WID Human Task, Decision Table, Business Rules

Human tasks
A human task is, quite simply, a unit of work that involves a human. Quite often, this task requires that the human interact with other services, and thus becomes a task within a larger business goal. The WebSphere® Integration Developer tools have been designed so that users can easily compose integrative business solutions without programming skills. To this end, you can easily define a human task in an intuitive graphical programming environment called the human task editor. Before you start to use the human task editor, you need to understand these key concepts about human tasks: • An example of a human task • Presenting a task to a staff member • Escalations • Collaborating with other staff members in a human task Note: Human tasks can only be deployed to the WebSphere Process Server.

An example of a human task
Let us begin with an example of a human task. This graphic illustrates the steps involved when a staff member accepts a task.

In this example, this particular task is likely part of a much larger process which stops and waits until the staff member makes a decision. Here are some terms that you will need to understand to use the editor: Task Definition A Task Definition is a representation of the task that includes the following: • who can do the task (roles/people assignment criteria) • what needs to be done (name) • what happens when the task takes too long (escalation) • how the task will be done (input and output data)

In the runtime environment, a task definition starts as a single work item. Over time, the task definition may generate multiple work items. To-do items A to-do item is a work item that is presented to the user in the user interface. A staff member (employee) can browse all the to-do items that they have the authority to claim, and then claim it. Roles A role is a group of employees who share the same level of authority and access rights. When a task is assigned to a role, any staff member in that role group can complete the task. People assignment criteria This criteria define the members of each of the role groups.

Presenting a task to a staff member
When a human task is started, the staff member interacts with the task through a user interface in a client environment. If you take a look at the example again, you will see that you have already been exposed to a client, it just was not spelled out that way. Take a look at the example again with a few minor changes.

In this modified example, we see that all interaction between the user and the task is facilitated by a client. The task is delivered to the user through the client, and the resolution is returned in similar means. So far, both examples have shown what happens when the task can be completed without a problem. What happens when that is not possible?

Escalations
An escalation is a course of action that is begun when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. For instance, let us look at the same scenario again, and see what happens when it isn't properly completed.

In this example, we see that the staff member who claims the task isn't able to complete it in the specified period of time, and another staff member is alerted. Presumably, this second employee has the authority to investigate the reasons behind why the task wasn't completed and proceed accordingly. There are three possible states for which an escalation can be configured: Ready When a human task is in a ready state, it is waiting to be claimed. You can configure an escalation to trigger if it sits unclaimed for too long. Claimed If a staff member has claimed a task, but takes longer than the specified period of time to complete it, an escalation is triggered and another staff member is notified. Subtask started A subtask is an additional unit of work that is split out from a parent task. If the subtask fails to complete within a specified period of time, the parent task is escalated and indicates that it is still waiting on the subtask.

Collaborating with other staff members in a human task
Ad-hoc tasks and transferred work items are created "on-the-fly" in the runtime environment, usually because the situation that has created the need for the task did not exist when it was initially developed. You can create such tasks either from existing task definitions (collaboration and invocation tasks) or without any existing definition. You can use WebSphere Integration Developer to allow for the creation of two types of ad-hoc tasks: the subtask, the follow-on task, as well as the transferred work item. Subtasks In the runtime environment, if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it by themselves, they can delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks. Follow-on tasks In the runtime environment, if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it, they can assign the remaining work to somebody else in the form of a follow-on task. Transferred work items

Types of human task There are four types of human tasks that you can define. In such a case. To see an example of a collaboration task that you can build and run yourself. go to http://publib. A to-do task can be implemented either stand-alone or inline.com/bpcsamp/index. pick or event handlers. Collaboration task This is where a human assigns a task to another human. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. go to http://publib. or the process as a whole. This type of task is only available within a business process (inline task). Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. restart. they can transfer the work item to another person or group. a user can start a process and define authorization for its inbound activities. Through this. force-retry.In the runtime environment.ibm. an invocation task allows humans to invoke the operations that a business process exposes through activities such as receive. An invocation task can be implemented either stand-alone or inline. and click Human Task features > Collaboration task. in that there is no interaction between it and any other component. a human is invoking an automated service such as a business process. or force-complete a business process. It is self-contained and implements a stand-alone human interaction without any reference or interface to another service. When it is inline.ibm. A collaboration task is stand-alone. and click Human Task features > Invocation task. and click Human Task features > To-do ttask.boulder. Administration task This type of task grants a human administrative powers such as the ability to suspend. Administration tasks can be set up on either an invoke activity. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example.html.html.com/bpcsamp/index.boulder.ibm. Inline and stand-alone human tasks . if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it. terminate. go to http://publib. To see an example of an invocation task that you can build and run yourself.html. To see an example of a to-do task that you can build and run yourself. To-do task This is where a service component (such as a business process) assigns a task to a human as something for that person to do.boulder. Invocation task This is where a human can "assign" a task to a service component.com/bpcsamp/index.

delete the existing interface between the human task component and the business process. 4. Stand-alone task A stand-alone task exists independently of a business process. Although information from the process can also be modeled into the input for a human task. In the assembly editor. A human task client delivers task-related information to a staff member in the form of an interactive application. 7. When you are first planning your human task. or on message activity. When you are first planning your human task. Define the settings for the human task. click Project > Clean. or as a property of an invoke. it is referred to as a stand-alone task. In the business process component.You can implement a human task as part of the logic of a business process. and select Change type > Human task. select New. 6. 3. If the task is implemented within a business process. From the main menu. 2. Otherwise. • You want to define authorization rights on specific activities The standard method of creating an inline task is to drop a human task activity on to the canvas in the business process editor. It can either be implemented directly in the process using a human task activity. 5. right-click the invoke activity that originally connected to the human task component. and transform it into an inline task that is implemented by a human task activity. it is called an inline task. or independently of other processes. the main reason to use an inline human tasks is because they have direct access to the process context without the need to explicitly model the required information into the input message. you should model it as an inline task if any of the following conditions are present: • You need information from the process logic to run human interaction. Create a stand-alone task using the New human task wizard and then wiring the task to a business process using the assembly editor. In the Details tab of the human task. pick. Human task clients A human task client is a piece of software which provides an interactive link between a human task and the staff member assigned to work upon the task. receive. Inline task An inline task is defined within an implementation of a business process. and implements human interaction as a service that can be wired to any other component of the WebSphere® Integration Developer family of tools. Changing a stand-alone task to an inline task If you would like to take an existing stand-alone task that is invoked by an invoke activity in a business process. Select the interface that was used between the original business process component and the human task component. proceed as follows: 1. There are various types of client that you can generate for your human task: • IBM® Lotus® Form • Business Space powered by WebSphere® • Business Process Choreographer • WebSphere Portal portlet • JavaServer Faces (JSF) client . event handler. Delete the component as well. you should model it as a stand-alone task if any of the following conditions are present: • The task provides just another service • You intend to replace the stand-alone task later on and don't want to change the component to which it is wired.

select the documentation that you want. You must generate a client before you can define a user interface. in the main menu. From the main menu. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. select Integration Developer and click Apply to enable the business integration tools. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation.boulder. then expand Workbench to select Capabilities. 4. Expand the results under this repository location.ibm. Click Add. you need to install additional documentation. Clients are used to customize user interfaces for your human task. Go back to the first step to open Preferences again. You can even provide multiple clients for the same task. click Help > Software Updates. Note: If you do not see the Human Task Editor in the Business Integration preferences. a. Setting human task preferences You can use the Preferences window to modify the Human Task editor settings for the choice of people directory and assignment criteria. select Window > Preferences to open the Preferences window. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. or using the client generator in the human task editor. Expand Business Integration and expand Human Task Editor.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. 3. and you will see Business Integration. edit or delete an existing entry. You can create one client for all the human tasks in a module. The user interface is part of the human task client. Optional: Add a new people directory. Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Life cycle of human tasks or Life cycle of human tasks if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. To modify the Human Task editor preferences settings. and click Install. although they are closely related. You can generate a client manually. Life cycle of a human task A human task goes through a number of stages from its start to its finish. if you wish users in different roles to see different options for the task. follow these instructions: 1. Click People Directory to see the people directory settings that you can modify. select the Available Software tab. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Click OK to close the Preferences page. or you can create a separate client for each task. Enter a name for the new People directory. Then. Two different clients may provide very similar user interfaces to the staff member. Note: Human task clients and user interfaces are not synonymous. The Add people directory dialog opens. You can select a people directory to be the default for new human tasks. Note: If this link fails. . You can also add a new entry. and the staff member does not need knowledge of what client is being employed in order to interact with the human task. The user interface can be customized to your specific needs.Clients can be defined for both inline and stand-alone human tasks. b. A human task user interface is the interactive application that the staff member sees when they are working on a task. Note: Human task user interfaces and human task clients are not synonymous. 2. although they are closely related Human task user interfaces The user interface of a human task is the means by which a staff member interacts with a human task in the runtime environment.

select Integration Developer and click Apply to enable the business integration tools. Expand Business Integration and expand Human Task Editor. Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. d. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. b. d. a. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. Optional: Modify the name of the People directory. Click Apply when you are finished. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. 6. Click OK to save your preferences Setting human task preferences You can use the Preferences window to modify the Human Task editor settings for the choice of people directory and assignment criteria. At run time. 2. Note: If you do not see the Human Task Editor in the Business Integration preferences. For instance. Click Edit. select Window > Preferences to open the Preferences window. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. Click OK to close the Preferences page.c. 7. Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. . Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. c. 5. To modify the Human Task editor preferences settings. then expand Workbench to select Capabilities. For instance. Enter the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button. For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button. Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. At run time. Go back to the first step to open Preferences again. follow these instructions: 1. Optional: Modify the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. Optional: Edit an existing people directory. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. From the main menu. The Edit people directory dialog opens. and you will see Business Integration.

each with its own individual use. Optional: Add a new people directory. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. b. For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. b. or between two humans. 4. Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory. Optional: Modify the name of the People directory. Click OK to save your preferences Human Task editor The human task editor is a graphical programming environment that you use to configure the interaction between a service and its associated human participants. For each choice there is a set of predefined criteria. The Edit people directory dialog opens. Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. This entry creates an association between the JNDI name and the name that you provided in the People directory field. d. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. Click People Directory to see the people directory settings that you can modify. Click Edit. a. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button. You can also add a new entry. Click Add. Click Apply when you are finished. 6. At run time. the JNDI name is used to identify which staff resolution code to employ. Enter the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. Select the people assignment criteria for the new people directory. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. 5. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. edit or delete an existing entry. For instance.3. c. The Human Task editor is divided into several distinct areas. For instance. You can select a people directory to be the default for new human tasks. 7. . d. c. You can choose your own people assignment criteria (XML file) by selecting the final radio button and using the Browse button. At run time. Optional: Edit an existing people directory. When you are specifying people to work on a task the assignment criteria that you are presented with are determined by this selection. a. Each is described below. Provide a meaningful name since this entry will be used in other dialogs to refer to this people directory. Select the set of people assignment criteria that are associated with this people directory. The Add people directory dialog opens. if you select LDAP as the people directory for your human task then when you come to assign people to that task you will be presented with the LDAP-specific assignment criteria. Optional: Modify the corresponding JNDI name for the people directory. Enter a name for the new People directory.

o . When you click the icon. The display that you see will depend on what type of human task you are working with. The service interface area o This area shows the interface that is associated with this human task. but if you click the name of the interface. The people assignment area o This area shows details about the assignments of people who initiate or receive tasks. you will see a list of the people assignments that you can add to this task.The areas are as follows: 1. Click the icon to remove the authorization role that is currently selected. o You cannot modify the fields in this area. you can launch the interface editor and make the necessary changes. o 2. o The table shows a list of roles that users can assume when working with the task.

The escalations area o The escalation settings define how a task should be handled when an expected result has not been achieved within a set period of time. . The user interface area o Use this area to add additional. Click to add a new interface to the palette and then configure it in the Details area. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. Some pages display properties in tabular format. o 5. you can press F1 (or Ctrl+F1 on a Linux® system) to launch a help window and click the link to be taken directly to the product documentation for more details. o The contents of the page will differ on the object chosen. Assign people tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Assign people tab of the Properties view. Details tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Details tab of the Properties view. • • • • • • • Assign people tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Assign people tab of the Properties view.3. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. o 4. Duration tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Duration tab of the Properties view. Environment tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Environment tab of the Properties view. The properties view o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. In all cases. client type specific information to a human task that a client can interact with in the runtime environment. User interface settings tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the User interface tab of the Properties view. Description tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Description tab of the Properties view. Interface tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Interface tab of the Properties view. Properties marked with an * are mandatory.

claim the task. The value of the parameter can be changed by clicking into the value field and editing it. Unlike the display name. Parameter table Use this table to specify details like a group name and thus define the people that will be assigned by the selected criterion at runtime. If only one person qualifies. It can also be translated into other languages. Display name Use this field to define a name for a newly-created task. Test Click Test to confirm that the people assignment criteria that you use in your human tasks will return the correct people by the people directory that you are using. Name This is the name for the task template as it is known in the runtime environment. when all mandatory fields have a value. If you want to make changes to this value use the refactoring tool. the Names are all predefined. Namespace . and those that are mandatory will be marked with a "*". the user will have the option of claiming the task. You can use content assist for some of the values if you see the icon of a light bulb appear when you click the field. When the check box is clear. You can also specify replacement variables. for example. Enable it in cases when your people assignment query returns a single person. This name will be displayed to the user in the runtime environment through a user interface.People assignment criteria Choose the criteria for a query from the list. See related topics for more information on replacement variables. and you want this specific user to be automatically assigned the task in question. Description tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Description tab of the Properties view. and can be as descriptive as necessary to ensure that there is no confusion on the part of the user. This selection determines the group of people who share the same permissions and can. and requires at least one running Process Server to be defined in Servers view. See related topics for more information. Press Ctrl+Space to launch content assist. claim task automatically This check box is only available when the Potential Owners authorization role has been selected. The people assignment criteria that you see depends on the choice of people directory that you made on the human task preferences page. This button is available for all people assignment criteria except Everybody and Nobody. and use parts of the task input or output message as values for the parameters. You can choose from a list of pre-defined people assignment criteria definitions or you can define your own. it must not contain spaces or invalid characters. see related tasks for more information.

see related tasks for more information. If you want to make changes to this value. Folder This field shows the name of the folder in which this task resides.readers%'). Use refactoring to move the task to a different folder. Documentation Use this field to expand upon the description. or display additional supporting material for the task. Task level People directory . use the refactoring tool. Description Use this field to provide a relatively short explanation of what the task does. mandatory fields are marked with a "*". it will be resolved by the WebSphere Process Server and the actual value of the variable will be inserted with the placeholder.Use this field to specify the namespace for this human task. it will appear as a replacement variable in this field (for example: '%htm:task. When you choose a variable from the list. During runtime. Insert Variable Click this to see a list of predefined replacement variables that can be used in this field. A namespace is a way to further differentiate two files that may share the same name. • • • • Task level Escalations Business Process Choreographer Explorer Portal client In all cases. Details tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Details tab of the Properties view.

and have an audit trail generated. Before this date and time. Business category Use this field to enter a name that can be used to group tasks that share similar characteristics in order to facilitate sorting. Calendar values are represented in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The runtime system will then send the event to that event handler where you can further process it according to your needs. This language will be used if a language-sensitive element of the task (for example: display name. and how this should take place. Business-relevant Select this check box if you would like to monitor this task in a runtime environment. even when that owner is absent. the runtime engine cannot create instances of this task. Event handler name This setting is used in conjunction with the event escalation notification type. You can use the setting to decide whether the task can be assigned to another user. Use it when you want the task assigned to a specific owner. or when using API event handler. Task can be claimed when it is suspended Select this check box if you want a potential owner to be able to accept the task even when the task itself has been postponed. • No substitution • This is the default setting for the substitution policy. • Prefer present users • Use this setting to make sure that the task can only be assigned to a user who is active. and documentation) is not available in the language requested by the user client software. Enable subtask creation Select the Enable subtask creation check box when you want to allow the person who claims the task to be able break the task up into pieces and delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks. Enable follow-on task creation . Date (UTC) when task becomes valid Use these fields to specify the exact date and time that you would like this task to start. the priority value will decrease by a value of one with each escalation until 0 (the highest possible priority) is reached. with lower numbers having a higher priority. or to create or delete work items at runtime. Task priority Use this field to specify the level of importance of this task. In cases where the increase task priority attribute is enabled on an escalation (see the Details tab for Escalations below). description.Use this field to specify the people directory to be used by the people resolution for this task. Transfer task Select the Transfer task check box if you want to give users the ability to transfer work items of this task to other people. Substitution policy Use this field to specify what should happen should the task's preferred potential owners be unavailable. Default language This field shows the language (based on the geographical location associated with that language) that will be used in the client. • Replace absent users with their substitutes • Use this setting to assign the task to an alternate owner when the preferred owner is away. Use this field to specify the name of your event handler as installed in the runtime environment. You may use any positive integer between 0 and 2147483647.

• All subtasks ended • Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation thrown if the subtasks associated with this task have not been completed by the end of the escalation period. the task is tied to the life cycle of the invoking business process (the parent). custom properties. • Claimed • Choose this when you want an escalation raised if. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. or variables. You will have the three following options: • • Ended Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation thrown if the task is not complete by the end of the escalation period. at the end of the escalation period. Bind the life cycle to the invoking business process This field controls the autonomy of the invoked human task. Notification type Use this list to tell the system how to deal with this escalation. This setting is only valid for inline to-do tasks.Select this check box when you want to allow a user who is unable to complete a claimed task to assign the remaining work to another person. If the task is not in the state specified. Escalate after Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before this task is escalated. By default this information is only disclosed to process administrators and readers. Clear the check box to make the task a peer of its invoking business process. Select this check box to make the human task a child of the business process that invoked the task. Give owner read access to surrounding process context data Select this check box to allow the inline to-do task owner to view surrounding business process information such as input messages. . You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided. then an escalation is thrown. In this case. Escalations Expected task state Use this field to specify the state in which the task should be when the escalation times out. user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. WebSphere® CRON. the task has not yet been claimed by a user.

You can create a new message. a separate field becomes active from which you can choose an appropriate e-mail message. Increase this time only Choose this if you only want it to boost the priority in the first iteration. You will have three options: • • • • • • No Choose No to leave the priority unchanged. or select an appropriate message from the list and click Edit to make any necessary changes to it. Repeat notification every Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before the notification associated with this escalation is repeated. • Event • Choose Event if you want to trigger an event handler in the runtime environment. . Once you select this option. If you select this option. Increase task priority Use this list to determine if and how this escalation's priority will change with each iteration of it.You have three options: • • Work item Choose Work item to inform the person of a task by delivering it directly to a designated person's "to do" list. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. Increase per repetition Select this if you want the priority augmented each time this escalation is repeated. This field is active only if the Notification type is set to E-mail. Note that an escalation receiver work item will also be created. E-mail message Use this field to select the e-mail message that will be delivered to the escalation receivers when the escalation is raised (or thrown). user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. you then have to specify the event handler in the Event handler name field in the task's Details properties page. Note that an escalation receiver work item will also be created. WebSphere CRON. Business Process Choreographer Explorer The settings in this table define the nature of the Java™ Server Page (JSP) that the staff member sees when they are asked to interact with a task. • E-mail • Choose E-mail to have an e-mail message that announces the escalation delivered to a staff member. You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided.

In the table. the unique name is used to directly lookup a page which will be displayed. or browse to an existing one. which is assigned by the portal admin later on to the portal page he would like to be shown to a user when he selects a task in his task list. Portal client Use the settings on this page to configure the portal client UI element that will be associated with this human task. the same static page is reused. Therefore. . click Create Portlet. For all tasks of the same type. Click JSP editor to work with the actual JSP itself. as the name suggests. and use the context root field to define the runtime path to the JSP. and select a type for it from the Type list. the process designer can define a unique name for each human task. Configure the time using the spinners that are enabled when you choose this option. Task level Calendar type Use this field to specify a type of calendar that will measure the durations of this task. and then decide which role will see the JSP in the Apply to field.Click Add to define a new JSP. specify what fault will trigger it in the Fault field if this JSP will be shown in the event of a fault. The content of a task page can be defined by the portal administrator. You have the three following options: • • Simple This is. select one of two kinds of JSPs in the JSP type field. For task pages there are two available options: Page In this case. Duration tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Duration tab of the Properties view. Define its name in the Unique name field. and Edit to make changes to existing values. Remove to delete an existing definition. a simple arithmetic calendar. the unique name defined above is used to lookup an instance template from which a dynamic copy is created and added to the user's navigation in portal each time a task of this type is selected in the task list. Page definition When this option is used. When you are done. The template itself is not visible for the user. You can then create a new JSP. The process integration in WebSphere Portal is based on "task pages" that are assigned to human tasks and displayed to the user when he selects a task in his task list.

You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above. Duration until task expires Use this field to specify the amount of time that should pass before this task reaches an end state of "Expired". Use it to decide whether or not to delete the task based on its outcome. • User-defined • Use this option to select a calendar other than those provided. A business calendar can be used to model duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task in order to account for such variables as regular working hours. the task will not be removed from the system ever. • Business calendar • There will be more than three options in the Calendar type field if a business calendar is available. this setting means that the task will be considered due the moment it is assigned. Users can not work on a task once it has expired. You can select either of the following: • • • • • Immediate In this context. • On successful completion . two new fields will appear that you can use to name the calendar. weekends. See Related Tasks for more information. Duration until task is deleted Use this field to determine when the task will be removed from the system once it is complete. When you select it. the task will be deleted immediately after it is completed. Never In this context. Auto deletion mode This selection is not available if you choose Never on the Duration until task is deleted field. and will never expire. whether or not it was successfully completed. or choose one of the following options: • • Immediate In this context. the task will not be removed from the system ever. You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above. or choose one of the following options: • • • • • Immediate In this context. and holidays. this setting means that the task will not be given a due date. • Never • In this context. the task will be deleted the moment it expires. Never In this context. You have the following options: • • On completion Choose this option to delete the task from the system once it is finished. Examples of this type of calendar can be found in the Related Information section below. The state of the task does not change when it is overdue. Duration until task is overdue Use this field to set the period that will elapse between the time this task is started and the time that it is expected to be completed.• • WebSphere® CRON This is a built-in calendar that uses a list of term expressions representing elements of time to calculate the interval. and point to a valid Java™ Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location.

Use the settings on this page to select the single-operation Interface that is singularly associated with . User calendar JNDI This field appears when you choose the User-defined option in the Calendar type field above. Calendar name This field appears when you chose the User-defined option in the Calendar type field above. Remove to delete an existing one. Use this field to enter a name for your custom calendar.• Choose this option to only delete the task when it has been successfully completed. Use this field to specify the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location for your custom calendar. Environment tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Environment tab of the Properties view. Interface tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Interface tab of the Properties view. and Edit to make changes to one. Custom properties table Use the fields in this table to work with the custom properties that are defined by two fields: Name and Value. Click Add to create a new property (in which case a new window opens that lets you enter the key value pair).

Criteria act to further refine the list of members who can claim the work. During run time. Alternatively you can type the ContextRoot and file name directly in the respective fields. or at a specified web location. For forms stored in a web project. Select Module to store the form as part of the module.wbit. and people assignment criteria define who will be member of an authorization role.persistence package on the generated client. Enable this feature to pass the complete form (including digital signatures) to the tasks that follow this one. you must specify the form which will be displayed to the user in the Lotus Forms Client. or a new form within an existing web project. not an individual. Officially.client. authorization roles determine what their members are allowed to do in the runtime environment. click Browse to use an existing form. select Web Project to specify the web location of a form. Input/Output If a Lotus Forms client is defined for a human task. and which are working in the same form. modify the saveForm and getForm methods in the PersistenceService class in the com. For forms stored in the module. IBM® Lotus Forms client Select where to store your Lotus® Forms You can store your Lotus Forms as part of your module.form. There are six possible roles to choose from. By default Lotus Forms saves the files in the temporary directory of the WebSphere® Process Server it is running in (to change the location where the forms are saved. . click Browse to select an existing form in an existing web project. More specifically.ibm. save the Lotus Form when a task is saved or completed The generated client will save the transmitted Lotus Form after each Save or Complete request on the server. you must customize the generated client). or click New to a create a new web project. To understand how this works. People assignment settings Use the staff settings to determine which roles can interact with your human task.tel. Each staff member in this role group has the permissions assigned to the role as a whole.User interface settings tab: Human Task editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the User interface tab of the Properties view. and those that appear will depend on the kind of human task that you are working with. a people assignment criteria is a database query that retrieves a list of members from the runtime engine. you have to keep in mind that a task is assigned first and foremost to a role. To customize the save options. or the way the forms are stored. or click New to a create a form. The building blocks of the human task editor Compose your own human task using a combination of the following building blocks • • • • People assignment roles and criteria People assignment settings User interface settings Escalation settings People assignment roles and criteria Roles and criteria interact to identify staff members according to their access rights.

There are three user interfaces that you can chose from: • IBM® Lotus® Forms client Select IBM Lotus Forms client to present information to the user with the Lotus Forms Client. terminate. the task is delivered to the staff member via an HTML-based web page. You can modify these values as needed.• Administrators Administrators have the authority to perform upper level duties like suspend. • Potential starters Potential starters have the authority to initiate an existing instance. and force-complete. but cannot claim or complete it. The starter role is subtly different from that of creator. For example. only a starter can start it. and although a creator can create a new instance. the same employee fulfils both roles. an editor can receive the work item to review a document and add comments. • Potential owners Potential owners can claim. • Editors Editors can work with the content of a task. restart. This role is only associated with an invocation task. but an editor is not able to finish the task. This role can be used in situations where an employee wants to monitor as task without taking any action in it. • Portal client Select the portal client to specify a client that is executed on WebSphere® Portal Escalation settings . forceretry. but cannot start it. • Business Process Choreographer Explorer Select the Business Process Choreographer Explorer to use the standard client that is delivered with this product. User interface settings Use the User interface settings to determine how people interact with the tasks. but cannot work on them. • Readers Readers are allowed to view tasks. The look and feel of this web page is determined by the JSP values in the User interface settings table. • Potential creators Potential creators can create an instance of the human task. work on and complete tasks. In many usage scenarios. With this option.

select the Available Software tab. additional work was delegated to other people in order to complete the parent task. because its value is dependent upon the task context in which it is exists (or the process context for inline tasks). you create an escalation for it by stipulating what state the task should be in at the end of a specific period of time. you need to install additional documentation. select the documentation that you want. and what to do if it isn't. • Subtask started When a task is in the waiting for subtasks state. a person has accepted the work and should currently be working on it. Invocation scenarios for invocation tasks The various ways in which tasks can be invoked is described. • Running This state is only available with invocation tasks. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers should the subtasks not be completed within a specified period of time.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. If you want to refer to such a context variable in a template. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). it is waiting to be claimed. Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Scenarios for invoking tasks or Scenarios for invoking tasks if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. In WebSphere Integration Developer. you begin by specifying the state that the task is in when the escalation period begins (this is also known as the activation state and there are three options shown in the human task editor). and click Install. you must use a replacement variable. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib.ibm. it has invoked the service and waits for it to complete.Use the escalation settings to specify how long to wait for a task to complete. you might want to refer to a variable that will not be resolved until the instance has been started in the runtime environment. This variable is known as a context variable. Note: If this link fails. in the main menu. • Claimed When a task is in the claimed state. Replacement variables and context variables While working with templates in the tooling environment. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers should the owner fail to complete the work within a specified period of time. Then. and which role to notify when it doesn't. There are four possible activation states: • Ready When a task is in the ready state.boulder. When you configure an escalation. Expand the results under this repository location. Once you have chosen the activation state. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers should nobody claim it within a specified period of time. . You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. When a task is in the running state. click Help > Software Updates. Configure the escalation settings to notify people or escalation receivers when the invoked service does not return an output or fault message in time.

For example. • If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable. • durations of tasks • priority of tasks • the type property (business category) of tasks • custom properties of tasks • durations of escalations • custom properties of escalations Use of replacement variables Context variables might only be available during specific periods of an instance's life cycle (a task owner is only defined once the task has been claimed) and can resolve either to single or multiple values. then you will need to use two percent signs (“%%”) instead of one.Context variables can come from many sources. input/output messages. • Variables can contain XPath expressions. • • Replacement variables in people assignment criteria and task descriptions When used in descriptions for people assignment criteria and human tasks. However. Replacement variables in staff e-mails When used in escalation-based staff e-mails. • If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable. • Variables can contain XPath expressions. In cases when you can use a replacement variable. Multiple values are returned in a string array (which is represented as a comma separated list when used in an email) . you can also enter a replacement variable into a template directly by encapsulating it in "%" signs. in the case of inline tasks. replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment.originator % Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed. To use a replacement variable in a template.). including the following: • staff queries of tasks • staff queries of escalations • in the description and documentation of tasks • in the description and documentation of escalations • in notification e-mails sent by escalations. encapsulate it in '%' signs. custom properties and. from the surrounding business process. . they can originate from previous staff resolutions. Replacement variables for escalation duration expressions The Escalate within value can also be represented by a replacement variable that refers to a variable that will get resolved in the runtime environment. They can be used in many places within the tooling environment. it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37. If an XPath expression contains a "%" sign. If an XPath expression contains a “%” sign. For instance %htm:task. For instance %htm:task. replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment.). you will simply be able to click the associated Insert Variable button and choose something appropriate from the Replacement Variable Selection window.originator% Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed. The categories shown below contain specific details on which expressions can be used and when. then you will need to use two percent signs ("%%") instead of one. replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment. • Replacement variables in people assignment criteria and task descriptions When used in descriptions for people assignment criteria and human tasks. it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37.

owner htm:task.editors htm:task. the query string will be evaluated.Replacement variables for people assignment criteria and descriptions in human tasks can contain the contents of variables and messages. In addition resolved people assignment criteria of sibling inline tasks can be used from other inline tasks. htm:task. they must be enclosed in '%' characters. For binary custom properties.readers htm:task.potentialStarters htm:task.starter htm:task.displayName htm:task. or an inline human task.originator Expression Description the user ID of the originator of this task instance the user ID of the owner of this task instance task starter name list of task administrators list of potential task owners list of task editors list of task readers list of potential task starters list of potential creators htm:task. Type of variable Staff Variables htm:task. When these expressions are used inside descriptions as well as people assignment criteria. A list of all expressions that can be used in stand-alone human tasks.instanceID default task display name default task description task instance id . Stand-alone human tasks The following table lists all expressions that are available for stand-alone human tasks (i.description htm:task.customPropertyName value of the task's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated.e. tasks that are not embedded inline in a process).property. Table 1.potentialInstanceCreators Task variables htm:task. Available expressions differ depending on whether it is a stand-alone.administrators htm:task.potentialOwners htm:task.

property. A list of all expressions that can be used in stand-alone human tasks.receivers htm:escalation. Type of variable Expression htm:input. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <wsdl:definitions xmlns:tns="http://variables/variablesInterface" xmlns:wsdl="http://schemas.xmlsoap. For example. <?xml version="1.instanceID htm:escalation(escalationName).output.input. %htm:output.customPropertyName default escalation description escalation's expected task state a string representation of the escalation instance id escalation receivers value of escalation's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated.\input1%. For binary custom properties.Table 1. the expressions %htm:input. Escalation variables htm:escalation. the WSDL code shown below defines a task interface comprising of an operation with one input parameter (input1) and one output parameter (output1).part[\XPath]) Description data from task's input message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part.description htm:escalation.org/2001/XMLSchema" name="variablesInterface" targetNamespace="http://variables/variablesInterface"> <wsdl:types> . Also see the notes below.part[\XPath]) data from task's output message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part. In this case. You can use either %htm.\XPath% to refer to input or output parameters of the operation defined for a task interface. Also see the notes below. the query string will be evaluated.[part][\XPath] (or htm:output. in which case the part name does not have to be specified. in which case the part name does not have to be specified.expectedTaskState htm:escalation.[part][\XPath] (or htm:input.\output1% can be used to reference the defined parameters.w3.\XPath% or %htm.org/wsdl/" xmlns:xsd="http://www.) Note that task instances have no default message. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.) htm:output.

%htm:output.operation1Result\output1% are valid and equivalent to %htm:input. %htm:output.w3.<xsd:schema targetNamespace="http://variables/variablesInterface" xmlns:tns="http://variables/variablesInterface" xmlns:xsd="http://www. and object will be replaced by what the toString() method returns.\output1% .part[\XPath]%. and %htm:input.operation1Parameters\input1%. Inline human tasks In addition to the expressions in the previous table. Currently. .part[\XPath]% can be used to refer to input and output parameters associated with the different WSDL message parts defined for a task operation. Note. so it can only be used on expressions that exclude message part names. Table 2.VariableName\[part][\XPath] Description 'VariableName\[part][\XPath]' is passed to BFM to resolve the variable/expression. that the description of an inline human task is resolved by the Business Flow Manager (BFM) and must therefore be modeled to use the syntax described in the previous section. a human task that is embedded inline in a process can also use the expressions listed in the following table for staff resolution. It is expected that XPATH will point to objects of type String. In general. expressions like %htm:input. For example. only single-part messages are generated. A list of the expressions that can be use with inline human tasks.org/2001/XMLSchema"> <xsd:element name="operation1"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="input1" nillable="true" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> <xsd:element name="operation1Response"> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="output1" nillable="true" type="xsd:string"/> </xsd:sequence> </xsd:complexType> </xsd:element> </xsd:schema> </wsdl:types> <wsdl:message name="operation1RequestMsg"> <wsdl:part element="tns:operation1" name="operation1Parameters"/> </wsdl:message> <wsdl:message name="operation1ResponseMsg"> <wsdl:part element="tns:operation1Response" name="operation1Result"/> </wsdl:message> <wsdl:portType name="variablesInterface"> <wsdl:operation name="operation1"> <wsdl:input message="tns:operation1RequestMsg" name="operation1Request"/> <wsdl:output message="tns:operation1ResponseMsg" name="operation1Response"/> </wsdl:operation> </wsdl:portType> </wsdl:definitions> In addition. the expressions %htm:input. or String List. Type of variable Process variables Expression wf:variable.\input1%.

Table 2. A list of the expressions that can be use with inline human tasks. Type of variable

Expression wf:property.customPropertyName

Description The 'customPropertyName' is passed to the BFM to resolve the custom property.

Inline staff variables

wf:process.starter

The starter of the process.

wf:process.administrators wf:process.readers wf:activity(activityName).potentialOwners

The administrators of the process. The readers of the process. The potential owners of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The owner of the activity named in brackets The editors of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The readers of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets

wf:activity(activityName).owner

wf:activity(activityName).editors

wf:activity(activityName).readers

Note that inline staff variables which refer to sibling activities can only be resolved if the referred activity is also an inline human task and is already started at the point in time when the staff resolution happens. As with stand-alone tasks, it is expected that XPATH will point to objects of type String, or String List. In general, and object will be replaced by what the toString() method returns.

Replacement variables in staff e-mails
When used in escalation-based staff e-mails, replacement variables can be used to represent context variables that will be fully resolved in the runtime environment. To use a replacement variable in a template, encapsulate it in '%' signs. For instance %htm:task.originator % Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed. • If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable, then you will need to use two percent signs (“%%”) instead of one. • Variables can contain XPath expressions. If an XPath expression contains a “%” sign, it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37;).

Table 1. A list of all expressions that can be used in e-mails. Type of variable Staff Variables htm:task.originator

Expression

Description the user ID of the originator of this task instance the user ID of the owner of this task instance task starter name list of task administratorss list of potential task owners list of task editors list of task readers list of potential task starters list of potential creators

htm:task.owner

htm:task.starter htm:task.administratorss htm:task.potentialOwners htm:task.editors htm:task.readers htm:task.potentialStarters htm:task.potentialInstanceCreators

Task variables

htm:task.property.customPropertyName

value of the task's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated. For binary custom properties, the query string will be evaluated.

htm:task.displayName htm:task.description htm:task.instanceID htm:task.URLPrefix

default task display name default task description task instance id the link to the client that displays the task details that is used to construct HTTP references in emails. the link to the administrative client when a custom admin client is used (otherwise, use htm:task.URLBPCExplorer instead). the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL

htm:task.URLPrefixAdmin

htm:task.URLBPCExplorer

Table 1. A list of all expressions that can be used in e-mails. Type of variable

Expression

Description with task details

htm:input.[part][\XPath] (or htm:input.part[\XPath])

data from task's input message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part, in which case the part name does not have to be specified. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.)

htm:output.[part][\XPath] (or htm:output.part[\XPath])

data from task's output message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part, in which case the part name does not have to be specified. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.)

Note that task instances have no default message.

Escalation variables

htm:escalation.activationState htm:escalation.description htm:escalation.displayName htm:escalation.expectedTaskState htm:escalation.instanceID htm:escalation(escalationName).receivers htm:escalation.property.customPropertyName

escalation's activation state default escalation description escalation display name escalation's expected task state a string representation of the escalation instance id escalation receivers value of escalation's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated. For binary custom properties, the query string will be evaluated.

htm:escalation.receivers htm:escalation.URLPrefix

list of users who receive the escalation the link to the client that displays the escalation details used to

potentialOwners The starter of the process.customPropertyName This resolves the variable and expression.originator % or as shown in the screen capture below. then this is the time at which the escalation is evaluated the first time). The potential owners of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The owner of either the activity named in brackets The editors of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The readers of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets wf:activity(activityName). . encapsulate it in '%' signs. Note: • Using percent signs within variable names is not allowed.administrators wf:process.owner wf:activity(activityName). htm:escalation.URLBPCExplorer the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL with escalation details Process variables wf:variable.readers Note: For those expressions with XPath.starter wf:process. This resolves the custom property.Table 1. Inline staff variables wf:process. Replacement variables for escalation duration expressions The Escalate within value can also be represented by a replacement variable that refers to a variable that will get resolved in the runtime environment. For instance %htm:task. and object will be replaced by what the toString() method returns. or String List.editors wf:activity(activityName). A list of all expressions that can be used in e-mails. it is expected that XPath will point to objects of type String. The readers of the process. Type of variable Expression Description construct HTTP references in emails.\messagePartName[\XPathExpression] wf:property. The administrators of the process. and the variable must exist at the escalation's creation time (otherwise you will get an error and the transaction will be rolled back). This variable that is referenced must contain a time specification that is valid when the escalation is evaluated (if there are repeated escalations. In general. To use a replacement variable in a template.readers wf:activity(activityName).

2. As the duration. Add a variable to your project that contains a string that will be passed to the human task in the input message. it must be escaped as specified by XML (using &#37. enter %htm:input.owner htm:task. Select the escalation object and go to the Details tab in the Properties view.potentialStarters .). • Variables can contain XPath expressions. If an XPath expression contains a “%” sign. proceed as follows: 1. and one that will contain a valid time specification at runtime.\yourVariableName%.If you want to use a percent sign in a string within the replacement variable. A list of all expressions that can be used in duration expressions.administrators htm:task. Type of variable Staff Variables htm:task.potentialOwners htm:task. • Table 1.starter htm:task.readers htm:task. in this example %htm:input. then you will need to use two percent signs (“%%”) instead of one. To specify the escalation time dynamically.editors htm:task.\myEscalationTime%.originator Expression Description the user ID of the originator of this task instance the user ID of the owner of this task instance task starter name list of task administrators list of potential task owners list of task editors list of task readers list of potential task starters htm:task. 3.

When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used. use htm:task.property. in which case the part name does not have to be specified.URLPrefix default task display name default task description task instance id the link to the client that displays the task details that is used to construct HTTP references in e-mails.[part][\XPath] (or htm:output.) Note that task instances have no default message.URLPrefixAdmin htm:task.part[\XPath]) htm:output.) htm:task.potentialInstanceCreators Description list of potential creators Task variables htm:task.part[\XPath]) data from task's output message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part. For binary custom properties.customPropertyName value of the task's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated.displayName htm:task.instanceID htm:task.Table 1. the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL with task details data from task's input message is provided using XPath expressions (Process Server messages usually have a single part.URLBPCExplorer instead). in which case the part name does not have to be specified. A list of all expressions that can be used in duration expressions. the link to the administrative client when a custom admin client is used (otherwise.description htm:task. the query string will be evaluated. Escalation variables htm:escalation.URLBPCExplorer htm:input. htm:task. When using messages with multiple parts then the syntax in parenthesis has to be used.[part][\XPath] (or htm:input.activationState escalation's activation state . Type of variable Expression htm:task.

\messagePartName[\XPathExpression] wf:property. dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. .customPropertyName Description default escalation description escalation display name escalation's expected task state a string representation of the escalation instance id escalation receivers value of escalation's custom properties Note that only the string value of properties can be evaluated. This resolves the custom property. For binary custom properties.editors wf:activity(activityName).administrators wf:process.potentialOwners wf:activity(activityName).property.displayName htm:escalation. A list of all expressions that can be used in duration expressions.description htm:escalation. The potential owners of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The owner of either the activity named in brackets The editors of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets The readers of either the current activity or the activity named in brackets Refactoring a human task When you refactor parts of your human task.owner wf:activity(activityName). htm:escalation. The readers of the process.expectedTaskState htm:escalation.starter wf:process.receivers htm:escalation.URLPrefix list of users who receive the escalation the link to the client that displays the escalation details used to construct HTTP references in e-mails.readers wf:activity(activityName).customPropertyName This resolves the variable and expression.receivers htm:escalation. the query string will be evaluated. Inline staff variables wf:process.URLBPCExplorer Process variables wf:variable. Type of variable Expression htm:escalation.instanceID htm:escalation(escalationName).readers The starter of the process. the link to the Business Process Choreographer Explorer URL with escalation details htm:escalation. The administrators of the process.Table 1.

a. b. In the Select Export Directory window. or use a context menu in the Business Integration view. proceed as follows: a. c. These are the names of the fields that you can change. The window will then display a list of the property files that will be exported. Supporting other languages With the internationalization settings of the human task editor. A properties file will be exported for each locale that is currently present in the human task. proceed as follows: 1. right-click the human task. In the Business Integration view. Use this option to move your task to a new folder or module. 2. proceed as follows: a. you can display client-based information in multiple languages. 1. . To refactor parts of your human task from a properties page. You can use this functionality to provide text strings for the following: • Task name • Task description • Documentation • Escalations To internationalize a human task. and select Internationalization > Export. as well as the property page on which they are located: Field name Name Property page Description Description Use this option to change the name assigned to the task. You can either do it from an appropriate field within the properties pages.There are two ways in which you can refactor parts of your human task. hover over Refactor and then choose from one of the following three options: Option Rename Move Change Namespace Description Use this option to change the name assigned to the human task. A new window will appear in which you can change the property as necessary. Namespace Description b. Right-click an empty area of the human task editor. Use this option to assign a new namespace to your task. specify a file location and name for the output. To refactor using the context menu. Click the field that contains the property that you would like to refactor. From the menu. press Alt+Shift+R. Use this option to assign a new namespace to your task. Once the refactoring toolbar appears.

b. the internationalization information will be passed to the runtime environment. Have the content of each of the properties files translated. In the Details tab of the properties area. Save your work. a German properties file would be named TaskName_de_DE. To add another role to this task.properties. 3. You can use native2ascii tool that is provided with the Java™ SDK to transform a text file from the platform's native encoding to ASCII. When it comes to working on tasks. you will be configuring the roles for the people who will be able to claim and work on this task. click Finish. proceed as follows: 1. The window will then display a list of the property files that can be imported. In the Outline view. and select Internationalization > Import. When you deploy this human task. you will be configuring the roles for the people who will be able to initiate the task. 2. proceed as follows: a. Both receiver and originator Since a collaboration task is assigned to one person from another. The display that you see will depend on what kind of human task you are working with. it has both receiver and originator settings. When you are done. right-click an empty area of the human task canvas. and rename each one according to the language that it represents. the role that the person belongs to defines their authorization. There are keys included in the properties files. Assigning roles to your human task A role is a set of employees who share the same level of authority. For example. do not rename the task or any of its escalations. When you have the translated properties files. Make sure that the text is properly ASCII encoded. click the icon and select one from the drop down list. and they have to match the original source material. When you are done. there will already be a few roles selected. Launch your human task in the editor. To add a role to your human task. b. Originator In this case. The drop down list will only show those roles that are still available to be chosen. a. browse to the folder where you stored the properties files and click Open. 4. click your task to choose it as a whole. Invocation Collaboration 2. select an appropriate language from the default language field. the user interface will display the text in the language that corresponds to the requesting systems's locale. To change the default client locale. Important: In the human task editor. In the Select Import Directory and Property Files. and the display for the people assignment settings will differ as such: Kind of task To-do People assignment display Receiver In this case. click Finish. c. For example. See above for descriptions of each. b. Here is a list and a description of each of the roles that you will be able to work with: . and the next time a template of this task is instantiated.

In the Assign People tab of the properties area. Readers are allowed to view tasks. In many usage scenarios. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. Potential creators Potential starters Potential starters have the authority to initiate an existing instance. . click Help > Software Updates. force-retry. in the main menu. but cannot start it. Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Configuring the people directory provider or Configuring the people directory provider if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. 4. Note: If this link fails. This role can be used in situations where an employee wants to monitor as task without taking any action in it. select it in the table. work on and complete tasks. This role is only associated with an invocation task.ibm. but an editor is not able to finish the task. Potential creators can create an instance of the human task. Available roles and their descriptions Role (icon) Administrators Description Administrators have the authority to perform higher level duties like suspend. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). and although a creator can create a new instance. the same employee fulfils both roles. For example. and click Install. use the people assignment criteria settings to specify which people should belong to the role in question. only a starter can start it. select the documentation that you want. but cannot work on them. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. restart. and click . To remove an existing role. Potential owners can claim. you need to install additional documentation. terminate. an editor can receive the work item to review a document and add comments. Potential owners Editors Editors can work with the content of a task.boulder. Configuring the people directory Use this task to configure the LDAP or VMM people directory provider that Business Process Choreographer uses to determine who can start a process or claim an activity or a task. for composing e-mails. The starter role is subtly different from that of creator. the people resolution uses the people assignment criteria to retrieve the user IDs and other user information. Defining the people assignment criteria People assignment criteria are constructs that are used in the task model to identify sets of people that can be assigned to an instance-based authorization role.Table 1. and force-complete. In WebSphere Integration Developer. but cannot claim or complete it. select the Available Software tab. for example. At runtime. Readers 3. Then. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Expand the results under this repository location.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/.

Customizing people assignment criteria You can also extend the set of predefined people assignment criteria by customizing your own criteria. especially when assigning more than a few people to the group. These criteria are transformed during modeling and deployment into a set of queries that can be run on a people directory.ibm. Predefined people assignment criteria Predefined people assignment criteria are provided for retrieving sets of users from people directories. a person that is absent can be replaced by another person. that is. A variant of this people assignment criteria. Group Members without Named Users supports the separation-of-duties assignment pattern. The Group Members people assignment criteria creates an assignment for each person individually. select the documentation that you want. This allows you to transfer a human task from one group to another group easily. Creating queries When an application is deployed. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Substitution can occur.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. Note: Assigning people to a group individually can affect performance at runtime. people assignment criteria definitions are transformed into sets of queries that are specific to a people directory configuration. In WebSphere Integration Developer. you need to install additional documentation. You can use people assignment criteria (previously known as staff verbs) in WebSphere® Integration Developer to specify people assignments in a human task. select the Available Software tab. and click Install. click Help > Software Updates. • To individually assign people that belong to a group to a human task. This assignment can then be transferred to another person. A person’s group membership is resolved when the person logs in and accesses a human task. the Group people assignment criteria works best because it handles the members of a group as a unit. Then. • • • Predefined people assignment criteria Predefined people assignment criteria are provided for retrieving sets of users from people directories.Information on this topic can be found by following this link: People assignment criteria or People assignment criteria if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . The resulting people queries are stored with the task template in the Business Process Choreographer database. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation.boulder. in the main menu. The parameters for the following predefined people assignment criteria are listed here: Department Members Everybody Group Group Members Group Members without Named Users Group Members without Filtered Users Group Search Manager of Employee Manager of Employee by user ID Native Query Nobody Person Search Role Members User Records by user ID User Records by user ID without Named Users Users Users by user ID Users by user ID without Named Users Consider the following when you assign people assignment criteria: • If you are working with large groups of people. the Group Members people assignment criteria provides an alternative to the group assignment. Note: If this link fails. Expand the results under this repository location.

it provides less functionality: o It does not check if the user IDs are entered correctly o It does not retrieve. a distinguished name (DN) of an LDAP group IncludeNestedDepartments Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested departments are considered in the query. AlternativeDepartmentName 1 Optional string An additional department to which the users can belong. Although the Users by user ID definition performs better than the User Records by user ID definition at runtime. AlternativeDepartmentName 2 Optional string Everybody Use this criteria to assign every user that is authenticated by WebSphere Process Server to a task role. This criteria has no parameters. This criteria is supported by all of the people directory providers. Replacement expressions can refer to custom properties or the input message of a human task. this definition is particularly useful during development. It is supported by the LDAP. consider using the User Records by user ID people assignment criteria definition. Parameter Use Type Description DepartmentName Mandatory string Department name of the users to retrieve. While there are cases where all people in an organization can do a certain job. for example. a unique name of a virtual member manager group For LDAP.• • • To assign a few people to a human task that do not all belong to the same group. and the virtual member manager people directory providers. The Users by user ID people assignment criteria definition is similar to the User Records by user ID definition. the e-mail addresses for the user IDs specified. If you choose Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) as your provider. but includes replacement expressions. You can also use this definition when the people assignment is not statically defined during modeling. An additional department to which the users can belong. The list of people assignment criteria that you see is filtered by your choice of people directory provider. The department name must correspond to one of the following values: • • For virtual member manager. Group . Department Members Use this criteria to retrieve the members of a department. It indicates that all authenticated users are assigned to the human task. then criteria that are appropriate only for virtual member manager will not be displayed. or when rapidly prototyping an application. which makes it less suitable for assigning people to e-mail escalations The Everybody people assignment criteria definition is also worth considering.

