78 views

Uploaded by Gopi Nath

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Me262 Engine 2
- 11th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging 13 14 May 2014
- Gas-Turbine-Handbook.pdf
- 10 the Beauty of Centrifugal Compressor
- Tubine Balancing
- Axial Flow Fans
- Summary Turbine
- Treinamento arriel 1
- Highest Output of Geared Industrial Steam Turbine.
- ZOHFLASHREPC-GT1B
- 17. Compressor - Reference Material
- Fouling in Axial Compressor of Gas Turbines Nuovo
- L-slides
- 157203438-PT6A-25SBindex-CGA.pdf
- Numerical Simulaton of Axial Flow Fan Using Gambit And
- PPCL
- 01-PT11-Intro2Turbomachines [Compatibility Mode].pdf
- 79116336-A-2d-Mathematical-Model-on-Transonic-Axial.pdf
- Velocity Triangles
- Sheet 1

You are on page 1of 12

Axial Turbine

Introduction:-

A gas turbine unit for power generation or a turbojet engine for production of

thrust primarily consists of a compressor, Combustion chamber and a turbine. The air as

it passes through the compressor, experiences an increase in presser. There after the air in

fed to the combustion chamber leading to tan increase in temperature. This high pressure

and temperature gas in then passed through the turbine, where it is expanded the required

power is obtained.

Turbines, like compressors, can be classified into radial, axial and mixed flow machines.

In the axial machine the fluid moves essentially in the axial direction through the rotor. In

the radial type the fluid motion is mostly radial. The mixed-flow machine is characterized

by a combination of axial and radial motion of the fluid relative to the rotor. The choice

of turbine type depends on the application, though it is not always clear that any one type

is superior.

Comparing axial and radial turbines of the same overall diameter, we may say that

the axial machine, just as in the case of compressors, is capable of handling considerably

greater mass flow. On the other hand, for small mass flows the radial machine can be

made more efficient than the axial one. The radial turbine is capable of a higher pressure

ratio per stage than the axial one. However, multistaging is very much easier to arrange

with the axial turbine, so that large overall pressure ratios are not difficult to obtain with

axial turbines. In this chapter,

compressor. Moreover, the design process is somewhat simpler. The principal reason

For this fact is that the fluid undergoes a pressure drop in the turbine and a pressure rise

in the compressor .The pressure drop in the turbine is sufficient to keep the secondary

layer generally well behaved and the secondary layer separation which of the occurs in

compressors because of an adverse pressure gradient, can be avoided in turbines.

Offsetting this advantage is the much more critical stress problem, since turbine rotors

must operate in very high temperature gas. Actual blade shape is often more dependent

on stress and cooling considerations than on aerodynamic considerations, beyond the

satisfaction of the velocity-triangle requirements.

Because of the generally falling pressure in turbine flow passages much more

turbine in a giving blade row is possible without danger of flow separation than in an

axial compressor blade row. This means much more work and considerably higher

pressure ratio, per stage.

In recent years advances have been made in turbine blade cooling and in the

metallurgy of turbine blade materials. This means that turbines are able to operate

successfully at increasingly high inlet gas temperatures and that substantial improvements

are being made in turbine engine thrust, weight, and fuel consumption.

An axial turbine stage consists of a row of stationary blades, called nozzles or stators,

followed by the rotor, as Fig 1 illustrates. Because of the large pressure drop per stage,

the nozzle and rotor blades may be of increasing length, as shown, to accommodate the

rapidly expanding gases, while holding the axial velocity to something like a uniform

value through the stage.

It should be noted that the hub–lip ratio for a high pressure gas turbine in quite high that

in it is having blades of short length. Thus, the radial variation in velocity and pressure

may be neglected and the performance of a turbine stage is calculated from the

performance of the blading at the mean radial section that in a bio-dimensional “pitch-

line

C - axial velocity

W - relation velocity

R → radial character

R – radial direction

Z - axial direction

θ - tangential direction

1 - inlet to the nozzle.

