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AVIATION STUDY MANUAL

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A text book prepared for the Civil Air Patrol Cadet Program

and designed for use in secondary schools

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VOL UME 1, BOOK II

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CIVIL AIR PATROL

Washington, D. C.

1 August 1949

Published under the direction of

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Bolling Air Force Base

National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol

Washington 25, D. C.

FOREWORD

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The airplane has abolished national and cultural frontiers. The business, political and cultural life 0 f the United States today depends directly upon what is happening in remote parts of the world. With the advent of the Air Age, the Nation's youth must be prepared to think and act in terms of association with peoples of all lands.

Carl Spaatz, General USAF (Ret.) Chairman, National Executive Board

Civil Air Patrol

The material in this book has been designed to broaden the students' understanding of their Air Age inheritance. Theirs will be the opportunity of helping to develop this gr.eat new instrument in such a way that it can be atneans of improving the life of

all peoples.

Major General Lucas V. Beau. USAF National Commander

Civil Air Patrol

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

WE SALUTE the men and women, the aviation industry, the schools, colleges and universities, institutions and agencies of the State and Federal Governments who have devoted their efforts to bring about a better understanding of aviation through the creation of teaching mater.ials.

In addition to the work of the many cornrrrictee s , material contributions were received from the U. S. Department of Commerce, Department of the Interior, the United Air Lines, American Airlines, Eastern Airlines, Trans-Western Airlines, Pan American World Airways, United Aircraft Corporation, Consolidated-Vultee Aircraft Corporation, Ranger Aircraft Engine Company, Continental Motor Corporation. Beech· Aircraft Company, Packard Motor Car Company, Glendale Central Airport Company, and Piper Aircraft Corporation.

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Special acknowledgements are due to:

Nebraska State Department of Aeronautics, for their sponsorship of the workshop conducted by the University of Nebraska at Linco ln, Nebraska, in the interests of the preparation of this manual.

Link Aviation, Inc., Binghamton, New York, for their technical assistance and the privilege of using text and illustr~tions from FUNDAMENTALS OF AVIATION, by Norman Potter and William J. Konicek.

Civil Aeronautics Administration, Washington, D. C., for the use of current aeronautical publications and original artwork, which have helped to illustrate this production •.

. Aviation Sales Corporation, Los Angeles, California, for the use of material from the publication PRIVATE PILOT TRAINING, compiled and edited by Harold E. Baughman and t. C. Critchell.

The text and illustrations of this aviation ~raining manual have been derived from many sources. We wish to express our sincere appreciation to all who have contributed so willingly of their time and talent. Every effort has been made to recognize originality and to honor copyrighted material. OUR APOLOGIES for any inadvertent omissions.

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AVIATION STUDY MANUAL

Volume 1., Book II

Contents
ani t Page
Foreword. · iii
Acknowledgments . iv
I. Our Air Age . 1-1
II. Know Your Airplane. · · 2-1
III. Why the Airplane Flies. 3-1
LV. Power for Flight. . 4-1
V. The Airplane and the Airman. 5-1
VI. Weather. . 6-1 --
VII. The Path of Flight (Aerial
Navigation) . ._ . 7-1
VIII. Cornrnunfcataons and Control . 8-1
IX. National and International
Problems of Safety and Control 9-1
X. Airports . . · lO~1
XI. Vocational Opportunities in
Aviation . · . . · . 11-1
XII. A via tion Terms . . . 12-1 v

CIVIL AIR PATROL NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

Dr. Leslie A. Bryan, Director of the Institute of Aeronautics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois.

Dr. Merlyn McLaughlin, Director, School of Aeronautics, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.

Dr. Guybert P. Cahoon, Professor of Education, Ohio State University, Columbus 10, Ohio.

Dr. Frank E. Sorenson, Professor of Secondary Education Teachers College, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Mr. George E. Rotter, Editor and" Ass 't. in Curriculum Development, Department of Public Instruction, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Mr. Arthur F. Ahr , Bureau of Industrial and Technical Education, 23 S. Pearl Street, Albany 7, N. Y.

Mr. W. Earl Sarn s , Consultant, Aviation Education,453 South Spring Street, Los Angeles 13, California.

Mr. Willis C.Brown, Ass't. Specialist for' Aviation, Division, of Secondary Education, Office of Education, Washington, D. C.

Mr. Kenneth E. Newland, Director, Air Age Education Research, American Air Lines, New York; also: Head of Aviation Dept.; Stephens College, Columbia, Missouri.

Mr. George Gardner, Educational Director, Pan American World Airways System, Chrysler Bldg., New York, N. Y.

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Mr. Philip S. Hopkins, Vice-President,

Aviation Corp., Binghamton, New York.

Mr. Paul E. Dittman, Link Aviation Corp.,1 Binghamton, New York.

Dr. H. E. Mehrens, Chief, Aviation Education Division, Aviation Training Staff, Dept. of Commerce, CAA, Washington 25; D. C.

Dr.J. Parker Van Zandt, President and Editor, Aviation Research Institute, 903 16th St., N. W., Washington, D. C.

RESEARCH ASSIST ANTS

Mr. 'I'horrie s Anthony Farina, Director of Training, Illinois Wing, Civil Air Patrol, Chicago, Illinois.

Mr. Walter Suft, Assistant Aviation"Director, Stephens College, Columbia. Missouri.

READERS

Mr. Charles O. Repert. Dunkirk High School.

Dunkirk. New York.

Mr. Raymond 1. Cross. Baker.sfield High School, Bakersfield. California.

Mr. William H. Ulery, Abraham Lincoln High School, Los Angeles. California.

Mr. F. Frobal Gaines. W'ebster Groves High School, Webster Groves, Missouri.

Mr. Arnold H. Lamont. Bureau of Industrial and Technical Education. 23 S. Pearl Street. Albany 7. N. Y.

'Il Mr. George A. Emerson. Dept. of Commerce,

CAA. Washington 25, D. C.

Helen E. Hobbie. Philip Schuyler HighSchool, 69 Trinity Place, Albany 2. N. Y.

Mr. Paul Wilkinson. University of Denver.

School of Business Administration. Denver, Colorado.

Mr. Robb J. Thompson. Shasta Union High School, Redding. California.

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OUR AIR AGE

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Contents

Page

Overview .••...••...•..

Teaching Aviation .....•.. Aviation and National. Defense .... Manufacturing and Transportation . The Airplane and the Conununity .. Aviation and Governnl.ent

Social Effects of Aviation

1-1 1-2 1-4 1,-6

1-11 1-16 1-17

Comprehensive Sununary 1-20 Learning Aids. _. _. _... .... 1-21 Supplement-~ooking Ahead •• following 1-22

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Developed by Mr. George Gardner.

Editorial Corroboration by Dr. F. E. Sorenson and Mr. George E. Rotter.

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Unit 1- _Illustrations

Page

Figure

Page

l-l.--Using Link Trainer

1_2. __ Model airplane building 1-3.--The B-24 and the B-36. 1-4.- -Azimuthal equidistant

projection .

1_5.--Air frame production chart.

1_6. __ Constellation .

1-7. - -Air views of America .

l-S.--Tirne and space reduced by

airplane ........•...

1-2 1-3 1-5

1-6 1-7 1-9

1-10

1-9.--Dusting crops by plane. l_l0.--Aerial photography helps the

farmer .

1- 11. - -Aerial map-making . . . .

1_12. __ Aerial sky ranger .

1_13.--City and wilderness brought

together .

1_14. __ School class in aviation .. 1-15.--Class room study methods

1-12

1-13 1-14 1-14

I-IS, 1-21 1-22

1-11

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LOOKING AHEAD

. Supplement to Unit I

Contents

Page

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General " .•....•..•.•• ' ••.

Historical Developm.ent of Rockets •.••• Motive Power P'r Inc ip.le , . . • . • . . . . .. 12 Reaction Motor Types .......•....• 16

Control. • . . • • . • .•....••••••. 22

25

Guided Missiles •••.

Supplement to Unit I __ Illustrations

Figure

1. __ Booster rocket ..•..••••....

2. __ Typical jet propulsion power unit

installations . 3. __ Hero·s Aeolipile 4'.--Early rockets ..

5. __ Congreve rocket •

6. __ Complete action of jet propulsion.

7. __ Newtons 2d law of motion .

8. - -Skyr ocket , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9. __ Method of packing fuel in reaction chamber when a high rate of gaseous production is desired.

lo.--Jet motor .... ,

11. __ Turbo-jet engine

12. __ Pulse-jet engine 13.--Ram-jet engine .

14. __ Diameter of earth and depth of

atmosphere •...........

Page

Figure

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15. __ Decrease of gravitational for c e with increase of distance from the earth. .' • l6.--Areas above earth .....•

17. __ Troposphere .......•..

18. __ pressure-temperature":density variation with increase in

altitude ' .

19.--Typical example of dragvelocity curve of one type of

aircraft .•............ ' .

