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Ecology is the scientific study of the interrelationship

among and between organisms, and
between them and all aspects, living and non-living, of
their environment.
Wildlife is defined as any undomesticated organism.

A survey is, in Britain, a legal requirement on major projects and is called an EIA
(environmental impact assessment). It is often carried out on projects where it is
not a legal requirement. These surveys cover habitats and species and must give
careful consideration on the timing, method and expertise used in carrying it out.

Species protected by law in Britain include:

great crested newt
 bats
 badgers
 nesting birds
 water vole
 otter
 natterjack toad
 reptiles
 dormice
 red squirrel.
Some specific sites are locally, nationally or internationally recognised, including:
 local nature reserves
 Sites of Specific Scientific Interest (SSSIs)
 Bird sanctuaries
 National parks
 World heritage sites.

assessment for a broad range of habitats and species, and offers ecological advice for
a wide variety of needs.
development, planning and conservation. We ensure that clients are aware of
ecological issues, and give practical and innovative solutions, allowing them to
effectively plan and complete their project

A full range of botanical survey and assessment work is conducted. Surveys include
Phase 1 Habitat Survey, National Vegetation Classification surveys, hedgerow and
river survey and botanical monitoring.
advice on habitat creation, management, conservation and enhancement.

surveying and monitoring protected species

presence/absence surveys, population estimates and specialist surveys such as radio
tracking and tree climbing.
Guiding clients through the licensing process with protected species
assessing new developments for their environmental impact. Working with
developers, engineers, architects and planners

development of habitat management plans for sites and species

collation, analysis, presentation and management of spatial ecological data. We
provide high quality digitised maps to complement field work.

Surveys can be carried out to recommended protocols or custom

designed for particular species or habitats where standard methods
are inappropriate.

The most basic form of ecological survey is the Phase 1 Habitat

Survey (is a system of mapping habitats as a baseline to further survey work)
which is designed to map vegetative habitats within a site.

The most common ecological survey undertaken in preliminary site

investigations in an Extended Phase 1 Habitat Survey. This builds
on the habitat classifications by including species lists additionally
providing details on protected species such as badgers, bats or
reptiles which may be utilising the site.

From this further detailed protected species surveys can be

undertaken. Such surveys provide species information for mitigation
during works which may be carried out at the site. This information
can then be included in an Environmental Statement, which are
increasingly a requirement of larger developments.

Alternatively, the information gained from an Extended Phase 1

Habitat Survey can be used to produce a management plan which
provides guidance on measures that can be implemented in order to
enhance the wildlife value of the site.

services include:

• Extended Phase 1 Habitat Survey for environmental assessment

• Protected species services undertaken by fully licensed surveyors
• Species translocations eg. reptiles
• National Vegetation Classification (NVC) Survey
• Botanical Surveys
• Hedgerows Regulations Assessment
• Environment Agency River Corridor and River Habitat Survey
• Surveys of specialists groups eg. lichens and invertebrates
• bird surveys
Protection of Badgers Act 1992 It is
a serious offence to kill, injure or take a badger, or to
damage or interfere with a sett unless a licence is obtained from a statutory authority.
Great crested newts are protected under the
Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981
The Conservation (Natural Habitats &c.) Regulations1994
the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000.
The protection that great crested newts receive makes it illegal to intentionally or
recklessly disturb, harm or kill great crested newts.
Therefore the presence of this species on a site is a material consideration where
developments are proposed or when considering a change in land use.

All UK bats and their roosts are protected by law. Since the first
legislation, introduced in 1981, that gave strong legal protection to all bat species and
their roosts in England, Scotland and Wales, additional legislation and amendments
have been implemented in all countries within the UK. the Countryside and Rights of
Way Act 2000.
 Intentionally or recklessly disturb a bat in its roost or deliberately disturb a group of
 Damage or destroy a bat roosting place (even if bats are not occupying the roost at
the time)



Mitigate – for those impacts that you can’t avoid.

Mitigation may have to be approved and licensed by third parties.
"Mitigation" means all actions, both taken and not taken, which eliminate or
materially reduce the adverse effects of a proposed activity on the living and
nonliving components of a wetland system or their ability to interact.
Rectifying the impact by repairing/rehabilitating/restoring the affected
environment. Reducing the impact over time.

Create replacement habitat on- or off-site when mitigation is not adequate
and a reduction in wildlife habitat species or interest looks inevitable.
"Compensation" means actions taken which have the effect of substituting some form
of wetland resource for those lost or significantly disturbed due to a permitted
development activity; generally habitat creation or restoration. Compensation is a
form of mitigation.
Replacing or providing substitute resources or environments.

Remember the hierarchy:

 enhance
 mitigate
 compensate.

Revegetate with appropriate seed mixtures

Re-seeding disturbed mineral soil for erosion and weed control.
Create wildlife trees in destroyed forest areas.

Projects can license acres of land (land aquistion) for wildlife

management to compensate for permanently flooded land for reservoir
projects for example.
Compensation for certain bird habitats include purchasing of riparian
Eg from the 1970s


The construction questions to be satisfactorily answered are:

 Does the proposed method of construction minimise the damage to, or even
improve, the environment, taking into account all aspects of sustainability?
 Have the quality issues been satisfactorily addressed?
 Have the safety issues been satisfactorily addressed?
 Is everything proposed legal?
They are all tied together

Use the example of P.M Hospital as basis
Aim: ‘create innovative and sustainable designs’
Innovation: Quality-Safety
Susutainablity: Enviro

Regarding quality, we are particularly interested in the quality of item produced (the
finished product). A level of quality can be fixed in relation to the money available and
the features required.
----new materials were tried out in PMH –innovation allowed.
new materials based on assessments of risks (inc. safety and environmental) and their
consequences- innovation can increase quality but can also decrease safety
Another link between quality and safety: other resources used (plant/labour)- cost-
effective-- safety compromised?-Is it legal?
----Insulation+ significantly (saved £200,000 in next 15years)
innovation can increase quality and can also increase enviro
Quality-Enviro ……

A fundamental global aim of infrastructure projects is to ensure that they enhance the
world we live in and solve problems, not create them.
----Minimise waste eg crushing machine
eg saved £200,000 in making walls fit plasterboard
enviro-safety- Cleaner site- safer site(working conditions)
‘sustainable site is a safer

From an environmental persepective:

1.Does the proposed solution improve the environment?- ‘Quality’ (in the immediate
sense) Use of materials, Material sources
2. Does the scheme meet the environmental requirements for sustainability?- Legal
Use of land, Animal habitats
3. Does the solution minimise the damage to the environment?- Envro.
Eg resource choice and utilization-covers monitoring/reducing use of eg.
water, energy, timber
4.Does the solution minimise the damage to the environment?- Safety (enviro. Issues
can affect the people)
Eg waste and emissions- covers ways of reusing/recycling waste and
minimising harmful emissions. Chemical impact e.g. smell, noxious,
Pollution of water courses…….

Legislation exists at local, national, international levels and is continually changing.
There are also Agreements and Protocols which parties are asked to sign up to.
Government departments and agencies monitor pollutants (enviro) in their area of
responsibility and can be empowered to stop work proceeding.
Working within the constraints imposed by legislation are important, particularly
and environmental legislation. Eg A survey is, in Britain, a legal requirement on
major projects and is called an EIA (environmental impact assessment) There are
legal implications of not carrying out an appropriate environmental impact study.
Legal requirements to ensure construction up to necessary standard-quality