Africa: U.S.

Foreign Assistance Issues
Ted Dagne Specialist in African Affairs February 11, 2011

Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov RL33591

CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress

The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) is the principal multilateral channel for U.S.S.Africa: U. Aid levels did fall. aid.S. substantial reductions in aid to Africa had been anticipated. security assistance.S. As the debate went forward. African Development Foundation (ADF) makes small grants to cooperatives. foreign assistance to Africa for FY2009 was $8. Foreign Assistance Issues Summary U. Moreover. and refugee assistance.S. assistance reaches Africa through a variety of channels. aid to Africa nearly quadrupled from $1. Congressional Research Service .620 volunteers and trainers in 29 African countries. Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to receive an estimated $7.1 billion to East and Central African countries and an estimated $2. national security interests in the post-cold war era.S. however. U. as many questioned the importance of Africa to U.S. when global competition with the Soviet Union was at a high point. youth groups.05 billion in FY2010.S. aid to Africa initially reached a peak in 1985. Between FY1999 and FY2009. humanitarian. The Obama Administration has requested an estimated $7. including USAID-administered Development Assistance (DA) and GHCS programs. at the outset of the 104th Congress. security assistance levels for Africa began to decline. assistance to Africa is reaching new highs due to a significant increase in health care sectors under the Global Health and Child Survival (GHCS) program.2 billion. The U. U. the Peace Corps had an estimated 2. After the cold war ended. though still far below levels seen in the 1980s. primarily because of U.S.7 billion in FY2010. the United States is the leading donor of humanitarian assistance to Africa. but gradually began to increase again in FY1997. support for African peacekeeping and counter-terrorism initiatives. U. economic. and self-help organizations and operates in 20 countries. but the United States also contributes to the African Development Bank and Fund and to United Nations activities in Africa. food aid programs. As of February 2010. U. congressional reports and bills emphasized U. The Obama Administration has requested $30 million for ADF for FY2011. has increased in recent years. Total U. and other interests in Africa.S.2 billion in FY2006 to $6. In 1995.2 billion to Southern Africa countries.S. More than half of the FY2009 funding went to health-related programs.S.6 billion for FY2011. the United States provided over $10.

....................................9 Tables Table 1...........S.............................................5 The African Development Fund ........................................3 Peace Corps .S...........................................3 Regional Programs............8 Table 5..... 11 Congressional Research Service ...................................................5 Refugee and Disaster Assistance ...............................................................................................................................S....................................S.........1 Background ......................................................................................................................3 Security Assistance and Economic Support Funds ..........................................................................................................................................................................8 Sudan: U................................................ U............4 African Development Foundation............................................... Humanitarian Funding ............................................1 U.............................4 Millennium Challenge Account ................................ Selected Africa Assistance Acronyms ...........................................................S.................................................................. Contributions for International Peacekeeping Activities in Africa ............................ Assistance Programs......................................... Foreign Assistance Issues Contents U...6 Table 2.......................8 Table 4........................................................................................................................................................................6 Multilateral Assistance ............................S........................................2 DFA and Child Survival assistance........................................................................................6 Security Assistance Program: Section 1206 .......................................................................................................................... U....... Bilateral Assistance to Africa....7 Table 3.................................................................................................................................................................... Security Assistance Program: Section 1206 ................................... Assistance Recipients in Africa ........................9 Appendixes Appendix................................S........... U....................... Bilateral Assistance to Sudan................2 Humanitarian Aid........ Aid to Africa: An Overview ...........S... Leading U............ 10 Contacts Author Contact Information ................................................Africa: U..........................