2 - exit from the nozzle, or unlit to the rotor

3 - exit from the rotor.

α - absolute angle

β- relative angle

design analysis “. A Low–pressure within will typically have a much lower hub-lip ratio

and a larger blade twist. A two dimensional design is not valid in this case.

A section through the mean radius would appear as in fig.1 One can see that the

nozzles accelerate the flow imparting an increased tangential velocity component. The

velocity diagram of the turbine differs from that of the compressor in that change in

tangential velocity in the rotor, ∆Vw , in the direction opposite to the blade speed U. The

reaction to this change in the tangential momentum of the fluid is a torque on the rotor in

the direction of motion. Hence the fluid does work on the rotor. Again applying the

momentum relation-ship we may show that the power output is

2 3

In an axial turbine,

U 2 ~− U 3 = U (s a )y. The work output per unit mass flow rate is

WT = U (Vw − Vw )

2 3

∆To WT U (Vw − Vw )

2 3

= = ……………………(2)

To1 C p To1 C p To1

Fig 2: illustrates a combined (inlet to and exit from the rotor ) velocity diagram of

a turbine stage. The velocity diagram gives the following relation:

U

= tan α 2 − tan β 2

Vf

= tan α3 − tan β3

Thus, WT = U (Vw − Vw )

2 3

= UV f [tan α 2 − tan α3 ]

i.e, WT = UV f [tan α 2 − tan α3 ] ……………(3)

The Eq (3) gives the expression for WT in terms of gas angles associated with the rotor

blade.

Note that the “work-down factor” required in case of the axial compressor in

necessary here. This in because in an accelerating flow the effect of the growth of

secondary layer along the annulus passage in much less then when there is a decelerating

flow with an adverge pressure gradient.

Instead of temperature drop ratio [defined in Eq (2)], turbine designers generation refer to

the work capacity of a turbine stage as

c p ∆To Vw − Vw

2 3

Ψ= =

U2 V

Vf

= [tan β 2 − tan β3 ] …………………..(4)

U

Ψ is a dimensionless parameter,

Which is called the “blade looking capacity“ or “temperature drop coefficient “. In gas

turbine design, V f in kept generally constant across a stage and the ratio V f / U is called

“the flow coefficient’ φ

As the secondary layer over the blade surface in not very sensitive in case of a

turbine the turbine designer has considerably more freedom to distribute the hold stage

pressure drop between the rotor and the stator. However, locally on the section surface of

the blade there could be a zone of an adverse pressure gradient depending on the turning

and on the pitch of the blades. Thus, the secondary layer could grow rapidly or even

separate in such a region affecting adversity the turbine efficiency. Figure 13.3 illustrates

the schematic of flow within the blade passage and the pressure distribution over the

section surface depicting a zone of diffusion. Different design groups hence their own

rules, learned from experience of blade testing, for the amount of diffusion which is

permissible particularly for highly loaded blades.

Degree of reaction:

Another useful dimensionless parameter is the “degree for reaction” or simply the

reaction” R. It may be defined for a turbine as the fraction of overall enthalpy drop (or

pressure drop) occurring in the rotor

h2 − h3

Thus, R= ………………(6)

ho1 − ho3

T2 − T3

Or

To1 −T o3

Turbine stage in which the entire pressure drop occurs in the nozzle are called impulse

stages. Stages in which a portion of the pressure drop occurs in the nozzle and the rest in

the rotor are called reaction stages. In a 50% reaction turbine, the enthalpy drop in the

rotor would be half of the total for the stage.

An impulse turbine stage in shown in Fig14.1, along with the velocity diagram for

the common case of constant axial velocity. Since no enthalpy change occurs within the

rotor, the energy equation within the rotor requires that | Vr | =| Vr | . If the axial velocity

2 3

is held constant, then this requirement is satisfied by

β3 = −β2

From the velocity diagram, W1 can see that

Vr = −Vr

w3 w2

i.e. Vw − Vw = 2Vr w

2 3 2

= 2(C θ2 − V )

Cz

= 2U ( tan α 2 − 1)

U

Cθ 2 − Cθ3

Then, ψ =

U

= 2(φ tan α 2 − 1)

The Eq 8 illustrate the effect of the nozzle outlet angle on the impulse turbine work

output.

