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02, 2011

**Sectorization of Haar and Kekre’s Wavelet for Feature Extraction of color images in Image Retrieval
**

H.B.Kekre

Sr. Professor MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to be-University) Vile Parle West, Mumbai -56,INDIA hbkekre@yahoo.com

Dhirendra Mishra

Associate Professor & PhD Research Scholar MPSTME, SVKM’s NMIMS (Deemed-to be-University) Vile Parle West, Mumbai -56,INDIA dhirendra.mishra@gmail.com

Abstract- This paper presents the Innovative idea of Sectorization of Haar Wavelet transformed images and Kekre’s Wavelet Transformed images to extract features for image retrieval. Transformed images have been sectored into 4,8,12 and 16 sectors. Each sector produces the feature vector component in particular sector size. Thus the feature vector size increases with the increase in the sector size. The experiment of augmenting the feature vectors with extra components performed .The performance of proposed method of sectorization checked with respect to increase in sector sizes, effect of augmentation of extra components in both Haar and Kekre’s Wavelet sectorization .The retrieval rate checked with crossover of average precision and recall. LIRS and LSRR are calculated for average of randomly selected 5 images of all 12 classes and compared with the overall average of LIRS/LSRR. The work experimented over the image database of 1055 images and the performance of image retrieval with respect to two similarity measures namely Euclidian distance (ED) and sum of absolute difference (AD) are measured. Keywords- CBIR, Haar Wavelet, Kekre’s Wavelet Euclidian Distance, Sum of Absolute Difference, LIRS, LSRR, Precision and Recall. I. INTRODUCTION

useful for real-world applications if aggressive attempts are made. For example, many commercial organizations are working on image retrieval despite the fact that robust text understanding is still an open problem. Of late, there is renewed interest in the media about potential real-world applications of CBIR and image analysis technologies, There are various approaches which have been experimented to generate the efficient algorithm for CBIR like FFT, DCT, DST, WALSH sectors [8-14][21][22], Transforms [16][17], Vector quantization[17], bit truncation coding [18][19]. The problem of CBIR still needs lots of research to achieve the better retrieval performance. It needs extensive experiments on all of its parameters i.e. Feature extraction, similarity measures, retrieval performance measuring parameters. In this paper we have introduced a novel concept of Sectorization of Haar Wavelet and Kekre’s Wavelet in both column wise and row wise transformed color images for feature extraction (FE).Two different similarity measures namely sum of absolute difference and Euclidean distance are considered. Average precision, Recall, LIRS and LSRR are used for performances study of these approaches. II. HAAR WAVELET [5] The Haar transform is derived from the Haar matrix. The Haar transform is separable and can be expressed in matrix form [F] = [H] [f] [H]T Where f is an NxN image, H is an NxN Haar transform matrix and F is the resulting NxN transformed image. The transformation H contains the Haar basis function hk(t) which are defined over the continuous closed interval t Є [0,1]. The Haar basis functions are

Digital world of the current era needs storage and management of bulky digital images. It is the need of the century to have better mechanism to store, manage and retrieve whenever needed digital images from the large database. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), [1-4] is any technology that in principle helps to achieve this motive by their visual content. By this definition, anything ranging from an image similarity function to a robust image annotation engine falls under CBIR. This characterization of CBIR as a field of study places it at a unique juncture within the scientific community. It is believed that the current stateof-the-art in CBIR holds enough promise and maturity to be

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.02, 2011

When k=0, the Haar function is defined as a constant hk(t) = 1/√N When k>0, the Haar Function is defined as

Figure 1: Computation of 4 Sectors B. 8 Sectors Formation III. KEKRE’S WAVELET [5] Kekre’s Wavelet transform is derived from Kekre’s transform. From NxN Kekre’s transform matrix, we can generate Kekre’s Wavelet transform matrices of size (2N)x(2N), (3N)x(3N),……, (N2)x(N2). For example, from 5x5.Kekre’s transform matrix, we can generate Kekre’s Wavelet transform matrices of size 10x10, 15x15, 20x20 and 25x25. In general MxM Kekre’s Wavelet transform matrix can be generated from NxN Kekre’s transform matrix, such that M = N * P where P is any integer between 2 and N that is, 2 ≤ P ≤ N. Kekre’s Wavelet Transform matrix satisfies [K][K]T = [D] Where D is the diagonal matrix this property and hence it is orthogonal. The diagonal matrix value of Kekre’s transform matrix of size NxN can be computed as The transformed image sectored in 4 sectors is taken into consideration for dividing it into 8 sectors. Each sector is of angle 45o. Coefficients of the transformed image lying in the particular sector checked for the sectorization conditions as shown in the Figur2.

