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FONCTION DǯUNE VARIABLE COMPLEXE
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|‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ݅‫ ݓ| |||| || ||ݒ‬ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| |||

݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݑ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ሻ ൅ ݅‫ݒ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ሻ|   | |


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!| |݂ | | 


|uniforme ||| 
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||| |multiforme :||  ||  |
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ñ | 

 
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 |‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ݖ‬ଶ |
 |‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ݅‫ ݒ‬ൌ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ݅‫ݕ‬ሻଶ ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ ൅ ʹ݅‫|ݕݔ‬

!|  | 

||
| |  | |||  ||‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬ଶ െ‫ ݕ‬ଶ |
|  | | |
 |‫ ݒ‬ൌ ʹ‫ݕݔ‬Ǥ|" |
    | ||  |
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‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ | |‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ ||
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 |‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ |!||
|  ||‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ | |‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ |
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 ||‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ |

!||
|  |‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ǡ െλ ൏ ‫ ݕ‬൏ λ| ||  |
| ||‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ଶ െ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ| |‫ ݒ‬ൌ ʹ‫ݔ‬଴‫|ݕ‬

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௩మ
$| 
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|  # | | |  |  | ‫ݔ‬଴ ് Ͳǡ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ଶ െ ସ௫ మ|   |
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|  ||||
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||‫||| |ݓ‬%| |
||‫| ݑ‬

&| '|
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|   | ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ ǡ െλ ൏ ‫ ݔ‬൏ λ|  | |  |
|  ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬ଶ െ ‫ݕ‬଴ଶ  |
௩మ
ൌ ʹ‫ݕ‬଴‫ | |ݔ‬$| 
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|  # | | | |  |  |‫ݕ‬଴ ് Ͳǡ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ସ௬ మ െ ‫ݕ‬଴ଶ |   |
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||‫||||ݓ‬%| |
||‫| ݑ‬

ß |  
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ଵ ଵ ଵ ௫ି௜௬
 |
| ||  |‫ ݓ‬ൌ ||||‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ݅‫ ݒ‬ൌ ௓ ൌ ௫ା௜௬ ൌ ௫ మ ା௬ మ ሺͳሻ|

௫ ௬
&|‫ ݑ‬ൌ ሺʹሻ||| |‫ ݒ‬ൌ െ ሺ͵ሻ|
௫ మ ା௬ మ ௫ మ ା௬ మ

௫ మ ା௬మ ଵ
!|  | ሺʹሻ|  | ሺ͵ሻ|  ( |
| 
 | ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ሺ௫ మ ൌ | | )| |  
 | |
ା௬ మ ሻమ ௫ మ ା௬ మ
௨ ି௩ ଵ
 |ሺʹሻ| | ሺ͵ሻ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ||  |
    | ||

 ‫ ݓ‬ൌ |
௨మ ା௩ మ ௨మ ା௩ మ ௭
| | |
||  |
 |  ||
|  | |||

| |   |  |)|ߣ||


|  #  |‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ൅ ߣܿ‫ ݕ| |ߙݏ݋‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ ൅ ߣ‫| |ߙ݊݅ݏ‬

െλ ൏ ߣ ൏ λǤ|    |
|  
| ‫ |
ݕ | ݔ‬ሺͶሻ|  | ሺͷሻ| |   | ௨మା௩ మ ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ൅ ߣܿ‫|  ߙݏ݋‬
షೡ
ି௩ ି௫బ
ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ൅ ߣ‫ | ߙ݊݅ݏ‬$| 
 |
|  # | ߣ | | | ‫ ߙ݃ݐ‬ൌ ೠమ శೡమ
ೠ | |   |||||||||||||||||||
௨మ ା௩ మ ି௫బ
ೠమ శೡమ
௨ ି௩
ቀ െ ‫ݔ‬଴ ቁ ‫ ߙ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ቀ௨మା௩ మ െ ‫ݔ‬଴ ቁ ܿ‫ ݑ|  | 

|| ||ߙݏ݋‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ |
௨మ ା௩ మ

ሺ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ሻሺ‫ݕ‬଴ ܿ‫ ߙݏ݋‬െ ‫ݔ‬଴ ‫ߙ݊݅ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ‫ ߙ݊݅ݏݑ‬൅ ‫ ߙݏ݋ܿݒ‬ൌ Ͳሺ͸ሻ|


|
 | ሺ͸ሻ|
||  | | ‫ݕ‬଴ ܿ‫ݔ ് ߙݏ݋‬଴ ‫|  | | |||  | ߙ݊݅ݏ‬

 ||‫ݕ| | ݓ݈݊ܽ݌|| 
|  |  |
 ||| |ݖ݈݊ܽ݌‬଴ ܿ‫ ߙݏ݋‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ‫*| |ߙ݊݅ݏ‬
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|  |  |   | |  | | |ݖ݈݊ܽ݌‬
‫ ݔ |  |
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| |   & | ݓ݈݊ܽ݌‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ൅

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‫ ݕ–‡߮ݏ݋ܿݐ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ ൅ ‫ Ͳ |  |߮݊݅ݏݐ‬൏ ߮ ൏ ʹߨ| |  #| 
 | |  # | ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ‫ݔ‬଴ ሻଶ ൅
ሺ‫ ݕ‬െ ‫ݕ‬଴ ሻଶ ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ଶ |

௨ ଶ ି௩ ଶ
  |
|  
|ሺ͸ሻ‡–ሺ͹ሻ||  |‫ ݐ‬ଶ ൌ ቀ௨మ ା௩ మ െ ‫ݔ‬଴ ቁ ൅ ቀ௨మ ା௩ మ െ ‫ݕ‬଴ ቁ |)|

‫ ݒ‬ଶ ሺ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݑ‬ଶሻଶ ൌ ሾ‫ ݑ‬െ ሺ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ሻ‫ݔ‬଴ሿଶ ൅ ሾെ‫ ݒ‬െ ሺ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ሻ‫ݕ‬଴ ሿଶ |

ൌ ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ െ ʹሺ‫ݔݑ‬଴ െ ‫ݕݒ‬଴ሻሺ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ൅ ሺ‫ݔ‬଴ଶ ൅ ‫ݕ‬଴ଶሻሺ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݕ‬ଶ ሻ|

$|  | | # | |  |ሺ‫ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ|| |||ሺ‫ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ് Ͳǡ|

ሺ‫ ݐ‬ଶ െ ‫ݔ‬଴ଶ െ ‫ݕ‬଴ଶ ሻሺ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ሻ ൅ ʹሺ‫ݔݑ‬଴ െ ‫ݕݒ‬଴ ሻ ൌ ͳ|

& #|
 | ሺͻሻ|
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|  | ሺ‫ ݐ‬ଶ െ ‫ݔ‬଴ଶ െ ‫ݕ‬଴ଶሻ ് Ͳ|   | | | | |
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 ||‫| |ݓ݈݊ܽ݌|
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| |݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ Ž‘‰ ‫||  ||  |||ݖ‬
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,||Ž‘‰ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ž‘‰ ‫ ݎ‬൅ ݅ߠ |
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|  ||  |‫ݖ‬ଵ ് Ͳ||
|
| |‫ ݎ‬ൌ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ǡ ߠ ൌ ߠଵ Ǥ,|
||Ž‘‰ ‫ݖ‬ଵ ൌ Ž‘‰ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ൅ ݅ߠଵǤ|-
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|   | |  | |  | | ‫ݖ‬ଵ ǡ ‫ ݎ‬ൌ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ǡ ߠ ൌ ߠଵ •‹„‹‡“—‡ Ž‘‰ ‫ݖ‬ଵ ൌ Ž‘‰ ‫ݎ‬ଵ ൅
݅ ሺߠଵ ൅ ʹߨሻ|
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| | ||‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ|| ||  ||
  | ,| |  | | Ž‘‰ ‫| |  | |  | |  | |  |ݖ‬
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  |ൌ Ͳ||  |‫ ݖ‬൐ Ͳ ||  |' | ||  |Ž‘‰ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ž‘‰ ‫ ݎ‬൅ ݅ߠ ||)|ߠ | ||
| 

|# ||Ͳ ൑ ߠ ൏ ʹߨ‘— െ ߨ ൑ ߠ ൏ ʹߨ|

Í  

Ž‘‰ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ||  ||  |

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| ||  |‫ ݓ‬ൌ ݁ ௭ |

,||‫ ݓ‬ൌ ݁ ௭ ൌ ݁ ௫ା௜௬ ൌ ݁ ௫ ሺ…‘• ‫ ݕ‬൅ ݅‫ݕ݊݅ݏ‬ሻ|

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‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴  |‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ |

|‫ ݔ‬ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ||  |‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ݅‫ ݒ‬ൌ ሺ…‘• ‫ ݕ‬൅ ݅‫ݕ݊݅ݏ‬ሻ|)|‫ ݑ‬ൌ ݁ ௫బ ܿ‫ ݒ| ||ݕݏ݋‬ൌ ݁ ௫బ ‫|ݕ݊݅ݏ‬

$| 
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|  # | | |  | ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ݒ‬ଶ ൌ ݁ ଶ௫బ | |
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| | | ݁ ଶ௫బ |
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" | ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ‫ݕ‬଴ ǡ| |   | | ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ݅‫ ݒ‬ൌ ݁ ௫ ሺ…‘• ‫ݕ‬଴ ൅ ݅‫ݕ݊݅ݏ‬଴ ሻ| )‫ ݑ‬ൌ ݁ ௫ ܿ‫ݕݏ݋‬଴| |  |
‫ ݒ‬ൌ ݁ ௫బ ‫ݕ݊݅ݏ‬଴|

$| 
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|  # | | |  | ௨ ൌ ‫ݕ݃ݐ‬଴| | |   | |   |  |  |

 ||‫ݕ|

|  | |ݓ݈݊ܽ݌‬଴ |

| |  
|    |  
| | ܽ‫ Ͳ݄ݐ݃ݎܽ |


|  |

 |ݕ݄ݐ݃ݎ‬ൌ Ͳ|
ଵ ଵା௭
 ||ܽ‫ ݖ݄ݐ݃ݎ‬ൌ ଶ Ž‘‰ ቀଵି௭ ቁ|

௘ ೢ ି௘ షೢ ଵା௭
‫ ݓ‬ൌ ܽ‫ ݖ•”‘Žƒݖ݄ݐ݃ݎ‬ൌ ‫ ݓ݄ݐ‬ൌ ௘ೢ ା௘ షೢ )ሺͳ െ ‫ݖ‬ሻ݁ ௪ ൌ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ݖ‬ሻ݁ ି௪  ֜ ݁ଶ௪ ൌ ଵି௭|

ଵା௭ ଵ ଵା௭
‫ ݁ܿ݊݋ܦ‬ଶ௪ ൌ ݁ ଶ௪ାଶ௞గ ൌ )‫ ݓ‬ൌ ݇ߨ݅ ൅ Ž‘‰ |
ଵି௭ ଶ ଵି௭

!| |  


| | |  |݇ ൌ Ͳ|

‫݇׊‬ǡ ݁ ௭ା௜ଶ௞గ ൌ ݁ ௭ ݁ ௜ଶ௞గ ൌ ݁ ௭  |


| |  

| |  ||  |‫ ݌‬ൌ ʹ݅ߨ|


 
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‫ ݓ‬ൌ Ž ‫ ݖ‬฻ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ݁௪ |

 || | |߮|
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‫ ݖ‬ൌ ‫݁ݎ‬௜ఝ ൌ ݁ ௪ ൌ ݁ ௨ା௜௩ ൌ ݁ ௨ ݁ ௜௩ )|


| |‫ ݎ‬ൌ ݁௨ ||| |‫ ݑ‬ൌ Ž ‫݁ݐ݁ݎ‬௜௩ ൌ ݁ ௜ఝ ||
| |‫ ݒ‬ൌ ߮ ൅ ʹ݇ߨ| |/||  |

|!| |
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|  |݇ ൌ ͲǤ|

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DERIVEE DǯUNE FONCTION A VARIABLE COMPLEXE