It is evident, then, that for large power output the nozzle angle should be as large as

possible. Two difficulties are associated with very large α2 . For reasonable axial

velocities (i.e., reasonable flow per unit frontal area), it is evident that large

α

2 creates very large absolute and relative velocities throughout the

stage. High losses are associated with such velocities, especially if the relative velocity

Vr is supersonic. In practice, losses seem to be minimized for values of

2

α

2 around 70

o. In addition, one can see that for large

α 2 [tan α 2 > (2U / V f )], the absolute exhaust velocity will have a swirl in the direction

opposite to U. While we have not introduced the definition of turbine efficiency as yet, it

is clear that, in a turbojet engine where large axial exhaust velocity is desired, the kinetic

energy associated with the tangential motion of the exhaust gases is essentially a loss.

Furthermore, application of the angular momentum equation over the entire engine

indicates that exhaust swirl is associate with an (undesirable) net torque acting on the

aircraft. Thus the desire is for axial or near-axial absolute exhaust velocity (at least for the

last stage if a multistage turbine is used). For the special case of constant V f and axial

exhaust velocity Vw = 0 and Vw = 2U . So Eq. 8 becomes,

3 2

Cθ 2U

ψ=2 [ tan α 2 = =

CZ CZ

= 2 / φ]

For a given power and rotor speed, and for a given peak temperature, Eq. (8) is sufficient

to determine approximately the mean blade speed (and hence radius) of a single-stage

impulse turbine having axial outlet velocity. If , as is usually the case, the blade speed is

too high (for stress limitations), or if the mean diameter is too large relative to the other

engine components, it is necessary to employ a multistage turbine in which each stage

does part of the work.

It has been shown that the 50% reaction compressor stage (with constant V f ) has

symmetrical blading. The same is true for the 50% reaction turbine stage. As the change

in static enthalpy is same in stator and rotor blades, the change in kinetic energy relative

to such blade row must be the same. The velocity diagram for a 50% reaction stage with a

constant axial velocity is shown in Fig 5.

Wθ 2 = C θ 2 − V

= −C θ3

i.e. C θ 3 = −(C θ 2 − V )

Cθ 2 − Cθ3

ψ =

V

C

= 2 z tan α 2 − 1

V

Again the desirability of large α2 is indicated and the same limitations are encountered,

so that typical values of α2 are near 70 o . For the special case of axial outlet velocity

and constant V f α 3 and β 2 are zero and the velocity diagram becomes a rectangle. The

stage work output is then

ψ =1

Thus for the same blade speed and for axial outlet velocities, the impulse stage work is

twice that of the 50% reaction stage. We can expect the impulse stage to have somewhat

greater loss, however, since the average fluid velocity in the stage is higher and since the

secondary layer on the suction side of the rotor blades may be significantly thicker and

closer to separation, depending on the turning angle and blade spacing. The 50% reaction

stage is not uniquely desirable, of course. One can use any degree of reaction (greater

then zero) to design a turbine of acceptable performance.

The gas flow angle at inlet and exit of blades can b expressed in terms of Ψ, φ and R .

For the rotor blade, the relative total enthalpy remains constant and W1 have,

W22 W3

h2 + = h3 + 2

2 2

W32 W22

i, h2 − h3 = −

2 2

If the axial velocity is the same upstream and downstream of the rotor, then

(Wθ 3 − Wθ 2 (Wθ 3 + Wθ )

2 .

h2 − h3 =

2

(Wθ 3 − Wθ 3 )(Wθ 3 + Wθ )

2

R=

2U (C θ 2 − C θ 3 )

Cθ 2 − C θ 3 = Wθ 2 − Wθ 3

Wθ 3 + Wθ 2

Thus, R = −( ) …………….(10)

2U

1 Cz

=− (tan β 2 + tan β3 )

2 U

1

i, R = − φ (tan β2 + tan β3 ) ……………..(11)

2

tan β2 = (ψ − 2 R) / 2φ ………………………(12)

tan β3 = (ψ + 2 R ) / 2φ …………………………..(13)

1

tan α2 = tan β2 + ………………………(14)

φ

1

tan α3 = tan β3 + …………………..(15)

φ

Hence, from given values of Ψ, φ and R, We can estimate gas flow angles and the

blade layout.