S. More than 40 governments. Aid reached another peak in 1985. and global climate change.5 million.S. Under the AEI initiative. In recent years. bolster fragile states. is the Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP). enhance regional security capacity. especially in health-related programs. and international groups participate in the program. food security. The Women’s Justice and Empowerment Initiative aims to strengthen African governments’ capacity to effectively deal with gender-based violence and provide support to the victims.S. assistance to Africa saw a major increase.2 billion in FY2009. and amplify humanitarian and development assistance programs. Aid to Africa quadrupled from $1. The Africa Education Initiative (AEI) is a $600 million multi-year initiative to help increase access to quality basic education in 39 countries.gov/location/sub-saharan_africa. This was also a time of intense cold war competition with the Soviet Union.000 scholarships to African girls in primary and secondary levels. The Obama Administration has identified a number of areas of key interest in the FY2011 foreign aid request. the United States provided more than $1 billion in humanitarian assistance to Africa. The $200 million five-year African Global Competitiveness Initiative promotes “export competitiveness” in Africa. CAPRE funding was $15 million and in FY2009 $17.usaid. In FY2009. bilateral aid to Africa rose sharply in the early 1960s as most African countries achieved independence. such as the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has 23 missions in Africa. Congressional Research Service 1 .Africa: U. The United States has identified a number of strategic objectives that shape U.S. non-governmental organizations. Foreign Assistance Issues U. Africa is expected to receive an estimated $7. These priorities are to enhance strategic partnerships. and the initiative aims to provide 550. Another major initiative. The Initiative to End Hunger in Africa (IEHA). Aid to Africa: An Overview The United States provides assistance to 47 African countries. more than 15 million textbooks have been provided. consolidate democratic transitions. The Obama Administration has requested an estimated $7. and programs outlined below. In FY2010. health care.1 A number of new presidential initiatives were launched over the past several years.1 billion in FY2006 to nearly $8. 1 USAID: Africa http://www. Africa is also a major recipient of the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) funding. The CBFP initiative is funded through the Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment (CAPRE). The peak may also have resulted in part from heightened cold war competition with the Soviet Union. strengthen regional and sub-regional organizations.6 billion for FY2011. aid to Africa. Background U. when famine struck wide areas of sub-Saharan Africa.05 billion. the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC). These priorities include good governance. implement presidential initiatives.S. with 15 African countries currently participating in the program. launched in 2002. U. economic development. aims to cut hunger in half by 2015. launched in 2002. strengthen African counter-terrorism cooperation and capacity. In FY2008. stimulate Africa’s economic development and growth.

Consequently. which in turn channel it to Africa through their own programs. is given through non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or private and voluntary organizations (PVOs). As the aid debate proceeded. at the beginning of the 104th Congress. and the Obama Administration request for FY2011 is approximately $5 billion. also known as direct assistance. A major increase in aid took place in FY2003 because of large quantities of food aid provided to Ethiopia and southern Sudan. as well as in the bills themselves. The critics generally favored humanitarian assistance. assistance had accomplished little—whether in terms of promoting economic growth and democratization. foreign assistance program raised questions about the future of U. In FY2010. DFA and Child Survival assistance Falling ESF levels threatened the overall scale of the sub-Saharan aid program after 1985. funding for Global Health and Child Survival is $4. and African government ministries and agencies. Multilateral aid. and came to be reflected in report language on the major foreign assistance bills. The Global HIV/AIDS Initiative (GHAI).S. or achieving other objectives. was sharply reduced. GHAI and Child Survival accounts were merged into what is currently known as the Global Health and Child Survival program. when famine struck the Horn of Africa and the southern part of the continent. and other objectives in Africa was vigorously asserted by supporters of the Africa aid program. is given first to international financial institutions (IFIs) and United Nations agencies. Aid did drop back to the FY1990 level in FY1996. Foreign Assistance Issues Toward the end of the 1980s. and asserted that 30 years of U. In 1995. policymakers placed increased emphasis on human rights and commitment to economic reform programs in making their decisions on aid allocations. contractors.S. but slow growth began again in FY1997 and continued to the present. safe injections. it became apparent that cuts for Africa would be less than initially anticipated. Nonetheless. proposals to restructure and reduce the U. or indirect assistance. as well as a boost in spending through the Child Survival and Health Programs Fund in response to the African HIV/AIDS pandemic.S.S. budget deficit began to intensify. and this threat led to the creation of the Development Fund for Africa (DFA). such as Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and Liberia. was the principal component of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and began operations in FY2004. aid to sub-Saharan Africa.Africa: U. Many questioned the strategic rationale for assisting Africa in the post-cold war era. assistance is provided to Africa through a variety of channels. however. there was another spike in aid in 1992.S. economic. U. Assistance Programs U. contributing to an overall reduction in assistance to Africa. The view that the United States has important humanitarian.S. efforts to reduce the U. but sought sharp cuts in other programs. Aid then dropped again. which specifically earmarked a minimum level of the worldwide Development Assistance (DA) program for the Congressional Research Service 2 . safe blood supplies.4 billion (estimate). GHAI assistance included the provision of antiretroviral therapy. Bilateral or country-to-country aid. and abstinence/faithfulness education. as the cold war ended. with the reductions coming almost entirely in the security-oriented programs: military assistance and especially the Economic Support Fund (ESF). At the same time. administered by the Department of State. aid to some African countries that had been major cold war aid recipients.S.