The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • • • For virtual member manager. It is supported by the LDAP.Use this criteria to assign a group to a task role. This criteria is supported by all of the people directory providers. a DN of a group entry • For the user registry provider. Parameter Use Type Description GroupName Mandatory string Group name of the users to retrieve. Parameter Use Type Description Group name of the users to retrieve. a unique name of a group entry For LDAP. use a group name that is supported by the local operating system o For a stand-alone custom registry. This parameter supports replacement expressions. use a group name that is supported . This assignment creates a group work item instead of creating user work items for every assigned user. use a DN of a group entry GroupId Mandatory string Group Members Use this criteria to retrieve the members of a group. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system. This parameter supports replacement expressions. use a group name supported by the custom implementation o For a stand-alone LDAP registry. and the user registry people directory providers. a DN of a group entry For the user registry provider. virtual member manager. a unique name of a group entry • For LDAP. The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • For virtual member manager. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system.

AlternativeGroupName1 Optional string An additional group to which the users can belong. Parameter Use Type Description GroupName Mandatory string Group name of the users to retrieve. This parameter supports replacement expressions. AlternativeGroupName2 Optional string Group Members without Named Users Use this criteria to retrieve all of the members of a group.Parameter Use Type Description by the local operating system For a stand-alone custom registry. except for the explicitly named users. It is supported by the LDAP. a DN of a group entry For the user registry provider. a unique name of a group entry For LDAP. use a group name supported by the custom implementation For a stand-alone LDAP registry. virtual member manager. use a DN of a group entry o o IncludeSubgroups Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested subgroups are considered in the query. An additional group to which the users can belong. use a group name supported by the custom implementation o For a stand-alone LDAP registry. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system. and the user registry people directory providers. use a DN of a group entry IncludeSubgroups Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested subgroups are . use a group name that is supported by the local operating system o For a stand-alone custom registry. The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • • • For virtual member manager.

Type Optional string The group type of the users to retrieve. This parameter supports replacement expressions.Parameter Use Type Description considered in the query. Parameter Use Type Description GroupName Mandatory string Group name of the users to retrieve. NamedUsers Mandatory string Group Members without Filtered Users Use this criteria to retrieve all of the members of a group except for a set of users that is defined by a search filter. in the filter. The user IDs of the users to exclude from the retrieved group members list. a unique name of a group entry For LDAP. a DN of a group entry Specifies whether nested subgroups are considered in the query. and virtual member manager people directory providers. and virtual member manager people directory providers. It is supported by the LDAP. and to assign the members of the group. This parameter supports replacement expression. asterisk (*). IndustryType Optional string The industry type of the group to which the . FilterValue Mandatory string Group Search Use this criteria to search for a group based on attribute matches. The group ID must correspond to one of the following values: • • IncludeSubgroups Mandatory boolean For virtual member manager. Filter value to use in the search filter. It is supported by the LDAP. FilterAttribute Mandatory string Name of the attribute to use in the search filter. Parameter Use Type Description GroupID Optional string The group ID of the users to retrieve. You can use the wildcard character.

GeographicLocation Optional string An indication of where the users are located. It is supported by the LDAP and virtual member manager people directory providers. BusinessType Optional string The business type of the group to which the users belong. DisplayName Optional string The display name of the group. Secretary Optional string The secretary of the users. the Group entity has properties that are equivalent to the following Group Search criteria parameters: • GS_GroupID: cn • GS_DisplayName: displayName • GS_BusinessCategory: businessCategory Manager of Employee Use this criteria to retrieve the manager of a person using the person's name.Parameter Use Type Description users belong. Affiliates Optional string The affiliates of the users. BusinessCategory Optional string The business category of the group to which the users belong. Parameter Use Type Description The name of the employee whose manager is retrieved. The employee name must correspond to one of the EmployeeName Mandatory string . The parent company of the users. ParentCompany Optional string For virtual member manager. Manager Optional string The manager of the users. Assistant Optional string The assistant of the users.

user. Supported values: yes and no AdditionalParameter2 Optional string Use this criteria to specify a base entry for . or usersOfGroup. This parameter supports replacement expressions. The type of parameter depends on the query template. Parameter Use Type Description The login user ID of the employee whose manager is retrieved. Query Mandatory string Specifies the query. This must be one of the following values: search. Supported values: yes and no user template: not applicable usersOfGroup: Used to specify whether recursive search is done. • • • AdditionalParameter1 Mandatory where applicable string search template: a valid LDAP filter user template: a DN of a user entry usersOfGroup: a DN of a group Specifies the query. This parameter supports replacement expressions. This parameter supports replacement expressions. For LDAP the following parameters apply: Parameter Use Type Description QueryTemplate Mandatory string The query template to use. a DN of a person entry Manager of Employee by user ID Use this criteria to retrieve the manager of a person using the person's user ID. • • • search template: used to specify whether recursive search is done.Parameter Use Type Description following values: • For virtual member manager. The type of query depends on the query template. It is supported by the LDAP and virtual member manager people directory providers. the unique name of a person entry • For LDAP. EmployeeUserID Mandatory string Native Query Use this criteria to define a native query based on directory-specific parameters.

Parameter Use Type Description searching. this parameter is not supported. this parameter is not supported. Query Mandatory string Specifies the query. The type of query depends on the query template. • AdditionalParameter3 Optional string a DN of a base entry Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. AdditionalParameter5 Optional string Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. This must be one of the following values: search. this parameter is not supported. • • • search template: a valid search expression user template: a unique name of a user entry usersOfGroup: a unique name of a group AdditionalParameter1 Mandatory where applicable string Used to specify whether performing a people or group search. Mandatory depending on query template. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. or usersOfGroup. user. This parameter supports replacement expressions. • • • search template: either person or group user template: not applicable usersOfGroup: not applicable . For virtual member manager (VMM) people directory providers the following parameters apply: Parameter Use Type Description QueryTemplate Mandatory string The query template to use. AdditionalParameter4 Optional string Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter.

this parameter is not supported. It is supported by the LDAP. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. Supported values: true and false. AdditionalParameter5 Optional string Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. If you use the default mapping XSLT files. Only authorization inheritance and people resolution defaults apply with this criteria. virtual member manager. • a unique name of a base entry. dc=com AdditionalParameter3 Optional string Used to specify whether recursive search is done. for example. . Parameter Use Type Description UserID Optional string The user ID of the users to retrieve. FirstName Optional string The first name of the users to retrieve. This criteria has no parameters. LastName Optional string The last name of the users to retrieve. Profile Optional string The profile of the users to retrieve. Person Search Use this criteria to search for people based on attribute matches. and the user registry people directory providers. dc=mycomp.Parameter Use Type Description AdditionalParameter2 Optional string Use this criteria to specify a base entry for searching. • • • AdditionalParameter4 Optional string search template: applicable when AdditioanlParmeter1=group user template: not applicable usersOfGroup: applicable Use this criteria to specify an additional parameter. Nobody Use this criteria to deny users access to a task role. this parameter is not supported.

Phone Optional string The telephone number of the users. Manager Optional string The manager of the users. Timezone Optional string The time zone in which the users are located. Gender Optional string Whether the user is male or female. The preferred language of the user. Fax Optional string The fax number of the users. Secretary Optional string The secretary of the users. Email Optional string The e-mail address of the users. Assistant Optional string The assistant of the users. Department Optional string The department to which the users belong. DisplayName Optional string The display name of the users. PreferredLanguage Optional string For virtual member manager. Company Optional string The company to which the users belong.Parameter Use Type Description MiddleName Optional string The middle name of the users to retrieve. the PersonAccount entity has properties that are equivalent to the following People Search criteria parameters: • PS_UserID: uid • PS_LastName: sn • PS_FirstName: givenName • PS_MiddleName: initials • PS_Email: mail • PS_DisplayName: displayName • PS_Secretary: secretary .

It is supported by the LDAP. AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID. AlternativeID2 Optional string Users Records by User ID without Named Users Use this criteria to define a query for users whose user ID is known. virtual member manager. AlternativeRoleName1 Optional string An additional role name for the user. while excluding an explicitly named user ID.• • • • PS_Manager: manager PS_Department: departmentNumber PS_Phone: telephoneNumber PS_PreferredLanguage: preferredLanguage Role Members Use this criteria to retrieve the users associated with a role. This criteria returns the user IDs. if set. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. and the preferred locale. for these users. . It is supported by the LDAP. IncludeNestedRoles Mandatory boolean Specifies whether nested roles are considered in the query. This criteria returns the user IDs and the e-mail information for these users. virtual member manager people directory providers. Parameter Use Type Description RoleName Mandatory string Role name of the users to retrieve. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. An additional user ID. An additional role name for the user. It is supported by the LDAP and virtual member manager people directory providers. AlternativeRoleName2 Optional string User Records by User ID Use this criteria to define a query for a user whose user ID is known. the e-mail information. Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve. and user registry people directory providers. This parameter supports replacement expressions.

An additional user name. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID. This parameter supports replacement expressions. Parameter Use Type Description Name Mandatory string The name of the user to retrieve. the unique name of a person entry For LDAP. a DN of a person entry For the user registry provider. • • • For virtual member manager. AlternativeID2 Optional string An additional user ID. use the user ID of the user to assign o For a stand-alone custom registry. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. use a DN of a person entry AlternativeName1 Optional string An additional user name. the name format you use depends on which user repository is set for the application server where the task is deployed: o For the local operating system. use a person name supported by the custom implementation o For a stand-alone LDAP registry.Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve. It is supported by all of the people directory providers. The user IDs of the users to exclude from the user ID list. AlternativeName2 Optional string . This parameter supports replacement expressions. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. NamedUsers Mandatory string Users Use this criteria to define a query for a user who is known by name.

Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. The user IDs of the users to exclude from the user ID list.wbit. while excluding an explicitly named user ID.ibm. AlternativeID2 Optional string Users by User ID without Named Users Use this criteria to define a query for users whose user ID is known. Use short names to specify values. An additional user ID.2. It is supported by all of the people directory providers. Copy one of XML files that contain the people assignment criteria definitions to a convenient location. 1. These files must be extracted from com. This parameter supports replacement expressions.ui_6. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. It is supported by all of the people directory providers. This parameter supports replacement expressions. AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID. This parameter supports replacement expressions.Users by User ID Use this criteria to define a query for a user whose user ID is known. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. copy and modify one of the provided examples and then add your new version to your human task preferences. AlternativeID2 Optional string An additional user ID. AlternativeID1 Optional string An additional user ID.version_number. This criteria does not require access to a people repository.jar . This criteria does not require access to a people directory. NamedUsers Mandatory string Customizing people assignment criteria You can also extend the set of predefined people assignment criteria by customizing your own criteria. for example. for example. Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve. wpsadmin. To create a customized people assignment criteria file.tel. Use short names to specify values. Use this parameter to retrieve more than one user. Parameter Use Type Description UserID Mandatory string The user ID of the user to retrieve. wpsadmin.

The substitution feature can be used in conjunction with the virtual member manager (VMM) people directory provider. However. Note: VMM is the repository implementation provided by the WebSphere® Application Server for its security realm ‘Federated Repositories’. Then. then the usual default user rules apply. 3. no substitute is used. If an attempt is made to deploy a task template with a non-default substitution policy. The resulting people queries are stored with the task template in the Business Process Choreographer database. It is applied only to task roles that have people assignment criteria. select the documentation that you want. In the copied version of the file. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). no substitution takes place. 4. The same policy is applied for all of the task roles that are associated with a task template. while specifying a people directory provider other than VMM.which can be found in the shared_resources/plugins directory (typically on Windows®. people assignment criteria definitions are transformed into sets of queries that are specific to a people directory configuration.. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. you cannot change the policy. Depending on the specific substitution policy. Restart WebSphere® Integration Developer. 5. This security realm has to be configured in WebSphere Application Server in order to make VMM available for the substitution feature. If any one of the group of users that were resolved is present. See related tasks for details about setting human task preferences. the shared_resources directory is C:\Program Files\IBM\SDP70Shared). the deployment attempt will be rejected. Creating queries When an application is deployed. . In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. and if desired make it the default choice. Expand the results under this repository location. and the work items can be assigned to somebody else. Substitution is refreshed if the people assignment criteria get refreshed. Note: If this link fails. A substitution policy defines how to deal with tasks and escalations that are assigned to absent users and is defined when the task template is modeled. for every absent user. select the Available Software tab. If a user is absent. Defining substitution for absentees The substitution feature allows a user to indicate when they will be absent so that a substitution policy can be applied. you need to install additional documentation. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Prefer present users In this case. 2. and click Install. Add the new file to the workspace. substitution takes place only if none of the users that were resolved by the people assignment criteria query is present. the substitution policy is applied to the results of the people resolution to determine who receives the work items instead of the absent user. the new file only needs to be part of the workspace to be available. If no such substitute exists. then the work item is assigned to that user. click Help > Software Updates. If none of the users and none of their substitutes are present. the first substitute who is present is used.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. make the necessary changes. After the task template is deployed. Click Finish. In the Into folder field select any module or folder within a module. When you assign people to your task you should see your new people assignment criteria as an option. the following actions are applied: No substitution (default): The set of users remains unchanged Replace absent users with their substitutes If the user is present. From the main menu select File > Import > General > File System and then browse to the new file. Edit the human task preferences page and add a pointer to your customized XML file. Information on this topic can be found at Mapping people assignment criteria to people queries or Mapping people assignment criteria to people queries if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. in the main menu.boulder.ibm.

in the main menu. For a given task role (e. specify a substitute for the absent user's tasks. you need to install additional documentation. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. it is refreshed if the People Assignment Criteria itself gets refreshed. To set the duration values for your human task. you will have the following three options that will dictate the format your calendar entries will take: Option Description Simple This is. for example. a simple arithmetic calendar.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. as the name suggests. it exhibits the same life cycle as people resolution itself. click Help > Software Updates. Note: If this link fails. Specifying absence settings for users If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Specifying absence settings for users If users are prevented from working on their tasks.As substitution is a processing step after people resolution. specify a substitute for your tasks. select the documentation that you want. 2. Then. Similarly. In the Properties view of the task settings. More information on this topic can be found by following these links: Configuring people substitution If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Configuring people substitution Create and activate a Virtual Member Manager (VMM) property extension repository for Business Process Choreographer to support user substitution. but the duration value will not trigger an escalation. It will indicate when a task is due. or for members of the group that you administer. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. if a People Assignment Criterion is associated with that role. In WebSphere Integration Developer. A substitution policy defines how to deal with tasks and escalations that are assigned to absent users. Use the Timeout . Substitution for absentees If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Substitution for absentees The substitution feature allows you to specify absence settings either for yourself. if they are on sick leave. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Expand the results under this repository location. From the Calendar type field. click the Duration tab. Specifying absence settings If you do not have WebSphere Process Server installed use this link: Specifying absence settings If you intend to be away from the office for a certain time. proceed as follows: 1. Note: The duration value is separate from the escalation function in human tasks.ibm. select the Available Software tab. or set to be deleted. it is carried out. set to expire. and click Install.g. Task Potential Owners). In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. Setting duration values for your human task You can set a duration value for your human task to specify how long the task will hold before it is either due.boulder.

Deletion is also dependent on . the task will be expired the moment it is started. WebSphere® CRON calendar This is a built-in calendar that uses a list of term expressions representing elements of time to calculate the interval. weekends. "Terminated". A user cannot work on an expired task. Enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field. 3. and point to a valid Java™ Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location. or "Expired". Duration until task is overdue o o Duration until task expires Use this field to specify the amount of time that should pass before this task is moved to the "Expired" state. "Failed". o Never o In this context. See Using business calendars within human tasks for more information. or choose one of the following options: o o o o o Duration until task is deleted Immediate In this context. You can use the fields to name the calendar. You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above. Examples of this type of calendar can be found in the Related Information section below. The remaining fields on this page can be configured in any combination that you see fit. User-Defined calendar Use this option to select a calendar other than those provided. this setting means that the task will not be given a due date. Completed states include: "Finished". this setting means that the task will be considered due the moment it is started. Business calendar There will be more than three options in the Calendar Type field if a business calendar is available. and holidays. and according to these choices: Option Description Use this field to set the period that will elapse between the time this task is started and the time that it is expected to be completed. the task will not move to the expired state. Never In this context.Option Description Duration fields to select the amount of time that this activity should wait for an action to occur before it expires. Use this field to specify the amount of time that should pass before this task is removed from the system once it has reached a completed state. A business calendar can be used to model duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task in order to account for such variables as regular working hours. or choose one of the following options: Immediate In this context.

it would be understood that the employee would be away from the office on Saturday and Sunday. In the Properties view of the task settings. the task will not be removed from the system. and then assigning it a timeout duration of two days (or 48 hours). For detailed instructions on how to do this. when we say that the business calendar can be used to model non-contiguous intervals of time. A period of time that does not proceed in a sequential manner is called non-contiguous. click the Duration tab. Use this field to enter a name for your custom calendar. imagine putting a human task activity in a business process. This field appears when you choise the User-defined option in the Calendar type field. you can use a business calendar to account for such variables as regular working hours. or choose one of the following options: o o o o o Auto deletion mode Immediate In this context. You have the following options: On completion Choose this option to delete the task from the system once it is finished. This selection is not available when Duration until task is deleted is set to Never. . Use this setting to configure the circumstances of the task's deletion. If you have not already done so. weekends. From the Calendar Type list. To use a business calendar in a human task. select the business calendar that you created or imported in Step 1. and holidays. If an instance of this business process were to be instantiated on a Friday afternoon. • Using business calendars within human tasks When it comes to modeling duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task. o On successful completion o Choose this option to only delete the task when it has been successfully finished. 3. Using business calendars within human tasks When it comes to modeling duration values for time-sensitive aspects of your human task. the task will be deleted the moment it is completed. You can enter a value that makes sense to the calendar you selected in the Calendar type field above. For example. 2. and would not expect a response to the task until Tuesday afternoon. Use this field to specify the Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) location for your custom calendar. or when an employee is absent. create a business calendar or import one from WebSphere® Modeler. and holidays. proceed as follows: 1. weekends. you can use a business calendar to account for such variables as regular working hours. whether or not it was successfully completed. Never In this context.Option Description the choice you make in the Auto deletion mode field. then it would be expecting a response by Sunday afternoon: a time when the staff member to which it is assigned is away for the weekend. we had modeled this timeout duration using the business calender. So. we are saying that the tool will take into consideration the fact that a timeout duration is often affected by periods when a business may be closed. If however. o o Calendar name User calendar JNDI This field appears when you chose the User-defined option in the Calendar type field. refer to Business calendars.

In such a case. When you create an escalation for your human task. defined by a name attribute and a value of type string. the first escalation must fully complete before the next one is initiated. • The manner in which the notification takes place. For example. the escalations are in two separate paths. a staff member has accepted the work and should . and filtering tasks. an escalation could be used to alert a manager when a staff member is unable to complete a task by the deadline. Configure the escalation settings to notify an authorized staff member should nobody claim it within the specified period of time. Using the remaining fields. and can be useful for querying. configure the amount of time that this human task should wait for an action. or how long you want the system to wait for the expected state to be reached before notification occurs. knowing that the business calendar will compensate for all non-contiguous aspects of the interval of time. Parallel escalation With a parallel escalation. Creating an escalation for your human task An escalation is a notification that is sent out when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. Claimed When a task is in the claimed state. choose the activation state from the following three options: Option Description Ready When a task is in the ready state. the escalations are executed sequentially. you will need to know the following ahead of time: • The state that the task is in when the escalation period begins (this is also known as the activation state). Value = 3 Custom properties are defined on the Environment tab in the properties area. Although the duration value will indicate when a task is due. Information on how to configure these fields can be found in the topic Setting duration values for your human task Using custom properties for human tasks Custom properties are used to categorize a task. proceed as follows: 1. sorting. Value = Chicago Name = skill-level. Each custom property has a name. A task definition can contain an arbitrary number of custom properties. Launch your human task in the editor. escalations and for the dynamic people assignment via custom properties. 2. Under Escalation settings. Search criteria can be defined for tasks. • The state that you want the task to be in when the escalation period ends (it is when the task is NOT in this expected state at the end of the period that the actual escalation is thrown). If you are creating more than one escalation for an activation state. For example: Name = branch. you have two options: Chained escalation In a chained escalation. it is waiting to be claimed. or one after the other.4. and are executed at the same time (or in accordance with the escalate after setting as described below). To add an escalation to your human task. • The escalation period. it will NOT trigger an escalation. Note: The duration value for a human task is separate from the escalation function.

4. In the Details page of the properties area. o Claimed o Choose this when you want an escalation initiated if. o All subtasks ended o Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation initiated if the subtasks associated with this task have not been . configure the implementation as follows: Option Description Use this field to specify the state in which the task should be when the escalation times out. then an escalation is thrown. and click the Escalation icon. To create a chained escalation. Configure an escalation for a subtask to make sure that it can be completed in time enough for the parent task to be finished as well. Click the Escalation icon to create a new escalation for the chosen activation state. If the subtask cannot be completed within the required amount of time. 3. Configure the escalation settings to notify an authorized employee should the staff member fail to complete the work within the specified period of time. b.Option Description currently be working on it. at the end of the escalation period. To create a parallel escalation. If the task is not in the state specified. You will have the three following options: Expected task state o Ended o Choose this as the expected end state when you want an escalation initiated if the task is not complete by the end of the escalation period. 5. the task has not yet been claimed by a user. A new escalation appears beside the existing one as shown in the following image. proceed in one of the following two ways: a. A new escalation appears below the selected activation state. Subtask A task is in the subtask state when the owner of the parent task must delegate part of the task to other staff members. To add additional escalations to this activation state. select an the activation state. select an existing escalation and click the Escalation icon. the parent task is escalated and indicates that it is still waiting on the subtask. A new escalation appears below the existing one as shown in the following image.

this setting creates a work item. You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided. o E-mail o Choose E-mail to have an e-mail message that announces the escalation delivered to a staff member. 2. Escalate after Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before this task is escalated. Increase this time only o Choose this if you only want it to boost the priority with one iteration. Use this list to tell the system how to deal with this escalation. specify the group of people that are notified should this escalation be executed. Use this list to determine if and how this escalation's priority will change with each iteration of it. WebSphere® CRON.Option Description completed by the end of the escalation period. If you select this option. Since a work item is always created in an escalation. . You can create a new message. user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. In the Assign People page of the properties area. o Increase per repetition o Select this if you want the priority augmented each time this escalation is repeated. WebSphere CRON. and nothing else. or click the secondary radio button and enter a value that makes sense to the type of calendar (simple. o Event o Choose Event if you want to trigger an event handler in the runtime environment. or select an appropriate message from the list and click Edit to make any necessary changes to it. Once you select this option. you then have to specify the event handler in the Event handler name field in the task's Details properties page. you can define the staff group (criteria) and in so doing. a separate field will appear from which you can choose an appropriate e-mail message. You will have three options: Notification type o o Work item Choose Work item to have the task delivered directly to a designated staff member's "to do" list. You can enter the values using the spin boxes provided. E-mail message Use this field to select the e-mail message that will be delivered to the designated staff member in the event of the escalation. Use these fields to specify the period of time that will elapse before the notification associated with this escalation is repeated. user-defined) that is specified in the task's Duration properties page. You will have three options: Repeat notification every Increase task priority o o o No Choose No to leave the priority unchanged.

then an escalation is thrown). Designing an escalation When you model an escalation to be created in the human task editor. • the action that should be taken in the case of an escalation. 2. Or. • the mode of notification. it remains inactive until the task reaches the activation state. For example. and a task in either a claimed or a subtask state are escalated when the work has not been completed within the required time limit. When the task reaches the activation state. 3. • Notifying an event handler of an escalation You can use customized notification event handlers within your application environment to deal with escalations in your human task model. the escalation state is changed 2. notification of an appropriate staff member via e-mail. claimed.• Escalations An escalation is a course of action that is implemented when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. You can use WebSphere® Integration Developer to model escalations for tasks that are in the activation states of ready. if it has an associated escalation. 1. An escalation can result in any one of the following actions: 1. you can model an escalation for a subtask to make sure that it gets completed in plenty of time for the owner to finish the associated parent task. • the state that you want the task to be in when the escalation value times out (if it is not in this state. An instance of a task is created and. an escalation can be used to notify first and/or second line managers when a work item has lingered in a working state for too long. If the task has reached or passed it. Escalations An escalation is a course of action that is implemented when an expected result from a task has not been achieved within a set period of time. you could use an escalation on a work item that has been sitting unclaimed for too long to send an email to a potential owner to urge them to claim it. the escalation state is changed to waiting. and if so. When a timeout occurs. • whether the task priority should be increased during the escalation. the creation of a work item that can be claimed by a set of users. all associated escalations are initialized with the starting of the Escalate within timer. notification of an event handler. A task in a ready state is escalated when it is not claimed in time. Or. • Customizing an escalation e-mail notification You can use an e-mail message to notify a staff member that they have a work item in the form of an escalation. If the expected state has not yet been reached. you will need the following information to complete it: • to whom the resulting work item should be assigned. how soon. the escalation state is changed to superfluous. Life cycle of an escalation Here is a brief description of the stages that a typical escalation will go through. and the system checks to see if the expected task state has been reached. • Assigning people to escalations Use the Assign People tab of the properties area to specify the group of people that is notified should this escalation be executed. or subtask. 3. . • whether the escalation should be performed again. • the period of time before it should be escalated.

