anorexia nervosain adolescent
• Anorexia nervosa (AN), a form of self-starvation, is an eating disorder characterized by low body weight, a distorted body image, amenorrhea (absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles when otherwise expected to occur in women), and an intense fear of gaining weight. Anorexia nervosa is sometimes referred to as anorexia.
Family and social pressures causes • participation in an activity that demands slenderness, such as ballet, gymnastics, or modeling. It also includes having parents who are overly controlling, put a lot of emphasis on looks, diet themselves, or criticize their children’s bodies and appearance. Stressful life eventssuch as the onset of puberty, a breakup, or going away to school can also trigger anorexia. Cultural causes • Being extremely thin is the standard of beauty for women and represents success, happiness, and self-control. Women are bombarded with messages from the media that they must diet to meet this standard. This conflict leaves most women very dissatisfied with their body weight and shape. • more frequent in white populations than in people of other races • Other causes • Delayed psychosexual development • Almost starved appearance
• Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder with
severe physiologic consequences, characterized by the inability or refusal to maintain a minimally normal weight. Patients have a profoundly disturbed body image as well as an intense fear of weight gain despite being moderately to severely underweight. Causes of anorexia nervosa • Anorexia nervosa has often been seen as an escape from the emotional problems of adolescence and a regression into childhood. Perfectionism and low self-esteem are common antecedents. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse are at risk of developing an eating disorder, usually anorexia nervosa, in adolescence. • Anorexia nervosa occurs most often in girls, usually at puberty or during adolescent between 13-20 years of age • The disorder may be manifested as severe weight restriction controlling by limited food intake, be excessive exercise or by binge eating or purging. Biological causes • anorexia may run in families. If a girl has a sibling with anorexia, she is 10 to 20 times more likely than the general population to develop anorexia herself. People with anorexia tend to have high levels of cortisol, the brain hormone most related to stress, and decreased levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, which are associated with feelings of well-being. Psychological causes • • • • Low self-esteem Feelings of ineffectiveness Poor body image Depression Difficulty expressing feelings Rigid thinking patterns Need for control Perfectionism Physical or sexual abuse Avoidance of conflict with others Need to feel special or
Girls do not appear as sexually developed or as old as their chronologic age Risk factor
Being female. Anorexia is more common in girls and women. A young age. Anorexia is more common among teenagers. Teenagers may be more susceptible because of all of the changes their bodies go through during puberty. They also may face increased peer pressure and may be more sensitive to criticism or even casual comments about weight or body shape.
Weight changes. When people lose or gain weight on purpose or unintentionally those changes may be reinforced by positive comments from others if weight was lost, or by negative comments if there was a weight gain.
Transitions. Whether it's a new school, home or job, a relationship breakup, or the death or illness of a loved one, change can bring emotional distress and increase the riskof anorexia nervosa.
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Sports, work and artistic activities. Athletes, actors and television personalities, dancers, and models are at higher risk of anorexia.
Media and society. The media, such as television and fashion magazines, frequently feature a parade of skinny models and actors. But
If prescribed. psychological. or family psychotherapy or behavior modification therapy” is the best approach. laxatives. Treatment is difficult.5 to 2 pounds every week
. Correct fluid and electrolyte imbalance. depressive disorders. • Denies being too thin • Using diet pills. hypercarotenemia. relationship problems.
• A team approach to care ”combining medical management.10 Decreased gonadotropin levels and hypogonadism may occur among males who are affected. Attempts to correct this flaw through food restriction or purging lead to progressive malnutrition and eventually starvation. and hypothermia.
The onset of the disorder during puberty has
led to the theory that. way. body shape. Signs and symptoms • Loss of menstrual periods • Lack of energy and weakness • Feeling cold all the time • Dry. • Coordinate total treatment program with other disciplines. and agitated AN patients.a nutritionist or dietician teaches the patient about healthy eating. or clothing size • Harshly critical of appearance – Spends a lot of time in front of the mirror checking for flaws.Its goals are to identify the negative thoughts and feelings about weight and the self that are behind the anorexic behaviors. medication • Antidepressant • Antipsychotic Drugs
Neuroendocrine disturbances result in delayed puberty. and treatment. increased growth hormone. amenorrhea.whether the media merely reflect social values or actually drive them isn't clear-cut. and to replace them with healthier and less distorted attitudes. prognosis. and results may be discouraging • Nutritional therapy. these images may seem to equate thinness with success and popularity. and nutrition • Preoccupation with food – Eats very little • Feeling fat. by exerting control over food intake and body weight. and social factors. • Provide information about disease. pathophysiology Anorexia nervosa is the result of a complex interplay between biological. or diuretics • Throwing up after eating • Compulsive exercising nursing management
The most common form of this drug which is administered to AN patients is chlorpromazine. In any case. it is usually given to severely obsessive-compulsive.” • 2000-3000 kilocalories. and stress in a productive. • The patient's altered body image results in a perception of fatness despite being normal or underweight. anxious. fainting. despite being underweight • Fixation on body image – Obsessed with weight. Teach how to deal with difficult emotions. and individual. and adolescents more than older women. group. and headaches • Growth of fine hair all over the body and face • Dieting despite being thin • Obsession with calories. which tend to affect women more than men. fat grams.
Assist client to develop realistic body image/improve self-esteem. anovulation. Individuals with anorexia nervosa maintain a lifelong increased incidence of anxiety. proper nutrition.
“A therapist must win the cooperation of the patient by emphasizing that treatment can free the patient from the obsessive thoughts about food and body weight that have become the sole focus of the patient's life. andobsessivecompulsive disorder. rather than a selfdestructive. and balanced meals. decreased antidiuretic hormone.normal • • Weight every morning .
Reestablish adequate/appropriate nutritional intake.
Counseling and therapy. yellowish skin • Constipation and abdominal pain • Restlessness and insomnia • Dizziness. adolescents are attempting to compensate for a lack of autonomy and selfhood. low estrogen states. nutritional counseling.