20. __ Typical example of power...: velocity curve of one type of

aircraft. 21.-- V -2 b orrrb •

5 8 9

10 13 14 16

17 19 20

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LOOKING AHEAD

GENERAL

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1. INTRODUCTION

To one who reads the newspapers and current magazines, views newsreels or listens to radio news commentators, it is evident that some new and mighty weapon is being developed and that future wars will be increasingly technical in nature. It is quite probable that the next war may well 'be announced with the finding of a great hole in the earth where some city such as Great Falls, Montana, used to be. The 'source of propulsion for the new weapon of the future, probably a guided missile of some type, will undoubtedly be a reaction motor of either the rocket or jet type, or possibly a combination 'of the two. Talk of V-2 rockets, the JB·3 TIAMAT (Rockets), jet propulsion, guided missiles and supersonic speeds are tangible evidence of this "new" power that will affect the life of every person in the world, in peace and in war, whether he has any interest in the technical aspects of the subjects or not.

History of past wars indicate development of new weapons either just prior to or during the conflict. Our last war was no exception. The constant strife between the nations of the world, each striving to procure the best implements of war for its own military machine and thus gain a position of comparative security, has led to the development of guided missiles. It is ' believed that from the standpoint of ranges, all-weather operation, accuracy, striking power, logistics, and other allied considerations guided missiles will be a great improvement over the conventional weapons of the last war. Performance of guided missiles is advancing at a rapid pace and great

84{)54;7 0-49--3

military power will be in the possession of the nation that can apply those weapons operationally. Guided missiles warfare will be lightning fast and will require a state of constant alert against enemy threats. Attacks will be timed to achieve maximum surprise and will consist of many missiles, as large a number as possible, striking the most critical centers of activity before the populace is aware of the existence of a state of war. An extremely short time will be available to launch the defense, which will consist of sufficient countermissiles launched along collision courses to seek out and destroy oncoming hostile missiles. The strength of-the nation will not be measured by the numbers of its armed forces but will be critically dependent upon its productive capacity, its research and knowledge of how to produce good designs, and upon the will of the people to work and survive under the constant threat of destruction.

These things are not to be gained in the space of a few short years. One insurmountable stumbling block which designers have heretofore always encountered in attempting to achieve supersonic speeds in flight has been lack of power. Aircraft develop-s ment has been parallel to the development of more and more powerful aircraft engines, but not until recently was it possible to design a means of propulsion which would give enough power to propel the aircraft or missile faster than the speed of sound. Subsonic speeds called for the expenditure of large amounts of p~wer to maintain such speed through the atmosphere. For ordinary considerations the atmosphere is a very fluid medium and presents very low viscosity drag on any object moving through it, but at speeds in excess

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of 500 miles per hour the effect of the atmosphere is as important to an object moving through it as would be the effect of water on an object moving through it pt 500 miles per hour. In addition to this drag caused by the creation' of a vacuum behind the turbulence around the missile, which is characteristic of subsonic speeds, there is a decided increase in the violence of the ,turbulence and subsequent drag on the missile at speeds in the range near the speed of sound, approximately 760 miles per hour at sea level. Because of this tremendous increase of drag and uncontrollability in the transonic range of speeds, it was at one time considered impossible. to ever exceed

..... the speed of sound with conventional reciprocating aircraft engines equipped with propellers. It was only possible to surmount this barrier when new sources of power much larger than were previously available were found. Once the barrier is passed the proportional amounts of power to increase speed by given amounts is again smaller than in the transonic range of speeds, and there is virtually no limit to attain-able speeds except as limited by the heating effect of atmospheric friction. The aerodynamic flow of subsonic speeds may be roughly described as parting the atmosphere arid passing through. At supersonic speeds the viscosity of the atmosphere will not allow the atmosphere to part with sufficient speed to get out of the way of the object that is creating the disturbance, no matter what its configuration may be, and atmosphere is pushed ahead of the missile in a cap over the object in much the same manner as snow is piled up ahead of a snowshovel pushed down a sidewalk.

The source of power is not new nor is it particularly mysterious. Its basic principle is the same as that of ordinary "Fourth-of-July Sky Rockets" familiar to us all. Jet propulsion, thermal jet engines, duct engines, guided missiles, the V-2 Rocket or the WAC Corporal (United States version of theV-2) are all merely different aspects' of rocket power (reaction engine). All of these devices operate on the same basic principle; the principle of a motor that thrusts or pushes, instead of

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UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

producing rotary motion in a shaft or wheel.

This is the one simple difference that makes rocket power unique; and incidentally makes it so difficult at first for our wheelconditioned minds to grasp. A few thousand years ago some person, now unknown and long forgotten, invented the wheel. It was such a successful device, so easily adapted to doing its share of the world's work that when fuel-burning engines were first developed they naturally were made' to be harnessed to it. ,The reciprocating motion of, their pistons was transformed by means of a crank into a rotary, movement for only one purpose: to turn wheels . Even when we set the engine to the task of moving us through the air, we did so through the medium of a kind of wheel, the propeller.

Even though we have used the reciprocating engine in most of our modern machines, . the idea of rocket power. the idea of using the power of reaction, is about 2,000 years old. Slow and sporadic progress has been made on rockets ever since. But the idea could not bear fruit until it was thoroughly understood and until the need for the idea made itself evident.

To make clear how critical and important will be the years immediately ahead, let us pause a minute and go ba~ fifty years to look at a most remarkable parallel. Let us drop back to 1894-just two generations ago. It was not a year of historical significance and we are only dropping back to look at what was then a very, insignificant

invention. .

Fifty years ago very few Americans had even heard of the automobile. Most people were completely ignorant of the new internal combustion engine that made this odd contraption possible. The man in the street still had a good five years to wait before he could shout "get a horse" and "red devil" at daring automobilists . who, bounced down the dirt roads at 8 and 10. miles an hour. However, by 1894 real progress had been made. Otto and Langen in

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LOOKING AHEAD

the 1870's had built an engine that ran by the explosion of kerosene vapor and air. But this monster weighed about a ton and developed only two horsepower.

By 1886, Gottlieb Daimler finished a motor that weighed only 88 pounds per horsepower and turned the crankshaft at 800 I revolutions per minute. He mounted this motor on a carriage and successfully applied the power to the wheels. Charles Benz, about the same time, also made a successful automobile which averaged 10 miles per hour per a short run.

Five years later, \ Duryea in Springfield, Massachusetts, made one of the first satisfactory autos in this country, and in 1893 Henry Ford drove down the streets of Detroit in his first belt-driven automobile.

There "were few headlines about autos fifty years ago. In 1894, the 'automobile was still in its experimental stage. The few who were fortunate enough to have actually seen a horseless carriage expressed surprise that it worked and the opinion that it would never amount to much. Some did not hesitate to declare the automobile dangerous, unsafe, immoral, and a work of the devil. It was impractical and much too expensive. Speeds of .30 and 40 miles an hour were not only scientifically impossible, according to some level-headed 1894 citizens, but such .speeds could be of no earthly use even if they were achieved. Luckily no one, suggested that the same internal combustion engine that powered the horseless carriage would enable people to fly through the air as well as tear over the ground.

We need not poke fun at our shortsighted neighbors of 1894, nor need we emphasize how important the automobile is to us today. One civilian hardship during World War II was the reduction of the number of automobiles in the United States to a scant twenty million.

But keep this story of the automobile and the internal combustion engine in mind when reading about rockets today, for rocket devices in 1944 occupied almost ex-

actly the same position as the automobile did fifty years earlier. The history of rockets is yet to be made. The new experimental models are exceedingly crude. Your neighbor might dismiss them with just as much contempt as that with which the horseless buggy was dismissed in 1894. Your best friend may consider rockets for uses other than military no more than an idea from the comic page, and if you mention them he'll say, "Oh, you mean those Buck Rogers things."

The future of rocket devices is built on a firm foundation. Valuable work has already been done and the experiments of past decades indicate that rockets are not only theoretically possible but are practicable 'as well. The evidence is clear. Rockets now have certain practical uses in civilian and military life and will have even more in the near future.

Rockets are used in the battle of the air, propelling bombs from planes against tanks, artillery, and other planes. Rocket guns have been used against tanks, planes, and against enemy emplacements. They have played their part in major landings and invasions. Rockets are used in signaling and lifesaving at sea. They are used to giV€ airplanes auxiliary power in takeoff. Jet-propelled planes that operate on the same basic principle as the- rocket are now in production and use, after repeated tests which indicate their practical advantages. Work has been done on meteorological rockets that may help determine weather conditions 'in the upper stratosphere. Continual experiments are creating. constant improvements in rockets and rocket-like devices. Efficiency is ever on the increase. The value of rockets may prove as great in peacetime when costs are paramount as they did in war when costs were less important. Some experiments indicate that a "step-rocket" may have some possibility. Such i device utilizes a supplementary or booster rocket to assist in the take-off and to propel the principal rocket. The auxiliary devices may be dropped enroute when fuel supply is' exhausted. See figure 1.

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UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

Figure I - Booster Rocket.

If you could look further into .the future, beyond the next decade, you could envision uses of rockets that can now be only dreams. Travel through space to the moon and Mars is such a dream, and rockets may make the dream come true. No other practical means of interplanetary travel has .ever been suggested. Rockets alone can stand the scrutinizing examination of engineers who have calculated the mechanical and energy requirements of travel through space. In this realm prophecy is foolhardy, but to think and plan for interplanetary travel is no more out of place now than was the work done in the field of aviation fifty and sixty years ago, before the internal combustion engine became a reality.

