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8. Purusharthas - Goals of Life

There is a mistaken notion among many that the Vedic Culture or Sanatana Dharma is against worldly
success or wealth or fulfilling one‘s desires. This is far from being true. Sanatana Dharma promotes
excellence in all spheres of life- in one‘s education, in ones‘ earning of wealth, in one‘s fulfillment of
desires- provided these are done ethically and with wisdom.

Sanatana Dharma appreciates the fact that man is a complex being – he needs intellectual satisfaction to
quench his thirst for knowledge, he needs emotional support and peace of mind, he needs to find creative
outlets for his talents, and he needs means of physical sustenance and conveniences for his bodily
existence, and above all he needs spiritual upliftment and a means to find the Ultimate Truth.
Thus, in order to satisfy such various needs, Sanatana Dharma lays down four legitimate aims for Man
that all men can rightfully seek, that all humans can strive for as a birthright- These four aims are what are
known as the ―Purusharthas‖ – Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha. These four are responsible for
balance in human life and make life a rich and rewarding experience.

The first three, Dharma, Artha and Kama are collectively known as trivarga and all the four as chatur
varga. The scheme of four-fold goals of man, chaturvarga, is one of the principal ideas of the Sanatana
dharma. Like many other things it is based on Vedas, though the scheme as such is found therein. The
Vedic values have been further illustrated by means of numerous narratives in the great epics. The
Mahabharata is regarded as the authoritative text on all the purusharthas.


The first of the goals is dharma, a word which is difficult to translate in English. It has been variously
translated as virtue, duty, faith, religion, righteousness, sacred law justice, and ethics and so on. There is
no word in Latin or English that can truly explain the complex meaning of dharma. Dharma is defined as
the one which upholds and regulates (dharayathi ithi dharma). In a wider sense dharma is a binding force
which upholds and regulates the entire creation just as the gravitational force controls and holds the
material universe as one piece. It is the divine constitution that defines our roles and responsibilities, our
social and moral order,our purpose and goals and the rewards and the results those are appropriate for
our actions.

Dharma exists in all planes, in all aspects and at all levels of creation. In the context of human life,
dharma consists of all that an individual undertakes in harmony with divine injunctions and his own
senseof morality and justice. However to comprehend the true nature of dharma is not an easy task
(dharmasya tatwam nihitam guhayam) what we see in the world and learn from it may not be reliable and
true. What we consider to be right and wrong may not stand the test of truth. Hence to practise dharma
we are advised not only to rely on scriptures and follow their injunctions contained therein but also rely on
the teachings of great mahatmas and act accordingly.

There exists a dharma for the individual as well as for the society or for the nation; ―vyakhti dharma‖ and
―samooha dharma‖. Our scriptures proclaim ―moksha‖ as the parama dharma or the highest of all
dharmas. Dharma is considered the ―root‖ value among all the four aims. The protection of Dharma is of
paramount importance for personal growth and harmony in society. By following Dharma, man makes
himself fit for higher truths.


Artha means wealth. Sanatana dharma recognizes the importance of material wealth for the overall
happiness and well being of an individual. A house-holder requires wealth because he has to perform
many duties to uphold dharma and take care of the needs of his family and society. A person should not
seek wealth for the sake of wealth; but to uphold dharma and help the members of his family and society
to achieve their goals. Lord Vishnu is the best role model for any house-holder. He leads a luxurious life
served by the goddess of wealth herself; but is very dutiful, helpful, responsive and righteous. Similarly
Lord Krishna lived a very luxurious life, but was righteous, detached and balanced. Wealth is not an
impediment to self realization but attachment to wealth is. Seeking wealth through human actions is not
discouraged in Sanatana dharma. Vedic hymns are mostly invocations addressed to gods and goddesses
by men desiring wealth and prosperity. However they also emphasize the need for right intention, right
means and moderation in the pursuit of wealth. Acquiring wealth for the family and for oneself is not sin
but taking what does not belong to oneself, is. Sanatana dharma advocates moderation and balance in
the pursuit of material and spiritual goals. Some think otherwise, ignoring the fact that what is applicable
to an ascetic not applicable to the house-holder.


Kama in a broad sense means desire. We are expected to fulfill our desires by performing our obligatory
duties in the right manner and not by neglecting them. The way of dharma also becomes the way of
fulfillment of desires.In Sanatana dharma there is provision, so long as it is not in conflict with the
principles ofdharma and used for the family and social order, within the boundaries established by
tradition, social norms and scriptures.


