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Nowadays, television program is no longer confined to simply news, documentary and current affairs program but there are also reality show programs. Reality show program is one of the programs that people can show their talents. In other countries, reality programs are common especially in the United States of America (USA). For instance, when Survivor debuted in the summer of 2000 in North America, "reality TV" genre started to gain popularity among TV broadcasters. The program itself attracted many viewers across the globe including Malaysia, where it had its Malaysian fan base.
A section in a research by Moy Tow Yoon and Romana Garma, 2006 further discussed attributes that reality television also is a genre of television programs that capture the "ordinary" people in without a script, create a publisher-situation (Rankin, 2004). Akademi Fantasia (2003), One In A Million (2006), Sehati Berdansa (2007), Gadis Melayu (2008), Wakanabeb! (2009) and Tangkap Muat (2010) are among the examples of reality TV shows in Malaysia that attracted huge audiences. These programs were developed either with licensed or unlicensed adaptations. The dramatic increase of popularity of reality shows indicated the world phenomenon had become phenomenal in the Malaysian entertainment industry.
Other than that, there were many reality shows that had made history in terms of community participation and income generation. Explorace is one example of such shows in Malaysia. The first season of this show was able to attract approximately 2.3 million viewers and it became one of the most successful and popular reality game shows in Malaysia (Utusan Malaysia, 23 February 2005). The program required participants to undergo extreme challenges and travel across the nation. Malaysian youths were certainly the main target audience of the show as well as promotional events that accompanied the program.
Talent reality shows are also common in Malaysia, with Akademi Fantasia being the most watched reality show. Other examples are Mentor, Bintang RTM, and One In A Million, just to name a few. Each program had its own way to attract viewers. From the perspective of the number of spectators and fans of this reality program, these programs were different in terms of demand and ratings. For instance, Akademi Fantasia’s viewers, voters and fans were different than the viewers of Mentor and Bintang RTM. Hussin (2005) reported that the third season of Akademi Fantasia created such craze among the Malaysian public that it raked in RM1.7 million through audience short messaging system (SMS) responses for the final round. Mawi, the eventual winner, has since become the nation’s hottest celebrity with the local media describing the hype surrounding him as “Mawimania”. In comparison with Akademi Fantasia and Mentor, Bintang RTM recorded the lowest rating albeit being in the show business for a long time.
Preliminarily. still receives the lowest viewership from the Malaysian audience compared to Akademi Fantasia and Mentor. Mentor recorded the highest in its history when it attracted almost an average of 2. Then in 2003.9 million audiences every week. it had make profit through the votes made by audiences up to RM2. In the first season of Akademi Fantasia in 2003. Decreasing demand plus excess supply of reality shows will create a loss in an organization. The first show was the Bintang RTM. Mentor received 2. It attracted more than 1. This research attempts to study the demand for reality TV shows in Malaysia. These two programs were the only reality TV show that managed to survive until now although the demand for them indicates a gradual decline. Akademi Fantasia is said to run its eighth and final season this year despite being the most watched reality talent show in Malaysia. dubbed the King of SMS.The demand for reality programs can be viewed from various angles. came Akademi Fantasia that changed the whole entertainment industry. Problem statement. The rating increased in the second season with a total of 2. The demand for reality shows Mentor as well as a difference between the AF and the RTM program. This entertainment value may be derived from the reality shows’ participants’ behaviour. concepts. Akademi Fantasia season 2 managed to get profit up to RM15 million for the whole season. Perceived entertainment value from the audience also affects viewership hence demand for these shows. In 2004. won the competition. specifically Akademi Fantasia. its viewership had declined gradually until the sixth installment. visual presentation and so on. Therefore.7 million votes in the final.7 millions viewership in the first season. According to Hussin (2005).81 million audiences. Akademi Fantasia was a phenomenal show among the audience especially the third season of Akademi Fantasia where Mawi. But in season four. Reality TV shows are not new in Malaysia as they had been in the local entertainment scene since 1973. despite being in the industry for so long. Mentor was broadcast. Later on. Mentor still could not compete with Akademi Fantasia as the highest rated reality show in Malaysia. Akademi Fantasia 2 . a research needs to be done to study the reasons behind this decline and to understand Malaysian viewers’ preferences for reality shows particularly Akademi Fantasia. Reality shows in Malaysia are said to lose their edge as evident by their gradual decline in viewership. Audience participation is one of the factors that affect the demand for these shows. The decline in viewership will make the broadcaster unable to achieve the targeted popularity ratings for the reality show. show contents. Mentor and Bintang RTM and factors that influence such demand.5 million. However. Bintang RTM. Lack of response and declining viewership will make the audience demand less for a reality show. On the other hand. there are several factors that were discussed in precedent research. Meanwhile. Mentor and Bintang RTM. although Akademi Fantasia had the highest rating and was the most watched reality show in 2003. TV channels are deemed as important in determining the demand for such a reality show. Akademi Fantasia was broadcasted on pay satellite TV Astro whilst Mentor and Bintang RTM were broadcasted on commercial TV stations TV3 and RTM respectively. according to Syed Halim Syed Jalaludin (2011).