It would be a mistake to think that rockets have no past because their use is so recent. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The rocket idea, that of using the power of reaction, is about 2,000 years old. Slow and sporadic progress has been made on rockets ever since. But the idea could not bear fruit until it was' thoroughly understood and until the need for the idea made itself evident.

mental principle. One line of progress leads directly to the new jet plane that tears through the air without the use of a propeller. These devices may be said to operate on the jet principle.

Included in this group are the ram-jet engine, the pulse-jet engine, and the turbojet engine. They all use oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere to support combustion and thus obtain propulsive power. Such devices, therefore, can operate only in regions where an atmosphere exists.

b. Rockets. The second line of development has often been quite independent'" of the first, and has led to the famous, bazooka, the rocket gun, and the rocket bomb. It may lead to the space ships of the future. This is the rocket principle which does not depend on oxygen from the surrounding air for its propulsive energy. Oxygen is carried in tanks or is an ingredient of the rocket fuel. Hence, a true rocket can travel as well, and even better, in a vacuum than it can through the air. There will be much more about both jet and rocket devices. Both are essentially the same as each uses reaction directly as a source of power.

This group includes solid fuel motors which burn such fuels as gunpowder or smokeless powder, and the liquid-fuel motors which burn such fuels as gasoline . and oxygen, or alcohol and oxygen.

2. JET PROPULSION POWER UNITS So., Thermal Jets. Throughout the history of rockets there have been two general lines of development of the same funda-

LOOKING AHEAD

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figure 2 - Typlcol Jet Propuls'on Power Un't IlJstollot'ons.

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Figure 2 illustrates various applications of the general principle of jet propulsion wherein different types of jet propulsion power units are used. Units shown are the rocket, the turbo-jet and the pulsatingjet. Such power units have found practical application in. the German V -2 (rocket type), the USAF Shooting Star P-80 (turbojet type) and the German Buzz Bomb, V-I (pulsating-jet type). Another type not illustrated is the athodyd (ram-jet).

That the course rof rocket development has gone on for 2,000 years was not due to the fact that rockets are complicated machines. Quite' the contrary, they are clear-ly the simplest of all. A rocket has no wheels, gears, pistons, armatures, levers -no .moving parts at all.

The rate of progress in rocketry was determined by the time it took scientists to discover and apply the principles involved in the operation and use of rockets. These principles come from the sciences of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, meteorology, and. astronomy. They have developed gradually as man's knowledge has increased through the centuries.

All heat engines require fuel, and fuels cannot be developed scientifically without an understanding of the nature of fire, burning and oxygen. This, in turn, depends on a knowledge' of the materials of the earth and of the nature of chemical elements. As soon as the true nature of chemicals became clear, the mysterious explanation of burning was reduced to simple oxidation. But it took up to the eighteenth century to get this far. Then it became possible to compute the fuel and oxygen needed for a rocket, the amount of the gases produced in burning and the amount of heat liberated. When this stage was reached, the first scientifically-designed rockets were made. This was early in the nineteenth century.

In more recent times, experiments have found a chemical knowledge of metals and alloys essential in the designing and construction of new high-powered rockets. These use liquid fuels and are far more powerful than any heretofore made. The

UNIT I--SUPPl.f),;F\T

use of chemistry in rocketry is not a thing of the past. It is just as important right now as it ever was and it will continue to maintain its importance in the future. The problem of fuels is still a crucial one, and whether future rocket fuels will be liquids or even some form of atomic power, the role of chemistry will still be important.

Rockets are machines, and as machines they must be understood in the light of the physical principles' that explain everything from a lever to a helicopter. It is through physics that ideas of energy, energy transfer and motion are applied to understand how rockets really work. Only with a knowledge of speed, velocity, gravity, and friction can one calculate the details of a rocket's performance. A knowledge of the laws of gases helps one understand what actually happens as fuels meet with oxygen at the extreme temperatures of the rocket's combustion chamber. Nowadays it is possible to compute the path of a rocket, its speed and fuel consumption in the same way that a pilot solves similar problems for his plan~. Every bit of measurement and calculation that can be applied to rocket." makes their UHe more practical, since the flight of the rocket will be. more predictable.

No rocket can travel out into space without first going through the layel='S of atmosphere that surround the earth, and it is likely that the flights of all rockets will be confined to these atmospheric layers for some, time to come. The composition, density and characteristics of the air at all levels to the very limits of the atmosphere must be known before major advances in rockets can be made. At the same time we can expect that by the use of rockets we will gain a better understanding of the upper levels of the atmosphere, where neither balloons nor planes will ever go.

Finally, as rockets become perfected and their speed increases to one, three, five and seven miles per second, the science of astronomy will enter the picture with increasing importance. A most thorough knowledge of the solar system, the nearby planets, and the space between them will

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LOOKING AFEAO

be essential before any flight of space rockets can take place. But astronomy has always exerted its influence in the field of rocket experimentation. It was only after the true knowledge of the earth's position in the solar system became clear that the possibilities of rockets began to be realized.

How important are rockets? What use will they be? These questions on the value of rockets, especially of those rockets that may get out into . space, cannot be answered. As yet no one has the experience on which to base judgment. Perhaps an example will make this clear. The nature of the solar system is such that our moon revolves on its axis in about the same period as it rotates around the earth, roughly 27-1/3 days. Hence the same side of the moon is continually facing the earth. Because of the moon's curvature we can actually see only 41 percent of the moon's surface at full moon. But the moon wobbles slightly on its axis and, as it tilts back and forth, it is possible, by careful photography, to see a bit of the edge of what might normally be the other side of the moon. But even under the best conditions we can only see an additional 18 percent limiting to 59 percent the total surface of the moon that is ever visible. But What is the remaining 41 percent like? No one has any idea. Is it similar to the face we constantly see or is it very different? We can only guess. How much would it be worth

7

to see the other side of the moon? That is a question that few can answer. Some may say that the view would be of no real value to us. Others might hold the information of incalculable scientific value. Whatever the answer to this question may be, one thing is certain: only by means of rockets have we any chance of finding out.

But there is more to rockets and rocketlike devices than the somewhat visionary possibility of seeing the other side of the moon. Jet-propelled planes are now being manufactured and are flying across our continent to establish new speed records. As they are improved it is quite possible that transportation through the upper atmosphere at speeds higher than the speed of sound (about 760 miles per hour) may be an everyday occurrence .. The V -2 rocket with its mile-per-second speed and its range high into the stratosphere has opened up new vistas of rocket travel. Ideas that ten years ago were corisidered wildly imaginative are no longer considered as visionary. The future of rockets has its practical as well as its imaginative possibilities. Both of these are interesting.

Since the basic principles of jet propulsion and the motive force utilized in guided missiles or any reaction engine are. essentially those of rocket power, it is proper that a discussion. of rockets, their principles and historical development should precede any discussion on guided missiles,

8

(NIT I--SLPPLEME~T

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ROCKETS

1. HERO'S AEOLIPILE

The first actual indication of the jet or reaction engine goes as far back as the beginning of the Christian Era, when Hero of Alexandria developed a device called an "Aeolipile." Hollow pipes acting as axles extended at right angles to the sides of the sphere. Two nozzles extended from opposite sides of the sphere at right angles to the hollow axle. When steam pressure built up in the sphere, jets of steam ejected from the nozzles causing the sphere to spin rapidly as long as there was sufficient steam pressure. A similar device of more modern vintage is the common rotary lawn sprinkler.

figure 3 -- Hero's Aeolipile.

In Hero's invention can be seen the key idea that developed into the steam engine; the steam and gas turbine, the jet-propelled planes and the rocket. Yet the times were such that Hero's idea was destined to remain a toy for scholars and philosophers.

""There was no need for the energy of steam when slave labor was so abundant in Greece.

2. ROCKETS IN PIEN KING

An ancient Chinese manuscript on the battle of Pien-King in 1232 tells of the uses of primitive rockets. Fire arrows were used about the same time. Following the battle of 1232, the Chinese perfected the art of making and using gunpowder. It is related that Marco Polo brought back to Europe from China the idea of gunpowder and its use in rockets about 1270. 'See figure 4.

3. WAN HOO AND HIS ROCKET VEHICLE

One interesting story on the use of rockets concerns an old Chinese mandarin named Wan Hoo. He achieved the dubious distinction of being the first human to attempt a flight by rocket propulsion. Wan Hoo attached 47 rockets to the framework of a chair.

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He seated himself in the chair holding two

large kites for guidance in his hands. When

~all was arranged Wan Hoo directed his assistants to apply torches to the rockets. There was a roar and a blast of flame. Wan Hoo, the experimenter, disappeared in a burst of flame and smoke. This first attempt at rocket flight was definitely not a success.

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Figure 4 - Early Rockets.

