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2, February 2011

**A New Secure Approach for Message Transmission by Godelization and FCE
**

Dr. Ch. Rupa

Associate Professor, Dept of CSE, VVIT, Guntur (dt).

P. S. Avadhani

Professor, Dept of CS&SE, Andhra University, Vizag.

**Dr.D. Lalitha Bhaskari
**

Associate Professor, Dept of CS&SE, Andhra University, Vizag.

chrupaphd@gmail.com

Abstract

psavadhani@yahoo.com

lalithabhaskari@yahoo.co.in

In this paper, we devised a novel algorithmic approach for transmitting information through Fast Comparison Encryption (FCE) algorithm. The proposed scheme uses an algorithm name it as FCE which transforms the information into an encoded Godel Number Sequence (GNS) which results in a text. It will be reconstructed at the other end using the inverse process. Key Words: GNS, FCE.

weight computation to encrypt the actual data in a information. The low overhead of FCE enables efficient comparison and, therefore, efficient indexing on the ciphertext. In this work, we specifically aim at encryption to ensure the security of on-disk data. FCE is specifically tailored to database systems in the following way, Comparison is fast, which facilitates the search of indices. II. GODEL NUMBER SEQUENCE A mathematical concept termed as Godelization [1] is used as an encoding scheme. The scheme of Godelization is explained as follows: Prime factorization theorem states that every positive integer greater than one can be factored into multiplication of primes, and this factorization is unique except for difference in the order of the factors. To factor a number ‘n’ is to write it as a product of other prime numbers: n=a x b x c Factoring a number is relatively hard compared to multiplying the factors together to generate the number. For any number ‘n’ of natural numbers, the Godel number sequence (GNS) is given by : GNS (n) = (x0, x1, x2,…xk) where n = (2x0)*(3x1)*(5x2)…((PrNo(k))xk) where PrNo(k) is the kth prime. 90 = (21)*(32)*(51) GNS (90) = (1, 2, 1) The Godel number sequence [1] will be encoded by using Fast comparison Encryption for improving the security of the information and reduce the complexity of the computation. Fast comparison encryption scheme is very light weight mechanism. This will be described in the following section.

I. INTRODUCTION In simple terms, authentication is identification plus verification. Identification is the process whereby an entity identity, rather than one-way authentication, whereby only one principal verifies the identity of the other principal, is usually required. There are three main types of authentication in a computing system [4]: a. Message content authentication -verifying that the content of a received message is the same as when it was sent; in a computing environment. b. Message origin authentication - verifying that the sender of a received message is the same one recorded in the sender field of a message; and c. General identity authentication - verifying that a principal’s identity is as claimed. Lack of security may exist when a volume of data is transferred from its source to the destination if no measure is taken for its security. For one reason or the other, most of the data being transmitted must be kept secret from others [5]. A very important reason to encode data or messages is to keep them security. In this paper, a novel method for message authentication is proposed. This is an efficient encryption scheme by using Godel number sequence (GNS) [1] and Fast comparison encryption scheme (FCE) [2], FCE uses any block cipher to encrypt only a few bytes of random seeds in each page of the database, and uses lighter-

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

A. Inverse Gödelization At the receiver side, there is a need to perform the inverse operations of Gödelization technique to obtain the original data. It is the process of decompressing the string by replacing alphabets with digits and any substring KX is decompressed with K occurrences of X. The string obtained is in the form of GNS(i1)$GNS(i2)$......$GNS(in) which is the Gödel String of the image and inverse Gödelization is applied to the string to obtain the intensity values of the image which are calculated as GNS(i) = (x0,x1,……xk) where i= 2x0 * 3x1 * 5x3…. Pxk . III. FAST COMPARISION ENCRYPTION Encrypt a plaintext by using FCE [2]. Let’s consider size of GNS of the original information is ‘P’ bytes. Convert it into bits while computing. Let’s denote the key by ‘K’(1byte). It should be generate randomly from the input by using random permutation function (Perfun). |K| gives length of the Key. A. Key Generation: Perfun : It is a random permutation function {1,2,...P }→ {1,2,...P } Step 1: Let si is a starting bit of a key. For j=1 to P sj = Perfun(j) mod |K| . It is in the range of [0, |K|-1]. Step 2: Sj is the starting bit of the Key ‘K’. B. Encryption Algorithm Input: Plain Text (P bytes), randomly generated key K (symmetric), and random permutation function. Output: Cipher text (En) Algorithm Step 1 : Generate GNS Step 2 : Find sj . Step 2 : Find K. Step 3: En ← Eni = K

Input Generate GNS Encrypt by FCE

Output

**figuare 1. Encryption Algorithm
**

C. Decryption Algorithm Input : Ciphertext (Eni ), K. Ouput : PlainText Algorithm Step 1: Decrypt the data. P← Pi =K

⊕ Eni

Step 2: Apply reverse Godelization on ‘P’. Consider and decrypt each byte of the Encrypted text by using FCE and get the original text by applying the reverse godelization. This is shown in the figure 2.

Fig 1.