To analyze the reasons for the decline in viewership of these reality TV shows. Statistics shows that the demand for Akademi Fantasia. Therefore. and usually features ordinary people instead of professional actors. Hypothesis. reality television is a genre of television programming that presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations. a new reality program called Akademi Fantasia had changed the whole entertainment industry where the contestants or ‘students’ had to compete to get a chance of becoming a start in the show business. According to Annette (2005). This research has outlined three main objectives as follow: 1. To justify whether there is a decline in the demand for reality TV show in Malaysia in the last three seasons. in order to get more understanding about the demand for these reality programs. the question that this research attempts to answer is – Why there are ups and downs in the demand from the audience for these programs? Research objective. in 2003. Bintang RTM and Mentor indicated annual increments in the last decade. 2. three hypotheses were developed. However. For the past 10 years. 3 . 3. changes in audience’s preferences and unsuitable content. sometimes in a contest or other situation where a prize is awarded. documents actual events. Therefore. 3. There are several factors that influence the demand for reality show such as marketing. The decline in demand is due to weak marketing strategy. To study the factors that affect the demand for reality TV shows in Malaysia. The demand for reality TV shows in Malaysia declines periodically. the demand for these programs had been remarkable. 2. The hypotheses are: 1. Literature Review The phenomenon of reality programme in Malaysia started since 1973 with Bintang RTM was the first show. lack of creativity and innovation.8 will be the final season to be broadcast while Mentor and Bintang RTM are still trying to attract more viewers like Akademi Fantasia. creativity and innovation in creating the show and audience preferences.
Moreover. Another research by Waisbord (2004) points out that structural and institutional linkages television industry is part of the effects of globalization and it will increase integrated businesses which will lead to a higher profit. four out of five Americans say that there are too many reality shows on the air. Besides that. according to him. globalization. Akademi Fantasia. Nabi et al (2003) further pointed out that viewers watched reality programs because ‘they are entertaining’. trade agreements between countries or region may also affect this factor. (2003) as in Hall (2006). social networks and others. viewers in Malaysia particularly in Klang Valley were motivated by 5 factors namely Suspense. idealism. This phenomenon had triggered more production of reality shows and the demand from the audience for these programs recorded annual increments. tranquillity. eating. 2011). the number of viewers is decreasing nowadays. Bintang RTM. acceptance. honour. According to Moy and Romana (2006). the audience will watch a reality show if the program provides greater satisfaction to them. In Malaysia. curiosity. recorded a gradual decline until the sixth instalment (Utusan Melayu. Romance/Attractiveness of Contestants and Sensationseeking. However. these programs have changed the industry. Akademi Fantasia had recorded stunning viewership and also had changed the local entertainment landscape through SMS votes. despite being in the industry for 35 years. the most prominent elements of the programs’ appeal were their perceived novelty and value. and saving. This is related to study done by Reiss and Wiltz (2004) as in Moy and Romana (2006) where they found that people pay attention to stimuli that are relevant to the satisfaction of their most basic motives. family order. Globalization in the entertainment context includes expanding scale and increments in social interaction and networking such as the Internet. social contact. vengeance. despite the rise in the numbers of reality programs since the last decade. independence. namely power. Engaging/ Entertaining. there are 16 criteria why audience watch a reality show. For instance. which only received the highest rating in its third season. Some researches study about factors that contribute toward the development of reality shows. In the USA. and they tend to ignore stimuli that are irrelevant to their basic motives. According to Reiss (2004). the Malaysian version of Idol survived only for two seasons. Personal Identity and Social Interaction. status. For instance. there are several researches that study factors that make reality programs appealing to viewers. recorded low viewership every year compared to other reality programs. romance. according to AP-TV Guide poll. Research found that there are 5 major factors that underlying motivations towards popular reality show in television.For the past 10 years. According to empirical study by Nabi et al. physical exercise. There are too many reality shows. A section in a research by Hall (2006) further discussed attributes that make reality programs 4 .