4. JET TURBINE

An Italian engineer, Giovanni Branca, perfected in 1629, a steam turbine that di- ~ rectly applied the jet principle and was the forerunner of modern steam turbines. The model in the British Museum illustrates that Branca's turbine connected to a reducing gear that operated a small hammer milt

5. CONGREVE ROCKETS

Early experiments with rockets were in themselves of little importance, but the great day of military rockets was to come; the day when almost all the armies of Europe were to have rocket brigades; when the principal inventor of war rockets in England was to become so famous that manufacturers were to name their prod ucts after him; when titles and military rank were to be his just reward.

The- story of the great military rocket period of the nineteenth century really begins in India, in the British Campaigns that culminated in the siege, assault and occupation of Seringapatan, the former capitol of the state of Mysore, India, in 1799.

Hyder Ali, Prince of Mysore, had a rocket corps of 1,200 men, using rockets of six to twelve pounds weight. These rockets consisted of an iron tube about eight inches long and an inch and a half in diameter. The tube was tightly packed with powder and was guided by a long bamboo pole. A range of up to a mile and a half was reached by these rockets.

The successful use of rockets in India was not long in getting back to Europe. This news particularly interested a young man, William Congreve. Congreve began a study of war rockets by experimenting with the largest fireworks rockets available. These rockets had an extreme range of only 500-600 yards. After many experiments Congreve developed several successful military rockets. One of these, a 32- pound rocket, consisted of an iron cylinder loaded with shot and gunpowder. To guide the rocket in flight, it was necessary to attach a long stick, A later improvement was a reduction in the length of the stick from 25 to 15 feet. (See figure 5.)

The Congreve rockets were widely used.

In the' British attack on Copenhagen (1807) thousands of rockets were fired.

10

HEAD

PRIMING CHARGE

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

CAST IRON TUBE

WOODEN GUIDING STICK

INCENDIARY CHARGE

DRIVING CHARGE

FUSE

FOUR PRONGED IRON FORK

figure 5 - Congreve Rocket.

A great portion of the city was set afire and 'burned to .the ground.

Rockets were used against the United States by the British during the War of 1812. In the British attack on Baltimore, Fort McHenry was bombarded with rockets. The brilliance of these rockets so impressed Francis Scott Key, who had been detained on board a British vessel in the harbor; that he wrote the "Star-Spangled Banner."

6. HALE'S STABILIZER

The balance- stick used by Congreve was considered very ineffective as a means of guiding the rocket accurately to the target. William Hale, an American inventor, developed a stabilizer in the form of three curved flanges attached to the base of the rocket. Hot gases, striking these vanes, spun the rocket like a rifle bullet thus holding it closer to the aimed path.

7. ROCKET BECOMES OBSOLETE

The Hale improvement on the Congreve rocket was probably the last development until more recent times. III the middle 1900's the military rocket was replaced by the introduction of rifted artillery with longer range and greater accuracy.

8. DR. ROBERT H. GODDARD /

In January of 1920, Dr. Robert H. Goddard, an American, by his scientific experiments, pointed the way to the development of rockets as we know them today and as we will know them in the future. His paper, "A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes," while it actually created no great public comment, came to the attention of the Smithsonian Institute, which immediatelg agreed to finance further experiments. In this paper, Dr. Goddard, in addition to recording previous experiments, outlined a space rocket of the step principle, which theoretically would reach the moon. This caused a storm of public discussion, and within the next few years, many rocket cars and gliders were built and tested, but always with disappointing results. Durmg this frenzied period, however, Dr. Goddard went ahead with his experiments trying to develop a dependable rocket motor. Early in his research he decided that solid fuels would not give him the power or duration that he needed, and he turned his attention to liquid fuels. After many trials and having overcome numerous problems of design and construction, on March 16, 1926, Dr. Goddard's first liquid-fuel rocket rose into the air. It attained a height of 184 feet and a speed of 60 mph. Perhaps this seems

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rather feeble after a talk of reaching the moon, but here was the first documented flight of a liquid-fuel rocket. Dr. Goddard was trying to achieve neither speed nor altitude, but a dependable motive power. Later, at. Roswell, New Mexico; one of his rockets, weighing about 85 pounds and about 15 feet high, rose into the air to a height of about 7,500 feet. In 1940, Dr. . Goddard was called into the service in Washington and his further experiments were necessarily ~oaked in secrecy.

11

It is significant that the first flight of a liquid-fuel rocket in Europe occurred in Germany in 1932, nearly six years after that of Dr. Goddard's. A German scientist named Winkler was in charge. He later lost his life in one of his experiments. Experiments in Germany after 1933 were of course lost to the rest of the world, but it was undoubtedly the impetus and urgency of her preparation for war that enabled her to have a head start in certain fields when hostilities actually began.

12

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

MOTIVE POWER PRINCIPLE

During this historical lull in rocket development, let us go back and examine the "whys and wherefores" of the reaction engine. What makes it work? The Chinese and the other early experimenters didn't know.

1. NEWJON'S THIRD LAW OF MOTION

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It remained for the Englishman, Newton, in 1687, to state a simple principle in the words of his Third Law of Motion: "To every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." To grasp practical applications to this principle, it may be necessary to discard, temporarily, much of our own thinking which has been associated with our intimate daily contact with "action" motors such as the internal combustion reciprocating engine of the automobile and the conventional airplane, in which the "reaction" force is largely wasted. The rocket or jet motor on the other hand uses the "reaction" power, and largely wastes the "action" part of the power.

a. Examples of Reaction Power. (1) Rubber Balloon, You, yourself can make a workable "rocket" in less than one minute. All you need is a rubber balloon. Blow up the balloon, hold its mouth shut with two fingers; and you have a rocket. Before you ' get the idea that this is silly, stop and consider the thing you are holding, The balloon is a container of gas (in this case air) under pressure. Gases being what they are, this pressure is exerted equally in all directions. The enclosed gas presses alike on

the top, bottom and all sides of the balloon. Because this pressure is equal, its total effect on the balloon is nil. The balloon possesses the energy of the compressed gases within it, just as a rifle shell possesses the energy of its gunpowder. In both cases, when the energy is released, motion results. So relax your two fingers and watch the balloon. As soon as you Jet go of the balloon, it darts off your hand and, if it has been blown up sufficiently may travel across the room or turn a few loops in the air before it finally collapses on the floor. To all intents and purposes you have seen a rocket in flight. Until the moment of release, the pressure against the top of the balloon was exactly balanced by the pressure against the bottom half. When you let go, some of the compressed gas escaped through the opening. This disturbed the balance of the pressure. Now the pressure against the top half was greater than the pressure against the bottom half by I an amount equal to the pressure of the gas being forced out through the hole. Hence the balloon, now subjected to unequal pressure, moved in the direction of the greater force and contin1}ed to keep moving till the internal pressure reached "zero". The move- , ment of, the "rocket" is due to the internal difference in pressure because a stream of the compressed gases is being forced out through a narrow orifice. The same principle that" applies to the balloon applies to skyrockets. and bazookas. It is known . as the principle of reaction.

NOTE: The idea that rockets or, jets move by ejecting a stream of gas against

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the atmospheric air is entirely erroneous. Rockets operate most efficiently in a vacuum. For illustration of jet propulsion see figure 6.

(2) Treadmill. One of the clearest example of action and reaction, as stated by Newton, is that of a horse walking on a treadmill. Every step forward is exactly balanced by the backward movement of the treadmill. The reaction of the treadmill is exactly equal to the action of the horse.

(3) Canoe. Another obvious example is a camper jumping from his canoe to the dock. This is tricky, because the jump pushes the canoe backward as well ad the camper forward, and, unless the camper considers this, he is likely to land in the lake.

b. Simple Reaction Motor. ~uppose we consider the case of a hollow cube, or box, filled with a gas under a pressure of 100 pounds per square inch. Now we know from the characteristics of a gas that it will exert 100 pounds pressure equally on every square inch of the inside surface of the box. Suppose, also, that each side of the cube has an area of 4 inches. Therefore, we have a force of 400 pounds acting on the top, the bottom and on each side. Since the forces are balanced in all directions, the box remains at rest. Now, suppose we remove one square inch from the bottom, leaving only three square inches remaining. There is now a force of 400 pounds acting on the top of the box, and a force of only 300 pounds acting on the bottom of the box. The result is an unbalanced force of 100 pounds acting against the top of the box. If this force is greater than the combined weight of the box and gas, the box will move in the direction of the unbalanced force. This is the reaction motor in its simplest form. Of course in the practical reaction motors the shape of the combustion chamber, or box, is designed to permit the most efficient combustion of the fuels which produce the gas. In addition, a nozzle added to the gas escape opening to control the direction and velocity of the escaping gas, has been proved by experiment to add as much as 50 percent to the over-all tefflclency of the motor.

UNIT I ~ -srpPLHIE:\T

The nozzle is built with the diameter of the throat smaller than the mouth. As the high pressure gases rush through this narrow throat, there is a drop in pressure and an increase in the velocity of the gas. This Venturi effect was discovered by Bernoulli in 1738 . -Such a device is essential for, as the moving particles become smaller as in the case of the gas, the velocity must be increased greatly to give enough thrust to move a large rocket. Thus a high velocity is essential and a' rocket increases in efficiency as it approaches the speed of the gases shooting out behind.