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 |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|| ||  


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||||‫ ݈݊ܽ݌||ܦ‬െ ‫ݖ‬Ǥ|

!| | ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| | | ||  |‫ݖ‬଴ ‫ܦ א‬ǡ|| ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬଴ ൅ ο‫ݖ‬ሻ| |  | ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬଴ ሻ|
 | ο‫| |ݖ‬
 |  | | 0| 
 | ,|  | 
 | | | ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|  |  | | ‫ݖ‬଴ ൌ ‫ݔ‬଴ ൅ ݅‫ݕ‬଴ | |  |

 | |
|  | 

|  |  | |ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| |   | ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ ݕ‬ሻ݁‫ ݒݐ‬ൌ ‫ݒ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ|  |
௙ሺ௭బ ାο௭ሻି௙ሺ௭బ ሻ
 ||  |ሺ‫ݔ‬଴ ǡ ‫ݕ‬଴ ሻ |,| 

| ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|  
||  |‫ݖ‬଴ ‫|  |
| |ܦ א‬ |
ο௭
#|| ||
|
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 |ο‫|| |  | |ݖ‬0|
 | |
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la dérivée de ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻau point ‫ݖ‬଴  | ||  ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬଴ ሻ ‫ ݂ݑ݋ݖ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬଴ ሻA Si ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ |  
||  |
 |||‫݂|ܦ‬ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| | 
|analytique ||‫| ܦ‬

 !"# $


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|  |݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݑ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൅ ݅‫ݒ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ|  |
  |  
|  |   ||| |||
||| || |

Th 

!|  | ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൅ ݅‫ݒ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ|  |   


| | |  | ‫|
| | 
 |  | |ܦ א ݖ‬
డ௨ డ௩ డ௨ డ௩
 |  | |  |||  || ൌ ǡ ൌെ ሺͳሻ|
డ௫ డ௬ డ௬ డ௫

| | | 
| |||1 |

" |  ||  #||  | ||


| |ሺͳሻ| |  |,| |
ௗ௙ሺ௭ሻ ௙ሺ௭బ ାο௭ሻି௙ሺ௭బ ሻ
|
 | |
|
 | ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ௗ௭
ൌ Ž‹ο௭՜଴ ο௭
| )| ο‫ | |  |  | |ݖ‬0|
   | | $|   | |  |‫

  |   | |
|
|ݖ‬#
| |
| 
|   | ο‫ ݖ‬ൌ
ο‫ |  ||ݔ‬ൌ  ቚ
ௗ௙ ௗ௙ డ௙ డ௨ డ௩
ௗ௭ ௗ௫ ௗ௫ୀ଴
ൌ ൌ ൅ ݅ ሺʹሻ ||
డ௫ డ௫ డ௫

$|  ||  ||


|
||  |  

#
||
| ||  |ο‫ ݖ‬ൌ ο‫||ݕ‬
 | ൌ  ቚ
ௗ௙ ௗ௙ డ௙ ଵ డ௨ డ௩
ൌ ൌ ሺ ൅ ݅ ሻ||234|
ௗ௭ ௗ௬ ௗ௬ୀ଴ డ௬ ௜ డ௬ డ௬

డ௨ డ௩ డ௩ డ௨
$|   |ሺʹሻ݁‫ݐ‬ሺ͵ሻ||| ൅݅ ൌ െ݅ |)|
| |
| |ሺͳሻ|
డ௫ డ௫ డ௬ డ௬

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||| |2+4||
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డ௨ డ௩ డ௨ డ௩
!|  

| ݂ |
| |݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ‡•–†‡Žƒˆ‘”‡ ݂ ൌ ቀ ൅݅ ቁ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ቀ ൅݅ ቁ ‫| ݕ‬
డ௫ డ௫ డ௬ డ௬

డ௨ డ௩
$|   | ݁‫ݐ‬ ||
|#|  || ||  || | # |  |
డ௬ డ௬

|
| ሺͳሻ||  ||

߲‫ݑ‬ ߲‫ݒ‬ ߲‫ݒ‬ ߲‫ݑ‬ ߲‫ݑ‬ ߲‫ݒ‬ ߲݂


݂ ൌ ൬ ൅ ݅ ൰ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ൬െ ൅ ݅ ൰ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ൬ ൅ ݅ ൰ ሺ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ݅ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ‫| ݖ‬
߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬
ௗ௙ డ௙
-|
|
 | ௗ௭ | | | |
| 
 |డ௫ | 
 ||| | ||
|0| |ο‫|  | |ݖ‬
  |

M doutes les notions vues en variable réelle sont valables en variable complexe

1A| ሾ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൅ ݃ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻሿᇱ ൌ ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൅ ݃ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ


2A| ሾ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ݃ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻሿᇱ ൌ ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ݃ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൅ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ݃ ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ
௙ሺ௭ሻ ᇱ ௙ ᇲሺ௭ሻ௚ሺ௭ሻି௙ሺ௭ሻ௚ᇲ ሺ௭ሻ
3A| ௚ሺ௭ሻቃ ൌ ௚ሺ௭ሻమ
| |݃ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ് Ͳ

| | ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݑ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൅ ݅‫ݒ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ|  | |  | 


 | | | | |
|  |‫|ݒݐ݁ݑ‬
  | |  | | 1| ሺͳሻ| | ,|  |  | | ‫ | | ݒݐ݁ݑ‬# |
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߲‫ݔ‬ ଶ ߲‫ݕ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݕ‬

߲ଶ߶ ߲ଶ߶ ߲ଶ߶ ߲ଶ߶


߶ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݕ݄ܿݔ݊݅ݏ‬՜ ൌ െ‫ݕ݄ܿݔ݊݅ݏ‬ǡ ൌ ‫ݑ݋ݕ݄ܿݔ݊݅ݏ‬ ൅ ൌ Ͳ|
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͵‫ ݕ|  ݒݑ‬ൌ ͵‫ݑ‬ଶ ‫ ݒ‬െ ‫ ݒ‬ଷ |

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డమ థ డమ థ
ᇱ ‫݋‬î డ௨మ ൌ ͵Ͳ‫ ݑ‬ସ െ ͳͺͲ‫ݑ‬ଶ ‫ ݒ‬ଶ ൅ ͵Ͳ‫ ݒ‬ସ ൅ ͳʹ‫| ݒ‬5| డ௩ మ ൌ െ͵Ͳ‫ ݑ‬ସ ൅ ͳͺͲ‫ݑ‬ଶ ‫ݒ‬ଶ െ ͵Ͳ‫ݒ‬ସ െ ͳʹ‫| ݒ‬
߲ ଶ ߶ ߲ ଶ߶
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డ௫ మ డ௬ మ డ௬ డ௫ డ௫ డ௬ డ௫డ௬ డ௫డ௬

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૙ ૙

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ൌ ࢋ࢞ ࢙࢏࢔ ࢟ ൅ ࢉ|

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ൌ ࢋ࢞ା࢏࢟ ൅ ࢉ|

ൌ ࢋ ࢠ ൅ ࢉ|

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INTEÍRATION DANS LE DOMAINE COMPLEXE

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௧ୀ଴


ൌ න ሺʹͶ‫ ;ݐ‬൅ ͳʹ െ ʹ‫ ݐ‬ଷ െ ͸‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͵͵Ȁʹ |
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௬ୀଷ ௬ୀଷ

‫ݎ݁ܮ‬±‫ܿ݊݋ ݐݏ݁ݐܽݐ݈ݑݏ‬ͶͶȀ͵ ൅ ͷȀʹ ൌ ͳͲ͵Ȁ͸|

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න ሺʹ‫ ݕ‬൅ ሺʹ‫ ݕ‬െ ͸ሻଶ ʹ ‫ ݕ‬൅ ሺ͵ሺʹ‫ݕ‬ሻ െ ͸ሻ െ ‫ ݕ‬ሻ ‫|ݕ‬
௬ୀଷ


ൌ න ሺͺ‫ ݕ‬ଶ െ ͵ͻ‫ ݕ‬൅ ͷͶሻ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ͻ͹Ȁ͸|

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଴ ଴ ଴

ൌ ͳͲ െ ͺ݅Ȁ͵|

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න ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ݅‫ ݕ‬ሻሺ ‫ ݖ‬൅ ݅ ‫ ݕ‬ሻ ൌ න ‫ ݔ ݔ‬൅ ‫ ݕ ݕ‬൅ ݅ න ‫ ݕ ݔ‬െ ‫| ݔ ݕ‬


௖ ௖ ௖

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௧ୀ଴ ௧ୀ଴

ଶ ଶ
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ൌ  න ሺʹ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬൅ ݅ න ሺെ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ͳͲ െ
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න ሺ‫ ݔ‬െ ݅‫ ݕ‬ሻሺ ‫ ݖ‬൅ ݅ ‫ ݕ‬ሻ ൌ න ‫ ݔ ݔ‬൅ ‫ ݕ ݕ‬൅ ݅ න ‫ ݕ ݔ‬െ ‫| ݔ ݕ‬


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௬ୀ଴ ௬ୀ଴ ௬ୀ଴

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න ‫ ݔ ݔ‬൅ ʹǤͲ ൅ ݅ න ‫ݔ‬Ǥ Ͳ െ ʹ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ  න ‫ ݔ ݔ‬൅ ݅ න െʹ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ͺ െ ͺ݅ |
௫ୀ଴ ௫ୀ଴ ଴ ଴

M h    

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…‘•ሺʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͷሻ ‫ݖ‬


න ܿ‫݃ݐ݋‬ሺʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͷሻ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ න
•‹ሺʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͷሻ
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…‘•ሺʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͷሻ ‫ݑ ͳ ݖ‬ ͳ ͳ
֜න ൌ න ൌ  ‫ ݑ݃݋ܮ‬൅ ‫ ܥ‬ൌ ‫‹• ݃݋ܮ‬ሺʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͷሻ ൅ ‫| ܥ‬
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‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ ͳ ͳ


න ൌ න െ න ൌ ‫݃݋ܮ‬ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽ݅ ሻ െ ‫݃݋ܮ‬ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ܽ݅ሻ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ଶ |
‫ݖ‬ଶ ൅ܽ ଶ ʹܽ݅ ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽ݅ ʹܽ݅ ‫ ݖ‬൅ ܽ݅ ʹܽ݅ ʹܽ݅

ͳ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽ݅ሻ
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݁௔௫ ሺܿ‫ ݔܾ ݏ݋‬൅ ݅ •‹ ܾ‫ݔ‬ሻ ݁ ௔௫ ሺܿ‫ ݔܾ ݏ݋‬൅ ݅ •‹ ܾ‫ݔ‬ሻሺܽ െ ܾ݅ሻ
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ܽ ൅ ܾ݅ ܽ; ൅ ܾ;
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ฺ න ݁ ௔௫ …‘• ܾ‫ ݔ ݔ‬ൌ
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݁௔௫ ሺܽ‫ ݔܾ݊݅ݏ‬െ ܾܿ‫ݔܾݏ݋‬ሻ