but dropped well below $800 million in subsequent years despite efforts by some members to increase the DFA appropriation to $1 billion or more.6 million.3 Under the Peace Corps Act (P. Military in Africa. which had declined with the end of the cold war.4 For further information on food assistance programs. In recent years.7 billion for FY2010. funding for GHCS programs was $4.3 billion for FY2011. to promote a better understanding of the American people. Ho and Charles E. Security Assistance and Economic Support Funds U. which has channeled substantial amounts of aid to Africa. renamed the Child Survival and Health Programs Fund (CSH) in FY2002. primarily in response to widening conflict and political instability in Africa.1 billion to East and Central African countries and an estimated $2. 83-480. In FY1996. The additional amount is taken from a food aid reserve fund. Humanitarian Aid Emergency food aid to Africa fluctuates in response to the continent’s needs. and is expected to receive $1. The Obama Administration has requested $1.L. 4 For more on U. see CRS Report R41072. The Obama Administration has requested $5 billion for FY2011. Between FY1999 and FY2009. 2 Congressional Research Service 3 . 2 The United States is the leading humanitarian donor in the world. security assistance to Africa. Emergency food aid is provided under Title II of the P. by Lauren Ploch.Africa: U. when $802 million was appropriated.S. Hanrahan. 480 program (named for P. has expanded in recent years. the United States provided $437.2 billion and $4. Foreign Assistance Issues region. the United States provided over $10.900 in 2002.S. 3 For further information.2 billion to Southern Africa countries. Africa Command: U. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U. the Child Survival and Disease Programs Fund.L. by Melissa D. see CRS Report RS21168. In FY2009. security assistance for Africa.620 volunteers and trainers serving in 29 sub-Saharan countries in February 2010. 87-293). In FY2009. enacted in 1954). The Peace Corps: Current Issues. In FY2010. and to promote a better understanding of other peoples on the part of Americans. by Curt Tarnoff. see CRS Report RL34003. Congress created a new account.S. International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues. Africa received $876. the CSH has been replaced by the Global Health and Child Survival (GHCS) account.S. up from an estimated 1. and the amount provided by the end of a fiscal year often exceeds the initial request. The DFA was last earmarked by Congress in the FY1995 appropriations legislation. and DA for Africa has since been provided through the worldwide Development Assistance (DA) account. which is implemented by USAID in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. Obligations for sub-Saharan Africa projects under the DFA reached $846 million in FY1992. Annual USAID presentations to Congress on the budget request for aid to Africa have varied both with respect to using the term DFA and with respect to including CSH aid in an overall DA amount or in breaking out CSH assistance and DA separately. volunteers are to help the poorest people meet their basic needs. Peace Corps The Peace Corps has an estimated 2.07 billion in FY2010 in Development Assistance.L.S.9 million to Sudan and $148 million to Kenya.