2. NEWTON'S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

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Figure 7 - Newton's Second law of Motion'.

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3. REACTION ENGINE EFFICIENCY

a. Thrust-A Measure of Power. The conventional engine of cylinders and pistons and connecting rods has a constant energy output expressed in horsepower. But the new engines have a power output that increases v.vith the velocity of the engine itself, sliding up to incredible peaks at high - speeds. The measure here is "Thrust." Thrust is the reactive force exerted in pounds of pressure by the engine's heated air and combustion gases directly on the engine itself to propel it forward. One pound of thrust equals one horsepower at 375 mph. This means that an engine of 4,000 pounds thrust develops the equivalent of 4,000 hp. at 375 mph.-or 8,000 hp. at 750 mph. The faster these engines go, the more power they develop. This, plus simpler design, gives them enormously higher power-toweight ratios than the conventional engine. The most staggering example is the fourteen-ton German V·2 rocket which exerts 58,000 pounds thrust to get off the ground,

15

then accelerates up to 3,500 mph., developing the equivalent of 600,000 hp.

b. Comparison Of Efficiency. With this new measure of power in mind, how does the reaction engine efficiency compare with that of more familiar engines? The steam engine has an efficiency of around 87 %. The automobile engine has an efficiency of 20 to 25 %. The more highly developed reciprocating engine of the airplane has an efficiency of about 35% ; for every 100 gallons of fuel consumed, 65 gallons are wasted as far as imparting forward motion to the airplane is concerned. Theoretically, the reaction engine can attain an efficiency of as high as 85 % using available fuels. Practically, we have reaction engines now that are between 40·50% efficient. This represents a 100% gain in efficiency over automobile engines. We certainly have a place in our postwar planning for such an efficient engine for both commercial and military uses.

c. Fuels and Speed. Of course an added advantage of the jet engine (one type of reaction engine) is the quality of fuels on which it can operate, such as low grade gasoline or kerosene. All types of reaction engines are most efficient when traveling at or near the speed of its jet stream. With known fuels this range is from 800 mph. to 11,000 mph. Such supersonic speeds were once thought impossible, but present day scientists assure us such speeds loom up for the near future.

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16

UNIT I--SLPPLEMENT

REACTION MOTOR TYPES

1. ROCKET MOTOR

The simplest form of reaction engine and the best known-is the one that drives the ordinary skyrocket (figure 8). On firing the fuse (C) ignites the surface of the powder on the walls of the blast chamber (B). The powder does not explode, but a continuous combustion takes place very rapidly, releasing large quantities of gas at high temperature. Considerable pressure builds up instantly in the chamber, since hot gas is formed at a much faster rate

than it can easily escape through the restriction at the nozzle. The effect is to eject a stream of gas at a great velocity, directed backward. This thrusts the rocket forcibly in the opposite direction. As the fuel (A) burns, the blast chamber rapidly enlarges, but the restriction at the nozzl~ continues to keep the pressure high and guides the escaping jet. The rocket takes off with a tremendous swish, emitting a stream of sparks and fire, and flies until the fuel is completely consumed.

figure 8 - Skyrocket.

a. Solid-Fuel Rocket Motor. The present NOTE: New explosives were recently de-

day dry-fuel rocket motor burns solid fuels veloped, but contents are still secret.

such as gunpowder. It is the type used in (1) Advantages. The solid-fuel rocket has

the bazooka and most airplane rockets. denfiite limitations that lead scientists to

Historically, of course, the dry-fuels rocket

was the first to appear.

Fuel to the powder rocket has changed very little over a period of five centuries. Of course, more refined methods of obtaining the ingredients have been perfected. Weare able to mix and blend better, but modern powder still contains saltpeter, charcoal and sulphur with about the same proportions.

consider the liquid-fuel rocket the rocket of the future- However, the powder rockets stilt retain certain favorable points: They

: are cheaper than liquid-fuel rockets; they may be produced quickly in large number; they are not affected by temperature nor humidity; because of simple construction they are easy to ship, store, install and

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(2) Disadvantages. Many serious accidents have been associated with rocket experiments and use. The danger of explosion is great if the powder mixture is too rich, or if packed too tightly.

Little control can' be maintained over combustion once it is started. Burning produces a rapidly increasing thrust with quick exhaustion of fuel. The thrust force is of extremely short duration.

. ,

(3) Uses. Among the military uses of the

powder rockets are anti-aircraft and antisubmarine devices. Solid-fuel rockets may retain a place in launching airplanes, in signaling and in lifesaving.

b. Liquid-Fuel Rocket Motor. The liquidfuel rocket will come to the fore when consideration of interplanetary travel is involved. In general the pay load of a liquid-fuel rocket can be much greater tharr that of the solid-fuel rocket. It has been estimated that 21;000 pounds of black powder would be required to lift a single pound of pay load free from the gravitational field of the earth. Eleven thousand, two hundred pounds of modern smokeless powder would be required for the same accomplishment. See figure 9.

Fuels such as liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen are three times as powerful as modern powder. From the standpoint of fuel load alone the advantage of liquid-fuel rockets is apparent.

As has been previously pointed out the powder rocket draws its oxygen from the atmosphere; its flight is, of necessity, limited to heights within the atmosphere of the earth. The liquid-fuel rocket carries oxygen as a part of the fuel load and as a result is the only missile capable of interplanetary travel.

In this field of experimentation the United States took the lead. As was previously pointed out. Dr. Robert Goddard, the American rocket expert developed the first liquid-fuel rocket to take off successfuIly. In 1926 the American Rocket Society Rocket '# 4 filled an important niche in rocket history. Composed of a slender metal tube 71;2 feet in length and only 3 inches in diameter the rocket propellant was

UNIT. I~-SUPPLEMENT

liquid oxygen and gasoline. Most. of the rocket's interior was taken up with fuel storage. The fuel entered the combustion chamber where it was ignited by a fuse of sulphur and chlorate. After reaching the height of its trajectory, the rocket was lowered by a device consisting of four metallic blades, which collapsed on top of the rocket like a closed umbrella. The blades opened as the rocket started its descent.

The German V -2 Rocket, which will be discussed later, is a well-known liquid-fuel rocket.

2. JET REACTION MOTOR

In the field of reaction' motors, there are two general classes of motive devices (figure 10). Both operate on the reaction principle. That is, both rockets and jets operate because of unequal internal pressure developed in the combustion chamber. It is not essential how the pressure is produced. It can come from burning powder .. or liquid fuel.

In the case of rockets, the pressure inside the combustion chamber is produced by burning solid or liquid fuels that are completely contained within. the rocket. The powder rocket carries its fuel and uses atmospheric oxygen to produce combustion. The liquid-fuel rocket carries its tank of gasoline or similar fuel and its tank of liquid oxygen. Together these provide the total fuel needed. Hence a liquid-fuel rocket can travel in a complete vacuum since it contains its total fuel within itself. Jet propulsion is an application of the same reaction principle. The principal difference lies in the fact that the jet-propelled machine depends on the air to supply oxygen . for combustion. Hence a Jet-propelled plane cannot travel in a total vacuum, though it can travel .through far thinner air than' most propeller planes. There are three basic types of jet motors, the intermittent-jet, the turbo-jet, and the ram-jet. Each of thes~ types fundamentally provides for the fol-, lowing operations: A means of drawing into the motor a larglesupply of air, a method of compressing that air, a place to burn it and a suitable nozzle or Jet to discharge the exhaust.

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UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

JET

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ROTARY AIR COMPRESSOR

COMBUSTION CHAMBER

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AIR INLET (RAM EFFECT)

FUEL JETS

COMBUSTION CHAMBER

figure '3 - Ram-Jet Engine.

LOOKING AHEAD

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a. Turbo-Jet. The turbo-jet (figure 11) is the most complicated of the "air stream engines" and operates' in brief as follows:

A starter gives impulse to a compressor which takes air from the surrounding atmosphere and compresses it in the combustion chamber. The fuel is injected and fired by a spark. The gases under pressure pass out through the turbine wheel to the exhaust causing the turbine wheel to rotate. The turbine is connected on the same shaft as the compressor, taking the place of the starter. The cycle continues to repeat itself. Air Commodore Frank Whittle, of the Royal Air Force, developed the first jetengine which was later brought to the United States for detailed study, experimentation and improvement.

h. Pulse (Intermittent) Jet. The pulse-jet (figure 12) consists principally of a long tube with a series of flap valves on the forward end. As the engine moves rapidly forward, the ram effect of the atmosphere forces open the valves, and air enters the combustion chamber. Fuel is injected and ignited. The resulting explosion closes the shutters on the front end and forces out the rear a jet of air and gases. The resulting low pressure area behind the shutters and t.he continuing atmospheric ram effect then opens the front shutters 'and the process is repeated.

