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The bulb modifies the way the water flows around the hull, reducing drag and thus increasing speed, range, fuel efficiency, and stability. Large ships with bulbous bows generally have a 12 to 15 percent better fuel efficiency than similar vessels without them.
Bulbous bows have been found to be most effective under the following conditions:
y y y
when used on hulls with waterline lengths of more than about 15 m (50 ft) when used on long, narrow hulls when used at speeds close to the vessel's maximum speed
How it works
In a conventionally shaped bow, a bow wave forms immediately before the bow. When a bulb is placed below the water ahead of this wave, water is forced to flow up over the bulb. If the trough formed by water flowing off the bulb coincides with the bow wave, the two partially cancel out and reduce the vessel's wake. While inducing another wave stream saps energy from the ship, canceling out the second wave stream at the bow changes the pressure distribution along the hull, thereby reducing wave resistance. The effect that pressure distribution has on a surface is known as the form effect. Some explanations note that water flowing over the bulb depresses the ship's bow and keeps it trimmed better. Since many of the bulbous bows are symmetrical or even angled upwards which would tend to raise the bow further, the improved trim is likely a by-product of the reduced wave action as the vessel approaches hull speed, rather than direct action of waterflow over the bulb. A sharp bow on a conventional hull form would produce waves and low drag like a bulbous bow, but waves coming from the side would strike it harder. Also, in heavy seas, water flowing around the bulb dampens pitching movements like a squiggle keel. The blunt bulbous bow also produces higher pressure in a large region in front, making the bow wave start earlier.
The bulbous bow concept is credited to David W. Taylor, a naval architect who served as Chief Constructor of the Navy [USA] during the First World War. The concept was first introduced in his design of the USS Delaware, which entered service in 1910. The bow design did not initially enjoy wide acceptance. This all changed in the 1920s, with Germany's launching the Bremen and the Europa. They were referred to as Germany's North Atlantic grey hounds, two large commercial ocean liners that competed for the trans-Atlantic passenger trade. Both ships won the coveted Blue Riband, the Bremen in 1929 with a crossing speed of 27.9 knots (51.7 km/h), and the Europa exceeding her in 1930 with a crossing speed of 27.91 knots.
37) and will have large wave making resistance. With model testing and advanced knowledge of hydrodynamics. to see a large ship without a bulbous bow is a rare sight indeed. the bulbous bow was formulated typically giving a 5 percent reduction in fuel consumption over a narrow range of speed and draft. When the water flows over the top of the bulb. The vertical placement is calculated so that the bulb is just below the surface where it will create a wave in front of the ship interfering with the natural wave of the vessel. bilge bulbs and even stern bulbs but the most 28 consistent results have been achieved with bow bulbs.3-0. Trawlers run at a high value of Fn (0. the bulb looks like a section of a large diameter pipe with a domed end sticking out of the bow of the vessel. Therefore it is favourable to use a bulbous bow.1: Bulbous bow induces a flow field in the region bow section The length of bulb is determined by the stem profile. The results have been proven over countless thousands of deep ocean miles in all kinds of weather by all kinds of vessels. 29 5. Figure 5. which is beneficial to the vessels resistance characteristics. According to Doust (1961). it could reduce the pressure above it. Nevertheless.1 Introduction The design mechanism chosen here is by modifying the hull form by adding a bulbous bow. energy will be transmitted to the water to create those waves and vessels can reach the designed speed with less horsepower. a good conventional design can reduce 10 to15 percent wave making resistance and increase 4 to 5 percent propulsive efficiency.P 1967) Reduction of delivered power also occur as much as 20 percent in a smooth water. it has been generally kept shorter than the bow overhang because of anchoring problem. thereby reducing the amplitude of the bow-wave.2 Basic of bulbous bow Generally. Today. as further forward the bulb extends more advantage will it have. 5. the vessel will run flatter and the overall wave height will be reduced. underwater. Although available in many shapes and sizes such side as bulbs.3 Function of a bulbous bow The functioning of bulbous bow is primarily important to the vessel when moving forward. creating a wave hollow where the crest should be. The benefits of bulbous bow are already well known. Hydrodynamically.CHAPTER V DESIGN OF IMPROVEMENT MECHANISM 5.4 . (Comstock. In this way. J. The vessel can be moved through the water with less waves and overall disturbance to the surface and as a result. 5. the interference of the primary and secondary wave causes an overall reduction in drag.