a “safe skies” program to improve African air traffic safety. The United States also contributes to United Nations peacekeeping operations in Africa and elsewhere through a program entitled Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities (CIPA). and other self-help organizations. and agriculture. Southern Africa Regional. which are designed to confront challenges that span beyond the borders of individual African countries. African Development Foundation The African Development Foundation (ADF) has a unique mandate to make small grants directly to African cooperatives. The Obama Administration has requested $594 million for FY2011. according to the ADF Act (U. These include regional programs in health.000 to a maximum of $250. the Defense Department conducts AIDS prevention education programs. although appropriations language permits a waiver of the $250. freezing terrorist assets. including economic reform.9 million under the ESF program and is expected to receive $629.S. Congressional Research Service 4 . and West Africa Regional programs. and East Africa Regional. Foreign Military Financing (FMF) to Africa resumed in FY1999. human rights and democracy education. intellectual leadership. FY2010. which trained small units of African armies for possible peacekeeping duties. and other activities.6 million in FY2010.000. “the primary goal of the Africa Regional program is to provide overall direction. Section 290h). Foreign Assistance Issues Economic Support Fund aid has been used to support a wide range of programs. as well as for other regional peacekeeping initiatives. These grants usually range from less than $20. the United States supported the Africa Crisis Response Initiative (ACRI).000 ceiling.S. Chapter 7. conflict prevention. education. which trains trainers and implements programs tailored to individual country needs. the United States contributed $382 million. and other objectives. Code Title 22. Africa received $712. Regional Programs Both DA and ESF funds are used to support USAID’s Africa Regional Programs. Through the regional Peacekeeping Operations (PKO) program. primarily with African militaries. ACRI was succeeded by the Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA) program. These programs typically run well under $1 million per country. In addition.”5 USAID has a number of regional programs in Africa.9 million for FY2011. while enhancing capabilities for participation in peacekeeping operations. The Obama Administration has requested $15. Its seven-member board of directors must include five private5 Congressional Budget Justification. including the Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE). ESF aid is also helping strategic partners in combating terrorism through cooperation on border control. In FY2009. and strengthened African regional capacity to address these challenges. The Obama Administration requested $138 million for FY2011. implementation of the peace agreement in southern Sudan. and an estimated $187 million in FY2010. democracy. guidance. youth groups. The ADF is limited to 75 employees. According to USAID. In FY2004. International Military Education and Training (IMET) programs in Africa promote professionalism and respect for democracy and human rights among foreign military officials. In FY2009. the ADF supports grassroots development research by African scholars and promotes the dissemination of development information at the community level.Africa: U. In addition.

the ADF received $22. The ADF is seen by some observers as an effective tool in reaching out to communities faster and more directly. For further information. According to ADF. In FY2008.9 million).5 million in FY2008. and at the same time. invest in people through education and health care. Mozambique ($506.7 million). 6 7 Interview with senior ADF official in June 2009.7 million.1 billion (estimate) in FY2010. starting in FY2004. Cape Verde ($110 million). and the Obama Administration has requested $30 million for FY2011. Millennium Challenge Corporation. the goal of which was to increase foreign aid worldwide by $5 billion per year over three years. Namibia ($304.6 million). 2005). ADF is expected to receive $30 million in FY2010. Sao Tome and Principe ($8. Government Accountability Office Report GAO-05-625T.8 million). and in FY2009 $32. however. Social benefits include skill training. Currently the ADF operates in 20 African countries. Foreign Assistance Issues sector representatives. The United States provided $134. Agreements have been reached with Madagascar ($110 million).5 million). As of late 2009.7 million) for MCA programs. The fund. nutritional and hygiene training. Mali ($460. speech. Congressional Research Service 5 . Senegal ($540 million).2 billion for FY2011. but instead works through local hires and periodic field visits. and basic vocational training.S. Burkina Faso ($480.S.4 million). Benin ($307 million). 109-102). and $1. Uganda ($10.Africa: U.7 million). and Zambia ($22.7 million in the Foreign Operations Appropriations Act (P. Lesotho ($362. $875 million in FY2009. and $150 million in FY2009. it holds 50% of the voting power in the AfDF. Ghana ($547 million).S. an affiliate of the Africa-based African Development Bank (AfDB). Although the promise of increased aid won praise from many observers.S. The Obama Administration has requested $1. “the majority of the ADF portfolio is in income generating projects that have an additive value of Social benefits. For FY2006.”6 Millennium Challenge Account7 In a March 14.9 million). and promote open markets. employees in overseas posts. The ADF program targets for assistance the most marginalized and poor communities. Liberia ($15 million). The AfDB lends on roughly commercial terms to creditworthy African borrowers. Rwanda ($24. makes loans on highly concessional terms to the poorest African countries. The African Development Fund The African Development Fund (AfDF) is another major channel for indirect U. Niger ($23 million). the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) received $1. Millennium Challenge Corporation: Progress Made on Key Challenges in First Year of Operations (April 27. and the Obama Administration has requested $155. and U.6 million).L.9 million for FY2011. The account would provide additional aid to countries whose governments promote good governance. some worried that most countries in sub-Saharan Africa will not be able to meet the fund’s eligibility criteria. ADF received $29. aid to Africa. by Curt Tarnoff.5 billion. 2002. ADF does not station U. The AfDF is expected to receive $155 million in FY2010. In FY2008. see CRS Report RL32427. 16 African countries have signed Compact or Threshold Program agreements. Kenya ($12. President Bush announced the Millennium Challenge Account (MCA). Tanzania ($698 million).5 million.

