This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Submitted By U.SIVA NAGU (07X21A0552)
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE & ENGINEERING PRIYADARSHINI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCES (Affiliated to J.N.T.U Kakinada, Chintalapudi-522 306)
DEFINITION 2. ADVANTAGES 9. DISADVANTAGES . IN WHAT WAY THEY WORK • • • • • • • • • GETTING UNDER THE SKIN THE S4MS CHIP CHIPS THAT FOLLOW FOOT STEPS OXY SENSORS BRAIN SURGERY WITH AN ON AND OFF SWITCH ADDING SOUND TO LIFE ‘CLRION’ AND ‘NUCLEUS’ EXPERIMENT WITH LOST SIGHT FENDING OFF DRUG RESISTANT TB WITH BIOCHIP BIOCHIPS USED TO DETECT AND MONITOR DISEASES TECHNOLOGY 5.CONTENTS 1. IMPLANTABLE BIOCHIPS THE END OF HUMAN FREEEDOM AND DIGNITY 7. TRULY EMBEDDED CHIPS. BIOCHIPS RAISE CRITICAL ISSUES OF PERSONAL PRIVACY 6. 8.
effectively . A simple chip is being is being implanted into tens of thousands of animals especially pets. it is used as a kind of “ test tube “ for real chemical samples. The human body is the next biggest target of chip makers . So integration of humans and chips is achieved this way . A genetic biochip is designed to “freeze” into place the structures of many short strands of DNA ( deoxyribo nucleic acid ) . . Like A computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operations In one second . Typically a biochips surface is no larger than a finger nail . the process used to etch semi conductor circuits in to silicon could also be used to assemble particular DNA molecules on a chip. In no time or at maximum within a short period of time Biochips can get implanted into the body of humans .Anyway such implants are already being experimented with animals . A specially designed microscope can determine where the sample hybridised with DNA strands in the biochip. In a flash of light he saw that photolithography. the basic chemical instruction that determines the characterstics of an organism . in a few seconds . medical researchers have been working since a long period to integrate humans body and chips .INTRODUCTION Biochips were invented 9 years ago by gene scientist Stephen Fodor . Money and research has already gone into this area of technology . DEFINITION:A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performe At the same time inorder to achieve higher throughput and speed . a biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions Such as decoding genes .
They signal from the detector . but drawing blood each time is pain full so patients donot test themselves as often as it is needed . The prototype S4MS chip 22µ W LED. The longer wavelength of light is then detected . A light it at a emitting diode starts of the detection process . depending on the result . The light that it produces hits a fluorescent chemical : one that absorbs incoming light and re emits longer wavelength . the more glucose there is the less light that is detected. but the key design innovation of the S4MS chip has been fully worked out. but another chip currently under development will be injected under skin . and the inefficiencies that come with that mean more power and larger devices. The system is simple and works well . The idea is simple : the LED is sitting in a sea of the fluorescent molecules. almost 40 times less powerful than the tiny power on buttons on a . Diabetics currently use a skin prick and a handheld blood test and then medicate themselves with insulin . THE S4MS CHIP:The new s4ms chip will get underneath the skin sense the glucose level and send the result back by radio frequency communication. because the sugar reduces the amount of light that the florescent chemical re emits . and the result is sent to a control panel outside the body .IN WHAT WAY THEY WORK:The chips are of the size of an uncooked grain of rice small enough to be injected under the skin using a syringe needle . S4MS is still developing the perfect fluorescent chemical. held just a few registered pets . Glucose is detected. In most detectors the light source is far away from the fluorescent molecules. This number is then compared with a database listing of GETTING UNDER THE SKIN :Hausdorffs chips are external . The chips will allow diabetics to monitor the level of sugar glucose in their blood . respond to a feet away by transmitting an identification number .