For those who have developed dispassion for the world, Indian culture offers the upper tier which forms
the highest values (parama purusharthas), namely, mukthi or moksha, everlasting freedom. There is
hardly anyone who does not want to be free from sorrow. Mukthi however is not freedom from ordinary
sorrow but from the very possibility of being reborn. Mukthi is an absolute value. The lower three values
may be regarded as an instrumental values.

The pursuit of dharma usually begins in the early age when one is initiated in to studies (guru kula
system). The pursuit of artha and Kama begins in most cases after one becomes house holders
(ashrama system). The pursuit of moksha however is the most important of all aims and can begin at any
time. The other aims are preparatory for the final aim. When we follow Dharma, in our performance of
duties and seek Artha and Kama in a proper manner, our minds are purified and we learn that there is
something more to life than these. We learn the limitations of artha and kama, and we get ready to seek
the highest of all values- Moksha.

There are many paths to salvation and any of them could be followed. The main paths are the path of
knowledge (jnana yoga), the path of action (karma yoga), the path of devotion and the path of
renunciation (bhakthi yoga). Whatever the path, help and guidance from a guru is indispensable to one‘s
spiritual journey. A Sat Guru is one who has realized the Truth and whose chief purpose is to remove the
darkness hidden in the hearts and the minds of his disciples and help them find their true selves. The Sat
guru verily is compared to an ocean liner (Big ship) that takes his/her disciples across the ocean of
existence (samsara), and rightfully is considered Divinity in a human form.

Amma says ―Do your Dharma as means to reach final goal Moksha‖.

―The meaning of dharma is ―that which supports‖—that which supports life and existence is the
Atman [Self ]. So, dharma, though commonly used to mean ―one‘s duty‖ or the path that a
person should pursue in the world, ultimately points to Self-realization. In this sense, only
thoughts and actions that support our spiritual evolution can be called dharma. Actions
performed at the right time, with the right attitude, in the right way are dharmic. This sense of
right action can help in the process of mental purification. You can be a business man or a car
driver, a butcher or a politician; whatever your job may be, if you perform your work as
your dharma, as a means to moksha [liberation], then your actions become sacred. That
is how the gopis [wives of the cow-herders] of Vrindavan, who earned their livelihood by selling
milk and butter, became so close to God and finally attained the goal of life.‖-(From Amma‘s
9. Symbols of Indian Culture
Symbols are a distinguishing feature of every civilzation. They represent the central spiritual and cultural
ideas of the people. The word symbol originates from the Greek ‗sum-balloo‘ meaning ‗throwing
together.‘ The antonym for symbolic would be ‗diabolic‘ (throwing apart). Dr. S. R. D. Sastry comments
on the importance of studying symbols in his article contained in the classic reference book for symbols,
‗Symbolism in Hindu Mythology‘:
―A mass of ideas are composed into one mark or symbol, and the history of a nation or the
legend of a life can be read through it.‖
In order to help the common man to gain an understanding of spiritual insights and thereby benefit from
them, the sages of India took great efforts to present these spiritual insights in the form of symbols. The
concept of symbolism is present everywhere in Indian culture – in our traditional forms of dance and
music, in the deities we worship, in the way we celebrate festivals, in our stories and literature, in
paintings and art, in the rituals associated with various life events such as birth, beginning of education,
marriage etc, and even in the way we dress up!

The art of symbolism was created to enable the ordinary man to derive at least some inspiration from
spiritual truths, to keep alive his interest in them and thus make possible the transmission of these
precious ideas from generation to generation as part of the general culture and heritage. A symbol is a
concrete thing which every man can see and remember. If he understands its inner significance, it helps
him to fix the inner meaning more easily in his mind. Even if he does not fully understand the inner
significance, but knows that it represents some inner truth, he can derive some inspiration from it.

Symbols are not only visual symbols, but include all the varied forms of representing a concept
symbolically. This can include a sound symbol, an image, a gesture, an object, a certain
behaviour, etc. Let us discuss some of the popular Symbols of Indian Culture.

