1

Focussing the musical imagination:
exploring in composition the ideas and
techniques of Joseph Schillinger
by
JEREMY ARDEN
Submission for the degree of PhD in Music
The Department of Music
City University, London
November 1996
Email: arden@zambizi.demon.co.uk
2
Tables and illustrations
6
Acknowledgements
11
Abstract
12
Introduction
13
Chapter1 Joseph Schillinger
15
1.1 Introduction
15
Chapter 2 Summary of the Schillinger system
21
2.1 Overview
21
2.2 Book I: The Theory Of Rhythm
21
2.2.1 Pulse interference
21
2.2.2 Instrumental Forms
23
2.2.3 The determinant or master time signature
25
2.2.4 Rotation and re-ordering
26
2.2.5 Growth series
27
2.3 Book II: The Theory Of Pitch Scales
28
2.3.1 System of selection
28
2.3.2 Application of rhythmic techniques to scales
28
2.3.3 The primary axis and modal modulation
30
2.3.4 Scales constructed on symmetrically spaced 'tonics'
31
2.3.5 Scale expansion and the harmonic potential of scales
31
2.4 Book III: Variation Of Music By Means Of Geometrical Projection
33
2.5 Book IV:The Theory Of Melody
35
2.6 Book V: Special Theory Of Harmony
36
2.7 Book VI:The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody
37
2.8 Book VII:Theory Of Counterpoint
38
2.9 Book VIII:Instrumental Forms
39
2.9.1 Arpeggiation
39
2.9.2 Harmonic strata
40
2.10 Book IX:The General Theory Of Harmony
41
2.10.1 Strata harmony
41
2.10.2 Harmonic density.
44
2.11 Book X:Evolution Of Pitch-Families (Style)
45
2.12 Book XI:Theory Of Composition
46
2.12.1 General approach
46
2.12.2 Part I:Composition of Thematic Units.
47
2.12.3 Part II:Composition of Thematic Continuity
47
2.12.4 Part III:Semantic (Connotative) Composition
49
2.13. Book XII:Theory Of Orchestration
52
2.14.Conclusion
52
Chapter 3 Seminal Techniques
54
3.1 Introduction
54
3.2 Rhythms Produced By Pulse Interference.
54
3.3 The master time signature
56
3.3.1 Sub-grouping the master time signature
56
3.3.2 Squaring the sub-groups
58
3.3.3 Realising the results as a score
59
3.3.4 Incorporating the original sub-group
60
3.3.5 Incorporating rhythms produced by 'fractioning'
61
3.4 Jazz and funk rhythm
63
3.4.1 Introduction
63
3.4.2. Conclusions
67
3.5 Organic forms
68
3.5.1 Rhythms Of Variable Velocity
68
3.5.2 Organic forms in melody
70
3
3.6 Book VI:The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody
71
3.6.1 Introduction
71
3.6.2 Sub-grouping the master time signature
72
3.6.3 Rhythms produced by pulse interference and attack groups
73
3.6.4 Attack groups and squaring techniques
74
3.6.5 The rhythmic co-ordination of melody and harmony
75
3.7 Conclusions
76
Chapter 4 Compositions by the author
77
4.1 Introduction
77
4.2. Acoustic and electroacoustic
78
Chapter 5 Moon Shaman
80
5.1 Background
80
5.2 The bass clarinet
80
5.3 Narrative and metaphor
81
5.4 Form
81
5.4.1 Part I : (bars 1-115)
81
5.4.2 Part II: (bars 160-180)
82
5.4.3 Part III: (bars 181-254)
82
5.5 The tape
82
5.5.1 The relationship between the tape and soloist
82
5.5.2 Sounds of recognisable origin
83
5.5.3 Contextual sounds
84
5.5.4 Bass clarinet sounds
84
5.6 Revision of the score
84
5.6.1 Introduction
84
5.6.2 Pulse analysis
85
5.7 Approach to re-composition
88
5.7.1 Introduction
88
5.7.2 Re-barring
88
5.7.3 Re-composing pitch
89
5.8. Conclusions
92
Chapter 6 Riddle
93
6.1 Background
93
6.1.1 Introduction
93
6.1.2 Collaboration
93
6.2. Form
95
6.3. Word Painting
96
6.4. Pitch
98
6.4.1 Pitch clusters
98
6.4.2 Interval Cells
100
6.5. The tape
101
6.6. Conclusions
102
Chapter 7 Vision and Prayer
104
7.1 Introduction
104
7.2 Literary source
104
7.3 Poetic form and background music structure
105
7.4 Local forms
107
7.5 Bars 1-92: meditation and procession
108
7.6 Bars 90 to 113: transition
111
7.7 Bars 114-122: first climax
113
7.8 The application of Schillingerian concepts
115
7.8.1 Introduction
115
7.8.2 The wave form
115
7.8.3 Pitch axes
116
7.9. Conclusions
117
Chapter 8 Rêve de l'Orb
118
8.1 Introduction
118
8.2 Libellule
118
4
8.2.1 Musical tapestry
118
8.2.2 Time and rhythm
122
8.2.3 Pitch relationships
123
8.2.4 The cell method
124
8.3. Reflections
126
8.3.1 Introducti on
126
8.3.2 Pitch
128
8.4 Cells
129
8.5 Chaleur
129
8.5.1
129
8.5.2 Forms of motion
130
8.5.3 Resistance and climax
133
8.5.4 Acceleration
134
8.5.5 Bar groups
134
8.5.6 Interference rhythms
135
8.5.7 Symmetrical forms
135
8.5.8 Links between movements
138
8.6 Conclusions
140
Chapter 9 Bayo's Way
141
9.1 Origins
141
9.2 The extended tuba
141
9.3 The soloist and the bass line
142
9.4 Form I: narrative, metaphor and trajectory
143
9.5 Form II
146
9.5.1 Rhythm
146
9.5.2 Using squares to create the accompaniment
148
9.6 Pitch
152
9.6.1 Scale
152
9.6.2 Harmony
152
9.7. Conclusions
155
Chapter 10 Make Night Day
157
10.1 Introduction
157
10.2 Title and origins
157
10.3 Instrumental forms
159
10.4 The tape accompaniment
161
10.4.1 Introduction
161
10.4.2 Sound sources and their functions
162
10.4.3 Extensions
162
10.4.4 Gestural sounds
163
10.4.5 Percussive sounds
163
10.5 Rhythm
164
10.6 Section II
169
10.6.1 Rhythmic identi t y
169
10.6.2 Rhythm within the bars
171
10.7. Rhythm in the finale
173
10.8 Pitch
175
10.9. Conclusions
178
Chapter 11 Trilogy
179
11.1 Introduction
179
11.2 Section I
179
11.2.1 Rhythmic structure
179
11.2.2 Counter themes
181
11.2.3 Metre
182
11.2.4 Development of the line
182
11.3. Pitch
183
11.4. Adornment of the line orchestration
184
11.5. Section II
185
11.5.1 Melody and harmony
185
5
11.5.2. Rhythm
189
11.6 Section III
194
11.6.1 Introduction
194
11.6.2 Rhythm
194
11.6.3 Metre
196
11.6.4 Rhythm and orchestration
197
11.7. Rhythm in the finale
199
11.8 Conclusions
201
Chapter 12 Conclusions
203
Bibliography
208
Appendix I: details of accompanying recording
209
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Tables and illustrations
Figure 2.1 The 'interference' of two pulses 21
Figure 2. 2 Pulse 'interference' producing rhythm 21
Figure 2.3 Attack groups distributed through places of attack. 24
Figure 2.4 Rhythm superimposed on attack groups and places of attack 24
Figure 2.5 Metre applied to Figure 2.4. 25
Figure 2.6 Sub-group of the master time signature 25
Figure 2.7 Circular permutation (rotation) of three elements. 27
Figure 2.8 'Interference' rhythm determines intervals of a scale. 29
Figure 2.9 Scales derived from sub-groups of 12. 29
Figure 2.10 Re-ordering of pitches. 30
Figure 2.11 Re-ordering of intervals. 30
Figure 2.12 Two parts based on symmetrically spaced tonics. 31
Figure 2.13 Scale expansion. 31
Figure 2.14 Scale expansion in music notation. 32
Figure 2.15 The harmonic potential of an expanded scale. 32
Figure 2.16 Chord progressions derived from 'geometrical projections' 34
Figure 2.17 Geometrical expansion. Intervals are multiplied by the coefficient 2. 34
Figure 2.18 The axes of melody. 35
Figure 2.19 Oscillatory motion applied to the secondary axis. 36
Figure 2.20 Rhythmic structure of a canon based on 5:4. 38
Figure 2.21 The rhythm 5:4 realised in notation as a canon. 39
Figure 2.22 Two part harmony, attack groups and decorated variation. 40
Figure 2.23 Doubling of harmonic strata. 41
Figure 2.24 Pentatonic scale and its harmonic derivatives. 42
Figure 2.25 Two part harmony with alternating voice leading. 43
Figure 2.26 A density group of three ∑, and its variations. 44
Figure 2.27 Three variations produced by vertical rotation. 45
Figure 2.28 Psychological dial (After Schillinger 1978 page 281). 50
Figure 2.29 Psychological dials and axial correspondences. 51
Figure 3.1 Pulse 'interference' of 3:2. 54
Figure 3.2 Three groupings of the rhythm 3:2. 55
Figure 3.3 The second method of generating rhythm. 55
Figure 3.4 Evolution of the master time signature through a power series. 56
Figure 3.5 Sub-groups of the master time signature 5. 58
Figure 3.6 The relationship of the original sub-group to its square. 59
Figure 3.7 The results of squaring realised as a score. 60
Figure 3.8 Expanding the original sub-group. 61
Figure 3.9 Incorporating 'fractioned' rhythms. 62
Figure 3.10 A 'Charleston' type rhythm (after Schillinger 1978 Figure 140, page 86.) 63
Figure 3.11 Swing, the result of combining patterns of 8 and 9. 64
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Figure 3.12 An example by the author of a funk rhythm based on sub-groups of 16. 65
Figure 3.13 Rhythm based on 32 producing a style more associated with modern jazz. 67
Figure 3.14 Combining rhythms of variable velocity. 69
Figure 3.15 Organic forms of melody. 71
Figure 3.16 Contrasting attack groups. 72
Figure 3.17 Attack group patterns derived from 7:6. 74
Figure 3.18 Squaring techniques applied to durations of attack groups and harmonies. 75
Figure 3.19 Two rhythms determine attack groups and durations. 75
Figure 3.20 The scheme in Figure 3.19, as a score. 76
Figure 4.1 Table of works in order of discussion and categorisation. 77
Figure 5.1 Groups of Semi-quavers suggest pulse, shown below the stave. 85
Figure 5.2 Moon Shaman: opening section pulse groups barred in 4/4. 86
Figure 5.3 Moon Shaman: the weighting of pulse groups in Figure 5.2. 87
Figure 5.4 Pulse groups are modified by the insertion of rests in place of semi-quavers. 88
Figure 5.5 The octave divided symmetrically in five different ways. 89
Figure 5.6 A two 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with 'sectional scales'. 89
Figure 5.7 A four 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with neighbour notes. 90
Figure 5.8 Moon Shaman:bars 1-17. coefficients applied to pulse groups and tonics. 92
Figure 6.1 Results of collaboration: style and embellishment. 94
Figure 6.2 Riddle (time 0'04"): the composer's addition to the text. 96
Figure.6.3 Riddle (time 2'42"): examples of word painting. 97
Figure 6.4 Riddle (time 1'50"): contrast in characterisation. 98
Figure 6.5 The two pitch clusters. 98
Figure 6.6 Riddle (time 1'43"): alternating between pitch clusters 99
Figure 6.7 Riddle (time 0'37" ff): transition between clusters. 100
Figure 6.8 Cell construction from a single starting point. 100
Figure 6.9 Riddle (time 2'01"): interval cells 101
Figure 7.1 Vision and Prayer: two verses from the poem and their outline shapes. 104
Figure 7.2 Vision and Prayer: two climaxes. 105
Figure 7.3 Vision and Prayer: the sections of the piece, their mnemonic and function. 106
Figure 7.4 Vision and Prayer (bars 52-57): the 'heart beat' motif. 107
Figure 7.5 Vision and Prayer : falling cello Phrase. 107
Figure 7.6 Vision and Prayer: falling bass clarinet phrase. 108
Figure 7.7 Vision and Prayer: expansion of the trill coincides with the 'heart beat' motif. 109
Figure 7.8 Vision and Prayer: harmonic structure of tutti chords. 110
Figure 7.9 Vision and Prayer: general movement of pitches from bars 90 to 111. 111
Figure 7.10 Vision and Prayer: comparing the violin motif of bar 93 with earlier passages. 112
Figure 7.11
Comparing the bass clarinet motif of bar 106 with a passage from the finale bar 243.
113
Figure 7.12 Vision and Prayer: rhythmic patterns in the climax. 114
Figure 7.13 Vision and Prayer: the basic pattern of Figure 7.12 with ornamentation. 114
Figure 7.14 Vision and Prayer: primary axis in a melodic phrase. 116
Figure 8.1 Rêve de l'Orb: distribution of pitches between parts. 119
Figure 8.2 Rêve de l'Orb: wandering harp. 120
Figure. 8.3 Rêve de l'Orb: violins before bar 39. 120
Figure 8.4 Rêve de l'Orb: violins take on bird - like roles. 121
Figure 8.5 Rêve de l'Orb: viola phrases suggest a human presence. 121
Figure 8.6 Rêve de l'Orb: the cello provides depth and resonance. 122
Figure 8.7 Rêve de l'Orb: cross fertilisation between parts. 123
Figure 8.8. Rêve de l'Orb: octatonic scales in the woodwind. 124
Figure 8.9 Rêve de l'Orb: cell construction from a single starting point (after Figure 6.8).125
Figure 8.9.1 Rêve de l'Orb : cell networks. 126
Figure.8.10 Rêve de l'Orb: unfolding viola phrase. 127
Figure.8.11 Rêve de l'Orb: pseudo mirror symmetry. 127
Figure 8.12
Rêve de l'Orb: parts develop from different transpositions of the octatonic scale.
128
Figure 8.13 Rêve de l'Orb: clarinet part made from cells derived from the octatonic scale129
Figure 8.14 Forms of motion displayed graphically(after Schillinger 1978 page 284). 131
Figure 8.15 Spiral form (after Schillinger 1978 page 312). 131
Figure 8.16 Rêve de l'Orb: chaleur: bars 1 to 5 132
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Figure 8.17 Patterns of motion in bars 1 to 54 of Chaleur 133
Figure 8.18 Rêve de l'Orb: acceleration in the cello part. 134
igure 8.19 Rêve de l'Orb: the resultant of interference in the harp part. 135
Figure 8.20 Rêve de l'Orb: diagram showing melodic movement in the first half of Chaleur. 136
Figure 8.21 Rêve de l'Orb: bar 106 to 113 ofChaleur 137
Figure 8.22 Resonance of the second movement. 138
Figure 8.23 Rêve de l'Orb : resonance of the first movement. 139
Figure 9.1 Bayo's Way : six sections with bar numbers and descriptions. 143
Figure 9.2 Bayo's Way : the narrative trajectory . 144
Figure 9.3 Bayo's Way : variation of tension throughout the piece as a whole. 145
Figure 9.4 Bayo's Way : the original rhythmic pattern. 146
Figure 9.5 Bayo's Way : four repetitions of the basic pattern with four added semi-quavers. 147
Figure 9.6 Bayo's Way : the original pattern (top stave) and a variation (bottom stave).147
Figure 9.7 Bayo's Way : solo tuba and accompaniment, the latter generated by squaring. 150
Figure 9.8 Bayo's Way : the accompaniment (French horn) and its retrograde (trumpets). 151
Figure 9.9 Bayo's Way : the basic scale of Bayo's Way, and its modifications. 152
Figure 9.10 Bayo's Way : a harmonic structure used to evoke the spirit of Big Band music. 152
Figure 9.10.1Bayo's Way : harmonic progression underlying bars 137 to 156. 153
Figure 9.11 Bayo's Way : the realisation of the progression in Figure 9.10.1. 154
Figure 9.12 Bayo's Way : harmonic block derived from the octatonic scale. 155
Figure 9.13 Bayo's Way : rhythmic realisation of the harmonic structure of Figure 9.12. 155
Figure 10.1 Make Night Day table illustrating sectional form. 159
Figure 10.2 Make Night Day: bar 31 to 34. 159
Figure 10.3 Make Night Day: bars 51 to 53. 160
Figure 10.4 Make Night Day: bars 91 to 93. 160
Figure 10.5 Make Night Day: bars 116 to 119. 161
Figure 10.6 Make Night Day: bars 135 to 138. 161
Figure 10.7 A 'Charleston' Rhythm, after Schillinger 1978, Figure 140 page 86. 165
Figure 10.8 Make Night Day: the sections of the composition and their master numbers. 165
Figure 10.9 Make Night Day: the basic rhythmic material. 166
Figure 10.11 Make Night Day : the rhythm 4:3 worked into a phrase. 167
Figure 10.12 Rhythm produced by 'squaring'. 168
Figure 10.13 Make Night Day : rhythm derived from 'squaring' determines the violin entries. 168
Figure 10.15 Make Night Day :49 quavers grouped in bars of 3/4, 4/4 and 7/8. 170
Figure 10.16 Make Night Day :Figure 10.15, with a four bar introduction (shaded area). 170
Figure 10.17 Make Night Day : rotation of Figure 10.16 170
Figure 10.18 Make Night Day :extension of larger groups through rotation. 171
Figure 10.19 Make Night Day :7:3 determines groups of bars and percussive downbeats.171
Figure 10.20 Make Night Day : two arrangements of the results of squaring. 172
Figure 10.21 Figure 10.21. Make Night Day :the results of squaring realised as a score. 172
Figure 10.22 Make Night Day: cross-fire dualogue in the Finale. 173
Figure 10.23 Make Night Day: first exchange and tape interlude in the Finale. 173
Figure 10.24 Make Night Day :the proportions of the contracting tape interludes. 174
Figure 10.25 Make Night Day :the octatonic scale (top stave) rearranged (bottom stave). 175
Figure 10.26 Make Night Day :scale form A, with interpolated chromatic notes (see arrows). 176
Figure 10.27 F Make Night Day : twelve transpositions of the original scale. 176
Figure 10.28 Form F, of Figure 10.9, is used to create the violin phrase starting at bar 11. 177
Figure 10.29 Make Night Day :form D (Figure 10.27), is evident in the violin part. 177
Figure 10.30 FMake Night Day :the bass clarinet part based on Form C. 177
Figure 11.1 The rhythm 7:2 . as it appears in the score. 180
Figure 11.2 Trilogy: the piano part shows vestiges of the squaring technique. 181
Figure 11.3 Trilogy: attack groups controlled by the Fibonacci series. 182
Figure 11.4 Trilogy: silences controlled by the Lucas series. 183
Figure 11.5 Trilogy: melodic line evolved from interlocking interval cells. 183
Figure 11.6 Auxiliary note arrangement in the melodic cell. 184
Figure 11.7 Trilogy: the original line (violin) and its doubling. 184
Figure 11.8 Trilogy: the basic pitch cell used as a harmonic structure. 185
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Figure 11.9 Trilogy: the original pitch sequence derived from the basic cell. 186
Figure 11.10 Trilogy: the elaboration of the original line shown in Figure 11.9. 186
Figure 11.11 Trilogy: harmonic structures in section 2. 187
Figure 11.12 Trilogy: original (top stave), its inversion (second stave) and the result below.188
Figure 11.13 Trilogy: the timpani part based on 7:3 189
Figure 11.14 Trilogy: the bass and celli parts based on the rhythm 7:6 190
Figure 11.15 Trilogy: the gong plays a rhythm derived from squaring. 190
Figure 11.16 Trilogy: the distribution of the rhythm 7:4 between three instruments. 190
Figure 11.17 FTrilogy: Figure 11.16 realised as a score. 191
Figure 11.18 Trilogy: squaring a sub-group of the master time signature. 192
Figure 11.19 Trilogy: the durations of a melodic phrase in retrograde. 192
Figure 11.20 Trilogy: the rhythm determining attack groups. 192
Figure 11.21 Trilogy: melodic duration and attack groups determine chord duration. 192
Figure 11.22 Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11.21. 193
Figure 11.23 Trilogy: patterns of accents based on the master time signature. 195
Figure 11.24 Trilogy: pattern A and its counter theme produced by squaring. 196
Figure 11.25 Trilogy:scheme of instrumentation for bar 182 ff. 197
Figure 11.26 Trilogy: a scheme showing attack groups and instrumental groups. 198
Figure 11.27 Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11.26. 199
Figure 11.28 Trilogy: expanding and contracting melodic phrases of the finale. 200
Figure 11.29 The melodic phrase (top stave) and its ornamented version below. 201
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11
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my supervisor Dr, Simon Emmerson for all his help.
I would also like to thank my father Professor G.B. Arden and my colleague
Michael Rosas Cobian for their help and support.
I grant powers of discretion to the University Librarian to allow this thesis to
be copied in whole or in part without further reference to me. This permission
covers only single copies made for study purposes, subject to normal
conditions of acknowledgement. Permission to copy volume 2, scores and
tapes, should be gained from the author.
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Abstract
This thesis presents the author's musical compositions in the light of the
theories of Joseph Schillinger. There are two main subdivisions of the thesis:
1) The initial concept and aesthetic background to my work.
2) The role of Schillinger's theories in the technical development of
the music.
In the introduction I discuss the original aim of my research and describe
how it has changed and developed. In Chapter 1, I introduce the work of
Joseph Schillinger and discuss in general terms its significance to the field of
musical composition. In Chapter 2, I present a brief outline of his most
important work. Chapter 3 is a detailed technical discussion in which I
describe Schillinger's theories and illuminate those ideas which are most
significant to my work. Chapter 4 is an introduction to my own compositions,
describing how the aesthetic and technical ideas underlying the works will
be analysed in relation to Schillinger's theory. The compositions are
presented in an order which describes the evolution of my thought as a
composer starting with work completed before my discovery of Schillinger's
theory and ending with my most recent compositions.
The pieces and chapters are as follows: Chapter 5, Moon Shaman for bass
clarinet and tape; Chapter 6, Riddle, for contralto and tape; Chapter 7, Vision
and prayer, for violin, cello, bass clarinet and marimba; Chapter 8, Rêve de
l'Orb, for flute, clarinet in A, harp and string quartet; Chapter 9, Bayo's way,
for tuba with live electronics and brass ensemble; Chapter 10, Make Night
Day, for violin, bass clarinet and tape and Chapter 11, Trilogy, for orchestra.
Chapter 12 is a conclusion to the thesis.
13
Introduction
Original aims
This thesis represents the history of my efforts to solve (as every composer
must do) some of the fundamental problems of musical composition. I
wanted to explore the relationship between imagination and intellect in the
process of composition. My immediate experience of musical imagination
has always been in the form of spontaneous internal sound impressions,
often stimulated by visual images, narrative and poetry. The aim of my
research was to develop a rational method of crafting into coherent
structures the spontaneous conceptions of my imagination. I wanted to
embrace into a single working process, two different forms of musical activity
which might be called the 'spontaneous imaginative', and the 'deliberate
intellectual'. I believed that the assertion of intellectual control over the
products of my musical imagination would allow me to effectively explore an
aesthetic vision.
History of the research
During the period of writing this thesis my ideas and methods of composing
have changed and evolved quite dramatically. I initially decided to devise
compositional strategies by analysing MIDI sequencer recordings of my
keyboard improvisations. This seemed to offer the best chance of capturing
my most spontaneous musical ideas. Having focused my imagination on a
musically stimulating subject, I recorded, via a MIDI sequencer, numerous
'free' keyboard improvisations. My intention was to analyse significant
patterns captured in the recorded data and develop strategies to create
variants of these patterns thereby building larger structures and ultimately
14
complete compositions. This part of my research was to some extent
successful. I collected some valuable material and I believe came to
understand more about my musical predilections. I also developed some
techniques which are described in detail in later chapters. However, it
became clear that this method of working was limited. My efforts to analyse
captured material did not reveal general principles of musical construction
and development and so composing larger structures remained a matter of
trial and error, fitting bits of material together in an ad hoc manner and
improvising my way from one point to the next.
In 1993 I discovered the work of Joseph Schillinger, in particular, The
Schillinger System Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) which is
described in detail in later chapters. This system uses numbers and methods
which it is claimed are derived from basic scientific and mathematical
procedures to describe general principles of musical construction.
Schillinger offers practical solutions to a great number of compositional
problems, in particular the co-ordination of independent musical events
within a score and the generation of large structures. I began to apply his
methods to develop my musical material (with, to my mind, satisfactory
results) and in absorbing and adapting his techniques I feel I have achieved
the basic aim of my research (see section 1. of this introduction).
In studying Schillinger's extensive work I have naturally become fascinated
and involved with his ideas and their significance to composers in general.
While I do not intend this thesis to be primarily a justification of Schillinger's
theories, it is necessary to present some explanations and clarification of his
techniques in order to explain my own work. Chapter 2 is a summary of The
Schillinger System Of Musical Composition, (Schillinger 1978) and attempts
to describe, in very broad strokes, the nature of his ideas; the reader will
soon understand the essence of Schillinger’s theories and I shall attempt to
indicate where (for my purposes) he succeeds and where he fails. Chapter 3
is a detailed exposition of specific Schillinger techniques which I have
personally found to be significant and useful in my own work. Although a
proportion of my compositions presented here were written before I had
encountered Schillinger's work, his ideas are often relevant to the analytical
discussions of the pieces and I partially revised one of them using his
methods.
15
Chapter 1 Joseph Schillinger
1.1 Introduction
Joseph Schillinger was a Russian-born composer and teacher, active in
New York in the 1930s. Today his name is largely forgotten and his books
are not widely read. The unprecedented migration of European knowledge
and culture that swept from East to West during the first decades of the
20thCentury included Figures such as Prokofiev and Rachmaninov, great
composers who were the product of the renowned Russian system of music
education which was geared towards creating truly professional musicians,
Schillinger came from this background, having been a student of the St
Petersburg Imperial Conservatory of Music, where he won the gold medal for
composition in 1918 (Schillinger 1976 page 155). On his defection from the
Soviet Union in 1928 he visited Berlin, and since he was a member of the
Genossenschaft Deutscher Tonsetzer, in honour of his visit, the State Radio
of Berlin broadcast a programme of his music (Schillinger 1976 page 170).
However, unlike his more famous contemporaries
1
Schillinger was a natural
teacher and communicated his musical knowledge in the form of a precise
written theory. He attempted to use mathematical expressions to describe
art, architecture, design (Schillinger 1948) and most insistently, and with
most detail and success, music. Furthermore he tried to apply the same
general ideas to all the arts, so the mathematics for one would apply to all.
His work not only described the theory of music in a new way, it also
predicted certain developments, for example, in the field of electronic music
and encompassed all styles of music most notably American Jazz
2
. In New