With its current circuitry it is about the size of a large shirt button. The light is absorbed to varying extends. but the final silicon wafer will be less than a millimeter square. The oxygen sensor will be useful not only to monitor breathing in the intensive care units. Another version of an oxygen sensing chip currently under development sends like pulses out into the body. by passing the often flawed estimate made by patient .He places one sensor in the heel of a shoe and other in the ankle and adds a computer to the ankle to calculate the duration of each stride(step). so the device is self – sustaining. The rushes of blood pumped by the heart or also detected. by the process called induction. Hausdorff is also is also using the system to determine the success of treatment of congestive heart failure . he can directly measure the patients activity level . but elderly patients prone to frequent falls have extremely variable stride times . Jeffery housdoff of the Beth Israel deaconess medical center in Boston has used the type of pressure sensitive resistors found in the buttons of a microwave oven as stride timers . depending on how much oxygen is being carried in the blood. By monitoring the number of strides that a person takes . Oxy sensors The working model of an oxygen sensor uses the same layout. The fluorescent detection itself does not consume any chemicals or proteins. BIOCHIPS USED TO DETECT AND MONITOR DISEASES:CHIPS THAT FOLLOW FOOT STEPS : The civil debate over biochips has obscured their more ethically benign and medically useful applications .computer keyboard. . but also to check that packages of food or containers of semi conductors stored under nitrogen gas. The low power requirements mean that energy can be supplied from the outside. and this chip detects the light that is left. by using this information doctors can change their medication and ask them to do exercises . Young healthy people can regulate the duration of each step very accurately . remain air tight.
associated with diseases such as Parkinson’s. With some miniature radio frequency transmitters. but can we switch the body on and off? Heart pace makers use the crude approach : large jolts of electricity to synchronize the pumping of the heart. dopamine. restoring sight and sound where there was darkness and silence. This oxygen chip is perhaps about two years away. The implant primarily interferes with aberrant brain functioning. . The number of companies already make large scale versions of such detectors. the device is complete. and foam rubber earplugs to hold the chip in place. or tremors. made by US – based medtronics or directed not at the heart but the brain. The implementation surgery is far less traumatic than thalamotony And if there are any post operative problems the stimulator can simply be turned off. Applications range from sick children. they turn off brain signals that cause the uncontrolled movements. The transition of certain semi conductors to their conducting state is inherently sensitive to temperature. Drug therapy for Parkinson’s disease aims to replace the brain messenger. The activa implant . Adding Sound To Life The most ambitious bio engineers are today trying to add back brain functions. the product of the brain cells that are dying. and the erratic movements come charging back. so designing the sensor was simple enough. Brain Surgery with an on off switch Sensing and measuring is one thing. 1997 is a new alternative that users high frequency electrical pulses to reversibly shut off the thalamus. But eventually that drugs affects wear off. cleared for use in the US in AUG.so the same chip is pulse monitor. The electric pulses of the Activa implant. but the dimensions of another temperature – sensing chip has been reduced to 3mm per side. to chemotherapy patience who can be plagued by sudden raises in body temperature in response to their anti cancer drugs.
‘Clarion ‘ and ‘Nucleus’ The two most successful cochlear implants are the clarion ( developed at the university of California at San Francisco (UCSF) and Advanced Bionics Corporation of Sylmar in California) and the Nucleus ( developed at the University of Melbourne. The implant mimics the job of the hair cells. The cochlear implant delivers electrical pulses directly to the nerve cells In the cochlea. High frequency noises ( deep notes) vibrate the base of the cochlea. and spacing the electrodes too close to each other causes signals to bleed from one channel to another. It splits the frequencies of incoming noises into a number of channels ( typically eight) And then stimulates the appropriate part of the cochlea. In normal hearing individuals. and made by cochlear of Sydney. But the success is undeniable.many characterise their new world as being populated with quacking ducks or banging garbage cans.”its pretty amazing .while some recipients of the devices report speech like sounds. which is operated by a minicomputer worn on the patient’s belt. For these individuals no amount of amplification is enough. the spiral-shaped structure that translates sound into nerve pulses. but the cochlear implant is for patients who have lost the hair cells that detect sound waves. and hair cells detect these vibrations. and certainly better than a lot of people anticipated these devices would do”. sound waves set up vibrations in the walls of the cochlea. Theoretically.The success story in this field is the cochlear implant. . Australia). Most hearing aids are Glorified amplifiers.currently two thirds to three quarters of patients (with more recent models) can understand speech without lip reading says Steve Rebscher. Upgrades largely focus on improving the speech processing software. while low frequency notes vibrate nearer the top of the spiral.a member of UCSF team.Australis. The result is a broad brush version of hearing. increasing the number of channels( and electrodes) could improve sound perception. But speech is perceived in an area of the cochlea only 14mm long.