Input (Encry pt) Decrypt by FCE

Reverse Godelizatio n

Output (Decryp )

figure 2. Decryption Algorithm

IV. Proposed Methodology The main contribution of this paper is towards development of new algorithms which increase the data payload capacity than the regular methods and follows a layered approach for encoding and authenticity for more robustness. A technique termed as Godelization method [1] combined with FCE method [2, 3] is used as embedding technique. The proposed methodology is based on mathematical concept known as Gödelization which is used as one of the encoding schemes. Later another improved technique based on a new compression technique known as Fast Comparison Encryption technique. The implementation results of the proposed method are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.

⊕ Pi.

Consider and generate the Godel number sequence (GNS) [1] to each byte of the plain text separately. Encrypt the GNS of the each byte by using fast comparison encryption scheme (FCE) [2] and send to the receiver. The cipher text byte (En) of the plaintext byte Pi is simply the bitwise XOR of K. This process is shown in the figure 1.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

V. Results

figure 3. Encryption by FCE with GNS

figure 4. Decryption by FCE with reverse GNS

REFERECES 1. D.Lalitha Bhaskari, P.S.Avadhani, A. Damodaram, “A combinatorial Approach for Information Hiding Using Steganography And Godelization Techniques”, Journal of IJSCI(International Journal of Systemics, Cybernatics and Informatics, pp 21-24, ISSN 09734864, 2007. 2. S. Goldwasser and S. Micali. “Probabilistic Encryption of DES and FCE”, In. J of Computer and System Sciences, Vol. 28, pp. 270-299. 1984 3. Ch.Rupa et. al, “Fast Comparison Encryption Scheme using cheating text Technique”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2(6), pp. 1725-1728, 2010 4. Thomas Y.C. Woo and Simon S. Lam, “Authentication for distributed systems”, IEEE transactions, pp. 39- 53, 1992

5. W. Stallings, “Cryptography and Network Security”, Principles and Practices, Pearson Education, 2004. 6. Tingjian Ge, Stan Zdonik, “Fast, S ecu r e En c ryp t io n f o r ind e x in g in a Column -Oriented DBMS”, ICDE 2007, pp: 676-685, 2007. 7. M. Bellare, A. Desai, E. Jokipii, P. Rogaway, “A concrete security treatment of symmetric encryption”, In Proceedings ofthe 38th Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, IEEE, 1997. 8. Goldreich, “Foundations of crypto- graphy”, Cambridge University Press, 2003. 9. D.Lalitha Bhaskari, P.S.Avadhani, A. Damodaram, ”A New Image Hiding Technique Based On Multiple Image Retrieval And Public key Encryption Method “, Proc. of International Conference on Sensors, Security, Software and Intelligent Systems,ISSSIS-09, Coimbattore, 2009. 10. D.Lalitha Bhaskari, P. S. Avadhani, A. Damodaram, ”A Blind Audio Watermarking Scheme

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For Embedding Text Using Gödelization Technique”, IJAC, Vol 2, No. 4, pp 209-213, ISSN:0973-807X ,2008. AUTHORS PROFILES Ch. Rupa is working as Sr. Assistant Professor in GVPCW, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA. This author became a Life Member of CSI, ISTE, IAENG. She born at Mangalagiri, in 1981. She has received B.Tech (JNTU), M.Tech (A.U) Degrees in Information Technology and Ph. D (A. U) in Computer Science. JNTU kakinada had awarded her as a Young Engineer of 2010. Her main research interest includes information security.

publications in various international journals and conferences.

Prof. P. S. Avadhani became a life member of CSI, ISTE, IAENG, IE, IEEE etc. He received his PhD degree from, IIT Kanpur, India in 1993. He is currently working as professor at Andhar University, visakhapatnam, INDIA. He had so many honors. He received best researcher award from Andhra University. He visited many other countires like USA Malysia, etc. Number of research scholars are enhancing their knowledge under his esteemed guidance. His main areas of interests are Computer Algorithms, Public Cryptographic Algorithms, Data Security, Computer Graphics, Fuzzy Systems Dr.D. Lalitha Bhaskari is currently working as Associate Professor in the department of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. Her areas of interest include Digital Watermarking, Data Security, Image Processing, Data communications, Pattern Recognition. Apart from her regular academic activities she holds responsibilities like Associate Member in the Institute of Engineers, Member-CSI, Associate Member in the Pentagram Research Foundation, Hyderabad, India. She is also the recipient of “Young Engineers Award” for the year 2008 from the prestigious Institution of Engineers (INDIA). She has 12 years of teaching experience and several

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In this paper, we devised a novel algorithmic approach for transmitting information through Fast Comparison Encryption (FCE) algorithm. The proposed scheme uses an algorithm name it as FCE which tr...

In this paper, we devised a novel algorithmic approach for transmitting information through Fast Comparison Encryption (FCE) algorithm. The proposed scheme uses an algorithm name it as FCE which transforms the information into an encoded Godel Number Sequence (GNS) which results in a text. It will be reconstructed at the other end using the inverse process.

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