Omkara or Pranava or Nada Brahma

The Omkara is one of the most important and popular symbols of Indian Culture. It is
a religious symbol accepted not only in Hinduism but also in Buddhism, Jainism and
Sikhism. It consists of three syllables – ‗A‘ kara, ‗U‘ kara and ‗M‘ akara. The Omkara
represents the condensed essence of all sound vibrations of the universe, hence it is
also called as ‗Sabda Brahman‘ or ‗Nada Brahman‘ (sound form of Brahman).
The Omkara is also called as Pranava (definition: prakarshena nooyate iti pranavaha
– that which renews itself ever or that by which Brahman is praised).
The Vedas and other central scriptures of Hinduism attach great significance to the omkara. The Vedas
declare that all mantras condense into the Gayatri mantra, the most powerful of all mantras and in turn
the Gayatri mantra condenses into the Omkara and finally the Omkara merges into Brahman. The
Kathopanishad declares:
―The goal which all the Vedas declare, which all austerities aim at, and which men desire whenthey lead
the life of continence, I will tell you briefly: it is OM. This syllable OM is indeed Brahman. This syllable is
the Highest. Whosoever knows this syllable obtains all that he desires. This is the best support; this is the
highest support. Whosoever knows this support is adored in the world of Brahma.‖ (ChapterI, ii, 15-17)
The Mundaka Unpanishad declares:
Sarvam Omkarameva - Everything in the Universe is verily the Omkara‖ (1.1)
The Mandukya Upanishad declares:
OM is this imperishable Word. OM is the Universe, and this is the exposition of OM. The past, the present
and the future, all that was, all that is, all that will be, is OM. Likewise all else that may exist beyond the
bounds of Time, that too is OM. (verse 1)
Patanjali Rishi says in the Yoga Sutras:
Tasya vachaka pranavaha - ‗It‘s Symbol is Om‘ (1.27) &
Tajjapasdartha Bhavanam - Repitition of Om should be done with the understanding of its
meaning (1.28)
The garland of the thousand names of Lord Vishnu begins with the Omkaara. As is customary with all
Vedic mantras, the Omkaara precedes every mantra. When these thousand names are chanted
individually while performing archana, each name is prefixed with the Omkaara. For example, ‗Om
Vishnave Namaha‘ etc.
Modern Science today is corroborating the vision of Vedic Rishis. Big Bang theorists suggest that the
primordial sound which was emanated from the big bang explosion was a booming, humming sound like
the Omkara. Let us meditate on the profound meaning of the Omkara

The Swastika is another popular symbol of Indian culture which has travelled all over
the world and become a part of many cultures. It has a rich and profound history
behind it. The Swastika symbol is also very helpful in demonstrating to the students
how a symbol can be misinterpreted or hijacked if symbols are not safeguarded and
The definition of Swastika is Su asti ka – that which is associated with well-being (or
auspiciousness). It is an ancient 5,000 yr old symbol found in many of the seals of
the Indus-Saraswati Civilization. It symbolizes Samsara (wheel) & Brahman
(unchanging centre). It is commonly used even today in Hindu homes during ceremonies, in rangolis, on
door hangings etc., as a symbol of luck and to ward off evil.
Carl Sagan in his book Comet reproduces an ancient Chinese manuscript (the Book
of Silk) that shows comet tail varieties: the comet nucleus with four bent arms
extending from it, recalling a swastika. Sagan suggests that in antiquity a comet could
have approached so close to Earth that the jets of gas streaming from it, bent by the
comet's rotation, became visible, leading to the adoption of the swastika as a symbol
across the world.
Hitler adopted the Swastika because he believed in the erroneous Aryan race theory.
Hitler‘s adoption of the Swastika for his Nazi party led to the demonization of the
Swastika in Europe following the Jewish Holocaust and the Swastika is banned in
many European countries today. NRIs are figting a legal battle in European courts to reclaim the Swastika
in its original form.