The escalation's priority is increased according to the Increase task priority value. and you will receive a validation error if one exists in your diagram. The wait duration for each of the escalations in a chain is cumulative. That is.ibm. 5. in contrast to a chained escalation. Assigning people to escalations Use the Assign People tab of the properties area to specify the group of people that is notified should this escalation be executed.html. This prevents escalations that are further along in the chain from timing out before the ones at the beginning.boulder. and one of the three possible actions occur (work item. Example To see an example of a human task escalation that you can build and run yourself. or event handler notification). Also. keep in mind that an escalation with an expected state of end. This is a screen capture of an parallel escalation built on a subtask state. Each of the escalations has the same activation state but. the timer on the second escalation in a chain will not start until the first escalation has timed out. and any one of them can have an end state as the expected state. cannot precede another escalation. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. Parallel escalations Parallel escalations are one or more escalations that are processed at the same time as opposed to sequentially. e-mail notification.com/bpcsamp/index. . Such a situation would never escalate. to escalated. go to http://publib. and the escalation action is invoked. Chained escalations A chain of escalations is a series of escalations with the same activation state that are processed sequentially so that only one is active at any one time. This is a screen capture of an escalation chain built on a ready state.4. The escalation is repeated according to the Repeat notification every value. and click Human Task features > Escalation. its wait duration fires independently. The priority can be increased repeatedly if an auto-repeat duration is set.

If only one person qualifies. and click Install. and check to see if the query will return an appropriate result. See related tasks for how to change your people directory or modify the people assignment criteria.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Before you can customize the e-mail notification. it is necessary to configure the WebSphere® Process Server as described in Sending e-mails for escalations or Sending e-mails for escalations if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. The people assignment criteria that you see is determined by the contents of an XML file. This people assignment criteria file is a definition of queries to the user repository and the staff members that are resolved by those queries. Note: If this link fails. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). in the main menu. and those that are mandatory will be marked with a "*". click Help > Software Updates. You can also specify replacement variables. Test Click Test to choose a server. When the check box is clear. proceed as follows: . To customize the e-mail message. the names are all predefined in the XML file that contains your people assignment criteria definitions. This button is available for all people assignment criteria except everybody and nobody.People assignment criteria Use this field to choose the criteria for a query that will return the group of people who share the same permissions and will receive a new work item as notification that an escalation has fired. Parameter table Use this table to specify details like a group name and thus define the people that will be assigned by the selected criterion at runtime.boulder. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. Press Ctrl+Space to launch context assist. Then. the user must actively claim the task. select the documentation that you want. Enable it in cases when your people assignment query returns a single person. and you want this specific user to be automatically assigned the task in question. claim task automatically This check box is only available when the Potential Owners authorization role has been selected. select the Available Software tab. you need to install additional documentation. Expand the results under this repository location. You can use context assist for some of the values if you see the icon of a light bulb appear when you click the field. See replacement variables and context variables for more information on this Customizing an escalation e-mail notification You can use an e-mail message to notify a staff member that they have a work item in the form of an escalation. and use parts of the task input or output message as values for the parameters.ibm. and requires at least one running Process Server to be defined in Servers view and all mandatory fields filled in. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. The value of the parameter can be changed by clicking into the value field and editing it.

Create an escalation for your human task. click Add Variable and select an appropriate variable from the list. proceed as follows: a. the variable will appear between "%" characters. Give the e-mail message a name and a subject. 2. The E-mail editor will launch. 4. . 3. as shown in this image: To configure the e-mail message. and click Edit. select New from the E-mail message drop down list. To insert a human task variable into the text of the subject. To create a new e-mail message. To make changes to an e-mail message. but will be replaced when it is evaluated in the runtime environment when the email is sent. In the Details page of the properties area select E-mail as the Notification type. The E-mail message field becomes active with the default message chosen automatically as shown here.1. In the editor. first select it from the E-mail message drop down list.

To see what your e-mail message will look like when it is delivered.NotificationEventHandler service provider interface (SPI) implementation class. c.println("Escalate within: " + escalation.out. To configure an event and add it to your business application model. Click the tag you want to use. you can insert a human task variable by clicking Add Variable. if(escalation != null) { System. In the Java™ perspective. } else { System.out.out. System.println("Escalation name: " + escalation. 1.out.spi.Notification event received: " + DateFormat. follow these instructions. Here is an example of an implementation of the escalationNotification method. if(task != null) { System. In the New Java Class wizard. In the Implemented Interfaces Selection window.out. Tip: If you are composing a brand new e-mail message. and hit enter.ibm. System. b.println("Task name: " + task.println("Event handler name: " + task.NotificationEventHandlerPlugin into the same application as your human task.spi. take a look at the existing default message for ideas. Notifying an event handler of an escalation You can use customized notification event handlers within your application environment to deal with escalations in your human task model. When you enter a "<" symbol. or you can put it into a dependent utility project. click the Preview tab.getDateTimeInstance().println("Task template name: " + task. System.getName()). You can package the implementation class of the com. and select New > Class. To implement notification event handlers. .currentTimeMillis()))). begin typing notif until a list of matching types appear.").task.println("Escalation is null").isEscalated()). This section describes how you add the notification event handler implementation class to the same application as the human task.println("Task is null"). Implement an event handler according to the steps below.println("Notification event received.out. and click Finish. choose a Package and a Name for your new Class and click Add beside the Interfaces field. and are unsure of how to proceed.format( new Date(System.println("Is escalated: " + task. public void escalationNotification(Task task.out.out.getName()). } System.println("Repeat notification every: " + escalation. right-click your Java module. System. } else { System..println("--. a. c.out.getDurationUntilRepeated()). choose NotificationEventHandlerPlugin.task. System.b.getTaskTemplateName()). Compose your message in the E-mail window in HTML language.out. Escalation escalation) { System. or you can extend the default com. a list of possible HTML code tags will appear along with a description of what that tag would be used for.ibm. you can use either the NotificationEventHandlerPlugin interface. As before.getEventHandlerName()).out.getDurationUntilEscalated()).

choose Event from the list of available options. c.ibm.task. select the escalation. a.spi. In the first line of the file that is neither a comment line nor a blank line. add a line with the fully qualified class name of your implementation class: bpc. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example.plugins. In the Escalation settings section. For example.spi. expand your business integration project. Switch to the Resource perspective.MyEventHandler. In the File name field of the New File wizard.com/bpcsamp/index. then the first line of the configuration file must contain the following entry: com. For example. Note: This name is not the name of the implementation class. Example To see an example of an escalation that uses a customized notification event handler.ibm. In the META-INF/services/ directory of your JAR file. In the human task editor click the Details tab. and click Human Task features > Escalation. b.ibm.task. Add your plugin to your application: a. c.println("--.ibm. b. For Notification type.HelpDeskRequestNotificationEventHandlerPlugin. enter com. e.ibm.} System. Declare a notification event handler for your task as described here: a. b. it is the name that you gave the event handler. b. the name of the configuration file is com. create a new folder services.NotificationEventHandlerPlugin interface. 4. The editor opens for the new file. This configuration file provides the mechanism for identifying and loading the plug-in.plug-in_nameNotificationEventHandlerPlugin. enter a name for your notification event handler.plugin. Switch to the Business Integration perspective and open your task in the human task editor. Click the Details tab.out. Click Save. where plugin_name is the name of the plug-in. d. create a file with the name com. and it is in the com.spi. d. if your plug-in class is called MyEventHandler. e. specify the fully qualified name of your plug-in class.customer.EventHandlerNameNotificationEventHandlerPlugin Where EventHandlerName is the event handler name you have specified for your task. if your plug-in is called HelpDeskRequest (event handler name) and it implements the com. Click Finish.customer. see the Related tasks section below).task. In the META-INF folder.EscalationNotificationPlugin. c. Specify an escalation with a notification type Event: a. Save your work.End notification event").samples. and conforms to the Java 2 service provider interface specification. go to http://publib. 2.spi. Configure the escalation as needed (for help. In the Event handler name field.html. Click Save.boulder. Ad-hoc collaboration .plugins package. In the editor. 5. In the Navigator.task. f. g. 3. Create a service provider configuration file for the plug-in. Right-click the services folder and select New > File .

and when the task is either to-do or collaboration. and then start an instance of it. Option Description Enabled If this check box is enabled. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it. The staff member then initiates a subtask from an existing definition. A subtask can be derived from an inline or stand-alone to-do task. When all subtasks have entered an end state. Such tasks can be used when the application is stand-alone. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it by themselves. and can be realized either as a stand-alone invocation or a collaboration task. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it by themselves. 5. and provides an input message for the subtask. 4.ibm. The subtask will enter the work queue.com/bpcsamp/index. the parent task can then be completed. go to http://publib. Follow-on tasks In the runtime environment. 2. or expires. resumes. and will remain there until all of its subtasks. configure the Enable subtask creation check box according to the following choices: 2. • Subtasks In the runtime environment.html. then this human task definition will allow for the creation of subtasks in the runtime environment. The staff member claims the parent task in the runtime environment through a user interface. all subtasks will be as well. and configure your definition accordingly. In the Details tab of the properties area. as well as a collaboration task. Ad-hoc tasks and transferred work items are created "on-the-fly" in the runtime environment. they can assign the remaining work to somebody else in the form of a follow-on task. they can delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks. terminates. When you are creating the human task definition. deploy this to an application server. are complete. Subtasks cannot be deleted unless the parent task is first deleted. Cleared If this check box is clear. where it can be claimed by anyone in the authorized group. you would use the Human Task API to define a dynamic Human Task template. The life cycle of a subtask usually looks something like this: 1. The parent task enters the WAITING_FOR_SUBTASK state. as well as the transferred work item (see below). you can dynamically define a task either as a subtask or a follow-on task. To control the creation of subtasks.boulder. To create a pure ad-hoc task. Open your task in the human task editor. usually because of new circumstances that did not exist when the task was initially developed. then users will not be able to delegate portions of this task in the . • Subtasks In the runtime environment. they can delegate portions of that original task to other people in the form of subtasks. you can decide if the business case justifies the need for the creation of subtasks. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. If the parent task suspends. For an example of such an ad-hoc task.When you create or modify a task in the user interface of the runtime environment. proceed as follows: 1. staff members who have already claimed a task can create a subtask when they can't complete the work by themselves. You can use WebSphere® Integration Developer to allow for two types of ad-hoc tasks (the subtask and the follow-on task). and click Human Task features > Ad-hoc Human Task. Typically. 3.

Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. Follow-on tasks can be derived from inline or stand-alone to-do tasks as well as collaboration tasks. Example To see an example of a subtask that you can build and run yourself. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Note: If this link fails.boulder.html or .ibm. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation.com/bpcsamp/index. select the documentation that you want. and can be realized as a collaboration or stand-alone originating task.ibm.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. you can decide if the business case justifies the need for the creation of follow-on tasks. and click Human Task features > Subtask. and click Human Task features > Follow-on task. and fault message definitions of the completed and the follow-on task must be of the same type. Cleared If this check box is clear. To control the creation of follow-on tasks.Option Description from of subtasks. and configure your template accordingly.boulder. The initial task that spawns the follow-on task is called the predecessor task. Open your task in the human task editor. They can also support subtasks. click Help > Software Updates.boulder. the first task in the chain is known as the head task. go to http://publib. output.ibm. you need to install additional documentation. In WebSphere Integration Developer. they can assign the remaining work to somebody else in the form of a follow-on task. In the Details tab of the properties area. Expand the results under this repository location. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. and click Install.com/bpcsamp/index. if a person who claims a task finds that they are not able to complete it. select the Available Software tab. then users will not be able to delegate portions of this task in the from of follow-on tasks. and in cases where there is a chain of follow-on tasks. in the main menu. Example To see an example of a follow-on task that you can build and run yourself. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. go to http://publib. then this human task template will allow for the creation of follow-on tasks in the runtime environment. Then. Follow-on tasks In the runtime environment. as well as further follow-on tasks. Transferring work items .html. Option Description Enabled If this check box is enabled. When you are first creating the human task template. proceed as follows: 1. configure the Enable follow-on task creation check box as follows: 2. The input.

you need to install additional documentation. o A "starter" work item can be transferred in the expired. then this human task template will allow for the movement or work items between staff members. and configure your template accordingly. Option Description Enabled If this check box is enabled. Versioning human tasks You can create new versions of your human task. Open your task in the human task editor. For more information on this topic. When you are first creating the human task template. terminated. o A "potential starter" work item can be transferred in the inactive state. running. Here are some possible examples of when you would create a version of a human task: . • The originator of a task instance can transfer a "potential starter" work item to any person. • The administrator of a task instance can transfer all work items to any person. select the Available Software tab.boulder. The following rules apply: • Work items assigned to "everybody" cannot be transferred. if a person who has claimed a task finds that they are not able to complete it. In the Details tab of the properties area. proceed as follows: 1. select the documentation that you want. you can decide if the business case justifies allowing work items to be transferred. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). o A "reader" or "administrator" work items can be transferred in all but the inactive state.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. and click Install.In the runtime environment. Cleared If this check box is clear. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. go to Managing work assignments or Managing work assignments if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. Note: If this link fails. or claimed state . • The originator of a task instance can transfer the "originator" work item to a potential instance creator or an administrator of the task instance. In WebSphere Integration Developer. configure the Transfer task check box as follows: 2. in the main menu. finished. • The starter of a task instance can transfer the "starter" work item to a potential starter or an administrator of the task instance. failed. then users will not be able to delegate work items to other staff members. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. • The owner of a task instance can transfer the "owner" work item to a potential owner or an administrator of the task instance. o A "potential owner" or "editor" work item can be transferred in the ready or claimed state. they can transfer the work item to another person or group. o An "escalation receiver" work item can be transferred in the ready. o A "starter" work item can be transferred in the expired. and running state. Then. To control the transferring of work items. click Help > Software Updates. Expand the results under this repository location. so that multiple versions of those same tasks can co-exist in a runtime environment. and running state. o A "potential starter" work item can be transferred in the inactive state. failed. finished.ibm. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. terminated.

and how the task itself is set up. different valid-from date In addition. and click Process modeling techinques > Versioning. it can still help you to become more familiar with the concept of versioning. if the caller instantiates a task using early binding. and are allowed to run their course. Invoking a human task When a client invokes a task. Differentiating human task versions Put simply. You have a solution where multiple versions of the same human task must coexist. To allow for seamless introduction of new versions. they must also have the same interface. the currently valid version of the human task is used. In other words. . In contrast.com/bpcsamp/index. In practice. In such a case. you must first understand that a version of a human task is identified by the following properties: 1. Part 5: Managing change in Web services components and applications Example To see an example of a versioned process that you can build and run yourself. a specific version of the task is used to create that instance. or to pick up the currently valid version of the task. you will need to be able to deploy new versions of the task in such a way as to ensure that existing instances remain undisturbed. To create a version of a human task. it is a good idea to anticipate the need ahead of time. the two versions must have the same name and namespace. In other words. a client is hard-wired to a task in such a way as to force a continued relationship between the two of them. you will want the existing callers to be able to seamlessly pickup the newest version of the task the moment it becomes effective. Forms) For more information See the whitepaper on developerWorks® called Versioning and dynamicity with WebSphere® Process Server and the podcast called WebSphere Technical Podcast series: SOA programming model. with late-binding the relationship between the client and the task is dynamic in that it is resolved in the runtime environment. Clients that want to use late binding can do it in one of the following ways: • Using the Business Process Choreographer APIs (generic EJB API or generic Web Services API) • Using the generated clients (JSF. and set things up in the manner described in the associated topics.html. it is important to note that interface specifications of different versions need to remain the same. and if they use late binding.boulder. it is important that you plan ahead. This is the basic concept behind early binding and late binding. you will need to consider how the client interacts with the task. the runtime engine could use a new version of a task that is set to become valid today. In addition. Although this example is not specific to human tasks. that client can be configured either to choose a specific version each time. same target namespace 3. a version is a copy of an existing task that is slightly different from the original. To understand how this differentiation takes place. it is with different valid-from dates that multiple versions of the same task are distinguished. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example. Clients that want to use early binding must use SCA wiring. same component name 2. Although the solution as a whole cannot be uninstalled and reinstalled. even if another version of the task becomes available. even if an older version of that task was still being used.• • In the likelihood that your human task will need to be modified over time. Of critical importance. With early binding. go to http://publib.ibm. but have different valid-from dates. Specifically.

Creating a version of your human task This section explains how to create a new version of your human task whose binding may be dynamically resCreating

a version of your human task

This section explains how to create a new version of your human task whose binding may be dynamically resolved in the runtime environment. To create a new human task, you begin by creating a new module that contains a new version of your task, and install it in the same manner as the original.The runtime engine is able to recognize that the new task is actually a more recent version of the other, and will select it over the older one. These steps assume that you have already created the human task that you seek to version. 1. Make a copy of the module that contains the original version of your human task as follows:

a. b. c.
d. 2.

In the Business Integration view, right-click the module that contains the human task and select Copy. Right-click on any white-space within the same view, and select Paste. In the Copy Module window, change the module name as necessary (perhaps by adding a suffix that indicates the version), and click OK. Save the file. The new module name appears in the assembly editor.

Configure a date from which the copied human task will be valid, as follows:

a.
b.

In the Details tab of the properties area, enable Date (UTC) when task becomes valid. If this check box is clear, then a valid-from date is implicitly specified so that the task becomes valid as soon as the module is installed. Configure the calendar fields to specify the date and time when the runtime engine is allowed to create instances of this task. Click the calendar icon to choose a specific date, and then use the remaining fields to configure the precise time.

Calendar values are represented in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). 3. 4. Save your work. You can deploy this new module as you would any other module.

Example
To see an example of a versioned process that you can build and run yourself, go to http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/bpcsamp/index.html, and click Process modeling techinques > Versioning. Although this example is not specific to human tasks, it can still help you to become more familiar with the concept of versioning. Note: You will need a connection to the internet to view this example.

solved in the runtime environment.

Setting up a user interface for your human task
The human task editor provides various client types that you can use to customize a user interface through which users can interact with the tasks in the runtime environment. A client delivers task-related information to a staff member in the form of an interactive application. You can generate various types of clients for your human tasks, and use the generated clients to customize a user interface through which users can interact with the tasks in the runtime environment. Or, you can use generated clients to quickly demonstrate a human workflow, for example as a proof of concept or prototype. Using the client generator, you can generate clients for both stand-alone human tasks that exist independently of a business process, and inline human tasks that have access to the execution context a business process. You

can create one client for all the human tasks in a module, or generate one client per task. You can also generate one client for all human tasks in multiple processes or modules. You may wish to provide a choice of user interfaces or to provide clients with different functionality for different roles or simply to provide basic clients that can be re-used with a different look and feel. User interfaces for your human tasks can make use of several types of technology. The human task editor provides a User Interface section in order to add technology specific configuration settings to a human task. For some of the client technology types included by default, the corresponding property page allows the creation or selection of visualization files that match the Business Object data structure used by the human task. There are two routes to creating user interfaces for your human tasks. A human task user interface wizard can be used by selecting one or more human tasks in the Business Integration folder view. The wizard allows you to rapidly generate a variety of user interfaces. The second route is to use the human task editor. There is a section on the canvas called User Interface and you can add user interface settings to your task using the "+" button. Some of the property pages where you specify the UI settings offer the possibility to create visualization artifacts for the selected interface technology. Most situations can be arrived at using either of these two methods but there are some considerations you should make before taking either route: • If you want to create user interfaces for more than one task, the wizard is the more efficient choice, since you can create user interfaces for multiple tasks, even if they are not in the same module. • If you want to simply create a Lotus Form to directly interface with this task in this module, for example to use the form in Business Space, use the human task editor. For Lotus Forms and JSF, the wizard creates not only the generated artifacts but also stand-alone web applications that allow you to readily use the generated artifacts. • If you want to work in Business Space but do not have access to Lotus Forms, you can create an HTMLDojo user interface and use it in Business Space. • If you want to use an existing Lotus Form for your user interface you must use the human task editor and select the Lotus Form in the Properties view. Note: The structure of the Lotus Form must match the business object structure of the interface used by the human task. The simplest way to ensure this, is to create the human task using the existing Lotus Form as a template. Select File > New > from Patterns to launch the New from Pattern wizard. Using this wizard create a business process to contain the generated human tasks, create the human tasks and select the Lotus Forms, the structure of which will be used to generate the interface used by the human task. You want to use the Lotus Forms technology to visualize a human task, you have several routes to achieving this goal. One option would be to specify or generate a Lotus Form on the Lotus Forms User Interface Settings property page, (through the human task editor). In so doing, you can directly use the form in Business Space to work with the task. Another option would be to use the UI generation wizard to create a stand alone web application. The wizard checks, if a Lotus Form has been specified on the corresponding property page. If a form has already been configured, the wizard makes the generated application use it, otherwise it creates a new form.

Before you begin: Client types and prerequisites These are the types of clients that you can configure or generate for your human tasks. This topic contains useful information that you may need before you proceed to generate your client. Defining user interfaces for a human task In the Human Task editor, you can select the type of client, and configure properties such as inputs and outputs for the client. You can specify existing configurations, or define new ones. You can then generate a client. Generating HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space . Generating Lotus Forms clients Generate a client for your human task or process based on forms that you specify in the User interface settings. Generating WebSphere Portal portlets A portlet is a reusable Web module that runs on a portal server. In the human task editor, you can specify a portlet as a client. Generating JSF clients for your human tasks You can generate a client either from a module, a business process, or a human task.

• •

Customizing clients You may need to customize the user interfaces to your human tasks. Information is provided for each type of human task client. Deploying a generated client to an external runtime environment After generating your client you have several choices for how to deploy it to the runtime environment.

Before you begin: Client types and prerequisites
These are the types of clients that you can configure or generate for your human tasks. This topic contains useful information that you may need before you proceed to generate your client.

Client type

Description

Prerequisite You can create an HTML file to be used as a part of the Business Space user interface using WebSphere Integration Developer, but it can only be deployed to, and used in WebSphere Modeler Publishing Server, WebSphere Business Monitor, or WebSphere Process Server. If you intend to deploy Lotus Forms to Business Space, you will also need all the prerequisites associated with Lotus Forms, but note that you do not need the Lotus Forms Server API.

Business Space powered by WebSphere®

Business Space is a new client platform through which a user can interact with an instance of a human task in the runtime environment. You can configure the visualization of this user interface using an HTML/Dojo file or a Lotus Form. When ported into WebSphere Process Server, the information in the HTML/Dojo file or Lotus Form will appear in the Task Information Widget area of Business Space. For more information on Business Space, go to the IBM® WebSphere Business Process Management information center, and search for Business Space.

IBM Lotus® Forms

Lotus Forms allows you to easily integrate electronic forms with human tasks. You can generate a client based on forms that you specify in the User interface settings. You can deploy a Lotus Forms client directly or you can present the form as user interface in Business Space.