1

R= [1 − φ(tan α2 + tan β3 )] ………………….(16)

2

Which is the expression for R in terms of the exit air angles. For the special case

of symmetrical blading , α2 = −β3 and we have R = 1 / 2 . For the case of Vr = −Vrw ,

w3 2

We have R = 0 . Now for the special case of zero exit swirl, Vw3 = 0 and it follows that

Vr = V f tan β3 = −U ie. tan β3 = − 1 and Eq. 16 because

w3 φ

1

R =1− φ tan α2 ………………….(17)

2

Again for zero exit swirl, the blade loading capacity, Eq.5 reduces to

Equations 17 and 18 have been used in plolling Fig 6, which pertains to design conditions

mlz.

Here we see that for a given stator outlet angle, the impulse stage requires a much higher

axial velocity ratio than does the 50% reaction stage. In the impulse stage all flow

velocities are higher, and that is one reason why its efficiency is lower than that of the

50% reaction stage.

STAGE EFFICENCY

The aerodynamic losses in the turbine differ with the stage configuration, that is,

the degree of reaction. Improved efficiency is associated with higher reaction, which

tends to mean less work per stage and thus a large number of stages for a given overall

pressure ratio.

The understanding of aerodynamic losses is important to design, not only in the choice of

blading type (impulse or reaction) but also in devising ways to control these losses, for

example, methods to control the clearance between the tip of the turbine blade and the

outer casing wall. The choices of blade shape, aspect ratio, spacing, Reynolds number,

Mach number, and flow incidence angle can all affect the losses and hence the efficiency

of turbine stages.

Two definitions of efficiency are in common image: the choice between then

depends on the application for which the turbine is used. For many conventional

applications, useful turbine output is in the form of shift power and the kinetic energy of

the exhaust -, V32 / 2 , is consideration as a loss. In this case, I deal work would be

C P (T01 − T3s ) and a total to static turbine efficiency, ηts , based on the inlet and exit

static conditions is used.

To1 − To3

Thus, ηts = ……………..(19)

To1 − T3s

The ideal (isen tropic) to actual expansion process in turbines is illustrated in Fig

7. Further,

To1 − To3

η =

ts To1 [1− ( P3 / Po1 )(γ −1) / γ ]

1 − (To3 / To1 )

= ……………………(20)

1 − ( p 3 / p o1 )(γ −1) / γ

considered a loss since the exhaust gases are intended to emerge at high velocity. The

ideal work in this case is then C P (T01 − T03 s ) rather than C P (T01 − T03 s ) . This

requires a different definition of efficiency, the total-to-total turbine efficiency ηtt

defined by

η tt = =

T01 − T 03s 1 − ( p03 / p01 ) ( γ −1) / γ ………………(21)

ηts

ηtt =

2

1 − V3 [2C p (T01 − T3s )]

Thus ηtt > ηts

P

Wt = ηtt C p T01[1 − ( 03 ) ( γ −1) / r ].

P01

Or

P

Wt = ηts C p T 01 [1 − ( 3 ) ( γ −1) / r ].

P01

turbine blade passages, the estimation of stage losses and then efficiency is still a matter

of considerable difficulty. In addition to the primary flow through the blade passage,

there are secondary flows which move fluid across the blade passages under the action of

centrifugal and carioles forces, blade loading effects causing incidence and deviation; bat

age between the moving blade lip and the stationary should; the secondary layers and

wakes shed by blades; and for transonic blades, shock waves in the blade passage and at

the trailing edges. Another class of effects is the insteady general cascade list can be

correlated to define the loss coefficients for the stator (nozzle) and rotor blade of turbines.