The German V-I Jet first used against London was of this type. The action is pulsating or intermittent; the shutters operate approximately forty-five to fifty times per second, creating a buzzing noise

c.--=

21

which gave the bomb its familiar name, "Buzz Bomb." It is interesting to note that this motor is efficient at subsonic speeds only.

c. Ram-Jet. Sometimes called the ATHODYD or Aero THermO DYnamic Duct, the ram-jet (figure 13) is a propulsion device which produces forward motion by a high velocity jet which is discharged rearward. It is a true reaction motor. Its operating principle, in brief, is as follows: Due to the forward speed of the motor, air is rammed into an open duct. then decelerated in a slightly larger combustion chamber by diffusion. The motor is accelerated by the combustion. of an injected fuel through a rear port, Extremely high velocity is required before the motor will operate. It is not efficient below supersonic speed and is not practical under 400 mph. Due to the influence of speed on the performance, it requires a force of some kind to impart its initial velocity of 400 mph., at which speed the motor will become operative. It is possible to use catapults or booster rockets. The ram-jet projectile might be launched from an aircraft in flight. In any event, an efficient means of gaining required operating speed must be developed before this type of reaction motor can be used. The maximum operating efficiency is reached when the motor is at the same speed as that at which the gases are being expelled rear-

. ward, approximately 7,000 feet per second or 3,600 mph. This type of motor has not as yet been produced in a full scale model; most of the experiments conducted have been with scale models.

22

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

CONTROL

pilotless aircraft, crash boat, torpedo, or any other device that will carry a lethal load of explosives. or other materialdetrimental to the enemy, and may have control applied to it after it has been launched." Guidance may be preset or be by remote control by radio with various "homing" devices. Currently each missile is expended \ when launched. No human crews are provided for return nor carried en route for control.

NOTE: Japanese had a missile known as "Baka" which carried a suicide pilot .. Such projectiles were abandoned shortly after their introduction because Allied defense measures produced too high a mortality rate for the Japs.

Obviously, guidance is a problem of primary importance. Targets are very 'small in comparison to the vast distance covered by high-speed missiles and the ultimate success or failure of the weapon depends to a high degree on the accuracy obtained. Use of the most powerful known warheads (except atomic with development classified) requires that the ,target be reached with an accuracy which is equivalent to a very low percent of the range in order that the destructive force of the' warhead will create

, the desired destructive effect upon the target.

a. Radio. Certain types of missiles have been equipped with radio receivers pretuned to pick up pulse signals from transmitters. located in launching aircraft. This receiver is capable of distinguishing between pulses of various lengths and hence causes controls to respond differently to varying pulses. The r'eceiver picks up varying pulses and transfers the signals to solenoids which activate the rudders and elevators.

1. ClASSIFICATION OF GUIDED MISSILES

Guided missiles may be classified for general purposes according to tactical use and launching method.

a. Ait'-To-Air. The air-to-air missiles are primarily aircraft armament and are intended for launching from aircraft against all types of airborne targets either offensively by fighter-type aircraft or defensively by bomber types. These may perform the same mission that has been performed in the past by aircraft machine guns.

b. Air-To-Surface. This type missile is launched from an aircraft but is designed primarily for attack on- surface targets. They are intended to perform the same mission currently accomplished by bombs.

c. S,urface-To-Surface. This type of missile is designed to be launched from points on the ground or sea to strike either ground or waterborne targets. These missiles will accomplish the same mission as has previously been performed by tactical and strategic bombing operations.

d. Surface-To-Air. Weapons designed to defend ground installations and waterborne equipment against air attack. They are intended to be launched at approaching hostile aircraft and are to perform the same mission as has previously been assigned to anti-aircraft artillery.

2. GUIDANCE METHODS

Up to this point, we have been discussing missiles or projectiles with an occasional use of the term "guided," but without an explanation of the word. Technically, a guided missile is "any projectile, bomb,

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LOOKING AHEAD

With the air to grouna missilei'the bombardier must have some means of keeping the bomb in sight after its launching if he is to control its path. For this reason some projectiles have a flare attached to the tail assembly. This flare which goes into action shortly after launching of the missile enables the bombardier to follow its path and make necessary corrections by radio. The same objective is achieved by equipping the missile with a television transmitter. This has the effect of having the bombardier's "eyes" going along with the 'projectile, for he sees a picture of the target on his television screen.

(1) Command Guidance. The method outlined above is known as "command guidance" as it provides . for the reception and execution of commands originating outside of the missile which are based on a knowledge of its motion relative to the target.

(2) Direction Along A Beam. Similar results may be obtained with guidance by "direction along a beam." This is achieved by furnishing the missile with necessary equipment .to automatically keep the missile in the center of a radar or radio beam. Command functions may be exercised, if desired, by moving the beam in space during flight.

(3) Direction By A Navigational- Net.

Direction by a navigational net is achieved by using one of the different forms of radio navigation to ,lead the missile to a point which bears some relation to the navigational net. This can be preset to coincide with the target. One such type of radio navigational net is LORAN. The sending stations of the Loran system supply the signals which control the steering of the missile.

b. Homing Devices (Seekers). Homing guidance is furnished the missile by placing some type of automatic seeker sensitive to a particular kind of energy in the missile. In such a case, the missile is directed by energy radiating from the target.

(1) Heatseekers. A missile with an instrument sensitive to heat is installed in a false nose. Such a projectile can be used against such targets as iron works, smelt-

23

ers, ships or similar objectives where the source of heat is prominent and isolated from other nearby sources of heat.

(2) Ligktseekers. An instrument sensitive to light is installed in the false nose of the bomb. Such a projectile can be directed against any objective marked by light. In some cases a flare may be dropped on the objective by a fast-flying fightertype aircraft. The missile may then be dropped from the bomber with the aid of conventional type bombsight and the lightseeking instrument will guide the bomb to the target indicated by the flare.

(3) Radar Seekers. This homing device can operate in two ways: (a) A radar sensitive instrument may be installed in the nose to "home" the missile on an enemy . radar station.

(b) The releasing plane can "illuminate" the target by radar so that reflecting radar echoes can be picked up by a receiver in the bomb and thus home on the target. One model known as "Bat" carries its own radar transmitters to "illuminate" the target.

c. Preset. Preset guidance is a system in which the course and range is predetermined by setting th~' instruments within the missile "prior to firing. It may employ gyros as a reference to establish the altitude of the missile in space. It may use a magnetic compass to determine direction, or an air log or celestial navigation to determine position and direction. An aneroid barometer may be used to maintain altitude. Regardless of whether' it determines its own position by any of the' above means or operates on a time basis, there is some program of control which is set to .make the missile follow a certain course of action under its own initiative.

3. LATE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

The system of classification of guidance methods as outlined in Chapter 2 has been in use for some time and is being replaced in some circles by a somewhat different system.

a. Course Seeking. Includes all forms fill.

navigation that may be used to .

24

missile to locate and follow a course to' a target and includes all radio and radar methods such as;

(1) Boom Riding. This method is comparable to present day radio range techniques and depends on following signals emanating from one radio transmitter.

(2) Circular System. Requires two separate transmitter stations with missile location being determined by the intersection of two bearings.

(3) Hyperbolic System. ,Depends on two ground stations. As an example the Loran navigation stations transmit pairs of radio

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

frequency pulses. By measuring the time difference between the signals received from the two sets of ground stations the position of the missile is determined.

b. Target and Command Systems. These systems are essentially the same as the homing and command systems of the older classification system.

c. New Developments. Investigation of all natural laws is being made to determine suitability for guidance systems. Television, heat, light and sound all offer possibilities, with magnetic, electric and gravitational' fields being considered. No possibility is being neglected because guidance control is the heart and soul of this new weapon .

...

LOOKING AHEAD

GUIDED MISSILES

25

1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Before mentioning specific current examples of guided missiles it may be advisable to consider certain important factors affecting their development and operation.

a. Supersonic Speeds. Information' released to the public indicates that new developments in the field of science related to aerial warfare are constantly being brought to the attention of military leaders or are being developed under the general direction of military authorities.

With the development of new sources of power such as the jet engine come tre~endous speeds. For subsonic speeds the science of aerodynamics has built up considerable research and test procedures; for supersonic speeds there is much to be learned. The student is probably already familiar with the so called transonic barrier or wall and the compressibility shock effect which accompanies it. The study ofsupersonic aerodynamics is being reflected in the design of new aircraft and missiles; swept-back wings, smaller aspect ratios and different arrangement of control surfaces are already being tested in flight.

In the conventional aircraft, the control surfaces are in the rear; a vehicle in which the reverse is true is known as a tail first or "canard" type of structure. Another term that. may be employed is "cruciform." This indicates a structure where four control surfaces are placed at right angles to each other at the same circumference.

Inasmuch as sound varies in its speed of propagation dependent upon temperature variation, a dimensionless ratio known as "Mach number" has become prominent.

This number is merely the ratio of any speed to that of sound. For example, an airplane traveling a little over 500 miles an hour at standard conditions is traveling with a Mach number of 0.7; a missile with a speed of 1500 miles per hour has a Mach number of about 2.0.

h. Regions of Flight. Since it is intended that guided missiles will be flown at great altitudes, it is necessary to learn something of conditions at such altitudes. Factors to be considered in flight through the regions above the earth's surface include: pressure, temperature, density, the attraction of gravity, and the nature and composition of the gases present in space. Such factors are important because they affect the flight path of -the missile and the operation of the propulsion power unit.