1
For an account of Prokofiev's inability to pass on his musical knowledge see, Duke, V.
(1947). Gershwin, Schillinger and Dukelsky. Musical Quarterly 75: 119-24 .
2
In the field of electronic music, Schillinger collaborated with Leon Theremin, the inventor
of an early electronic musical instrument, the Theremin.
16
York, Schillinger flourished, becoming famous as the advisor to many of
America’s leading jazz musicians and concert music composers. These
number, inter alia, Gershwin, Benny Goodman, Glen Miller, Nathan Laval,
Oscar Levant, Tommy Dorsey, Henry Cowell, John Cage and Earl Brown
(Schillinger 1978. page XII). Jazz was of particular interest to Schillinger
because of its unusually active rhythmic structure and while still in Russia,
he had founded the first Russian Jazz orchestra and had applied his
theories to explaining the basis of swing music. Indeed it was his public
pronouncements in a lecture given in the State Academic Choir Hall in
Moscow in 1929 entitled 'The Jazz band and music of the future' (Schillinger
1976 page. 167) that was the cause of his having to flee the Soviet Union.
It is reported (Duke 1947) that those students who knew Schillinger found
him an inspiring teacher. Gershwin spent four years studying with Schillinger
(Duke1947). During this period he composed Porgy and Bess and consulted
Schillinger on matters concerning the opera, particularly its orchestration. At
the same time another Schillinger student, Glenn Miller, famously composed
the hit ‘Moonlight Serenade’ as an exercise for his teacher (Schillinger
1976). John Cage visited Schillinger in 1943 and was apparently greatly
impressed by his ideas on rhythm (Schillinger 1976 page 198).
A small group of students were accredited by Schillinger as qualified
teachers of the system and after his death, one of these, Lawrence Berk,
founded a music school in Boston to continue the dissemination of the
system. Schillinger House, was opened in 1945 and later became the
Berklee College of Music where the system was taught until the 1960's
(Hazell 1995). The system as it is published today was in fact born out of a
series of correspondence courses. These were only fully developed towards
the end of Schillinger's life and so the one-to-one tuition he offered must
have been important to the communication of his ideas. Those students who
never met him wrote to him with their questions and he apparently spent
much time on lengthy replies (Schillinger 1976). Schillinger’s skill as a
teacher rather than a writer might partly explain why his work faded into
obscurity after his death. In 1966 an attempt was made to revive his work.
Charles Colin, and Arnold Shaw (one of the original editors of The
Schillinger System of Musical Composition) produced ‘The Encyclopaedia
Of Rhythm’ (Colin 1976) in which was realised in musical notation a
complete table of the most important rhythmic structures developed from
Schillinger’s theory. There are some hundreds of examples worked out for
17
piano, which the student composer was supposed to transfer directly to his
own work. This, in my view, did Schillinger a great disservice since it
suggested a mechanical approach to composition and (more importantly)
was of no practical use since the master patterns alone cannot be used
effectively without an understanding of the complete system. The production
of an ‘Encyclopaedia’ of this sort suggests that Schillinger’s writings had
already proven indigestible to the would-be student.
It has been suggested that envy played a part in Schillinger’s neglect by the
establishment (Schillinger 1976 page 201). As a result of his postal tuition
courses he became very rich and at one time rented a twelve room
apartment on Fifth Avenue. It would seem plausible that his celebrity status
made him unpopular with the traditional music establishment and that his
ideas would be treated with greater scepticism than they deserved
(Schillinger 1976. page 126).
In 1993 I came across his work in the Westminster Music Library, two large
volumes entitled ‘The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition’
(Schillinger 1978). I began to read the first volume and was immediately
struck by an abundance of mathematical formulae: being largely ignorant of
mathematics I almost decided to not to continue but in the end curiosity got
the better of me and I took them home and began to read. Schillinger, I
found, believed that science was the answer to all things and that, just as in
the realm of physics and engineering, all human endeavours could be better
understood and improved through the application of rational scientific
thought. Music was no exception and if its various components and their
behaviour could be described, then methods could be devised for its
synthesis. Although Schillinger’s work is forward looking, being couched in
an apparently modern ‘scientific’ form, it is also intended to clarify traditional
music theory by debunking misconceptions from the past. Schillinger, it
would seem, was never really celebrated for his own music or for a particular
stylistic innovation made possible by his system. On the contrary he was
clear that his work was meant to allow any style of composition to be
undertaken more effectively (Schillinger 1976 page 126).
My system does not circumscribe the composer's freedom, but merely
points out the methodological way to arrive at a decision. Any
decision which results in a harmonic relation is fully acceptable. We
are opposed only to vagueness and haphazard speculation.
(Schillinger 1978 Page 1356)
18
Schillinger believed that music theory had become mired in tradition and, in
particular, in the 19th Century attraction towards the cult of the inspired
genius. Music education, he believed, was largely based on individual
stylistic observations (such as the tendency of the leading note to ascend or
the 'dominant seventh', to resolve) which were only true in certain cases and
not in others. By revealing the underlying principles of the organisation of
sound through scientific analyses he hoped to free the composer from the
shackles of tradition.
The Schillinger system begins with the Theory Of Rhythm based on the
premise that time is the fundamental dimension in music. To me this was
terribly exciting as it confirmed various half-thought-out ideas of my own. I
soon found that by using the techniques described by Schillinger, I could
create rhythmic structures and phrases of sophistication and balance and
that the most simple material could be made to yield all manner of variations.
In the area of pitch scales, techniques for modal modulation and
redistributing the pitches and intervals of scales, triggered personal insights
into the workings of music such as Jazz improvisation which had always
fascinated me. The most significant advantage in adopting Schillinger’s
ideas was the ability to think and work in large segments of time and to view
an entire piece as being the organic development of the smallest part.
However, I began to question Schillinger's judgement when in The Theory
Of Rhythm, (Schillinger 1978, page 21) he introduced a technique for
constructing pairs of phrases with the comment that ‘These procedures were
performed crudely by even well-reputed composers. For example L. van
Beethoven.....’ Later, in The Theory Of Melody (Schillinger 1978 page 250)
Beethoven is again taken to task over the 'flawed' construction of the
opening melody of his Pathétique Sonata. In 'The variation of music by
means of geometrical projection' (Schillinger 1978 page 193) Schillinger
gives us his own version of J.S. Bach’s Two Part Invention No. 8, in the belief
that Bach had not fully explored his own material. Elsewhere, Schillinger
refers to Mussorgsky, Borodin and Wagner as if they were to be pitied for
their inadequate knowledge of harmony and it is implied that they would
have faired better had they had the advantage of the Schillinger System.
These extraordinary claims inevitably make the reader wonder if any part of
the System has validity, and one suspects that many of Schillinger’s readers
simply abandoned the study of his work at this point. There is no getting
19
away from his excesses: they were not simply of vanity and an uncritical
conviction in his Theory.
Schillinger’s belief in the power of science and mathematics makes much of
his work complex for the mathematically illiterate but it would seem that
Schillinger was no mathematician himself.
3
He consistently misuses
mathematical terms and notation often with highly misleading results (see
Chapter 2 section 2.2) and it seems probable that many readers attracted to
his work because of their own understanding of mathematics were quickly
put off by his dreadful confusions. Schillinger was obviously very keen to be
thought of as a scientist and it would seem that for a musician he had a fairly
active knowledge of scientific development at the time. He was clearly
fascinated by the work of Albert Einstein and it may have been misplaced
admiration or a desire to make his own ideas seem more impressive that
lead him to call the parts of his system which deal with harmony ‘The Special
Theory Of Harmony’ and the ‘General Theory Of Harmony’.
In relating these eccentricities it is easy to make Schillinger sound like a
fraudulent charlatan and obscure the true value of his work. To redress the
balance it is worth mentioning the following anecdote, recounted in
Schillinger's biography (Schillinger 1976). Schillinger was a personal friend
of Shostakovitch, who, clearly fond of his old school fellow, prepared a
doctored photograph which he sent to Schillinger in New York. It showed
Schillinger sitting on a mossy bank arm in arm with Ludwig van Beethoven,
(Schillinger 1976. page 117), the implication of this delightful joke being that
Schillinger was there at the moment of inspiration for the Pastoral symphony
and had also been of some influence on its composition. Clearly Schillinger
was liked and admired by eminent musicians such as Shostakovich who
tolerated his lack of moderation with humour. In my opinion it would be a
mistake to consider Schillinger merely as a numerological crank, who
temporarily succeeded by hoodwinking the ignorant and credulous. His
pupils in America included some of the most distinguished Jazz musicians of
the century and one wonders how eminent musicians such as George
Gershwin and Benny Goodman maintained any interest in his highly

3
For a highly critical account of Schillinger's theories see Backus. (1961). Re: pseudo
science in music. JMT.
20
technical numerical theories, unless they were of immediate practical use. It
is my belief that Schillinger's work has much to offer the contemporary
composer and deserves to be revived. Many of the concepts contained in the
system have already penetrated modern compositional practise
4
and it has
been of incalculable benefit to many of the works presented in this thesis.
The numerous techniques described by Schillinger in the field of rhythm offer
a unique and attractive approach to the student of composition and to some
extent compensate for what I perceive to be an imbalance in composition
literature which is still largely dominated by considerations of pitch. As a by-
product of discussing my work I hope to show that Schillinger's techniques
are like tools which must be used imaginatively. They do not by themselves
compose music - a charge later levelled against Schillinger - but they merely
assist the composer to realise his or her vision through facilitating the
planning and execution of large musical structures.

4
For example Elliot Carter's numerical chord charts (Schiff 1985 pg 324) or Allen Forte's
work on 'pitch class sets' (Forte, 1973)
21
Chapter 2 Summary of the Schillinger system
2.1 Overview
The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) is an
ambitious attempt to provide a complete theory of musical composition. The
entire work is contained in two volumes and totals 1640 pages of text. It is
divided into twelve sections (which Schillinger refers to as ‘branches’) each
of which occupies a separate 'Book'. In order to communicate the essence of
Schillinger's work I will briefly summarise the contents of each Book.
However, I can do no more than describe some of the most significant
themes which refer to the present submission and must omit many
interesting details. The twelve books grouped as two volumes are as follows:
Book I: Theory Of Rhythm.
Book II: Theory Of Pitch Scales.
Book III: Variations Of Music By Means Of Geometrical Projection.
Book IV: Theory Of Melody.
Book V: Special Theory Of Harmony.
Book VI: The correlation Of Harmony and Melody.
Book VII: Theory Of Counterpoint.
Book VIII: Instrumental Forms.
Book IX: General Theory Of Harmony.
Book X: Evolution Of Pitch Families (Style).
Book XI: Theory Of Composition.
Book XII: Theory Of Orchestration.
2.2 Book I: The Theory Of Rhythm
2.2.1 Pulse interference
The Theory Of Rhythm is the foundation of Schillinger's work. Its techniques
are consistently applied in all areas of his writings on music. Schillinger
believes that time (and therefore rhythm) is the fundamental dimension of
music. The Theory Of Rhythm is based on the very simple idea that rhythm
occurs when two or more separate sources of pulse are combined. It is
assumed that the two sources of pulse begin at exactly the same moment but
that their frequencies are different. Schillinger refers to this process as
22
'interference'
5
. He uses numbers and graphs to represent and calculate
rhythmic patterns generated by pulse 'interference'. The numbers represent
durations between pulses and do not tell us anything about their final
musical presentation. For example, the number 2, might represent a note
held for two beats but could equally represent a staccato attack for one beat
followed by a beat of silence. In the following diagram two different pulses
are superimposed. Each column represents a unit of time. Pulse A recurs
every 3 units of time and pulse B recurs every 1 unit of time, (A=3, B=1). The
pulses are represented by down arrows. The double arrows show the effect
of two pulses combining to create a specially strong pulse.
A
↓ ↓
B
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Result
⇓ ↓ ↓ ⇓ ↓ ↓
Figure 2.1 The 'interference' of two pulses.
The strong pulse can be interpreted as a down beat or bar line and in this
way Schillinger explains the phenomenon of metre. Meter only occurs when
A is an integer multiple of B, i.e. A/B = n where n can take the value of
2,3,4,.... etc.
In Figure 2.2, the pulse B does not occur in every time interval. The periods
are characterised by the number of time units between each pulse, as shown
in the left hand column. If the period of B ≠ 1 and the relationship between
the periods of A and B is such that there is no common divisor other than 1 (
for example, 3:2, 4:3, 5:2...), a complex rhythm results.
A=3
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
B=2
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Result (A+B)
⇓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ⇓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Result
displayed
numerically
2

1 1 2

2

1 1 2

Result in
music notation
q e e q q e e q
Figure 2. 2 Pulse 'interference' producing rhythm.

5
This is an example of how Schillinger’s terminology may be confusing. Interference
actually occurrs between wave forms and cannot be simply applied to pulses.
23
In Figure 2.2, two complete cycles of 'interference' are shown. Pulse A recurs
every 3 units of time and pulse B recurs every 2 units of time (A=3, B=2). The
third row shows the result of ‘interference’, that is, the combination of the first
and second rows. In this example the moments when A and B combine are
not shown in bold in the result row (A+B) since the resultant rhythm can be
barred in several different ways as will be explained in chapter 3.
All rhythms generated by this method are repetitive. Each complete cycle is
symmetrical around its centre (2,1,↔1,2). Schillinger suggests that
symmetrical rhythms have important musical qualities: economy, since one
half generates the other, balance due to the mirror symmetry and a quality
Schillinger refers to as contrast, the difference between successive numbers.
In Figure 2.2, the contrast between the numbers is 2-1=1. The greater the
difference between numbers the greater the contrast.
2.2.2 Instrumental Forms
Although presented exclusively in terms of rhythm, this technique touches
on the field of orchestration, being intended to control the entry of different
instrumental groups. The procedure involves the co-ordination of the
following components: rhythms, attack groups, places of attack, and metre.
The different components of this technique are described in more detail as
follows. 'Attack groups' consist of a predetermined number of attacks. Attacks
have no duration and only represent a potential event. Attack groups are
distributed through the 'places of attack'. 'Place of attack' refers to the source
of a sound such as an instrument. For example, two drums represent two
different places of attack. However, places of attack can also be different
parts within a score or the pitches of a scale.
6
For example, an attack group pattern of 3,2,3 means that in successive
places there will be a group of three attacks (group A), followed by a group of
two attacks (group B), followed by a group of three attacks (group C). In the
following example each of the three groups occupy a different place of
attack.

6
It follows that a place of attack could be represented by timbre or even location in stereo
space.
24
·
·
·
œ œ œ
œ œ
œ œ œ
P
l
a
c
e
s
Attack group A
Attack group B
Attack group C
Figure 2.3 Attack groups distributed through places of attack.
The next step is to superimpose a rhythm of durations on the attack group
pattern. In Figure 2.4, there are three places of attack (parts). The attack
group pattern is (1,3), that is, one attack followed by three attacks. This
pattern is distributed through the places of attack but in addition the rhythm of
durations 4:3, (312213) is superimposed. The rhythm 4:3, is shown above
each part in small type and the attack groups are labelled with bold type
below the parts. Short solid lines show how the attack groups are distributed
through the places of attack.
·
·
·
,
œ œ
,
œ œ

,
œ œ œ œ
œ

œ

œ

,
œ
3
1 2 2
1
3 3 1
2
2 1 3
1
3
1
3
1
3
p
l
a
c
e
s
Figure 2.4. Rhythm superimposed on attack groups and places of attack
25
The final step is to introduce metre, and in Figure 2.5, the above example is
now shown barred in 3/4, a metre.
·
·
·
¸
,
¸
,
¸
,

Œ ‰
,
œ œ
œ
,
œ ‰ Œ
Œ
,
œ ‰ Œ
œ .
Œ ‰
,
œ œ

. œ
œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ


Figure 2.5. Metre applied to Figure 2.4.
2.2.3 The determinant or master time signature
Schillinger develops a number of powerful techniques based on a function
he calls ‘The Determinant’. The determinant is simply the numerator of the
time signature or the number of beats in the bar. From now on I will refer to
the 'determinant' as the master time signature. Schillinger states that the
master time signature represents the rhythmic style of an entire piece
7
or
even the rhythmic origin of a national style (Schillinger 1978 page 72). In
addition the master time signature is at the centre of a several important
techniques (described in more detail in chapter 3) which generate rhythmic
structures.
1)The master time signature can be divided into sub-groups in order to
evolve a set of related rhythmic patterns. This method is described in detail
in Chapter 3. Each pattern created by this method fills one bar. For example,
if the master time signature = 4 a typical sub-group would be 3+1. The
following diagram shows this realised in music notation.
/ ¸
¸
˙

œ
3 + 1 (=4)
Figure 2.6. Sub-group of the master time signature

7
I refer the reader to Chapter 11, (section 11.6.2), which is a discussion of my orchestral
composition,Trilogy, in which all rhythms originate from the master time signature 7.
26
2) The master time signature not only determines the number of beats in a
bar but also the number of bars in a more complex structure which I refer to
as a bar group. This simple rule ensures that the number of beats in the
whole bar group will always be a number that can be generated by squaring
the master time signature. For example, 4 bars of 4/4 will have a duration of
16 crotchet beats.
3) Patterns created by method 1) can be extended by a squaring formula
(described in detail in chapter 3) to fill the entire bar group. This technique
lies at the heart of the system because by this method a pattern contained in
one bar can directly exert its influence over a much larger duration or
number of bars.
Schillinger develops a further technique in which patterns generated
through the interference of pulses (see section 2.2.) can be combined with
the structures created by the master time signature which I have just
described. In this way the products of the various techniques described in
The Theory Of Rhythm are co-ordinated into a single complex and
sophisticated structure. In Chapter 3, these techniques and their practical
applications are described in more detail.
2.2.4 Rotation and re-ordering
Schillinger's primary technique of creating variation is by the re-ordering of
elements of a group whether they be those of a rhythm, a scale or the
sections of a composition. Two methods are presented and referred to as
'general permutation' and 'circular permutation'. 'General permutation'
reveals all possible combinations of the elements of a group. However,
Schillinger only tells us how to calculate the total number of combinations
(factorial n, or n! where n= the number of different elements in group) and
does not provide a method for deriving the various combinations. For
example, a group with four different elements (A,B,C,D) has 24, variations
(4!=1×2×3×4=24): (A,B,C,D) (A,C,D,B) (A,D,B,C) (A,C,B,D) (A,D,C,B)
(B,C,D,A) etc. It can be seen that this process involves the rotation of three of
the four elements until all possible combinations have been exhausted.
Rotation of the elements in a group is, therefore, the principle method by
which variations are produced. Confusingly, Schillinger presents rotation as
a second, alternative method of producing variants which he refers to as
'circular permutation'. The only difference between the two types of rotation is
27
that the rotation of all the elements of a group ('circular permutation')
produces a more limited number of combinations than 'general permutation',
in which one element remains stationary while the others rotate. Schillinger
first illustrates 'circular permutation' with two elements.
(A,B) →(B,A).
The variant is the retrograde of the original. With three or more elements the
direction of permutation (clockwise or counter clockwise) becomes
important.
A
B C
Figure 2.7. Circular permutation (rotation) of three elements.
In a clockwise direction, rotation produces the following variants:
ABC, BCA, CAB.
In a counter clockwise direction, rotation produces the following variants:
ACB, CBA, BAC
The method of rotation described may appear simple but it is an excellent
way of revealing the potential of a musical idea.
2.2.5 Growth series
Number series which are characterised by growth, such as the harmonic
series (1,2,3,4,5.....) the Fibonacci series (1,2,3,5,8,13...) and other forms of
summation series are introduced as methods of generating rhythms useful
for controlling rallentando, accelerando and flow in general. Schillinger
refers to these as 'rhythms of variable velocity' and they will be discussed in
more detail in chapter 3, section 3.5.
28
2.3 Book II: The Theory Of Pitch Scales
2.3.1 System of selection
Schillinger begins by discussing 'primary' and 'secondary selective systems'.
The 'primary selective system' is the method of defining which frequencies,
out of all possible frequencies, are to be used for music; by convention this is
now agreed to be the system of equal temperament. The 'secondary
selective system' can be any method of arranging the pitch units of the equal
temperament system into musical scales. Scales are defined by the intervals
between pitch units and are represented numerically. The major scale for
example, is represented as (2,2,1)(2)(2,2,1) where 1= a semi-tone. All scales
ranging from one pitch unit ('Monotone') to twelve pitch units are acceptable
and Schillinger provides an apparently complete list of scales containing 2,3
and 4, pitch units. He does not attempt to list scales with more than four pitch
units partly through lack of space but also because four unit scales include
tetrachords and therefore provide a convenient platform from which to
launch a discussion of traditional diatonic scales.
Traditional music theory views a scale, such as C major, as having a single
tonic. Schillinger identifies four types of scale: those with one tonic contained
within the range of an octave, those with one tonic which exceed the range
of an octave, those with more than one tonic contained within the range of an
octave and finally those with more than one tonic which exceed the range of
an octave. Such scales with multiple 'tonics' are referred to by Schillinger as
'symmetric scales'.
2.3.2 Application of rhythmic techniques to scales
Scales can be represented by number sequences and subjected to many of
the rules governing rhythmic techniques offered in The Theory Of Rhythm
(Schillinger 1978). Rhythms generated by the 'interference of pulses' (see
section 2.2) provide excellent material for pitch scales.
29
The following example uses the rhythm produced by the interference of
pulses 4:3 (3,1,2,2,1,3) to determine the intervals of a scale.
/
œ
œ
œ ,
œ ,
œ
œ ,
œ
3 1 2 2 1 3
Figure 2.8. 'Interference' rhythm determines intervals of a scale.
Another method of generating pitch scales involves the technique of sub-
dividing the master time signature (see section 2.2.3) to make a series of
'hybrid' scales. In the following example the octave (12) is sub-divided
according to this method.
12→(7+5)→(5+2+5)→(2+3+2+3+2).
These number sequences are realised in music notation in the illustration
below.
/ ¸
¸
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ,
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ,
œ
œ ,
œ
12 7 + 5 5 +2 +5 2 +3 + 2 + 3 + 2
Figure 2.9. Scales derived from sub-groups of 12.
It can be seen that exactly the same techniques used earlier to generate
rhythmic structures are also used to generate melodic structures.
A number of techniques are designed to reveal the melodic potential of a
scale. These methods involve the re-ordering of the pitches or intervals of
the original scale, a process based on rotation.
30
The following examples show just a very few of the possible variants
generated by the re-ordering of pitches and intervals.
/
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
Figure 2.10. Re-ordering of pitches
/
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ,
œ
Figure 2.11. Re-ordering of intervals
The melodic variants of a scale, such as those in Figure 2.10 and 2.11, are
referred to as 'melodic forms,' and can be joined in sequence to produce a
'melodic continuity'. It is suggested that the pattern of repetition of the
variants is (see section 2.2) best determined using rhythmic patterns such as
those presented in Book I.
2.3.3 The primary axis and modal modulation
Schillinger states that modulation requires a melody to have a clear 'Primary
Axis' (P.A). The P.A. is a pitch which occurs more frequently and/or for a
greater duration than any other pitch during a phrase of the melody. The P.A.
may change over a relatively short period of time (a few bars). The P.A. is a
root tone of a scale and defines the modal identity of the melody. For
example, if the P.A. was the pitch D, and the key signature was C major, the
melody would be rooted in the Dorian scale. This is only true in the absence
of harmonic accompaniment which will override the P.A. of the melody as
the root of a scale. Establishing the P.A. is essential to the success of the
various techniques for modulating between different portions of melody and
is central to Schillinger's 'Theory Of Melody' which is fully developed in Book
IV.
2.3.4 Scales constructed on symmetrically spaced 'tonics'
31
Schillinger shows how the octave can be divided into five symmetrical
scales. Each scale has only one type of interval: a chromatic scale of semi-
tones (1+1+1+1.....), a whole tone scale (2+2+2+2+2+2), a scale of minor
thirds resembling a diminished seventh chord (3+3+3+3), a scale of major
thirds resembling the augmented triad (4+4+4) and the tritone division of the
octave (6+6). These scales are not used in the ordinary manner as a means
of making melodic forms. Instead each pitch in the scale is treated as a root
tone ('tonic') on which other scales are built. Schillinger suggests that
polyphonic music based on symmetrically spaced tonics is the key to
successful polytonal writing.
/
.
,
.
,
.
œ
œ
œ ,
œ
,
œ ,
œ
œ
,
œ
œ
œ ¸
œ
.
œ ¸
œ
œ
œ ¸
œ
œ ¸
,
œ
œ
œ
,
œ ,
œ
œ
œ ,
.
œ
œ
* *
* *
2 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 3 2
2------------3 2 3 2 2------3 2 3 2
Figure 2.12. Two parts based on symmetrically spaced tonics.
In Figure 2.12, a single scale (2,3,2,3,2), is built on two 'tonics', separated by
the interval of a tritone (6+6). Each tonic (B and F) is marked on the diagram
by an asterisk.
2.3.5 Scale expansion and the harmonic potential of scales
Schillinger describes a method of re-ordering the pitches of a scale which
results in an expansion of its range over more than one octave. The process
of re-ordering involves stepping through the scale omitting adjacent pitch
units. For example,
Original C D E F G A B
First
expansion
C E G B D F A
Figure 2.13. Scale expansion.
32
/
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
Original First expansion
Figure 2.14. Scale expansion in music notation.
An exploration of scales naturally leads to a discussion of their harmonic
potential. This is a preliminary discussion of harmony and in no way pre-
empts those parts of the text which deal exclusively with that subject.
Expanded scales such as that in Figure 2.14, clearly have harmonic
potential. Schillinger uses the term 'sigma'(∑) to describe a structure in which
all pitches of the expanded scale are superimposed. He describes
techniques for deriving the diads, triads, tetrads and pentads of any
particular scale.
/
/
/
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙ ˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
œ
œ œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
˙ ˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
∑ Diads
melody notes
1 2 3 4
Figure 2.15. The harmonic potential of an expanded scale.
Figure 2.15, shows an expanded scale and its diads. The lower line shows
an arrangement of some of those diads. The middle line represents a
melody note above the diad. In this case the melody note is always C, as a
constant reference showing the changing level of tension between harmony
and melody. Schillinger describes tension as measured by the distance
between pitches of the original expanded scale. If the pitches of melody and
harmony lie far apart in their common scale the tension is greater than if they
33
are close. For example chord 1, is the least tense as the melody note is
identical to the root of the diad beneath. Chord 4 has tension equal to that of
chord 2, as both are equidistant from the note C, in the scale. Chord 3 is the
most tense as the melody note and the root of the diad lie farthest apart in
the original expanded scale.
2.4 Book III: Variations Of Music By Means Of Geometrical Projection
In this portion of the text Schillinger describes methods of creating
geometrical variations derived from the rotation of co-ordinates through the
four quadrants of a graph. These are familiar to musicians as terms which
indicate direction: original, inversion, retrograde, retrograde inversion. There
is nothing new in Schillinger's discussion of these traditional ideas but he
presents useful examples of how these methods might be used to make
variations in melodic sequences. One unusual technique concerns the
generation of chord progressions
8
. Figure 2.16, shows an original
progression (O) and its three geometrical variations. These are used to form
a mixed sequence of chords shown on the bottom stave (Result) in the
illustration. Lines with arrows indicate the 'route' taken through the different
variations. The numbers above the 'result' stave show how many
consecutive chords have been used from a particular variation: two chords
from O, one chord from I, two from R, and one from RI. These quantities and
the fact that the scheme progresses by step (stave) through each variation is
purely a matter of convenience and is not the result of any rule imposed by
the method. Chords in the result stave have been re-arranged to facilitate
voice leading.
/
/
/
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. ,
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
. ,
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
. ,
O
I
R
RI
,
,