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න ‫ ݖ‬ൌ  െ
݄ܿ‫ݖ‬ ݄ܿ‫ݖ‬
|

න …‘• ‫ ݖ ݖ‬ൌ •‹ ‫|ݖ‬ …‘–Š ‫ݖ‬ ͳ


න ‫ ݖ‬ൌ െ
‫ݖ݄ݏ‬ ‫ݖ݄ݏ‬
|

න ‫ ݖ ݖ ݃ݐ‬ൌ  െ‫|ݖ •‘… ݃݋ܮ‬ ‫ݖ‬


න ൌ ‫ ݃݋ܮ‬ቀ‫ ݖ‬൅ ඥ‫ ݖ‬ଶ േ ܽଶ ቁ|
ඥ‫ ݖ‬ଶ േ ܽଶ
න ܿ‫ ݖ ݖ݃ݐ݋‬ൌ ‫|ݖ ‹• ݃݋ܮ‬
‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬
න ൌ ܽ‫| ݃ݐܿݎ‬
‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ߨ ݖ‬ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ ൅ ܽଶ ܽ ܽ
න ൌ ‫ ݃݋ܮ‬൬ ൅ ‫ݖ݃ݐ‬൰ ൌ ‫ ݃ݐ݃݋ܮ‬ቀ ൅ ቁ|
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න ൌ ‫ ݃݋ܮ‬ቀ ቁ|
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න ൌ ‫ ݃݋ܮ‬൬ െ ܿ‫ݖ݃ݐ݋‬൰ ൌ ‫ ݃ݐ݃݋ܮ‬ቀ ቁ|
•‹ ‫ݖ‬ •‹ ‫ݖ‬ ʹ ‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬
න ൌ ܽ‫| ‹• ܿݎ‬
‫ݖ‬ ξ‫ ݖ‬ଶ െ ܽଶ ܽ
න ൌ ‫|ݖ݃ݐ‬
ܿ‫ݏ݋‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬
න ൌ ‫ ݃݋ܮ‬ቆ ቇ|
‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬ඥܽଶ േ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ܽ ܽ ൅ ඥܽଶ േ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ
න ൌ െܿ‫|ݖ݃ݐ݋‬
‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬
‫ݖ‬ ͳ ܽ
න ൌ ܽ‫| •‘… ܿݎ‬
‫ݖ݃ݐ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ඥ‫ ݖ‬ଶ േ ܽଶ ܽ ‫ݖ‬
න ‫ ݖ‬ൌ
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•‹ ‫ݖ‬ •‹ ‫ݖ‬ ܽ
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‫‪߲ܳ ߲m‬‬
‫‪ර‬‬ ‫| ݕ ݔ ‪ ൌ ඵ ൬ െ ൰‬ݕ ܳ ‪ ൅‬ݔ ‪m‬‬
‫ݕ߲ ݔ߲‬
‫‪஺஽ாிீ஽஺௅௄௃ு஺‬‬ ‫࣬‬

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න൅ න ൅ න൅ න ൌ න ൅ න |
஺஽ ஽ாிீ஽ ஽஺ ஺௅௄௃ு஺ ஽ாிீ஽ ஺௅௄௃ு஺

m‫׬ ݁ݑݍݏ݅ݑ‬஺஽ ൌ െ ‫׬‬஽஺ ܿଵ| |


|  | ‫ܿ | | ܣܪܬܭܮ‬ଶ | | ‫   |
| ܿ |  |ܦܩܨܧܦ‬# | | ࣬5|

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߲ܳ ߲m
ර m ‫ ݔ‬൅ ܳ ‫ ݕ‬ൌ ඵ ൬ െ ൰ ‫| ݕ ݔ‬
߲‫ݕ߲ ݔ‬
௖ ࣬

Th 
C

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߲‫ݔ߲ ݕ‬
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డ௉ డொ
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డ௬ డ௫

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డ௉ డொ
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߲m ߲ܳ

߲‫ݔ߲ ݕ‬
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D

EXERCICES

<| 

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‫݃ݐ݋ܿ ׬|||ݖ ݖ •‘… ݖ ‹• ׬||||| ݖ ݖ͵ •‘… ݖ͵ ‹• ׬‬ሺʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͷሻ ‫|ݖ‬

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ଵ ௗ௭
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ଶି௜
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ௗ௭ ଵ ሺ௭ି௔௜ሻ
<| J  ||‫׬‬ ൌ ‫݃݋ܮ‬ሺሺ௭ା௔௜ሻ ൅ ‫ܥ‬ଶ |
௭;ା௔; ଶ௔௜

Th 
1

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2

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Th 
3

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Th 
4

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Th 
5

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భ మ ೙

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ൌ ൣ݁ ଶሺଵି ሻగ௜ିଵ
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THEOREME DES RESIDUS

݁ ௔௭ ೌഏ೔ ೌഏ೔
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ି ݄ܿ‫ݔ‬ ଴ ݄ܿሺܴ ൅ ݅‫ݕ‬ሻ ି ݄ܿሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ߨ݅ሻ గ ݄ܿሺെܴ ൅ ݅‫ݕ‬ሻ

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ʹ ʹ ʹ Ͷ

గ ௘ ೌሺೃశ೔೤ ሻ గ ௘ ೌೃ
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݂ ሺ‫ ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ሺͳሻ|
ܳሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ

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mሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ߨሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽ௞ ሻ 
݂ ሺ‫ ݖ‬ሻ ൌ  ൌܿ ‫݋‬î‫|ܧ ܣž ܱܥ݁݊ݑݐݏ݁ܥ‬
ܳሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ߨሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ÿ௜ ሻ௠೔

,|  | | ߙ௞ |  | | ÿ௜ | | | |  |  |


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௙ ᇲ ሺ௭ሻ ௗ ௠೔
ൌ ሾŽ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻሿ ൌ ÿ௞ 
ൌ ÿ௜ |
௙ሺ௭ሻ ௗ௭ ௭ି  ௭ିÿ೔

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ͳ ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ‫ݖ‬
ර ൌ ෍ ݊௞ െ ෍ ݉௜ ሺʹሻ|
ʹߨ݅ ௖ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ
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෍ ݊௞ ൌ ݁‫ ݐ‬෍ ݉௜ ൌ m |
௞ ௜

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ͳ ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ‫ݖ‬
ර ൌ െ mሺ͵ሻ|
ʹߨ݅ ௖ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ

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ሺ௭మ ାଵሻ; ଵ ௙ᇲ ሺ௭ሻௗ௭


|݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ௭;ାଶ௭ାଶሻ ݈ܿܽܿ‫ݎ݈݁ݑ‬ 6 ௙ሺ௭ሻ |
ଶగ௜ ௖

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௭௙ ᇲᇲ ሺ௭ሻௗ௭
|݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݖ‬ସ െ ʹ‫ݖ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ ;ݖ‬െ ͳʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹͲ| ||| |
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௙ሺ௭ሻ

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ͳ ଶగ
݂ሺܽሻ ൌ න ݂൫ܽ ൅ ‫݁ݎ‬௜ఏ  ߠሺͳሻ|
ʹߨ ଴

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ͳ ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ‫ݖ‬
ර ൌ െ mሺͷሻ|
ʹߨ݅ ௖ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ

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Th 
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||R ||||
ܽିଵ ܽିଶ
݂ ሺܽ ൅ ݄ ሻ ൌ ܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ݄ ൅ ܽଶ݄ ଶ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ൅ ଶ ൅ ‫|ڮ‬
݄ ݄
ଵ ௙ሺ௭ሻ ଵ
,)| ܽ ൌ 6 ‫݊ ݖ‬ ൌ ͳǡʹǡ͵ǡͶǡͷ ǥ ܽି ൌ 6 ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ାଵ
‫ | ݖ‬+|  | 6|  |   |
ଶగ௜ ௖భ ሺ௭ି௔ሻ ೙శభ ଶగ௜ ௖మ
|
||  | ||+| |6 |

ଵ ௙ሺ௭ሻ
ܽ ൌ 6 ‫ ݊ ݖ‬ൌ േͳǡ േʹǡ േ͵ ǥ || ||  |
ଶగ௜ ௖ ሺ௭ି௔ሻ ೙శభ

ܽିଵ ܽିଶ
݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ൅ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻଶ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ሺͺሻ|
ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻଶ

ଵ ௙ሺ ሻ
)ܽ ൌ ଶగ௜ 6௖ ሺ ି௔ሻ ೙శభ
 ሺͻሻ|

ሺͺሻ | 
| ||!  | |ሺͻሻ| | 
| ||
|| ||!  |

!|  | ܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ൅ ܽଶሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻଶ ൅ ‫|| ||

| |
|| 
|  |
| |ڮ‬
|  || ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ| |
|  |  
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|
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!  ||  ||| +||@
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ஶ ஶ

݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ෍ ܽ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ൅ ෍ ܽି ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻି |


ୀ଴ ୀଵ

ଵ ௙ሺ௪ሻ ଵ ௙ሺ௪ሻ
)ܽ ൌ 6 ‫ିܽ| | ݓ‬ ൌ 6 ‫| ݓ‬
ଶగ௜ ௖భ ሺ௪ି௔ሻ ೙శభ ଶగ௜ ௖మ ሺ௪ି௔ሻ ೙శభ


& 
  |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ௭ାଵሻሺ௭ାଷሻ|| ||!  |  |ͳ ൏ ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ ൏ ͵|

ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵ
 | " |  |݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ௭ାଵሻሺ௭ାଷሻ ൌ ቀ௭ାଵቁ െ ଶ ቀ௭ାଷቁ|

|ͳ ൏ ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ|
ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ
൬ ൰ൌ ൌ ൬ͳ െ ൅ ଶ െ ‫ ڮ‬൰ ൌ െ ଶ ൅ ଷ െ ‫|ڮ‬
ʹ ‫ݖ‬൅ͳ ଵ
ʹ‫ ݖ‬ቀͳ ൅ ቁ ʹ‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬ ʹ‫ݖ‬ ʹ‫ݖ‬ ʹ‫ݖ‬

ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ ൏ ͵|
|
ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ‫ݖ ݖ‬ଶ ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ଷ
൬ ൰ൌ ൌ ቆͳ െ ൅ െ ൅‫ڮ‬ቇ ൌ െ ൅ െ ൅ ‫|ڮ‬
ʹ ‫ݖ‬൅͵ ͸ ቀͳ ൅ ቁ ͸
௭ ͵ ͻ ʹ͹ ͸ ͳͺ ͷͶ ͳ͸ʹ

|
|
௭ି௦௜ ௭
& 
  |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ |‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ|

? 
   