Figure 2:Computation of 8 Sectors C. 12 Sector Formation. Division each sector of 4 sectors into angle of 30 o forms 12 sectors of the transformed image. Coefficients of the transformed image are divided into various sectors based on the inequalities shown in the Figure 3.

(2)

IV. SECTORIZATION OF TRANSFORMED IMAGES [8-14]

A. 4 Sector Formation Even and odd rows/columns of the transformed images are checked for sign changes and the based on which four sectors are formed as shown in the Figure 1 below: Figure 3:Computation of 12 Sectors

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.02, 2011

D. 16 Sector Formation: Similarly we have done the calculation of inequalities to form the 16 sectors of the transformed image. The even/odd rows/ columns are assigned to particular sectors for feature vector generation V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS We have used the augmented Wang image database [2] The Image database consists of 1055 images of 12 different classes such as Flower, Sunset, Barbie, Tribal, Cartoon, Elephant, Dinosaur, Bus, Scenery, Monuments, Horses, Beach. Class wise distribution of all images in the database has been shown in the Figure 4.

Class No. of Images

45

59

51

100

100

Figure 6: First 20 Retrieved Images of Row wise Haar wavelet (16 Sectors)

Class No. of Images Class No. of Images

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Figure 4: Class wise distribution of images in the Image database

Figure5. Query Image The query image of the class Horse has been shown in Figure 5. For this query image the result of retrieval of both Column wise and Row wise Haar and Kekre’s wevlet transformed images for all sectors are checked. The Figure 6 shows the first 20 retrieval for the query image with respect to of Row wise Haar Wavelet Sectorization for its 16 Sectors with sum of absolute difference as similarity measure. It can be observed that the retrieval of first 20 images are of relevant class i.e. Horse; there are no irrelevant images till first 45 retrievals in both cases. The result of row wise Kekre’s Wavelet shown in Figure 7; the retrieval of first 20 images is same as Kekre’s Wavelet except the order of retrieval of images changes.

Figure 7: First 20 Retrieved Images of Row wise Kekre’s Wavelet Sectorization (16 Sectors). Once the feature vector is generated for all images in the database a feature database is created. 5 randomly chosen query images of each class is produced to search the database. The image with exact match gives minimum absolute difference and Euclidian distance. To check the effectiveness of the work and its performance with respect to retrieval of the images we have calculated the overall

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.02, 2011

average precision and recall as given in Equations (3) and (4) below. Two new parameters i.e. LIRS and LSRR are introduced as shown in Equations (5) and (6).

All these parameters lie between 0-1 hence they can be expressed in terms of percentages. The newly introduced parameters give the better performance for higher value of LIRS and Lower value of LSRR [8-13].The class wise performance of the proposed algorithm with respect to average precision and recall cross over points in all sectors for both Haar Wavelet (Row wise and column wise) and Kekre’s Wavelet (Row wise and column wise) with the consideration of two similarity measures namely Euclidean distance(ED) and sum of absolute difference (AD) has been shown in Figure 8- Figure 11.The average value of each method has been plotted as horizontal lines to compare the individual class performances .It is seen that sectorization of column wise performs better than row wise transformed images in both HAAR and Kekre’s wavelet. The use sum of absolute difference gives better retrieval for in all sectors except 16 sectors compared to Euclidian distance for all classes of images. The retrieval performance for each classes vary as it is observed that Diana sour, flowers, sunset and horses have maximum of retrieval i.e. 80%, 70%,50% and 50% respectively. The Figure 12 depicts the overall average performances of Haar and Kekre’s wavelet. It shows that for sector sizes 4,8,12 Haar wavelet has retrieval performance than Kekre’s wavelet. The sectorization of column wise transformed images is far better i.e. on average 45% than row wise i.e. on average 30%.The performance of the proposed algorithm is checked with respect to two new parameters i.e. LIRS and LSRR .The class wise performance of LIRS and LSRR shown in Figure 13-Figure 20.The class having maximum value of average precision and recall cross over point must have maximum LIRS and Minimum LSRR. Taking the example of Diana sour class which has cross over points as: 80% (Row wise and column wise Haar and Kekre’s Wavelet), has maximum LIRS (see Figures 13,14,17 and Figure 18) and Minimum LSRR (see Figures 15,16,19 and 20).Similarly these parameters can be easily checked for other classes as well. Thus these parameters are very useful to check the performances of the retrieval in CBIR.

