The Wonderful World Of Magnetism AND Electromagnetic Waves

(a Research Project for EE 341A 7-8 am)

Submitted to: Engr. Rolieven Caňesares

Submitted by: Richard Regidor

Date: Aug. 16, 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS

PART 1 .

was followed up by the French scientist André Marie Ampère. Subsequently. Gilbert applied scientific methods to the study of electricity and magnetism. who found that a magnetic needle could be deflected by an electric current flowing through a wire. When a piece of iron is stroked with lodestone. which showed a connection between electricity and magnetism. The mineral lodestone. each has two sides or ends called north-seeking and south-seeking poles. who had measured the forces between electric charges. HISTORY OF STUDY The phenomenon of magnetism has been known of since ancient times. until the English physicist and physician William Gilbert published his book Of Magnets. This discovery. has the property of attracting iron objects. later verified Michell's observation with high precision. is one of the fundamental forces of nature. important investigations of magnets were made by the French scholar Petrus Peregrinus. His discoveries stood for nearly 300 years. More subtle effects of magnetism. Magnetic forces are produced by the motion of charged particles such as electrons. the theories of electricity and magnetism were investigated simultaneously. who studied the forces between wires carrying electric currents. however. and the Great Magnet of the Earth in 1600. an aspect of electromagnetism. and Chinese. and through a series of experiments. in 1750. indicating the close relationship between electricity and magnetism. He pointed out that the earth itself behaves like a giant magnet. an oxide of iron. It was known to the Greeks. he investigated and disproved several incorrect notions about magnetism that were accepted as being true at the time. The most familiar evidence of magnetism is the attractive or repulsive force observed to act between magnetic materials such as iron. The French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY In the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Magnetic Bodies. are found in all matter.MAGNETISM INTRODUCTION Magnetism. In recent times these effects have provided important clues to the atomic structure of matter. Like poles repel one another. and unlike poles attract. He showed that the attraction and repulsion of magnets decrease as the squares of the distance from the respective poles increase. In 1819 an important discovery was made by the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted. The compass was first used for navigation in the West sometime after AD1200. The unifying frame for these two forces is called electromagnetic theory. The magnets thus produced are polarized —that is. the iron itself acquires the same ability to attract other pieces of iron. Romans. and by the French physicist Dominique François . In the 13th century. the English geologist John Michell invented a balance that he used in the study of magnetic forces.

As shown here. This discovery demonstrated that electric currents produce magnetic fields. the magnetic field lines circle around the current-carrying wire. or in compounds containing these elements. while Faraday showed that a magnetic field can be used to create an electric current. Subsequent studies of magnetism were increasingly concerned with an understanding of the atomic and molecular origins of the magnetic properties of matter. when combined with Langevin's theory. In 1831 the English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that moving a magnet near a wire induces an electric current in that wire. who predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as an electromagnetic phenomenon. “molecular” magnetic field in materials such as iron. In 1905 the French physicist Paul Langevin produced a theory regarding the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of paramagnets. The . Magnetic Fields and Currents Hans Christian Oersted predicted in 1813 that a connection would be found between electricity and magnetism.Jean Arago. provided an understanding of the periodic table and showed why magnetism occurs in transition elements such as iron and the rare earth elements. After Weiss's theory. Langevin's theory was subsequently expanded by the French physicist Pierre Ernst Weiss. who postulated the existence of an internal. This theory is an early example of the description of large-scale properties in terms of the properties of electrons and atoms. The theory of atomic structure of Danish physicist Niels Bohr. who magnetized a piece of iron by placing it near a current-carrying wire. served to explain the properties of strongly magnetic materials such as lodestone. This concept. magnetic properties were explored in greater and greater detail. The full unification of the theories of electricity and magnetism was achieved by the English physicist James Clerk Maxwell. the inverse effect to that found by Oersted: Oersted showed that an electric current creates a magnetic field. which was based on the atomic structure of matter. In 1819 he placed a compass near a current-carrying wire and observed that the compass needle was deflected. for example.