8
I refer the reader to Chapter 11, section (11.5.1), in which this technique is described in
relation to the middle section of my orchestral composition.
34
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
2(O)----------------------1(I)------------2(R)------------------------1(RI)
Result
Figure 2.16. Chord progressions derived from 'geometrical projections'
Schillinger observes that the relationship between an original chord and its
inversion is like that of major and minor but he argues should more
accurately be called 'psychological' major and minor as the chords
generated in this method are not linked by the same scale in the way that the
relative major and minor keys are related.
A chapter on Geometrical expansion is concerned with the expansion of
intervals in a score through multiplication by a coefficient of expansion
9
. This
process alters the pitch units of a melody and so is not the same as the
method of 'scale expansion' described in section 2.3.5.
/
œ
œ
œ ,
œ ,
œ
œ ,
œ
œ
œ ,
œ
œ
œ ¸
œ ¸
œ
3 1 2 2 1 3 6 2 4 4 2 6
Figure 2.17. Geometrical expansion. Intervals are multiplied by the coefficient 2.
2.5 Book IV: The Theory Of Melody
In The Theory Of Melody, Schillinger reveals some of his most interesting
ideas concerning the nature of music alongside his most disappointing
techniques. Schillinger believes that melody has a biological origin. The
information flowing through our sense organs stimulates our bodies to
produce electrochemical and bio-mechanical responses. For example, fear
invokes muscular contraction. Joy, lust or desire produces expansion.
Schillinger suggests that our primitive spontaneous vocal responses to these
stimuli eventually crystallised into formal melodic utterances. In between the

9
Schillinger observes that music written in the 17th century can be 'modernised' by
interval expansion. This seems to me to be one of his more absurd ideas although his
observation that the history of music shows a general trend towards expansion of
intervals is, in my opinion, convincing.
35
extreme forms of response (such as fear and joy) there is the 'resting state'
characterised by regular motion such as regular breathing or heart beat.
Schillinger attempts to translate these ideas into the contours and direction
of melody. The Primary Axis, (see section 2.3.3) represents the point of
balance or rest. Moving away from the P.A, either above or below it,
represents expansion. Moving towards the P.A. represents contraction.
These movements around the P.A. are termed 'secondary axes'.
/
˙
œ
œ
œ
œ œ
œ
œ
œ
˙
œ
œ
œ
œ
˙ ˙ œ
œ
œ
œ
PA
secondary axis
PA
Figure 2.18. The axes of melody.
Figure 2.18, shows melodic contours or secondary axes, above and below
the primary axis represented by the pitch F. Once a pattern of secondary
axes has been decided, a rhythm is superimposed giving duration or
proportion to the contour of the melody. The secondary axes represent the
direction of the melodic contour and not its detailed surface motion.
For this reason different forms of oscillatory motion are superimposed on the
secondary axes in order to create a more typically melodic outline as in
figure 2.19.
/
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
PA
Oscillatory motion
Secondary axis
Figure 2.19. Oscillatory motion applied to the secondary axis.
36
The final chapter of Book IV, Organic Forms In Melody is in my opinion, of
great interest and will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 3, section
3.5.2. It deals with the practical application of growth series (such as the
Fibonacci series) to melodic structures.
In conclusion, I would say that The Theory Of Melody, is generally too
ambitious in its aims and does not succeed in revealing exactly why a
melody is satisfying or otherwise although many of the observations and
insights it contains are of use to the composer. It seems to me that melody is
a far more complex a phenomenon than Schillinger claimed while the
techniques he devised for its 'synthesis' are far too cumbersome for practical
application.
2.6 Book V: Special Theory Of Harmony
The Special Theory Of Harmony, deals specifically with techniques
pertaining to traditional harmony derived from diatonic scales. Schillinger
makes a strong distinction between root progressions (bass progression)
and the chord structures which are built on those roots. Both root
progressions and chord structures are derived from the same scale through
the method of scale expansion, first described in Book II, (see section 2.3.5).
The first expansion produces a scale whose intervals are major and minor
thirds (see Figure 2.14). Schillinger refers to this as the 'cycle of the third' and
it alone is used to generate the diatonic triads. Figure 2.15 illustrates the
process in the case of diads but the principle is the same for triads.
2.7 Book VI: The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody
Book VI, the Correlation Of Harmony And Melody, is a bridge between the
subject of diatonic harmony and counterpoint. It describes techniques for the
composition of melody with harmonic accompaniment, a type of music that
might be referred to as homophonic. The subject is divided into three
chapters: 1)The Melodization Of Harmony, 2)Composing Melodic Attack
Groups, 3)The Harmonisation Of Melody. Schillinger states that the most
satisfactory melody/harmony relationships are those in which melody is
derived from an existing chord progression (the subject of Chapter 1),
although the opposite method, deriving harmony from an existing melody, is
37
covered in Chapter 3. Both Chapters 1 and 3, describe numerous
relationships between melody and harmony most of which depend on the
theory presented in Book V, Special Theory Of Harmony and Book IV, The
Theory Of Melody. Techniques are largely dependent on the hierarchical
arrangement of chord functions (1,3,5,7,11,13) and the organisation of the
axes of melody (see sections 2.6 and 2.5 respectively). On the whole,
Schillinger develops techniques in this portion of the text on the basis of the
observation of conventional practises. For example, it is stated that in
general when the 9th or 11th chord function appears in the melody it must be
immediately preceded by the 7th or the 9th respectively and that the root of
the harmony must be in the bass. 'Rules' such as these are apparently
justified on the grounds of the 'statistical rarity' of alternative forms. Many of
the 'techniques' are to do with ornamentation, involving the insertion of
chromatic tones between the main 'functional' pitches of a melody.
Chapter 2, is, in my opinion, the most significant portion of Book VI. It
concerns the composition of 'melodic attack groups', which in this case refers
to a group of melody notes belonging to a particular chord. Rhythmic
patterns derived from techniques presented in Book I, The Theory Of
Rhythm, are used to determine both the quantity of pitches in a group as well
as the duration of each pitch and in this way the rhythmic flow or 'animation'
of the melody can be controlled. The most interesting techniques concern
the rhythmic relationship between melody and harmony. These will be
described in detail in Chapter 3, and also in Chapter 11, in connection with
my orchestral composition Trilogy.
2.8 Book VII: Theory Of Counterpoint
The Theory Of Counterpoint only deals with counterpoint in two parts.
Apparently Schillinger was preparing material dealing with counterpoint in
more than two parts before he died (Schillinger 1978 page 822). The Theory
Of Counterpoint, begins with a traditional classification of intervals and their
resolution. Different species of two part counterpoint are described and
alternative resolutions of dissonant intervals are given. Schillinger describes
four possible tonal relationships between Cantus Firmus (CF) and
Counterpoint (CP). This includes ordinary forms of counterpoint, in which
both parts belong to the same scale, as well as more exotic polytonal types.
38
The various relationships are as follows: CF and CP belong to the same
scale and the same mode, CF and CP belong to different modes
10
of the
same scale. CF and CP belong to different scales (tonics) but are identical in
mode. CF and CP belong to different scales and different modes. It is
assumed that the two parts (CF and CP) have established Primary Axes,
(see section 2.5) and that the initial interval between the two axes is always
consonant. The relationship of the contours (secondary axes) of the two
voices is discussed using terminology first introduced in the Theory Of
Melody (see section 2.5).
The techniques described for the composition of canons and fugues are
approached as primarily concerning rhythmic structure. An imitative structure
can be made by superimposing symmetrical rhythms such as those
described in Book I, (see section 2.2).The following diagram shows how the
rhythmic resultant 5:4 (4,1,3,2,2,3,1,4) might be arranged as a two part
canon.
Announcement Imitation Continuation
Voice 1 4,1,3,2 2,3,1,4 4,1,3,2
Voice 2 -------------- 4,1,3,2 2,3,1,4
Figure 2.20. Rhythmic structure of a canon based on 5:4.
The following example shows the above rhythmic structure realised in music
notation where 1= .(Figure 2.21)
/
/
¸
-
¸
-
˙
,
œ
œ

œ

œ
œ

,
œ
˙
˙
.
œ
œ
œ
˙
,
œ
œ

œ
œ
œ
.
œ
˙
4 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 4 1 3 2 etc...
4 1 3 2 2 3 1 4
Figure 2.21. The rhythm 5:4 realised in notation as a canon.

10
Mode, refers to a variant of the original scale derived by the rotation of its pitches.
39
In the case of imitative forms such as canon, it is implied that as long as the
tonal relationship between the two Primary Axes is consonant, the other
interval relationships between the two parts will take care of themselves
(Schillinger 1978 page 783).
2.9 Book VIII: Instrumental Forms,
2.9.1 Arpeggiation
The Theory Of Instrumental Forms elaborates upon the ideas first presented
in Book I, The Theory Of Rhythm, (see section 2.2.1). Techniques are
suggested for the development of melodic figuration through the ornamental
variation of harmony. Schillinger sets out the scope of the discussion as
follows:
"What we are to discuss here is all forms of arpeggio and their
applications in the field of melody, harmony, and correlated melody"
(Schillinger 1978, page 883)
A large portion of the Theory Of Instrumental Forms is devoted to tables
illustrating how attacks (notes, events, durations) may be distributed
between the voices of a harmony.
/
/
/
˙
˙
˙
˙
œ
œ œ œ
œ
œ
œ
œ œ
œ
œ
œ
Diads
Attack groups
result
Figure 2.22. Two part harmony, attack groups and decorated variation.
Figure 2.22 shows two diads (top line) which are modified by two attack
groups each containing 3 attacks (middle line). The result of combining the
40
two upper lines is shown on the bottom stave. The durations of each attack
have been chosen freely. Figure 2.22 is an extremely simple example of a
technique that can be made to produce highly complex results. Schillinger
lists all possible arrangements for attack groups ranging from 2 to 12 attacks
distributed through harmony of two, three and four parts. A large number of
examples of ornamented harmonic progressions accompany these tables.
2.9.2 Harmonic strata
Schillinger introduces the possibility of duplicating or doubling chordal
structures or harmonic blocks which are referred to as 'strata'. In some
respects this discussion would seem more appropriate in the context of Book
IX, The General Theory Of Harmony, which is concerned with all aspects of
'strata' combination. However, chapter 6 is exclusively concerned with the
octave doubling of identical harmonies. When strata are superimposed the
resulting assemblage is referred to as a Sigma (Σ). Schillinger discusses this
in relation to orchestration and it is suggested that combined strata may
represent different instrumental ensembles within an orchestra. A harmonic
strata may be doubled at the octave under certain conditions: the position or
spacing of the two strata must be identical or else the resulting harmonics
and difference tones will cause distortion leading to loss of clarity and
balance (Schillinger 1978 page 1003). When combining strata with non-
identical positions (inversions), the chord function (1,3,5,7....) in the
uppermost voice of each strata must be identical. Two strata with non-
identical positions must be arranged so that the strata with the most closed
spacing is on top. By ensuring that the overall spacing of harmony notes in
the score is widest at the bottom register and narrowest at the top, the
composer mimics the natural spacing of the harmonic series and ensures
maximum acoustical clarity.
41
/
/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Strata 1
Strata 2
Octave doubling,identical positions Non-identical positions
Top chord functions
alligned.
Figure 2.23. Doubling of harmonic strata.
2.10 Book IX: The General Theory Of Harmony
2.10.1 Strata harmony
The General Theory Of Harmony, develops principles for the construction
and co-ordination of harmonic groups or 'assemblages' of all types.
Schillinger clearly distinguishes between the General and the Special
Theory Of Harmony.
Contrary to what was the case in my special theory of harmony, this
system has not been based on observation and analyses of existing
musical facts only; it is entirelyinductive.......special harmony is but one
case of general harmony.
(Schillinger 1978, page 1063).
This portion of the system pertains directly to the field of orchestration
providing techniques by which the various instrumental groups within an
ensemble can be controlled and differentiated through the co-ordination of
independent, simultaneous blocks (strata) of harmony.
As the main purpose of the General Theory Of Harmony is to satisfy
demands for the scoring of all possible combinations of instruments or
voices, or both, it should be flexible enough to make any instrumental
combination possible. (Schillinger 1978 page 1155)
Schillinger's method of generating harmonic structures is the same as that
described in his Special Theory Of Harmony, (see section 2.6). This involves
the superimposition of pitch units of a scale and its various 'expansions' (see
section 2.3.5 and Figure 2.15). Unlike the Special Theory Of Harmony, which
utilises only the first 'expansion' of a diatonic scale as a source of harmony
42
the General Theory Of Harmony, allows chord structures to be derived from
all scale 'expansions'.
A simple case of two part harmony will give the reader a good idea of how
harmonic strata are generated and controlled. Figure 2.24 shows a
pentatonic scale and its derivative harmonic structures resulting from scale
'expansion'
/
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ œ
œ œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
Pentatonic scale 0 'expansion' 1st, 'expansion' 2nd. 'expansion'
Figure 2.24. Pentatonic scale and its harmonic derivatives.
Schillinger observes that only scales with seven different pitches produce
regular structures on expansion, that is, 'expansions' with identical intervals,
unlike the products of the scale in Figure 2.24. A strata does not have to
originate from a scale and can instead be derived from a single interval. In
the case of two part harmony there are only eleven possible two part chords
within the octave
11
.
In the following diagram, a represents the root function of the harmony while
b represents a second function which lies at the interval of a major second
from the root. Figure 2.25 shows a sequence of two part harmony (strata) in
the upper stave and the roots on which it is built in the lower stave. All
harmonies are derived from one interval (a major second) and are built on a
sequence of root tones which for convenience progress by the cycle of the
fifth.
Voice leading (chord connection) in two part harmony is limited to only two
possibilities: either chord functions (third, fifth etc.) in a two note chord
alternate between consecutive chords (
a
b

b
a
) or the functions remain
unchanged (parallel) between chords. In Figure 2.25, the alternating voice
leading causes inversion of the chord structure: the major second transforms
into a minor seventh.

11
Discounting the octave and the unison.
43
/
.
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
¸
œ
œ ¸
œ
œ
¸
¸
œ
œ
¸
¸
œ
œ
¸
¸
œ
œ
¸
¸
œ
œ
¸
¸
œ
œ
¸

œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ¸
œ ¸
œ ¸
œ ¸
œ ¸
œ ¸
b---------a--------b-------a
a--------b-------a--------b
Strata
Roots
a a a a
Figure 2.25. Two part harmony with alternating voice leading.
Figure 2.25 represents what Schillinger refers to as 'hybrid three-part
harmony'. The roots in the lower stave represent an added strata of one part.
Such an arrangement might be suitable for distribution between two distinct
instrumental groups. For example, a violin, taking the upper part and
bassoon playing the roots in the lower stave. Despite the simplicity of the
example shown in Figure 2.25, it should be observed that while the two
strata are co-ordinated harmonically, their independence in voice leading
facilitates the clarity of the chosen orchestration. Schillinger develops ever
more complex combinations of strata (∑) with ever more parts and hybrid
doubling. When three part chords are introduced the number of potential
voice leadings dramatically increases. Schillinger develops methods of
creating scores with huge numbers of parts. Each strata can be defined or
independent from the surrounding strata because of its individual voice
leading. Strata may be assigned to various instrumental groups within an
ensemble helping to create a co-ordinated but defined orchestral texture.
Schillinger describes a number of techniques for converting the strata into
musically satisfactory forms. For example, melody with accompaniment and
contrapuntal textures including canons in more than two parts. These
methods largely involve combining techniques from earlier portions of the
system (such as Book VIII, Instrumental Forms) and do not merit detailed
description here.
2.10.2 Harmonic density
In Chapter 15, Schillinger introduces an idea which he refers to as 'textural
density'. This is one of the most impenetrable discussions because it is
largely written in Schillinger's own highly complex system of algebraic
notation and is accompanied by very few musical examples. However, it is
44
one of Schillinger's more unusual and far reaching ideas and deserves
clarification.
The density of music changes very rapidly: an orchestral work contains
numerous instrumental combinations ranging from solo to tutti, this might be
described as the density of orchestration. Schillinger suggests that there is
another kind of density which he implies is more fundamental to musical flow
than instrumental combination. The General Theory Of Harmony is based on
the idea that a score can be made up of independent but co-ordinated
harmonic layers: these collectively are referred to as a 'sigma' (∑). I
personally find it helpful to imagine a sigma as being like a geological
diagram showing a cross section of the Earth's crust. 'Textural density'
depends on varying the number of 'strata' in a score from one moment to the
next. Imagine a sequence of slides in which the same three story building
appears at first complete, then with its ground and top floors missing, and
finally with the top and bottom floors intact but missing the middle story. For
the house substitute Sigma, for the floor levels, substitute harmonic strata. A
sequence of Sigma such as this would be referred to as a 'density group'.
Once a density group has been composed its variations can be generated
by rotation. The following diagram shows a three element density group. The
first element is a 'sigma' (∑1) which contains three 'strata' (shaded areas).
This is the complete form and it is followed by two incomplete versions of
itself (∑2 and ∑3).
Strata 1
Strata 2
Strata 3
∑1 ∑2 ∑3 ∑3 ∑1 ∑2 ∑2 ∑3 ∑1
Figure 2.26. A density group of three ∑, and its variations.
Variations of the density group shown in Figure 2.25, can be generated by
the rotation of the three ∑. For example, (∑3,∑1,∑2),(∑2,∑3,∑1). The
complete procedure for the composition of 'textural density' involves the
simultaneous occurrence of a second form of rotation. This is rotation around
the x axis of Figure 2.26 which causes the textures (forms of arpeggiation)
belonging to the various strata to rotate in a vertical direction. It is important
to note that the harmonic structures which constitute each strata do not
change their position which would radically alter the harmonic structure of
45
the entire score. The textures, however, are moved. The following diagram
shows three variations of the original density group. In each variation the
forms of arpeggiation rotate around a horizontal axis moving upwards by
one place at a time as indicated by the arrows. I have applied labels to each
strata to indicate a hypothetical form of arpeggiation. Let us assume two
types of musical texture, H and M. These apply to Figure 2.27, as follows:
melodic form 1, (M1), harmonic form 1, (H1), and melodic form 2, (M2). M1,
and M2, might be different types of melodic arpeggiation, while H1 might be
a form of chordal accompaniment.
Strata 1 ↑
M1

M1

H1 H1

M2 M2
Strata 2 ↑
H1↑ H1

M2 M2

M1 M1
Strata 3 ↑
M2

M2

M1 M1

H1 H1
Figure 2.27. Three variations produced by vertical rotation.
The concept of density as a musical dimension which can be used to control
the texture and flow of a composition is, I believe, one of Schillinger's more
far sighted ideas. It is certainly true that texture and density became
important considerations in the work of later generations of composers, such
as Stockhausen and Ligeti.
12
2.11 Book X: Evolution Of Pitch-Families (Style)
Book X, is a short summary of ideas found mainly in Book II, The Theory Of
Pitch Scales, and Book IX, The General Theory Of Harmony. It contains no
new ideas but is concerned with distilling and combining various techniques
into a procedure for developing the full potential, both melodic and
harmonic, of any scale.
This is done in order to trace the evolution of a scale from its original
(primitive) form to its 'modernised' fully developed hybrid form.
Often styles of intonation can be defined geographically and historically.
There may be a certain national style which, in due course of time,
undergoes various modifications. These modifications....can also be
looked upon as modernisation of the source......The various forms of
"jazz" and "swing", the "Indian" music of MacDowell or Cadman or

12
However, it is not my intention here to suggest that they were directly influenced by
Schillinger's work.
46
Stravinsky (Les Noces), are stylised or modernised primitives - each, of
course, in its respective field. (Schillinger 1978 page 1255)
2.12 Book XI: Theory Of Composition
2.12.1 General approach
In the introduction to Book XI, Schillinger outlines three basic approaches to
composing:
1) Composition of parts or themes without prior knowledge of the whole form:
this may potentially result in the connection of themes or material which do
not belong together;
2) Improvisation, which almost by definition does not anticipate the whole
and tends towards loose structures and /or excessive repetition;
3) Conception of the whole form prior to creating its various parts.
The Theory Of Composition deals with the last of these approaches,
however, Schillinger's view of composition is perhaps less rigid than one
might expect.
Each approach contains different ratios of the intuitive and the rational
elements by which the process of composition is accomplished.
Works of different quality may result from each of these three basic
approaches. Often these forms of creation are fused with one
another.(Schillinger 1978 Page 1277)
The Theory Of Composition, is divided into three parts:
1) Composition Of Thematic Units,
2) Composition Of Thematic Continuity,
3) Semantic (Connotative) Composition.
2.12.2 Part I: Composition of Thematic Units
In Part I, Schillinger introduces the idea of the 'thematic unit': the basic
building blocks of a composition. A 'thematic unit', otherwise referred to as a
theme or a subject, is a structure which will yield variations and ultimately
47
whole sections of a composition. Schillinger lists seven sources from which
to develop 'thematic units': rhythm, scales, melodies,harmonic progressions,
arpeggiated ('melodized') harmony, counterpoint, orchestral resources
(Schillinger 1978 page 1279).
These represent the basic technical resources from which the 'thematic unit'
is developed. The last entry in the list above (orchestral resources), includes
the possibility of tone quality, dynamics, density (see section 2.10.2) and
instrumental forms (see section 2.9) as potential components for the
composition of a 'thematic unit'. A 'thematic unit' may often be composed from
more than one source. The different sources are referred to as the 'major'
and a 'minor' components. For example, a 'thematic unit' derived primarily
from rhythm (a 'major' component) might well involve pitch as a secondary
('minor') component.
Schillinger devotes a chapter to each of the seven categories listed above.
No new ideas are presented but these chapters are useful summaries of the
different subjects and techniques presented in earlier portions of the system.
2.12.3 Part II: Composition of Thematic Continuity
Part II, Composition Of Thematic Continuity, is a discussion of musical form
and how 'thematic units' (themes or subjects) are joined to form a 'thematic
sequence'. Each 'thematic unit' is represented by letters of the alphabet. A
few examples of different schemes of 'thematic sequence' are as follows:
binary forms (A+B), symmetrical forms (A+B+A) and rotational forms
(A+B+C)(B+C+A)(C+A+B). The most interesting of these, in my opinion, is
the so called 'progressive symmetric' form. Here a subject ('thematic unit')
gradually looses its dominance to another subject. For example, in the
following scheme, subject A, is replaced by subject C:
A+(A+B)+(A+B+C)+(B+C)+(C). Such an arrangement offers possibilities for
the gradual transformation of one idea to another.
Chapter 12 Temporal Co-ordination Of Thematic Units outlines methods of
controlling the dominance of a subject ('thematic unit') within the composition
as a whole. Rhythms, such as those presented in Book I, (see section 2.1)
are used to determine the duration of the 'thematic units'. For example, the
sequence of 'thematic units', (A,B,C) could be assigned the following
durations, (2,2,1) resulting in (A2T, B2T, CT) where T represents a
48
predetermined unit of bars. In this arrangement, C, is relatively less
prominent than subjects A and B. Schillinger is very clear on the matter of the
relative importance of the various subjects.
This theory repudiates the academic point of view, according to which
some themes are so unimportant that they function as mere bridges tying
the main themes together. If a certain thematic unit is unimportant.......and
merely consumes time, it should not participate in the composition.
(Schillinger 1978 page 1335).
When a subject ('thematic unit') is repeated in the course of a composition it
does not necessarily occupy the same length as in its original exposition. In
Chapter 13, Integration Of Thematic Continuity, Schillinger suggests that
'thematic units' should initially be composed in their 'maximal' form (longest
duration) after which they may be subject to fragmentation or contraction.
In Chapter 14, Planning A Composition, Schillinger describes the process of
composition in ten stages.
1) Decision as to total length of composition in clock time.
2) Decision as to degree of temporal saturation.
3) Decision as the number of subjects and thematic groups of subjects.
4) Form of thematic sequence.
5) Temporal definition and distribution of thematic groups.
6) Organisation of temporal continuity.
7) Composition of thematic units.
8) Composition of thematic groups.
9) Intonational co-ordination (key structure).
10) Instrumental development (orchestration / instrumentation).
(After Schillinger 1978 page 1353).
'Temporal saturation' (point 2) is the degree of density of events (notes,
attacks, harmonies etc.) within a given time. Schillinger believes that our
perception of musical time is dependent on the saturation of events: the
greater the density of events, the longer our perception of time. 'Temporal
definition and distribution of thematic groups' (point 5) refers to the different
weight or duration applied to each subject - the ratio or balance between
49
subjects and the form of their distribution. 'Organisation of temporal
continuity' (point 6) refers to the basic duration unit (crotchet, quaver, triplet
quaver etc.) for each subject or 'thematic unit'. The remainder of Part II, Book
XI, is devoted to working out examples of monothematic (theme and
variations) and polythematic compositions.
2.12.4 Part III: Semantic (Connotative) Composition
Part III, Book XI, Semantic (Connotative) composition, is based on the idea
that musical forms are 'sonic symbols'.
As the response to sonic forms exists even in so-called inanimate
nature in the form of sympathetic vibrations or resonance, it is no
wonder that primitive man inherited highly developed mimetic
responses. From this we can conclude that a great many of the early
sonic symbols probably originated as imitation of sonic patterns,
coming as stimuli from the surrounding world (Schillinger 1978 page
1411)
Schillinger points to forms of language, the meaning of which is influenced
by intonation, and asserts that at some point in human evolution a single
'language' of sonic symbols separated into two forms: speech and music. He
concludes that,
music is capable of expressing everything which can be translated into form
of motion (Schillinger 1978 page 1411)
The composition of notation to describe 'sonic symbols' begins with the
development of a 'psychological dial' (Figure 2.28), on which the various
possible responses to stimuli are represented.
50
180
°
225°
270°
315°