Shiva Lingam
The Shiva Lingam is often interpreted by foreigners as a ‗phallic symbol‘.
For example, the encyclopaedia Britannica says, ―In Hinduism, symbol of
the ogd Shiva, worshipped as an emblem of generative power.‘
However, Vaman Shivaram Apte‘s Sanskrit-English dictionary gives
seventeen definitions of the word lingam, some of the important meanings

 The image of a god

 A symptom or mark
 A means of proof, a proof, evidence
 The effect or product which evolves from a primary cause
 The concept of grammatical gender.
Amma has described the significance of Shiva linga in the book Eternal Truth. The following are excerpt
of it.
―My Children. the meaning of word ―linga‖ is the place of dissolution .The universe arises out of the
―linga‖and finally dissolves into it. The word ―Shiva‖, means‘ auspiciousness‘. Auspiciousness does not
have a form. .By worshipping the ―Shivalinga‖, which is a symbol of auspiciousness, the worshipper
receives which is auspiciousness.
The ―Shiva‖ is the motionless principle underlying every movement in the universe, while ―Shakti‖ is the
power that is cause of all movement. The ―Shivalinga‖ is the symbol of unity of ―Shiva‖ and ―Shakti‖.
The ―Shivalinga‖, illustrates that ―Shiva‖ and ―Shakti‖ are not two, but one and the same. This is relevant
in family life as well. The husband and wife should be of one mind. If the man is the support of the family,
the woman is the Shakti, the strength of family. There is probably no other symbol of equality and love
between a man and woman. This is why the ―Shivalinga‖ is given much importance in the Brahmasthan
temples that Amma has established.
We should consider why the ―Shivalinga‖ was given its form. Today scientists say that the universe is egg
shaped. In India, for thousands of years, the universe was referred to as ―Brahmandam‖, meaning great
egg. The ―Shivalinga‖ is a microcosm of that vast cosmic egg. When we worship the ―Shivalinga‖, we are
in fact worshipping the entire universe as auspicious form and as the divine consciousness.
So, the meaning of ―linga‖ is not phallus, for not even fools would pray to male sexual organs for
protection. Only a mind deluded by lust can possibly see the ―Shivalinga‖ as a symbol of lust. We
should explain the principle behind the symbol to such people and thus uplift their minds.
My Children,who benefits from ascribing a non-existent meaning to and ridiculing a divine symbol
that countless millions of people throughout the ages have used for upliftment of their souls. It
only causes anger and conflict‖. ( ET- P86-P92)
Explaining the symbolism of the Shiva Lingam, HH Swami Sivananda of the Divine Life society said:
"Linga means a mark, in Sanskrit. It is a symbol which points to an inference. When you see a bigflood in
a river, you infer that there had been heavy rains the previous day. When you see smoke, you infer that
there is fire. This vast world of countless forms is a Linga of the omnipotent Lord. The Siva-Linga is a
symbol of Lord Siva. When you look at the Linga, your mind is at once elevated and you begin to think of
the Lord.‖

The study of symbols cannot be complete without the most beautiful of all Indian
symbols – the Nataraja. Nataraja is one of the forms of Lord Shiva, he represents
mastery over all art forms, particularly music and dance. Every part of the
Nataraja form is suffused with beautiful symbolism:
 Upper Right Hand Damaru – Nada, Creation etc.
 Upper Left Hand – Flame of Destruction
 Lower Right Hand – Abhaya Hasta -Boon of Protection & Fearlessness
 Lower Left Hand – Gaja Hasta – Viveka or Discrimination
 Right Foot – Jnana – placed on Apasmara Purusha (Ignorance, Slipping of awareness)
 Elevated Left Foot – Moksha.
The famous Nuclear Scientist Fritj of Capra in his book ―The Tao of Physics‖, describes the Nataraja as
the dance of sub atomic particles, the ever changing cosmic rhythm.

Significance of Sankha (conch)

When the conch is blown, the primordial sound of Om emanates. All knowledge
enshrined in the Vedas is an elaboration of Om. Lord Vishnu holds it one of his
hands symbolizing dharma (righteousness) that is one of the four goals
(purushaarthas) of life. The sound of the conch (Sankha naada) is therefore
considered auspicious. The conch sound serves to elevate people's minds to a
prayerful attitude.The conch blown by Lord Krishna is called Paanchajanya.
The sound of the conch is thus also the victory call of good over evil. The conch
is placed at the altar in temples and homes next to the Lord as a symbol of
Naada Brahma (God in the form of Sound), Om, the Vedas, dharma, victory
and auspiciousness. It is often used to offer devotees thirtha (sanctified water)
to raise their minds to the highest Truth.

Significance of lotus

The lotus is the symbol of truth, auspiciousness and beauty (satyam, shivam, sundaram). The
Lord is also that nature and therefore, His various aspects are compared to a lotus (i.e. lotus eyes,
lotus feet, lotus hands, the lotus of the heart etc.). The lotus blooms with the rising sun. Similarly, our
minds open up and expand with the light of knowledge. The lotus grows even in slushy areas. It remains
beautiful and untainted despite its surroundings, reminding us that we too can and should strive to remain
pure and beautiful within, under all circumstances.