and implanted it at the back of rabbits eyes.the power supply comes from a wire inserted directly into the eye and . Eugene de Juan of Johns Hopkins Wilmer eye Institute is trying to answer that question by using human subjects. For now. the most common cause of lost sight in the developed world. Rizzo has confirmed that his tiny array of light receivers(photo diodes) can generate enough electricity to run the chip. The original chip. which change in position and brightness as De Juan changes the position of the electrode for the amount of current. The big money in eye implant is in Germany .But his results have been startling . inserted directly in to the eye .He has also found that the amount of electricity needed to fire a nerve cell into action is about hundred fold lower in the eye than in the ear.then send it in to the eye as a . With as little as an 8x8 array . In his most recent experiments .One is similar to the US projects in which chips are .so the currents can be smaller.the thickness of human hair.The camera will detect and encode the scene. and john Wyatt of the Massachusetts institute of technology have made a twenty electrode. patients have identified simple shapes out lined by multiple electrodes . Photo receptors are lost in retinitis pigmentosa . and a 25x25 array might give a crude image.put too much stress on the eyes the new version is ten times thinner. are large and some what crude . Several groups are working on implantable chips that mimic the action of photo receptors . The final set up will include a fancy camera mounted on a pair of glasses. Rizzo has detected signals reaching the brain.with the laser also providing the energy to drive the chip.laser pulse. Joseph Rizzo of the Massachusetts eye and ear infirmary . de Juan believes he could approximate character recognition. a genetic disease. the next logical target is the eye. Completely blind patients have seen well defined flashes.using this device .EXPERIMENTS WITH LOST SIGHT:With the ear atleast partially conquered .and the electrodes more closely spaced. where the government has pledged millions of US$.1mm square chip.His electrodes .and in age related macular degeneration . the light sensing cells at the back of the eye.
These “subretinal” chips may block the transport of oxygen and food to the overlying nerve cells. In October. Today. so Everhart Zrenner of the university of Tubinger of Germany is developing ‘chain mail’ electrode arrays.implanted on the surface of the retina. Argonne will begin testing its biochip’s ability to distinguish between different TB strains. and have performed well in laboratory tests. TB patients are often prescribed several antibiotics simultaneously because it takes weeks or months to identify specific TB strains.” “physicians can prescribe the most effective treatment without delay.l The tests will be done on harmless segments of genetic material removed from TB bacteria. 7 to 8 million people become sick with the disease. TB kills more youth and adults than any other infectious disease.” . “If our biochip can do the job. it will help doctors prescribe the best Treatments quickly and possibly help prevent a world wide academic. According to World Health Organization. The biochips are designed to carry out thousands of biochemical reactions simultaneously. and patients can die during this time.the structure at the back of the eye. “But this will be their first test in the realm of real-world medical diagnostics. including US. with plenty of holes for the delivery of supplies. may help stem a global epidemic. They chose TB for the test because new drug resistant strains have sprung up in Russia and can easily spread to the whole world.the other project is putting its implants at the back of the retina where the photo receptors are normally found. Every year.If they can quickly identify specific strains. FENDING OFF DRUG RESISTANT TB STRAINS WITH BIOCHIP TECHNOLOGY:As tuberculosis threatens to make its come back shrouded in a drug resistent form .a new biochip technology developed by Argonne National Laboratory and the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Englehardt Institute of Microbiology. including AIDS and malaria combined.