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c 
  
 
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‫ ݖ‬െ ‫ͳ ݖ݊݅ݏ‬ ‫ݖ‬ଷ ‫ݖ‬ÿ œ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ଶ œସ
ൌ ቈ‫ݖ‬ െ ቆ‫ݖ‬ െ ൅ െ ൅ ‫ڮ‬ ቇ቉ ൌ െ െ |
‫ݖ‬ଷ ‫ݖ‬ଷ ͵ ͷ ͹ ͵ ͷ ͹
Q;<| ||
  |    |

& 
  |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ௭ାଵሻሺ௭ାଶሻ||  |‫ ݖ‬ൌ െʹ|
|,| |‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹ ൌ ‫| ݑ‬
‫ݖ‬ ‫ݑ‬െʹ ʹെ‫ͳ ݑ‬ ʹെ ‫ݑ‬
ൌ ൌ ൌ ሺͳ ൅ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ‫ ݑ‬ଶ ൅ ‫ ݑ‬ଷ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ሻ|
ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͳሻሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻ ‫ݑ‬ሺ‫ ݑ‬െ ͳሻ ‫ͳ ݑ‬െ‫ݑ‬ ‫ݑ‬
ʹ
ൌ ൅ ͳ ൅ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻ ൅ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻଶ ൅ ‫|ڮ‬
‫ݖ‬൅ʹ
‫ ݖ‬ൌ െʹ | | E
||| 
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| 
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| |
Ͳ ൏ ȁ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹȁ ൏ ͳ|
&   |
|  
  | |  | | !  | |  |   | |
||
  ||
௘ మ೥
݂ ሺ‫ ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ||  |‫ ݖ‬ൌ ͳ|
ሺ௭ିଷሻ
 ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳ ൌ ‫ ݖ ֜ ݑ‬ൌ ͳ ൅ ‫|ݑ‬
݁ଶ௭ ݁ ଶାଶ௨ ݁ ଶ ݁ ଶ௨ ݁ ଶ ʹ‫ ݑ‬ሺʹ‫ ݑ‬ሻଶ ሺʹ‫ݑ‬ሻଷ
ൌ ൌ ൌ ଷ ቆͳ ൅ ൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ቇ|
ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳሻ ଷ ‫ݑ‬ ଷ ‫ݑ‬ ଷ ‫ݑ‬ ͳ ʹ ͵
݁ଶ ʹ݁ଶ ʹ݁ ଶ Ͷ݁ଶ ʹ݁ ଶ
ൌ ൅ ൅ ൅ ൅ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳ ሻ ൅ ‫|ڮ‬
ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳሻଷ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳሻ ଶ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳ ሻ ͵ ͵
‫ ݖ‬ൌ ͳ || 
|  | |
!| |  |  |  | 
 |‫|ͳ ് ݖ‬
|

EXERCICES

+ | & 
  |
| |  || ||@
 ||  || |   |
|||
  |
 | ݁ ି௭ ǡ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ|

 | …‘• ‫ݖ‬ǡ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ |


| ǡ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ͳ|
ଵା௭
 | ‫ ݖ‬െ ͵‫ ݖ‬ଶ ൅ Ͷ‫ ݖ‬െ ʹǡ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ʹ|

 | ‫݁ݖ‬ଶ௭ |‫ ݖ‬ൌ െͳ|


6 | & 
  || ||!  || ||‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ|
ଵି௖௢௦௭
| |
ଶ௭

௘೥
| |
ଶ௭
| ‫| ݁ ݖ‬
ଶ ି௭ ర

 | ‫ݖ݄ݏݖ‬ξ‫|ݖ‬
|



  
 
|

D
| | 
||
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|
  || |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|  |
||
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1.| P  
|

| ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|| |
|  | ሺͺሻ| |


|
|  |  
| | #| |  | | |  ||
௔ ௔ ௔
|  | ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ൅ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻଶ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ షభ ൅ షమ మ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ష೙ ೙ | C| | )| ܽି ് Ͳ|
ሺ௭ି௔ሻ ሺ௭ି௔ሻ ሺ௭ି௔ሻ

 |‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ| | 
| 
|  ||

| |݊ ൌ ͳ||| ||| 


|
||

|‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ| || 


||݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|
 Ž‹௭՜௔ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ λ|

2.| S   


|

| |  |  | ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|  | | | | ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ| | | Ž‹௭՜௔ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻÿ| 
 | ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ|  |
 
|
| | 
  |     | &| | 
| | | | |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|  | ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ | | 
| ||
Ž‹௭՜௔ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|
௦௜ ௭
|݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ  |‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ|

‫ݖ݊݅ݏ‬ ‫ݖ݊݅ݏ‬
݈݅݉௭՜௔ ൌ ͳǡ ˆሺͲሻ ൌ ݈݅݉௭՜௔ ൌ ͳ|
‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬

‫ݖ ݖ ͳ ݖ݊݅ݏ‬ଷ ‫ݖ‬ÿ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ସ


ൌ ቆ െ ൅ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ቇ ൌ ͳ െ ൅ ൅ ‫|ڮ‬
‫ݖ‬ ‫ͳ ݖ‬ ͵ ͷ ͵ ͷ

¥ |     
|

| | ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| | ||


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  || || 
||
  |   | | 
|

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| ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ|  | | 


  |  

| | ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| |
|  |  
| |  
  | | !  |
#|| ||   |

Ex


ଵ ଵ ଵ
݁೥ ൌ ͳ ൅ ൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ ݖ ڮ‬ൌ Ͳ ||
  | 

|
ଵ௭ ଶ ௭మ ଷ௭

4.| P  b h



|

B|  | ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ‫ݖ‬଴ || | 


|  ||  ||
| |
 |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ|||
| ||
|݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| |||  ||  | |  ||- |

|  | |


|  | 
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|  #|  |
|
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c 
  
 
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Ex


!| ||݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݖ‬మ || |
| 
 |+|  |ൌ ͳ|| #|| 
  |||| ||
@
 ||
| |ܽ଴ ൅ ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ൅ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻଶ ൅ ‫|ڮ‬

5.| S  à ǯ


|
ଵ ଵ
$|  | ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ௪ †ƒ•݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ| |   |
|  | ݂ ቀ௪ቁ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻ| 
 |
| 
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| 
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‫ ݖ‬ൌ λ|2
||  ||
4| |||  |
|'||
|||‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻ|‫ ݓ‬ൌ Ͳ|

Ex


݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݖ‬ଷ || 


|
||‫ ݖ‬ൌ λ|

ଵ ଵ
݂ ቀ௪ቁ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻ ൌ ௪ |  | | 
| 
| ൌ Ͳ| | &|
| '| # | ‫ݖ‬ଷ | #| | 
  |


 

||‫ ݖ‬ൌ λ| |݂ ቀ௪ቁ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݓ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ೢ ||||


  | 

||‫ ݓ‬ൌ Ͳ|

&   |
|  
  | |  | | !  | |
|  |   | | | |
|

  ||

௘ మ೥
|‫ ݖ‬ൌ ͳ|||||| |‫ ݖ‬െ ͳ ൌ ‫ ݑ‬՜ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ͳ ൅ ‫| ݑ‬
ሺ௭ିଵሻ

݁ଶ௭ ݁ ଶାଶ௨ ݁ ଶ ଶ௨ ݁ଶ ʹ‫ ݑ‬ሺʹ‫ݑ‬ሻଶ ሺʹ‫ݑ‬ሻଷ


ൌ ൌ ݁ ൌ ቆͳ ൅ ൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ቇ|
ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳሻଷ ‫ݑ‬ଷ ‫ݑ‬ଷ ‫ݑ‬ଷ ͳ ʹ ͵

௘మ ଶ௭ మ ଶ௭ మ ସ௭ మ ଶ௭ మ ሺ௭ିଵሻ
ൌ ሺ௭ିଵሻ ൅ ሺ௭ିଵሻమ ൅ ሺ௭ିଵሻ ൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ ݖ ڮ‬ൌ ͳ | | 
| 
| | 
|   | 3 | !|
ଷ ଷ
 |  |  |  | 
 ||‫| ͳ ് ݖ‬

ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͵ሻ‫݊݅ݏ‬ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ െʹǡ| |‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹ ൌ ‫ ݖ||| ݑ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬െ ʹǡ|
௭ାଶ

ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ
ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ͵ሻ‫݊݅ݏ‬ ൌ ሺ‫ ݑ‬െ ͷሻ‫ ݊݅ݏ‬ൌ ሺ‫ ݑ‬െ ͷሻ ൬ െ ൅ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൰|
‫ݖ‬൅ʹ ‫ݑ‬ ‫ݑ ͵ ݑ‬ ଷ ͷ ‫ݑ‬ÿ
ͷ ͳ ͷ ͳ
ൌ ൬ͳ െ െ ൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൰|
‫ݑ ͵ ݑ‬ ଶ ͵ ‫ݑ‬ ଷ ͷ ‫ݑ‬ସ
ͷ ͳ ͷ ͳ
ൌ ൬ͳ െ െ ൅ ൅ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൰|
ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻ ͵ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻ ଶ ͵ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻଷ ͷ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻସ

‫ ݖ‬ൌ െʹ ||


  | 

|

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c 
  
 
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|
௭ି௦௜ ௭

|||||‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ|

‫ ݖ‬െ ‫ݖ݊݅ݏ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ଷ ‫ݖ‬ÿ ‫ݖ‬


ൌ ൭œ െ ቆ‫ݖ‬ െ ൅ െ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ቇÿ|
‫ݖ‬ଷ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ͵ ͷ ͹

ͳ ‫ݖ‬ଷ ‫ݖ‬ÿ ‫ݖ‬


ൌ ൭ቆ െ ൅ െ ‫ ڮ‬ቇÿ|
‫ݖ‬ଶ ͵ ͷ ͹

ͳ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ÿ
ൌ െ ൅ |
͵ ͷ ͹

‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ ||


  |   |

|

& 
  |݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ሺ௭ାଵሻሺ௭ାଷሻ|| ||!  |  ||

| ͳ ൏ ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ ൏ ͵|
| ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ ൐ ͵|
| Ͳ ൏ ȁ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹȁ ൏ ʹ|
|
|
ଵ ଵ ଵ
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  ||݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ||
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||ሺ௭ାଵሻሺ௭ାଷሻ ൌ ଶሺ௭ାଵሻ

ଶሺ௭ାଷሻ
|
|ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ ൐ ͳ|
ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ
ൌ ൌ െ ଶ ൅ ଷ െ ‫|ڮ‬
ͳ
ʹሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͳሻ ʹ‫ݖ‬൫ͳ ൅ ‫ݖʹ ݖʹ ݖ‬ ʹ‫ݖ‬
ž|ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ ൏ ͵|
ͳ ͳ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ଷ
ൌ ൌ െ ൅ െ ൅ ‫|ڮ‬
ʹሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͵ሻ ͸൫ͳ ൅ ‫  ݖ‬͸ ͳͺ ͷͶ ͳͳʹ
͵
֜" ͳ ൏ ȁ‫ݖ‬ȁ ൏ ͵|||
| 
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ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ ‫ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ଷ
ൌ െ ଶ൅ ଷെ ସെ ൅ െ ൅ ൅|
ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͳሻሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͵ሻ ʹ‫ݖʹ ݖ‬ ʹ‫ݖ‬ ʹ‫ݖ‬ ͸ ͳͺ ͷͶ ͳͳʹ

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݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ෍ ܽ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ሺͳሻ|


ୀିஶ

ܽିଵ ܽିଶ ܽି
ൌ ൅ܽଵ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ൅ ܽଶ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻଶ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬൅ ൅ ൅‫ڮ‬
ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻଶ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ
|

ͳ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ
ܽ ൌ ර ‫ ݖ‬ǡ ݊ ൌ േͳǡ േʹǡ േ͵ ǥ ሺʹሻ|
ʹߨ݅ ௖ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ ାଵ

&|
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‫ݖ‬ ʹߨ݅ǡ‫ ݌‬ൌ ͳ |


ර ൌ§
௖ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ௣ Ͳǡ‫ ݌‬ൌ ݁݊‫ͳ ് ݎ݁݅ݐ‬

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| |ܽିଵ | ሺͳሻ| |,| 

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݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ||‫ ݖ‬ൌ ܽ|

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ͳ ௞ିଵ
ܽିଵ ൌ Ž‹ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ܽሻ௞ ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻሺͷሻ|
௭՜௔ ሺ݇ െ ͳሻ ‫ ݖ‬௞ିଵ

| ݇ ൌ ͳ|2 
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ଵ ௗ ௭ ଵ
1||‫ ݖ‬ൌ െͳ|Ž‹௭՜ିଵ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͳሻଶ ሺ௭ିଵሻሺ௓ାଵሻమ ቃ ൌ െ |
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|݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ  ݁ ି ೥ ||
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ଵ ଵ ଵ
݁ ௨  |ൌ െ |||  |݁ ି೥ ൌ ͳ െ ൅ െ ൅ ‫ ݖ|| |
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ܽିଵ ǡ ܾିଵ ǡ ܿିଵ ǡ ǥ|
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ර ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ʹߨ݅ሺ ܽିଵ ൅ ܾିଵ ൅ ܿିଵ ൅ ‫ ڮ‬ሻሺ͹ሻ|


|
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M  ሺ͹ሻ est une généralisation de ሺ͵ሻ A Le théorème de cauchy et les formes intégrales sont des cas
particuliers de ce théorèmeA