CB = 0. 5.Advantages and disadvantages of bulbous bow The benefit of a modern day bulbous bow is the reduction of fuel consumption by 12 to 15 percent and will give a better range and higher speed. At a higher speed wave making resistance accounts for the greater part of the drag. Luckily.245 x ( 9. the range of 0. but this is limited to a very narrow range of wave train and heading.31 knots must be achieved by the vessel to reduce the wave-making resistance. When charging into head seas there is a chance of slamming the bulb on the troughs. little time is spent in this speed range. From the calculation. At a low speed (around 6 knots and lower). The most important feature of this pattern was a wave trough just aft of the sphere. at that low speed.31 knots Where. Establishment of hydrostatic data is important to obtain an early thought that bulbous bow can reduce the resistance.81)( 23. H. and the slower you go proportionally. The minimum condition of speed of a trawler to travel in order to reduce the wave making resistance is shown below. The range of Froude number is used to determine the variety of speed in order to get the minimum requirement of advantageous of bulb.987 ) = 3. .758 m / s § 7. the bulb will cause an increase in drag because of its greater wetted surface area. more of the resistance is taken up by wetted surface drag.5 Prediction the Advantageous of Bulbous Bow It is essential to determine the range of benefit in using bulbous bow when the vessel travels. 1957 as follows:1. In addition.63 L = 23. Fn = V gL gL V = Fn x = 0. there will be increased sea keeping ability due to dampening of the pitching motion. From Watson & Gilfillan¶s chart (APPENDIX F). a minimum 30 speed of 7.E.987 m 5. the added power consumption is negligible and generally.55 is the lowest value that can be obtained by a vessel to get the advantage of bulbous bow.6 Procedure to choose bulbous bow Basic procedures for choosing the bulbous bow are given by Sounders.
12. 9. and with the LCB as far aft as possible. The bulb should extend as low as possible. (Appendix B) The value of length. The bulb area should not exceed 5 % in order to avoid risk of slamming damage. It is significant that the most substantial improvement we found in the ballast condition is when the bulb is near the surface. (Comstock. 6.7 Bulbous bow shape and parameter 32 A methodology of bulbous bow design used is Kracht bulbous bow design developed for a low-speed full form ship. 8. C LPR and breadth parameter C BB are obtained by assuming the reference value. 5. There are 3 three types of classification according to the shape of the bulb¶s cross section at the forward perpendicular. 4. The bulb should extend as low as possible consistent with the fairness of the lines of the hull. 13. 7. with its nose projecting forward of the hull. This is to ensure that the bulbs are immersed completely in the water surface.P 1967) 3. again having regard to the fairness of the line. (Appendix A). and should be as short as longitudinal and as wide laterally as possible. the length and the breadth can be found out. The top of the bulb should not approach too nearly at the water surface. the height of the bulb must be decided first. C LPR and breadth parameter C BB are given below: 1.24 ± 0. The draft forward appears to be critical and care should be taken in choosing the ballast operating operation. A. C LPR = 0. After the height. The determination of bulbous bow parameter is important. The bulb must not be treated nearly as an addition or appendage. the other characteristic such as linear and non-linear parameter is established. 10.204 From this reference value. that is. Other parameters can be obtained after the modeling of bulb is undertaken. but the whole fore body should be redesigned as fine load waterline being used with half-angles of entrance of 5 to 10 deg less than those of a normal trawler.199 m . Cost to build and development of the bulb. Useful range of speed of bulb is generally from about Fn = 0. 2. C BB = 0. When considering a bulb bow for a new design it is first necessary to determine whether the speed range is appropriate to its use. In this initial design. O and . J. Unless the lines (forward) are extremely hollow the best position of the bulb is with its (longitudinal) center at the bow.M. The bulb should be as short longitudinally and as wide laterally as possible.05) x ( 23. consonant with fairness in the lines of the hull. 31 5. The chosen bulb of a model trawler is type because its¶ advantageous of sea keeping properties.57.which suggested the possibility of partly canceling the bow wave of the hull by locating a sphere below the surface in the neighborhood of the stem. 11. These 3 types are . (Kracht. C LPR = LP R LPP LPR = C LPR x LPP = ( 0.05 2. The best position for the bulb is with its center at the bow and its nose projecting forward of the hull.987 ) = 1. 1978) The specific value for length.