victims effectively become incubation chambers for new drug-resistant strains. TB is not remarkably contagious compared to other viral and bacterial infections.000 tiny gel pads. and 50 percent showed multiple resistance. the body’s defenses normally keep the bacteria at bay. In impoverished nations. surviving bacteria-those most resistant to the treatment-can reproduce. CHEAPER. FASTER Like computer chips. Attached to each gel pad is a short strand of DNA. With only one exposure. someone can develop the disease quickly. BETTER. In some Russian institutions. guanine(G) and thymine(T). Biochips can perform thousands of biological reactions in a few seconds.If treatment is shortened or inconsistent. Because TB cells grow slowly. which perform millions of mathematical operations a second. However. DRUG-RESISTANT TB Antibiotic resistance results from the natural selection of stronger bacteria over weaker ones. Stronger bacteria have mutated genes that confer antibiotic resistance. unless the immune system is weakened by a disease such as AIDS. or bases – adenine(A). The Argonne/Englehardt biochip is essentially a glass side containing up to 10. these initial studies will set the precedent for similar evaluations of other bacterial and viral diseases. The . cytosine(C). as when living with a person with active TB.with continued exposure. roughly 80 percent of the TB patients were found resistant to atleast one antibiotic. The information in DNA is encoded in long sequences of four molecular units. the unique set of blueprints that determine the building blocks of every living species. where people cannot afford months of medication.antiobiotics must be taken daily for atleast six months to ensure that all the bacteria are eliminated. passing their resistance on to their offspring. each serving as a mini test-tube.If successful. Although airborne.
over conventional Biochips.” EVIDENCE OF SUCCESS The researchers have reason for being optimistic about this project.” . the chip employs the natural tendency of each DNA base to pair with it’s complementary base. In standard TB diagnostics. Results from the throat culture alone can take a month. One of the biggest advantages of Argonne’s Biochips. By fixing only one strand of the double helix to each gel pad. scientists can also use this technique to diagnose a unlimited range of other diseases quickly and efficiently. a skin test is done to determine if they had ever been exposed. “The current round of tests will tell us more. a throat culture is done to determine if the TB is still growing and what antibiotics it resists. “With the advanced biochip technology. “The fact that it has worked in one sample and it wasn’t difficult to perform. shows us that this has a lot of potential. is that they can be cleansed and reused up to 50 times.000 times the material. making them more economical than conventional biochip technology . When tests begin. the gel’s greater size allows them to hold up to 1.” . a patient must endure a number of tests. Also. Finally. we’d be able to get all information we need in a couple of hours”. a chest X-ray is done to determine if TB has damaged any lung tissue. making them more sensitive than any other biochip. By changing the DNA samples in the gels. Second.precise pairing of A on one strand with T on another strand and G with C. a sample of unknown single strands of TB DNA will be spread on a chip and allowed to naturally pair up with single strands of known TB DNA already in the gels. allows DNA to form it’s “double helix”. First. “Without any false positives. A direct match will identify drug resistant TB strains.
covered with millions of strands of DNA like blades of grass. they would move to a larger scale study with more patients and more conditions and then try to get it to work using fluid samples from active TB patients. When the entire chip has been scanned. A biochip. determines which of four possible units.” “But it does give us a good idea of the direction we want to go. not actual fluid from patients. some urgent steps must be taken to speed up the process. that unique collection of foibles and strengths that make them a particular person. is added to the growing DNA strand anchored to each spot.” BIOCHIPS RAISE CRITICAL ISSUES OF PERSONAL PRIVACY DNA microchips will soon be able to reveal to anyone an accurate profile of your personality and potential. also called a gene microarray. green. The computer repeats the process. commanding the addition there of a base to a growing strand of DNA. Before this decade ends.” “Considering that TB is becoming a global epidemic. or blue. a simple sample of anyone’s blood. What everyone fears to lose in the coming decade is their private sense of self. “We’re using DNA . each DNA strand has been lengthened one nucleotide unit. “We’ll be doing a full scale clinical diagnosis bit it’ll take years to get to the market. A computer. much as a TV screen is a field of colored dots.” If successful. layer by layer. In the new millennium there is a chance of loss of individual privacy. called nucleotides. until each DNA strand is an .Everyone’s mind has much more personal things. a summary that can reveal to any stranger the secrets of his innermost self. by varying the wavelength of the scanning beam. bringing the test into the clinical setting is another giant leap. will quickly and cheaply yield a computer characterization of his genes. Just as a scanning beam moves over each individual TV dot instructing it to be red. not in the sense of listening through key holes or reading my e-mail. The first step is to figure out if this has a chance to work.However. tested with a biochip. so a scanning beam moves over each biochip spot. Think of the chip surface as a field of assembly sites. is a square of glass smaller than a postage stamp.