Figure 8: Overall Average Precision and Recall performance of Sectorization of Row wise Haar Wavelet. Absolute Difference(AD) and Euclidian Distance (ED) as similarity measures.

Figure 9: Overall Average Precision and Recall performance of Sectorization of Column wise Haar Wavelet. Absolute Difference (AD) and Euclidian Distance (ED) as similarity measures

Figure 10: Overall Average Precision and Recall performance of Row wise Kekre’s Wavelet Sectorization

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.02, 2011

with Absolute Difference (AD) and Euclidian Distance (ED) as similarity measures

Figure 11 Overall Average Precision and Recall performance of Column wise Kekre’s Wavelet Sectorization with Absolute Difference (AD) and Euclidian Distance (ED) as similarity measures

Figure 13: The LIRS Plot of Row wise Haar transformed images . Overall Average LIRS performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.068 (4 Sectors ED), 0.086 (4 Sectors AD), 0.036(8 Sectors ED), 0.038(8 Sectors AD), 0.040(12 Sectors ED), 0.066(12 Sectors AD), 0.068(16 Sectors ED), 0.088(16 Sectors AD) ).

Figure 12: Comparison of Overall Precision and Recall cross over points of Kekre’s Wavelet and Haar Wavelet with Absolute Difference (AD) and Euclidean Distance (ED) as similarity measure.

Figure 14: The LIRS Plot of Column wise Haar transformed images . Overal Average LIRS performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.060 (4 Sectors ED), 0.074 (4 Sectors AD), 0.063(8 Sectors ED), 0.089(8 Sectors AD), 0.061(12 Sectors ED), 0.078(12 Sectors AD), 0.029(16 Sectors ED), 0.030(16 Sectors AD) ).

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.02, 2011

Figure 15: The LSRR Plot of Row wise Haar transformed images . Overall Average LSRR performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.83 (4 Sectors ED), 0.84 (4 Sectors AD), 0.87(8 Sectors ED), 0.86(8 Sectors AD), 0.88(12 Sectors ED), 0.86(12 Sectors AD), 0.64(16 Sectors ED), 0.67(16 Sectors AD) ).

Figure 17: The LIRS Plot of Row wise KWT transformed images . Overall Average LIRS performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.048 (4 Sectors ED), 0.059 (4 Sectors AD), 0.044(8 Sectors ED), 0.053(8 Sectors AD), 0.067(12 Sectors ED), 0.076(12 Sectors AD), 0.070(16 Sectors ED), 0.10(16 Sectors AD) ).

Figure 16: The LSRR Plot of Column wise Haar transformed images . Overall Average LSRR performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.63(4 Sectors ED), 0.65 (4 Sectors AD), 0.639(8 Sectors ED), 0.638(8 Sectors AD), 0.639(12 Sectors ED), 0.633(12 Sectors AD), 0.94(16 Sectors ED), 0.84(16 Sectors AD) ).

Figure 18: The LIRS Plot of Column wise KWT transformed images . Overall Average LIRS performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.061 (4 Sectors ED), 0.078 (4 Sectors AD), 0.064(8 Sectors ED), 0.091(8 Sectors AD), 0.066(12 Sectors ED), 0.090(12 Sectors AD), 0.030(16 Sectors ED), 0.048(16 Sectors AD) ).

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.02, 2011

gives better performance as far as overall average precision and recall cross over point s concerned as compared to Kekre’s Wavelet transform as shown in the Figure 12. The newly introduced parameter LIRS and LSRR gives good platform for performance evaluation to judge how early all relevant images is being retrieved (LSRR) and it also provides judgement of how many relevant images are being retrieved as part of first set of relevant retrieval (LIRS).The sum of absolute difference as similarity measure is recommended due to its lesser complexity and better retrieval rate performance compared to Euclidian distance. VII. REFERENCES Figure 19: The LSRR Plot of Row wise KWT transformed images . Overall Average LSRR performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.813 (4 Sectors ED), 0.807 (4 Sectors AD), 0.085(8 Sectors ED), 0.80(8 Sectors AD), 0.85(12 Sectors ED), 0.80(12 Sectors AD), 0.63(16 Sectors ED), 0.67(16 Sectors AD) ). [1] Kato, T., “Database architecture for content based image retrieval in Image Storage and Retrieval Systems” (Jambardino A and Niblack W eds),Proc SPIE 2185, pp 112-123, 1992. Ritendra Datta,Dhiraj Joshi,Jia Li and James Z. Wang, “ Image retrieval:Idea,influences and trends of the new age”,ACM Computing survey,Vol 40,No.2,Article 5,April 2008. John Berry and David A. Stoney “The history and development of fingerprinting,” in Advances in Fingerprint Technology, Henry C. Lee and R. E. Gaensslen, Eds., pp. 1-40. CRC Press Florida, 2nd edition, 2001. Emma Newham, “The biometric report,” SJB Services, 1995. H.B.Kekre, Archana Athawale and Dipali sadavarti, “Algorithm to generate Kekre’s Wavelet transform from Kekre’s Transform”, International Journal of Engineering,Science and Technology, Vol.2No.5,2010 pp.756-767. H. B. Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “Digital Image Search & Retrieval using FFT Sectors” published in proceedings of National/Asia pacific conference on Information communication and technology(NCICT 10) 5TH & 6TH March 2010.SVKM’S NMIMS MUMBAI H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “Content Based Image Retrieval using Weighted Hamming Distance Image hash Value” published in the proceedings of international conference on contours of computing technology pp. 305-309 (Thinkquest2010) 13th & 14th March 2010. H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra,“Digital Image Search & Retrieval using FFT Sectors of Color Images” published in International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE) Vol. 02,No.02,2010,pp.368-372 ISSN 0975-3397 available online at http://www.enggjournals.com/ijcse/doc/IJCSE100202-46.pdf

[2]

[3]

[4] [5]

[6] Figure 20: The LSRR Plot of Column wise KWT transformed images . Overall Average LSRR performances (Shown with Horizontal lines :0.639 (4 Sectors ED), 0.648 (4 Sectors AD), 0.639(8 Sectors ED), 0.637(8 Sectors AD), 0.639(12 Sectors ED), 0.637(12 Sectors AD), 0.950(16 Sectors ED), 0.873(16 Sectors AD) ). VI. CONCLUSION The work experimented on 1055 image database of 12 different classes discusses the performance of sectorization of Haar wavelet and Kekre’s wavelet transformed color images for image retrieval. The work has been performed with both approaches of column wise and row wise transformation. The performance of the proposed method is checked with respect to various sector sizes and similarity measuring approaches namely Euclidian distance and sum of absolute difference. It has been observed that the combination of column wise Haar wavelet sectorization with sum of absolute difference and augmented feature vector

[7]

[8]

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[9]

[ 10 ]

[ 11 ]

[ 12 ]

[ 13 ]

H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “CBIR using upper six FFT Sectors of Color Images for feature vector generation” published in International Journal of Engineering and Technology(IJET) Vol. 02, No. 02, 2010, 49-54 ISSN 0975-4024 available online at http://www.enggjournals.com/ijet/doc/IJET10-0202-06.pdf H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “Four walsh transform sectors feature vectors for image retrieval from image databases”, published in international journal of computer science and information technologies (IJCSIT) Vol. 1 (2) 2010, 33-37 ISSN 0975-9646 available online at http://www.ijcsit.com/docs/vol1issue2/ijcsit201001 0201.pdf H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “Performance comparison of four, eight and twelve Walsh transform sectors feature vectors for image retrieval from image databases”, published in international journal of Engineering, science and technology(IJEST) Vol.2(5) 2010, 1370-1374 ISSN 0975-5462 available online at http://www.ijest.info/docs/IJEST10-02-05-62.pdf H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “ density distribution in walsh transfom sectors ass feature vectors for image retrieval”, published in international journal of compute applications (IJCA) Vol.4(6) 2010, 30-36 ISSN 0975-8887 available online at http://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume4/numbe r6/829-1072 H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “Performance comparison of density distribution and sector mean in Walsh transform sectors as feature vectors for image retrieval”, published in international journal of Image Processing (IJIP) Vol.4(3) 2010, ISSN 1985-2304 available online at http://www.cscjournals.org/csc/manuscript/Journals /IJIP/Volume4/Issue3/IJIP-193.pdf

