Keyterms

Bandura and Ross- social learning theory

- classical and operant conditioning

- aggression

- matched pair design

- mild aggressive arousal

Samuel and Bryant- conservation

- sensory motor stage

- pre-operational stage

- concrete operational stage

- formal operational stage

- standard

- one-judgement

- fixed array control

- extraneous reason hypothesis

- order effects

Hodges and Tizard- critical period

- longitudinal case study

deprivation .ambivalent .anxiety reduction .monotropy ..secure base .privation .saftey .subject attrition .attachment .

and to great losses in World War II era paper drives) At this period appeared the features of the modern newspaper. passing along information about everything from wars and economic conditions to social customs and "human interest" features. The first successful newspaper was the Boston News-Letter. Both the numbers of papers and their paid circulations continued to rise. The industrial revolution. extensive use of illustrations. Indeed. n America the first newspaper appeared in Boston in 1690. relying on the perceived willingness of newspaper editors to expose the ." plus expanded coverage of organized sporting events. bold "banner" headlines. entitled Publick Occurrences. Published without authority. dramatically affected newspapers. played an important role in the exercise of freedom of expression. and those who "leak" stories of corruption in political circles often choose to inform newspapers before other mediums of communication. The rise of "yellow journalism" also marks this era. Newspapers have. often highly sensationalized in content. as it transformed all aspects of American life and society. begun by postmaster John Campbell in 1704. Whistle-blowers.In Renaissance Europe handwritten newsletters circulated privately among merchants. these newspapers are now quite rare due to the atrocious quality of cheap paper then in use. The first printed forerunners of the newspaper appeared in Germany in the late 1400's in the form of news pamphlets or broadsides. its publisher arrested. "funny pages. it was immediately suppressed. By the 1890's the first circulation figures of a million copies per issue were recorded (ironically. and all copies were destroyed. in the modern world. it remained forgotten until 1845 when the only known surviving example was discovered in the British Library.

However.secrets and lies of those who would rather cover them.[32] Revenue has plunged while competition from internet media has squeezed older print publishers . Japan and India are the countries with the largest number of newspapers by average circulation in the top 100. In recent years the number of newspapers slated for closure. the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation. China. Out of the 215 countries and regions. bankruptcy or severe cutbacks has risen²especially in the United States. where the industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since 2001. with 62 on the list he future of newspapers has been widely debated as the industry has faced down soaring newsprint prices. there have been many circumstances of the political autonomy of newspapers being curtailed. slumping ad sales.

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