The lotus leaf never gets wet even though it is always in water. It symbolizes the
man of wisdom (gyaani) who remains ever joyous, unaffected by the world of
sorrow and change.
This is revealed in a shloka from the Bhagwad-Geeta:
Brahmanyaadhaaya karmaani
Sangam tyaktvaa karoti yaha
Lipyate na sa paapena
Padma patram ivaambhasaa
He who does actions, offering them to Brahman (the Supreme),
Abandoning attachment, is not tainted by sin,
Just as a lotus leaf remains unaffected by the water on it

Symbolic Gestures and Actions

Significance of lighting a lamp

In almost every Indian home a lamp is lit daily before the altar of the Lord. All
auspicious functions commence with the lighting of the lamp, which is often
maintained right through the occasion. Light symbolizes knowledge, and
darkness, ignorance. The Lord is the "Knowledge Principle" (Chaitanya) who is
the source, the enlivener and the illuminator of all knowledge. Hence light is
worshiped as the Lord himself. Knowledge removes ignorance just as light
removes darkness. Also knowledge is a lasting inner wealth by which all outer
achievement can be accomplished. Hence we light the lamp to bow down to
knowledge as the greatest of all forms of wealth. Why not light a bulb or tube
light? That too would remove darkness. But the traditional oil lamp has a further
spiritual significance. The oil or ghee in the lamp symbolizes our vaasanas or negative tendencies and
the wick, the ego. When lit by spiritual knowledge, the vaasanas get slowly exhausted and the ego too
finally perishes. The flame of a lamp always burns upwards. Similarly we should acquire such knowledge
as to take us towards higher ideals.

Significance of saying ‗Namah Shivaya‘

We greet each other with ‗Namah Shivaya‘. The two palms are placed together in front of the
chest and the head bows whilst saying ‗Namah Shivaya‘. This greeting is for all people
younger than us, of our own age, those older than us, our friends, our teachers, our family
and even people whom we do not know. The real meeting between people is the meeting of
their minds. When we greet another with folded palms and bowing down of the head, it is a
gracious form of extending friendship in love and humility. The spiritual meaning is even
deeper. The life force, the divinity, the Self or the Lord in me is the same in all.
Recognizing this oneness with the meeting of the palms, we salute the Divinity in the
person we meet. So ‗Namah Shivaya‘ means ―I bow to the divine in you!‖ indicating
the recognition of God in each being. When we know this significance, our greeting
does not remain just a superficial gesture or word but paves the way for a deeper
communion with another in an atmosphere of love and respect. ‗Shiva‘ also means
auspicious. Is this not the most auspicious way to greet each other?

Amma says, ―Why do we say ―Om Namah Shivaya‖ when we greet people? ―Om Namah Shivaya‖ means
―Salutations to Shiva (the Auspicious One).‖ Every human being in this world is a part of God. So when
we say ―Om Namah Shivaya‖ to someone, we are saying to that person, ―I greet the Divinity within you,
and I want you to know that I love and respect that Divinity.‖( MSB-P129)

Significance of Tilakam

The tilakam or pottu invokes a feeling of sanctity in the wearer and others. Tilakam
is a symbol of spiritual wisdom. It is worn after taking bath. After the bath the
individual gains external purity and spiritual knowledge is the one which creates
inner purity. So tilakam actually links the external purity with internal purity. The
three substances used for tilakam are sacred ash, sandal paste and saffron powder.
Sacred ash represents the presence and protection of Shiva, sandal paste
represents that of Vishnu and saffron (kumkum) that of Devi. The tilakam is applied
on the spot between the eyebrows, which is the seat of memory and thinking. It is
known as the Aajna Chakra in the language of Yoga. The tilakam is applied with the
prayer - "May I remember the Lord. May this pious feeling pervade all my activities.
May I be righteous in my deeds." Even when we temporarily forget this prayerful attitude the mark on
another reminds us of our resolve. The tilakam is thus a blessing of the Lord and a protection against
wrong tendencies and forces.