U.779 31.352 283. Most refugee assistance comes from the Migration and Refugee Assistance (MRA) account and goes to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and international organizations. created in 1962 to respond to unexpected refugee situations. Multilateral Assistance The United States also provides aid to Africa through international financial institutions (IFIs) and United Nations agencies.706 848.000 38. IDA loans.S.255 3.000 107.Africa: U. IDA has been particularly active in assisting efforts by the recipient countries to carry out free-market economic reforms.S. discussed above.usaid. has been drawn upon for African emergencies several times in recent years.795 26.700 3. “Situation Reports” published by USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance monitor the U.415 1.373.000 16.740 16.000 1.254.000 23.225 FY2011 Request 7. USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) also plays a major role in responding to African crises. Bilateral Assistance to Africa ($ in thousands) FY2008 Actual Total Development Assistance Economic Support Fund Foreign Military Financing Global Health and Child Survival—State Global Health and Child Survival—USAID International Military Education and Training Int.100 8 To find these reports.793 559.000 594. focus on strengthening public sector management.506.793 414. Table 1.633.509 13. transportation.255 3. response to African humanitarian crises through food aid and other emergency assistance. Antiterrorism.249 6. and various social problems. the International Development Association (IDA).000 45. is the largest single source of development capital in Africa.155.409 678.073 13.512 FY2009 Estimate 6.509 13.000 FY2009 Total 6. agriculture.019 1.910 647.gov/ and click on “Our Work” and “Humanitarian Assistance.359 912.020 48.300.738.795 26.S.115.574.255.600 31. and in part through its refugee and disaster assistance programs. visit http://www. which are considered a form of aid since they are virtually interest-free and carry extended repayment periods.440.037. the Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance (ERMA) account.910 8.642 27.550 3.910 8. World Bank lending through its “soft loan” affiliate.498 FY2010 Estimate 6.295.498 FY2009 Supplemental 133.757 3. Foreign Assistance Issues Refugee and Disaster Assistance The United States responds to African humanitarian crises in part with Title II food aid.” Congressional Research Service 6 . Demining and Related Programs 7.150 1.254.934 25. In addition.125 47. Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Nonproliferation. as well as to private and voluntary organizations assisting African refugees.706 848.600 31.550 746. 8 The Obama Administration has requested $320 million for FY2011 for the Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund.359 874.