Lastly. reality show “Mencari Cinta” is one of the programs in Malaysia that have inappropriate content. Quota policy is used to reduce the inflow of foreign programmes into local market as well as to protect local programs and culture (Baltruschat. Malay dramas and most reality show programs in Malaysia are the best examples. sitcom. One element that was mentioned regularly was the show’s perceived novelty. they must contract audience and contestants for the actual TV program as well as basing the elimination of contestant on telephone votes. Research has found that creativity and originality are lacking in many reality shows (Juliana Abdul Wahab. This program only survived for one season. Hall (2006) found that novelty of the show was of great importance because of the plot structure and unpredictable outcomes or endings. the study pointed out the fun seeing people humiliate themselves as a main point why viewers like watching talent shows such as American Idol. 2010). Then. Inappropriateness of the content is the one of the reasons. First. There are also factors that might be the reasons decreasing popularity of reality programs. As a result. Other attributes that made reality programs appealing were the comedic nature of the programs. The attributes were varied. they must provide forums for viewers to give comments (Baltruschat. A section in a research by Zaharom (1996) further discussed that even magazine. Another interesting result from that study is sensation-seeking factor is the factor that motivated males’ audience to watch the show the most while for female audiences. According to Fremantle Media’s format. Audiences in Malaysia tend to less participate in the voting process yet they are vocal about local reality shows (Romana & Roy. Interestingly. According to Juliana Abdul Wahab (2010). the broadcasters should have specific “look” in set design and colours and so on followed by the role of host and judges and others. entertainment values play an important role in engaging them into the shows. 2009). Hall (2006) summarized it as schadenfreude – taking pleasure in other people’s misfortune. Moy and Romana (2006) also stated that the most motivational factor to watch reality television show is suspense factor. 2006). as they were mainly perceptions from different individuals. they prefer foreign reality shows than the local ones. These components become the bases for most reality shows nowadays. Juliana pointed out that most producers of reality shows refused to take a lot of time and spend much money to do a research for their programs or buying the copy right from the foreign version. and drama were adaptations from the West. elements of suspense and they acted as a social function for the viewers. there are four essential components in the Idol program. Additionally.entertaining. It is interesting to note that the reason why local producers committed plagiarism was because the government had implemented quota policy for reality shows in Malaysia. In her paper. 2009). She stated that this program is not suitable with the culture in Malaysia which has Islam as its official religion. they were plagiarising the original versions by tweaking the formats of the program. 5 .
The general demand-supply theory assumes that at any given price. Research Design The aim of this research is to determine the factors and attributes of the demand for talent reality shows in Malaysia. ii. TV3 and RTM respectively and the format used is of AC Nielsen standard. this research will study the demand for these three reality shows on the basis of qualitative factors such as audience’s perception. In addition. the cost of subscription of Astro will be neglected in this study as it portrays a little significance on the demand for Akademi Fantasia.Methodology i. The demand-supply analysis is a fundamental and powerful tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting and important problems (Pindyck & Rubinfeld. 2009). The ratings of each show will be obtained from Astro. namely Akademi Fantasia. Other than that. there are no data on prices for each reality show available. it will investigate the impacts of the reality shows as well as other elements (independent variables) toward audience’s acceptance and perception of reality shows (dependent variable). Therefore. Theoretical Framework This research will be guided extensively by the general theory of demand and supply in microeconomics. this research will also be using secondary data to investigate the number of viewers for the three reality shows used in this research. a given quantity will be produced. Therefore. The concept of demand specifically shows the relationship between the quantity of a good that consumers are willing to buy and the price of the good and the relationship can portrayed by the equation below: Qd = Qd (P) (Pindyck & Rubinfeld. 6 . 2009) Since most reality shows in Malaysia are broadcasted on commercial television stations for free with the exception of Akademi Fantasia which is broadcasted on satellite television Astro. Mentor and Bintang RTM.