When you install WebSphere Integration Developer, you have the option to install Lotus Forms API, Lotus Forms Viewer, and Lotus Forms Designer. You will need Lotus Forms Server API to process a client on a server, Lotus Viewer to view a client and Lotus Designer to edit a form. See Installing optional software and documentation for information on installing these Lotus products. Important: Please note that, before you can deploy this user interface to a runtime environment, you will need to install the Lotus Forms Viewer and the Lotus Forms Server API on each machine where the client will get deployed (this includes the WebSphere Test Environments and the WebSphere Process Server). If you intend to deploy your Lotus Forms to Business Space, you will also need all the prerequisites associated with Business Space, see above. However, if

With this WebSphere Integration Developer. proceed as follows: 1. Included in delivered with this product. You can then generate a client. you can select the type of client. In order to generate portlets. Option Description Business Space powered by WebSphere® Use the Context root and HTML File fields to specify the location of the HTML file that contains the visualization of the user interface. Or. you can generate a portlet using the portlet generator. The JSF client is generated based on data described in the interface that the human task implements. You can modify these values as needed. or define new ones. and does not need any input defined in the User interface settings. You can specify existing configurations. JavaServer Faces (JSF) client The client generator for human tasks The JSF client generator is included in generates a JSF-based web client that is WebSphere Integration Developer. and configure properties such as inputs and outputs for the client. In the Properties page. To define a user interface for a human task. configure the client as follows: 2. The look and feel of this web page is determined by the JSP values that are specified in the User interface settings. Business Process Choreographer explorer Defining user interfaces for a human task In the Human Task editor. When you install WebSphere Integration Developer. Launch your human task in the editor. Business Space uses these two fields to compose the URL from which your HTML file will be uploaded using the following format: http://localhost/<contextroot>/<pathAndFile> If no HTML file exists. you can click New to create one. In the New HTML file window. Under User interface settings. This is the standard client that is No prerequisites.you intend to use your Lotus Forms in Business Space you do not need to have the Lotus Forms Server API installed. you have the option to install the Portal Toolkit. you need the Portal Toolkit. the task is delivered to the staff member via an HTML-based web page. you can choose an existing Web Project in which to place the new . WebSphere Portal portlet Select the page on which the portlet will be placed in the page hierarchy of IBM WebSphere Portal by setting properties in the User interface settings. client. useful for quickly prototyping human task processes or as a starting point for creating a custom client. choose the type of client. 3.

Note that this setting only applies to Lotus Forms clients. To do this. Portal client Every human task must be identified by a unique name when it runs as a portlet on the WebSphere Portal Server. If you leave this field empty WebSphere Integration Developer will generate a unique name when the portlet is created. See Installing the Designer. and search for Business Space. o o If no input or output forms are specified in this page. the task is delivered to the staff member via an HTML-based web page. o Click Create Portlet to generate a portlet for this task.0 stub as the target runtime. proceed as follows: o Provide a value for Unique Name. but your actions remain essentially unchanged: Click Browse to select from a list of available forms. use the client generator. specify the project and select WebSphere Portal 6. IBM Lotus® Forms client Select whether to store your Lotus Forms as part of the current module or in a Web project. For more information on Business Space. Specify the input and output Lotus Forms for your client. but if you want to use a form that already exists outside the module. or one of the folders nested beneath it. In the Apply . If your input and output data is identical. if you deploy your Lotus Form to Business Space the form cannot be persisted. The default behavior is to save the form as part of the module. select the Web project.. select the JSP type. You can also create folders within the Web project to better organize your files. Business Process Choreographer explorer With this option. or you want to create a Lotus Form that you will use outside the module then select Web project. o On the JSP definition page.Option Description HTML file or press New Web Project to create a new one.0. or Click New to generate a form based on the data used by the service interface of the human task. Note: Create Portlet will generate a portlet for this human task. In the Properties details page. Note: If you want to edit a form. The window has a different appearance depending on the choice of module or Web project. In the Portlet Generator Settings page. See Installing WebSphere Portal Version 6. Later you must create a page in the Portal Server of the same name as this unique name and place this generated portlet into it. and click New folder Note: Modify the HTML file using a text or HTML editor. In the JSP definition table. the input and output forms must also be the same. the client generator will use the service interface data to create the forms. o Click Add. If you want to generate a portlet for multiple human tasks. o Select the type Page or Page definition. specify the input and output JSPs. go to the IBM® WebSphere Business Process Management information center. you have not installed the required Portal Toolkit. install Lotus Forms Designer. If the WebSphere Portal target runtime is not available in this dialog. Select whether to save the Lotus Form automatically whenever the human task is saved or completed.

If the human task is not represented on your assembly diagram. then this process must have a human task defined for the initial receive activities. then you will get a warning message. and use the Context root field to define the runtime path to the JSP. the task will not be listed in the wizard. Generating Lotus Forms clients Generate a client for your human task or process based on forms that you specify in the User interface settings. or browse to an existing one. Select how to display the human task in Business Space. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface. and then select the associated check boxes. Generating HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space . Note: o o o If the generated client is intended to be able to start a process. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. Next. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches. 2. To generate a HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms interface for your human task to work in Business Space. On the Client Generator Selection page. Click Finish 3. the standard client is used. or you must have another initiating task on the assembly diagram wired to the process . . Click the Browse button to see a list of Web projects. In the resulting window you can choose from the list of Web projects. To generate a client for tasks in different modules. The JSF custom client is not included in this list because the client generator does not require any properties to be configured in order to generate the client. 2. If you are using Business Process Choreographer explorer. as a standard client is provided for it. You can then create a new JSP. If a humans task contains an error of any kind. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. generate your client. If you selected HTML you also need to indicate the Web project where the HTML pages will be saved. you do not need to generate a client. If no JSPs are specified. o If you have WSDL faults defined in your interface. proceed as follows: a. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one. proceed as follows: 1. Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. 4. create a new folder within an existing Web project or create a new Web project. b. you can select a Fault message JSP as the JSP type. In the Business Integration view. In the Generator type field choose HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space. Select HTML or Lotus Forms and indicate whether you want to overwrite existing interface settings by selecting the associated check box. and then select the fault that will trigger it. A warning message will be shown.Option Description to field. 5. select the role that will see the JSP.

A warning message will be shown. the client generator creates a form based on the service interface of the human task. proceed as follows: a. d. If your image has a height higher than 60 pixels. In the Style field. click Next. On the Client Generator Selection page. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. When you are done. 3. the required format is: iiop://REMOTE_SERVER_IP:BOOTSTRAP_PORT. The human tasks are listed under the Forms or Java Server Pages headings. If the human task is not represented on your assembly diagram. font size and style. you can choose from the two styles that are provided for your generated client. enter the name of the web project in which the generated client will be stored. Select Generated client and related processes and tasks reside on the same server (Local client view) if one server will be used to deploy both the generated client and the related processes and tasks on the same WebSphere® Process Server. For each task. you can choose to generate either a Lotus® form or a JSP page to render the input and output message of the human task in final client. proceed as follows: a. select the human tasks and use the arrow buttons to transfer them to the opposite column. b. To generate a client for tasks in different modules. This logo will appear as a banner on the top of the generated client's web page. 2. click Finish. In the Client location area. Note: o o o If the generated client is intended to be able to start a process. If a humans task contains an error of any kind. If no form is specified. you have two choices.css. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. you will need to provide the IP address of the server and the bootstrap port. In the Generator type field choose Lotus Forms client application. The CSS file can contain your settings regarding color. you can choose a forms or JSP user interface for each task. 4.Banner. You can adjust the height of your logo in the page Banner. the task will not be listed in the wizard. refer to class .The client generator will use the input and output forms that you specified in the human task editor. The best approach is to modify one of the predefined style files of a generated client (styles-IBM. In the Name of dynamic web project field. or add your own style file (CSS format). The CSS file is located in the generated web project in WebContent\theme\styles. The background color of the banner is defined in the style sheet styles. On the second IBM Lotus Forms client configuration page. and then select the associated check boxes. then this process must have a human task defined for the initial receive activities. When you are done. . In the Business Integration view. If necessary. Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. and save it as your CSS file. You can browse either to a GIF or JPEG file. then it will automatically be shrunk to fit the space available. If you are using two or more servers. or you must have another initiating task on the assembly diagram wired to the process . To generate a Lotus Forms client. and the related processes and tasks on another. then you will get a warning message. This custom CSS file must reside in a web project in your workspace.css).css or styles-blue. and your generated client will be deployed on one server.css c. In the Company logo field. Select Generated client and related processes and tasks reside on different servers (Remote client view) if two or more servers will be used in the same cell. you can then click Add and Browse to select your CSS file. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface. but these settings have to have proper names since they are used as reference in the generated client. b. you can specify the file location of a graphic file containing a company logo. 2. In the Style selection area. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches.jsp of the generated client. e. On the IBM Lotus Forms client configuration page. proceed as follows: 1. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one.

Your next step is to deploy it to a runtime environment. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. Generating WebSphere Portal portlets A portlet is a reusable Web module that runs on a portal server. 3. proceed as follows: a. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface. To generate a new portlet proceed as follows: 1. ensure that you have fulfilled all the prerequisites listed in the topic Generating WebSphere Portal portlets. Now. enter a project name. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. Information on how to set up WebSphere Portal Server to integrate business processes on WebSphere Process Server can be found in the WebSphere Portal information center . To generate a client for tasks in different modules. For instructions on how to install Lotus Forms into the WebSphere Integration Developer environment. you must do the following: • Install the Portal Toolkit. you can specify a portlet as a client. this same subdirectory needs to be created in the portlet project as well). Generating a Portlet The New Portlet Generator wizard will guide you through the process of creating a portlet within WebSphere® Integration Developer Software Development Platform. the task will not be listed in the wizard. On the Client Generator Selection page. Important: Please note that. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches. In other words. Note: If a humans task contains an error of any kind. In the Business Integration view. you will need to install the Lotus Forms Viewer and the Lotus Notes® Server API on each machine where the client will get deployed (this includes the WebSphere Test Environments and the WebSphere Process Server). all WSDL and XSD files from all modules and associated libraries that are directly or indirectly referenced by tasks that were selected during the user interface generation need to be copied to the portlet project while maintaining their directory structure (if a WSDL or XSD is in a subdirectory. See related links for more information. along with a EAR. the refactoring behavior depends on the way in which the form was associated with the task. • Generating a Portlet The New Portlet Generator wizard will guide you through the process of creating a portlet within WebSphere Integration Developer Software Development Platform. Generating JSF clients for your human tasks . Click Finish. In the Generator type field choose Portlet Generator.Your new client will be generated. Your next step is to deploy it to a runtime environment. you will have to manually copy all associated WSDL interfaces and Business Objects into the generated portlet project. The generation of the portlet can take a while. b. Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. and then enable the associated check boxes. Prerequisite: Before you can generate a portlet in WebSphere® Integration Developer. before you can deploy this user interface to a runtime environment. A warning message will be shown. 4. When you install WebSphere Integration Developer. If Portlet Generator is not presented as an option. In the human task editor. If you refactor a human task that contains a Lotus Forms client. On the Portlet Generator Settings page. see Installing optional software and documentation. 2. When the generation is finished. choose to install the Portal Toolkit. • Create a Portal Server connection. you will see your newly created portlet project in the Business Integration view.

proceed as follows: a. you can specify the file location of a graphic file containing a company logo.jsp of the generated client. The background color of the banner is defined in the style sheet styles. select those modules in the business integration view by holding the Ctrl key while you select each one. and the related processes and tasks on another. In the Style area. b. then you will get a warning message. When you are done.css. refer to class . you can choose from the two styles that are provided for your generated client. When you are done. Use this list to choose the human tasks for which you want to generate the client. On the JSF client configuration page. and your generated client will be deployed on one server. On the Client Generator Selection page. Customizing clients You may need to customize the user interfaces to your human tasks.css). If a humans task contains an error of any kind. b. Your new client will be generated. In the Style field. The best approach is to modify a predefined style of a generated client (styles-IBM. . or add your own style file. 4. Expand the tree until you find the required human tasks. proceed as follows: 1. Choose Local if one server will be used to deploy both the generated client and the related processes and tasks. Information is provided for each type of human task client. To generate a client for tasks in different modules. Assign a name to this client in the Name of dynamic web project field. The User Interface Wizard for Human Tasks launches. you can select the custom properties (as defined in your business process) that you would like have generated with the client. If the human task is not represented on your assembly diagram. This logo will appear as a banner on the top of the generated client's web page. you can then click Add and Browse to select your CSS file. or you must have another initiating task on the assembly diagram wired to the process . A warning message will be shown. e. 2. click Finish. right-click the human tasks for which you want to generate a userinterface.You can generate a client either from a module. d. You can browse either to a GIF or JPEG file. 2. Your next step is to deploy it to a runtime environment. The CSS file is located in the generated web project in WebContent\theme\styles. For more information about customizing JSF clients.css. 3. On the second JSF client configuration page. To generate a JSF client for your human task. In the Business Integration view. then this process must have a human task defined for the initial receive activities.css or stylesblue. the task will not be listed in the wizard. This custom CSS file must reside in a web project in your workspace. If your image has a height higher than 60 pixels. Note: o o o If the generated client is intended to be able to start a process. You can adjust the height of your logo in the page Banner. click Next. and then select the associated check boxes. You can use custom properties as filter criteria for the "Status" list. font size and style. see the white paper Understanding and enhancing the generated Java Server Faces client for human tasks. but these settings have to have proper names since they are used as reference in the generated client. or a human task. In the Generator type field select JavaServer Faces client application. you have two choices. c. The CSS file can contain your settings regarding color. In the Client view area. and save it in the your CSS file.Banner. a business process. proceed as follows: a. and select Generate Human Task User Interfaces. In the Company logo field. Choose Remote if two or more servers will be used in the same cell. then it will automatically be shrunk to fit the space available.

Rather than generating a Lotus Form client. and human tasks based on existing Lotus Forms. 2. To customize a JSF client: There is a very detailed description of modifying JSF task clients available in the white paper Understanding and enhancing the generated Java Server Faces client for human tasks. you can use an existing Lotus Form.You have generated a client for your human task. Although these artifacts match the forms as much as possible. Deploying a generated client to a test environment Deploy your client to a runtime environment by defining a server and then using the client-specific deployment mechanism. More information on modifying a Lotus Forms client can be found in the white paper Integrating Lotus Forms and WebSphere Integration Developer. the next steps are to prepare the Portal Server to work with the generated portlet and to install the portlet on the portal server. perform the following steps: . Deploying a generated client to WebSphere Portal Server After generating and exporting a client to run as a portlet on portal server. To customize a Lotus Forms client: WebSphere Integration Developer can generate a complete business process with all of the required interfaces. Deploying a generated client to an external runtime environment After generating your client you have several choices for how to deploy it to the runtime environment. Your choices for deployment depending on what sort of client your are working with. 3. 1. you might still need to perform some modifications to make the client perform optimally. and you want to customize the user interface that your staff will see. • • Deploying the client: exporting to a deployment file Deploy your client to a runtime environment by exporting the client to a defined deployment file and installing that file on the runtime server. Customization involve modifying the generated business object to better match the Lotus Form. • Deploying the client: exporting to a deployment file Deploy your client to a runtime environment by exporting the client to a defined deployment file and installing that file on the runtime server. To customize a WebSphere Portal portlet: The recommended way to customize a WebSphere Portal portlet client is to add additional portlets to the portal. This is a simpler process than modifying the generated portlet. Creating and deploying additional portlets is described in the WebSphere Portal information center for details. Choose from one of the options described below: Parent topic: Deploying a generated client to an external runtime environment Deploying HTML-Dojo pages or Lotus Forms for Business Space To deploy a HTML-Dojo or a Lotus® Forms client to Business Space. business objects. or optimizing the created interface. The Lotus Forms information center describes in detail how to design Lotus Forms. The precise steps you need to take to customize your client depends on the type of client you have generated.

then click Window > Show View > Servers. In the business integration view right-click your portlet project. select the generated Client EAR project that you created. a. In addition.ear file is generated automatically as part of the client generation. select a WAR file name. generate a user interface for your human task. b. In the Add and Remove Projects window. and select Export > EAR from the list. Deploying a JSF or a Lotus Forms client To deploy a JSF or a Lotus Forms client. Invoke the client. If this is not open yet. If you have not already done so. provide a Destination where your WAR will be stored and click Finish. identify the Web project and provide a Destination where your WAR will be stored and click Finish. the ProjectNameApp. Deploying a generated client to a test environment Deploy your client to a runtime environment by defining a server and then using the client-specific deployment mechanism. Install the WAR file into Business Space. proceed as follows: 1. In the WAR export window. To deploy your generated client to a test environment. Install this WAR file on your server. 3. and you will be able to start the client. b. 3. Click the Server tab in the properties view. and select Export > WAR file from the list. In the business integration view right-click your ClientNameEAR. Install these two EAR files on your server. generate a user interface for your human task. 2. and you will be able to start the client. and click Add. Right-click the server that you intend to deploy your client to and select Add and Remove Projects from the list. In the business integration view right-click the Web project in which you generated your client. Deploying a portlet To deploy a portlet. If you have not already done so. Click Finish. 4.ear is also created for your module. and select Export > WAR. Export the generated client files into a WAR file as follows: a. follow these instructions. provide a Destination where your EAR will be stored and click Finish. The ClientNameEAR. 2.1. With an external browser: . The files that you need to deploy to Business Space are generated automatically as part of the client generation. 3. In the EAR export window. In the WAR export window. proceed as follows: 1. 1. and you will be able to start the client. Export the generated client files into an EAR file as follows: 2. 5. You can start the client in either of the following ways: a. 3. and contains the human tasks. select an ClientNameEAR name. 2.

4. b. and save your changes. Right-click Index. Enter the location of the WAR file or click Browse to find the location of the file to install. an error message appears in the Manage Web Modules page. After the installation has completed. Using the My Task portlet to run a Human Task from the WebSphere Portal Server The My Task portlet displays the human task instances on the portal server. Once it is installed. Creating Task Page Definitions Create the new task page definitions for each task processing Portlet. a message appears at the top of the screen indicating a successful installation. Log into the portal site using an ID with sufficient access rights to install a portlet. go to: http://localhost:9080/webProjectName (the hostname and port number might vary depending on your server configuration). you will then need to add the BPELib library to the generated portlet as follows: a. 2. 3. 4. and click Add. 1. and then open the folder WebContent. and select Run > Run on Server A browser window opens.jsp. ii. If the security is enabled. 2. All potential owners can claim a task that is displayed in the My Tasks portlet to indicate that they will work on it. 6. the next steps are to prepare the Portal Server to work with the generated portlet and to install the portlet on the portal server. click Apply. Click Install. Alternatively in the Product Links portlet you can choose Administration > Portlet Management > Web Modules. 3. To install the portlet. proceed as follows: 1. click Web Modules.  b. go to https://localhost:9443/webProjectName. If there are any problems during the process. Adjusting the Unique Name for the Task Page You have to change the unique name of the Task Page to be identical to the unique name you gave the Human task in the User Interface settings of the Human Task Editor. This allows you to claim each Portlet as a task from a list in the MyTask Portlet. If the security is disabled. Installing a generated portlet Installing the generated Portlet on the WebSphere® Portal Server makes it available to portal users. Launch the IBM® WebSphere Portal administrative console. Deploying a generated client to WebSphere Portal Server After generating and exporting a client to run as a portlet on portal server. This allows the MyTask Portlet to know which page it must hand off the task to. Verify WAR file info and click Finish to install the WAR file. iii. Select BPELib. 5. Click the View Details link to examine the error log. Using WebSphere® Integration Developer: Change to the Web perspective Open the folder with the name of your Web project. Go to Applications > Enterprise Applications > your_portlet_module > Libraries. Installing a generated portlet Installing the generated Portlet on the WebSphere® Portal Server makes it available to portal users. i. . Under Portlet Management in the navigation tree. c.

• Testing people assignment criteria You can test the people assignment criteria that you use in your human tasks to make sure that the correct people are returned by the people directory that you are using. 4. The Portal Server automatically generated a unique name. . 8. From the Select Search Type combo box choose Title starts with and type “task” into the Search input field. Testing human tasks You can test several aspects of a human task before you deploy the task to the test environment or production server. Click on the task-link. This allows you to claim each Portlet as a task from a list in the MyTask Portlet. To find your page select "Title starts with" from the Search Type list and type your page title into the Search input field. Press Search. 3. You will place the generated Portlet on the new Task Page Definition. 7. Now the list My pages and unique names displays your page with its new unique name that must be identical to the unique name you set for the Human Task in WebSphere® Integration Developer. For details see the related topic: Defining user interfaces for a human task. Click the link Task Page Definitions Click New Page. The title Task Page Definitions will be displayed. 5. From the Select Search Type combo box choose Title starts with and type “task” into the Search input field. note your title for the next task and press the OK button. the "Welcome" page) click Open Portlet Palette (this is the button with the "+" symbol). Click the Edit Page Layout button (this is the button with the pen symbol) for your page.Creating Task Page Definitions Create the new task page definitions for each task processing Portlet. Select the checkbox for a task and click Claim. If your process with human tasks was already started on WebSphere Process Server the tasks will be displayed. 6. Simply drag and drop the portlet on your page. Enter the unique name you defined for your human task. On the Edit Layout page press the Add portlets button. 5. All potential owners can claim a task that is displayed in the My Tasks portlet to indicate that they will work on it. Adjusting the Unique Name for the Task Page You have to change the unique name of the Task Page to be identical to the unique name you gave the Human task in the User Interface settings of the Human Task Editor. Type "My Tasks" in the Search field and press the Search button. 1. The My Task portlet will be displayed. 1. Choose Administration > Portal Settings > Custom Unique Names and select Pages from the Resource type list. 3. Press Search. 2. Press Search. Using the My Task portlet to run a Human Task from the WebSphere® Portal Server The My Task portlet displays the human task instances on the portal server. From the Select Search Type combo box choose Title starts with and enter the title of your portlet into the Search input field. This allows the MyTask Portlet to know which page it must hand off the task to. To place the My Task portlet on one of your portal server pages (for example. Click OK. The task in the My Task portlet becomes a link when it was successfully claimed. 4. 6. 2. 2. Clicking again on Open Portlet Palette (this is the button with the "+" symbol) closes the portlet list. Type a title into the Title input field. In a later step we will adjust this unique name. Check your portlet and press OK. Click Search. 5. A list of available portlets opens. 1. The page with the corresponding portlet opens. 3. Choose Administration > Portal User Interface > Manage Pages.

and not to verify the result set entirely. d. 2. In the Import window. This button is available for all people assignment criteria except everybody and nobody. Right-click your server. select one of the running WebSphere® Process Servers. b. To test the process: a. and select Run administrative script. and. This export must have clearly defined staff information that can be used to populate the test people directory. click Users and Groups > Manage Users. when all mandatory fields have a value. Similarly. 3. The test user entries are created in the registry. the dialog will contain an input field for each variable. c. To see the user(s) in the Administrative Console. Testing a human-centric process A human-centric process is one that has been designed in WebSphere® Modeler using human tasks to model a manual process. In the Test People Search window. and the other will be to clean that registry once you've completed your testing.• Testing a human-centric process A human-centric process is one that has been designed in WebSphere® Modeler using human tasks to model a manual process. 3. Testing people assignment criteria You can test the people assignment criteria that you use in your human tasks to make sure that the correct people are returned by the people directory that you are using. One will be to populate the people directory. see Rapid testing of human-centric processes 1. This topic provides instructions on how to import such a process into WebSphere Integration Developer in order to test it. click File > Import. and requires at least one running Process Server to be defined in Servers view. In the Assign People tab of the properties page. a. They have a PY extension. To test your people assignment criteria. proceed as follows: 1. select the role that you want to test. select Other > Project Interchange. The WebSphere Process Server will be queried. Select all of the projects in the zip. this might take some time. If the people assignment criteria contains one or more replacement variables. The purpose of the test button is to check if the query works. 5. expand the new project until you see the Administrative scripts. click Test. and click Finish. This will create the test user account(s) and associated group(s). For more information on how to do this. In the Physical Resources view. right-click the process and select Test Component. a. only a subset will be returned. Click Submit. if the resulting list is too long. In the Assembly diagram. Please note. to see Groups. In your human task. Browse to the script and click Run. select it. c. 4. Enter some data that is appropriate to your human task or the process the task is running in. Before you can begin. The new module will appear in the Physical Resources view. 2. Browse to the project interchange file. and click OK. b. Run the administrative script that populates the test people directory. There will be two administrative scripts. To import the project interchange file: In the Business integration view. you will need to have the exported process in the form of a project interchange file. . click Users and Groups > Manage Groups.

