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2, February 2011

**Rapid Prototyping Model Coordinate Estimation Using Radial Basis Function.
**

1

**Anantmurty S. Shastry and 2S.Purushothaman
**

2

1

Anantmurty S. Shastry

Research Scholar,

**Dr.S.Purushothaman, Principal ,
**

Sun Nagar, Erachakulum, Kanyakumari district-629902,India

Department of Mechanical Engineering Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, Tamilnadu, India E-Mail: ansshastry@yahoo.co.in

Sun College of Engineering and Technology,

E-Mail: dr.s.purushothaman@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the methods for getting proper geometric coordinates of a sample object that has to be rapid prototyped. The coordinates of the objects is obtained by using Radial Basis Function (RBF). The training is done with many sample objects. It is expected to have minimum distance traveled by the Rapid prototyping machine when the software follows the geometric coordinates produced by the RBF. Key words: Rapid Prototyping, Artificial Neural Network, Radial Basis Function.

making this decision, the designers and RP machine operators should consider a number of different processes and specific constraints. This may be a difficult and time consuming task. The RP material flows through an orifice and comes out in the form of drops. The size of the drop is depending upon the speed of the wire comes out and solidification of material. For example, 1 mm size of drop is placed in 1 mm size cube cavity to get the same size of cube after solidification in fraction of seconds[1]. The sides of the cube should be flat in all respects. To achieve this focus has been made on a method which can inform that how to make the above things with critical path method (CPM)[6]. Some products have been chosen with their applications, particularly in medical area. By considering all the parameters in developing any kind of object is being able to produce in shorter time without any difficulty[3]. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

1.

INTRODUCTION

Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a variety of specialized equipment, software and materials capable of using 3D computer aided design (CAD)[5] data input to directly fabricate geometrically complex objects. RP technologies have emerged as a key element of time with their ability to shorten the product design and development process[2]. This highly innovative and cost efficient technology has found applications in automotive, aerospace and medical equipment manufacturing, replacing the commonly used slower and less accurate manual methods of fabricating prototypes[4]. With advances in established technologies, materials and the introduction of new methods, selecting the right RP machine has become much more difficult and is one of the most important decisions to be made when employing any RP technology. This is vital in minimizing built time, cost and achieving optimal accuracy. When

2.1 Materials A schematic flow of the proposed work is presented in Figure 1. Rapid Model: It is the end product that has to be rapid prototyped. Coordinates: There are various Coordinates measured from the RP model either through CMM/Reverse Engineering/existing drawing details.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

Sizes: The length, width /thickness, breadth/height and other profiles are calculated from the coordinates. RBF: Coordinates and sizes of sample RP models are used as data for training the RBF neural network to obtain final weights that will be used for testing. Obtain format to meet RP M/c: The outputs of RBF are used as inputs for RP M/c converter where RP model will be developed.

where c is a vector containing the coefficients of the RBF, R is a vector containing the centres of the RBF, and φ is the basis function or activation function of the network. Implementation Step 1: Apply Radial Basis Function. No. of Input = 15 No. of Patterns = 6 No. of Centre = 6 Calculate RBF as RBF = exp (-X) Calculate Matrix as G = RBF A = GT * G

Rp Model

Co‐ordinates

Input to RBF

Define sizes

Obtain format to meet RP M/c

Calculate B = A-1 Calculate E = B * GT Step 2: Calculate the Final Weight. F=E*D Step 3: Store the Final Weights in a File.

Fig.1 Schematic flow

2.2 Methods

The concept of distance measure is used to associate the input and output pattern values. Radial Basis Functions is capable of producing approximations to an unknown function ‘f’ from a set of input data abscissa. The approximation is produced by passing an input point through a set of basis functions, each of which contains one of the RBF centres, multiplying the result of each function by a coefficient and then summing them linearly. For each function ‘t’, the approximation to this function is essentially stored in the coefficients and centres of the RBF. These parameters are in no way unique, since for each function ‘t’ being approximated, many combinations of parameter values exist. RBFs have the following mathematical representation:

3.

EXPERIMENT SET UP

Six RP models have been considered as examples for testing the RBF network. Each RP model has been labeled with Cartesian coordinates. The models have been developed using CAD software. The models are defined with definite number of points. The distance between points are calculated internally by the program. During training RBF, only the point coordinates are input in the input layer. The number of centers used is 6. The targets used is 15. Table 1 presents 6 sample RP models under consideration. Table 2 presents number of points considered in this analysis for each RP model. Table 3a-c presents actual coordinates in mm for each point. The total number of points considered is 15 in each object.