3 40.3 713.0 213.1 864.0 6.4 544.1 157.6 161 80.4 FY2010 Estimate 456.9 533.8 464.273 FY2009 Estimate FY2009 Supplemental FY2009 Total FY2010 Estimate FY2011 Request 320.3 5.4 102.3 30.8 21.8 20.0 9.3 117.0 195.5 549.0 77.2 462.7 634.4 89.9 77. Rep.7 113.0 39.043 50.1 829.150 Source: Congressional Budget Justification.1 361 666.222 1.3 33.7 106.9 403.0 55.3 647. Assistance Recipients in Africa ($ in millions) Country Ugandaa Kenyaa South Africaa Nigeriaa Zambiaa Ethiopiaa Tanzaniaa Sudan Mozambiquea Somalia Liberia Rwandaa Namibiaa Botswanaa Mali Dem.4 31.250 601.1 392.9 136.043 187.4 99. Foreign Assistance Issues FY2008 Actual Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund Peacekeeping Operations P.7 178.9 415.1 40.0 84.7 386.8 77.000 249.0 240.500 138.8 100.9 133. Table 2.6 5.9 292.1 317.2 496.600 272.2 29 82. 480 (Food Aid) 130.9 224. Leading U.0 81.6 439.4 169.7 71.6 296.5 115.8 183.1 FY2008 Actual 389.250 601.5 427.3 284.7 583.2 174.8 226.4 574.8 108 79.8 145.5 659.5 147.7 408.1 18.6 93.L.9 924.2 308.S.8 105.8 594.1 208.8 57.6 86.6 577.9 57.000 199. Congo Ghana Malawi Senegal Côte d’Ivoirea Madagascar Angola Guinea Benin Zimbabwe Djibouti Sierra Leone Burundi FY2011 Request 480.S.6 30.5 59. FY2011.Africa: U.5 80.823.9 137.4 84.6 42.9 586.1 102.2 102.0 138.9 13.3 Congressional Research Service 7 .4 293.4 161.0 36.3 133.8 687.8 112.8 224.1 22.4 FY2009 Actual 404.2 14.2 22.5 614.

9 81.0 FY2008 (Actual) 17. Ghana. Congo. Chad.0 Security Assistance Program: Section 1206 Section 1206 of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) mandates the Secretary of Defense. Senegal FY2007 $7. Senegal Kenya Djibouti Ethiopia Benin.5 83.N.N. Republic of Congo.4 414. Sao Tome & Principe.4 412.S. 270. Kenya.5 FY2011 Request 16. by Nina M. Gabon. U.0 208.1 million $5.4 million $11. Nigeria. Estimated allocations included.4 512. Cameroon. Sierra Leone.Africa: U.4 293.8 million FY2008 FY2009 $18 million $8 million $3. FY2010.7 135. see CRS Report RS22855. Cape Verde. Senegal. Togo. Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) Source: Congressional Budget Justification. Gabon. Mali.0 135. Senegal Algeria.Rwanda (UNICTR) Chad/CAR (MINURCAT) Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) U. Niger.5 220. $350 million program is set to expire in September 2011. Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) Sudan (UNAMID) Sudan (UNMIS) U. Liberia. Security Assistance Program: Section 1206 Recipient Countries Chad Algeria. Table 3. Djibouti. Morocco. with the concurrence of the Secretary of State. Security Assistance Reform: “Section 1206” Background and Issues for Congress. Benin.2 550. 9 Congressional Research Service 8 .0 135.7 381. Guinea. FY2010-11 a.9 Table 4.6 FY2009 (Actual) 14 39.3 million $1. Mauritania.1 million $5.3 128.7 million $11 million For more on Section 1206. Morocco.0 123.5 408. Cameroon.0 280. Gambia. to provide assistance to foreign security forces to build and strengthen the capacity of these forces in counterterrorism operations. Cape Verde.0 257. Sao Tome and Principe Ethiopia. Foreign Assistance Issues Source: Congressional Budget Justification. Ghana. Serafino. Tanzania Djibouti Chad.S. The three-year.9 205.0 FY2010 (Estimate) 20. Global AIDS Initiative “focus” country. Mozambique.4 210.3 million $17.7 154. Contributions for International Peacekeeping Activities in Africa ($ in millions) Operation War Crimes Tribunal .