You can use the service provider interfaces (SPIs) to create customized plug-ins for handling events and the processing of staff queries. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. A generated document can very quickly provide you with the following: • a quick understanding of a project or resource • an overview report about the details of an artifact within a complex project • the visualization of the relationships and cross references of resources within a project • a detailed report that can be printed out for certifications To create documentation for your human task. select the Available Software tab. Generating documentation of your human task If you need a synopsis of each attribute of your human tasks. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). in the main menu. you need to install additional documentation. proceed as follows: 1. In the Business Integration view. To view these APIs. You will note that the user's To-dos list will be empty. right-click your human task and select Generate Documentation. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. follow this link: Business Process Choreographer REST APIs or Business Process Choreographer REST APIs if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. in the main menu. When the test server is running. and the resulting data returned is in JavaScript™ Object Notation (JSON) format. Extending human tasks using plug-ins Business Process Choreographer provides an event handling infrastructure for events that occur during the processing of human tasks. select the Available Software tab. click Help > Software Updates.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/.boulder. In the Events page. and click the Continue icon. select the documentation that you want. In WebSphere Integration Developer. select a deployment location and click Finish. When you are done your testing. 2. run the administrative script that cleans the test people directory. Programming support for human tasks Additional programming support for human tasks is available through a set of APIs. enter some test parameters. d. Then. Configure the Documentation Generation wizard according to the instructions in the Generating documentation topic. The URIs are a set of REST services that access business process and task data. c. Note: If this link fails. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. you can create a report using the documentation generator. You should now have an entry that you can complete as needed to test the process. and log in as a test user.b. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). Information on this topic can be found by following this link: Creating plug-ins to customize human task functionality or Creating plug-ins to customize human task functionality if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. Business Process Choreographer provides a set of APIs that are implemented using Representational State Transfer (REST) Services. Plug-in points are also provided so that you can adapt the functionality to your needs.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. and click Install. and check the To-dos list. return to the Business Process Choreographer explorer. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Note: If this link fails. click Help > Software Updates. 4. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Launch the Business Process Choreographer explorer. Expand the results under this .ibm. including how they interact with other resources within the same project. Expand the results under this repository location.ibm. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. Then.boulder. you need to install additional documentation.

select the documentation that you want. Visual snippet editor The visual snippet editor is a diagrammatic programming environment that you use to graphically create and manipulate Java code.com/support/docview. • Custom behavior There are situations when a user has the opportunity to specify custom behavior within the context of one of the WebSphere® Integration Developer family of tools. • • • • • • • • Custom behavior . dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. The visual snippet editor displays a diagrammatic representation of the Java™ programming language.wss?rs=2308&uid=swg21306783.ibm. • Due to a limitation in the Business Process Choreographer tag library in WebSphere® Integration Developer. you can use one of the three mapping service snippets provided. Using the visual snippet editor to write Java code When should you use the visual snippet editor to compose Java code instead of writing it yourself? The building blocks of the visual snippet editor Compose your own visual snippet using a combination of the following building blocks. Refactoring a visual snippet When you refactor parts of your visual snippet.repository location. Using inline expressions for simple equations When you are coding an expression in the visual snippet editor. choice and substitution group constructs out of the box. there are several ways that you can compose the expression. JSPs generated as human task clients will not be able to accomodate xsd:any. Creating a custom visual snippet To create a new custom visual snippet. For more information. Use this tool to graphically create and manipulate snippets of Java code. and click Install. or when working with human tasks. Configuring a custom event in a visual snippet A custom event is a specific business-related message that can be declared in the visual snippet editor to be emitted in the runtime environment. use the visual snippet editor. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Limitations for human tasks There are current limitations that you should be aware of when using the human task editor. Customizing behavior with visual snippets To visually define custom behavior. Click on any of the links shown below to learn more about that topic. follows these instructions. Using mapping service snippets When you want to transform data in a business object from one format to another using the visual snippet editor. You will need to use your own custom code using the Service Data Object (SDO) API in order to work with these constructs. see http://www.

This user determines what customized activities are likely to be needed. Custom visual snippets Use this to create a snippet that captures a specific behavior. you need to understand these key concepts: • An example of customized behavior • Business roles and customizing activities An example of customized behavior Perhaps you are composing a process in the process editor. Java visual snippet Use this snippet to embed a call to an arbitrary Java method directly into your diagram. you could use the visual snippet editor to create some customized behavior to make the process do exactly what you want it to do. There are three different kinds of implementations that you can use within the editor: Standard visual snippets These snippets have been predefined for your general use. discrete programmatic tasks. In such a case. Visual Java Snippets can also be used to invoke constructors and access fields. Before you start to use the visual snippet editor. . These activities can be created and customized using the visual snippet editor. and stored within the existing libraries. An example of using the library to avoid the replication of work. The second user is able to easily access and use these custom activities without having to know why and how they were created. Their implementation is fixed and cannot be viewed or modified by the user. it is possible for activities to be created. The WebSphere Integration Developer family have been designed so that users can compose integrative business solutions with minimal programming skills. the first user has extensive technical skills and a sound knowledge and background in the business in question. It can then be used within other snippets. creates them. and you need to modify your data in a way that the available activities do not provide. customized and ultimately used by several users of varying technical backgrounds. One example of this is the visual snippet editor that you can use to graphically compose customized behavior as snippets of Java™ code. as the following graphic illustrates: Figure 1. As such.There are situations when a user has the opportunity to specify custom behavior within the context of one of the WebSphere® Integration Developer family of tools. UsiVisual snippet editor The visual snippet editor is a diagrammatic programming environment that you use to graphically create and manipulate Java™ code. and stores them in a library. Business roles and customizing activities An activity is unit of work or a building block that performs a specific. In this example.

Below that is an interactive properties area that changes to display pertinent details about whatever object you currently have selected on the canvas.This editor has been designed to make you. The white space is called the canvas and it's where you create your snippet from the objects that you pull from the palette to the left. feel comfortable and to facilitate your creativity. The visual snippet editor is divided into several distinct areas. think of it as an exercise in how to paint. While you are designing your visual snippet. When you click and drag an activity from the palette onto the canvas. the icon beside your cursor has a plus symbol and you can decide where you want to drop the activity. When the cursor becomes a crossed out circle. The areas are as follows: 1. continue moving the cursor until it becomes a plus sign again. . o Your visual snippet is visually organized on the editor in groups. The canvas o The canvas is the white empty area in the middle of the editor that you use it to assemble the activities to compose your visual snippet. and individuated on the canvas with a group bracket. These groups are composed of one of more items connected with links. The palette o The palette is the shaded area to the left of the canvas that houses the objects that you click and drag onto the canvas to build your snippet. the user. o 2. each with its own individual use.

The expression builder o The expression builder is a miniature dialogue that pops up when you click on an expression. Some pages display properties in tabular format. The visual snippets view o This area shows a categorized view of all of the existing snippets that are available to you. each one is processed sequentially from top to bottom and will finish at the end of a snippet or when a return node is reached. 6. . To use one of these snippets. you can press F1 to launch a help window and click the link to be taken directly to the product documentation for more details. it automatically starts a group until you link to it from another one. select the snippet. The tray o The tray displays the Inputs. and then drag it to the location in your composition where you want it to appear. or exception. Outputs and Exceptions that are associated with your snippet. o The list of snippets include those in the product's standard library . Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. o 5. o 4. output. To launch a user-defined snippet in the editor.When you drop an item onto the canvas. as well as any existing custom user-defined snippets . or to remove one. o o If there is more than one group in the snippet. Preferences view: visual snippet editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields in the preferences view of the visual snippet editor. The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected on the canvas. o o 3. o Click the black horizontal arrow to collapse or expand the tray. o To create a new input. Visual snippets view: visual snippet editor This area shows a categorized view of all of the existing snippets that are available. In all cases. and provides prompts that you use to graphically compose your expression. expand the appropriate category. highlight it and click the icon. o The contents of the page will differ on the selection. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. simply double-click it in the Visual Snippet view. click the corresponding icon. • • Visual snippets view: visual snippet editor This area shows a categorized view of all of the existing snippets that are available. o The run order in each group flows from left to right as shown in this image.

The list of snippets include those in the product's standard library . and then drag it to the location in your composition where you want it to appear. as well as any existing custom user-defined snippets . select the snippet. there is no reproducing the same work. . ng this system. To launch a user-defined snippet in the editor. To use one of these snippets. simply double-click it in the Visual Snippet view. Preferences view: visual snippet editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields in the preferences view of the visual snippet editor. expand the appropriate category.

There can be at most one output from a snippet. then there will be times that you may find it easier to simply type it yourself. especially for simple code. • • • • • Inputs Output Exceptions Visual snippets Links Inputs The inputs define the data that enters the snippet. sing the visual snippet editor to write Java code When should you use the visual snippet editor to compose Java™ code instead of writing it yourself? The answer to this is part personal choice. By default. If you select the check box. the files are instead generated to <module>\gen\src\<folder>. Use the Generate snippet Java files to derived folder setting to control how Java™ files that are generated for visual snippets are derived to a CVS repository. This data can either be in the form of a Java™ type. and part skill level.Launch the preferences view from the main menu by clicking Window > Preferences > Business Integration > Visual Snippet Editor. Exceptions The exceptions indicate what fault handling may be required if the snippet cannot be completed successfully. and ultimately save the user a lot of typing.<module>/<folder>. There can be multiple exceptions in a snippet. and you must use the graphical editor to visually compose expressions that can then be generated into valid Java code. This flag indicates that these files are derived from other files during a build process. is the fact that the editor will generate a lot of code very quickly. There can be multiple inputs into a snippet. If you are not familiar with the Java programming language. then this choice is made for you. If you are comfortable coding using Java. The building blocks of the visual snippet editor Compose your own visual snippet using a combination of the following building blocks. The data that is returned can either be in the form of a Java type. the check box is cleared. a data type or a business object. Output The output defines the result of the snippet composition. The biggest advantage of the visual snippet editor for experienced users. and the derived flag is set. and custom visual snippets are generated to . Visual snippets . and so therefore do not need to be kept in a CVS repository because they can be generated at any time. a data type or a business object.

• Java visual snippet Use this to embed a call to an arbitrary Java method or constructor or access a field within the context of the visual snippet. you will be prompted to choose from a categorized list of existing snippets. if you or another colleague has already created custom visual snippets on this system. When the input evaluates to 'False'. The system provides a number of standard. Browse the existing types and qualifiers. and each performs a different function. general purpose snippets that you can choose from here. they will appear here in the form of custom visual snippets. and the other when it is 'False'. and direct the processing according to the Boolean value of the input. a visual snippet is a unit of work that performs a specific programmatic task in order to achieve a larger programming goal. Similarly. the Select a Java Visual Snippet wizard will launch. and the expression can also be visually composed using the inline expression builder. • Try Finally node Use the Try Finally node to attempt to perform an action ("initial action") and then to perform another action ("final action"). The final action runs regardless of whether the initial action ran successfully or caused an exception. . There are a number of items that can be added to a visual snippet: • Expression Expressions carry user-defined values. • While control structure Use the while control structure to repeat the same code as long as the input value is 'True'. • For each control structure Use the for each control structure to repeat the same code for each of the items of a list that is received as input. • Standard visual snippet Use this to add a predefined snippet into the editor When you drop this snippet on the canvas. One will be executed when the input is 'True'. When you click this item. You will embed two separate pieces of code into two separate areas of this control structure. You will embed two separate pieces of code into two separate areas of this control structure. The number of repetitions is determined by the value that is received as input. control moves on to the next object in the snippet. There are several items that can be dropped onto the canvas from the palette. The code in the bottom section is run as long as the input continues to evaluate to 'True'. The kinds of values are varied.Within the context of the visual snippet editor. • Repeat control structure Use the repeat control structure to iterate the same code a number of times. and then choose an appropriate snippet and drop it onto the canvas. • Choice control structure Use the choice control structure to create a branch in your snippet. and pass them into the snippet.

Adding a Java visual snippet Java visual snippets are predefined pieces of Java code that you can use in your snippet. • • • Adding an input or an output to a snippet The input defines the data that enters the snippet.• Throw node Use this to throw an exception. follows these instructions. 2. 3. and choose one that is appropriate. This choice will determine where your snippet will appear in the categorized list in the visual snippet view. 4. Using a custom visual snippet A custom visual snippet is one that contains an entire snippet within it. • Comment node Use this when you want to include a note of some kind in the structure of the snippet. 5. Working with standard visual snippets Many types of snippets are available in the editor. Links Links your snippet occurs represent the flow of data and direct the sequence in which the processing of the nodes in Creating a custom visual snippet To create a new custom visual snippet. 1. • Return node Use this when you want to return a result from the snippet. Click on any of the following links to configure the snippet. select it in the business integration view. switch to the business integration perspective. and launches it in a new visual snippet editor. Expand the Category list. From the main menu. and can be used to explain and describe portions of the code to make future modifications easier. This creates a snippet. Once you choose a category. the folder name will change to match it. The comment is text based. and you can use them when composing your own visual snippet. and the output specifies the result. In the New Custom Visual Snippet window. • • • Adding an input or an output to a snippet . specify a module. click File > New > Custom Visual Snippet. Adding a link to a snippet Links represent data flow and direct the sequence in which the processing of the activities in your snippet occurs. 6. Click Finish to create your snippet. In the workbench. If you have already created a module. Adding an exception to a snippet An exception on the snippet defines what exceptions may occur during the processing of the snippet. and a name for the new snippet.

rename it if necessary. Working with standard visual snippets Many types of snippets are available in the editor. You can choose a Java™ exception type. You can create an input or an output in the same way. Proceed as follows to add one of them to your snippet: 1. and specify an appropriate type.The input defines the data that enters the snippet. proceed as follows: 1. 2. To create a new input or output in your snippet. In the tray. Your newly created input or output appears in the tray. a data type or a business object. and specify an appropriate type. To create a new exception in your snippet. 2. and the output specifies the result. Note: You can create as many inputs as you want. In the Description tab of the Properties area. but only a single output. In the Visual Snippets view. click the plus icon ( ) to the right of either Inputs or Output. In the tray. expand the category and choose the snippet that you would like to add as shown in the image. rename it if necessary. In the Description tab of the Properties area. . Your newly created exception appears in the tray. The visual snippets view to the left of the editor contains a categorized list of standard visual snippets that are included with the product as well as custom visual snippets that have been user-defined. proceed as follows: 1. and you can use them when composing your own visual snippet. You can choose a Java™ type. click the plus icon ( ) to the right of Exceptions. Adding an exception to a snippet An exception on the snippet defines what exceptions may occur during the processing of the snippet.

Changes the value of the primitive into a string.2. Changes the value of the integer into a string. Changes the value of the string into a double. and you can wire it up as needed. The snippet appears as an node on the canvas. a custom activity can be opened in a new editor by double-clicking it. Note: Standard activities are fixed and cannot be modified. . Makes a copy of a specific element in the array. Returns the value of a specific array element. Category arrays Standard visual snippet array length copy array element get array element set array element converter convert integer to string convert primitive type to string convert string to double Description Returns the number of elements in the array. Drag and drop this snippet onto the canvas. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Table 1. Specifies the value of a specific array element. However.

Table 1. Returns a value that is equal to the current day of the week. Category Standard visual snippet convert string to float convert string to integer convert string to long convert to lower case Description Changes the value of the string into a float. Compares two dates to see if they are the same. Returns a value that is equal to the current date and time. Changes the value of the string into a long. Creates a date object by combining a given pattern and a date string that is in Greenwich Mean Time format. Creates a date object by combining a given pattern and date string. Makes all of the characters in the string into upper case characters. and uses a pattern to transform it into convert to upper case date are dates equal create date from pattern create GMT date from pattern current date and time day of the month day of the week day of the year difference between two dates format date to GMT string using pattern format date to string using pattern format locale date to string using pattern . Returns true if they match. Makes all of the characters in the string into lower case characters. Determines the current date and time based on the computer's locale. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Returns a value that is equal to the current day of the month. Takes a patterned date as input and transforms it into a string. and returns the difference between them in number of days. Changes the value of the string into an integer. Takes a patterned date as input and transforms it into a string that is based on Greenwich Mean Time. Returns a value that is equal to the current day of the year. Compares two separate dates.

and returns the index of the specified list item. Takes an existing list and a new object as inputs. and deletes the item that is at the specified index point.Table 1. Declares a business-related message that can be logged in the runtime environment. Takes the contents of a list. Compares two dates as input and returns true if the value of the first date is after the second date. Takes an existing list and a list object as inputs. Takes an existing list and a list object as inputs. Returns a value that represents the number of items in the list. Takes an existing list. and returns the specific item that is at the index point. and returns true if the list contains the specified object. Takes an existing list and a list object as inputs. an index value. and false if it contains any elements. Clears an existing list of all elements. Takes an existing list and an index value as input. and add that new object to the end of the existing list. get date pattern Returns a pattern that can be used to compose date and time formulas. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Takes an existing list and an index value as input. and an object as Description is date after is date before events emit BO event list add item to list clear all items from list get item at index index of item is list empty list contains item list size list to sort remove item at index remove item from list set item at index . Category Standard visual snippet a string. Compares two dates as input and returns true if the value of the first date is before the second date. and arranges them alphabetically. and deletes the specified list item. Evaluates the list and returns true if it is empty.

Use a basic mapping snippet for general mappings between two business objects. Like the previous two options. Category Standard visual snippet Description input. and places the item at the given index point in the list.Table 1. and returns their quotient. This standard visual snippet provides terminals that you can use link to the name and namespace of the map. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. it is changed to false and vice versa. and returns their sum. Takes two numbers as input. exceptions and for execution context Returns the absolute value of a number. Takes a boolean input and converts it to its opposite. Takes two numbers as input. but accepts a map of input and a map of output business objects. If it comes in as true. and returns true if the value of the first number is higher than or the same as that of the second. The advanced mapping snippet builds on the basic mapping snippet (see below). It includes similar terminals. inverse or mapping service advanced mapping basic mapping specific mapping math absolute value add divide equal to greater than greater than or equal to . Takes two numbers as input. Use a specific mapping snippet to reference an existing business object map. Takes two numbers as input. and three exceptions. this standard visual snippet has terminals for inputs (that automatically refer to the business objects as defined in the business object map). logic and Takes two boolean inputs. It also provides an additional terminal for an execution context (which may be null). and returns true when they themselves are both true. and returns true when either one of them is true. Takes two boolean inputs. and returns true if their values are the same. Takes two numbers as input. the business objects that you are working with. and returns true if the value of the first number is higher than that of the second.

Category Standard visual snippet less than Description Takes two numbers as input. and a business object as inputs. role name. Takes two numbers as input. and a business object as inputs. Formats a number according to the standards of the current locale (for example either '1. specified instance ID. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Returns the positive square root of the number given as input. maximum minimum multiply not equal to power square root subtract numbers format number to string format number using pattern parse number for locale relationship service create participant create participant with ID deactivate participant . and returns their product. Takes two numbers as input. and returns the value that is lesser. Takes a base and an exponent value as inputs. and creates a new participant for this relationship service. role name. uses them to identify a specific user. and returns a value that is equal to the base number raised to the power of the exponent. Takes a maximum fraction digit and a number as inputs. and returns the value as a string. and a business object as inputs. Takes two numbers as input. and returns the value as a string. and returns the difference between them. and returns the value that is greater. Takes a pattern and a number as inputs. and returns true if the value of the first number is lower than that of the second. role name. Takes two numbers as input. Takes a relationship name.Table 1. and creates a new participant for this relationship service. and returns true if the value of the first number is different than that of the second. and disables this user without completely removing it from the system.000' or '1000' or '1 000) Takes a relationship name. Takes two numbers as input. Takes a relationship name.

Takes a relationship name. and a business object as inputs. and instance ID as input. and an instance ID as inputs.Table 1. uses them to identify a specific user. Takes the following as input: delete participant delete participant by instance foreign key lookup • • • • • • • • • • foreign key xref foreign relationship name foreign input role name DataObject business object foreign keys business object foreign output role name output business object output business object foreign keys original input business object original output business object calling context Returns a cross reference of a foreign key with the following as input: • foreign relationship name • foreign input role name • DataObject business object • foreign keys business object • foreign output role name • output business object • output business object foreign keys • original input business object • original output business object • calling context Takes a relationship name. a property name. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. and returns a relationship property. and instance ID as input. Takes a relationship name. uses them to identify a specific user. and completely removes this user from the system. role name. and disables this user without completely removing it from the system. role name. role name. uses them to identify a specific user. Category Standard visual snippet deactivate participant by instance Description Takes a relationship name. and completely removes this user from the system. Returns a role property with the following as input: • relationship name • role name • property name • instance ID • business object Maintains the identity of a relationship with the following as input: • relationship name • role name • input business object get relationship property get role property maintain identity relationship .

A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. and adds the item to the array. Takes two business objects as input. a role name. and returns a matching instance. and returns all matching participants. a role name. Takes a relationship name. and returns true if their values are the same. and an instance ID as inputs. Specifies a relationship property with the following as input: • relationship name • property name • property value • instance ID Specifies a role property with the following as input: • relationship name • role name • property name • property value • instance ID • business object Removes a relationship property as specified by following inputs: • relationship name • property name • instance ID Removes a role property as specified by following inputs: • relationship name • role name • property name • instance ID • business object Takes two business objects as input (one of them is an item. A shallow function looks only at that information which is on the first level of the BO. and a business object as inputs. and returns all matching participants. Takes two business objects as input. set role property unset relationship property unset role property SCA services add item to soap-encoded array are BO's Equal are BO's Equal (shallow) . and returns true if their values are the same. and an instance ID as inputs. and the second is a soap-encoded array). and returns all matching participants. a role name. Takes a relationship name. Takes a relationship name and an instance ID as inputs. If the BO contains a reference to another BO.Table 1. Category Standard visual snippet Description • • • • retrieve instances retrieve participants by instance retrieve participants by relationship name retrieve participants by role name set relationship property output business object original input business object original output business object calling context Takes a relationship name. then that information will not be considered.