  
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@   |
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௭మ ିଶ௭ ଵସ
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௘೥ ି௜
„Ǥ| ݂ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ |||  | ||||||||||||  |‫ݖ‬ ൌ Ͳǡ േߨǡ േʹߨ ǥ ‫ ݖݐ݅݋ݏ‬ൌ ݉ߨ
௦௜ మ ௭ ଶÿ

    
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ஶ ௫ మ ௗ௫ గ
<| J  |||‫ି׬‬ஶ ሺ௫ మାଵሻమሺ௫మ ାଶ௫ାଶሻ ൌ ÿ଴ |
௭మ
!| E
||ሺ௭ మ ାଵሻమሺ௭ మ ାଶ௭ାଶሻ| ||
   ||  |||| |‫ ݖ‬ൌ ݅  |6|

|$ |‫ ݖ‬ൌ െͳ ൅ ݅ |  |+|

ௗ ௭మ
1‫ ݖ‬ൌ ݅ | |Ž‹௭՜௜ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ݅ሻଶ ሺ௭ା௜ሻమሺ௭ି௜ሻమ ቃൌ
ÿ௜ିଵଶ
|
ௗ௭ ሺ௭ మ ାଶ௭ାଵሻ ଵ଴଴

௭మ ଷିସ௜
1‫ ݖ‬ൌ െͳ ൅ ݅ | |Ž‹௭՜ିଵା௜ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹ െ ݅ ሻ ሺ௭ା௜ሻమሺ௭ାଶି௜ሻሺ௭ାଵା௜ሻ ൌ ଶÿ
|

‫ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ ͻ݅ െ ͳʹ ͵ െ Ͷ݅ ͹ߨ
ර ൌ ʹߨ݅ ൬ ൅ ൰ൌ |
௖ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ݅ ሻ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ݅ ሻ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͳሻ
ଶ ଶ ଶ ͳͲͲ ʹͷ ͷͲ


‫ ݔ‬ଶ ‫ݔ‬ ‫ ݖ‬ଶ ‫ݖ‬ ͹ߨ
‫ ݑ݋‬න ൅ න ൌ |
ି ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ʹ‫ ݔ‬൅ ʹሻ ୻ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ͳሻ ሺ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹ‫ ݖ‬൅ ʹሻ ͷͲ
ଶ ଶ ଶ ଶ ଶ ଶ

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ÿିସ௖௢௦ఏ ଵଶ
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,| |‫ ݖ‬ൌ ݁௜ఏ |
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ฺ ܿ‫ ߠ͵ݏ݋‬ൌ ଶ
ൌ ଶ
|
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‫ ݖ‬ൌ ݅݁ ௜ఏ ߠ ᇱ ‫݋‬î ߠ ൌ |
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௭ ା௭ ష
ܿ‫ߠ͵ݏ݋‬
ଶగ
ଶ ‫ݖ‬ ͳ ‫ݖ‬ÿ ൅ ͳ
න ߠ ൌ ර ൌ െ ර ‫| ݖ‬
଴ ͷ െ Ͷܿ‫ߠݏ݋‬ ௖ ͷെቀ
௭ା௭ షభ
ቁ ݅‫ݖ‬ ʹ݅ ‫ݖ‬ଷ ሺʹ‫ ݖ‬െ ͳሻሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ʹሻ
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ଵ ௗమ ௭ ାଵ
1 ‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳ| |Ž‹௭՜଴ ଶ ‫ ݖ‬ଷ ௭ ቃൌ ÿ|
ÿଵ
ௗ௭మ ሺଶ௭ିଵሻሺ௭ିଶሻ

1 ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ͳ ʹ|| |Ž‹௭՜ଵ ൫‫ݖ‬ െ ͳ ʹ ሺଶ௭ିଵሻሺ௭ିଶሻቃ ൌ


௭ ାଵ

ÿÿ

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ଶ ଶସ
ଵ ௭ ାଵ ଵ గ
െ ଶ௜ 6௖ ௭ ሺଶ௭ିଵሻሺ௭ିଶሻ ‫ݖ‬ ൌ െ ଶ௜ ሺʹߨ݅ሻ ቀ ÿ െ ଶସቁ ൌ ଵଶ|
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ÿଵ ÿÿ

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ሺÿିଷ௦௜ ఏሻమ ଷଶ
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ஶ ௖௢௦௠௫ గ
<| J  ||‫׬‬଴ మ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ݁ ି௠ ݉ ൐ Ͳ|
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‫ ݖ‬ൌ േ݅ ||‫ ݖ‬ൌ ݅ ||
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1 ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ݅ | |||Ž‹௭՜௜ ሺ‫ ݖ‬െ ݅ሻ ሺ௭ି௜ሻሺ௭ା௜ሻቃ ൌ  |
ଶ௜
݁ ௜௠௭
݁ ି௠
ර  ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ʹߨ݅ ቆ ቇ ൌ ߨ݁ ି௠ |
௖ ‫ ݖ‬൅ͳ
ଶ ʹ݅
 ௘೔ ೣ ௘೔ ೥
|,|‫ ି׬‬మ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ݅ ‫୻׬‬ ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ߨ݁ ି௠ |
௫ ାଵ ௭మ ାଵ
ܿ‫ݔ݉ݏ݋‬ 
݁ ௜௠௭
ʹන ‫ݔ‬ ൅ න ‫ ݖ‬ൌ ߨ݁ ି௠ |
଴ ‫ ݔ‬൅ͳ ୻ ‫ ݖ‬൅ͳ
ଶ ଶ
 ௖௢௦௠௫ గ
||!| |  |1|  |
| ||
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՜ Ͳ|‫׬‬଴ మ ‫ ݔ‬ൌ ݁ ି௠ |
௫ ାଵ ଶ
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ஶ ௫௦௜ గ௫
<| 

 ||‫ି׬‬ஶ ௫ మାଶ௫ାÿ ‫ݔ‬

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CHAPITRE XIII TRANSFORMEE DE LAPLACE



!|  ||!


| ||   || |R3|| |
||
| |‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| |
|
 ||24| ||  ||

 | ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|
| ||  |‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ| 3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ሺͳሻ|)| ‫|
 | '|  |ݏ‬
|
 |!|   ||!
||‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| ||
  
| ሺͳሻ…‘ ‡”‰‡|  | |

 ||‫|  | |

|  ||
|&| ݏ‬

| | |
 |  | |  | ‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ÿሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|
 |   |   |
    | |݂ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻǡ ݃ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻǡ ‫ݕ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ |

3  |
 || | ݇ଵ ǡ ݇ଶ|  | |   | 
|  | ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| |  |  |
|
 ||!
| |     |݂ଵሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ݁‫݂ݐ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ|
 ||

3 Ÿ݇ଵ ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ ଶ ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݇ଵ 3‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ଶ 3‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݇ଵ ݂ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ଶ ݂ଶሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ

B -8$|&$ |@-J!$ |&$ |,.@D,. |$!$J$.@-D1$ |

ûሺ࢚ሻ 3Ÿûሺ࢚ሻÿ ൌ Áሺ࢙ሻ

ͳ
‫ ݏ‬൐ Ͳ|
‫ݏ‬
+|

ͳ
‫ ݏ‬൐ Ͳ|
‫ݏ‬ଶ
@|

‫| ݐ‬ |

݊ ൌ Ͳǡͳǡʹǡ ǥ| . ||  

|;݊ ൌ ͳǤʹǤ͵ ǥ ݊| |Ͳ ൌ ͳ|

ͳ
݁ ௔௧ | ‫ ݏ‬൐ ܽ|
‫ݏ‬െܽ

•‹ ܽ‫| ݐ‬ ௦మ ା௔మ
|‫ ݏ‬൐ Ͳ|


…‘• ܽ‫| ݐ‬ |‫ ݏ‬൐ Ͳ|
௦మ ା௔మ

‫|ݐ݄ܽݏ‬ ௦ మ ି௔మ
|‫ ݏ‬൐ ȁܽ ȁ|

݄ܿܽ‫|ݐ‬ |‫ ݏ‬൐ ȁܽ ȁ|
௦ మ ି௔మ
|

d  ( "
  
|
c 
  
 
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| |‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ͳ|3Ÿͳÿ ൌ ௦ ǡ ‫ ݏ‬൐ Ͳ


3 Ÿͳÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ሺͳሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ 
ஶ ௉ ௘ష ÿ ଵି௘ ష ÿ ଵ
ቚ ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ൌ
ି௦ ଴ ௦ ௦

ஶ ௉ ௘ష ÿ
| | | ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫|ݐ‬ 3Ÿ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ‫ି ݁ݐ‬௦௧ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ቀ ቁെ
ି௦

ሺͳሻ ቀ
௘ష ÿ
ቁቚ
௦మ ଴

ͳ ݁ ି௦௉ m݁ ି௦௉ ͳ
ൌ Ž‹ ቆ ଶ െ ଶ െ ቇ ൌ ଶ ǡ ‫ ݏ݅ݏ‬൐ Ͳ
௉՜ஶ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ݏ‬


|‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௔௧ ǡ3Ÿ݁ ௔௧ ÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ሺ݁ ௔௧ ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ିሺ௦ି௔ሻ௧  ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ିሺ௦ି௔ሻ ÿ |
ஶ ஶ ௘ షሺ షೌሻÿ
|

௘ షሺ షೌሻÿ ଵ
| | | | | ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ൌ ‫ ݏ݅ݏ‬൐ ܽ|
ିሺ௦ି௔ሻ ௦ି௔

ஶ ௉
| |‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ ܽ‫ ݐ‬ǡ3Ÿ•‹ ܽ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ •‹ ܽ‫ ݐ  ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ •‹ ܽ‫| ݐ  ݐ‬


݁ ି௦௧ ሺെܽ‫ ݐܽ݊݅ݏ‬െ ܽ …‘• ܽ‫ݐ‬ሻ ܽ ݁ ି௦௉ ሺ‫ܽ ‹• ݏ‬m ൅ ܽ …‘• ܽmሻ
ൌ Ž‹  ቤ ൌ Ž‹ െ ÿ|
௉՜ஶ ‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽଶ ଴
௉՜ஶ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽ ଶ ‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽଶ


ൌ ௦మ ା௔మ ||‫ ݏ‬൐ Ͳ|

ஶ ௉
| |‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ …‘• ܽ‫ݐ‬ǡ 3Ÿ…‘• ܽ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ …‘• ܽ‫ ݐ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ …‘• ܽ‫| ݐ ݐ‬


ൌ Ž‹௉՜ஶ
௘ ష ÿ ሺି௦௖௢௦௔௧ା௔ ୱ୧୬ ௔௧ሻ ௦ ௘ ష  ሺ௦ ୡ୭ୱ ௔௉ି௔ ୱ୧୬ ௔௉ሻ
ቚ ;Ž‹௉՜ஶ ÿ െ |
௦ మ ା௔మ ଴ ௦ మ ା௔మ ௦ మ ା௔మ


| | | ൌ ||‫ ݏ‬൐ Ͳ|
௦ మ ା௔మ

R 

݁ ௧ ሺߙ •‹ ÿ‫ ݐ‬െ ÿ …‘• ÿ‫ݐ‬ሻ


න݁ ௧
•‹ ÿ‫ ݐ ݐ‬ൌ
ߙ ଶ ൅ ÿଶ
|

݁ ௧ ሺߙ …‘• ÿ‫ ݐ‬൅ ÿ •‹ ÿ‫ݐ‬ሻ


න݁ ௧
…‘• ÿ‫ ݐ ݐ‬ൌ
ߙ ଶ ൅ ÿଶ
|

ଵ ௦ା௜௔
| |‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ௜௔௧ ǡ3 ݁௜௔௧ ÿ ൌ ௦ି௜௔ ൌ ௦మ ା௔మ |