[ 16 ] A. M. Bazen, G. T. B.Verwaaijen, S. H. Gerez, L. P. J. Veelenturf, and B. J. van der Zwaag, “A correlation-based fingerprint verification system,” Proceedings of the ProRISC2000 Workshop on Circuits, Systems and Signal Processing, Veldhoven, Netherlands, Nov 2000. [ 17 ] H.B.Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using Color-Texture Features from DST on VQ Codevectors obtained by Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation”, ICGST International Journal on Graphics, Vision and Image Processing (GVIP), Available online at http://www.icgst.com/gvip [ 18 ] H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Using YUV Color Space to Hoist the Performance of Block Truncation Coding for Image Retrieval”, IEEE International Advanced Computing Conference 2009 (IACC’09), Thapar University, Patiala, INDIA, 6-7 March 2009. [ 19 ] H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Image Retrieval using Augmented Block Truncation Coding Techniques”, ACM International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Control (ICAC3-2009), pp.: 384-390, 23-24 Jan 2009, Fr. Conceicao Rodrigous College of Engg., Mumbai. Available online at ACM portal. [ 20 ] H.B.Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “DST Applied to Column mean and Row Mean Vectors of Image for Fingerprint Identification”, International Conference on Computer Networks and Security, ICCNS-2008, 27-28 Sept 2008, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune. [ 21 ] H.B.Kekre, Vinayak Bharadi, “Walsh Coefficients of the Horizontal & Vertical Pixel Distribution of Signature Template”, In Proc. of Int. Conference ICIP-07, Bangalore University, Bangalore. 10-12 Aug 2007. [ 22 ] J.L.Walsh, “A closed set of orthogonal functions”American Journal of Mathematics, Vol 45,pp.5-24,year 1923. AUTHORS PROFILE H. B. Kekre has received B.E. (Hons.) in Telecomm. Engg. from Jabalpur University in 1958, M.Tech (Industrial Electronics) from IIT Bombay in 1960, M.S.Engg. (Electrical Engg.) from University of Ottawa in 1965 and Ph.D.(System Identification) from IIT Bombay in 1970. He has worked Over 35 years as Faculty and H.O.D. Computer science and Engg. At IIT Bombay. From last 13 years

[ 14 ] H.B.Kekre, Dhirendra Mishra, “Density distribution and sector mean with zero-sal and highest-cal components in Walsh transform sectors as feature vectors for image retrieval”, published in international journal of Computer scienece and information security (IJCSIS) Vol.8(4) 2010, ISSN 1947-5500 available online http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/vol-8-no-4-jul2010 [ 15 ] Arun Ross, Anil Jain, James Reisman, “A hybrid fingerprint matcher,” Int’l conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), Aug 2002.

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working as a professor in Dept. of Computer Engg. at Thadomal Shahani Engg. College, Mumbai. He is currently senior Professor working with Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and Engineering, SVKM’s NMIMS University vile parle west Mumbai. He has guided 17 PhD.s 150 M.E./M.Tech Projects and several B.E./B.Tech Projects. His areas of interest are Digital signal processing, Image Processing and computer networking. He has more than 350 papers in National/International Conferences/Journals to his credit. Recently ten students working under his guidance have received the best paper awards. Two research scholars working under his guidance have been awarded Ph. D. degree by NMIMS University. Currently he is guiding 10 PhD. Students. He is life member of ISTE and Fellow of IETE. Dhirendra Mishra has received his BE (Computer Engg) degree from University of Mumbai. He completed his M.E. (Computer Engg) from Thadomal shahani Engg. College, Mumbai, University of Mumbai. He is PhD Research Scholar and working as Associate Professor in Computer Engineering department of Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and Engineering, SVKM’s NMIMS University, Mumbai, INDIA. He is life member of Indian Society of Technical education (ISTE), Member of International association of computer science and information technology (IACSIT), Singapore, Member of International association of Engineers (IAENG). His areas of interests are Image Processing, Operating systems, Information Storage and Management

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by ijcsis

This paper presents the Innovative idea of Sectorization of Haar Wavelet transformed images and Kekre’s Wavelet Transformed images to extract features for image retrieval. Transformed images have b...

This paper presents the Innovative idea of Sectorization of Haar Wavelet transformed images and Kekre’s Wavelet Transformed images to extract features for image retrieval. Transformed images have been sectored into 4,8,12 and 16 sectors. Each sector produces the feature vector component in particular sector size. Thus the feature vector size increases with the increase in the sector size. The experiment of augmenting the feature vectors with extra components performed .The performance of proposed method of sectorization checked with respect to increase in sector sizes, effect of augmentation of extra components in both Haar and Kekre’s Wavelet sectorization .The retrieval rate checked with crossover of average precision and recall. LIRS and LSRR are calculated for average of randomly selected 5 images of all 12 classes and compared with the overall average of LIRS/LSRR. The work experimented over the image database of 1055 images and the performance of image retrieval with respect to two similarity measures namely Euclidian distance (ED) and sum of absolute difference (AD) are measured.

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