204 ) x ( 23.14 m 5. Create the surface of bulb . x forward perpendicular can be calculated using to the following formula: Y(x) = [HB² . and then the modeling of the bulb is carried out. HB BB/2 LPR ZB Figure 5.3: Longitudinal profile of bulb 2. The curves are stopped upon reaching ZB (1. Figure 5.2: Linear Bulb Parameter 34 1. Drawing of the upper part of the longitudinal profile of bulb Decide the Forward Perpendicular (FP) in order to attach the bulb to the bare hull.4: Layout of the lower curve of the longitudinal profile 3. This procedure is for the upper part to join the FP point.33 C BB = BB BMS BB = C BB x BBS = ( 0. Layout of half-breadth bulb curve This layout is according to the breadth of the bulb after the calculation.987 ) = 1. Figure 5.8 Bulb Design Methodology The basic particular of the bulb is determined from the initial calculation.5 35 Figure 5. Layout of the lower curve of the longitudinal profile.5: Layout of half-breadth bulb curve 36 4.x²(HB/LPR) ²]0. Taken the distance y(x) below the curve at a longitudinal distance.69 m) at the height above the baseline. The extension of the bulb must fair smoothly to the hull form.
43 m 1.6966 Particular Parameter CABT CABL CVPR Non-Linear 0.9 m 2.2036 0.9 Bulbous bow design The procedures of designing bulbous bow are shown in the flow below: Select one type of bulb Determine the hull form particular ± Lwl. the curve can be plotted to construct a surface of the bulb according to the initial measurement. the surface was rebuilt and merged together to obtain one solid bulb. Assumption of CLPR.After finishing step 3 above.19 m 23. BB Bulb modeling using software Calculate other linear and non-linear parameter of bulb Figure 5.7: Final process of modeling 37 5. Spacing station that is used for this offset is 0. For height above baseline table.1319 0.133 0. Figure 5. T Predict the minimum speed for advantageous of bulb Decide HB.15 m.8: Bulb design methodology 38 Table 5.48 m 1.14 m 5.2: Linear and Non-linear Parameter of bulb (Legend refer to Appendix B) No Parameter 1 2 3 CBB CLPR CZB Linear 0.12 m² 8.17 m² 0.6: Three dimensional surface of bulb 5.9151 m³ 132 m³ Table 5. . Figure 5.0069 5. B. CBB Calculation of the LPR.87 m² 1.0498 0.60 m 1.1: Bulb particulars (Legend refer to Appendix B) NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Particular HB BB BMS LPR LPP TFP ZB ABT AMS ABL VPR VWL Value 1. Rebuild surface and final fairing In the final process.69 m 1.10 Offset Data The offset tables for this bulb are from forward perpendicular of the ship.
5132 0.2008 0.3287/1.9446/2.4636 0.0961/2.8800 1.1905 0.0036 1.2124 0.9478 1.4169 0.3463 0.2708 0.2371 0.5368 0.5462 0 0 0 0 0 0 42 Figure 5.8914/2.4125 0.4777/1.7667/2.4721 0.0296 1.3522/1.8054 0 3 1.314 0.3427 0.4179 0.2383 0.0862 0 Waterline 4 0.3310/1.8635/2.4701 0.8330 Buttock line 2 1.0151/2.1338 8 0.2410/1.5422 0.0715 1.4638 0.5381 0.1172 0 0 9 0.3453 0.0799 0.4171 0.3407 0.39 two data are put forward.2970/1.0557 1.4994 0.5544 0.9291 1.8401 1.2498 0.9172 1 0.9279/2.9876 1.3124 0.0474 1.2244 0.4363 0.3497 0.1777/1.4550/1.2206 6 0.3725 0.5713 0 0 4 1.1617/1.2489 7 0.2174 0.4: Offset data for bulb ± Height above baseline Height above baseline (Ref = WL 6) Station Centerline AP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.3994 0.2062/1.1711 0.8102/2.5702 0.0867 0.5092 0. (Refer to offset and lines plan drawing) 40 Table 5.1477 0 0 0 3 0.079 5 0.0553 1.1417 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 Table 5.0135 1.1413 0.5234 0.0135 1.1455 0.3: Offset data for bulb ± Half Breadth Half-Breadth (m) Station 0 AP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.4509 0.6937 1.2461 0.9246 1.8472/2.1048/1.4101/1.0632 0 0 0 0 2 0.0571/2.9833 1.0789 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0.9846 1.1141 0.2939 0.4412/1.7886 1.9: Lines plan drawing of bulb .3504 0.2859 0.8662 1.0050/2.9196 1.2240/1.5608 0. First data is for below reference waterline and the second data is for above reference waterline of six.0097/2.4946 0.563 0.4762 0.2704/1.0880/2.8960 1.1847/1.
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