360°
45°
90°
135°
Normal
Supernormal
Ultranormal
Supernatural
Abnormal
Subnatural
Infranormal
Subnormal
Negative Positive
Figure 2.28 Psychological dial (After Schillinger 1978 page 281).
Schillinger illustrates the use of the 'dial' through anecdote. For example, a
man who enters a bargain basement store expecting to pay no more than
ten cents for any item has his expectations confirmed, his response is
'normal', which is represented on the dial at 180°. Alternatively he is asked to
pay $100 for a pencil, his response is astonishment or disbelief which can
perhaps be represented on the dial at 90° (infranormal). The theory by which
events influence psychological states and are in turn translated into music is
developed from ideas first presented in Book IV, Theory Of Melody. The dial
is divided vertically into two halves, the left half is negative ('loss of energy
and decline') and the right half is positive ('gain of energy and growth). As
described in the Theory Of Melody, Schillinger believes that the direction of
melodic contours in relation to the primary axis corresponds to contraction or
expansion, negative and positive respectively (see section 2.5).
Consequently any point on the dial can be translated into the motion of a
secondary axis. When the secondary axis moves away from the primary axis
it corresponds to the positive zone of the 'dial', when moving towards the
primary axis it corresponds to the negative zone. The more extreme the
required stimulus and response, as suggested by the dial, the steeper the
angle of the axes with respect to the P.A..The following diagram shows five
'dial' positions and their corresponding potential axial configurations.
51
P.A
P.A.
P.A.
Secondary axis
Negative Psychological dials Positive
Balance
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Figure 2.29. Psychological dials and axial correspondences.
Schillinger gives lists of examples of how such correspondences can be
translated into rhythm, melody, harmony, timbral density and so on. There
are musical examples and verbal descriptions. For example,
Normal:
Associations: Balance, Repose, Quiescence, Passive,
Contemplation,Uniformity, Inactivity, Monotony.
(1) Temporal Rhythm: Durations ranging from very long to
moderately long, depending on the degree of activity, in uniform
or nearly uniform motion.
(2) Pitch Scales: Scales with a limited number of pitch units and
fairly uniform distribution of intervals.
(3) Melodic Forms: Only stationary and regularly oscillating
forms, within a moderate pitch range for association with small
dimensions, and a wide range for association with large
dimensions.
(Schillinger 1978 page 1433)
Schillinger discusses how sonic symbols may be combined into sequences.
He suggests that this technique is invaluable for composition based on
narrative forms, such as programme music or film and stage music
(Schillinger 1978 page 1461). The qualities associated with a particular dial
position, such as those shown above, are in my opinion only useful to the
composer in a general sense: it is valuable to consider melodic contours in
terms of expansion, contraction and balance but to take into account the
precise angle between two axes while composing is less helpful. It is also
true that the qualities Schillinger ascribes to particular axial forms cannot be
universally applied. For example, a fashionable device in contemporary film
52
music is to associate moments of extreme tension with sustained bass tones.
Drones such as these, would be classified by Schillinger's method as
suggestive of balance, repose, quiescence, passivity and contemplation,
quite the opposite from the feeling of suspense and fear they are intended to
evoke.
2.13. Book XII: Theory Of Orchestration
This portion of the text is mainly a very standard description of the tuning,
range and basic performance characteristics of orchestral instruments.
Schillinger also includes a chapter on electronic musical instruments which
contains a description of different types of Theremin ('space controlled',
'finger controlled', and 'keyboard controlled'). Chapter 8, Instrumental
Combination, is an attempt to classify and compare instrumental timbres.
Chapter 9, Acoustical Basis Of Orchestration, is only a few paragraphs long.
Schillinger clearly intended to develop an understanding of instrumental
combination from a scientific, acoustical basis, but after acknowledging the
difficulties inherent in this task the chapter ends. An editorial note suggests
that Schillinger left notes on this subject but had not completed them before
his death.
2.14. Conclusion
Having summarised The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition
(Schillinger 1978) in such a compressed form, the reader may be asking the
following questions: how do Schillinger's numerical techniques aid the
process of composition? Is every part of his 'system' necessary or can some of
it be used in isolation from the rest? In answer to the first question, I view the
art of composition as a dual problem involving, as it were, the head and the
heart. For myself, music begins with an idea, an emotional impulse, which
motivates me to compose. The original impulse is realised and nurtured into
maturity by intellectual effort and technical knowledge. Schillinger's
techniques satisfy the second part of this process, they are tools that enable
the composer to build structures. The quality or beauty of a structure depends
on the imagination and cultural experience of the artist. By comparison, one
might say that the tools traditionally used by cabinet makers assist in the
accurate manufacture of furniture but they hardly guarantee the quality of the
design. This seems generally to accord with Schillinger's own point of view
(see Chapter 2, section 2.12) which acknowledges a mixture of the rational
53
and intuitive. However, the balance between intuitive and technical decision
making is not easy to define and in my opinion there is still a polarisation of
opinion in the world of music between those who believe only in structures
consciously devised by the intellect and others who adopt the opposite point
of view. An editorial footnote in the introduction to Schillinger's Theory Of
Melody, describes the latter attitude well using a quotation from the poet
Robert Burns:
"Gie me ae spark o' Nature's fire,
That's a' the learning I desire"
(Quoted in Schillinger 1978 page 227)
In answer to the second question, I personally find all of Schillinger's work
thought provoking. His approach is remarkably consistent, attempting to
reveal a 'methodological way to arrive at a decision" (Schillinger 1978 page
1356). However, there is much that I cannot agree with or else believe to be
irrelevant to my own work as a composer. For example, parts of his 'system',
such asTheTheory Of Composition, are presented as the pinnacle of his
work, and yet I find the ten point plan for making a composition (see Chapter
2, section 2.12.3) extremely unappealing as it attempts to order, by step, a
complex process that I believe happens in a more complex simultaneous
manner. Consequently, in those of my compositions that have been
influenced by his work I have used only a very few of his methods and these
have mainly been techniques relating to the composition of rhythmic
structures. There are original and surprising concepts contained elswhere in
the system but one finds throughout that the rhythmic techniques described
in Book I, The Theory Of Rhythm, are applied consistently to all branches of
his system.
54
Chapter 3 Seminal techniques
3.1 Introduction
The aim of this chapter is to amplify those of Schillinger's ideas which are
important to my own work. I will try and show how they can be applied in
practical composition and in this way I intend to make later discussions of my
own music more easily understood.
3.2 Rhythms Produced By Pulse Interference
In Chapter 2 (section 2.2.1) I described how pulses of different frequencies
combine to produce rhythm. Rhythms produced in this way are always
symmetrical around their centre point. For example, (2,1-1,2). Schillinger
refers to this process as 'pulse interference' and represents the various pulse
relationships using ratios such as 3:2,4:3,5:2 etc. The numbers in the ratio
are referred to as the 'major' and 'minor' generator according to their relative
size. Two methods of generating rhythms are offered, the first method was
described in Chapter 2. The following diagram is presented to remind the
reader who will find the full explanation of this method in Chapter 2 section
2.2.1 and in particular Figure 2.2.
A=3
↓ ↓
B=2
↓ ↓ ↓
Result (A+B)
⇓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Result displayed
numerically
2 → 1 1 2 →
Result in music
notation
q.........
...........
.
...........
...........
.
e e q.........
...........
.
...........
...........
.
Figure 3.1. Pulse 'interference' of 3:2.
The 'generators' provide information about possible barring of the rhythm.
55
Figure 3.2, shows how the rhythm 3:2, (2,1,1,2) can be grouped in bars of 3,
or bars of 2, or bars of 6 (the product of the generators). These groupings
represent the most efficient barring of the rhythm and reveal potential
contrasts .
/ ¸
,
¸
.
¸
¸
˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ ˙
Figure 3.2. Three groupings of the rhythm 3:2.
In Chapter 2, I alluded to a second method of generating rhythm through
pulse 'interference'. This technique is the more significant because it
produces results which can be combined with the structures generated by
other methods such as those associated with the 'master time signature' (see
Chapter 2 section 2.2.3). In order to distinguish between the two methods I
shall adopt Schillinger's notation: a ratio without underlining (3:2) represents
method 1, a ratio underlined ( 3:2 ) represents method 2. The key difference
between the two methods is in the duration of the resultant rhythm. Method 1
produces rhythms whose duration is the product of the two generators. In
Figure 3.2, the rhythm 3:2 has a duration of 6 time units (2+1+1+2). Method 2
uses the square of the larger 'generator' to determine the duration of the
resulting rhythm. For example, in the case of 3:2 , the duration of the rhythm
will be 9 time units. The following diagram shows the graph of 3:2 , it will be
observed that in order to complete a cycle of 'interference' several groups of
the 'minor' generator are required, each group starting on succeeding
phases of the major generator.
* **
↓ ↓ ↓ 3 × 3
↓ ↓ ↓ 3 × 2 (phase 1)
↓ ↓ ↓ 3 × 2 (phase 2)
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Result
2 1 1 1 1 1 2 Numerical result
*=phase 1 of 'major' generator . **=phase 2 of 'major' generator.
Figure 3.3. The second method of generating rhythm.
56
Schillinger refers to the process shown in Figure 3.3 as 'fractioning' and it
produces results which are very obviously related to the results obtained by
the first method. Compare the following rhythms produced by the two
methods:
3:2 by method one = (2,1,1,2)
3:2 by method two = (2,1,1,1,1,1,2)
4:3 by method one = (3,1,2,2,1,3)
4:3 by method two = (3,1,2,1,1,1,1,2,1,3)
Both methods produce symmetrical rhythms, the results of which are related
to one another, being made up of different quantities of the same numbers.
3.3 The master time signature
3.3.1 Sub-grouping the master time signature
The master time signature controls both rhythm on the small and large
scale: the rhythm within the bar and the rhythm of the bars themselves.
Consequently an entire rhythmic scheme develops from a single number. In
Chapter 2 (section 2.2.3) I described how the master time signature could be
used to create patterns within bars as well as bar groups. I described the
following rule: the number of beats in the bar equals the number of bars in
the bar group. This ensures that the total number of beats in the whole bar
group is a number that can be generated by squaring the master time
signature. The second method of pulse 'interference', described above (see
Figure 3.3) is also based on the process of squaring and this common
process allows the results of the two techniques to be combined into a single
structure. Squaring the master time signature is a process Schillinger refers
to as 'involution', that is evolution by means of a power series
13
. Below is an
illustration showing the development of the master time signature, 2.
1
t3

1
t2

1
t

t
t

t t
2
t
3

1
8

1
4

1
2

2
2

2 4 8
Figure 3.4. Evolution of the master time signature through a power series.

13
looking at figure 3.4, it might appear that Schillinger contemplated the use of powers
higher than 2. In fact he suggests that cubes may be used as the upper limit after which
the bar groups and meter become too large.
57
In Figure 3.4, the master time signature is shown at the centre of the series
(shaded area).
14
The letter t represents time units and or bars. On the lower
line, to the left hand side of the master time signature, fractions represent the
number of units or beats in a bar while the right hand side represents the
number of bars in the bar group. For example , the first box to the left of the
master time signature,
1
2
, means one bar of 2 beats. It is related to the first
box on the right of the master time signature, 2, which means a bar group of
2 bars. Continuing to compare equivalent boxes on the left and right hand
sides we get the following relationships: bars with 4 beats, groups of 4 bars,
bars with 8 beats, groups with 8 bars and so on
15
The choice of the master time signature and the process of defining bar
groups and metre is the first step in the application of this technique. Once
the total length of bars and beats has been determined it is necessary to
create the rhythmic material that will be contained by the bars. It is important
to stress that this is not a mechanical process. The composer who practises
this method soon learns to analyse his or her spontaneous imaginative
thoughts for their potential use with this particular technique. However,
Schillinger suggests a method of generating basic rhythmic material with
which to start the process. This involves sub-grouping the master time
signature, (see Chapter 2, section 2.2.3, method 1). Sub-grouping
(fragmentation) of the master time signature may be accomplished by any
means as long as the resulting fragments are whole numbers whose sum
equals the master time signature. In practise, however, it is useful to apply
Schillinger's special technique of fragmentation. This produces increasingly
fragmented sub-groups which are 'related' to one another. The master time
signature (a single number) is divided into two parts. For instance, if the
master time signature were 5, the first sub-groups would be (1+4) or (2+3). In
the case of a master time signature that is an even number, such as 4, It is
always better to avoid dividing it into equal portions which lead to less
dynamic rhythms. The two fragments are then subject to rotation in order to

14
For the complete table see Schillinger 1978 page 71.
15
Shillinger believed that the 2 series has greatly undermined the development of
western music because its use has inhibited the evolution of other series. For example
the rarity of true 3 and 9 bar groups in classical music is attributed to the influence of 2.
Composers arrived at 3 bar groups by expanding a 2 bar group or contracting a 4 bar
group. Another example would be the rarity with which music in bars of 3 beats evolves
into bars of 9 beats. It is more usual that each beat is divided by 2, creating a bar of 6,
than evolving through its power to 9.The 6 series is described as a typical 'hybrid' of the 3
series and the 2 series.
58
produce a variant (see Chapter 2 section 2.2.4): (a,b)→(b,a). The two
variants are then combined through 'interference' (see Chapter 2, section
2.2) to produce a new sub-group with more elements: a two element sub-
group combined with its variant by rotation will produce a three element sub-
group. A three element sub-group combined with all of its variants by rotation
will produce a five element sub-group. This process can be continued until
'uniformity' (1+1+1+1..........) is reached. For example,
5→
(2+3) rotation (3+2).
(2+3) combined with (3+2)→
(2+1+2) rotation (1+2+2) rotation (2+2+1).
(2+1+2) combined with (1+2+2) combined with (2+2+1)→
1+1+1+1+1 (uniformity)
The method just described is now shown in the form of a table.
↓ ↓ 3+2
↓ ↓ 2+3
↓ ↓ ↓ 2+1+2
↓ ↓ ↓ 1+2+2
↓ ↓ ↓ 2+2+1
↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1+1+1+1+1
Figure 3.5. Sub-groups of the master time signature 5.
3.3.2 Squaring the sub-groups
A sub-group represents a rhythmic pattern of one bar and should in practise
be a carefully considered motif. This is important because it will be
expanded by a squaring formula to completely fill the bar group. In this way a
rhythm contained in one bar exerts its influence over many bars. The
squaring process is perhaps the most important technique in the entire
system because it causes rhythmic material to evolve organically: not only is
new material generated but it is distributed in a manner that is harmonious
and consistent with the original.
The squaring formula is as follows:
59
( A+B)
2
=(A
2
+A.B)+(B.A + B
2
)
In the above formula, A and B represent the two elements of a sub-group
derived from the master time signature
16
. The following example shows the
same procedure using 5 as the master time signature.
5→(3+2)
(3+2)
2
=(9+6)+(6+4)=25
Taking the above example we see that a sub-group (3+2), when squared
produces 4 elements (9+6+6+4) and that the result is related to the original
by emphasising first one of the original numbers and then the other.
17
The
following diagram illustrates this relationship.
A+B
A.A--A.B--B.A--B.B
Original:
Square:
Figure 3.6. The relationship of the original sub-group to its square.
Realising the results as a score
Continuing our example of 5 as the master time signature, and (3+2) as its
sub-group, the results of the squaring process are combined into a 5 bar
score as shown below. As in most other branches of the system a rhythm can
be used backwards or forwards or in some kind of rotated variation. The
squared sub-group and its retrograde are, in my opinion, most interesting as
they are rhythms which accelerate or retard. Furthermore it is possible to
create 'interference' between the two to create yet another rhythm.

16
The formula can be simply modified to accomodate any number of elements in a sub-
group. Eg.(a+b+c)
2
=(a.a+a.b+a.c)+(b.a+b.b+b.c)+(c.a+c.b+c.c)
17
This aspect of the process is related to a much later part of the system in which types
of progressive symmetry are described, that is the arrangement of elements so that the
dominance of an element changes over time. E.g. A AB ABC BC B. See Chapter 2
section 2.12.3.
60
/
/
/
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
˙ ˙
.
œ
.
œ
.
œ
˙ ˙
.
œ
˙ ˙
˙

˙
˙

˙
/
/
/
˙

˙
œ
.
œ
.
œ
.
˙

˙
œ
.
(3+2)
2
(2+3)
2
The above
combined
9
6
6
4
4
6
6
9
4
5
1
5
1
5
4
Figure 3.7. The results of squaring realised as a score.
3.3.4 Incorporating the original sub-group
It would be possible to repeat the sub-group or a rotated variation of it, in
every bar of the score, until the bar group was filled. However, Schillinger
provides another, more elegant method, of incorporating the sub-group. The
sub-group can be combined with its square by applying the following
formula:
A
[ ]
A+B +B
[ ]
A+B
For example,
A=3, B=2
3
[ ]
3+2 +2
[ ]
3+2 =15+10=25
In effect this expands the original sub-group allowing it to be combined with
its square. It is important to note that no new elements are generated, as with
the squaring formula (see section 3.3.2), only the original elements of the
sub-group are enlarged.
61
/
/
/
/
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
˙ ˙
.
œ
.
œ
˙ ˙
.
œ
˙ ˙
.
œ
˙ ˙
˙ ˙
˙

˙
˙

˙
˙

˙
/
/
/
/
˙

˙
œ
.
œ
.
˙

˙
œ
.
˙

˙
œ
.
˙

˙
(3+2)
2
(2+3)
2
The above
combined
Original
sub-group
expanded
10 15
Figure 3.8. Expanding the original sub-group.
3.3.5 Incorporating rhythms produced by 'fractioning'
The method described of creating rhythms by the 'interference' of pulses (see
Chapter 3, Figure 3.3) in which the duration is determined by squaring the
'major' generator can also be combined into the score so long as the major
generator is identical to the master time signature.
62
/
/
/
/
/
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
˙ ˙
.
œ
.
œ
˙ ˙
˙

˙
.
œ
˙ ˙
.
œ
˙ ˙
œ
˙
œ
œ
˙ ˙
˙

˙
˙

˙
˙

˙
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
/
/
/
/
/
˙

˙
œ
.
œ
.
˙

˙
œ
œ
˙
œ
œ
.
˙

˙
œ
.
˙

˙
˙
˙
(3+2)
2
(2+3)
2
The above
combined
Sub-group
exapnded
5:3
3 2
1
2
1 1 1
1
1
1 1
1 1
2
1 2
3
Figure 3.9. Incorporating 'fractioned' rhythms.
Square structures such as the one shown in Figure 3.9, can be generated
with a very large number of parts. They are stable structures which I can only
describe as possessing a satisfying rhythmic wholeness. There is diversity
and syncopation of rhythm within the structure combined with a cyclical
inevitability of the whole. The entire structure is generated from a single bar's
worth of material.
63
3.4 Jazz and Funk Rhythm
3.4.1 Introduction
One of the attractive aspects of Schillinger's work is that it does not attempt to
exclude any style of music on the grounds that it is not worthy of theoretical
study or so loosely structured as to make analyses impossible. My own
research began with the aim of revealing structure in improvisation and in
my composition I have always been influenced by the flow and spontaneity
of semi-improvised music such as jazz. Schillinger's observations on the
rhythmic structure of jazz have been of considerable interest because they
deal with jazz as it was in the 1930's and 40's. More recent forms of Jazz and
funk are very different from the swing music Schillinger describes and yet his
observations can be extended to provide insight into more modern styles.
Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm, (Schillinger 1978 page 85) suggests that
much music and particularly Jazz is based on the combination of more than
one master time signature
18
. For example, 'Charleston' type rhythms come
about through combining the master time signatures of 6 and 8. In Figure
3.10, patterns of durations derived from the number 6 are placed in bars with
8 beats creating an accented or syncopated 'jazz' feel. In fact it would be
more accurate to describe Figure 3.10 as the result of combining the master
time signatures 3 and 8.

œ œ œ

œ œ œ

œ œ
œ

,
œ œ œ
œ

œ œ œ

œ œ œ

œ
,
œ œ

œ

,
œ
œ œ

œ œ œ

œ œ œ
œ
,
œ œ
,
œ œ
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
8
8
-
8
8
-
Figure 3.10. A 'Charleston' type rhythm (after Schillinger 1978 Figure 140, page 86.)
Figure 3.10 shows how durations (3,3...) are distributed in bars of 8 beats.
These patterns can be represented as durations tied across the bar lines
(bottom stave) or as a pattern of accents in quavers (top stave).

18
See Chapter 2, section 2.2.3.
64
Schillinger suggests that swing music such as that performed by Benny
Goodman and his band (Schillinger 1978 page 88) is the result of the
combination of the master time signatures 8 and 9. He observes that
although the music is notated as though it conformed to patterns derived
from 8, it is by convention automatically performed in triplets. Schillinger
suggests that the number 3, of the triplets, reveals the influence of the power
series of which 9 is a member. Figure 3.11, illustrates the development of
swing rhythms.
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ
,
œ
3
,
œ œ
3
œ
,
œ
3
,
œ œ
3
,
œ œ
3
œ
,
œ œ
3
œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ œ œ
3
œ
,
œ
3
,
œ œ
3
œ
,
œ
3
,
œ œ
3
œ
,
œ
3
,
œ œ
3
œ
,
œ œ
2 + 1, 1+2, 2 + 1...................
1, 4 + 1+4 + 1+4 + 1
9
Figure 3.11. Swing, the result of combining patterns of 8 and 9.
In Figure 3.11, the top stave shows bars of 8 beats which 'evolve' into bars of
12 beats (second stave) through the influence of triplets. At this point the
reader may reasonably consider that 12 is really the dominant influence on
the rhythm. However, Schillinger believes that this is not really the case: both
3 and 9 belong to the same power series. It is this common factor that
establishes their dominant influence on the rhythmic patterns. The third line
shows typical swing patterns in triplets which are derived from sub-groups of
the number 3, (2+1) or (1+2).The bottom stave of Figure 3.11, shows a sub-
group of 9, (4+1+4) distributed through bars of 8 beats. Schillinger claims
this to be an example of a true hybrid of the 8 and 9 series, however, as can
be seen from Figure 3.11, the rhythmic unit (4+1+4) is not consistently
distributed through the bars. Schillinger concludes from this that 9, is
"engaged in a struggle for crystalization' (Schillinger 1978 page 86).
Schillinger's analyses of swing and rhythmic hybrids is perhaps somewhat
65
over-complicated and in practise it is more convenient to think of tuplets of
any sort as ornamentation of a background pulse rather than as the hybrid
form of two master time signatures.
In the introduction to this chapter I indicated that I would illustrate some of the
practical applications of Schillinger's rhythmic techniques. The examples
given so far in this chapter are intentionally bland in order to be as clear as
possible. It is also true to say that some of the compositions presented in this
thesis will serve as illustrations of how the theory is applied in practise.
However, I shall present two small examples showing how rhythmic
techniques can be applied to the composition of funk and contemporary
jazz-type rhythm. Schillinger's observation that patterns of 8 underlie swing
and traditional jazz rhythm has lead me to speculate about the
developments of rhythm in later forms of jazz. In the decades after his death,
jazz evolved into more developed forms as is evident in the music of John
Coltrane, Herbie Hancock or the Modern Jazz Quartet. In the 1970's a style
of popular music known as funk emerged which could be described as a
fusion of Jazz and African music. While I do not wish to suggests that funk or
later forms of jazz have only one route of origin, it is useful to consider their
rhythmic structure and historical development in terms of Schillinger's theory.
I believe that in these later styles, a process of rhythmic evolution has taken
place: in funk a whole variety of typical rhythmic patterns can be derived from
sub-grouping the number 16, while more contemporary forms of Jazz rhythm
can be evolved from sub-groups of 32. Figure 3.12, and 3.13, illustrate these
developments.
Clave
Hi Hat
Snare
B. Drum
Bass
·
·
·
·
.
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3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4
2 12 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 12 2 2 12 2 2 2 12 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 12 2 2
9 7 7 9 7 9 9 7
(13) 3 3 (13) 3 (13) (13) 3
3 3 2,1,2, 1, 2 (12−−−−−−−−−−) (12−−−−−−−−−−−)(12−−−−−−−−−−−−) 2, 1, 2 , 1, 2 3 3