Significance of offering food to the Lord before eating it

We should partake food with a sathwic (pure, serene) mind. Our

ancestors recommended the offering of food to God before partaking.
Food so partaken becomes Prasad (consecrated offering). Prayer
cleanses the food of the three impurities caused by the absence of
cleanliness of the vessel, cleanliness of the food stuff, and cleanliness in
the process of cooking. It is necessary to get rid of these three impurities
to purify the food, for pure food goes into the making of a pure mind. It is
not possible to ensure the purity of the cooking process because we do
not know what thoughts rage in the mind of the man who prepares the
food. Similarly, we cannot ensure the cleanliness of the food ingredients
because we do not know whether it was acquired in a righteous way by
the person who sold it to us. Hence, it is essential on our part to offer food to God in the form of prayer so
that these three impurities do not afflict our mind.

This is the reason for chanting the following mantra from Bhagavad Gita:
Brahmaarpanam Brahma Havir -Brahmaagnau Brahmanaa Hutam
Brahmaiva Tena Gantavyam- Brahma Karma Samaadhinaha

The whole creation being the projection of Brahman (the Supreme), the food too is Brahman, the process
of offering it is Brahman, it is being offered in the fire of Brahman. He who thus sees Brahman in all
action, reaches Brahman alone.

Significance of Aarati

Towards the end of every pooja or bhajan of the Lord or to welcome an honored
guest or saint, we perform the aarati. This is usually accompanied by the ringing of
the bell and singing, playing of musical instruments and clapping. The flame of the
aarati is waved in a clockwise circling movement to light the entire form of the Lord.
Each part is revealed individually and also the entire form of the Lord. Our minds
are focused on each limb of the Lord as the lamp lights it up. It is akin to silent
open-eyed meditation on His beauty. The singing, clapping, ringing of the bell etc.
denote the joy and auspiciousness, which accompanies the vision of the Lord.
Aarati is often performed with camphor. This holds a telling spiritual significance.Camphor when lit, burns
itself out completely without leaving a trace of it. It represents our inherent tendencies (vaasanas). When
lit by the fire of knowledge which illumines the Lord (Truth), our vaasanas thereafter burn themselves out
completely, not leaving a trace of ego which creates in us a sense of individuality that keeps us separate
from the Lord. Just as the priest reveals the form of the Lord clearly with the aarati flame, so too the Guru
reveals to us the divinity within each of us with the help of the light of spiritual knowledge. At the end of
the aarati, we place our hands over the flame and then touch our eyes and the top of the head. It means -
―May the light that illuminated the Lord light up my vision; may my vision be divine and my thoughts noble
and beautiful‖.

Let us conclude our study of symbols with a beautiful quote from Swami Vivekananda:
―In every religion there are three parts: philosophy, mythology, and ritual. Philosophy of course is the
essence of every religion; mythology explains and illustrates it by means of the more or less legendary
lives of great men, stories and fables of wonderful things, and so on; ritual gives to that philosophy a still
more concrete form, so that every one may grasp it--ritual is in fact concretised philosophy. This ritual is
Karma; it is necessary in every religion, because most of us cannot understand abstract spiritual things
until we grow much spiritually. It is easy for men to think that they can understand anything; but when it
comes to practical experience, they find that abstract ideas are often very hard to comprehend. Therefore
symbols are of great help, and we cannot dispense with the symbolical method of putting things before
us. From time immemmorial symbols have been used by all kinds of religions. In one sense we cannot
think but in symbols; words themselves are symbols of thought. In another sense everything in the
universe may be looked upon as a symbol. The whole universe is a symbol, and God is the essence
behind. This kind of symbology is not simply the creation of man; it is not that certain people belonging to
a religion sit down together and think out certain symbols, and bring them into existence out of their own
minds. The symbols of religion have a natural growth. Otherwise, why is it that certain symbols are
associated with certain ideas in the mind of almost every one? Certain symbols are universally prevalent.
Many of you may think that the cross first came into existence as a symbol in connection with the
Christian religion, but as a matter of fact it existed before Christianity was, before Moses was born, before
the Vedas were given out, before there was any human record of human things. The cross may be found
to have been in existence among the Aztecs and the Phoenicians ; every race seems to have had the
cross. Again, the symbol of the crucified Saviour , of a man crucified upon a cross, appears to have been
known to almost every nation. The circle has been known to almost every nation. The circle has been a
great symbol throughout the world. Then there is the most universal of all symbols, the Swastika.‖