With reference to the Fig 7, the effects of loss and thus irreversibility through the

sector and rotor are expressed by difference in static enthalpies, (h2 − h2 s ) and

( h3 − h3ss ) respectively. Non-dimensional enthalpy loss coefficient –“ for the nozzle can

be defined as,

1

h2 − h2 s = V22ζ N

2

1

h3 − h3ss = Vr2 ζ R

2 3

−1

ζ V 2 +ζ V 2

R r N 2

3

ηtt = 1 + ………………….(23)

2(h1 − h3 )

−1

ζ V 2 +ζ V 2 + V 2

R r N 2 1

3

ηts = 1 + ……………………(24)

2(h1 − h3 )

While designing a turbine stage for a particular application, the restriction arises from the

view point of blade stress rather than from the aerodynamics to achieve the maximum

possible efficiency. In short, the blade spud is limited by the blade stress particularly in

high temperature:- applications. The turbine designers will often work to a maximum

value of blade speed defined by temperature and material properties. Thus in modern

limits, the turbine blade cooling in very vital which determines the life of an engine

( Parlimitorly for the turbojet engine). In many applications, the characteristics of the

compressor which the turbine drives also impose limits on the turbine special.

Turbine Performance

For a given design of turbine operations with a given which at sufficiently high

Reynolds member, it can be shown from the dimensional analysis,

.

P0 m RT02 ΩD

2

= f( , ),

P0

3

P02 D 2 γ RT02

Where stagnation states 02 and 03 are at the turbine inlet and outlet, respectively.

Figure 8 shows the overall performance of a particular single-stage turbine. One can see

that pressure ratios greater than those for compressor stages can be obtained with

satisfactory efficiency.

The performance of turbines is limited principally by two factors: compressibility

and stress. Compressibility limits the mass flow that can pass through a given and as we

will see stress limits the wheel speed U. The work per stage, for example, depends on the

square of the wheel speed. However, as Chapter 5 showed, the performance of the engine

depends very strongly on the maximum temperature. Of course, as the maximum

temperature increases, the allowable stress level diminishes; hence in the design of the

engine there must be a compromise between maximum temperature and maximum rotor

tip speed U.

For given pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency, the turbine work per unit mass is

proportional to the inlet stagnation temperature. Since, in addition, the turbine work in a

jet or turboshaft engine is commonly two or three times the useful energy output of the

engine, a 1% increase in turbine inlet temperature can produce a 2% or 2% increase in

engine output. This considerable advantage has supplied the incentive for the adoption of

fairly elaborate methods for cooling the turbine nozzle and rotor blades.

- Me262 Engine 2Uploaded bynebbra
- 11th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging 13 14 May 2014Uploaded byEngwarwick
- Gas-Turbine-Handbook.pdfUploaded byAnonymous YmXY1bc
- 10 the Beauty of Centrifugal CompressorUploaded byTamara Dalton
- Tubine BalancingUploaded byAdnan2957
- Axial Flow FansUploaded byoureducation
- Summary TurbineUploaded bySatrio Tri Jayanto
- Treinamento arriel 1Uploaded byBruno Alonso Pacheco
- Highest Output of Geared Industrial Steam Turbine.Uploaded byUhrin Imre
- ZOHFLASHREPC-GT1BUploaded byVIBHAV
- 17. Compressor - Reference MaterialUploaded bySrihari Kodimela
- Fouling in Axial Compressor of Gas Turbines NuovoUploaded byTabiquera Guadalupe Victoria Texcoco De Mora
- L-slidesUploaded byRounak Majumdar
- 157203438-PT6A-25SBindex-CGA.pdfUploaded byandres
- Numerical Simulaton of Axial Flow Fan Using Gambit AndUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- PPCLUploaded byMani Kandan
- 01-PT11-Intro2Turbomachines [Compatibility Mode].pdfUploaded byShantanu Gaikwad
- 79116336-A-2d-Mathematical-Model-on-Transonic-Axial.pdfUploaded byinam vf
- Velocity TrianglesUploaded byKeanu Bellamy
- Sheet 1Uploaded byAsmaa Muhammad
- GT2013-95849-finalUploaded byAlbert Daniel Torres
- HydroelectricityUploaded byYasin Xalafov
- Gas Compression Expansion Compressors Turbines CoursesUploaded byحيدرالركابي
- Gas TurbineUploaded byAbdul Basit
- Fluid Dynamic Simulation for PropellerUploaded bygksaha
- Col Step7 Basic v10.5Uploaded byAnonymous J78MUVck
- Numerical Investigation of inlet distortion on the flowfield within the NASA rotor67Uploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- Lecture 02_ CompressorsUploaded byBryar Husen
- Artigo InglesUploaded bylcfreitag
- k Appliedhydraulics Question Paper 3rd InternalsUploaded byShruthi Iyengar