researchers have proved beyond any real dispute that intelligence and major personality traits like aggressiveness and inquisitiveness are about 80% inheritable. How could you use such a biochip to delve into my genes? All you would have to do is to obtain a little of my DNA.his future potential –all are there to be read by any stranger clever enough to interpret his profile. The gene research firm Celera announced Monday it has essentially completed the sequence. When millions of such snp profiles have been gathered – and we’re talking years.Every thing about him that makes him.my behavior . Already the researchers are busily comparing their consensus “reference sequence” to the DNA of individual people. a molecular windows to my soul.000 different snps by year’s end all of which could reside on a single biochip. the sequences that light up will instantly reveal his snp profile. or snps. In my case. Now here is where it gets interesting – and scary. Some single nucleotide snips cause diseases like cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. Every place my DNA has a gene matching one of the biochip strands. Called single nucleotide polymorphism’s. and noting any differences they detect.That much of what he is strongly affected by his genetic makeup. otherwise you and I are identical. these spot differences in the identity of particular nucleotides record every way in which a particular individual differs from reference sequence.every gene that might affect his health.when anyone’s DNA is flushed over a snp biochip . and. The scary part is snps on chips. with over 90% of genes done. Ones snp profile will reflect all of this variation .researchers planned to have identified some 300. Everything genetic about me that is different from you is caused by a few thousand snps. it will stick to it in a way the computer can detect. The mad rush to sequence the human genome is over. not decades – any computers worth keeping will be able to identify other individuals with profiles like mine. One biochip made in this way contains hundreds of thousands of specific gene sequences. say from a blood sample or even a bit of hair. Flush fluid containing my DNA over the biochip surface. particular snps give me red hair and elevated levels of cholesterol in my blood. by .a table of contents of my chromosomes.entire gene or gene fragment.
correlate parts of my profile with particular traits. which until now have been thought too complex to ever analyze. woman. IMPLANTABLE BIOCHIPS END OF HUMAN FREEDOM AND DIGNITY:Will every American citizen soon be forced to receive a programmable biochip implant in their bodies? Will the biochip implant make possible the surveillance and tracking of people by ground sensors and satellites in the sky. and child into a controlled slave.S.examining health records. life destroying technology. and foreign intelligence agencies are taking this technology one giant step further. Implantable Biochips and The End of Human Freedom and Dignity exposes the government plot to wield this invasive. Even behavioral characteristics involving many genes. Texe Marrs quotes an executive officer of the World Future Society ( 27. but no far. brains. There is no place my identity can hide. knowledge. By the year 2000 it will be fully implemented. ears. Many animals and some human beings are already having Biochips implanted. and the like. But U. people will think and act exactly as pre-programmed. New World Order Slave !. foreheads. I’d wager. Through cybernetic. Almost all of the people with implants are unsuspecting victims. They fully intend to use Implantable Biochips to turn every man. hands. a laboratory mouse has a biochip injected into its body. linked together with a massive. All this lies in the future. super computer system? Texe Marrs documents that the United States government is working on such a system at this very moment. At right. Biochips were surgically inserted in their arms. What a tremendous bonanza for the coming Antichrist ! Inject the chip into a man or woman’s brain and he or she instantly becomes a living vegetable and a subservient.000 influential members) as . standard personality tests. biochip brain implants. cannot resist a determined assault by a computer comparing snp profiles. or buttocks without their Implantable Biochips are getting smaller and more powerful(left).
companies are seeding the market for their future offerings.without the patient having to measure a dose or remember to . an authoritative scientific journal. reports that. funded by intelligence agencies.. Naval research laboratory.. The biochip implant could also be used as a universal type of identification card”. The Wall Street Journal says that a U. TRULY EMBEDDED CHIPS:Media Medical And Industrial Complex had a long term plan to implant subcutaneous microprocessor for a variety of help .It would be implanted on the back of the right or left hand so that it would be easy to scan at stores.saying : “A biochip implant could be used in a variety of human applications… A number could be assigned at birth and follow that person throughout life . Science News. This is the stuff of science fiction. entertainment and communication purposes by acclimating a generation of prospective customers to such skin altering conditions. some authorities fear that the Defense Departments intend to produce an “army killer zombies !” One army expert alarmingly calls the new biochip implant a “Frankenstein _ type weapon”. Talk about embedded software! medication that can be dispensed automatically.S. stated : “The smart card is a wonderful idea..but serious medical researchers are developing chips with tiny doses of take it at regular intervals. “New electronic techniques have been developed to eavesdrop on the brain. A top White House official addressing a high tech conference sponsored by IBM. The technique allows outsiders to influence the person’s brain cell conversations and to talk directly with the individual’s brain neurons”. is now able to unite living brain cells with microchips. We need to go beyond the narrow conceptualization of the smart card and really use some of the technology that’s out there”. but even better would be a chip in your ear.