݁௜ ௧
ൌ …‘• ߙ‫ ݐ‬൅ ݅‫ݐߙ݊݅ݏ‬
ஶ ஶ ஶ
3 ݁ ௜௔௧ ÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ሺ…‘• ܽ‫ ݐ‬൅ ݅‫ݐܽ݊݅ݏ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ …‘• ܽ‫ ݐ ݐ‬൅ ݅ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ •‹ ܽ‫ݐ ݐ‬

௦ ௔
ൌ3 Ÿ…‘• ܽ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൅ ݅3 Ÿ•‹ ܽ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ௦మ ା௔మ ൅ ݅ ௦మ ା௔మ |

d  ( "
  
|
c 
  
 
|
௘ ೌÿ ି௘ షೌÿ ஶ ௘ ೌÿ ି௘ షೌÿ
 | ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐ݄ܽݏ‬ǡ 3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ3ÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ቀ ቁ ‫| ݐ‬
ଶ ଶ

ଵ ஶ ଵ ஶ ଵ ଵ
3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ଶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ݁ ௔௧ ‫ ݐ‬െ ଶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ݁ ି௔௧ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ଶ3 Ÿ݁ ௔௧ ÿ െ ଶ3Ÿ݁ ି௔௧ ÿ

ଵ ଵ ଵ ௔
3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ଶ ÿ௦ି௔ െ ௦ା௔ ൌ ௦మ ି௔మ ǡ ‫ ݏ‬൐ ȁܽ ȁ|

௘ ೌÿ ା௘ షೌÿ ଵ ଵ
 | ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݄ܿܽ‫ݐ‬ǡ3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ3ÿ ൌ 3Ÿ݁௔௧ ÿ ൅ 3 Ÿ݁ ି௔௧ ÿ|
ଶ ଶ ଶ

ͳ ͳ ͳ ܽ
ൌ § ൅ ൠൌ ଶ ǡ ‫ ݏ‬൐ ȁܽ ȁ|
ʹ ‫ݏ‬െܽ ‫ݏ‬൅ܽ ‫ ݏ‬െ ܽଶ

&)&)')
|
ஶ ஶ
3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ଵሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫  ݐ‬3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ଶሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫݇|| 
| ݐ‬ଵ ݁‫݇ݐ‬ଶ | |
|  |
||
ஶ ஶ ି௦௧
3 Ÿ݇ଵ ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ ଶ ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݇ଵ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬൅ ଶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ‫ܨ‬ଶ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ݐ‬

ൌ ଵ 3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൅ ݇ଶ3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ଶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݇ଵ ݂ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ଶ ݂ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ

Ex


| ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ Ͷ݁ ଷ௧ ൅ ͸‫ ݐ‬ଷ െ ͵ •‹ Ͷ‫ ݐ‬൅ ʹ …‘• ʹ‫|ݐ‬

3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ Ͷ3Ÿ݁ ଷ௧ ÿ ൅ ͸3 Ÿ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ÿ െ ͵3Ÿ•‹ Ͷ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൅ ʹ3Ÿ…‘• ʹ‫ݐ‬ÿ

ͳ ͵ Ͷ ‫ݏ‬ Ͷ ͵͸ ͳʹ ʹ‫ݏ‬
ൌ Ͷ൬ ൰ ൅ ͸ ൬ ସ൰ െ ͵ ൬ ଶ ൰ ൅ʹቀ ଶ ቁൌ ൅ ସെ ଶ ൅ ଶ
‫ݏ‬െͷ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳ͸ ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷ ‫ݏ‬െͷ ‫ݏ‬ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳ͸ ‫ ݏ‬൅ Ͷ

)+'&)&)+ !($- !'' 


|

Ã)&)ß
| |  |‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡ ‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ| |3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ 
 3Ÿ݁ ௔௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ܽሻ

" | 
 | |   ||

3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ|

ஶ ஶ
3 Ÿ݁ ௔௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ Ÿ݁௔௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ିሺ௦ି௔ሻ௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ  ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ݂ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ܽሻ

d  ( "
  
|
c 
  
 
|
Ex
 

+| |‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ݁ଷ௧ |


ଶ ଶ
1 
||3Ÿ‫ ݐ‬ଶÿ ൌ ௦ ൌ ௦ |


3 Ÿ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ݁ ଷ௧ ÿ ൌ ሺ௦ିଷሻ
|

6 | | ||‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௧ •‹ Ͷ‫|ݐ‬



1 
||3Ÿ•‹ Ͷ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ
௦ మ ାଵÿ

ସ ସ
3 Ÿ݁ ିଶ௧ •‹ Ͷ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ሺ௦ାଶሻమ ାଵÿ
ൌ ௦మାସ௦ାଶ଴

3| |‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ସ௧ …Š ͷ‫|ݐ‬



1 
|||3Ÿ݄ܿͷ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ௦మ ିଶÿ

௦ିସ ௦ିସ
3 Ÿ݁ ସ௧ …Š ͷ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ሺ௦ିସሻమିଶÿ ൌ ௦మ ିÿ௦ିÿ|

S | | |‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ିଶ௧ ሺ͵ …‘• ͸‫ ݐ‬െ ͷ •‹ ͸‫ݐ‬ሻ|


௦ ଷ௦ିଷ଴
1 
||||3Ÿ͵ …‘• ͸‫ ݐ‬െ ͷ •‹ ͸‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ͵3Ÿ…‘• ͸‫ݐ‬ÿ െ ͷ3Ÿ•‹ ͸‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ͵ ቀ ቁെ ͷቀ ቁൌ
ÿ
௦ మ ାଷÿ ௦ మ ାଷÿ ௦ మ ାଷÿ

ଷሺ௦ାଶሻିଷ଴ ଷ௦ିଶସ
3 Ÿ݁ ିଶ௧ ሺ͵ …‘• ͸‫ ݐ‬െ ͷ •‹ ͸‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ሺ௦ାଶሻమ ାଷÿ

௦ మ ାସ௦ାସ଴

ß$&)&))+'
|

Ã)&)2 
‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݐ‬െ ܽሻ‫ ݐ‬൐ ܽ
|3‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ §
Ͳǡ‫ ݐ‬൏ ܽ
| | |

3 Ÿ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݁ ି௦௧ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻሺͶሻ

" | 
 | |   ||# |
ஶ ௔ ஶ ஶ ஶ
3 Ÿ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬൅ ‫׬‬௔ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ሺͲሻ ‫ ݐ‬൅ ‫׬‬௔ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ܨ‬ሺܽ െ ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ݐ‬

ஶ ஶ
| | | ൌ ‫׬‬௔ ݁ ି௦ሺ௨ା௔ሻ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݑ‬ሻ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ݁ ି௔௦ ‫׬‬௔ ݁ ି௦௨ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݑ‬ሻ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ݁ ି௔௦ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ|

,|| |‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ܽ|

d  ( "
  
|
c 
  
 
|
Ex


ଶగ ଶగ
…‘• ቀ‫ ݐ‬െ ቁ ǡ‫ ݐ‬൐


 ||3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ÿ ଷ ଷ
ଶగ
Ͳǡ‫ ݐ‬൏

మഏ మഏ
ஶ ଶగ ஶ
3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ሺͲሻ ൅ ‫׬‬మഏ ݁ ି௦௧ …‘• ቀ‫ ݐ‬െ ቁ  ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦ቀ௨ା ቁ
…‘• ‫ݑ ݑ‬

ஶ మഏ

ି
మഏ ‫ି ݁ݏ‬
ൌ݁ න݁ ି௦௨
…‘• ‫ ݑ ݑ‬ൌ ଶ
‫ ݏ‬൅ͳ

Ã)&) !($- !''


|

Ã)&)3
ଵ ௦
| | |3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ
 3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺܽ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ ቀ ቁ
௔ ௔

ஶ ௨
" | 
 | |   ||# |3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺܽ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ| | ݐ‬ൌ |

ஶ ೠ
ଵ ଵ ௦
3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺܽ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି ೌ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݑ‬ሻ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ݂ ቀ ቁ
௔ ௔ ௔

Ex


ୱ୧୬ ௧ ଵ ୱ୧୬ ௔௧
| $  ||3ÿ ௧
ൌ ‫ି ݃ݐ‬ଵ ቀ௦ ቁ    |3 ÿ ௔௧

ୱ୧୬ ௔௧ ଵ ୱ୧୬ ௔௧ ଵ ଵ ଵ ௔
3ÿ ൌ 3ÿ ൌ ‫ି݃ݐ‬ଵ § ൠ ൌ ‫ି݃ݐ‬ଵ ቀ ቁ|
௔௧ ௔ ௧ ௔ ௔ ௦

ୱ୧୬ ௔௧ ௔
| 3ÿ ൌ ‫ି ݃ݐ‬ଵ ቀ ቁ
௧ ௦

)+)$+&'  )*+ 


|

4)

 |‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ||‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ| ||3‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ|


 |3Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ ݂ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ܨ‬ሺͲሻሺͷሻ

‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| | |  |Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൑ | |  |  


|  |൐ || ||‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| | |
 | |  |Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൑ ||$|   |  |  |||

d  ( "
  
|
c 
  
 
|
3 Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௣՜ஶ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ž‹௣՜ஶ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻȁ଴ ൅ ‫׬ ݏ‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ÿ
ஶ ௣ ௣ ௣

ൌ ‫ ݏ‬න ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬െ ‫ ܨ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫݂ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ܨ‬ሺͲሻ


$| 
 |
| ||‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| |  |  
|||‫ ݐ‬՜ λ||||
Ž‹௣՜ஶ ݁ ି௦௣ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫݌‬ሻ ൌ Ͳ  |‫ ݏ‬൐ |

34
| | ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|  | |  | | ‫ ݐ‬ൌ Ͳ| | |
|
 | |   |  | Ž‹௧՜଴ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ܨ‬ሺͲା ሻ| 
 ||||||
3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫݂ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ሺͲା ሻ

3,4
| | ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|  | |  | | ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ܽ | 
 | 3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ÿሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ ݂ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ܨ‬ሺͲሻ െ ݁ ି௔௦ Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ሺܽ ା ሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ሺܽି ሻÿ)|
‫ ܨ‬ሺܽା ሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ሺܽି ሻ|  | |  
|
|  | |  | |   | ‫ ݐ‬ൌ ܽ | 
| | |
 |  | |
  |
| | |
||
|   |||  

5) L      ûሺ࢚ሻ

|‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| || |‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ| ||3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ|;݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ|


 ||3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ÿÿሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ|;‫ ݏ‬ଶ ݂ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ܨݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻǤ| |‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|
 |‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| | |  |Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൑ | |  |  
|  |‫ ݐ‬൐ | ||‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|| |
 |  | |  |Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൑ Ǥ|

" | 
 | |   ||

3 Ÿ‫ ܩ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ݏ‬3 Ÿ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ െ ‫ ܩ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫݃ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ܩ‬ሺͲሻ|  |‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ||||

3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ÿÿሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ݏ‬3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ÿሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ െ ‫ܨ‬ÿሺͲሻÿ ൌ ‫ݏ‬ሾ‫ݏ‬3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ െ ‫ܨ‬ሺͲሻሿ െ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ

3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ÿÿሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ 3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ െ ‫ ܨݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ݂ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ܨݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ

™) D  

 |‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ||  |‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ| ||3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ


 ||

3 ‫ ܨ‬ሺ ሻ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫݂ ݏ‬ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ݏ‬ ିଵ


‫ ܨ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ݏ‬ ିଶ ᇱ ሺ
‫Ͳ ܨ‬ሻ െ ‫ ڮ‬െ ‫ܨݏ‬ ିଶ ሺ
Ͳሻ െ ‫ܨ‬ ିଵ
ሺͲሻ

| ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǢ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǢ ǥ ‫ି ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|  |  |  |Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൑ |  |   
|  |  |  |‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ|

 ||‫ ܨ‬ሺ ሻ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| | |  | |  |Ͳ ൑ ‫ ݐ‬൑ Ǥ|

Ex




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|  | ||

‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ •‹ ܽ‫| ݐ‬ ‫ ܨ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ|

‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ܽ …‘• ܽ‫|ݐ‬ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ Ͳ ሻ ൌ ܽ|

d  ( "
  
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c 
  
 
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‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱሺ௧ሻ ൌ െܽଶ •‹ ܽ‫|ݐ‬ 3Ÿ•‹ ܽ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ
௦ మ ା௔మ

3 Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ݏ‬3 Ÿ•‹ ܽ‫ݐ‬ÿ െ ‫ܨ‬ሺͲሻ

ܽ ‫ܽݏ‬
ൌ‫ݏ‬ െͲൌ ଶ
‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ܽ ଶ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ܽଶ
|

3 Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ3 Ÿ•‹ ܽ‫ݐ‬ÿ െ ‫ ܨݏ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱ ሺͲሻ

ܽ ܽଷ
ൌ‫ݏ‬ െ Ͳ െ ܽ ൌ െ
‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽଶ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽଶ

3 Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ଷ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ െ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ‫ܨ‬ሺͲሻ െ ‫ܨݏ‬ÿሺͲሻ െ ‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ

‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ܽଷ …‘• ܽ‫ ܨ ݐ‬ᇱᇱ ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ

௔ ௦௔
3 Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ᇱᇱᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ ݏ‬ଷ െ ‫ ݏ‬ଶ Ǥ Ͳ െ ‫ݏ‬Ǥ ܽ െ Ͳ ൌ െ
௦ మ ା௔మ ௦ మ ା௔మ

)+)$&' -()'+
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Ã)&)5

 |||‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|||‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ|


௧ ௙ሺ௦ሻ
||| 3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ||
 ||3ÿ‫׬‬଴ ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ௦
|


" | 
 | |   ||| ||‫ ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݑ‬ሻ ‫ ܩ| 
|| ݑ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ| |‫ ܩ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ Ͳ|

௙ሺ௦ሻ
3 Ÿ‫ ܩ‬ᇱ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫ݏ‬3 Ÿ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ െ ‫ܩ‬ሺͲሻ ൌ ‫ݏ‬3Ÿ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ||3 Ÿ‫ܩ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ


݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ
֜  ÿන ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݑ‬ሻ ‫ ݑ‬ൌ
‫ݏ‬

Ex
 

௧ ୱ୧୬ ௨
+ | @   |3ÿ‫׬‬଴  ‫| ݑ‬

௦௜ ௧ ଵ ௧ ୱ୧୬ ௨ ଵ ଵ
3ÿ ൌ ܿ‫֜ ݃ݐ݋‬3 ÿ‫׬‬଴  ‫ ݑ‬ൌ ܿ‫݃ݐ݋‬
௧ ௦ ௨ ௦ ௦


6 | @   |3ÿ‫׬‬଴ •‹ ʹ‫| ݑ ݑ‬
ଶ ௧ ଶ
3 Ÿ•‹ ʹ‫ݐ‬ÿ ൌ ௦మ ାସ ֜3 ÿ‫׬‬଴ •‹ ʹ‫ ݑ ݑ‬ൌ ௦ሺ௦మ ାସሻ

d  ( "
  
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Ã)&)6
 ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ||  | ൐ Ͳ||

|3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻǤƒŽ‘”•|

ௗ೙
3 Ÿ‫ܨ ݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ሺെͳሻ ݂ ሺ୬ሻ ሺ•ሻሺͻሻ|
ௗ௦ ೙

ÿ‘—”±–ƒ„Ž‹”…‡––‡’”‘’”‹±–±ǡ‘—–‹Ž‹•‡Žƒ” ‰Ž‡†‡‡‹„‹–œ’‘—”†±”‹ ‡”†‘…Ž‡•‹‰‡‹–±‰”ƒŽ‡


ௗ௙ ௗ ஶ ି௦௧ ஶ డ ஶ ஶ ௗ௙
ൌ݂ ᇱ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൌ ‫݁ ׬‬ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ†–ൌ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ݐ‬ൌെ ‫׬‬଴ െ‫ି ݁ݐ‬௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬ൌ െ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ Ÿ‫ܨݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ‫ݐ‬ ൌ
ௗ௦ ௗ௦ ଴ డ௦ ௗ௦
െ3 Ÿ‫ܨݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ†ǯ‘î 3Ÿ‫ ܨݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ െ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ’‘—”݊ ൌ ͳǤÿ±±”ƒŽ‡‡–’‘—”݊ ൌ ݇

Ex


|‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐ݊݅ݏ‬ǡ—Ž–‹’Ž‹ƒ–’ƒ”–Ǥ‫ܨݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐ݊݅ݏݐ‬Ǥ


ௗ ௗ ௔ ଶ௔௦
3 Ÿ‫ ܨݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ െ ሺ3 Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿሻൌ ሺ ሻൌ 
ௗ௦ ௗ௦ ௦ మ ା௔మ ሺ௦ మ ା௔మ ሻమ

ÿ‹‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ܿ‫ݐݏ݋‬ǡ—Ž–‹’Ž‹‘•’ƒ”‫ݐ‬ǡ’—‹•’ƒ”‫ܨݐƒ‘ʹݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐݏ݋ܿݐ‬Ǥ

ௗ ௗ ௦ ଵǤ൫௦ మ ା௔మ ି௦ሺଶ௦ሻ


”‘— ‡”3 Ÿ‫ܨݐ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿൌ3Ÿ‫ݐ •‘… ݐ‬ÿൌെ 3Ÿܿ‫ݐݏ݋‬ÿÿൌെ ሺ ሻ ൌ െ ሺ௦ଶା௔మ ሻమ
ቃ
ௗ௦ ௗ௦ ௦ మ ା௔మ

‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽଶ െ ʹ‫ݏ‬ଶ
ൌ െቈ ቉
ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽ ଶ ሻଶ

‫ݏ‬ଶ െ ܽଶ
ൌെ 
ሺ‫ ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ܽ ଶ ሻଶ

ÿƒ‫ݐ‬ଶ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ܿ‫ݐݏ݋‬Ǥ

ௗమ ௦
”‘— ‡”3 Ÿ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ܿ‫ݐݏ݋‬ÿ ൌ ቀ ቁ
ௗ௦ మ ௦ మ ା௔మ

ଶ௦ ିÿ௔మ ௦
 ൌ ሺ௦మା௔మ ሻ 

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ÿ‘‹–‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ†±ˆ‹‹’ƒ”‫ ݐ‬൐ ͲǤÿ‹3Ÿ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻǡƒŽ‘”•


‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ݁ ଶ௧ ǡ3Ÿ݁ଶ௧ ÿൌ 
௦ିଶ

ௗ ଵ ଵ
3 Ÿ‫ ݁ݐ‬ଶ௧ ÿ ൌ െ ቀ ቁൌሺ௦ିଶሻమ 
ௗ௦ ௦ିଶ

ௗమ ଵ ଶ
3 Ÿ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ݁ ଶ௧ ÿ ൌ ቀ ቁൌሺ௦ିଶሻ 
ௗ௦మ ௦ିଶ

ௗ ଵ
3 Ÿ‫ ݐ‬ଷ ݁ ଶ௧ ÿ ൌ െ ௗ௦ ቀ௦ିଶቁൌ 
ÿ
ሺ௦ିଶሻర

D  

ிሺ௧ሻ ஶ ிሺ௧ሻ
3ÿ ௧
ൌ‫׬‬௦ ݂ ሺ‫ ݑ‬ሻ ‫ݑ‬Ǥÿ”‘— ‡”“—‡Ž‹௧՜଴ ௧
‡š‹•–‡Ǥ

Ex


ଵ ୱ୧୬ ௧
3 Ÿ•‹ ‫ݐ‬ÿൌ ‡–Ž‹௧՜଴ ൌ ͳ
௦ మ ାଵ ௧

௦௜ ௧ ஶ ௗ௨ ଵ
3ÿ ൌ‫׬‬௦ ൌܽ‫ ݃ݐܿݎ‬ቀ ቁ
௧ ௨మ ାଵ ௦

 &)/


Ã)&)8
ÿ‘‹–‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ†‡’±”‹‘†‡ ൐ Ͳǡ–‡ŽŽ‡’‘—”‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ ݐ‬൅  ሻ ൌ ݂ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻǡƒŽ‘”•

‫׬‬ ௘ ష ÿ ிሺ௧ሻௗ௧
3 Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿൌ ሺͻሻ

ଵି௘ ష ÿ

Ex


‫ݐ݊݅ݏ‬ǡ Ͳ ൏ ‫ ݐ‬൏ ߨ
ƒሻ| ÿ‘‹–‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ÿ †‡’±”‹‘†‡ʹÿǤ ”‘— ‡” 3Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿǤ
Ͳǡ ߨ ൏ ‫ ݐ‬൏ ʹߨ
„ሻ| ‡‰”ƒ’Š‡

d  ( "
  
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ଵ గ
3 Ÿ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ ൌ ‫׬‬଴ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‫ ݐ‬
ଵି௘ షమഏ
ͳ గ
ൌ න ݁ ି௦௧ •‹ ‫ ݐ ݐ‬
ͳ െ ݁ ିଶగ௦ ଴

ͳ ݁ ି௦௧ ሺെ‫ ݐ ‹• ݏ‬െ …‘• ‫ݐ‬ሻ
ൌ ቤ 
ͳ െ ݁ ିଶగ௦ ‫ݏ‬ଶ ൅ ͳ ଴
ଵ ଵା௘ షഏ ଵ
 ൌ ÿ ൌ ሺଵି௘ షഏሻሺ௦ మ ାଵሻ

ଵି௘ షమഏ ௦ మ ାଵ


&)) %ûሺ࢚ሻ
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‹‰—”‡ ͳǤ ”‡’”±•‡–‡ —‡ ˆ‘…–‹‘ †‹•…‘–‹—‡ ƒ—š ’‘‹–• – ͳǡ –ʹǡ –͵ǡ ƒ ‡… †‡• Ž‹‹–‡•  ‰ƒ—…Š‡
Ž‹‹–‡•†”‘‹–‡‡š‹•–ƒ–Ǥ ሺ– ͳ ሻ‡– ሺ–ͳ൅ሻǤ

ÿ‡ˆ‘…–‹‘‡•–…‘–‹—‡’ƒ”‘”…‡ƒ—š†ƒ•—‹–‡” ƒŽŽ‡ˆ‡”±ሾܽǡ ܾሿǡ•‹…‡–‹–‡” ƒŽŽ‡’‡—– –”‡


†‹ ‹•± ‡ — ‘„”‡ ˆ‹‹ †‡ •‘—• ‹–‡” ƒŽŽ‡ †ƒ• Ž‡•“—‡Ž• Žƒ ˆ‘…–‹‘ ‡•– …‘–‹—‡ …̵‡•–  †‹”‡
’‘•• †‡Ž‡•Ž‹‹–‡•‰ƒ—…Š‡•‡–†”‘‹–‡•ˆ‹‹‡•Ǥ