F(x) = c o + ∑ c i Φ(|| x − R i ||)

i =0

N −1

(1)

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

Table 1 Sample RP models

**Table 2 Number of points in the RP model
**

RP Number of points

1 2 3 4 5 6

**8 10 12 15 4 5 Table 3a Cartesian coordinate
**

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5

x 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 9.08 12.5 13.52 0 0

y 0 0 0 0 0 0

z 0 0 0 0 0 0

x 50 38.47 37.5 32.66 25 25

y 0 0 0 0 0 0

z 0 0 0 0 0 0

x 50 47.55 50 46.19 12.5 25

y 50 27.95 21.65 13.52 21.65 25

z 0 0 0 0 0 0

x 0 23.77 37.5 46.19 12.5 0

y 50 45.22 43.30 32.66 7.22 25

z 50 0 0 0 50 0

x 0 0 12.5 32.66 x 12.5

y 0 27.95 43.30 46.19 x 7.22

z 50 0 0 0 x 50

4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The coordinates of the RP models are learnt by RBF. Table 4 presents the outputs of RBF for all the 6 RP models for the points p1, p2. Similar close outputs are obtained for points p3, p4, p5, p6, p7, p8, p9, p10, p11, p12, p13, p14, p15 Conclusion: This work has made an attempt to train RBF with RP model coordinates. During

the actual implementation, the RP model coordinates are given as inputs to the RBF to obtain the actual coordinates that helps in RP modeling.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011

**Table 3b Cartesian coordinate
**

P6 x y z x P7 y z x P8 y z x P9 y z x P10 y z

1 2 3 4 5 6

50 9.08 0 13.52 x x

0 0 21.65 46.19 x x

50 50 0 0 x x

50 38.47 12.5 0 x x

50 0 0 32.66 x x

50 50 50 0 x x

0 47.55 37.5 0 x x

50 27.95 0 13.52 x x

50 50 50 0 x x

x 23.77 50 13.52 x x

x 45.22 21.65 0 x x

x 50 50 50 x x

x 0 37.5 32.66 x x

x 27.95 43.30 0 x x

x 50 50 50 x x

Table 3c Cartesian coordinate P11 y x x 12.5 46.19 x x x x 43.30 13.52 x x P12 y x x 0 46.19 x x x x 21.65 32.66 x x P13 z x x 50 50 x x x x x x 32.66 x x y x x x 46.19 x x z x x x 50 x x x x x x 13.52 x x x x x 46.19 x x P14 y z x x x 50 x x x x x x 0 x x x x x x x 32.66 P15 y

x 1 2 3 4 5 6 X

z x x 50 50 x x

x

z x x x 50 x x

represents no coordinates

REFERENCES

[1] Rao, P.N., Lerner, Y. and Kouznetsov, V. Rapid Prototyping Applications of in Metal Journal, Casting.Institution [2] Pham, D.T. and Engineers Dimov, S.S.

[4]

Pham, D.T., and Pham, P.T. N. Computational Intelligence for Manufacturing. Computational Intelligence in Manufacturing Handbook, CRC Press, New York, 2000.

Malaysia. Vol. 64, No.3, 2003, pp.1-7. Rapid Manufacturing: The Technologies & Applications of Rapid Prototyping & Rapid Tooling. SpringerVerlag, London, 2001.Proceedings of The 2006 IJME - INTERTECH Conference [3] Fadel, G.M., and Ganti, R. ”Parametric Based Controller For Rapid Prototyping Applications” Presented at the 1998 Solid Freeform Fabrication Conference, Austin, TX, 1998

[5]

Fadel, G.M. and Kirschman, C. “ Accuracy Issues in CAD to RP Translations”, Invited paper to the first Internet conference on Rapid Prototyping, Forwarded to Rapid Prototyping Journal, 1995

[6]

Wodziak, J. R., Fadel, G. M. and Kirschman, C. F., “A Genetic Algorithm for Optimizing multiple part placement to reduce build time”, Paper presented at the Fifth International Rapid Prototyping Conference, Dayton OH, 1994, published in the conference proceedings.

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**Table 4 RBF outputs
**

14 X -coordinate of P1 Target RBF output

Estimated and target coordinate outputs 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 Y -coordinate of P1 Target RBF output

12 Estimated and target coordinate outputs

10

8

6

4

2

0

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5 RP model

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

-1

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5 RP model

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

1 0.8 Estimated and target coordinate outputs 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 1 1.5 2 2.5

Z -coordinate of P1 55 Target RBF output Estimated and target coordinate outputs

X -coordinate of P2 Target RBF output

50

45

40

35

30

25

3

3.5 RP model

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

20

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5 RP model

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

1 0.8 Estimated and target coordinate outputs 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 1 1.5 2 2.5

Y -coordinate of P2 1 Target RBF output Estimated and target coordinate outputs 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 3 3.5 RP model 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 -1 1 1.5 2 2.5

Z -coordinate of P2 Target RBF output

3

3.5 RP model

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

203

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UsefulNot usefulThis paper discusses the methods for getting proper geometric coordinates of a sample object that has to be rapid prototyped. The coordinates of the objects is obtained by using Radial Basis Functi...

This paper discusses the methods for getting proper geometric coordinates of a sample object that has to be rapid prototyped. The coordinates of the objects is obtained by using Radial Basis Function (RBF). The training is done with many sample objects. It is expected to have minimum distance traveled by the Rapid prototyping machine when the software follows the geometric coordinates produced by the RBF.

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