Figure 3.12. An example by the author of a funk rhythm based on sub-groups of 16.
66
Figure 3.12, shows a typical funk rhythm. Although the music is barred in 4/4
it is conceived as having 16 beats to the bar (semi-quavers).
Nearly all rhythmic patterns in this example come about through the sub-
grouping of the number 16, (see section 3.2.1). Once the rhythm has been
decided on, variation is achieved in each successive bar through rotation of
the elements of the rhythm. The exception to this is the bass line which is a
modification of the interference rhythm 8:3 (see section 3.1). This rhythm has
a total duration of 64 semi-quavers and will therefore be contained by 4 bars
of 4/4. This was desirable because I felt that the bass line, which carries
some melodic content, should have a more developed rhythmic structure
than the accompanying percussion instruments whose patterns exist within a
single bar of 4/4. The complete rhythm of 8:3 is as follows: (3,3,2,1,2,1,2
[36×1] 2,1,2,1,2,3,3). The middle segment of this rhythm is characterised by
36 repetitions of 1. I felt that such a number of repetitions represented too
much musical activity and so I modified the central section of the rhythm
accordingly. I divided it into three groups of 12 (36) and arranged each
group of 12 into 8 semi-quavers followed by 4 semi-quaver rests. This is a
good example of how 'ideal' rhythmic structures are modified to serve the
musical intention.
67
Claves
Hi Hat
B. Drum
Bass
·
·
·
.
¸
¸
¸
¸
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,
,
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≈ œ œ ‰ ‰ · œ œ · Œ
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(10) 1 (10) 1 (10)
(13) (13)
1 2 3 5 2 6 2 5 3 2 1
1, (10) 1 (10) (10)
(13) (13)
2 3 5 2 6 2 5 3 2 1 1
(10) 1 (10) (10) 1
(13) (13)
3 5 2 6 2 5 3 2 1 (1+2)
1 1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1 1 1 1
.¸¸
Figure 3.13. Rhythm based on 32 producing a style more associated with modern jazz.
Figure 3.13, illustrates a rhythmic structure which has been conceived in
terms of 32 divisions of the bar (demi-semi-quavers). Each part is derived
from a different sub-grouping of 32. Of particular interest is the bass line
which originates from the Fibonacci series. Schillinger observes that the sum
of the first six terms of the Fibonacci series equals 32 (Schillinger 1978
Page 92). I superimposed this sequence on its retrograde to create a variant
form.
(1+2+3+5+8+13) superimposed on (13+8+5+3+2+1)=(1+2+3+5+2+6+2+5+3+2+1).
3.4.2. Conclusions
It would be a gross generalisation to claim that the master time signature
alone determines the style of the music being composed. If that were true
any music barred in 4/4 and based in units such as semi-quavers or demi-
semi-quavers would automatically sound like contemporary jazz or funk.
Clearly the choice of instrumentation and the composer's intention to create
music of a particular type are equally important. However, in my experience,
68
it is useful and effective to adopt as a general principle the idea that typical
jazz rhythms can be evolved using master time signatures which belong to a
power series originating on 2. That is, (2,4,8,16,32). As general rule greater
musical fluidity and rhythmic subtlety are achieved when rhythmic patterns
are based on the larger master time signatures of such a series as the
composer must design structures based on ever smaller units.
3.5 Organic forms
3.5.1 Rhythms Of Variable Velocity
In Chapter 2, section 2.2.5 and 2.5, I referred to Schillinger's use of growth
series ('organic forms') as a means of creating both rhythmic and melodic
forms
19
. In fact Schillinger's belief in the importance of growth series extends
to art forms such as design and the visual arts.
The patterns of growth stimulate in human beings a response which is
more powerful than many other similar but casual formations. Thus we
see that forms of organic growth associated with life, well-being, self
preservation and evolution appeal to us as forms of beauty when
expressed through the art medium. Intuitive artists of great merit are
usually endowed with great sensitiveness and intuitive knowledge of the
underlying scheme of things. This is why a composer like Wagner is
capable of projecting spiral formations.... without any analytical
knowledge of the process involved. (Schillinger 1978 page 352)
Building on the idea that "art imitates nature" Schillinger says,
Musical patterns, viewed in the universe of physical, biological, and
aesthetic objects, are only special cases in the general scheme of
pattern making. (Schillinger 1978 page 352)
In Book I, Chapter 14, Schillinger introduces techniques of applying growth
series to the generation of rhythmic patterns. Rhythms of variable velocities
can be derived from growth series, such as the summation series, where
every number is generated by the summing of the previous two.
For example,

19
There is no bibliography included with The Schillinger system Of Musical Composition
(Schillinger 1978) but it would seem likely that he would have known the work of the
biologist D'Arcy Thompson, in particular Growth and Form.
69
1+2=3, 2+3=5, 5+3=8
First summation (Fibonacci) series. 1,2,3,5,8,13.........
Other series suggested by Schillinger include the following:
Second summation series: 1,3,4,7,11,18........
Third summation series: 1,4,5,9,14, 23.................
Harmonic series
20
: 1,2,3,4,5,6...........
Although any series may be used to create acceleration, Schillinger believed
that the natural choice of a particular series for a particular type of music
depends on whether the master time signature of the music occurs in the
series. If the master time signature of the music were 9, for example, the most
suitable series would be the third summation series.
Rhythms created by growth series can be used to articulate musical form.
For example, acceleration suggests beginning, retardation suggests ending.
Schillinger suggests that the results of interference between a series and its
retrograde produce climactic rhythms as can be seen in Figure 3.14.
·
·
·
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¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
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,
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.
,
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,
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Retard
accel.
combined




1 2 3 5 8 13
13 8 5 3 2 1
1 2 3 5 2 6 2 5 3 2 1
Figure 3.14. Combining rhythms of variable velocity.
In order to produce acceleration in an existing musical rhythm it is suggested
the terms of the growth series are used as coefficients of acceleration or
retardation. For example,
Original rhythm: (3,1,2,2,1,3)
Growth series: 1,2,3,5,8

20
The harmonic series is not, of course, a summation series.
70
(3,1,2,2,1,3)+2(312213)+3(312213)+5(312213)+8(312213)=
(3,1,2,2,1,3)+(6,2,4,4,2,6)+(9,3,6,6,3,9)+(15,5,10,10,5,15)...........
Schillinger notes that this technique is particularly useful for composers
working in film (Schillinger 1978 page 91). Changes in tempo in a film score
traditionally depended on the orchestra following the instincts of a skilled
conductor. Schillinger suggests that to rely on a conductor is unwise and that
the tempo changes must be reflected in the durations of the music as
determined by the growth series.
3.5.2 Organic forms in melody
In the Theory of Melody ,Book IV, Chapter 8, Schillinger applies organic
forms
21
to melodic progression.
The growth of semitones through the summation series in unilateral
and bilateral symmetry develops motifs, i.e., melodic forms, which are
truly organic as they exhibit the processes of growth of intervals.
(Schillinger 1978 page 333)
The following example shows two 'spiral' forms, the first developing through
the Fibonacci series in one direction (unilateral) the second developing in
two directions (bilateral).
/
/
.
. ,
. ,
. ,
.
.
. ,
.
.
. ,
.
. ,
.
.
. ,
.
. ,
Unilateral
Bilateral
1 2 3 5 8 13
1 2 3
5
8
1 2 3 5
Figure 3.15. Organic forms of melody.

21
It has been shown that the growth of living organisms can be described using growth
series. The configuration of seeds in a sun flower, for example, are arranged according to
the Fibonacci series. See Schillinger 1978, Pg 331.
71
The Fibonacci series is only one of many different summation series, all of
which can be applied to melodic forms.
These series of constant or variable ratios with harmonic arrangement of
number values, when translated into an art medium, produce organic or
nearly organic effects. Spiral formation as revealed through Summation
Series affects us as being organic because there is an intuitive
interdependence of man and surrounding nature. (Schillinger 1978 page
352)
3.6 Book VI : The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody
3.6.1 Introduction
Book VI, The Correlation of Harmony And Melody, describes methods of
deriving melodic lines from harmonic progressions as well as harmonising
pre-existing melodic lines. Chapter 2, (page 642) Composing Melodic Attack
Groups,
22
deals with methods of controlling contrast, balance and animation
in a melody with harmonic accompaniment. This requires rhythmic
techniques first presented in Book I. Contrast between successive attack
groups of a melody and the overall pattern of distribution of melody notes to
their harmonies can be controlled using the following resources: sub-
grouping of the master time signature, squaring sub-groups of the master
time signature and rhythms produced by pulse 'interference'. Rotation of the
elements of a rhythmic pattern can be applied as a secondary technique to
all the above.
3.6.2 Sub-grouping the master time signature

22
The number of melodic attacks/events ocurring over the duration of a chord is called
an 'attack group'. See Chapter 2 section 2.7.
72
The master time signature can be fragmented into sub-groups of two or more
elements which can represent attack groups of varying degrees of contrast.
For example, a master time signature of 8, might produce the following sub-
groups each with two elements: (4+4), (5+3), (7+1). The first represents
balance, the second exhibits more contrast between attack groups, the third
represents maximum contrast. The attack groups just described are shown
below in music notation. Note that durations are irrelevant at this stage, since
stems are only used to make attack groups clear.
/
.
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A1=4 A2=4
A1=5 A2=3
A1=7 A2=1
H1 H2 H1 H2 H1 H2
Balance Medium contrast Maximum contrast
Figure 3.16. Contrasting attack groups.
In Figure 3.16, A stands for attack group and H represents its associated
harmony. Rotation of the two elements in an attack group produces a
variation. For example,
(A
1
= 5) + (A
2
= 3). Rotation produces (A
1
=3) + (A
2
=5)
The above attack groups placed in sequence produces a 'balanced
symmetry':
5 3 3 5
---- ----  ---- ----
H1 H2 H3 H4
73
The same procedure may be carried out with any number of elements but
gradual contrast produced by balancing and unbalancing is not as obvious
with more than two attack groups. The following is an example of a three
element attack group gradually changing from a balanced state to an
unbalanced state:
3,3,3→4,3,2→5,2,1
3.6.3 Rhythms produced by pulse interference and attack groups
The resultants of 'interference' provide excellent material for attack group
patterns over longer ranges. For instance 7:6 (6,1,5,2,4,3,3,4,2,5,1,6)
potentially provides twelve
23
attack groups. These combine well into pairs
such as (6,1)(5,2)(4,3). Contrast between pairs is high at the beginning,
balance is achieved at the centre and contrast is re-established at the end.
Rotation of the elements of the rhythm often reveals forms which have
particular musical functions. For example, a restful ending point can be
found through re-arrangement of the elements of the rhythmic pattern. The
original pattern ends with a 6, a highly animated attack group, but reversing
the order of the last pair produces a less active ending:
(6,1)(5,2)(4,3)(3,4)(2,5)( 6,1 ). The following example, shows this re-ordered
pattern in music notation. Durations and pitches have been chosen freely in
order to give the example some musical realism but these have no
relationship to the current discussion. Attack groups are shown by phrasing
marks.

23
The number of elements in the result.
74
/
.
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¸
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3
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3
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.
.
.
Figure 3.17. Attack group patterns derived from 7:6.
3.6.4 Attack groups and squaring techniques
The techniques described above produced attack groups of melody notes for
a sequence of chords but the durations for the attacks in each group or the
duration of each chord was not defined. Squaring techniques,(see section
3.3.2 and 3.2.3), can be used to create attack groups and their durations. For
example, if the master time signature is 4, and the sub-group was (2,1,1),
then the squared sub-group would be as follows:
(2+1+1)
2
= (4+2+2)+(2+1+1)+(2+1+1)
By expanding the original sub-group we obtain the following:
(2× 4) + (1× 4) + (1× 4) = (8+4+4)
The squared sub-group and the expanded sub-group can now be combined
in two parts: the former provides the attack groups and the durations of each
attack, the latter provides the durations of each harmony.
75
Attack groups and durations (4+2+2)+(2+1+1)+(2+1+1)
Duration of harmonies 8 + 4 + 4
The following example shows the above in music notation, where 1= .
/
.
¸
¸
¸
¸
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
˙
˙
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,
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œ
œ
œ
,
œ
œ
œ
œ
Figure 3.18. Squaring techniques applied to durations of attack groups and harmonies.
3.6.5 The rhythmic co-ordination of melody and harmony
This method involves using two rhythms, one to control the attack groups
and the other to control the duration of the attacks. For example, in the
following diagram, 7:6 (6,1,5,2,4,3,3,4,2,5,1,6) controls the attack groups (top
line), 4:3 (3,1,2,2,1,3) controls durations of attacks,(middle line). The sum of
the durations for each attack group will determine the duration of the
harmonies (bottom line).
Attack
groups
6 1 5 2 4 3 3 4 2 5 1 6
Durations
3,1,2,2,1,3 3 1,2,2,1,3 3,
1
2,2,1,3 3,1,2 2,1,3 3,1,2,2 1,3 3,1,2,2,1 3 3,1,2,2,1,3
Chord
duration
s
12 3 9 4 8 6 6 8 4 9 3 12
Figure 3.19. Two rhythms determine attack groups and durations.
In Figure 3.19, the first attack group has six assigned durations,
(3+1+2+2+1+3), the duration of the chord assigned to that attack group is the
sum of those durations, 12. The following score is the realisation of the
above diagram, pitches are chosen freely, phrase marks show attack groups,
1= semi-quaver.
76
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Extra bar to end
Figure 3.20. The scheme in Figure 3.19, as a score.
3.7 Conclusions
Whatever the shortcomings of Schillinger's methods and writing style, many
parts of the system are, to my mind, extremely robust. In my opinion it
explains more about the nature and construction of music, the 'nuts and
bolts' as it were, than any other theory known to this author. Schillinger puts
this point well in the preface to his book, The Mathematical Basis Of The
Arts.
Whereas one scientific theory overwhelms another only to be
overwhelmed by new facts and new evidence, this system
overwhelms the available facts and evidence. Hence its pragmatic
validity. (Schillinger 1948)
77
Chapter 4 Compositions by the author
4.1 Introduction
The compositions in this thesis fall into two main categories.
1) Those composed using techniques derived from Schillinger's work;
2) Those composed without knowledge of his methods.
There is a further subdivision: compositions involving an electroacoustic
element and those that are entirely acoustic. The table below shows the
various compositions, the order in which they are discussed and the
categories to which they belong. The order in which my works are presented
in this thesis represents the general evolution of my compositional method.
Chapter 5, Moon Shaman Pre-Schillinger Plus electroacoustic
Chapter 6, Riddle Pre-Schillinger Plus electroacoustic
Chapter 7, Vision and Prayer Pre-Schillinger Acoustic
Chapter 8, Rêve de l'Orb Pre-Schillinger Acoustic
Chapter 9, Bayo's Way Post-Schillinger Plus electroacoustic
Chapter 10, Make Night Day Post-Schillinger Plus electroacoustic
Chapter 11, Trilogy Post-Schillinger Acoustic
Figure 4.1. Table of works in order of discussion and categorisation.
Each work shown in Figure 4.1, is considered from two perspectives: the
aesthetic or imaginative impulse, what might be called the poetic
background to the music, and the technical analyses of its method of
composition. Wherever possible, I show how the initial inspiration gave rise
to the technical approach.
Throughout the following chapters, I use words such as, 'free', 'intuitive' and
'improvised' in relation to the process of composition. At this point I must
clarify my use of these terms to avoid ambiguity and confusion. As I
explained in the introduction to this thesis, my initial research involved the
analyses of MIDI recordings of my keyboard improvisations in order to
discover characteristic musical structures. Improvisation, inspired by the
'poetic background' has, therefore, often been the starting point for many of
my musical ideas. A single improvisation of this sort would never produce an
entire piece or even a significant part of it and so the process of composition
developed in stages of improvisation each of which followed periods of
deliberate intellectual thought. When I use words such as 'free' or 'intuitive', I
am in no way suggesting randomness or chance, I mean rather the absence
78
of a precise or exact preconceived method but not the absence of deliberate
intellectual activity. Consequently, in the music composed before my
discovery of Schillinger's work there is sometimes no clearly definable
relationship between the stages of imagination and technical realisation. In
analysing my own pre-Schillinger compositions I have applied Schillinger's
ideas wherever they seem appropriate. This has sometimes revealed
structures in my 'intuitive' compositions that were previously unrecognised. In
the case of Moon Shaman, I have re-composed part of the opening, applying
Schillinger's techniques to the original material. However, Schillinger's
techniques are designed as tools for construction, not analysis and so there
remain aspects of these compositions which cannot be explained in terms of
Schillinger's ideas.
4.2 Acoustic and electroacoustic
It is arguable that the computer has been the most significant development
and influence on music of the Twentieth century. Schillinger predicted in the
1940's, that the composer would very soon be in complete control of the
medium of performance and sound production through the use of machines
(Schillinger 1978 page 228). This is the case today but the reluctance of
classical music audiences to accept computer generated sound as readily
as that made by traditional acoustic instruments and the limitations of
simulating acoustic timbre has to some extent made electroacoustic music a
specialist field. However, as a composer, I cannot separate the process or
the results of composition into mutually exclusive types. My music is
intended to be a communication to the listener through structures articulated
in the medium of sound and its fundamental reason for existing is not
influenced by the means of generating sound. Of course, I place great
importance on the aesthetic quality associated with a particular sound
source and the aesthetic background to the music will dictate my choice of
instrumentation but the meaning, organisation and structure of my work is
not primarily determined by the use of acoustic or electroacoustic
technology. For this reason the compositions presented in this thesis
combine those written exclusively for acoustic instruments and those which
involve a mixture of acoustic and electroacoustic sources.
In mixing my colours, as it were, I have given consideration to the very great
differences between the two types of sound source. The tape part of a
composition and electronic sound in general is free of many limitations and
79
constraints which have shaped traditional mechanical instruments. This
freedom has lead to the creation of many new and exciting sounds but In my
view, has also contributed a certain lack of identity. With relatively fewer
limitations electronic instruments suffer a loss of distinctive character:
physical constraints, it would seem, have greatly contributed to the individual
and expressive qualities of traditional instruments. There is a second
consideration in the use of computer generated music: events are essentially
fixed and rigid once they has been committed to tape; the individual sounds
which make up the tapestry are fixed and immutable. In a performance, the
projection of sound can increase the level of spontaneity and spatial
sensation and live electronics offer still greater flexibility but it remains the
case that the most sensitive and varied production of timbre and dynamics
are produced by a traditional acoustic instrument in the hands of a skilled
performer. For this reason, I have always felt it necessary to place the
performer at the centre of the composition. However, musicians often find it
rhythmically difficult and emotionally unsatisfying to play against a fixed tape
part. I have attempted wherever possible to minimise problems of co-
ordination: in Riddle or Moon Shaman, for example, the tape
accompaniment is largely made up of timbres of indefinite pitch and
impressionistic textures which relieve the pressure of absolute
synchronisation. In Make Night Day, the problems of co-ordination are more
critical. One solution would be the use of a silent click track, but this seems to
impose a distance and rigidity on the performers and so instead I have
composed clear pulse and cues into the tape part.
Perhaps the most effective way of combining acoustic and electroacoustic
sounds is to conceive of the latter as being extensions of the sound of
acoustic instruments. In my composition Make Night Day, I have at times
adopted this approach which helps form a link between contrasting sound
worlds. In general, I choose sounds for computer manipulation and select
the results of that process according to how closely they refer to my own
aural experience. I prefer processed sounds to be related in some way to
environmental, urban, or traditional musical sound. For this reason my
electroacoustic work often contains sound that has the quality of animal
cries, wind, rain or clocks, for example, but also timbres derived from
traditional orchestral instruments. Different types of sound are needed to
articulate structure. This includes percussive sounds and sustained sounds,
capable of providing harmonic accompaniment.
Chapter 5 Moon Shaman
80
5.1 Background
Moon Shaman, for bass clarinet and tape, was written in 1991 for the bass
clarinettist Hein Pijnenburg. It received its first performance at the Ijsbreker
Amsterdam in March 1992. The idea for this composition dates from 1991,
the time of Hein Pijnenburg's visit to the City University. Pijnenburg gave a
seminar and concert, demonstrating a huge variety of playing techniques
ranging from multiphonic sounds to key clatter effects. He also took part in a
recording session so that the sound of his instrument could be used for
processing and it is from this recording that many of the sounds in the tape
part of Moon Shaman, originate.
This work was composed before I encountered the work of Joseph
Schillinger but the score presented here has been extensively revised using
techniques derived from his theories. This newer version has not yet
received a public performance but a studio recording is presented with this
thesis on the accompanying tape.
5.2 The bass clarinet
One tendency in my work is to compose for bass instruments such as the
bass clarinet or the tuba. The bass clarinet has a powerful visual
appearance which stimulated and inspired me. It is an instrument that seems
to me imbued with mysterious qualities: black and serpent-like, suggesting
potency and darkness. The sound is driven by the breath of the performer
and the instrument must therefore be connected to his or her body: this
provokes the fantasy that the instrument is somehow drawing out the spirit of
the performer or that it is, like a pipe, a device for taking something
intoxicating into the body. The sound of the bass clarinet has a quality
reminiscent of both a human and animal voice. Its lowest notes are powerful
and resonant and suggest a velvety omnipotence while its higher range
evokes a sense of vulnerability; overblown sounds and multiphonics add a
note of pain or anger to its range of expression.
5.3 Narrative and metaphor
81
The mystery of magic and religious ritual stimulated me to create a series of
narrative images which informed the process of composition: a shaman
ritual, the conjuring up of magical forces through the repetition of some kind
of prayer or spell. I imagine that shamanic rituals involve the expenditure of
large amounts of energy and concentration: the shaman appears to
hyperventilate thereby inducing a state of trance. In this composition the
clarinettist is the shaman, and in invoking spirit forces he must literally blow
them into life. The initial invocation is represented in the opening section of
Moon Shaman: a rhythmically challenging solo passage of almost
continuous semi-quaver motion. Having called the magic forces the shaman
engages in a dialogue with the spirits. This is a mystical communication, the
nature of which I have tried to capture in the metaphorical image of a
'celestial dance'. The idea of a dance through the expanses of the universe,
around and about the celestial bodies, explains the presence of the word
Moon in the title of the piece. Finally the magic decays and the shaman
begins the opening ritual again.
24
5.4 Form
5.4.1 Part I: (bars 1-115)
The narrative form described in section 5.3, divides into three parts which
correspond to three sections of the piece. Part I reflects the process of
invocation. The clarinet begins unaccompanied playing in the lowest
register. The music is dominated by rhythm, a constant semi-quaver pulse,
occasional leaps to higher registers suggest the rhythm and intensity of
prayer or ritual spell. The tape enters at bar 52, suggesting the arrival of the
magic forces.
5.4.2 Part II: (bars 160-180)

24
A very similar image suggested by Shelley's poem Two Souls inspired my composition
Make Night Day. See Chapter 10, section 10.2.
82
Part II represents the period of mystical dialogue. There are seven phrases
for the clarinet separated by short tape interludes. The clarinet phrases are
of contrasting character and represent the shaman's questions of the spirits,
whose answers are represented by the tape interludes. The first two clarinet
phrases are low in register and quite gentle (bar 117 to 118 and bar 120 to
124). They are followed by two phrases in the upper register of far more
frenetic character ( bar 125 to 139 inclusive). The fifth phrase (bar 140 to
150) is a return to the lower register and the feeling of calm. The sixth phrase
(bar 155 to 165) is exuberant and is most obviously expressive of 'celestial
dance'. The final phrase (bar 166 to 179) is less energetic and placed in the
lower register of the bass clarinet, it is to my mind something of a lament and
represents the fading of the magic.
5.4.3 Part III: (bars 181-254)
In part III the invocation of the opening section begins again and at bar 220,
material first heard in the middle section returns but in a more strained and
distorted manner which represents a sort of death - the shaman leaving the
physical context of the listener. His departure is confirmed when the tape
part continues after the soloist has finished, suggesting that some of the
magic remains but that the shaman has been transported into another world.
5.5 The tape
5.5.1 The relationship between tape and soloist
In composing Moon Shaman, I deliberately created a flexible relationship
between the soloist and the tape part. Without wishing to stretch the
comparison too far, the tape is somewhat like an opera orchestra, setting the
scene, providing atmosphere and supporting plot - the music of the bass
clarinet in the middle section is like an aria. However, the tape is also one of
the protagonists in the drama and in a very real sense is not under the
control of the soloist. It is made up of largely unpitched sounds and
impressionistic clouds of rhythmic texture which, representing unpredictable
magical forces, occasionally threatens to overwhelm the soloist. This
uncertain relationship is reflected in the scoring of the piece which avoids a
strict synchronisation between the soloist and tape. The clarinettist must
perform several changes of tempo within this sound world without there
being a reference pulse of any sort in the tape part. Sounds on the tape are
83
notated in the score only as cue points for the clarinet to begin a phrase. This
has two important effects; first the soloist must take special care to learn the
tape part and not rely on a click track and secondly he must play his part with
a flexibility, almost an improvised quality, which is appropriate to the
dramatic content of the piece.
5.5.2 Sounds of recognisable origin
Sounds on the tape were chosen because of their potential to create mood
and convey the theme of the work. As a consequence there is a varied
mixture of sounds from a number of sources. At times I deliberately use
sound derived from the instruments of the standard orchestra (for instance,
gongs, bells and double basses) partly to suggest the traditional relationship
between orchestra and soloist but mostly because I felt they had a unique
power to suggest atmosphere. For example, the use of a sampled orchestral
bass drum (see bars 155 ff.) or a modified double bass tremolo combined
with a bass clarinet sound (see bar 88, "Rotating Bass", tape time 2'16"). For
me, both these sounds have a particular expressive quality. The bass drum
is used to accompany the bass clarinet in its 'celestial dance' and its thuds
punctuate the bass clarinet's tumbles and somersaults suggesting an
acrobatic performance. The same effect occurs in Bayo's Way for tuba and
brass ensemble during a section originally given the mnemonic tag 'the
beast enters the ring'
25
. Here the brass ensemble punctuates the tuba's
leaps and tumbles. In both pieces there is an element of circus at these
moments, but in Moon Shaman, the bass drum has the added effect of
suggesting magical ritual. The double bass/bass clarinet sound, in the score
called "Rotating bass," is a modified composite sound but has a
recognisable origin. Its low register and tremolo component suggest a
fervour of activity and the impending presence of powerful forces.
Finally there are numerous bell sounds modified through programming with
envelopes and filters. All of these suggest to me atmospheres associated
with religious ritual.
5.5.3. Contextual sounds

25
See Chapter 9, section 9.4.
84
Sounds which have recognisable origins such as those based on orchestral
instruments have their effect partly because of their cultural and historical
associations. However, the tape part also includes sounds that have no
recognisable origin. These sounds might be described as contextual as they
tend to be used to create a sense of physical surrounding. For example, the
sound described in the score as "Cymbal Swell" (Tape time 5'06") is in fact
derived from a scraped piano string and to me suggests the huge expanses
of space and the rushing winds created by the magic forces or, for example,
at tape time 5'13" (bar 151) there is a sound derived from the key clatter of
the bass clarinet. It is used mainly in the middle section of the composition
between clarinet phrases and is associated with the responses of the spirit
forces. I have called this sound 'water' because for me it suggested the crisp
energy of a water fall or spring.
5.5.4. Bass clarinet sounds
A number of sounds derived from the reed sound of the bass clarinet have
the quality of an animal cry, such as a sea bird or a hyena and in this context
represent the bleak wailing or chattering of the spirits: see for example,
"Waa", (tape time 3'33") or "Ah Ha" (tape time 3,07").
5.6. Revision of the score
5.6.1 Introduction
One of my tendencies as a composer has been to write lines of music which
have a continuous semi-quaver pulse. Bayo's Way, Rêve de l'Orb, Vision
and Prayer and Moon Shaman all exhibit this feature to some extent. In the
original score of Moon Shaman, the opening bass clarinet solo was
composed of continuous semi-quavers, however, at relatively high speed
and in the lowest register this material proved impractical for the performer. I
therefore re-composed the opening attempting to preserve the character of
the original while removing the element of extreme difficulty. However, in the
intervening period since the first performance my interest in the work of
Joseph Schillinger (see Chapters 2 and 3) had developed. It therefore
seemed appropriate to attempt to apply some of the ideas in the process of
re-composition.
5.6.2 Pulse analysis
85
As rhythm is central to Schillinger's methods, I decided to analyse the
rhythmic structure of the opening section of Moon Shaman. It is
characterised by continuous semi-quavers which form groups due to accent,
phrasing or pitch changes: sequences of these groups suggest pulse. For
example,
/ ¸
¸
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ

œ

œ

œ
. . . .
Figure 5.1. Groups of Semi-quavers suggest pulse, shown below the stave.
In Figure 5.1, pulse groups of three semi-quavers are defined by pitch and
are identified by phrase mark. During the opening section of Moon Shaman,
pulse groups are not regular but are continuously varied. A pulse group
establishes itself and is then replaced by a longer or shorter pulse group.
Although the composition of this section originally involved improvisation,
analysis revealed some interesting patterns which can be interpreted by
adapting a concept found in Schillinger's work. The pulse groups appear to
be balancing and unbalancing around a rhythmic axis. The idea of balance
and imbalance occurs regularly in The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978)
and elsewhere in Schillinger's writings
26
. Schillinger believed that
unbalancing two equal quantities was one of the processes by which
rhythmic patterns could be generated. Furthermore, he thought imbalance
was a tendency necessary to produce forward momentum in music. This can
be seen, for example, in the process of fragmenting the master time
signature (see chapter 3 section 3.2.1). Fragmentation of the master time
signature is the process of creating rhythmic patterns within a bar.