The recent attention to bioinformatics such rekindles the imagination about where blend of bioscience and infotechnology may take us.More probably porn merchants will be the first to capitalize on such in body experiences.In other words they are looking at near term projects such as Genome and Molecular biology research as well as individualized medicine.some programming may be tied to video shows . Looking future ahead when implanted chips are programmed with telecommunications capability they can open new connectivity and entertainment options .offering independent analysis of ventures into bioinformatics. Adrenaline and BMSG will provide a due diligence service for investors and biotech companies . Preserving that the first chips are ‘receive only’.which they define as the art and science of using computational tools to find answers to biological questions.They would become the ultimate pagers : delivering a unification or internal ‘ping’ directly to human neurons. Later the implemented microprocessor will be upgraded to two way capacity transmitting internal data back in the appropriate network through a wireless feed.So that watching a playboy channel show could also trigger the appropriate internal response among chip equipped viewers.sending music or visceral experiences directly through chip. Vital stepping stones but not wondrous or delicious as the future potential applications of bioinfotech. Eventually entertainment providers will begin to exploit this capability .The medical monitoring opportunities are immense but so are the .Their collaborative work will help scientists and it professionals use data mining and knowledge management and process management to investigate biological frontiers. giving you the mosh-pit experiences while watching MTV or feeling the polar freeze while a discovery documentary about Antarctica.
they may resist use of it. 4. TO IDENTIFY PERSON UNIQUELY. So it is users of chip who determine its future . TO RESCUE THE SICK 2. 3.Although it’s a major leap from such tracking of external behaviors to inserting a microprocessor under the skin.It is the ultimate loss of personal privacy when your body is sending signals about where you are and what you are sending. TO LOCATE DOWNED CHILDREN AND WANDERING ALZHEIMER’S PATIENTS. .Predictive network of Cambridge is developing biometric system used computer usage devices. ADVANTAGES OF BIOCHIPS:- 1. Bio-infotech seems to be a promising sector for the region-even acrossriver opportunity that would combine the bio-medical resources in Mary land with the Infotech strengths of Virginia .? Several other to identify roots which towards individuals is bioinfotech interface monitoring connection with personal are already and patterns being media (how followed.But if they feel that it could help in a lot of ways like detecting. TO FIND LOST PEOPLE.minitoring and curing of diseases they can use them intensively. FUTURE:If people feel that they loose their privacy because of Biochips. the eventual outcome could be the same:data gathering and response based on physical connection and the response.including the speed and measure of finger close) to identify and categorize customer.Predictive networks individuals use specific keys and buttons .tracking capabilities.
THEY MAY NOT BE SUPPORTED BY LARGE % OF PEOPLE. . 5. 6.THERE IS A DANGER OF TURNING EVERY MAN .AND CHILD INTO A CONTROLLED SLAVE. THEY CAN PERFORM THOUSANDS OF BIOLOGICAL REACTIONSOPERATIONS IN FEW SECONDS.5. 7.THROUGH CYBERNITIC BIOCHIP IMPLANTS PEOPLE WILL THINK AND ACT AS EXACTLY PRE-PROGRAMMED. 3. 2. IN MONITORING HEALTH CONDITION OF INDIVIDUALS IN WHICH THEY ARE SPECIFICALLY EMPLOYED. THEY RAISE CRITICAL ISSUES OF PERSONAL PRIVACY. THEY CAN PERFORM THOUSANDS OF BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS. 6.WOMEN.THEY CAN BE IMPLANTED INTO ONES BODY WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE. THEY MARK THE END OF HUMAN FREEDOM AND DIGNITY. 4. SIMULTANEOUSLY. DISADVANTAGES:1.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.