Air enters the nose by passing through the external nares or nostrils.

The mucosa lining the nasal cavity, called the respiratory mucosa, warms the air as it flows pa

Respiratory physiology The major function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with oxygen and to dispose of carbon dioxide. To do this, at least four distinct events, collectively called respiration, must occur: 1. Pulmonary ventilation Air must move into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs are continuously changed and refreshed.

This is commonly called breathing. 2. External respiration Gas exchange (oxygen loading and carbon dioxide unloading) between the pulmonary blood and alveoli must take place. 3. Respiratory gas transport Oxygen and carbon dioxide must be transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream. 4. Internal respiration At systemic capillaries, gas exchanges must be made between the blood and tissue cells. MECHANICS OF BREATHING Breathing is a completely mechanical process that depends on volume changes occurring in the thoracic cavity. ! Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of gases to equalize the pressure. A. TWO PHASES OF BREATHING

In this brief span. Respiratory sounds . Red blood cells carry the oxygen throughout the body. When the lungs expand. (show video or pictures bibee. causing the exhalation process. C. Exhalation Process  When the carbon dioxide reaches the lungs. This enables the body to perform various functions. ] D. building pressure in the chest. These include coughing. such as sending oxygen to the brain. crying. The lungs then eject the carbon dioxide. the carbon dioxide passes from the body through the nose and mouth. the diaphragm contracts and goes down.Inhalation Process  The breathing process begins when a person inhales air through the nose or mouth. This is what causes the rise and fall of the chest while a person is inhaling and exhaling air. sneezing. hiccupping. is repeated. and pumping blood to the heart. the organs are already full of air. inhaling and exhaling. then enters the arteries in the body's circulatory system. filling them up and causing them to expand. fuel and energy it needs in order to function. As the lungs deflate. This entire process. laughing. all occurring within a matter of seconds.amount of air inhaled or exhaled with a normal breath • inspiratory reserve volume – amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume • expiratory reserve volume – amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a tidal expiration • vital capacity –total amount of exchangeable air or the respiratory capacity The residual volume is nonexchangable respiratory volume and allows gas exchange to go on continually. it becomes a form of heat and energy on which the body's tissue feeds. the entire body is given the oxygen. The energy and heat burn into fuel. The oxygen passes through the lungs. ü) B. Respiratory volumes and capacities Air volumes exchanges during air breathing are: • tidal volume . Nonrespiratory air movements Nonrespiratory air movements are voluntary or reflex activities that move air into or out of the lungs. The air is ingested into the body and travels to the lungs. and yawning. turning into carbon dioxide that is carried back to the lungs through the veins. As the oxygen travels through the body.

Emotional factors – some emotional stimuli can modify breathing. Raising levels of carbon dioxide in blood result in faster deeper breathing. and internal respiration Gases move according to laws of diffusion. Most oxygen is transported down to hemoglobin inside RBCs. At body tissues. Most carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate ion in plasma. F. speech. d. exercise. Physical factors. oxygen moves from blood to the tissues where as carbon dioxide moves from tissues to blood. Reflex arcs initiated by stretch receptors in the lungs also plays a role in respiration by notifying neural centers of excessive over inflation. anger. Volition – to a degree breathing maybe consciously controlled if it does not interfere with homeostasis. healthy people. Nervous control –neural centers for control of respiratory rhythm are in medulla and pons. Oxygen moves alveolar air into pulmonary blood. E. gas transport.Bronchial sounds are sounds of air passing through large respiratory passageways. b. e. singing and non respiratory air movements modify both rate and depth of breathing c. Chemical Factors – changes in blood vessels of carbon dioxide are the most important stimuli effecting respiratory rhythm and depth. Carbon dioxide moves from pulmonary blood into alveolar air. Hyperventilation may result in apnea and dizziness due to alkalosis.increased body temperature. and excitement. External respiration. Carbon dioxide acts directly on the medulla via its effect on reducing blood pH. Examples are fear. Vesicular breathing sounds occur as air fills alveoli. . but is the stimulus for those whose systems have become accustomed to high levels of carbon dioxide. falling levels lead to shallow slow breathings. Oxygen is less important as a respiratory stimulus in normal. Control of Respiration a.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful