelligence are neurologically distinct.

7 DISTINCT INTELLECTUAL ABILITIES


LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE
Avid talkers; good speakers
Uses varied language
Sensitive to the meaning, order, and sound of words
Likes to explain, convince, and persuade through words
Has good memory recall for names and dates
Enjoys rhymes and poetry, enjoys listening, telling, and reading stories, and enjoys and excels at
word games
Sensitive to the meaning, order, and sound of words
LOGICAL – MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE
Ability to handle long chains of reasoning Solves problems rapidly
Likes reasons for doing things Likes to predict, analyze, and theorize
Possesses good inductive and deductive Enjoys dealing with abstraction
reasoning Strong at math and problem solving skills
Quick to learn equivalencies Sequential thinker
Asks “why” and “how” questions Enjoys board games and games with rules

MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE
SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE – visual learners
Perceive things accurately and transform what they see
manipulation of objects within a given space, whether that space is the size of a piece of paper, a
room, a building, or a town.
BODILY – KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE
Physical learners
INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
Ability to understand the thoughts, beliefs, and intents of others and the ability to respond
appropriately.
INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE
Sense of self-awareness used to guide individual behavior
“Children's ways of learning are as different as the colors of the rainbow. All people have
different personalities, preferences and tastes. Teachers and parents need to be aware of and value
these differences. Through observation, parents can learn what kind of learners their children are.
Once parents know what kind of learner their child is, they can then develop activities that make
the most of their child's abilities”

STERNBERG’S TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE: ROBERT J. STERNBERG


Proposed a TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE. Developed a theory that intelligence
has 3 factors. 3 aspects of intelligent behavior

CONTEXTUAL INTELLIGENCE
Intelligent behavior depends on the socio-cultural
Intelligent people adapt to the environment they are in shape to suit them better or find better
environment
This perspective views intelligent behavior as varying from one culture or subculture to another,
from one period in history to another and form one period of the life span to another
Each culture or subculture defines the ingredients of intelligent behavior in its own way

(MILLER, 1997): EXPERIENTIAL INTELLIGENCE


Response to novelty which requires active and conscious information processing.
Reflects AUTOMATIZATION or an increased efficiency of information processing with
practice

INFORMATION-PROCESSING COMPONENT
COMPONENTIAL INTELLIGENCE
Believes that the theories of intelligence underlying the development of IQ tests ignore how
people produce intelligent answers.

EXAMPLE:
CONSIDER ANN, WHO SCORES HIGH ON TRADITIONAL INTELLIGENCE
TESTS, SUCH AS THE STANFORD-BINET, AND IS A STAR ANALYTICAL THINKER.
CONSIDER TODD, WHO DOES NOT HAVE THE BEST TESTS SCORES BUT HAS AN
INSIGHTFUL AND CREATIVE MIND. CONSIDER ART, A STREET SMART CHILD WHO
HAS LEARNED TO DEAL IN PRACTICAL WAYS WITH HIS WORLD ALTHOUGH HIS
SCORES ON TRADITIONAL IQ TESTS ARE LOW.
* STERNBER CALLS ANN’S ANALYTICAL THINKING AND ABSTRACT
REASONING COMPONENTIAL INTELLIGENCE WHICH IS THE CLOSEST TO WHAT
WE CALL INTELLIGENCE AND COMMONLY MEASURED BY INTELLIGENCE TESTS.

*STERNBERG CALLS TODD’S INSIGHTFUL AND CREATIVE THINKING


EXPERIENTIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ARTS’ STREET SMARTS AND PRACTICAL
KNOW-HOW CONTEXTUAL INTELLIGENCE..
Psychoanalysis
 October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a traveling fellowship to study with Europe's most
renowned neurologist and researcher of hypnosis, Jean-Martin Charcot
 Turned to cathartic method used in conjunction with hypnosis.
abreaction— method of removing symptoms through a process of recovering
and verbalizing suppressed feelings with which the symptoms were associated
resistance -a psychological barrier against bringing unconscious impulses to the
level of awareness.
 Freud later turned away from hypnosis as a potential cure for mental illness, instead
favoring free association and dream analysis
 After abandoning hypnosis, he favored treatment in 1889 where the patient talked
through his or her problems ("talking cure").
 Free Association (“talking cure”)
- it invites patients to say whatever came into their minds without censoring their thoughts
-locate and release powerful emotional energy
-he believed that repression was an impediment to the normal functioning of the psyche

Psychodynamic Theory
 Levels of Psychodynamic
 Personality Structure and Defense Mechanism
 Personality Development (Psychosexual Stages)