26
See The Mathematical Basis Of The Arts, (Schillinger 1948), Chapter 6, Page 184:
"Balance, Unstable Equilibrium and Crystallisation Of Event".,and Chapter 2 section
2.2.0, last paragraph.
86
For example, a master time signature of 8 (beats in the bar), divides into two
equal (balanced) portions 4+4. The 'unit of deviation' used to bring about
unbalancing is
1
8
.
4
8
-
1
8
+
4
8
+
1
8
=
3
8
+
5
8
or (3+5)
Balance and imbalance are also discussed in relation to pitch and in
particular to movement around the axes of melody.
27
As far as I know the
idea of an axis of pulse is not explicitly mentioned by Schillinger but can be
seen as a straightforward development of his ideas following from his
discussion of pitch axes and symmetry in general. Figure 5.2, shows the
semi-quaver pulse groups as they appear in the opening of Moon Shaman.
These pulse groups are arranged into bars of 4/4 shown by bold vertical
lines. Where a pulse group falls over the bar line, creating syncopation, it is
indicated by shading and there is no bold line.
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 4 5 2 4 4 2 2
3 4 6 2 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 3
2 2 2 3 5 3 4 2 2 3 3 2 4 3 3 2
5 4 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 3
4 3 3 3 3 4 6 5 5 6 5 4 3 3 2 3
2 4 3 2 7 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 4 2 14 4
4 3 5 4 4 3 3 8 2 4 4 6 6 4 4 4
4 7 7 3 4 3 4 6 7 8 7 4 6 5 5
Bar line
Syncopation crossing bar line.
Figure 5.2. Moon Shaman: opening section pulse groups barred in 4/4.
Each row of Figure 5.2, should be read from left to right starting at the top.
Numbers indicate the number of semi-quavers in the pulse group. It can be
seen from Figure 5.2, that groups of 4 semi-quavers are established over the
first two bars and could be said to represent an axis or a point of balance
around which later pulse groups expand or contract by 2, 3 or occasionally 4
semi-quavers.

27
See Chapter 2, section 2.5.
87
The following table shows the weighting (number of occurrences) of the
different pulse groups.
Pulse Group
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 14
Number of
occurences
36 31 34 9 8 5 2 1
Total duration 72 93 136 45 48 35 16 14
Figure 5.3. Moon Shaman: the weighting of pulse groups in Figure 5.2.
It can be seen that the pulse group 4 has 34 occurences and a total duration
of 136 semi-quavers making it the most dominant pulse group, exactly what
one would expect from the axis of pulse. Furthermore, it lies more or less
equidistant between the extremes of the range of pulse groups
28
a
necessarry feature if it is to function as an axis or pivot. The process of
balancing and un-balancing can be seen on the local level, within a single
bar. For example, the sequence (3,5,4,4), (boldened and underlined
numbers in Figure 5.2), can be interpreted as the unbalancing (-1) and
overbalancing (+1) around the axis. Developing this interpretation it would
appear that the axis is strongly present for the first two bars but is rapidly
undermined by over-balancing in bar three (6,4,5,2) and then under-
balancing in bar four (4,4,2,2,3). Overall this section might be described as a
journey around the axis of pulse at first through the establishment of shorter
pulse groups and then by contrast, through longer pulse groups. Finally, the
axis of pulse once again becomes more dominant and there is a partial re-
establishment of balance. For example, the pulse group 2 dominates bars
five to seven and is then challenged for supremacy by the pulse group 3 in
bars nine to thirteen. From bar 14 onwards pulse groups of 5,6 and 7 appear
more frequently. The fluctuations of pulse around the axis produce a feeling
of drama or tension in the opening section of Moon Shaman. Pulse groups
smaller than the axis tend to produce an effect of higher tension and greater
effort, the longer pulse groups produce the effect of dissipation of energy or
dying away. The music is at its most rhythmically dynamic when there is a
strong fluctuation around the axis, for example the sequence (4,6,2,2,2,) in
bar 5, or the sequence. (2,5,2,2,2,2) in bar 6.

28
The pulse groups 8, and 14, can be considered as insignificant because of their limited
number of occurrences.
88
5.7 Approach to re-composition
5.7.1 Introduction
Having observed a scheme of pulse groups in the opening section of Moon
Shaman, I was faced with the question of how, if at all, I could improve on it.
After much consideration I decided to preserve the original scheme of
pulses: during the original composition process the rhythm and proportions
of the opening had been a matter of careful consideration and I felt that to
alter it would be rather like trying to shift the foundations of a building. I
decided to break up the continuous semi-quavers of the original by
introducing rests thereby allowing the performer time to breathe and prepare
for the next phrase. For example, where in the original there were 4 semi-
quavers in a pulse group, there would now be 2 semi-quavers followed by a
quaver rest. Figure 5.4, illustrates this process.
/ ¸
¸
œ
œœœ
œ
œœœ
œ
œœœ
œ
œœœ
œ
œ

œ
œ

œ
œ

œ
œ

Figure 5.4. Pulse groups are modified by the insertion of rests in place of semi-quavers.
5.7.2 Re-barring
As a consequence of introducing rests it was necessary to completely re-bar
the opening section to indicate more clearly how the pulse groups should be
articulated. The original was barred in 4/4 for visual simplicity which was
acceptable because there was continuous semi-quaver motion which
allowed the use of phrase markings and accents in order to show the
different pulse groups. Once rests had been introduced, bars of 4/4 were
misleading: phrase marks (traditionally not placed over rests) could not be
used to indicate the start and end of pulse groups mixed metre was the only
accurate way of doing so.
5.7.3 Re-composing pitch
89
The introduction of rests meant that many pitches in the original were lost. In
another context the loss of a large number of pitches from a score would be
catastrophic but it was clear to me that rhythm was the most important feature
of the Introduction; the primary role of pitch was to help articulate the rhythm
groups. I decided to completely re-compose the pitch content of the opening
in a more structured manner than the original which had come about through
improvisation. I made use of two techniques described by Schillinger:
symmetrically distributed pitch units
29
and progressive symmetry.
30
In The
Theory Of Pitch Scales (Schillinger 1978), Schillinger introduces the idea of
dividing the octave into symmetrical portions. This produces five "scales"
with a varying number of pitch units
/
œ
œ ¸
œ
œ
œ
œ ,
œ
œ
œ ,
œ ,
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ¸
œ ¸
œ ¸
/
œ œ ¸
œ œ ¸
œ
œ œ ¸
œ œ ¸
œ œ ¸
œ
œ
Two 'tonics' Three 'tonics' Four 'tonics' Six 'tonics'
Twelve 'tonics'
(Tritone) (Augmented) (Diminished) (Whole tone)
(Chromatic)
Figure 5.5 The octave divided symmetrically in five different ways.
Schillinger describes each pitch of such a scale as a 'tonic' because further
'sectional scales' are built on each of them. For example,
/
˙
œ ,
œ
œ ˙ ¸
œ
œ ¸
œ
Tonic
Sectional scales
Tonic
Figure 5.6. A two 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with 'sectional scales'.
Schillinger suggests that the effect of polytonality can be achieved by using
these scales simultaneously in different parts of the score. As Moon Shaman
is a solo composition I used this method, not as a means of effecting
polytonality but in order to create a feeling of continuous modulation,

29
See Chapter 2, section 2.3.3.
30
See Chapter 2, section 2.12.3.
90
expressive of the progressive working of the magic. I used a symmetrical
scale of four 'tonics': C, E flat, G flat, and A, and ornamented each 'tonic' with
its upper and lower semi-tone neighbour notes.
/
œ
˙
œ , œ ,
˙ ,
œ , œ ,
˙ ,
œ ∫
œ ¸
˙ ,
œ ,
Neighbour notes
Figure 5.7 A four 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with neighbour notes.
I chose a scale starting on the pitch C, in order to correspond with the lowest
note of the bass clarinet. I wanted this note to be heard most often during the
opening and for there to be forays to the other 'tonics' culminating in a return
to the C 'tonic'. The sequence in which the tonics are heard is controlled
using a technique described by Schillinger as Progressive symmetry. This
method allows any number of different elements to be arranged in a
'symmetrical' and 'progressive' form. In this case, four elements, ABCD,
represent the four 'tonics':
A= the pitch C,
B= the pitch E flat,
C= the pitch G flat,
D= the pitch A.
The elements ABCD are arranged as follows:
(A)(AB)(ABC)(CD)(D)
This is a symmetrical grouping of the four elements which brings about a
transformation, a progressive change in the emphasis or dominance of
succeeding elements. I modified this arrangement by adding an extra
element (E), at the end of the sequence of elements:
(A)(AB)(ABC)(CD)(D)(E)
Group E, corresponds to the pitch B natural, the leading note of 'tonic' C
(element A), and thereby facilitates the repetition of the scheme.
Having decided on the sequence in which the 'tonics' appeared it was
necessary to fix their rate of occurrence. I wanted to evoke a sense of
91
increasing tension and so I employed a growth series (18,11,7,4,3,1) which
seemed to offer the right degree of change and tension. Each member of the
growth series served as a coefficient of repetition
31
for each bracketed group
of elements shown in the scheme of progressive symmetry. The growth
series and the scheme of progressive symmetry were combined into the
following arrangement:
18(A) 11(AB) 7(ABC) 4(CD) 3(D) 1(E)
The final step was to combine this sequence with the pulse groups shown in
Figure 5.2. This is described as follows:
The first 18 pulse groups are assigned 'tonic' C.
The next 11 pulse groups are assigned 'tonics' E flat and G flat alternately.
The next 7 pulse groups are assigned 'tonics' C, E flat and G flat, alternately.
The next 4 pulse groups are assigned 'tonics' G flat and A alternately.
The next 3 pulse groups are assigned 'tonic' A.
The next pulse group is assigned B natural.
Of course the pulse groups are highly irregular and when combined with the
terms of the growth series (18,11,7,4,3,1) distort its acceleration. As a
consequence the rate of change is generally accelerating but is not precise.
Figure 5.8, below shows the final realisation of the score.

31
Using one group of numbers to control the number of repetitions of a second group of
elements is mentioned by Schillinger in The Theory Of Pitch Scales (Schillinger 1978,
Page 104). The first group become the "coefficients of recurrence" for the second group.
92
/ ¸
¸
¸
,
¡¸
,
,
-
1
œœ

œœ

œœ

œœ

œ
œ ,

œ
œ

œ
œ

œ
œ

œ ¸
œ
‰ ‰
œ ,
œ

œ
œ

/ ,
-
¡¸
,
¸
-
¡¸
,
5
œœœ
œ ,

œ
œ

œ ¸
œœœ

œ ,
œ

œ ¸
œ
‰ ‰
œ ,
œ
œ ,
œ
œ ,
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
/ ¡¸
,
¸
¸
¡¸
,
,
,
¡¸
,
¡¸
-
8

œ ,
œ
œ ,
œ
œœ
œ
œ
œ ¸
œ

œ ,
œ
œ
œ

œ ¸
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ,
œ ,
œ

/ ¡¸
-
¡¸
,
,
¸
¡¸
¸
,
,
13
œ , œ

œ ¸
œ

œ
œ ¸

œ ¸
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ

œ ¸
œ

œ ¸ œœ
œ

18 pulse groups on 'tonic' C.............
11 ulse groups on 'tonic' C and E flat.
7 puls gruops on 'tonic c, E flat and G flat.
4 pulse groups on 'tonic', G flat and A.
3 Pulse groups on 'tonic A. 1 pulse group
on 'tonic' B.
¬
¬ ¬
¬ ¬
Figure 5.8. Moon Shaman: bars 1-17. Coefficients applied to pulse groups and tonics.
5.8. Conclusions
Moon Shaman, was written before my discovery of Schillinger's work and
was originally composed intuitively. Although my approach to the technique
of composition has changed greatly since the time of writing, the musical
substance and poetic motivation remains the same. Most of the score
needed only minor revisions but impracticality in the original score was most
critical in the opening of the piece and as this material re-appears several
times it was essential that I revised it. In describing this process I hope to
have shown that analyses and re-composition using techniques derived
from Schillinger's work have improved the structure of the opening section. I
have attempted to demonstrate that the concept of balance and imbalance
around an axis can be applied to areas of music other than those explicitly
described by Schillinger and most importantly that, whether or not they have
been deliberately considered in the act of composition, they are not just
intellectual ideas but real qualities which influence music.
Chapter 6 Riddle
93
6.1 Background
6.1.1 Introduction
Riddle, for contralto and tape is a setting of the first riddle in the Exeter Book
Of Riddles (Crossley Holland 1979) an ancient anthology of Old English
poetry, donated to Exeter cathedral library in 1072 on the death of Leofric,
the first Bishop of Exeter, the answer to this riddle is 'a storm'. Riddle was
composed in 1992 for the singer Loré Lixenberg, with whom I had previously
worked as conductor on performances of Birtwistle's Down by the
Greenwood Side and Maxwell Davies' Miss Donnithorne's Maggot. These
pieces certainly had an influence on my composition of Riddle. The choice
of an Old English text and the mystery associated with riddles reflects the
influence of Birtwistle's music theatre work while Miss Donnithorne's Maggot
introduced me to the possibilities of extremes of contrast in vocal style and
extended vocal techniques in general. In performing Riddle, the singer must
embrace the dramatic nature of the piece taking on the role of 'keeper of the
riddle', magician and story teller. I have suggested that in performance, the
dramatic nature of the piece might be enhanced by lighting. Using the
expressive powers of her voice the singer not only imitates the sounds and
violence of the storm but conjures up its spirit which is represented by the
sounds of the tape.
6.1.2 Collaboration
By the time I came to compose Riddle, I was very familiar with Lixenberg's
own particular vocal range and especially her repertoire of extended
techniques which included the production of multiphonic tones. The process
of composition involved extensive collaboration which resulted in a richness
of vocal writing which would have been impossible otherwise. The method of
collaboration was as follows: I would present notated ideas which Lixenberg
would embellish through improvisation and positive results would be
incorporated into the subsequent version.
The product of this kind of work can be seen at the end of the score at tape
time 3'56". The unusual placement and elongation of vowels and
94
consonants and the nasal vocal tone, indicated by the direction "Eastern" are
all examples of our collaboration, see Figure 6.1
.
Voice / ¸
¡¡
3.56."
4.07."
.
-.
"Eastern"
I
œ
c -
œ

,
a -
œ
ry
œ

o -
œ
œ
n
œ

my
œ
ba -
œ
Ÿ
..
œ
ck
.
˚
œ

what
œ
/
o -
3
œ
nce
˙
co -
œ
œ
œ ,
3
œ
ver -
œ ,
Ÿ
...

ed
œ
/
Ÿ
.....
e -
œ
œ
œ
vry
œ
ma -
6
œ
œ
œ
œ
3
.
œ
Ÿ
...
n
œ
bo -
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ

,
œ
dy
œ
/
4.24."
a -
3
œ
œ
nd
œ
soul
˙ ,
su -
œ
b
œ
mer -
œ
œ ,
Ÿ
........
œ
ged
œ
to -
.
œ
/
ge -
3
œ , œ ,
œ ,
ther
6
œ
i -
œ
n
œ
the
3
.
œ
wa -
œ , œ
ter
œ
Figure 6.1. Results of collaboration: style and embellishment
Riddle, was completed before I discovered the work of Joseph Schillinger
and therefore is representative of a type of approach which depends less on
predetermined structural principles such as those described in chapters two
and three. In fact the method of collaboration described above meant that the
exact rhythm and timing of events was very much determined by the text and
the vocal phrasing which it inspired.
6.2. Form
95
The text of the Riddle, naturally divides into three portions:
1) An introduction in which the riddle-teller challenges the audience to guess
the answer to the riddle.
2) A dramatic description of the consequences of the storm.
3) A further challenge to guess the meaning of the riddle.
The text is shown below with double slashes marking the different sections
and brackets representing words omitted in my setting.
Which man is so sharp and so quick [witted ]
as to guess who sends me on my journey
//
When I get up, angry, at times awesome:
When I roar loudly and rampage over the land,
sometimes causing havoc: when I burn houses
and ransack palaces? Smoke rises,
ashen over roofs. There is a din on earth
and men die violently when I shake the forest,
the flourishing trees, [and fell timber-]
I with my roof of water, driven far and wide
in pursuit of vengeance by powers above;
I carry on my back what once covered
every man, body and soul submerged
together in the water.
//
Say what conceals me
or what I, who bear this burden, am called.
Crossley-Holland (1979) page 21.
96
I have added the word 'riddle' to the introductory section of the piece. It is
broken into its individual syllables which are whispered and sung as
fragments in order to disguise their meaning. In this way I have tried to
introduce a puzzle of my own and to evoke a sense of mystery at the very
start of the piece.
/
1

.60
,
Exaggerate consonants
Ri -
,

de -
˙ ,
-

le -
,
‡ .
π
Ri -
˙ ,

de -
,
‡ .
.
Rrrrr -

de -
,
‡ ‰

,
di -
,

/
3
.
.
Ri -
,
,
‡ ‰

de -
˙ ,

,
la.
.
˚

. Œ
Re -
,
‡ Œ
de -
,
‡ Œ
le.
,

(0'04")
Figure 6.2. Riddle (time 0'04"): the composer's addition to the text
6.3. Word Painting
The form and structure of many of the compositions submitted in this thesis,
such as Moon Shaman or Bayo's Way, have been inspired by poetry or
narrative. The Exeter Riddles, with their rich metaphorical imagery, are full of
potential for this kind of treatment. In this case the text was a direct source of
inspiration for the vocal line and tape part through the device of word
painting. For example, the image of the wind shaking the 'flourishing trees'
produces a direct parallel in the vocal part.
97
/ ¡¸
¡.
,
,
¸
¡¡
1
when

I

Ÿ
.....................
Ululate
sha -
.
ke
,
,
œ
œ
.
Dolce
the
,
œ ,
fo -
.
œ
rest
.
œ
-
.
/ ¸
¡¡
3

.
The
.
œ
flou -
5
œ

¸
œ
œ
.
˚
œ ¸
Ÿ ....
˙
ri -
œ
œ ¸
Ÿ ....
˙ œ
·
œ ,
shing

trees

œ
œ ¸
/
4
;
The
.
œ
flou -
œ
œ ¸
6
œ
œ ¸
œ
œ
œ
œ
Ÿ
...
Exaggerate trill
ri -
˙ ,
sh -
.

ing

ƒ
"Multiphonic
scream."
trees
œ
(2'42")
Figure. 6.3. Riddle (time 2'42"): examples of word painting.
The singer performs the word 'shake,' by ululating and trilling. Reference to
'the forest' is articulated with a softer dynamic and sweeter tone in order to
contrast its fragility with the storm's fierceness. The word 'flourishing'
engenders a series of ever increasing trills and embellishments. The final
appearance of the word 'trees' is screamed, suggesting the sound and force
of the wind. I have injected a note of mischief into the character of the storm.
For example, the line "sometimes causing havoc" is marked piano and
dolce, which, coming unexpectedly between violent outbursts, is coquettish.
98
/
1.50."
Œ
,
Dolce
some -
œ
times
˙
cau-
3
œ ,
sing
œ
ha -
œ œ

voc
.
œ ¸

/
;
"Caberet-like"
When
3
¸
I

burn

hou -
œ
ses
œ
.
œ
‰ Œ
"Cabaret-like"
Figure 6.4. Riddle (time 1'50"): contrast in characterisation.
The use of sprechgesang and the marking cabaret, indicate a certain
capricious character to the storm.
6.4. Pitch
6.4.1 Pitch Clusters
The choice of pitches was not a result of the collaboration but came about
through the use of two different processes: pitch clusters and interval cells.
The melodic form of the vocal line and the definite pitched sounds of the tape
accompaniment are made up from two main pitch clusters.
/
.
.
¸
.
.
.
¸
.
.
¸
.
.
¸
.
.
.
¸
Cluster A. Cluster B.
Figure 6.5. The two pitch clusters.
The vocal line alternates between the pitches of the two clusters whenever
contrast is required.
99
For example, Figure 6.5 shows how a switch from one cluster to another
occurs between the end of a violent passage and the immediately following
softer phrase.
/
ƒ
1.43."
And
œ
ram -
œ

,
page
,
œ
o -
5 œ
ver -
œ
the
œ ¸
la -
œ
nd
˙
/
Œ
,
Dolce
some -
œ
times
˙
cau-
3
œ ,
sing
œ
ha -
œ œ

voc
.
œ ¸
-------------Cluster B-------------------------
-------------Cluster A----------------------
Figure 6.6. Riddle (time 1'43"): alternating between pitch clusters
The pitch G natural, enclosed by a box in Figure 6.6, is not a member of
cluster A, and is an example of a local deviation from the system.
In order to effect a gradual transition between the two clusters I combined
their pitches into hybrid forms. The most obvious example of this comes at
the end of the introduction just before the evocation of the storm. The mixed
pitches form an augmented triad (G, E flat and B) which for me suggests
expansion and transformation especially in the context of the surrounding
material made from the relatively dissonant intervals of the clusters.
100
/
Œ
,
Which
œ
ma -
œ
œ ,
Ÿ .....
.
œ

,
-
œ
6
œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

œœ
-
n.
œ
œ ,
Aggressive
.
Is
,
,
œ
. ‰
so
.


;
quick
.