magnetism is measured in terms of magnetic moments—a magnetic moment is a vector quantity that depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. At any point. will tend to orient itself in the direction of the magnetic flux lines. the filings will line up along the flux lines. and the strength of the magnetic field is proportional to the space between the flux lines. The pattern of flux lines created by magnets or any other object that creates a magnetic field can be mapped by using a compass or small iron filings. where the flux lines are closest together. where the flux lines are farther apart. the flux lines emerge at one end of the magnet. toward the side of the magnet. which is a small magnet that is free to rotate. Other scientists then predicted many more complex atomic arrangements of magnetic moments. the direction of the magnetic field is the same as the direction of the flux lines. . the pattern of flux lines can be inferred. the magnetic field is strongest. when iron filings are placed around an object that creates a magnetic field. then curve around the other end. Thus a compass. revealing the flux line pattern. the magnetic field is weaker. the flux lines can be thought of as being closed loops. (At the atomic level. Magnetic fields are usually represented by magnetic flux lines. Magnets tend to align themselves along magnetic flux lines. Depending on their shapes and magnetic strengths. with part of the loop inside the magnet.) The German physicist Werner Heisenberg gave a detailed explanation for Weiss's molecular field in 1927. on the basis of the newly-developed quantum mechanics. and part of the loop outside. MAGNETIC FIELD Objects such as a bar magnet or a current-carrying wire can influence other magnetic materials without physically contacting them. different kinds of magnets produce different patterns of flux lines.American physicists Samuel Abraham Goudsmit and George Eugene Uhlenbeck showed in 1925 that the electron itself has spin and behaves like a small bar magnet. because magnetic objects produce a magnetic field. with diverse magnetic properties. and the configuration of the object that produces the magnetic field. At the ends of the magnet. For example. By noting the direction of the compass needle when the compass is placed at many locations around the source of the magnetic field. Alternatively. in a bar magnet.

such as benzene. and also influence charged particles that move through the magnetic field. One classification of magnetic materials—into diamagnetic. according to Ampere's law. Many materials are diamagnetic. KINDS OF MAGNETIC MATERIALS The magnetic properties of materials are classified in a number of different ways. Generally. have a magnetic moment induced in them that opposes the direction of the magnetic field. paramagnetic.Magnetic Field of a Permanent Magnet Iron filings arrange themselves along the lines of a magnetic force. when placed in a magnetic field. making the lines visible. Magnetic fields are used to change the paths of charged particles in devices such as particle accelerators and mass spectrometers. the strongest ones are metallic bismuth and organic molecules. produce magnetic moments in opposition to the applied field. and ferromagnetic—is based on how the material reacts to a magnetic field. Magnets are surrounded by a magnetic field. . and the magnetic lines of force run from one pole of the magnet to the other. when a charged particle moves through a magnetic field. This property is now understood to be a result of electric currents that are induced in individual atoms and molecules. These currents. a charged particle in a magnetic field moves in a curved path. Diamagnetic materials. it feels a force that is at right angles both to the velocity of the charged particle and the magnetic field. enabling the easy establishment of electric currents. Magnetic fields influence magnetic materials. that have a cyclic structure. Since the force is always perpendicular to the velocity of the charged particle.

like iron. and become trapped between the poles of the electromagnet. named after the French physicist Pierre . Separate domains have total moments that do not necessarily point in the same direction. the size of an induced magnetic moment varies inversely to the temperature. When this occurs. when heated. Thus. Paramagnetism in nonmetallic substances is usually characterized by temperature dependence. Oxygen has two unpaired electrons whose magnetic moments align with external magnetic field lines.Paramagnetic behavior results when the applied magnetic field lines up all the existing magnetic moments of the individual atoms or molecules that make up the material. This results in an overall magnetic moment that adds to the magnetic field. The energy expended in reorienting the domains from the magnetized back to the demagnetized state manifests itself in a lag in response. In ordinary circumstances these ferromagnetic materials are divided into regions called domains. This loss becomes complete above the Curie temperature. the atomic moments are aligned parallel to one another. This effect is a result of a strong interaction between the magnetic moments of the individual atoms or electrons in the magnetic substance that causes them to line up parallel to one another. although an ordinary piece of iron might not have an overall magnetic moment. A ferromagnetic substance is one that. in each domain. that is. the O2 molecules themselves behave like tiny magnets. known as hysteresis. eventually lose their magnetic properties. retains a magnetic moment even when the external magnetic field is reduced to zero. Paramagnetic materials usually contain transition metals or rare earth elements that possess unpaired electrons. thereby aligning the moments of all the individual domains. Paramagnetism Liquid oxygen becomes trapped in an electromagnet’s magnetic field because oxygen (O2) is paramagnetic. Ferromagnetic materials. This is a result of the increasing difficulty of ordering the magnetic moments of the individual atoms along the direction of the magnetic field as the temperature is raised. magnetization can be induced in it by placing the iron in a magnetic field.

is the basis of the electric motor and the transformer. friction. In more recent times. Powerful magnetic fields are used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. This experimental train in Germany reaches 435 km/hr (270 mph). who discovered it in 1895. an important diagnostic tool used by doctors. Magnetic Levitation Train Magnetic levitation trains levitate above the track by means of a magnetic suspension system. the development of new magnetic materials has also been important in the computer revolution. These domains are actually smaller regions of magnetization that are either parallel or antiparallel to the overall magnetization of the material. reducing friction. . the bubble indicates either a one or a zero. large. The electromagnet. powerful magnets are crucial to a variety of modern technologies. for example. Magnetic materials are also important constituents of tapes and disks on which data are stored. Scientists are developing magnetic levitation trains that use strong magnets to enable trains to float above the tracks. Magnetic levitation trains can reach extremely high speeds. and noise. thus serving as the units of the binary number system used in computers.Curie. Depending on this direction. thus reducing or eliminating vibration. Computer memories can be fabricated using bubble domains. (The Curie temperature of metallic iron is about 770° C/1300° F. In addition to the atomic-sized magnetic units used in computers.) APPLICATIONS Numerous applications of magnetism and of magnetic materials have arisen in the past 100 years. Superconducting magnets are used in today's most powerful particle accelerators to keep the accelerated particles focused and moving in a curved path.