c. researchers will be familiarized with AC Nielsen rating format. This research will use random sampling technique with a prediction of 5% margin error. Generally. namely Kuala Lumpur. Sampling and Sampling Technique The target population is all Malaysians currently residing in Malaysia. b. All answers and responses will be coded accordingly for data analysis purpose. However. The questions are divided into three parts with the first part will be on personal background of select samples. Since this research focuses on audience’s cognizance and other subjective factors. Locations for this study are narrowed down to three major cities in the Klang Valley. Data Collection Secondary data. age and occupation. the emphasis will be on primary data collection. the samples are of 18 years old and above and possess at least one set of television at their residences. Ampang and Petaling Jaya. Data Collection Instrument A face-to-face survey using a questionnaire will be manoeuvred to collect primary data. Prior to the secondary data collection. In addition.iii. for simplicity. Most of the questions will be the close-ended type with three to five choices of answer. samples will be segmented into four bases: location. Empirical Framework a. gender. which is the rating for Akademi Fantasia. The second and third parts will deal with reasons for watching the three reality shows and factors that attribute to the decline or increment of viewership respectively. Mentor and Bintang RTM will be obtained from Astro. 7 . TV3 and RTM respectively. This collection is to augment the research by indicating which of any of these three reality shows receives the highest viewership for comparative studies. Research assistants will be hired to assist in the primary data collection. The questionnaire will consist approximately 20 questions that attempt to answer the research question. There will also be open-ended questions that require respondents to give their opinions. this research will conduct a survey on 500 selected samples from the population who are the residents of the Klang Valley area.
The mathematical model is as follows: P = f(X1.…Xn) with P represents demand for the reality shows used in this study and X symbolizes factors that affect the demand for each show. iv. v. This will create bias in the analysis as the select sample may not represent the general views of Malaysians on the demand for the three reality shows. One month will be allocated for fieldwork. X2. X3.d. Secondary data collection commences immediately after approval to conduct this research is obtained. β = Demand factors. which is conducting surveys in designated areas while the balance of the allocated days will be used for analysis and preparation of the final report. 2011. ε = Disturbance term This econometric model will be used in multiple regression analysis that will test the hypotheses as well as predict the possible outcomes of this study. Limitations Time and budget constraints will limit the researchers to conduct a survey across the nation. The final report is predicted to complete in the middle of June before the submission date on July 3. Mathematical and econometric models will be developed to investigate the relationship between demand for reality shows and factors that contribute to the demand. This model is then rewritten in the form of econometric model below: Y = β1 + β2 + β3 + …βn + ε Y = Demand for reality shows. Research Timeframe This research will consume approximately three months to complete. starting with the preparation of this proposal that is due March 8. Data Analysis All data collected from the survey will be analyzed using SPSS. 8 . 2011.
In addition. Respondents who fit the criteria will be chosen randomly to reduce bias. 9 . Expected Results Results are expected to concur with the hypotheses of this research.vi. vii. Delimitations This research will be conducted in select Klang Valley areas to save cost and due to limited timeframe. select respondents may or may not live in the designated areas thus help making this research less bias geographically. Motivational factors such as price value. reality stars’ career development upon completing the shows. Akademi Fantasia records the highest viewership compared to Bintang RTM and Mentor. perceived entertainment value and so on share a positive relationship with the demand for reality shows in Malaysia.
(2009). 3. Communication Quarterly.com/search? q=cache:zG48hhqgl7sJ:www. Microeconomics 7th edition. USA: Pearson Reiss.Mot Toy. (2011).msn.com/id/9315503/ns/today-entertainment Juliana Abdul Wahab (USM). G.my/bharian/articles/AkademiFantasia9terakhir/Article/ index_html+rating+akademi+fantasiberita+harian&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=my&source=www .Canadian Journal of Communication.com. Y.googleusercontent. 10 . 73–86. Jurnal Komunikasi. Retrieved on February 21. Akademi Fantasia 9 Terakhir. Reality TV Formats: The Case of Canadian Idol. (2004) Why People Watch Reality TV.Doris (2009). Zarina Zawawi and Faisal Ibrahim. D. Alice(2006). 54(2). Debating Asian Values: A case study of Malaysian Reality TV Shows. Malaysian Journal of Communication.BIBLIOGRAPHY H. J. 17-32.com.msnbc. 41-59. Pindyck.google. S and Wiltz. Reality Television Programs in Malaysia: A Dream Come True? Sunway Academic Journal. & Rubinfeld. 34.my Viewer’s Perception of Reality Programs. Malaysian Reality Tv: Between Myth And Reality. Retrieved on February 21. 2011 from http://webcache. Surveys says: too many reality shows.bharian. B.Romana (2006). R. 26(2). 2011 from http://today.
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