Returns data from the business object Data Object Service. Takes a Service Message Object and an SMO body as copy list contents create BO create specific BO get BOChangeSummary Service get BODataObject Service get BOEventSummary Service get BOMetadata Service get BOXMLSerializer Service locate service SMO services copy SMO create SMO body create SOAP header create specific SMO body get SMO body get SMO part set SMO body . and obtains a reference to the it. If the BO contains a reference to another BO. and duplicates it. Takes a Service Message Object and an XPath expression as input. and returns a new business object. Returns data from the business object XML Serializer Service. A shallow copy takes only that information that is on the first level of the BO. and duplicates it. Returns data from the business object Metadata Service. Category Standard visual snippet copy BO copy BO (shallow) Description Takes either a business object or a business graph as input. Takes either a business object or a business graph as input. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. and copies the contents of the source list into the target list.Table 1. Takes a Service Message Object as input and returns its body. Uses the Data Type selection wizard to create a specific business object. and creates a body for the Service Message Object. and duplicates it. Returns data from the business object Event Summary Service. Creates a SOAP header from the following inputs: • SOAP header name • SOAP header namespace • SOAP header prefix • Business object Uses the Message selection wizard to create a specific Service Message Object body. Takes a Service Message Object as input. and returns the part specified by XPath. Returns data from the business object Change Summary Service. then that information will not be copied. Takes a service name as input. Takes a namespace and a message as input. (Copies are made for business objects) Takes a namespace and a name as input. Takes two lists as input.

the snippet takes the log message and business object as inputs. and prints a textual representation of it to System. 2. Takes a text string as input. and clears all of the empty characters from it.out. From the palette. text append text remove whitespace from text split text Takes two string as input. and an end index as inputs.out. Takes two text strings as input and returns true if they are both the same. and prints it to System. and prints a textual representation of it to System. Uses the Select Log Level wizard to specify granularity of the log. Takes an object as input. browse the existing types and qualifiers. and combines their contents into one. You can choose from the following: • Off • Severe • Warning • Info • Config • Fine • Finer • Finest • All Then. the snippet takes the log message and object as inputs.Table 1. To import a Java visual snippet. and prints it to System. and specifies its body. while ignoring case. returns true if they are both the same. A list and description of the available standard visual snippets. Category Standard visual snippet Description input.out. proceed as follows: 1.out. choose an appropriate snippet and click OK . and returns a textual representation of it. Take as text string. Takes a business object as input. Takes a text string as input. Then. click the Java visual snippet activity icon . Uses the Select Log Level wizard to specify granularity of the log. and returns its length in characters. text equal to text equal to (ignore case) text length utility BO print to logger print BO to log print to log print to logger to text Adding a Java visual snippet Java™ visual snippets are predefined pieces of Java code that you can use in your snippet. In the Select a Java Visual Snippet wizard. Takes an object as input. a start index. Takes two text strings as input and. and creates a substring of the given text using the given indices.

a. or Click an item in the palette. 4. click the link so that it becomes highlighted. If you would like to make changes to it. Drag and drop this snippet onto the canvas and wire it up as needed. Create another snippet using the editor. 3. Click where you want to drop the activity. If it can take an outgoing link. Link two existing objects on the canvas as follows: a. and will look like a plus sign with a crossed out circle beside it. The custom visual snippet appears as an activity on the canvas. 2. Create a link automatically in either of these ways: a. expand the category where you saved your first snippet. Drag the cursor out over the canvas. b. and drag it to a new incoming link. the crossed out circle disappears. Drop an activity onto the canvas. Parent topic: Creating a custom visual snippet Using a custom visual snippet A custom visual snippet is one that contains an entire snippet within it. 2. The link becomes a solid gray line and connects the two activities. To change the target activity. You have created a custom visual snippet. 4. you will notice that the icon beside your cursor has a plus symbol when you are at a place where you are allowed to drop the activity. You have successfully created a link in your snippet. 5. e. drag the cursor out over the canvas. and then click a valid input or output terminal of an existing activity on the canvas. d. 1. b. If it can take an incoming link. Click the yellow circle. and drag it onto an input terminal of an existing activity on the canvas. The crossed out circle on your cursor will disappear when the terminal is a valid choice for a link. Using inline expressions for simple equations . continue moving it until it becomes a plus sign again. it will have a triangle on its left edge . The cursor will change appearance. and a thick black line will mark the location more clearly. You can drop the activity into one of two places in your snippet: To drop it onto an empty area of the canvas. click the black box at the target end of the link. Click an Input in the tray. Your newly created Java visual snippet will appear. You can either create a link automatically when your drop an object onto the canvas as described in the first step. It is also called a composite visual snippet. In both cases. To drop the activity into a structured activity that contains other activities. Move the cursor over an outgoing link until the yellow circle appears as shown in this image. Click the activity that you want to link to. When the cursor becomes a crossed out circle. 6. A yellow string is now attached to the cursor. Adding a link to a snippet Links represent data flow and direct the sequence in which the processing of the activities in your snippet occurs. f. Compose the visual code as necessary. c. double-click it and it will appear in its own editor. and when you hover over a valid incoming link icon. or link two existing objects as described in the second. the triangle will be on the right edge . In the Visual Snippets view. and can be created as follows: 1. Pay close attention to the Category setting in the wizard in which you are asked to specify a location for your new snippet. drag the cursor over the appropriate activity. Save and close your work. b. Create a new visual snippet in the editor.3.

proceed as follows: 1. chose one of the three available options. but accepts a map of input and a map of output business objects. there are several ways that you can compose the expression. Refactoring a visual snippet . the best practice is to use an inline expression when coding simple equations. exceptions and for execution context. In the visual snippet editor. To add one of these snippets to your diagram. In both cases. The finalized form appears like the one shown in this screen capture: Of these two options available to you. the equation is coded directly into the expression using the inline condition builder. Specific mapping snippet Use a specific mapping snippet to reference an existing business object map. click the Standard visual snippet activity icon ( ). It also provides an additional terminal for an execution context (which may be null). Note: You will only be able to select a specific mapping snippet if there is an existing business object map. Advanced mapping snippet The advanced mapping snippet builds on the basic mapping snippet. 3. you can use one of the three mapping service snippets provided. It includes similar terminals. the business objects that you are working with. In the Add a Standard Visual Snippet window. 2. Most expressions can be represented diagrammatically in one of the following two ways: Inline expressions In this case.When you are coding an expression in the visual snippet editor. The finalized form appears like the one shown in this screen capture: Prebuilt expressions Prebuilt expressions can either be in the form of a Standard visual snippet or a Java™ visual snippet. This standard visual snippet provides terminals that you can use link to the name and namespace of the map. this standard visual snippet has terminals for inputs (that automatically refer to the business objects as defined in the business object map). and three exceptions. Like the previous two options. There are three types of mapping snippets available: Basic mapping snippet Use a basic mapping snippet for general mappings between two business objects. expand mapping services. Using mapping service snippets When you want to transform data in a business object from one format to another using the visual snippet editor. You will be able to select it in the Business Object Map Selection dialogue box. the snippet contains specialized code that will perform the simple equation in question. Wire the terminals as needed. and click OK.

and a dialogue opens that lists each of the events that are available to be emitted. From the list. In the Visual snippet view. right-click the visual snippet as shown in the following screen capture. you can add it to your visual snippet as follows: 1. dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. . Drag and drop this snippet onto the canvas. In the Visual Snippets view. Move Use this option to move your visual snippet to a new folder or module. Change Namespace Use this option to assign a new namespace to your visual snippet. The emit event snippet appears on the canvas. 3. Once you have created your own custom event definition using the event definition editor. 2. expand the events category. Configuring a custom event in a visual snippet A custom event is a specific business-related message that can be declared in the visual snippet editor to be emitted in the runtime environment. hover over Refactor and then choose from one of the following three options: Option Description Rename Use this option to change the name assigned to the visual snippet.When you refactor parts of your visual snippet. Select the event that you would like to emit and click OK. 2. proceed as follows: 1. To refactor parts of your visual snippet. and select the snippet named emit event.

the action is the quotation of the price. Rule sets and decision tables cannot be invoked directly and may only be invoked through a rule group. Rule sets and decision tables which share a common business focus can be gathered under the umbrella of a single rule group. . it is different for each of the conditions that is encountered. Rule groups A rule group is the highest level implementation component of a business rule. Customer status Bronze Silver Gold $5 $4 $3 Quoted price The interaction between conditions and actions determines the form of your business rules. or infer new data from existing data. If the condition is met. Here are some basic terms that define the building blocks of each and every business rule: Conditions A condition describes a situation or state that must be in place in order for a specific action to occur. Using WebSphere® Integration Developer. the action is performed.4. rule sets and decision tables. make a decision. which are described below. A business rule is used to quote specific prices to customers depending upon their customer status. creating and developing business rules in a graphical programming environment. In this example. you can compose integrative business solutions without programming skills. A rule can enforce a business policy. Key concepts Before you start to use this editor. The rule group acts as a gateway to the business rules since it is exposed as an SCA component in the runtime environment. Business rules A business rule is a condition that must be satisfied when a business activity is being performed. Each action is uniquely bound to the condition that precedes it. The rule group defines the interface and operation that the business rules will implement. There are two possible forms. Table 1. An example of a business rule A vendor establishes the preferred status of each customer and creates a business rule to determine how much each customer is charged for the same object. In the snippet editor. In this example. Actions An action is the event that results from the evaluation of the condition. create the expressions that will supply the emit event snippet with the data that is necessary to emit the event in question. the condition is the customer's status. you need to understand these key concepts about business rules: • Rule groups • Rule sets • Decision tables • Business roles in the development of business rules • Templates • Scheduling Note: Business rules can only be deployed to the WebSphere Process Server.

Decision tables Another form that a business rule can take is a decision table. and the potential amount of money that the customer spends is represented by the columns. and each condition that evaluates to true is acted upon.One of the most important functions of the rule group is to define a date and time range during which a specific rule set or decision table will be used. In a decision table. but only one action is acted on. the customer receives a bigger discount when he or she purchases more items. and then is the action. If-then rules A rule in which if is the condition and then is the action. An if-then rule set is a set of textual statements or rules where if is the condition of the rule. The first column shows . During the transaction. Customers who made a purchase in all ten weeks evaluate to true for both conditions and receive both incentives. several conditions may get evaluated. in a decision table. Action rules An action rule is a rule in which the action is always performed. For instance. Only if the condition evaluates to true is the action performed. in this example the customer status is represented by the rows in the table. The first example we discussed used an if-then rule set: Table 2. The decision table enforces this business rule behavior through the intersection of the status (rows) and items purchased (columns). If customer has silver status then price is 4. Silver $4 Gold $3 In the runtime environment. the decision table is driven by the interaction between conditions and actions. more than one condition decides the action. An example might be a customer loyalty scheme in which a customer that makes a purchase seven weeks out of ten receives a free gift. If customer has gold status then price is 3. Like the if-then rule set. Customer status Bronze $5 Quoted price If-then rule If customer has bronze status then price is 5. which could result in more than one action. Rule sets A rule set is a set of business rules that are evaluated sequentially. and a customer that makes a purchase in all ten weeks receives an additional 10% discount voucher for future use. However. each rule is evaluated sequentially. A business rule is used to quote specific prices to customers depending upon their customer status. There are two kinds of rule that can be used in a rule set. Each column represents a condition. The discount depends on the customer's status. The conditional logic is represented in a table where the rows and columns intersect to determine the appropriate action.

to implement and deploy the rules that the business analyst created. While implementing the rules. Customer status Bronze Silver Gold Buys less than 20 items $5 per item $4 per item $3 per item Buys more than 20 item $4.us that the results of each of intersection is the same as the if-then rule set: if the customer with bronze status buys less than 20 items. he pays $5 for each item.50 per item $2. The analyst applies his or her understanding of how the business works to create business policies and business rules. at least according to the table. a specified operation is automatically performed while data is passed to a decision table. How two different roles interact in working with a business rule . When these rules have been deployed to a server. Initialization action rule By using an initialization action rule. Figure 1. she pays $4 for each item. if a customer does not have a status.50 per item Here are a few concepts that are unique to decision tables: Otherwise condition By using an otherwise condition. while the customer with gold status pays $3 for each item.50 per item $1. and anticipate situations where the conditions will not result in an action. Business roles in the development of business rules Because business rules are developed and maintained by several users.50 per item $2. implement. You can also make initialization action rules into templates so that you can modify the rule at run time. the integration developer uses templates to determine what details can be modified later by another business analyst and writes messages that will help that user make those modifications. A business rule defined by a decision table. There are two main roles for working with business rules: Business analyst The business analyst needs to have no knowledge about computer programming languages to create business rules. if the customer with silver status buys less than 20 items.50 per item Buys more than 30 items $4 per item $3 per item $2 per item Buys more than 40 items $3. For example. Table 3. Integration developer The integration developer uses his or her knowledge of computer programming. the analyst applies his or her knowledge of the business environment and uses Web-based management tools to keep the rules relevant. and how those users interact while working with a business rule. you can change the bronze row to use an otherwise condition so that the customer who does not have a silver or gold status automatically receives the prices that the bronze customer typically receives. you need to create roles that indicate the different ways that different users create. and modify business rules. you can plan ahead when designing your decision table.50 per item $3.

Templates One of the responsibilities of the business analyst is to keep business rules relevant. Decision tables can also be made dynamically modifiable at runtime by basing the conditions or actions of the decision table on templates. you might still need to modify your prices or other properties. This is especially necessary when a business environment must be dynamic to meet everchanging business needs. the user could upgrade a customer's credit rating from "silver" to "gold". In order to create business rules that are dynamically modifiable at runtime the business rules must be based on templates. For example. An example of a template constraining a business rule . your company might have to periodically adjust sale prices to match the competition's prices. It is rarely feasible or cost effective to get an integration developer to make each adjustment. The authorized user must choose from one of the options in the list. Constraints A constraint is a restriction in a template that limits by how much a specified parameter can be modified. The "price" would be a parameter if you want to adjust your sale price to match a competitor. A template defines what parts of a deployed business rule can be modified by an authorized user. For example you know that your product costs 100 to manufacture so your range of prices might be between 105 and 500. After deployment. • Enumeration constraints • Enumeration constraints are in a list that is either numeric or textual. Parameters and constraints define which values can be modified and by how much. For example. Figure 2. Parameters Parameters are the elements of the business rule that can be modified dynamically. There are two main types of constraints: • Range constraints • Range constraints apply to numeric parameters that are used in rules. An authorized user may adjust a parameter but the parameter must be held within a certain numerical range. The template uses parameters and constraints to provide dynamicity.

for example. or (as shown in the following example).In this example. business analysts have to be prepared for changes to governmental tax regulations that will not go into affect until the first of the year. when Vendor B tries to do something similar. Scheduling When changes to the business rules are mandated and expected. Vendor A can use a business rule template to adjust the price of the item to beat Vendor B's pricing. the constraint on the business rule template will not allow it. However. you can design rules and deploy them to the server so that they become active when they are needed. An example of how a business rule can be created for later use . Figure 3. The constraint does not permit a lower price than the one that is currently in place. when a special price is put into effect for one special day only. This functionality is important when.

on a running server instead of hard-coded logic in your solution. Decide which rule logic to use. To this end. In general. the decision itself naturally takes on the form of a table the decision itself naturally takes on the form of a series of textual if-then statements. . The rule group also defines date ranges during which specific rule logic applies. A rule can enforce business policy. you should probably structure the decision in a sequential process. make a decision. Create your chosen rule logic. The rule group is the primary element of a business rule. If your decision logic analyzes a collection of data or loops over a set of data. Some business rules are better suited to a decision table. If you want to modify the business rule dynamically you must base your rule on a template. you should use business rules to make a decision when any of the following conditions are met: • • • you want to change the results at runtime. and call out to a rule set whenever there is configurable data. You are in the process of planning your business process. The rule logic is either a rule set or a decision table. or infer new data from existing data. 4. some to a rule set. Decide if a business rule is an appropriate solution for your business process. 1. it provides the interface between the business process and the rule logic. The WebSphere® Integration Developer tools have been designed so that users can easily compose integrative business solutions without programming skills. you can easily create and develop business rules in an intuitive graphical programming environment. Basing rules on templates gives you more dynamicity at runtime and allows you to modify settings without involving an integration developer. 2. 3.When to use business rules A business rule is anything that captures and implements business policies and practices. Create a rule group. Building business rules: task roadmap A high-level view of the development of a business rule is presented. A business rule is an ideal solution when you want to have flexibility to change your business process at runtime.

the decision criteria that all the rules share in common can be captured once. 2. test and deploy. look for the following trends in the finished product: 1. Choosing between a rule set and a decision table You can capture business rule logic using either a rule set or a decision table. If you create a new interface here. Here are some suggestions for how to decide which format to use. if this table has a large number of holes. switch to the business integration perspective. Assemble your rule group into a business process. 3. The structure of the decision table works well for regularity. or where the output values are undefined. In the select an interface window. If your rules seem to take the form of a large number of unstructured sentences. Additionally constraints can be applied to these parameters so that the changes made with the Business Rule Manager are within acceptable ranges. a folder and a name for the new rule group. The rule group editor is divided into several distinct areas. then it would be a good idea to use a decision table. Begin by sketching out a plan for your rules on a white board or a notepad. . In this case. A rule set is more flexible than the more structured decision table. 4. Rule group editor A rule group controls the timing and implementation of business rules. then you should use a rule set. Click any of the topics listed below to configure your new rule group. In the New Rule Group window. then you should probably use a rule set to capture their business logic. In the workbench. you will have to create an operation using the interface editor before you can use it in the rule group. each with its own function. 6. 4. and launches it in a new editor. 1. However. Creating a rule group Create a rule group as a container for your business rules. Use structure and terminology that is natural to the business environment in which these rules will be used. and then you can define the parameters for each criteria. where some decision criteria are not applicable. Then. Parent topic: Building business rules 5. specify a module (or create one if necessary by clicking New). and click Next. The template also allows you to stipulate which parameters of the rule logic can be modified by the business analyst using the Business Rule Manager. By creating a template for your rule set or decision table you can build up a library of rule logics that you can reuse in the future. Create a new rule group by performing the following steps. 3.Create templates for your rule logic. 2. If you notice that every rule seems to use the same decision criteria. but not for exception cases. browse to an existing interface or click New to create one. This creates a rule group. From the main menu. If your rules naturally take the form of a table. click File > New > Rule Group. then you should probably use a decision table.

In all cases. or to remove one. o To create a new interface or reference. . o To add new rule logic. highlight it and click the icon. For example you may want to offer a discount on weekends. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. click the icon. or to remove one. Advanced tab: business rule group editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Advanced tab of the Properties view.The areas are as follows: 1. Use the date and time field when you want distinct rule logics to apply during different periods. 2. o The contents of the page will differ on the activity or object chosen. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. you can click F1 to launch a dedicated help window. click the icon. 3. The interface area o This area displays the operations interfaces and references that you can choose from. Some pages display properties in tabular format. • Advanced tab: business rule group editor This topic includes a description of each of the fields on the Advanced tab of the Properties view. or you may have a sale which runs until noon. The rule logic area o This area displays the possible rule logic that the operation can be routed to. You can visually select your date and times using the interactive calendar. or create your own customized datebased selection algorithm in the Selection criteria field. highlight it and click the icon.

4. To specify the rule logic for your new rule group.Use the fields on this page to add a few custom properties to a business rule group. Define the Default Rule Logic. and the rule logic that you provide does not cover all the possible cases. Link to Orphan This option will be available if you have already created an operation and deleted it. a runtime exception will occur when the current condition is not covered. click the operation that you want to associate with the rules. then it is unlikely that there will be rule logic defined for it. the rule logic window will appear. They are used by generated Business User clients and can be queried through an API at runtime. Custom properties represent name-value pairs of type string that can be used to store user-defined information. 2. Note: If you do not select default rule logic. . Click here to link to the rule logic that is still defined for the old operation. Specifying the rule logic for a rule group The rule logic is either a rule set or a decision table that is invoked at the designated time by the rule group. Once you have made your choice. and you will have the following options: Option Description Create Operation Definition Click here to launch the rule group editor and specify the rule logic yourself. 3. If this is a new operation. proceed as follows: 1. In the editor of your newly created rule group. or create a new one. by clicking Enter Rule Logic and either select an existing rule set or decision table from the list.

To select start and end dates for a rule. and only one can be called at a time). Here are some suggestions that are based on the number and nature of the available rule logic. 4. date based selection can be used to delegate one operation to a specific rule logic (note that overlapping rules are not supported. it is recommended that you select it in the default rule logic. then click No Date. or select an existing one. In the Rule Logic column. In a rule group. create a new Scheduled Rule Logic by clicking the Date fields will appear showing the current date. and either select an existing rule set or decision table from the list. it is recommended that you create two date rows in the table and leave the default rule logic undefined. To set a start or end date. and some suggestions on what to do. To set it to the current date. First option: one rule logic for the rule group If there is only one rule logic for this rule group. Second option: two rule logics If there are two rule logics one of which represents the current behavior and the other one the future behavior of the rule group. click Today. Use the interactive calendar to choose a date as shown in this image. proceed as follows: 1. The date selection data is composed of a set of rule logic rows and one default rule logic. 2. In the rule logic area of the rule group editor. icon. Scheduling rules using the rule group editor The rule group editor can be used to schedule the running of a specific rule for a specific date and time. or create a new one. Standards for date and time selection in a rule group There are a number of ways you can configure your rule group. click the appropriate calendar icon. and leave the dates empty. Create your rule logic (you can create as many as necessary) by clicking the plus icon ( ) beside the Scheduled Rule Logic label.5. 3. . or to leave either the start or end date open (perhaps you do not want it to expire). Here are some possible options. click Enter Rule Logic to create a new rule.

Java Choose this to use the visual snippet editor to graphically compose your own Java code . Customizing algorithms for date and time selection When you want to specialize the date and time selection criteria.Third option: standard behavior If there is some standard behavior for the rule group. click Current date. create a new Scheduled Rule Logic by clicking the Date fields will appear with the current date. which is occasionally overridden for short durations. You can configure a rule group to work with the following: • A date as specified using the tooling. To change this. scheduling is based on the Current date.util. 2. • A date returned from a Java™ expression • A date stored in an attribute of the incoming business object. In the rule logic area of the rule group editor. proceed as follows: 1. In the Selection Criteria field. Option Description Current® date Choose this to use the inline interactive calendar to select the dates graphically. you can create your own custom algorithm. If you choose this. then the system will create a Java snippet that will return a current java. it is recommended that you use the default rule logic for the standard behavior and create a date range for each of the short term behavior rule logics. You will then have the following choices: icon. By default.date object.

ibm. These components should all share an interface. In the Choose interfaces field of the Implemented interfaces selection panel type "com. 2. b. Find the line of code: <Selector>com. Open the New Java Class wizard. which displays the generated files for the project.GenericSelector</Selector > and replace it with . more in depth information about creating custom selectors can be found in related links. Click OK.ibm. f.util.sel file. Click Finish. whether you are currently offering any discounts or if the customer is making a sufficiently large purchase to qualify for financing.customselectors" in the Package field. particularly those involving date-dependent discounts. or it can be embedded within a Business Object. a. Augment the generated code with new code that will provide the new custom selection logic.wbiservers. 1.date to the selector component. Open the Implemented interfaces selection panel. c. Create a CustomSelector Java™ class. b. The decision is driven by selection criteria that you can customize to your needs.selection. a. Any WebSphere® Process Server component can be used as the outcome of the selector choice. You need as many components as you will have possible outcomes. Click the Add button. The parameter can either be a stand-alone. Right-click the filename. You can use the provided selectors for many circumstances. for example "CustomSelector". Select your Module in the Business Integration view. In the Source Folder field browse to the current module folder. This is the class that will make the decision about which component to select. The process of creating a custom selector is described briefly below. b. h. and return a java. rightclick and select New > Other > Java > Class and then click Next. In the Business Integration view. Selectors provide a simple way for you to filter the business logic in different directions depending on input criteria.ibm. Creating custom selectors Selectors can be used to determine dynamically. 4. Save and close the new selector.selection.date) parameter. e. g. and select Open With > Text Editor. a. Create the components that will be the target of the selector after the selection has been made. Edit the code of the new selector to replace the default Java class with your custom code. between two or more possible invocations.common.common. at runtime.S". Enter "com. c.Option Description that will obtain a date and a time. XPath Choose this to specify an XPath to a xsd:datetime (java. This opens the Physical Resources view. c. Choose one of the target WebSphere Process Server components as the Default Rule Logic.wbiserver. and choose SelectionAlgorithm in the Matching types field when it appears. Enter an appropriate name for the Java class. 3. d. Apply the same interface to the new selector that you used for the target components.util. Create a new selector component. The possible selection criteria include: the location of the customer. right click the selector and click Show Files. In other situations you will need to define your own custom selector.

5. In the workbench. and there will not be any confusion. <Selector>com.yourNamespace. If the same name is used twice. a folder and a name for the new rule set. The project is ready to build and test. as follows: • http://www. Add the selector and all of the target components to the assembly diagram.yourNamespace. switch to the business integration perspective. specify a module (or create one if necessary by clicking New). click File > New > Rule Set.yourNamespace. Label Default July 1 to August 31 getDefaultDiscountRate getHolidayDiscountRate Name Creating a rule set This topic provides instructions on how to create a new rule set. Label Default July 1 to August 31 getDiscountRate getDiscountRate Name To avoid this problem.com/default/getDiscountRate • http://www. 1.com/holiday/getDiscountRate If you reference these rule sets within a single operation.ibm. Table 1. Using rule set names in a rule group Each operation in a rule group contains a rule logic table. In the New Rule Set window. you should give each rule set a more descriptive name.customselectors. . These could be placed in different folders. and another to calculate the discount rate during a holiday period.d.com/getHolidayDiscountRate If you do this.CustomSelector</Selector> where CustomSelector is the name you gave to your Java class. Table 2. A situation where the rule set names makes sense. To avoid confusion. with different namespaces. and click Next. A situation where using the same rule set name might be confusing. the names will be unambiguous. so the references may appear identical in both the tooling and the Web environments. as shown here: • http://www. it is always a good practice to use rule set and decision table names which are unique within the operation. From the main menu. which maps a set of date ranges to a rule set or decision table. only the local name for the rule set is shown.com/getDefaultDiscountRate • http://www. Save and close the selector file.yourNamespace. For instance. suppose you have one rule set to calculate the default discount rate. it is more difficult to see that there are actually two different rule logics. 3. 2.

or click New to create one. browse to an existing rule group. If necessary.In the select an interface and operation window. use the drop down lists to select a different interface and operation. Rule set editor A rule set captures decision-making business logic in the form of a series of if-then statements. Click any of the topics listed below to configure your new rule set. 5. This creates a rule set. . The editor is divided into several distinct areas. each with its own individual use as shown here. a business rule takes the form of an interaction between one condition and one action. 4. In the rule set editor. the rule is presented in a tabular format that you can edit as needed. In a rule set. Click Finish. and launches it in a new editor.