‰ ∑
/
Dolce
,
As
œ
to
œ ,
guess,
œ
who
œ
sends
œ
me,
œ
on
œ
my
œ ,
jour -
œ ¸
ney.
œ ∑
Cabaret
Œ
,
When
3

I
¸
get

;
up,
˙
Cluster A
Mixture Cluster B
Figure 6.7. Riddle (time 0'37" ff): transition between clusters.
6.4.2 Interval Cells
32
A sequence of intervals, for example a semi-tone and a perfect fourth, can be
started from any chosen pitch. The direction of any interval or its inversion is
a matter of free choice. This method often creates unexpected variations
which are related through characteristic intervals. In the following diagram
each bar represents a different 'route' starting from the same point and
following the interval pattern (1,5) where 1=a semi-tone.
/ ¸
¸
˙
œ
œ
˙
œ
œ
˙
œ ¸
œ
/
˙
œ
œ ¸
˙
œ ¸
œ ¸
˙
œ ¸
œ ¸
1 5 5 1 5
1
1
5
1 5 5 1
Figure 6.8. Cell construction from a single starting point.
In Riddle, I used this method as a contrast to that of pitch clusters. I also
found it useful in creating transitions between the two pitch clusters as the

32
The method of creating melodic forms through connecting a limited series of intervals
was described in detail in my analysis of Rêve de L'Orb. See Chapter 8 section 8.2.4.
101
interval cells almost inevitably contained a mixture of pitches from both of
them.
/
;
"Caberet-like"
When
3
¸
I

burn

hou
œ
ses
œ
.
œ
‰ Œ
ƒ
And
œ

ra -
9
œ ¸

œ

œ ¸

œ ¸

œ

œ

an -
œ ¸

sack
œ

u
pa-
œ

la
œ

ces
œ
-
.
.
/
;
Smoke
3
œ ¸
ri -
œ
œ , œ

ses
œ ,

;
a -
5
œ
shen
œ
o -
œ
ver
œ
roofs
œ œ
Cluster B--------- Cells
Cluster A---------------------
cell
Cells follow the interval pattern (1,5) .
"Cabaret-like"
Figure 6.9. Riddle (time 2'01"): interval cells
6.5. The tape
The tape part has several different roles. At the beginning of the piece I have
used sounds derived from an organ, flutes and bells, in order to evoke a
sense of ritual and suggest an aura of power surrounding the performer. The
organ and bells are both types of instrument connected with religious ritual,
and I also associate the flute and the organ with the mysterious quality of
vibrating air columns. These sounds are also intended to remind the listener
of the origins of the text and its link with Exeter cathedral.
The tape part suggests location and action in a way similar to contextual
sounds in radio drama. It serves to evoke atmosphere and images
associated with the text. For example, a reference in the text to the screams
of dying men is accompanied by the sound referred to in the score as "Ahh"
(2'38").
102
The words "ransack palaces", (2'04" in score) are accompanied by a sound
referred to as "Dog's bark" which I associate with scenes of mayhem as the
storm tears through buildings. Other less obvious sound references include
"lightning" (2'18") which I have characterised as a high pitched sound played
as a volley of descending arpeggios.
The tape part is not just an accompaniment for the performer, providing
context but should be experienced by the listener as something created by
the performer and which responds to her words and punctuates her phrases.
For example, the sound "cymbal swell" (0'37"), a metallic sound which
rapidly swells in volume, prepares the word "sharp". The performer should
embrace the theatrical potential of this relationship through some gesture
indicating that this sound is controlled by her and, as it were, hurled across
the performance space.
6.6. Conclusions
Riddle, is unique in terms of the compositions presented in this thesis. It has
a strong music theatre element deriving its form and much of its detail from
the text. Other compositions in this thesis have been initially inspired by texts
but in their final form they have evolved beyond them into works which are
largely determined by purely musical language and considerations. This is
not the case in Riddle, where the text is always central to the work, being
performed by the singer and directly inspiring much of the musical detail.
Riddle is also unusual amongst my compositions in being written for a
particular performer and in evolving out of a strong collaboration between
singer and composer. Bayo's Way is also in this category as it was specially
composed to compliment Oren Marshall's style of performance. However,
Bayo's Way was less directly collaborative than Riddle: the soloist is given
space in the performance to improvise, whereas in Riddle, there is no
equivalent improvisation due to the fact that the process of composition itself
involved the performer's skill in this field.
Collaborative work of this kind makes theoretical analysis of compositional
method relatively redundant. It would be pointless to apply Schillinger's
ideas to explain this work as so much of the rhythm and proportions of the
music were determined by the rhythm of the spoken text.
103
It would of course be possible to apply Schillinger's techniques to the further
development of material in the piece. For example, in composing the pitches
of the vocal line I have adopted a systematic and predetermined approach
involving two pools or clusters of notes. As far as I am aware, Schillinger
never specifically describes this particular cluster arrangement but in any
case would have treated it as just another scale, subject to standard
techniques of variation. Similarly, my use of interval cells is not derived
directly from Schillinger's theory but could be deduced from The Theory Of
Pitch Scales as being an example of the evolution of melodic forms from
scales containing two intervals.
Chapter 7 Vision and Prayer
104
7.1 Introduction
Vision and Prayer for violin, cello, bass clarinet and marimba was
commissioned by the bass clarinettist, Hein Pijnenburg. It was composed in
1992 and given its première at the Ijsbreker in Amsterdam in the same year.
In this chapter I will discuss the poetic background of this composition and
show the origin of its musical material. Vision and Prayer was written before
my discovery of Schillinger's work and was composed without the
background of such a method. However, I believe that the composition as a
whole can be better understood by reference to ideas found in Schillinger's
theories.
7.2 Literary source
Vision and Prayer takes its title from a poem of the same name by Dylan
Thomas and is a direct response to the poem itself. As the title suggests, the
poem resonates with spiritual and religious imagery and in the light of some
of my other work inspired by dream states (Rêve de l'Orb) or imaginary
religious ritual (Moon Shaman) it is unsurprising that this poem should
provide a source of musical inspiration.
Who
are you
Who is born
In the next room
So loud to my own
That I can hear the womb
Opening and the dark run
Over the ghost and the dropped son
Behind the wall thin as a wren's bone?
In the birth bloody room unknown
To the burn and turn of time
And the heart print of man
Bows no baptism
But dark alone
Blessing on
The wild
Child
In the name of the lost who glory in
The swinish plains of carrion
Under the burial song
Of the birds of burden
Heavy with the drowned
And the green dust
And bearing
The ghost
From
The ground
Like pollen
On the black plume
And the beak of slime
I pray though I belong
Not wholly to that lamenting
Brethren for joy has moved within
The inmost marrow of my heartbone

Figure 7.1. Vision and Prayer: two verses from the poem and their outline shapes.
105
The influence of this poem on the composition can be seen in various ways.
The large scale or background shape is influenced by the form of the verse.
The middle ground of the piece, sub-sections of around 50 bars in length,
are inspired by moods evoked by the poem. On the local level, the
foreground, certain specific references in the poem have been translated
into details of the music.
7.3 Poetic form and background music structure.
The poem itself has an extraordinary form as can be seen from the shape of
the verses in Figure 7.1. The first six verses have the shape of two triangles,
one inverted and joined to the other at their common base. The final six
verses are the opposite: the triangles are joined at their tips. There is striking
symmetry in this arrangement of the verses which effected my reading of the
poem. In the case of the verses which expand towards the centre, there is a
gradual increase in what might be called poetic 'information'. The longer a
line, the more complex are the images contained in it and the greater its
intensity seems. At the centre of the verse the longest lines occur
consecutively producing a period of greatest intensity. After reading past the
centre of the verse the mirror image or retrograde form begins and the
intensity diminishes. I wanted to compose music which flowed in the same
way as Thomas's poem. My observations concerning the rise and fall of
intensity in the poem lead me to look for equivalent forms in natural
phenomena, such as the rise and fall of a wave or the shape of the breath
and from these create musical phrases and the form of the composition as a
whole. I arrived at a background form in which the metaphor of the wave was
expressed in the rise and fall of the musical dynamic around two points of
climax, the second having much greater intensity than the first. Figure 7.2
shows a simple diagram of how the wave shape manifests itself in the form
ofVision and Prayer.
Bar 144 Bar 220
Climax I.
Climax II.
Figure 7.2. Vision and Prayer: two climaxes.
In order to compose music based on these two wave shapes I devised a
more detailed set of narrative or mnemonic references based on moods and
106
images evoked by the poem. The scheme and its six sections are shown
below.
Section/Bar Mnemonic/Mood Form
I:1-92 First meditation/prayer Introduction/exposition
II : 93-114 Thought rising Transition
III : 144-122 Incomplete vision First climax (short)
IV : 123-196 Second meditation/prayer Second exposition
V : 197-219 Thought rising Transition
VI : 220-280 Complete vision Climax and ending
Figure 7.3. Vision and Prayer: the sections of the piece, their mnemonic and function.
From this table it can be seen that on two occasions the music reaches a
climax progressing from a meditative state to one of vision and revelation.
The direction of this progression (meditation→revelation) is the inverse of
the direction that would logically be suggested by the title of the poem. This
reversal came about unconsciously and illustrates how musical
considerations ultimately become more important than the original source of
inspiration.
7.4 Local forms
The poem not only inspired background and middleground structures
(Figure 7.3) but also a number of foreground, surface details. For example,
several references in the poem to the heart inspired a motif which I named
'heart beat'.
"And the heart print of man
Bows no baptism"
Part I, verse 1.
Or, for example,
"Brethren for joy has moved within
The inmost marrow of my heart bone"
Part II Verse 1.
The 'heart beat' motif first appears at bar 52, played by the cello and, as can
be seen below, its rhythmic pattern suggests the beating of a heart.
107
.
¸
,
¸
-
¸
,

Pizz
.
Sonore
5
œ
œ

œ
œ
Œ
5

.
.
œ
œ ,
,
5

.
œ
œ

,
,
Œ
5
Œ

.
.
˚
œ
œ
5

.
œ
œ
Œ ‰

.
5
œ
œ ,
,

œ
œ
‰ Œ
.

.
5
œ
œ

œ
œ
‰ Œ ≈

.
5
œ
œ ,
,

œ
œ

Œ ≈

.
5
œ
œ

œ
œ

Œ
Vcl
52
Figure 7.4.Vision and Prayer (bars 52-57): the 'heart beat' motif.
The wave shape manifests itself in the instrumental phrasing of Vision and
Prayer. For example, the solo phrases of both the cello and bass clarinet
tend to rise up suddenly and then fall away.
.
¸
,
.

;
Solo
œ

¸

œ
˙ ¸ œ

œ œ
œ

˙
Cello. (Bar1)
Figure 7.5. Vision and Prayer : falling cello Phrase.
108
/
,
¸
,
˘
,
œ ,
œ
œ ,
œ œ
œ
˘
;
œ
œ
œ
,
œ
˘
;
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ,

3
œ ,

œ

œ ,

;
œ

œ ˙ ¸
3
.
œ ¸
.
œ ¸ ˙
Bass Clarinet in B flat
(bar70)
Figure 7.6. Vision and Prayer: falling bass clarinet phrase.
This type of gesture is an expression of the wave shape inspired by the
poem but also a reference to the human cry, the 'tumbling strain' and forms of
incantation or prayer.
7.5 Bars 1-92: meditation and procession
Although vision (in the sense of spiritual revelation) is an idea which inspires
this composition, it also has a second meaning: vision in terms of seeing.
This inspired what might be called a lateral connection with certain types of
visual and religious imagery, in particular that of the early Italian
Renaissance, for instance the paintings of Bellini, or the 15th Century
Flemish masters, Jan and Hubert Van Eyck. Two aspects of this style of
painting were of special interest to me and directly influenced my musical
imagination. The first was colour, particularly the use of gold which suggests
to me a hypnotic intensity, the second was the symbolic processional nature
of the imagery. For example, Jan and Hubert Van Eyck's polyptych painted
for the altarpiece of the cathedral at Ghent is a revelatory painting showing
the procession of apostles and soldiers of Christ as they make their way
through fruit groves towards the altar on which lies the Holy Lamb. I wanted
to capture something of the order, clarity and intensity of this painting.
Accordingly my composition begins in a very still and focused manner and is
meant to evoke a sense of space, a sparse landscape, occupied by musical
objects: the solo phrases for the cello and bass clarinet (Figures 7.5 and
7.6), the 'heart beat' (Figure 7.4) and a tutti chord which is discussed later.
The order of these events is intended to be processional and ritualistic and
thereby evoke the feeling of meditation or prayer. There is a pattern to the
procession as follows: solo phrases are followed by tutti chords. For
109
example, from bar 3 to bar 5, a cello phrase is followed by a tutti chord. This
pattern is repeated from bars 7 to 19, and again for a third time from bars 20
to 42, this time with enormous extension of the cello phrase.
A continuous trill on the marimba creates a background to this procession of
events. It represents stillness and focus of thought; continuous and relatively
unchanging, it soon ceases to be noticed by the listener. When even the
smallest change occurs in the marimba part the effect is huge, and might be
likened to a sudden change of illumination.
Vln
Vcl
Bs Cl
Mrba
/
.
/
/
/
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
,
¸
,
¸
,
¸
,
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
¸
-
50
.
.
¸
Œ
Gls.

œ

œ
,
,
Œ

˙

œ

Ÿ
..........
œ

˙
˙

,
œ
œ ¸
Œ‰
Gls.
.
œ
,
,

œ
Œ

.

·
.
˙
˙

¸

Pizz
.
Sonore
5
œ
œ

œ
œ
Œ
5

.
.
œ
œ ,
,
.
˙

¸
;,
˙

˙

,
˙
˙
·
˙
˙

·
˙
˙
5

.
œ
œ

,
,
Œ
5
Œ

.
.
˚
œ
œ
5

.
œ
œ
Œ
˙

˙
;,
˙

˙

,
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
˙
(In B flat)
Figure 7.7. Vision and Prayer: expansion of the trill coincides with the 'heart beat' motif.
In fact the tremolo is not continuous but is punctuated by dynamic accents.
These accents create the impression of time passing and soon become part
of the forgotten background. Other parts in the score possessing their own
individual rhythms and tempos appear to float on the surface of this
110
background texture. In this way I suggest both the infinite neutrality of time as
well as the unique value of every passing moment.
Very gradual modifications in the pitch structure of the tutti chords shown in
Figure 7.8, contribute to the general evocation of stillness and subtle
change. Figure 7.8, shows that from bar 52, there is a change in the
harmony: the root of the chords changes from G to C sharp. The switch of
polarity is the only significant harmonic change for 90 bars and contributes to
the feeling of stillness in the opening section. This movement is reinforced by
the change in the spacing of the chords from relatively closed to open
positions.
In the following diagram the marimba notes are in black and always lie at the
centre of the chords.
/
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.
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Bars: 1 11 16 36 40 52 64 76 83
Figure 7.8.Vision and Prayer: harmonic structure of tutti chords.
.
7.6 Bars 90 to 113: transition
Section two, is a transition between the relatively peaceful atmosphere of the
opening and the highly energetic climax which begins at bar 114. The
accumulation and subsequent release of energy is another expression of the
wave metaphor. The mnemonic tag associated with this section during
composition was that of 'thought rising' (see Figure 7.3). The thought is not a
peaceful or comfortable one, its formation is represented by the violent
coalescing of accelerating parts which culminate in a climax. An image
which I associate with this section is of the gradual disturbance of a smooth
surface. Analysis of the transition section reveals how the narrative idea is
supported by pitch and rhythm. The dissonant harmonic relationships
111
between the parts and the agitated character suggested by rhythm and
timbre conveys a sense of emotional disturbance.
In terms of pitch, two main processes are at work.
1) The tendency for the string parts to fall towards the pitch D.
2) The gradual accumulation of pitches.
These processes add to the effect of increasing density of texture and
generate tension. Both can be seen occurring in the violin and cello parts
while the marimba and the bass clarinet provide a constant pitch axis or
background.
/
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.
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œ ,
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. ,
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Violin
Cello
Bass Cl
Marimba
90 93 97 99 102 104 106 109
(In C)
Figure 7.9. Vision and Prayer: general movement of pitches from bars 90 to 111.
Figure 7.9 is a generalisation of a complex passage. The pitches in the
diagram were chosen because they appear more often or for a longer
duration than other pitches. The black note heads in the violin and cello
parts show pitches of secondary importance, the primary pitches are shown
by white note heads.
Rhythm also plays its part in characterising the movement of the 'rising
thought' or growing wave shape. The whole of the transition is dominated by
the process of acceleration and an increase in shorter durations. This is
112
evident in all the parts except for the marimba which provides a constant
reference in contrast to the surrounding change.
I did not devise a specific method such as the use of a growth series
33
for
controlling the rhythmic development of parts, however, the composition
emerged in stages: the violin part was the first to be composed and served
as a model for the cello and bass clarinet parts which are compressed
versions of it.
The co-ordination and rhythms of the three parts was facilitated by recording
them on a MIDI sequencer and making adjustments accordingly. During the
transition section each instrument occupies its own register and wherever
possible the timbre of each instrument is contrasting. For example, the cello
plays sul ponticello and tremolando while the violin produces glassy
harmonic tones. The character of transition is supported by the connection of
motifs from different sections of the composition. For example, the violin
phrases which begin the transition section, are echoes of cello and violin
phrases heard earlier (see Figure 7.10) while the bass clarinet motif
beginning at bar 106, presages future events (see Figure 7.11).
/
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Bar 93
Violin Bar 41
Violin
Cello Bar 21
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Figure 7.10. Vision and Prayer: comparing the violin motif of bar 93 with earlier
passages.

33
See chapter 3, section 3.5.
113
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Bar 106
Bar 243
Bass Cl
Violin
Cello
Bass Cl.
Marimba
Pitch Axis
Pitch Axis
in B flat
In B flat
Figure 7.11. Comparing the bass clarinet motif of bar 106 with a passage from the finale
bar 243.
In Figure 7.11 the bass clarinet motif of bar 106 (top), evolves into the
phrases played by the violin marimba and cello at bar 243 of the finale
(bottom four staves). The whole of the finale is saturated with melodic
shapes derived from this form.
7.7 Bars 114-122: first climax
The climax at bar 114 represents the goal of the transition section, the
crystallisation of the rising thought. It represents the theme of vision and
revelation. An image which inspired the character of the climax was that of
an imaginary worshipper (declaiming his vision) infused with spiritual fervour
or even frenzy. The discharge of accumulated tension is achieved
rhythmically by uniting the parts in near rhythmic unison.
114
The individual rhythm of each instrument is a variation on a pattern which
could be described as short, long. For example,
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Bar 114
Short. Long......................... Long ................. Short
Short...........Long....................... Short. Long.... Short.Long......
In B flat

Figure 7.12. Vision and Prayer: rhythmic patterns in the climax.
This basic pattern was ornamented with trills and arpeggiation, decoration
inspired by the image of the imaginary worshipper.
Vln
Vcl
Bs Cl
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Figure 7.13. Vision and Prayer: the basic pattern of Figure 7.12 with ornamentation.
Following the climax at bar 114, there is a return to the meditative opening
music which leads to a second transition and then an extended climax and
finale. The material for these later sections is essentially the same as that
described in sections 7.5, 7.6 and 7.7, and so I will not discuss it further.
115
7.8 The application of Schillingerian concepts.
7.8.1 Introduction
The claims made for the Schillinger System Of Musical Composition in its
introduction by Shaw and Dowling (Schillinger 1978. Page XXII) include the
following: that it establishes general laws true in any special instance, and
provides the foundation for a more objective method of analyses of music. If
this is true then it should be possible to analyse and interpret music that has
not been produced using the system.
7.8.2 The wave form
In the discussion entitled Melody: Climax and Resistance (Schillinger 1978),
Schillinger discusses the wave form in terms that are directly relevant to
Vision and Prayer. His basic premise is that melody is a 'pitch time trajectory'
(Schillinger 1978 page 303) or in other words, the wave form describing
frequency changes in time
34
. Tension and climax in the musical (specifically
melodic) dimension, can be explained in terms of natural and mechanical
systems which accumulate energy (tension) for discharge (climax). The
accumulation of energy in mechanical systems may be achieved through
rotary motion producing centrifugal force. A heavy object attached to a string
and put into rotary motion about an axis point accumulates energy causing it
to travel a long distance when released. The time taken for the object to
overcome inertia and reach maximum velocity after its release (mechanical
efficiency) is intuitively understood by us and leads us to certain
expectations: we do not expect an object to reach maximum velocity
instantaneously. Melody which reaches its peak long before or after we
expect it is felt to be unsatisfying or absurd
35
. It is important to note that
Schillinger distinguishes between different forms of climax, such as
harmonic climax or dynamic climax
36
. Melodic climax is defined as follows:
The psychological effect of the climax is heightened if the maximum
magnitude is reached in a series of increasing 'waves' each 'wave'
being higher than the last but falling back only to be succeeded by a
greater magnitude until the maximum is reached.
(Schillinger 1978. page 1609)

34
See Chapter 2, section 2.5.
35
Schillinger 1978 page 283.
36
See Schillinger 1978, page 1609.
116
Schillinger's ideas about the nature and behaviour of climactic shapes are
highly relevant to my own work, in particular, Vision and Prayer which
represents my intuitive understanding and realisation of the principles
Schillinger discusses in his work. The form of the composition (see Figure
7.2)-two climaxes, the second much larger than the first-is typical of the kind
of shape Schillinger refers to as possessing the quality of resistance leading
to climax.
37
7.8.3 Pitch axes
Schillinger refers to an essential ingredient of melody as the primary axis
38
:
a pitch which sounds more frequently than any other and for the longest total
duration (pitch time maximum). A pitch which dominates a portion of music in
this way establishes itself as an axis around which the melody evolves.
In Vision and Prayer, there are examples of primary axes, on the most
foreground level. Melodic phrases such as the bass clarinet solo shown in
Figure 7.14, articulates a clear primary axis.
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Primary Axis
Primary Axis
Bass.Cl
in B flat
Figure 7.14. Vision and Prayer: primary axis in a melodic phrase.
The primary axis is at the centre of the revolving melody just as the hand
which controls the stone tied to the circling rope is at the centre of a
mechanical system. Schillinger believed that the existence of such an axis
was a fundamental requirement of melody. Vision and Prayer, exhibits a
number of such pitch axes. The most obvious of these occurs during the

37
See Schillinger 1978, page 296.
38
Schillinger 1978. Page 125.
117
climax and finale of the piece. For example at bar 239 ff. of the score (see
Figure 7.11), the pitch A occurs in all the parts but most prominently in those
of the violin and marimba. In the same passage the pitch B also has a strong
claim as a primary axis and in this case the two notes form a powerful
'parallel axis', one of the various types of axis described by Schillinger in The
Theory Of Melody (Schillinger 1978. Page 290). I believe that the extended
emphasis and duration of these two pitches and the way the music revolves
around them adds to the effectiveness of the climax.
There are other examples in Vision and Prayer of pitch axes which exist in a
context opposite to that of climax. The marimba part in the opening section
represents the most extended pitch axis in the entire composition. It is heard
constantly which gives it the fixed quality of a pedal point. The register of its
part lies at the centre of the overall pitch range (see Figure 7.8) and this
contributes to its evocation of peace and stillness. Schillinger makes clear
that melody rotates and evolves around the primary axis which therefore
represents a point of balance. The sensation of tranquillity evoked by the
marimba trill would therefore be the expected effect given that there is no
accumulation of melodic energy through rotary motion around the primary
axis.
7.9. Conclusions
Vision and Prayer, is a composition informed by a number of different
sources. Dylan Thomas's poem was a direct inspiration not only for specific
musical material such as the 'heart beat' but also the character and mood of
the piece. The shape of the verses and the effect of this shape on the flow of
the poetry was especially stimulating and lead me to think about the wave
shape as a model for a background form. The painting of the early
Renaissance also inspired the character of the music, in particular the
processional quality of the opening section. Examining Vision and Prayer, in
retrospect, it is satisfying that much of Schillinger's work reinforces the ideas
that were important in the process of composition. In particular I refer to my
intuitive understanding of the importance of natural forms, such as the wave
shape, to the flow of tension and release in music. Other ideas, such as the
primary axis of melody, flow from these ideas and manifest themselves
unconsciously in my work.
Chapter 8 Rêve de l'Orb.
118
8.1Introduction
Rêve de l'Orb, is a piece which derives its inspiration from the river Orb
which runs through the Langedoc region of southern France. In 1993 I had
spent some time near this river and was inspired by the activity of the insect
life and by the movement of the river itself this composition in three
movements is a collection of impressions from that time. The first movement,
Libellule describes the surface of the river and in particular the extraordinary
dragon flies that hover over it; Reflections is about the feeling of peace and
melancholy which came over me as I sat on the bank but is also about the
perfect stillness of the shallows; Chaleur, was inspired by the rippling heat of
the sun and the torrents and waterfalls of the river. My experience of the river
was dream-like in its overwhelming intensity, and inspired the title of my
composition. Rêve de l'Orb was composed in 1992 for the Royal Overseas
League viola competition. The instrumentation was given by the competition
organisers and is based on the scoring used by Ravel for his Introduction
and Allegr0: flute, clarinet in A, harp and string quartet. There was one
stipulation which was that the viola should have a prominent role.
8.2 Libellule
8.2.1 Musical tapestry
The opening movement of Rêve de l'Orb is an attempt to capture the
essence of the river, both its hypnotic beauty and its dark associations with
death. My strongest impression was of the huge diversity of life engaged in
individual pursuit and yet united by the river and the inevitable cycle of life
and death.
The web of activity associated with the river is evoked through a polyphonic
tapestry in which parts are independent of one another but contribute to a
common texture. The first movement of Rêve de l'Orb, is made up of at least
five separate strands described below. The flute and clarinet engage in a
duet shown in Figure 8.1.
119
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Bar 18
Fl
Cl
Pitches omitted
In B flat
Figure 8.1. Rêve de l'Orb: distribution of pitches between parts.
In Figure 8.1, the flute and clarinet provide a constant thread against which
the other parts evolve. The dance-like quality of their duet and its continuous
presence throughout the movement could be likened to the motion of the
hover flies which live by the water or the glinting reflections on the river
surface. This is suggested rhythmically through constant semi-quaver motion
and in the cycle of pitches (see section 8.3.2 and Figure 8.7) which is never
heard in its entirety but only in fragments. The process of omitting pitches of
the cycle and distributing them between the two parts (shown by arrows in
Figure 8.1) was instinctive rather then systematic, as was the choice of
particular sequences of pitches for transposition.
The harp is entirely independent of the other instruments in the ensemble. It
might be described as wandering through the musical landscape, its
phrases constantly changing speed through a reduction of duration. The
harp is distinct from the other instruments partly because it alone plays a
diatonic scale, that of E minor.
120
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5:6
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Bar11
Figure 8.2. Rêve de l'Orb: wandering harp.
The varying acceleration of the harp and its explorations around the tonic E,
are meant to suggest the eddies and currents which form little whirlpools on
the surface of the river.
The two violins at first play in rhythmic unison, like the harp, although the
violin parts have a tendency to accelerate. Acceleration through the
reduction of duration, rhythmic unison and pizzicato articulation suggests
the short jerky movements of river birds.
/
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,
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,
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Bar 13
Bar 19
Pizz.
Pizz.
Figure. 8.3. Rêve de l'Orb: violins before bar 39
121
This comparison can be extended. At bar 39, the two violins switch to arco
articulation and play a vigorous ascending phrase as if, in their bird roles,
they had taken to the air. From this point on they are independent of each
other: the second violin plays at the top of its register and glides from note to
note while the first violin plucks the string behind the bridge in a manner
which suggests pecking or clucking.
/
/
,
¸
,
¸
Pizz. behind the bridge
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
≈ Œ

15Va
gliss
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,
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,
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Bar 50
Vl.I
Vl.II
Figure 8.4. Rêve de l'Orb: violins take on bird - like roles.
The viola plays a series of long melodic phrases which float above the
vibrating and shimmering background. Its tenor song is intended to suggest
the presence of a human consciousness in amongst the firmament of river
life.
r
,
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.
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5:3
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,
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Vla
;
Bar 5
Figure 8.5. Rêve de l'Orb: viola phrases suggest a human presence.
The articulation of the cello is always pizzicato but its rhythm and pitches are
independent of the other parts (see section 8.3.3). It provides a depth to the
musical image and to me suggests the reflection of the trees and sky in the
water.
122
.
,
¸
5
Pizz Sonore.
.
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≈ œ ¸ ‰
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≈ Œ
.
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2