 -))%&'


ÿǯ‹Ž‡š‹•–‡†‡•…‘•–ƒ–‡•”±‡ŽŽ‡• ൐ Ͳ‡–ÿǡ–‡ŽŽ‡“—‡’‘—”–‘—–‫ ݐ‬൐ Ǣ‘ƒ 

ȁ ݁ ି௦௧ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻȁ ൏ ‫—‘ܯ‬ȁ‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻȁ ൏ ‫ ݁ܯ‬௦௧ 

d  ( "
  
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ÿ †‹– “—‡ ‫ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ‡•– —‡ ˆ‘…–‹‘ †ǯ‘”†”‡ ‡š’‘‡–‹‡Ž ÿ “—ƒ† ‫ ݐ‬՜ λ ‘— •‹’Ž‡‡– †ǯ‘”†”‡
‡š’‘‡–‹‡ŽǤ

Ex


‫ ܨ‬ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൌ ‫ݐ‬ଶ ‡•–‡š’‘‡–‹‡Ž†ǯ‘”†”‡͵…ƒ”ȁ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ȁ ൌ ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ൏ ݁ ଷ௧ ’‘—”‫ ݐ‬൐ Ͳ

  


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3 Ÿ‫ ݐ‬ଶ ݁ ି௦௧ ÿ 3 Ÿ݁ ି௧ …‘• ʹ‫ݐ‬ÿ 3Ÿʹ݁ ଷ௧ •‹ Ͷ‫ݐ‬ÿ 3 Ÿሺ‫ ݐ‬൅ ʹሻଶ ݁ ௧ ÿ 3Ÿ݁ ଶ௧ ሺ͵ •‹ Ͷ‫ ݐ‬െ Ͷ …‘• Ͷ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ

3 Ÿ݁ ିସ௧ ݄ܿʹ‫ݐ‬ÿ 3 Ÿ݁ ି௧ ሺ͵‫ ݐʹ݄ݏ‬െ ͷ݄ܿʹ‫ݐ‬ሻÿ 3Ÿ݁ ି௧ ‫݊݅ݏ‬ଶ ‫ݐ‬ÿ 3 Ÿሺͳ ൅ ‫ି ݁ݐ‬௧ ሻଷ ÿ



 
 
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௦ାଷ ௦ାଷ

3    

| ݇ଵǡ ݇ଶ| |  | |   | 


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3 +Ÿ݇௔ଵ ݂ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ଶ ݂ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݇ଵ 3 Ÿ݂ଵ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻÿ ൅ ݇ଶ 3 Ÿ݂ଶ ሺ‫ݏ‬ሻÿ ൌ ݇ଵ ‫ܨ‬ଵ ሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ ൅ ݇ଶ ‫ܨ‬ଶሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ|
 

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ଶ௦ିÿ ஺ ஼ ஽
ൌ ൅ ሺଶ௦ାଵሻ ൅
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+| ሺଷ௦ିସሻሺଶ௦ାଵሻ ଷ௦ିସ ሺଶ௦ାଵሻ మ ଶ௦ାଵ
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ଷ௦ మ ିସ௦ାଶ ஺௦ାÿ ஼௦ା஽ ா
6| ሺ௦ మ ାଶ௦ାସሻ మ ሺ௦ିÿሻ
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ାଶ௦ାସሻ మ ௦ మ ାଶ௦ାସ ௦ିÿ

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3 | @   ||3+ÿ௦మ ିଶ௦ିଷ |

ଷ௦ା ଷ௦ା ஺
ൌ ሺ௦ିଷሻሺ௦ାଵሻ ൌ ൅
ÿ |
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௦ మ ିଶ௦ିଷ ௦ିଷ ௦ାଵ

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ൌ െ
‫ݏ‬ଶ െ ʹ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳ
ଷ௦ା ଵ ଵ
3 +ÿ ൌ Ͷ3 ͳ ÿ െ3 ͳÿ ൌ Ͷ݁ ଷ௧ െ ݁ ି௧ |
௦ మ ିଶ௦ିଷ ௦ିଷ ௦ାଵ

ଶ௦ మ ିସ
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ଶ௦ మ ିସ ஺ ஼
,|  |ሺ௦ାଵሻሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ିଷሻ ൌ ሺ௦ାଵሻ ൅ ሺ௦ିଶሻ ൅ ሺ௦ିଷሻ ሺͳሻ|
ÿ

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ʹ‫ ݏ‬ଶ െ Ͷ ͳ
‫ ܣ‬ൌ Ž‹ ൌെ |
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,|

|
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ʹ‫ ݏ‬ଶ െ Ͷ Ͷ
ൌ Ž‹ ൌെ |
௦՜ଶ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳሻሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ ሻ ͵

,|

|
|| ||ሺͳሻ|  |ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ͵ሻ| || |  |‫|  |ݏ‬3||||

ʹ‫ݏ‬ଶ െ Ͷ ͹
‫ ܥ‬ൌ Ž‹ ൌ |
௦՜ଷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳ ሻሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻ ʹ

ଶ௦ మ ିସ ିଵ ଵ ସ ଵ ଵ ଵ ସ
-
 |3+ÿሺ௦ାଵሻሺ௦ିଶሻሺ௦ିଷሻ ൌ ÿ
3 ͳ ÿ௦ାଵ െ ଷ 3 ͳ ÿ௦ିଶ ൅ ଶ 3 ͳ ÿ௦ିଷ ൌ െ ÿ ݁ ି௧ െ ଷ ݁ଶ௧ ൅ ଶ ݁ ଷ௧ |

ÿ௦ మ ିଵÿ௦ିଵଵ
9 | @   |3+ÿሺ௦ାଵሻሺ௦ିଶሻ |

d  ( "
  
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ൌ ൅ ൅ ൅
ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳሻሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻଷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬൅ ͳሻ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻଷ ሺ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹሻଶ ‫ ݏ‬െ ʹ

" |   |‫ܣ‬ǡ ݁‫|


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‫ ܣ‬ൌ Ž‹ ൌെ |
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ͷ‫ ݏ‬ଶ െ ͳͷ െ ͳͳ
ൌ Ž‹ ൌ െ͹|
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||&|| #||  |‫ ܥ‬ൌ Ͷ| |‫ ܦ‬ൌ ଵ|

ൌ െÿ ൅ ͹ ൅ ‫ ܥ‬െ ‫ܦ‬ ଷ

ÿ௦ మ ିଵÿ௦ିଵଵ ିଵ ି ସ ଵ
3 +ÿ ሺ௦ାଵሻሺ௦ିଶሻ ൌ 3 ͳ §ሺ௦ାଵሻ

൅ ሺ௦ିଶሻ ൅ ሺ௦ିଶሻమ ൅ ௦ିଶ ൠ
ଷ |

ൌ ൫െͳ ͵݁ି௧ െ ൫͹ ʹ‫ ݐ‬ଶ݁ ଶ௧ ൅ Ͷ‫݁ݐ‬ଶ௧ ൅ ൫ͳ ͵݁ ଶ௧ |


ÿ௦ మ ିଵÿ௦ିଵଵ
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ሺ ሻ
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| | 3 ͳ ÿሺ௦మ ൌ ‫| ݐ ‹• ݐ‬
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T
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ஶ ிሺ௧ሻ|
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ஶ ଵ ଵ ଵ ଵି௘ షÿ |
| | 3 ͳ ÿ‫׬‬଴ ቀ െ ቁ  ‫ ݑ‬ൌ 3 ͳ ÿŽ ቀͳ ൅ ቁ ൌ
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CHAPITRE XIV. TRANSFORMATIONS CONFORMES


|

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‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ


!
| |  | § ሺͳሻ| |  | |  
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ß | ; ,-)+)$


B|| | ࣬||
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||||||2&4|||| |࣬||

||‫| ݒݑ‬

&| |  | | ο-|  | | ο- |  |     |


|  | | |
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ο஺௨௩ డሺ௨ǡ௩ሻ
݈݅݉ ο஺௨௩ ൌ ቚడሺ௫ǡ௬ሻቚ| |

,)|݈݅݉| ||  |  |W‫||ݕݔܣ‬ο‫|   |


|)| | |  |  | ݒݑܣ‬
డ௨ డ௨
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ൌ డ௩ డ௩
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|   |ሺͳሻ|
డሺ௫ǡ௬ሻ డ௫ డ௬ డ௬ డ௫
డ௫ డ௬

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‫ ݓ‬ൌ ‫ ݑ‬൅ ݅‫ ݒ‬ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ݖ‬ሻ ൌ ݂ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ݅‫ݕ‬ሻǤ|

3 | %$&'+)+)$+
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‫ ݑ‬ൌ ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳ
‫ ݓ‬ൌ ሺ‫ ݔ‬൅ ͳሻ ൅ ݅ሺ‫ ݕ‬െ ʹሻ ฺ §
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Ex
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‫ ݑ‬ൌ‫ݔ‬െ‫ݕ‬ ͳ െͳ
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డሺ௨ǡ௩ሻ డ௫ డ௬
3| ൌ ൌቚ ቚ ൌ ʹ|
డሺ௫ǡ௬ሻ డ௩ డ௩ ͳ ͳ
డ௫ డ௬
డሺ௨ǡ௩ሻ డሺ௫ǡ௬ሻ
S | J  ||డሺ௫ǡ௬ሻ Ǥ డሺ௨ǡ௩ሻ ൌ ͳ|
߲‫ݑ‬ ߲‫ݔ߲ ݑ‬ ߲‫ݔ‬ ߲‫ݕ߲ ݑ߲ ݔ߲ ݑ‬ ߲‫ݕ߲ ݑ߲ ݔ߲ ݑ‬
൅ ൅
ൌ ÿÿ
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ÿ
߲ሺ‫ݑ‬ǡ ‫ݒ‬ሻ ߲ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ
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߲‫ݔ‬ ͳ Ͳ
Ǥ ൌቚ ቚ
߲ሺ‫ݔ‬ǡ ‫ݕ‬ሻ ߲ሺ‫ݑ‬ǡ ‫ݒ‬ሻ ߲‫ݒ‬ ߲‫ݕ‬ ߲‫ݕ߲ ݒ߲ ݔ߲ ݒ‬ Ͳ ͳ
൅ ൅
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ൌ ͳ|
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Ex
 1

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Ex
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@   | |   |   | | |    |     | |  |
ሺ௪ି௜ሻሺଵି଴ሻ ሺ௭ି଴ሻሺି௜ାଵሻ ௭ାଵ
‫ ݖ‬ൌ Ͳǡ െ݅ǡ െͳ|
|  | ‫ ݓ‬ൌ ݅ǡ ͳǡͲ | ,| | ሺ௪ି଴ሻሺଵି௜ሻ
ൌ ሺ௭ାଵሻሺିଵି଴ሻ ฺ ‫ ݓ‬ൌ െ݅ ቀ ቁ|  ||
௭ିଵ
ሺ௪ି௪భ ሻሺ௪మ ି௪ ሻ ሺ௭ି௭భ ሻሺ௭మ ି௭ ሻ
ሺ௪మ ି௪భ ሻሺ௪ି௪ ሻ
ൌ ሺ௭ି௭ ሻሺ௭ି௭ ሻ
|

Ex
 3

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|
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௭ି௭
തതത

௜ି௭బ
Ͳ ൌ ݁ ௜ఏబ ቀ ቁ||||‫ݖ‬଴ ൌ ݅ |& |||
| 
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തതത
௜ି௭ బ

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!|   | | ||‫ ݓ‬ൌ ሺെͳሻ ቀ ቁൌ |
௭ା௜ ௜ି௭ҧ

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