The individual areas of the rule set editor The areas of the rule set editor are as follows: 1. 2. The variables area . The interface area o This area displays the interface that is currently being referenced by the rule set.

o The previous screen capture shows a single if-then template (c) that is ready to be configured. click the icon. Some pages display properties in tabular format. The templates area o Use this area to graphically compose templates for a rule set. In the Variables settings area. and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. highlight it and click the icon. you can type F1 to launch a dedicated help window. or to remove one. The rules area o Use this area to graphically compose your if-then rule sets. Creates a template based on the current rule. A new variable will appear in the Name column. and the second is a rule that is based on a template (b). 7. . The template on which this rule is based is shown in the Templates section below. The rules area toolbar o The icons in the rules area toolbar perform the following functions: o o Icon Creates a new if-then rule. This area displays the variables that are being used by the rule set to store its data. The templates area toolbar o The icons in the templates area toolbar perform the following functions: Icon Description Creates a new template for an if-then rule. . The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. 5. The first is an ifthen rule (a). To create a new variable. 4. Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages. o The contents of the page will differ on the activity or object chosen. o The previous screen capture shows two rules in this area ready to be defined. Description Creates a rule that is based on an existing template. Follow the links in the Related tasks section below to learn how to do any of the following: • Working with variables • Create an if-then or an action rules • Convert a rule into a template • Create a rule that is based on a template Adding a variable to a rule set Variables store the data that are used by a rule set. proceed as follows: 1. In all cases.3. Creates a new template for an action rule. 6. click the plus icon ( ). Working with the rule set editor This editor gives you complete control over the configuration of your rule sets. To create an additional variable. Creates a new action rule.

Browse Use this to browse the Data type selection wizard for a data type. In the Presentation row. click Condition. You have successfully created a variable. click Select Type. or xsd:anySimpletype Data type Choose one of the pre-defined data types from the list. you have the following options: Option Description New Use this to select or create a business object. Compose the condition as follows: a. 3. 2.2. Use the choices in the window to build your condition. proceed as follows: 1. In the Type column. You will also be able to choose from the XSD wildcards of xsd:any. Set the action as follows: . A new rule appears as shown in this image. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. 3. In the data type popup window. In the rule set editor. xsd:anyType. 4. To create an if-then rule in the rule set editor. Creating an if-then rule in the rule set editor An if-then rule determines what action to run according to the condition of the incoming message. In the If row. click the Add If-then rule icon ( ). You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. write a sentence that will describe the rule to another user. or you can compose it yourself by clicking the appropriate operators and values in sequence.

. use the choices in the window to set the action. click Action. 2. To create an action rule in the rule set editor. or you can set it yourself by choosing from one of the other options. This template can then be used to create new instances of the same rule using different parameters. A new rule appears as shown in this image. Use the choices in the window to set the action. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. proceed as follows: 1. click the Add Action rule icon ( ). A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. As earlier. write a sentence that will describe the rule to another user. Creating rule set templates Use a rule set template to define the implementation and parameters for an if-then or action rule. Creating an action rule in the rule set editor An action rule determines what action to run no matter what the incoming message is. In the Then row. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. click Action. 3. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. In the Presentation row. In the rule set editor. Set the action as follows: a. or you can set it yourself by choosing from one of the other options. In the Then row.a. You can create templates for both if-then and action rules in the same way.

click Condition. and Presentation is how it is displayed in an actual rule. and add items to the Enumeration Items table in the Constraint tab in the properties view. The Value is the actual setting. click the triangular icon to launch a menu. In the Then row. d. To insert a parameter that the user can make changes to. Note: If you apply a constraint to a parameter. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: b. To add a restriction on how the parameter can be configured. click Select Type. c. 5. Compose the condition as follows: 4. Set the action as follows: a. To specify an upper and a lower limit for a numerical parameter. and select an appropriate choice from the list. click Enumeration. click either the Add If-then template ( . To specify a list of choices. b. A pop up window appears as shown in this image: . a. In the If row. click Range. 3.) or Add Action template ( ) icon . In the Presentation row. A new parameter will appear. e. or you can compose it yourself by clicking the appropriate operators and values in sequence. In the Parameters row. create a new parameter as follows: Click the icon. In the rule set editor. In the Type column. Use the choices in the window to build your condition. The parameters of the rule can be modified within certain constraints. click None under the Constraint column. a. and then use the choices in the window to build your expression. A list showing the available choices will appear. 2.Business rules based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value. and then choose a parameter from the list. A new template appears as shown in this image (note that the window is slightly different for the action template). Base your rule on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the parameters of a rule without involving the integration developer. the runtime user of a rule using this template will be able to modify the parameter only in accordance with that constraint. 1. click Action. write a sentence that will describe the rule to another user.

A new rule appears as shown in this image. 2. You have successfully created a rule based on a template. The parameters of the rule can be modified within certain constraints. indicating that it should be used after the default rule. In the rule set editor. Create a rule set which sets the default value for the output. you may enter a value directly. click the appropriate template. proceed as follows: 1. Use the choices in the window to set the action. From the list. In this way. click the Add Template rule icon ( available templates. 3. define the parameters by clicking Enter Value. Add a sentence to the web presentation for each of these. a menu will appear showing your available options. Otherwise. If there is an enumeration constraint in effect. You have successfully created a template for an if-then or an action rule. Business rules based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. proceed as follows: 1. use the following approach. with a parameter for the default value. Create a few templates which capture the criteria when the default should be overridden. Structuring an ordered rule set for modification .b. 4. To allow a default value to be changed by a Web user. A drop down list appears showing all 2. In the Presentation row. Convert the rule set into a template. To capture this in a rule set. ). 5. Add a sentence to the template web presentation indicating that the default value should be overridden by creating another rule after the default rule. Now you are ready to create a rule based on it in the rule set editor. Letting a Web user override the default values in a rule set In a rule set. There are currently no first class mechanisms to control rule order or creation. 3. and by making changes to the parameters within the constraints specified. To use a template to create a new rule in the rule set editor. you can create a similar rule without having to redefine the implementation. Base your rule on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the parameters of a rule without involving the integration developer. there are often situations where you want to allow a Web user to override the default output value as programmed. Creating a new rule from a template in the rule set editor Rules can be created from existing templates. but these comments should help the web user avoid mistakes.

In rulesetA. wire rulegroupB to the reference in rulegroupA. you cannot call one rule set from another directly. then you should order the special case rules in ascending or descending order. 5. Creating a decision table This topic provides instructions on how to create a new decision table. and the logic must be correct before you publish the changes. To work around this. 3. the behavior of the rule set will change significantly if you reorder the rules. You can do this by referencing existing rules in the rule set. switch to the business integration perspective. not many. Calling one rule set from another one Currently. From the main menu. If the web user is skilled. Add a comment to the rule set which describes the general structure of the rule set. Put rulesetB in rulegroupB. and may even break. Caution should be taken when you reorder these rules in the web client. In the New Decision Table window. and then invoke one from the other. click File > New > Decision Table. Here are some suggestions on how to plan for possible changes to an ordered rule set. Use the default pattern. add an invoke rule and select the rulesetB operation in the rulegroupB reference. For instance. Your web users will come to learn this pattern. 6. This gives the web user a pattern which is easy to follow. the rule set above would be more robust if rules 2 through 4 had the following form: o if amount >= min and amount < max rate = primeRate + someValue This rule could also be converted into a template which has plug-gable values for each parameter in yellow. 5. it is more likely that new rules will be added using a template in the web client. and then put the special case rules later. make one decision. Add comments to each template which clearly describe where the template instance should be located within the rule set. they may be able to position the new rule correctly. Put rulesetA in rulegroupA. 3. separate the rule sets into two distinct rule groups. 1. That being said. limit the actual decision count in the rule set to one. Rule 3: if amount >= 1000 rate = primeRate + 1 Rule 4: if amount >= 5000 rate = primeRate + 2 In this situation. given the loan amount. and click Next. 4. you can take these precautions to avoid error: 1. suppose you want rulesetA to call rulesetB. Here is how you would set it up: 1. Structure your special case rules so that they are mutually independent. and then copy those changes to the runtime system. so that it is easier for the web user to make changes to it. there may be a tight dependency between the rules and their order of processing. The best practice is to make the modifications in the tooling environment. 2. . you can only call out to operations which exist in another component. a folder and a name for the new decision table. Keep the rule set simple. If it is difficult to create mutually exclusive rules. 2. Caution should be taken to make sure that the new rule is inserted correctly in the rule set. and indicating that the template should be placed before or after them.In some rule sets. In other words. we suggest you assign the default value at the start. In the assembly editor. Create a reference in rulegroupA with the same interface as rulegroupB. In this pattern. In the workbench. For instance suppose you have a rule set which calculates the interest rate for a loan. 2. This is the nature of sequential execution. 3. If not. test them. If possible. 4. It may look like this: • • • • Rule 1: primeRate = 5 Rule 2: if amount < 1000 rate = primeRate. specify a module (or create one if necessary by clicking New). For instance.

In the decision table editor. in a decision table. a business rule that takes the form of a decision table is driven by the interaction between conditions and actions. Click Finish. the rule is presented in a tabular format that you can edit as needed. Click any of the topics listed below to configure your new decision table. and launches it in a new editor. The conditional logic is represented as a table where the rows and columns intersect to determine the appropriate action. In the Decision Table layout window. If necessary. 4. the action is decided by more than one condition. or click New to create one. click Next. Decision table editor A decision table captures multi-conditional decision-making business logic in tabular format. 7. This creates a decision table. If you want to configure the layout of the decision table. Like the rule set. each with its own individual use as shown here. browse to an existing rule group. The main difference being that. use the settings to determine how the decision table will appear in the editor. use the drop down lists to select a different interface and operation. .In the select an interface and operation window. 6. The editor is divided into several distinct areas. 5. The preview shows what the table will look like.

if a customer's salary is greater than 500. When this business rule executes. The row along the top represents the customer's salary.0f. The intersection of the values that are passed into each of these two conditions specify the action (section 7) that will determine the customer's interest rate. The light grey conditions area of the table (section 6) shows the multiple conditions that will interact to determine the customer's interest rate. and the credit rating is 5. For example. This is done so that the business process that calls this decision table can continue to work with the original values. the initialization action rule (in section 2) begins by taking the input values and assigning them to the output values. o . The individual areas of the decision table The areas of the decision table are as follows: 1. and the column on the left.The decision table in this screen capture is an example of how an interest rate for a mortgage can be calculated by considering both a customer's salary and credit rating. then they will receive the lowest interest rate of 5. as well as the inputs and outputs that you can use in the decision table. The interface area o This area displays the interface that is currently being referenced. the customer's credit rating.

The conditions area o The conditions area appears in light grey. The properties area o This area displays properties that are relevant to the object that is currently selected in the editor. o 5. The Initialize area o Use this area to configure an initialization action rule (an operation that will take place when data first enters a decision table). o The contents of the page will differ on the activity or object chosen. as well as create a template for one. 4. Follow the links in the Related tasks section below to learn how to do any of the following: • Add a condition or a condition value • Add an action • Add an initialization action rule • Using an otherwise condition . The initialize tool bar o Use the icons in the Initialize tool bar to perform the following functions: Icon Add an initialization action rule Description Create a template from this action rule. The actions area o The actions area appears to the right and below the conditions area (in this particular configuration of the decision table layout). Click on the tabs to the left of this view to toggle through the pages.2. o 3. Use this area of the decision table to define the actions that will fire when the conditions intersect. Working with the decision table editor This editor gives you complete control over the configuration of your decision table. Create a template for one of the expressions in this table Description 6. The decision table tool bar o Use the icons in the decision table tool bar to perform the following functions: Icon Add a new condition Add a new condition value Add a new action Change the orientation of the condition (this will not impact the runtime execution). and you can add or modify these properties by clicking the appropriate cell and then interacting with the graphical interface that appears. 8. you can type F1 to launch a dedicated help window. 7. In all cases. Some pages display properties in tabular format. The Table area o This area displays the table that shows the conditions and the actions that make up this business rule. Use this area of the decision table to define the multiple conditions that will evaluate the incoming inputs in order to fire a corresponding action.

The top row represents the conditions. Configure this condition as you did the previous ones. You can either enter a value directly in the cell. and two cells for the action values. and there is one cell for a term to reference an input for the condition. a basic decision table is created with two rows and three columns. If necessary. and two cells for the condition values that the input will be evaluated against. and choosing and/or composing an appropriate expression from the popup window. and each column in it will have additional cells as shown in this image: . or make your choice from the popup window that appears. 3. A new column will appear as shown in this image: 4. This default decision table is shown in this image: . To add a new value. The new condition term will appear in the cell as shown in this image: 2. a basic decision table is created with two rows and three columns. By default. Specify the incoming variable for this condition by clicking Enter Term in the top row. If you want to further refine the potential values for each condition. and there is one cell for a term to reference an output for the action. and click the Add a new condition value icon ( ). This default decision table is shown in this image: • • Change the layout of your decision table Work with templates In this layout. click on any cell in the conditions row. By default. you can add a new condition by clicking the Add a new condition icon. any incoming term that matches one of the condition values in the top row fires a corresponding action as defined in the second row. Configure the existing conditions. The bottom row represents the actions.Working with conditions in a decision table A condition is an evaluation of the incoming message that looks for a specific value. Configuring actions in a decision table An action is an operation that is executed when the appropriate conditions are met. A new row will appear below the current one. and add new ones to your decision table as follows: 1. Configure the values for each of the existing conditions by clicking Enter Value. you can further configure the terms with the inline condition builder.

The new condition term will appear in the cell as shown in this image (note that the condition values have already been defined in this example): 2. to set the initial value of the business objects attribute. proceed as follows: a. Configure the existing actions. and click the Add a new action icon ( ). Typically. For instance. To further qualify the actions. an initialization action rule is used for the following reasons: • To set an initial value. Initialization action rules can also be made into templates so that they can be modified in the runtime environment. More importantly. Configure the values for each of the existing actions by clicking Enter Value." • To initialize an output business object. click on any cell in the actions row. 1. A new column will appear as shown in this image: . any incoming term that matches one of the condition values in the top row fires a corresponding action as defined in the second row. and add new ones to your decision table as follows: 1. To create an initialization action rule. Specify the outgoing variable for this action by clicking Enter Term in the bottom row. you can further configure the terms with the inline condition builder. b. Working with initialization action rules An initialization action rule automatically performs an operation of some kind when data is first being passed to a decision table. Configure this action as you did the previous ones. you can add a new action row. You can either enter a value directly in the cell. click the Add an initialization action rule ( Assign a name to your new initialization action rule in the name field. then you can create those business objects (and this can be recursive if they in turn contain even more business objects). The finished table will look something like this image: 3. or make your choice from the popup window that appears. to copy one or more input business object(s) to one or more output business object(s). if the business object has attributes that are also business objects. For example. and choosing and/or composing an appropriate expression from the popup window. In the decision table editor. ) icon.In this layout. . To do this. If necessary.

c.

d.
2.

In the Presentation field, enter a sentence that will describe what this initialization rule does to a Web user. In the Action field, use the inline condition builder to define the operation that will take place.

To create a template for the initialization action rule, proceed as follows: a. In the decision table editor, click one of the cells in the Initialize area. Click the Convert Rule or Table cell to Template ( ) icon. The rule area changes slightly. Click anywhere in the Initialize area, and the template editor will appear in the General tab of the properties area. Configure the template according to the instructions in Creating decision table templates.

b. c. d.

Using an otherwise condition
An otherwise condition is used in a decision table for situations when the specified conditions will not be met. The otherwise condition cause a rule to fire when no other evaluation can be resolved. Configure an otherwise condition as follows: 1. Configure your decision table so that at least two of your conditions have been defined. 2. Right-click a conditions cell, and select Add Condition Otherwise from the list as shown in this screen capture.

A new value appears on the condition called Otherwise as shown in this screen capture. It will always be the last value shown, and only one otherwise is allowed per condition.

Note: You cannot make a template from the otherwise condition.

Using an otherwise condition
An otherwise condition is used in a decision table for situations when the specified conditions will not be met. The otherwise condition cause a rule to fire when no other evaluation can be resolved. Configure an otherwise condition as follows: 1. Configure your decision table so that at least two of your conditions have been defined. 2. Right-click a conditions cell, and select Add Condition Otherwise from the list as shown in this screen capture.

A new value appears on the condition called Otherwise as shown in this screen capture. It will always be the last value shown, and only one otherwise is allowed per condition.

Note: You cannot make a template from the otherwise condition.

Creating decision table templates
Use a template to define the implementation and parameters for either a condition or an action value in a decision table. This template can then be used to create new cells with the same format, but with different parameter values. Decision tables, in which the conditions or actions are based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. Base the conditions or actions of a decision table on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the runtime behavior of the decision table without involving the integration developer. To create a template for one of the values in your decision table, proceed as follows:

1.

In the decision table editor, choose a cell and click the Converts an expression of a decision table cell into a template ( ) icon . If you are working with an existing value in the table, then the system will examine the expression and convert all literal values into parameters. The value appears in a small square to indicate that it is a template, and a new template appears as in the General tab of the properties area shown in this image:

2.

In the Parameters row, you can create a new parameter as follows:

a. b. c. d.

e.

Click the icon. A new parameter will appear. In the Type column, click Select Type, and select an appropriate choice from the list. To add a restriction on how the parameter can be configured, click None under the Constraint column. A list showing the available choices will appear. To specify an upper and a lower limit for the constraint, click Range, and then use the choices in the window to build your expression. You can either choose an existing template which will then prompt you for a value, or you can compose it yourself by clicking the appropriate operators and values in sequence. Alternatively, to specify a list of choices, click Enumeration, and add an item to the Enumeration Items table in the Constraint tab in the properties view. The Value is the actual setting, and Presentation is how it is displayed in an actual rule.

3.

In the Presentation row, write a sentence that will appear in the cell. To insert a parameter that the user can make changes to, click the triangular icon to launch a menu, and then choose a parameter from the list. If you want to make changes to this value's implementation, click the first cell in the Expression row, and use the choices in the pop up window to build a new expression.

4.

Base the conditions or actions of a decision table on a template if you want to give your business analyst the ability to modify the runtime behavior of the decision table without involving the integration developer. proceed as follows: 1. click the template you want to edit. In the first cell of the Active Template table. and by making changes to the parameters within the constraints specified. called 'xs:anyType') • an arbitrary element (xs:any) For more advanced mapping and expressions involving weak types or attributes use other components such as interfaces or business objects maps. In the properties area of your decision table. In the decision table. click Templates. Decision tables. You cannot use weak types in computations or comparisons. you can create a similar expression without having to redefine the implementation. In this way. click on a cell for either an action or a condition value. click None. To use an existing template in your decision table. proceed as follows: 1. 2. Restrictions: • • No local variables in a rule set can be of weak type. Weak type support with business rules Business object definitions can have XSD wildcards that can be used in business rules logic. Editing a decision table template This topic provides instructions on how to make changes to an existing templates.Using templates in your decision table The individual cells of your decision table can be populated with an existing template for the value. Business rules support of weak types for basic mapping Input type any any Output type Supported Yes. Make your changes as needed. From the Value Templates list. in which the conditions or actions are based on templates are dynamically modifiable in the runtime environment. and the template itself will appear in the properties area. The cell in the decision table will change and display the template's presentation sentence. No No anyAttribute anyType . Such wildcards can represent a placeholder for any of the following: • an arbitrary simple type (xs:anySimpleType) • an arbitrary complexType (xs:anyComplexType) • an arbitrary type (simple or complex. To make changes to an existing template. Table 1. The template will appear to the right of the list. 3. 3. 2. All existing open elements are deleted from the source and the source open elements are added to the end of the closed elements. Click on the General tab in the properties area. and choose an existing template from the list.

No No Yes. Yes. Business rules support of weak types for basic mapping Input type Output type Supported anySimpleType Concrete complex type Concrete simple type anyAttribute any anyAttribute anyType anySimpleType Concrete complex type Concrete simple type anyType anyType any anyAttribute anySimpleType No No No No Yes. for example a string. Assignment allowed. No No . Concrete complex type Concrete simple type AnySimpleType anySimpleType any anyAttribute Yes. Assignment allowed if data is of a compatible type.Table 1. Assignment allowed. Yes. Assignment allowed if data is of a compatible type. All of the attributes are removed and replaced. No No No No Yes. Assignment allowed if data is a simple type.

Assignment allowed. Choosing the correct template parameter values . To download the programming guide. Yes. Note: For this link to work. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib.Table 1. Assignment allowed. No Yes No anyAttribute anyType anySimpleType Concrete complex type any No Yes. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). you need to install additional documentation.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. click Help > Software Updates.ibm. Assignment allowed. No Business rule management programming guide The Business rule management programming guide explains the programming model for business rules management classes. as well as Project Interface and EAR files that contain examples. The programming guide is reproduced in the WebSphere® Process Server documentation if you prefer the information center format. and provides examples on how to use the different classes. No anyAttribute anyType anySimpleType No Yes. follow this link: Business rule management programming guide. In WebSphere Integration Developer. See Business rule management or Business rule management if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. Note: If this link fails. select the documentation that you want. and click Install. select the Available Software tab. you will need to have an active connection to the internet. in the main menu. Expand the results under this repository location.boulder. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. Then. Assignment allowed. Business rules support of weak types for basic mapping Input type Output type anyType Concrete simple type Concrete complex type Concrete simple type any Supported Yes. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window.

In the business rules manager. a validation error will be added for any float value which includes the 'f' delimiter.9'. right-click the business rule. the rule can be deployed to the WebSphere Process Server server. In the Business Integration view. hover over Refactor and then choose from one of the following three options: Option Description Rename Use this option to change the name assigned to the rule. the value for a float template parameter must take the form '9. Move Use this option to move your rule to a new folder or module. including how they interact with other resources within the same project. If the float value is syntactically correct. you can create a customized report using the documentation generator. you must manually remove the 'f' delimiter from all float values in the Web client before you can save the new version. If the 'f' delimiter is not used in WebSphere Integration Developer. Refactoring business rules When you refactor parts of your business rules. If you view or edit the rule set or decision table in the Web client. but will make it more awkward to edit some business rules in the business rules manager. please understand the following. a value for a float template parameter must take the form '99. and executed without error. This inconsistency does not affect rule set or decision table processing. From the drop-down menu. and 'f' is a float delimiter. Generating documentation for your rules If you need a high level synopsis of your business rules. A generated document can very quickly provide you with the following: • a quick understanding of a project or resource • an overview report about a complex project • the visualization of the relationships and cross references of resources within a project • a detailed report that can be printed out for certifications . In this case. where 9 is any number.99f'. This inconsistency is only a problem if you want to modify the rules and save the new version to the WebSphere Process Server server. proceed as follows: 1. a validation error is added to the rule set. To refactor parts of your business rules.To make sure that you don't have any syntax inconsistencies with template parameters in the runtime environment. 2. In WebSphere Integration Developer. WebSphere® Integration Developer and WebSphere Process Server use a different syntax for template parameter values. dependencies on those parts are automatically and universally updated throughout the product as a whole. Change Namespace Use this option to assign a new namespace to your rule.

The Initial page opens with the existing rule books listed in the Navigation Area. 4. Launching the Business Rules Manager The Business Rules Manager is a Web client that allows dynamic control of parameter values in template based rules that are deployed to the Websphere Process Server.boulder. See Considerations for installing the business rules manager for more information. 2. You will need to restart WebSphere Integration Developer to see the additional documentation. In the Business Integration view.ibm. select the documentation that you want. you need to install additional documentation. The business rules manager Initial page opens. In the Software Updates and Add-ons window. See the WebSphere® Process Server documentation for a more complete set of instructions on the business rules manager or business rules manager if you have WebSphere Process Server installed. 3. open the Resource perspective if you are not already there (click Window > Open Perspective > Other > Resource). proceed as follows: 1. follow these steps to login. the Rule books page opens when business rules manager is accessed. select the Available Software tab. Switch to the server view. In WebSphere Integration Developer. Start your server. See Configuring server security for the business rules manager for more information. 5. type your User ID. right-click either your rule group. You can now make changes to any business rule listed. in the main menu. If global security is enabled. Expand the results under this repository location. The default URLs for accessing the business rules manager are: • https://hostname:9443/br (if security is enabled) • http://hostname:9080/br (if security is not enabled) where hostname is the name of the host. rule set. click Help > Software Updates. 2. Right-click the server and select Launch > Business Rules Manager. Working with business calendars . If the global security is not enabled.com/dmndhelp/downloads/v6r2mx/wid/. Click Add Site and specify the following location: http://publib. Note: The Login page opens only when you have enabled global security on the server. Configure the Documentation Generation wizard according to the instructions in the Generating documentation topic. Before you begin Make sure that both the server and client are configured correctly. Click Login. Type your Password 6. and click Install. Note: If this link fails. or decision table and select Generate Documentation. 1. Then.To create a report for your business rules. At the Login page. Note: URLs may vary according to the environment.

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