Tanzania. In FY2009.900 42.9 million in humanitarian assistance to Sudan and eastern Chad.034 7.083 800 53.488 349 23. the United States has provided $437. 480 906. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement.822 512.400 70.327 23.Africa: U.pdf 10 Congressional Research Service 9 .S.4 296.2 million $4.950 3.3 million $15.036 30. the United States provided $936. The United States has provided more than $6 billion in humanitarian and development assistance to Sudan since 2005.010 800 16.550 26.210 7.876 3. Humanitarian Funding The United States continues to provide significant humanitarian assistance to Darfur and to Darfuree refugees in Chad.S.S.6 million Sudan: U.5 million FY2009 $3.036 32. Demining and Related Programs Peacekeeping Operations P. Cameroon.000 FY2010 Estimate 427.000 30.780 FY2011 Request 439.917 FY2009 Actual 924. Seychelles Source: Department of Defense.10 As of September 30. Table 5. Gabon.721 145.1 million $8.L.396 127. Foreign Assistance Issues Recipient Countries Senegal.40 4.000 270. Mauritius.000 547. For more on Sudan.000 30. U. 2010. Guinea. see CRS Report RL33574.245 17. Narcotics Control and Law Enforcement Non-proliferation. by Ted Dagne.900 42.979 Source: State Department FY2010-2011rnational Affairs Budget Request.000 3.5 million $10. U. http://www. bilateral assistance to Sudan is primarily going to South Sudan.550 6.S.9 million in humanitarian assistance in FY2010.578 4. Sierra Leone Djibouti Ethiopia Kenya Nigeria Mozambique. Bilateral Assistance to Sudan ($ in thousands) FY2008 Actual Total Development Assistance Economic Support Fund Global Health and Child Survival (State) Global Health & Child Survival (USAID) International Military Education and Training Int.usaid. FY2007 FY2008 $12.000 38.gov/our_work/humanitarian_assistance/disaster_assistance/countries/sudan/template/fs_sr/ sudan_ce_sr02_12-20-2007. Anti-terrorism.185 681 15.140 25.

The World Bank. State Department’s Global AIDS Initiative. a USAID initiative. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Africa Trade and Investment Program. and micro-enterprises. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance. Peace Corps Volunteers President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Small. funds equipment purchases. not earmarked in recent years. Migration and Refugee Assistance.S. an organization of developed countries. part of DA. Foreign Assistance Issues Appendix. Official Development Assistance. successor to ACRI Africa Crisis Response Initiative. part of PEPFAR. U. medium.S. International Military Education and Training. Economic Support Fund.S. African Development Bank. Contributions to International Peacekeeping Activities Child Survival and Health Programs Fund. an African initiative. Peacekeeping Operations account authorized by Part II. Development Fund for Africa. which trained military units for peacekeeping. Foreign Military Financing. African Development Fund. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. International Development Association. concessional loan affiliate of IBRD. a form of military assistance. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.Africa: U. a part of USAID. Development Assistance. a USAID program. Selected Africa Assistance Acronyms ACOTA ACRI ADF AfDB AfDF ATRIP CIPA CSH DA DFA ERMA ESF FMF GHAI IBRD IDA IFIs IGAD IMET MRA NEPAD NGOs OECD ODA OFDA PCVs PEPFAR PKO PVOs SAEDF SMMEs UNECA UNDP USAID Africa Contingency Operations Training Assistance. Non-governmental organizations. Chapter 6 of the Foreign Assistance Act. a State Department program for promoting U. affiliate of the African Development Bank.-funded public corporation. United Nations Development Program U. a Djibouti-based organization of Horn of Africa states. New Partnership for Africa’s Development. the OECD’s concept of DA. Private and voluntary organizations Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund. headquartered in Addis Ababa. International financial institutions. Agency for International Development Congressional Research Service 10 . Inter-governmental Authority on Development. a Bush Administration initiative.S. an Africa-based IFI. administered by State Department. African Development Foundation. a State Department program. Ethiopia. Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance. interests.

gov. 7-7646 Congressional Research Service 11 . Foreign Assistance Issues Author Contact Information Ted Dagne Specialist in African Affairs tdagne@crs.Africa: U.loc.S.

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