(1) Gravitational Field. The diameter of the earth (figure 14) is approximately 8,000 miles. Its mass is held together by the mutual attraction of its individual mass particles for each other. Every object is therefore attracted . by the countless number of associated particles which make up the earth and give it the effect of weight. Weight is simply the mutual. attraction between the object and earth. See figure 15.

(2) Regions of the Atmosphere. (a) Depth. 1. For all practical purposes the depth of the atmosphere above the earth's surface is limited to two hundred miles (figure 14). In comparison with the diameter of the earth the depth of the atmosphere is very small. That the atmosphere does exist at altitudes of approximately two hundred miles is evidenced by the passage of meteors made visible iB those regions by the friction between ..,

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

.

200 MILE DEPTH OF. ATMOSPHERE

figure' 4 - Diameter of Earth and Depth of Atmosphere.

and the gaseous particles which constitute the atmosphere. Within this atmospheric shell of two hundred miles depth there are three zones important to the consideration of flight. These zones are designated as follows:

The Troposphere 0 to 10 miles. The Stratosphere 10 to 50 miles. The Ionosphere 50 to 200 miles.

The ionosphere does not terminate at 200 miles but extends beyond, the density of the ions decreasing with the increase of distance from the earth. These figures of altitude are given as general values which cannot be specific because of the varying nature of the gases. See figure 16.

2. The idea of travel and the flight of ships moving at these heights (figure 16) and in these regions is far from fantasy and imagination. War rockets have gone over one hundred miles above the earth's surface. It is possible that ranges as high as one hundred and eighty miles and over may be made based on our present knowledge of the science of jet propulsion, It is evident from the recent rate of advancement in practical matters for jet propulsion that it will be possible within the next few years to realize even greater heights

-and.. extend man's conquest of space to regions formerly thought inaccessible.

LOOKING AHEAD

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LOOKING AHEAIl

figure 17 - Tropospliere •

(b) The Troposphere. 1. The troposphere is the region in which the greatest concentration of atmospheric gases occurs. Its depth varies both with the seasons and with the location of the point under consideration in respect to the earth's .axis of

rotation. See figure 17. .

2. Because of the earth's rotation, the centrifugal force developed increases the depth of the troposphere at the equator to between 9 and 11 miles. At the poles the depth of the troposphere is about 6 miles. Because of changes in weather, seasons, etc., the troposphere varies in depth at different points upon 'the earth's surface. It cannot be expected that accurate figures for actual' conditions can be given for the various factors in which we might be interested. A standard set of values have been set up,

however, which are average for a given latitude. Such a chart (figure 18) shows pressure, temperature, and density change with increase in altitude.

3. The greatest concentration of gases occurs within the troposphere. The greatest pressure in this region occurs at its lowest level. Pressure is equal to the total weight of the column of gases above the area under consideration. As altitude increases, the pressure and temperature decreases. At an altitude of approximately 39,000 feet the temperature no longer decreases with a gain in altitude but remains constant at -55 degrees centigrade.

(c) The Stratosphere. The region of constant temperature is called the Strat0- sphere (figure 16) and extends altitude of 39,000 'feet to ~ooe

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

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stratosphere is of great interest because it is considered to be the region in which all long-range aircraft flights will be made. By flight in the region of the stratosphere the advantages of low ~g. high speed, low fuel consumption a~d greater range are obtainable. The disadvantages of flight in this region are the low temperatures that prevail and the scarcity or thinness of oxygen.

(d) The Ionosphere. 1. Above altitudes of 50 miles in the region termed the ionosphere (figure 16), the gas particles. which constitute the atmosphere are very far apart. The distance between these atmospheric particles may vary between several feet to several miles. The individual gas particles break down into the electrical

. charges of which they are composed and form a blanket of Ions hundreds of miles thick. It is in this region that we see such electrical manifestations as the Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis.

2. The major portion of the earth's atmosphere consists of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen. There are traces of other gases but they are so light as to be negligible. An examination of figure 16 reveals that at low altitudes the atmosphere is composed mainly of an inert gas named nitrogen (80 % ). As altitude is increased the percentage of oxygen decreases until - at

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altitudes of 80 miles or more no trace of oxygen is found. At altitudes of 30 miles traces of hydrogen begin to appear in the atmosphere and as altitude is further increased the percentage of the hydrogen concentration increases. In the higher regions the atmosphere is composed mainly of hydrogen, although it is extremely thin. For flight in this region, oxygen could be carried which would be combined with the hydrogen present in the atmosphere to develop the required energy for propulsion.

(3) Effect of the Atmosphere on Flight.

Because of the higher density of the gas particles at the lower altitudes, considerable resistance to high-speed movement of the ship through this region is developed. As a consequence, jet-propulsion power

, plants are not· efficient there because the . major portion of the thrust available from the jet-propulsion power plant is used to overcome drag rather than for the acceleration of the ship to higher velocities. It is only at the higher speeds that the jet-propulsion power plant becomes efficient in the performance of its basic function.

(a) Drag. The drag or resistance to flight caused by the presence of the atmosphere varies directly with the square of the velocity of the aircraft. Figure 19 shows the curve for one type of aircraft. Each individual aircraft will have a different

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figure J 9 - TypIcal Example of Drag-Velocity CUl'Ye of One Type of AIrcraft.

31

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curve although similar ships will haw closely related curves. Once the airera:ft has reached its maximum speed due tD air resistance the value of the thrust developed is equal to the drag value.

(b) 'Power. The amount of energy absorbed by the atmosphere varies directly as the cube of. the velocity of the ship. Figure 20 shows the curve for the sameaircraft given in figure 19. In the regions of high altitude; low-density conditions prevail, making increased speeds for the ship possible and an increased rate of effective energy absorption. At lower altitudes, the jet-propulsion power plant supplies the energy to overcome air resistance, gravity and the resistance to acceleration of the aircraft. Actually for equal speeds at the same altitudes the horsepower absorbed may be different. The horsepower under these conditions is a measure or indication of the aerodynamic efficiency of the ship or aircraft. In the higher altitudes the jet-propulsion plant supplies the energy to overcome gravity and accelerate the ship. In regions where the gravitational field is considerably weakened the major portion of energy developed goes to accelerate the ship. It must be recognized that in space, where there are no appreciable drag or gravitational forces, all of the energy de-

livered to the ship by the jet-propulsion power plant must go into velocity increase.

2. DESIGNS

Designs for most efficient, performance at supersonic speeds are radically different from anything seen before; A small change in configuration makes a tremendous change in the resultant drag on the missile and very small wing surfaces are needed for the required amounts of lift. Missiles which require lift to increase the length of the trajectory will have to be very carefully designed to mintmlze the ill effects on performance produced by the addition to lift surfaces. Fuselages or bodies of the missiles must be made with the minimum possible diaineter consistent with the requirement for sufficient strength to carry the buckling stress caused by the operation of the control surfaces. Because of the large amounts of fuel required,.......it is more necessary than . ever before to achieve lightness and strength in the airframe. The trend of designs for supersonic missiles indicates that very small or no wings are required. If wings are required they are extremely thin and have a symmetrical camber. They may be designed to fold into the body of the missile at higher speeds, either eliminating

LOOKING AHEAD

the lift surface or reducing it in size. In order to achieve greatest strength with least weight for the small areas required, designs tend to employ knife-like planes of solid or nearly solid metal, or sometimes ones of a laminated structure employing thin sheets of'metal with spacers of low density yet high compression resistance between. Plastics are being improved for use in the construction of aircraft and missiles and may be found to be the most satisfactory material for some types of missiles. One problem in construction of supersonic missiles is the necessity for placing insulation beneath the skin to prevent damage from heating of the missiles by the atmospheric friction. Temperatures caused by this phenomenon sometimes reach sufficient in-· tensity to cause detonation of the missile en route to the target. Streamlining will be more complete than ever before with swept' back wings, very sharp' pointed noses, knifesharp leading edges to all planes and pencilthin fuselages.

Little will be gained in a course of this kind by a detailed description of various types of rockets and guided missiles. .....,. rockets and bombs were developed j_ prior to and during the past war. 'HIe majority were not too successful and were largely experimental in nature. It is. however, considered of more than passing interest to list several of the better known missiles together with the principal characteristics.

3. GERMAN ROCKETS·

The Germans had experimented with rockets and guided missiles for some time prior to the War and were well ahead of the United States in rocket development. German scientists planned and had under development a series of rockets known as the "A" series. The V-2 was one of these, and although it was the only one (If the series to be used in the last war, it is not hard to visualize' what might have been in store' for the Allies had the Germans been given sufficient time to complete their developments. The program had started in 1929 and each of the "A" series of rockets, with the exception of A-4 (V-2 as it was more

8405470--49--5

33

commonly known), was developed primarily for research in some particular phase of the whole program. A-3 was designed for propulsion research, A-5 was for research in control mechanism, A-6 was for studies in supersonic speed, A-7 added wings to a small scale A-5, A-8 was of the same weight and size as A-4 but equipped with wings and using liquid oxygen as an oxidizer. It was computed that the use of wings would increase the range of A-4 approximately 200 miles to a range of 400-450 miles. A-9 was similar to A-8 but used acid as an oxidizer. The A-I0 consisted of a second rocket placed within an A-9 giving. it a two-step operation to theoretically secure ranges of about 1800 to 2500 miles.