Psychodynamic Theory
3 Levels of Psychodynamic Theory

Conscious Preconscious
Perception Aspect which can readily be called to
Reasoning awareness
Memory
Intention Unconscious
Imagination Hidden motivation
Conflicts
Instinctual Urges

Three Divisions of Personality Structure


ID- where instincts reside. Id urges entirely unconscious , are motivated by the “ pleasure
principle”
EGO- the executor to the personality
- responds to the “reality principle”
- where fantasy and reality are distinguished
SUPEREGO- where person’s ideas and conscience reside.
comprises those “musts” and “ must nots”

Defense Mechanism
Everyone use defense mechanism at times when we cannot directly deal stressful situations.
all defense mechanism indicate personality adjustment only when the dominant mode of
responding problems.
The difference between defense mechanisms and coping strategies is that the former is
unconscious processes and the later is engaged consciously.
Rationalization-involves the inventing of excuses or reasons for behavior that is inadequate,
unacceptable, or damaging to personal integrity and status
2 types of Rationalization
“Sour-grapes” mechanism- it involves self-deception by adopting a conviction , and giving up
and relinquishing all efforts towards a goal because it is not worth the efforts anyway.
“Sweet lemon” mechanism- desirable qualities are found in what was not truly wanted.
Projection- is also a form of rationalization.
-is the process of shifting the responsibility for an act or thought from oneself to an outside
object or to another person.
Displacement- a type of projection.
- is the process of shifting a response or reaction from its original object to another which is less
dangerous.
Repression- is an unconscious process wherein shameful thoughts , guilt producing memories ,
painful experiences or distasteful tasks are removed from awareness or forced below the level of
consciousness.

Suppression – is the deliberate, conscious control of unacceptable or undesirable thoughts or


impulses. This mechanism serves the same purpose as repression but involves conscious intent.
Egocentrism-is the unconscious pretension to superior qualities and traits that serve to obscure
the existence of a basic inferiority. It is also an effort to establish oneself as the center of
attraction.
Substitution- is a device which makes it possible to discharge tensions by diverting one’s
energies from desired goal to a substitute one. This process is sometimes called” transferred
compensation.”

Working on the Principle of Substitution are:


Compensation- the mechanism where the individual devotes time and effort to a pursuit with
increased vigor in an attempt to make up for real or imagined inadequacy.

Overcompensation- is the concentration of efforts on a narrow field at the expense of a well-


rounded and complete adjustment to a variety of life’s demands.
Sublimation- is the unconscious redirection of the primitive energies natural impulses to
socially and morally acceptable channels of activity.
Reaction Formation-is a defense mechanism where urges that are not acceptable to the
consciousness are repressed, and opposite attitudes or modes of behavior are expressed with
considerable force.
Avoidance Mechanism- is a way of adjusting to a threatening situation by escaping from it.
It enables the person to get away from the scene of the conflict.
Fantasy- is a mental mechanism where the person substitutes real satisfactions for imaginary
satisfaction.
Regression- is a process of relieving anxiety or threat by falling back on thoughts, feelings,
or behavior which worked successfully during the earlier period of life.
Negativism- is the refusal to participate in a tense situation . This is a type of avoidance
mechanism manifested through either an active or passive resistance towards the external
demands on the individual.
Motor Hysteria- is the development of real physical symptoms which enable a person to
withdraw from a difficult situation.
Identification- is the mechanism where the individual enhances self-esteem by patterning
himself/herself after another person.
Fixation – is a premature termination of some aspect of personality development or a delay
maturation.

Personality Development
Psychosexual Stages
Oral Stage (Birth- 18 months)- derived pleasure from sucking .
Anal Stage (18 months- 3 years)- children find pleasure during this time both in withholding
and in expelling feces.
Phallic Stage(3-6 yrs)- children derive pleasure from fondling their genitals.
Latency Stage(7-12 yrs)- During this stage less concerned with their bodies and turn their
attention to the skills needed for coping with the environment.
Genital Stage( adolescence and puberty)- mature phase of adult sexuality and functioning.

Life and Death Instincts


Humans were driven by two conflicting central desires: the life drive (libido/Eros) (survival,
propagation, hunger, thirst, and sex) and the death drive (Thanatos). Freud's description of
Cathexis, whose energy is known as libido, included all creative, life-producing drives. The death
drive or death instinct), whose energy is known as anticathexis, represented an urge inherent in all
living things to return to a state of calm: in other words, an inorganic or dead state.