- Modern Guided Aircraft BombsUploaded byمحمد على
- Mil Hdbk 516cUploaded byGopi Nath
- Aerospace EngineeringUploaded byvenkat
- CompositesUploaded bytalluri11
- Ch. 8 Viscous Flow in PipesUploaded byGopi Nath
- Sample Paper -Aero -JRFUploaded byGopi Nath
- keyae.pdfUploaded byArun Kumar
- Castiglianos Theorem GEREUploaded bypgp655484
- DRDO AdvertiseUploaded byGopi Nath
- Aircraft Stability MainUploaded byPranav Deshpande
- Gas Turbine - for Migas IndonesiaUploaded byGopi Nath
- Lecture Outline & NotesUploaded byGopi Nath
- 114 Handy Formulae for Quantitative Aptitude ProblemsUploaded byRaju.Konduru

- Coiled TubingUploaded byBelahmeur Salah
- Configuration Description - LG34Uploaded byBreni Sukarno
- Aggregate PresentationUploaded byRahsaan Kirton
- Dll on Science COTUploaded bycattleya abello
- 3D Pinball for Windows: Space Cadet Table Rules and Game StrategyUploaded bysonny
- Software_Notes2018.docxUploaded byAshley
- 1.7 Espaciamiento y Soportes - Performance Pipe Field HandbookUploaded byHeiner Palacios
- ServoUploaded byIttimon Suwanmanee
- Performance Analysis of Rayleigh Fading Channel Over Mimo Wireless Communication SystemUploaded byijteee
- ReadMe dvx10- beta pimp my wii.txtUploaded byShark Boy
- Portuguese Space CatalogueUploaded byFrancisco Silva
- Releasenotes Analyzer Update 2010 08 AugustUploaded bymsallah8379
- JEEP TJUploaded bybrordo
- Chapter 4.pptxUploaded bymarwan
- Samsung 940n Chassis Ls19haa SvcmnlsUploaded byLucian Bălan
- Annual Report 2014Uploaded bysawwe
- Predictive Maintenance_Training course.pptUploaded byWaleed Tahawy
- Ddw June 2012 Ms_finalUploaded byMohammad Areyan Raaj
- EC-K9KUploaded byJorge Luis Garcia Arevalo
- COBOL ProgrammerUploaded byapi-77251118
- Installing Oracle 10 Gx eUploaded byEmy Othman
- Powershell Scripting_ 2 Manuscripts--Powershell and Wireless Hacking - Logan StylesUploaded byNandan Bisht
- Image Processing labviewUploaded byAditya Mohan
- Oliva CurriculumUploaded bychonac
- Tk050503 Slides MaximUploaded bypoonam390
- Ahmed Siddiq Hyderabad 00.08 YrsUploaded bykumar_3233
- Brianna Gallagher Resume March 2015Uploaded byBrianna Gallagher
- Google Drive TrashUploaded byFernanda Torres
- ASG2 - Group Presentations_vs1Uploaded byWang Xizhen
- G3412Uploaded byHarish Ranger