The A-I0 was the result toward which this whole program was directed. It was the weapon with which the Germans expected to bombard New York City in the early part of 1946. It was not actually produced due to the cessation of the war. However, all design studies and computations had been completed, and it appears that it could have been accomplished by the Germans, provided they had been given the advantage of another year of development and production. The' total weight of the A-lO was to have been 190,000 pounds. It would have carried a warhead of about 2,000 poundsi' thus giving a pay load of approximately one percent of the starting weight of the weapon. For this reason many considered the weapon impractical.' There is, however, evidence to believe that the Germans intended to utilize an atomic warhead which would have made this weapon a very serious menace.

Of course most of this information about the German rocket plans was learned after cessation of hostilities. The first contact that the Allies had with a new kind of German weapon was in 1943.

a. German V-i. The V-I was extremely simple in construction. It consisted primarily of a glide bomb with a wing-spread of about 16 feet. Controls, both rudders and elevators, were operated by servomotors using compressed air for power. A simple gyro pilot actuated the servo mechanism which steered the craft.

Some types had a small radio transmitter to emit a continuous short wave radio tone; thus triangulation stations on the coast of France were able to keep track of exact course of the missile and determine the landing point. The presence of the radio gave rise to the thought that the rockets were radio-controlled.

The power was supplied by a pulse-jet motor using gasoline as a fuel and atmospheric oxygen as oxidizer. It was the first practical example of the pulse or intermittent jet engine.

The bombs were launched after the gyrocontrol mechanism was preset. Some launching installations used col'apressed ~ air; others were power driven. Launching was about 250 mph. The jet engine provided a steady acceleration for the bomb so that a speed of 400-450 mph. waa attained. Fuel consumption was' about a mile per gallon. Bombs usually held altitude until fuel was consumed. Then the missile became a simple glider, tilting toward earth at a sharp angle or later gliding silently.

More than 2,700 robot bombs were released on London during the first month of the 1944 attack with about one death per bomb. V-I launchings were held up when the Allies began bombing the great experimental station near Peenemunde. Many of the bombs fell in the sea, others were destroyed by the barrage balloons surrounding London. Fighter pilots soon learned to "spill" the gyro mechanisms by using their wings to tip the V-I over, thus causing the missile to dive into the sea.

b. German V-2. The V -2 was definitely

not an "overnight" development. In fact it required twelve years of research by the best available German scientists and millions of dollars. Much of our knowledge of this German rocket was obtained from minute examination of captured V-2's and more recently by actual experimentation with V-2's brought to this country and launched under very carefully controlled conditions.

To expedite research on the V-2, German scientists connected with the guided-missile research for over ten years at Peenemunde

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

were brought to the United States and are now working in "protective custody" at White Sands Proving Ground, New MeXICO, on translation of captured documents, identifying rocket material, assisting in assembling and firing V-2's and providing technical information on 'rocket design. See figure 21.

As a weapon the V-2 was of no great significance. It was very costly considering its small payload, with limited range and accuracy. But the development of the atomic bomb changes the picture. Now, the development of long-range accurate missiles is of extreme importance.

The V -2 is one of the largest rockets yet developed, with a weight of 14 tons; it is 5 feet in diameter and 46 feet long. Our largest rocket, the WAC Corporal, is a foot in diameter, 16 feet long and weighs 700 pounds.

The missile uses alcohol and liquid oxygen as a source of power. Its forward motion is, of course, gained from the reaction effect created by the jet of gases produced by the alcohol and oxygen burning under pressure in a carefully designed combustion chamber with a suitable Venturi nozzle. As fired against London, about 14,000 pounds of gas expelled at an average velocity of 6,800 feet a second gave the rocket a forward velocity of 4,900 feet a second when the fuel supply was cut off. This happened about 60 seconds after take-off.

Many of the rockets were launched at a range of 200 miles and reached a maximum altitude of over 300,000 feet. German technicians say that two of the missiles actually reached an altitude of 560,000 feet.

In contrast/' with this performance the first version of the WAC Corporal reached an altitude of 230,000 feet.

A gyroscope arranged somewhat as an automatic pilot controlled the V -2 in flight. As previously pointed out controls are preset but the projectile path could be plotted by means of radio beams and later .... by conventional radar equipment.

Fuel cutoff can be accomplished from the ground by remote control. After jet pro-

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36

pulsion has ceased, the rocket behaves like a projectile from a gun.

Some variations in weights have been found in various \ V -2's examined, but the following table is typical.

Maximum range 0 230 miles
Weight unfueled 10,000 lbs.
Weight fueled 27,376 lbs.
Weight of warhead 2,150 lbs.
(60% amatol 40% metal)
Alcohol (denatured ethyl) 7,610 lbs.
Oxygen (liquified) 10,930 lbs.
Hydrogen peroxide 379 lbs.
Permangenate 29 lbs.
Length over-all 46.1 it.
Body diameter 5.4 ft.
Width across fins 11.8 ft.
Fuel capacity 2,500 gal.
Maximum velocity 3,800 mph.
Velocity at impact 2,400 mph. 4. AZON (U.S. )

The AAF had used the AZON, a freefalling conventional type bomb which was released in the usual manner using a bomb sight. A flare in the tail of the missile enabled the bombardier to observe its course. A radio receiver in the bomb tuned to receive certain radio pulsations could actuate servo mechanisms connected to control surfaces and thus exert azimuth control. Maximum control was 1,000 feet right or left from 12,000 feet altitude.

This bomb was successfully used in India against long narrow targets--such as railroads and bridges. It is reported to be ten times as accurate as conventional bombs.

Obvious disadvantages include: dependency on clear weather; limitation on altitude of release to about 12,000 feet due to inability of bombardier to retain bomb in sight as it approaches the target; vulnerability of airplane to "flak" as it must maintain a fairly straight course if the bombardier is to track the missile.

UNIT I--SUPPLEMENT

5. RAZON (U.S.)

The RAZON is similar to the AZON and was developed to permit control of missile in both azimuth and range. Actually RAZON is a tail assembly attached to, for example, a 1,000 pound bomb. A radio receiver distinguishing between radio pulsations actuates servo mechanisms to control rudders and elevators to increase or decrease range or to swink' the bomb in azimuth. Radio signals originate from the controlling aircraft. A gyro within the tail assembly stabilizes the flight of the bomb during its fall, keeping rudders and elevators in their proper planes so control may be exercised. RAZON has not been used operationally, but appears to be adaptable to pinpoint bombing.

6. G-B 8

The. G-B 8 was a glide bomb, radio-controlled in both azimuth and range. Later types had a television transmitter to give the bombardier the picture of the target from the nose of the bomb.

7. WEARY WILLIES

War-weary B-t7 and B-24 type aircraft loaded with explosive and controlled by radio from "mother" aircraft were known as/" Weary Willies.

8. FUTURE

... Most of the experimental work now being carried out at Wright Field, Eglin Field and like places is still secret. But available information indicates that the guided missile will undoubtedly play a prominent part in any future wars. Rockets and reaction motors will take a definite place in future aeronautical thinking and planning; German ideas were thought to be on the fantastic side, but actually represent far-seeing thinking and planning.

" The satellite rocket planned by the Germans was a "thought represented" extension of the A-9 and A-tO rocket principle. It should have been possible to reach a

"final speed of over 16,000 mph. and attain

LOOKING AHEAD

a position in space, outside the earth's atmosphere, where centrifugal force would balance that of gravity and the rocket would then orbit the earth indefinitely without further need for power. It would therefore in principle become a satellite of the earth.

" second idea of the Germans was a "space. observation platform." In carrying the idea of the satellite rocket further. Dr. Von Braun visualized a series of satellite rockets which would be bound together and interconnected, thus actually making an observation platform which would orbit indefinitely about the earth. Transportation to and from the earth would be effected by rocket shuttle service. Personnel would, of necessity, be equipped with pressurized space., suits. Since gravitational forces would seriously affect movement in the upper spaces, personnel would walk about the observation platform with the aid of small auxiliary

nozzles based on the jet principle. '

Weather control was an idea attributed to Professor Oberth. He also was an exponent of the space platform idea but proposed erection on the space platform of large mirrors. These mirrors according to Oberth could be used to concentrate the

37

sun on the earth's surface at will, and in this way influence the weather. For instance, regions with excess rainfall could be dried to some extent by concentrating the sun in that region. In order to provide an arid region with rain fall, Professor Oberth suggested concentrating the sun's rayon the nearest lakes. Clouds would form over the lakes and by proper manipulation of the mirrors thermal current and pressure gradients created in such a way that the rainclouds would be directed toward the arid regions.

Of course all this is for the distant future but it all lies within the realm of possibility. There are many and varied technical problems that must be solved before we even approach realization of any of the projects envisioned by the Germans and some of our own more visionary people. However, when we consider that the fields of radar, tele- . vision and electronics have merely had the surface scratched, not to mention "the possibility of application of nuclear energy to propulsion, it would hardly seem wise at this early stage to say that these projects are not, possible of attainment in the not too distant future.

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