read/write heads for hard disks and tape drives. including motors. . and so on. you can create all sorts of things. speakers. The magnetic field produced by an electric current forms circles around the electric current.An electromagnet works because an electric current produces a magnetic field. By using this simple principle. solenoids.

The first hint was an unexpected connection between electric phenomena and the velocity of light. First. say. But electric current and charge are related! We could have just as well based the unit of current on the unit of charge--say. This second definition turns out to be quite different. the ratio of the two units of current turns out to be the speed of light. Faraday also showed that a magnetic field which varied in time--like the one produced by an alternating current (AC)--could drive electric currents.000. there is also the attraction and repulsion between parallel electric currents. when flowing in a straight wire. It is possible to use this to define a unit of electric charge. That was "magnetic induction. with a force of unit strength (actual formulas make this precise). as the current which. But second.000 meters per second. for every meter of the wires' length. and we already know that electric currents produce magnetic fields." the phenomenon on which electric transformers are based. if (say) copper wires were placed in it in the appropriate way. magnetic fields could produce electric currents. 1 meter. Electric forces in nature come in two kinds. there is the electric attraction or repulsion between (+) and (-) electric charges. and if meters and seconds are used in all definitions. as the current in which one unit of charge passes each second through any cross section of the wire. attracts a similar current in a parallel wire 1 meter away with a force of unit strength. So. as the charge which repels a similar charge at a distance of.PART 2 electromagnetic waves Perhaps the greatest theoretical achievement of physics in the 19th century was the discovery of electromagnetic waves. One could then define the unit of current. 300. .

where the motion is regular and the wave stretches out indefinitely with regularly spaced peaks and valleys. Light from the sun and distant stars reaches the earth by traveling through the vacuum of space. It creates a wave that travels along the rope in a direction that is perpendicular to the initial up and down movement. they are similar to waves on a rope or waves traveling on the surface of water.NATURE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES The waves that accompany light are made up of oscillating. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM . through which to travel. The waves associated with natural sources of light are irregular. the vibration that creates them is perpendicular to the direction in which they travel. or perpendicularly. Because electromagnetic waves are transverse—that is. or substance. The electromagnetic wave formed by these fields travels in a direction perpendicular to the field's strength (coming out of the plane). light does not need a medium. Such regular waves are called monochromatic because they correspond to a single color of light. or vibrating. which are force fields that surround charged particles and influence other charged particles in their vicinity. The relationship between the fields and the wave formed can be understood by imagining a wave in a taut rope. to each other in a plane (vertically and horizontally for instance). Unlike these waves. electric and magnetic fields. however. Scientists think of such waves as being made up of many smooth waves. These electric and magnetic fields change strength and direction at right angles. like the water waves in a busy harbor. which require a rope or water. Grasping the rope and moving it up and down simulates the action of a moving charge upon the electric field.

infrared light.5 x 1014) Hz. Waves with frequencies a little higher and wavelengths shorter than human eyes can see are called ultraviolet. visible light. about one-half to three-quarters of a million billion (5 x 1014 to 7. The electromagnetic spectrum refers to the entire range of frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic waves. and radio waves have wavelengths ranging from several meters to several thousand meters. The frequencies of these waves are very high. and gamma rays. The longest wavelength we can see is deep red at about 700 nm. Each different frequency or wavelength of visible light causes our eye to see a slightly different color. Visible light. and the rest is infrared. is a mixture of all the colors in the visible spectrum. which makes up only a tiny fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum. Light traditionally refers to the range of frequencies that can be seen by humans. Most light sources do not radiate monochromatic light. The shortest wavelength humans can detect is deep blue or violet at about 400 nm. X rays have wavelengths ranging from several thousandths of a nanometer to several nanometers. is the only electromagnetic radiation that humans can perceive with their eyes. Waves with frequencies a little lower than the range of human vision (and with wavelengths correspondingly longer) are called infrared. What we call white light. ultraviolet light.The electromagnetic spectrum includes radio waves. about 3 percent is ultraviolet. x rays. with some represented more strongly than others. such as light from the sun. microwaves. About half the energy of sunlight at the earth's surface is visible electromagnetic waves. . Their wavelengths range from 400 to 700 nm.

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