,
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2
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Vcl
Figure 8.6. Rêve de l'Orb: the cello provides depth and resonance.
8.2.2 Time and rhythm
As I have shown, each part in the first movement of Rêve de l'Orb is
governed by its own particular pulse which to some extent guarantees its
individual identity in the aural image. The combination of independent parts
creates the complex tapestry-like texture of the movement as a whole. Not
having discovered Schillinger's techniques at the time of composing Rêve
de l'Orb, I had no predetermined system of co-ordinating the various parts
and controlling the musical image as a whole. Ultimately I achieved the
desired effect through improvisation and experimentation, a process the
musical effect of which is comparable to that of the visual artist who
deliberately smudges the sharp edges of an image in order to create an
impressionistic result. I devised a method of injecting into the score both
diversity and coherence, qualities strongly suggested by the metaphor of the
river. This involved introducing the elements of one part into another : a sort
of cross-fertilisation. This process results in subtle relationships between the
parts and helped to bind the various strands of the composition as a whole.
The most obvious example of this can be seen in the case of the woodwind
and the violins. The pitches played by the flute and clarinet are echoed in the
first and second violin parts.
123
/
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,
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,
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,
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Vl I
Vl II
In C.
Bar 13
Figure 8.7. Rêve de l'Orb: cross fertilisation between parts.
Cross-fertilisation between parts involves both pitch and rhythm. It can be
seen from Figure 8.7, that the material in the string parts has been expanded
by a ratio of 3:1. Time expansion of this sort produces a reverberation or
aura effect because identical material is heard simultaneously at different
speeds. To my mind the effect of such an expansion can be interpreted as
being like the image of a stone breaking the water's surface : the ripples
which expand from the point of impact are a record of a past event.
8.2.3 Pitch relationshi ps
Independence between parts is partly a matter of tonal separation. and can
be achieved by assigning a different scale to each part as for example with
the harp part which is set in the scale of E minor (see Figure 8.2). Rather
than a rigorous polytonality I wanted to create a floating tonality, somewhat
impressionistic and disembodied, made up of simultaneous, contrasting and
independent intonations. I felt that to use even a distantly related diatonic
scale in more than one part would diminish the range of tonal space and so I
turned to the octatonic scale. An example of the use of the octatonic scale
can be seen below in Figure 8.8.
124
/
/
/
/
,
¸
,
¸
,
¸
,
¸

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œ ¸
œ
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œ
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œ
œ ,

œ ¸
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œ ¸
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œ
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œ ≈
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œ
œ ¸

œ
œ
œ ,
œ
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œ
Fl
Cl
Scale 1
Scale 2
In C
Bar 1.
Bar 1
Figure 8.8. Rêve de l'Orb: octatonic scales in the woodwind
The octatonic scale
39
has regular interval structure (1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2) which
accounts for its neutral, floating and un-rooted quality which is an
appropriate quality given the role of the flute and clarinet in evoking the
image of dancing, hovering insects. Although both parts share an identical
scale structure their key-notes lie a semi-tone apart creating a tension
between them which contributes to their dualogue.
8.2.4 The cell method
An alternative method of creating pitch material is the use of overlapping
interval cells, to 'grow' a long sequence of pitches. The result is a line of
notes saturated with characteristic intervals, in the process one is free to
choose the direction of each interval which can result in pitch groups with
somewhat eccentric contour and pitch repetition. I would liken the process to
the knight's move in chess which allows a number of different outcomes. In

39
Only three possible transpositions of this scale are required to complete the total
chromatic.
125
the following diagram each bar represents a different 'route' starting from the
same point and following the interval pattern (1,5) where 1= a semi-tone.
/ ¸
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œ
œ
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œ ¸
œ
/
˙
œ
œ ¸
˙
œ ¸
œ ¸
˙
œ ¸
œ ¸
1 5 5 1 5
1
1
5
1 5 5 1
Figure 8.9. Rêve de l'Orb: cell construction from a single starting point (after Figure 6.8).
The 'cell method' is a half-way-house between completely free and rigidly
structured composition: decisions are made on the local level and the result
is a highly varied collection of related melodic shapes. The type of melodic
forms produced by this method might be likened to the streets of old towns in
which houses (structures) evolve in unusual forms and clusters. The cello
part is an example of cell construction. It is made up of two types of cell:
semi-tones and thirds (both major and minor) and semi-tones and fourths.
These cells form interlocking networks which are shown in the diagram by
the overlapping boxes, intervals are shown by numbers where 1= a semi-
tone. Intervals are always numbered as though in closed position even
though in the score they may be inverted and in the open position.
126
.
.
,
¸
,
¸
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œ
≈ œ ¸ ‰
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Œ

Œ ≈
.
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.
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,
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≈‰
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≈œ
Bar 5
Bar14
3 1
1 4
3 1
4
1
4
1
1 5
1
1
5
5
1
A/e----------------------------- A7--d
Vcl
Vcl
œ
Figure. 8.9.1. Rêve de l'Orb : cell networks
The cell method typically produces a collage effect in which contiguous cells
at times reinforce or oppose one another. There is an element of surprise
when a sequence of cells appear to have some unusual meaning as for
example in Figure 8.9, where the letters which appear above the first three
bars indicate an unpredicted harmonic progression (A major, or possibly e
minor, followed by A7 and d minor) generated as a by-product of the
process.
8.3 Reflections
8.3.1 Introduction
The second movement, Reflections, is scored for only three members of the
ensemble: clarinet, harp and viola. As the title suggests it is about
contemplation, memory and the surface of the water. Contemplation and
memory are represented in the way the viola melody evolves: a phrase is
stated and then repeated before continuing to reveal more of itself.
127
r
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1
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, œ
3
.
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8
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5
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3
.
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5
œ
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œ œ ,
5
œ
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Phrase Repeat
Continuation
Figure 8.10. Rêve de l'Orb: unfolding viola phrase.
The clarinet is like a shadow or a reflection of the viola part. It might appear
that the clarinet and viola parts were derived from one another, perhaps
related by inversion but in fact there is no strict relationship between the two.
The parts often develop in contrary motion shown by the arrows in Figure
8.11 below. This contrary motion suggests a mirror symmetry around an axis
point: the three repeated notes in the harp hint at the possibility of such an
axis although they are in reality no such thing but are in fact a rhythmic event
meant as a symbolic representation of time passing .
/
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.
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.
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Pseudo axis of inversion
Cl
Harp
Vla
In A.
Bar 12
Figure 8.11. Rêve de l'Orb: pseudo mirror symmetry.
The position of the clarinet part relative to the viola suggests displacement
or echo and expresses the theme of reflection.
128
8.3.2 Pitch
The three parts of Reflection are built around the octatonic scale. Each part
has a different origin a semi-tone transposed: the viola on D flat, the harp on
D natural and the clarinet on E flat. This arrangement gives each part
individuality and also ensures overall the presence of the total chromatic
spectrum, a measure which seemed necessary partly because of the
movement's length and limited instrumentation but also because of the
feeling of intensity I wished to evoke.
/
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.
.
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Cl
Harp
Vla
Scale
on E flat
Scale
on D
Scale
on D flat
Bars 1 to 13
In C
Figure 8.12. Rêve de l'Orb: parts develop from different transpositions of the octatonic
scale.
Figure 8.12, shows each part above its respective scale; the pitches of each
part have been taken out of context but their register and order has been
preserved. In the case of the harp and viola, their respective tonics appear
prominently at the start of their parts. The E flat tonic in the clarinet part does
not appear immediately but is strongly emphasised in bar 10 of the score.
129
8.4 Cells
While the pitches are derived from the octatonic scale, melodic shapes are
derived from the chaining of interval cells. The choice of this technique came
about from a desire to embody in the music ideas such as contemplation,
memory and reflection: the linking of cells in a chain is expressive of the way
thoughts connect to one another in a cascade. The technique used here is a
modified version of the 'cell method' described earlier. In the first movement
interval cells were combined in a manner which allowed considerable
variation and often produced unusual results. The modified method, used
here, is more formal and limited as the cells are produced by the re-ordering
of the notes of the octatonic scale. That the pitches of the scale are used only
once severely limits the number of cells and the possible connections
between adjacent cells, and the result is a more focused melodic line.
Figure 8.13, shows the octatonic scale on D sharp (top stave), the scale
arranged into three note chords (cells) and finally the melodic form of the
clarinet line in which the pitches of the scale are used only once.
/
/
/
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œ
œ ¸
œ
œ
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,
,
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œ
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Octatonic scale
Interval cells/chords
Melodic form of clarinet
Bars 6-11
¸ ¸
,
,
,
Figure 8.13. Rêve de l'Orb: clarinet part made from cells derived from the octatonic scale
8.5 Chaleur
8.5.1 Introduction
The third and final movement of Rêve de l'Orb involves the whole
ensemble. The shimmering textures which dominate this movement were
inspired by the fierce southern landscape, its steep hill sides, rocky paths
and in particular the rippling heat waves which hover above road surfaces
during the hottest part of the day. Towards the end of the movement, from bar
130
82 onwards, new material is introduced which evokes a dream-like
atmosphere and is intended to convey something of the delirious state which
can be induced by exposure to such intense heat.
8.5.2 Forms of motion
Various aspects of Chaleur can be discussed in terms of Schillinger's ideas.
In The Theory Of Melody (Schillinger 1978), Schillinger describes basic
forms of melodic motion
40
. Schillinger believed that forms of motion in the
real world influenced the contours of a melody and that certain fundamental
forms of motion, translated into music through the use of a graph, could be
used directly to influence the behaviour of a melodic line. These basic types
are derived from oscillatory motion of wave around an axis and are shown
graphically with accompanying verbal descriptions of analogous forms. For
example,
1. Repetition (correspondences: aiming, rotary motion with
infinitesimal amplitudes, affirmation of the axis level as a starting
point). Musical form: repeated attacks of the same pitch
discontinued by rests or following each other continuously.
2. One phase motion (correspondences: preliminary contrary
motion, initial impulse in archery [drawing of the bow], artillery,
springboard diving, baseball pitching, tennis service, etc.).
Musical form: a movement or a group of movements in the
direction opposite to the succeeding leap.
3. Full periodic rotation (one or more periods).
Constant amplitude. (Correspondences: rotation around a
stationary point, a top, somersaults- with diving and without-
lasso, axis and orbit rotation of the planets, Dervish dances).
Musical form: mordent, trill, tied tremolo, grupetto.
(After Schillinger, 1978: 284-286)
Repetition 1
One phase 2
Full periodic 3
Figure 8.14. Forms of motion displayed graphically(after Schillinger 1978 page 284).

40
See Chapter 2 section 2.5.
131
Through variations in amplitude and the introduction of secondary axes
41
Schillinger develops these basic types into an array of more complex forms.
For example,

Spiral form
Secondary axis
Primary axis
/
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
Musical equivalent
Figure 8.15. Spiral form (after Schillinger 1978 page 312).
Schillinger's reference to baseball pitching or the tennis service seem comic,
imprecise and incongruous amidst the graphs and formulae of the
surrounding text. However, in the opening bars of Chaleur, it is possible to
see the influence of all these types of movement. For example, in bars 1 to 4,
the cello plays a series of durations on the same pitch (type1) while the
woodwind and the viola play trills (type 3). In fact the trills correspond more
closely to the repetitive motion of type 1, that is, 'rotary motion with
infinitesimal amplitude'. They are doubling the sustained pitches in the
violins but are embellished with trills which in this case are really a defined
vibrato. See for example the quarter-tone trills in the second violin at bar 10.

41
See figure 2.18 and 2.19.
132
/
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Pizz
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,
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.
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.
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.

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r

˙ ,
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Flute
Clarinet
Harp
Strings
Type 1
Type 1
Type 3
Type 2
Type 3
,
,
,
,
;
;
;
Figure 8.16. Rêve de l'Orb: chaleur: bars 1 to 5
133
Schillinger's suggested 'correspondences', such as 'aiming', or the 'initial
impulse in archery', actually describe the effect of the opening bars rather
well. The sustained notes, trills and repeated pitches in the cello create a
feeling of poised tension (type 1), while the descending scales in bar 5,
correspond to 'one phase motion' (type 2), which Schillinger compares to the
drawing of the bow in archery. The third type of motion ('full periodic') is
partially suggested by the arc movement of the cello and harp in bar 5. The
contrary motion of these two instruments suggests the possibility of a full
rotation. Schillinger's phrase, "affirmation of the axis level as a starting point"
is also apt in this case as all the parts start by emphasising the pitch B,
confirming it as an axis. The axis is confirmed several times in the course of
the opening section the pattern of confirmation achieved by repetition and
abandonment (one phase motion) of the axis over the first 50 bars is shown
in Figure 8.17.
Repetition
(confirmation)
One phase
(abandonment)
Bars 1 to 4 Bars 5 to 7
Bars 8 to 19 Bars 20 to 21
Bars 22 to 50 Bars 50 to 54
Figure 8.17. Patterns of motion in bars 1 to 54 of Chaleur
8.5.3 Resistance and climax
The pattern of motion shown in Figure 8.17 creates an accumulation of
tension which is released only after bar 54. A proper discharge of tension is
denied until this point because there is always an immediate return to the
'initial' or 'aiming' stage. The effect is as if the bow was drawn but the arrow
was never released. Each repetition of the 'aiming' phase is longer than the
one before increasing our expectation of release and contributing to the
accumulation of tension leading towards the climax at bar 51. This is a
manifestation of the process described by Schillinger as increasing
'resistance' leading towards a climax.
134
8.5.4 Acceleration
Other processes contribute to the pattern of tension and release. The cello
plays a rhythm which accelerates with each successive bar. For example,
/
Pizz
œ œ œ œ
5
œ œ œ œ œ
6
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
5
œ œ œ œ œ
4 5 6 9?
Bar 1
Figure 8.18.Rêve de l'Orb: acceleration in the cello part.
This acceleration proceeds almost according to a rhythm equivalent of the
harmonic series until bar 4 when the rate of change increases. Growth
series such as the harmonic series are important in Schillinger's theory both
as concepts, relating music to natural phenomena, and as a technical device
for the development of both rhythm and scale
42
.
8.5.5 Bar groups
There are a number of bar group patterns which recur throughout the
movement. These fall into two categories: contracting and expanding
patterns and regular repeating groups. The latter suggest the unrealised
tendency towards building large rhythmic structures derived from a master
number and resulting in bar groups of square proportions, such as 4 bars of
4/4 beats or 7 bars of 7/8 beats. Metrical patterns, such as these, suggest a
tendency towards the establishment of a rhythm of bars, a concept
fundamental to Schillinger's Theory of rhythm (Schillinger 1978).
An example of an expanding bar group pattern can be seen starting at bar
73 (Figure 8.22). The harp arpeggios mark the start of each group of bars.
Each group is one bar longer than the one before: an incrementation
through the 'harmonic series'. The only distortion to this progression is the
single bar of 6/4 in what is a predominantly 4/4 section.

42
See Chapter 3, section 3.5.
135
An example of a contracting pattern, 5/4, 4/4, 3/4, can be seen at bar 20. This
pattern recurs at ten bar intervals appearing at bar 30, bar 40 and bar 50.
Once again the harmonic series determines the rate of contraction. Each
occurrence of this pattern is separated from the next by seven bars in 4/4
metre. The whole sequence forms regular repeating groups of bars which
establishes their own rhythm.
8.5.6 Interference rhythms
An example of a rhythm produced by pulse interference
43
can be seen in
Figure 8.19.
/
.
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3
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3
œ
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3
œ
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3
œ
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œ
œ
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3:2
2, 1, 1 ,2
Bar 6
Harp
Figure 8.19. Rêve de l'Orb: the resultant of interference in the harp part.
The combination of triplet quavers and quavers (3:2) in the first beat is
imitated directly in the upper part of the second beat. This pattern evolved
without conscious knowledge of Schillinger's theories in which such rhythms
are treated as fundamental to the process of composition.
44
8.5.7 Symmetrical forms
Symmetrical forms in music are very important in Schillinger's work. The
Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978) produces patterns almost all of which
have symmetrical structures. Schillinger frequently notes the connection
between symmetry in natural phenomena, such as the 'bi-fold' symmetry of
the human body, and symmetrical forms occurring in music. The structure of
Chaleur shows a tendency towards symmetry which however, is incomplete.
The centre of the movement lies between two passages, bars 51 to 54 and

43
See Chapter 2, section 2.2.
44
A good example of the appearance of this type of rhythmic resultant can be seen in
the finale of Schuman's Carnival, (Marche des Davidsbündler contre les Philistins) the
right hand part of which is saturated with the rhythm (2,1,1,2).
136
bars 55 to 59, which are related through mirror symmetry. They represent the
climax of the opening section and are relatively extended developments of
the scale movement first seen in bar 5. The first passage (bars 51 to 54)
consists of all parts descending away from their axis point, while the second
passage (bars 55 to 59) shows the reverse: all the parts ascend towards the
axis.
The following diagram shows the first half of the movement in a schematic
form.
Centre
Bars 1-------------7 8------------------21 22--------------------------------------54 55---------58
Figure 8.20. Rêve de l'Orb: diagram showing melodic movement in the first half of
Chaleur.
The symmetrical structure suggested in Figure 8.20, is not fully realised in
Chaleur, as the last half of the movement is not a retrograde of the first half
but takes its own individual course. However, the potentially symmetrical
form is alluded to at the end of the piece. Bars 106 to 113, are the retrograde
form of the first seven bars of the movement (compare Figure 8.21, below,
with Figure 8.16, above) in all but some small details.
137
/
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.
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6
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œ œ ¸ œ , œ ¸ œ œ
6
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6
œ
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6
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6
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/
6
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.
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.......................................
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;
;
;
;
,
,
,
Figure 8.21. Rêve de l'Orb: bar 106 to
113 ofChaleur:
8.5.8 Links between movements
The abandonment of symmetry indirectly came about from a need to
reintroduce musical material from previous movements. For example, at bar
73 of Chaleur, the momentum of the music is suddenly stopped by a
passage of sustained tranquillity and stillness which is clearly reminiscent of
the mood of the second movement.
138
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2 3 4
Bar 73
Fl
Cl
In A
Harp
Vl.I
Vl.II
Vla.
Vcl.
Figure 8.22. Resonance of the second movement.
Following this at bar 82, there is a short dream-like passage which suggests
the character of the first movement. The relationship between the two
movements is confirmed when at bar 91, the viola part similar to that of the
first movement, is superimposed on the 'dream' music.
139
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˙
.
Pluck behind the bridge
π
5


Bar 91
Fl
Cl
Hrp
Vl1
Vl2
Vla
Vcl
Reminiscent of the first movement
In A
Pr es
Figure 8.23. Rêve de l'Orb : resonance of the first movement.
8.6 Conclusions
Rêve de l'Orb is a composition inspired by nature and in particular the forms
of movement in the natural world. I have attempted to translate
140
metaphorically into music the behaviour of birds and insects, the flow of
water and qualities such as lightness, intensity and harsh brutality, all
characteristics which I associate very strongly with the southern landscape.
I had not discovered Schillinger's work at the time of composing Rêve de
l'Orb, but analysis shows the presence of forms which he advocates for the
construction of music such as symmetry, pulse interference, growth series
and melodic axes. It would be interesting to consider how I might have
composed Rêve de l'Orb, using Schillinger's methods. There is no doubt
that Rêve de l'Orb would demand an extremely sophisticated approach
which only now, after several years of studying Schillinger's work, would I
feel able to undertake. A complex rhythmic structure such as Libellule could
be achieved by recourse to larger master time signatures such as 32, which
would introduce very small durations and consequently flexible rhythms. It
would also be necessary to have several simultaneous master time
signatures in order to achieve the effect of musical 'tapestry'. Taking these as
starting conditions, numerous variations, each of a different quality and
character could be constructed. A process of empirical composition
(refining the method of composition on the basis of the results of the last
experiment) would ultimately lead to new musical ideas which would in turn
lead to structural modifications. It seems likely to me that the application of
such methods would not alter the essential underlying 'poetry' of the
composition but the presence of a formal underlying skeleton provided by
Schillinger's methods would enhance the music in a way that might be
compared to the enhancement of an artists Figure by his or her knowledge of
the underlting bone-structure.
The remaining chapters in this thesis discuss compositions which have all
been strongly influenced by Schillinger's techniques and have been
undertaken with a more or less empirical approach. The term empirical
composition means that a decision to take a course of action or use a
particular technique necessitated a process of speculative thought.
Sometimes it was necessary to write and re-write large sections of music as
part of the empirical process but on the whole experimentation took place in
my head and on scraps of paper before I committed notes to paper.
Chapter 9 Bayo's Way
9.1 Origins
141
Bayo's Way, for tuba with live electronics and brass ensemble was
composed in 1993 as a commission for the London Brass Ensemble. At the
time of composition I had only recently discovered The Schillinger System Of
Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) and Bayo's Way is my first complete
work influenced by Schillinger's techniques. The title is a dedication to Bayo
Oshunbiyi, a Nigerian born poet and photographer whose personality and
life-style inspired this work. Oshunbiyi lives with an intensity that is
sometimes frightening and as he would say, "on the edge". He often spends
the entire time between dusk and dawn in the serious appreciation of music.
Oshunbiyi frequents all the best Jazz venues and knows many of the
musicians who play there. At six in the morning, when the band has gone,
elevated by the power of the music, he is still sparkling with enthusiasm for
life and art. My composition attempts to capture some of the atmosphere,
energy and almost continuous musical accompaniment of this nocturnal
existence.
9.2 The extended tuba
The tuba has always fascinated me: it is capable of the lowest extremities of
register, producing sounds of penetrating power or minuscule softness, is
also a theatrical instrument capable of expressing different 'characters' from
the violent and angry to the vulnerable and pathetic; its upper registers can
produce expressive melodic phrases. In writing for the tuba player Oren
Marshall, I had the possibility of extending these 'characters' into more
extreme and distorted forms through the use of electronics. Over the last few
years Marshall has extended the range of his instrument by developing a
style involving the use of live electronic effects. Bayo's Way, was partly
designed to be a vehicle to present the full potential of the tuba as a solo
instrument and in particular Oren Marshall's extended techniques. Before
composing, I spent several days acquainting myself with Marshall's use of
the electronics and his individual playing style. He has designed a special
mouthpiece for the tuba in which a tiny microphone has been implanted. The
sound of his instrument is then passed through a series of effects units: wah
wah, flange, distortion, delay, harmoniser. Each of these effects can be
switched on or off by foot pedals and to some extent their various parameters
(such as delay time or interval of harmonisation) can be controlled by the
player during rests or at moments during the performance in which one hand
can be freed from the instrument. The sound is finally passed to an amplifier
and loud speaker unit designed specifically to reproduce bass frequencies
142
such as those of the electric bass guitar. This set-up makes it possible to
alter the balance between acoustic and electroacoustic timbre: the
electronics and amplification can be switched off by the performer or be
made to dominate and overwhelm the normal acoustic sound of the
instrument. Between these two extremes all kinds of subtle mixtures of
acoustic and electroacoustic sound worlds can be achieved.
45
9.3 The soloist and the bass line
Marshall is a virtuoso player who is equally expert in both improvised jazz
and the most demanding, prescribed, notated music. His versatility inspired
me to conceive of a number of roles that could be played out between soloist
and ensemble. The most obvious of these roles is that of the provider of
melody. (The melodic aspect of the tuba is exploited after bar 137 in the
score). More unusual is the theatrical role of soloist as magician, capable of
conjuring extraordinary sounds. This is an idea which recurs in my work, as
in, for example, Moon Shaman (see Chapter 5). The soloist's 'magical'
powers are most evident during the cadenza of Bayo's Way, in which he
creates his own accompaniment. Using a sampler, the soloist captures a
short portion of his performance which, held in electronic memory, can be
played back as an infinite loop against which he improvises. At the end of
the cadenza, the soloist 'magically' transforms his sound, using a flanging
effect and distortion, so that it cannot be recognised as a tuba. At times the
sound resembles the voices of dolphins or a distorted 'heavy metal' guitar.
The soloist exerts his will on the ensemble, controlling their actions. For
example, at bar 105 in the score, the ensemble is instructed to imitate the
soloist's last phrase. Perhaps the most important role for the soloist is what I
describe as 'the keeper of the bass line', a role through which he provides
the basic pulse and tempo of the music. Pulse is, of course, particularly
important in terms of the performance of Bayo's Way, but is also the key to
the composition as a whole because it is central to two important
background considerations: Oren Marshall's personal playing style which
has evolved from his study of African music and jazz and my interest in
Schillinger's rhythmic theories. These interests originate from different fields
of study but share a common ground, that of rhythm. Marshall's study of
African music took him for several long periods to Ghana, where he played

45
The live electronic system just described can be heard on the recording of Bayo's Way
which accompanies this thesis.
143
and studied with various musicians
46
. This experience informed his personal
style of playing which is strongly influenced by black American music such
as funk. My own interest in this area has been enhanced through my study of
Schillinger's Theory of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978), which has enabled me to
incorporate some of the qualities of this type of music into my own style
47
.
Examples of funk rhythm can be see particularly at the beginning and the
end of Bayo's Way, for example, bars 1-49, or bars 178 to the end.
9.4 Form I: narrative, metaphor and trajectory
Bayo's way could be described as a miniature tuba concerto in one
movement lasting approximately 12 minutes. The soloist is pitted against an
ensemble of nine brass instruments: 4 trumpets, French horn, 4 trombones
48
.
The sound of the solo tuba is almost always amplified and modified by
electronics (described above) while the ensemble retain their acoustic
sound. The overall scheme of the composition can be described as in 6
sections which are illustrated in the table below.
Bars Description
1-80 Building tension. The tuba plays a virtuosic bass line accompanied
by the ensemble. Overtones of Jazz and funk.
81-113 Climactic. An exuberant tuba solo punctuated by the ensemble acting
as a chorus. Overtones of 'big band' style.
113-137 Transition to cadenza. Music becomes less tense. Ensemble plays
alone.
138-176 Balance/relaxation. The tuba plays a melodic solo, the ensemble
provides harmonic accompaniment.
177 Cadenza: gradual increase in tension leading back to Jazz/funk
rhythm.
178-217 Finale: the tuba and ensemble are united in funky polyphonic texture.
Figure 9.1.Bayo's Way : six sections with bar numbers and descriptions.
The sectional structure shown in Figure 9.1 is the result of a dual approach:
a series of dramatic images were ordered into a kind of narrative structure or
trajectory and then realised in music mainly through the exploration of
rhythm and proportion. Each part of my narrative is a point on an emotional
journey and inspires a type of musical expression: as long as the trajectory is
satisfactory it does not matter how discontinuous the sequence of narrative
events become. A satisfactory trajectory comes about through the ordering

46
For example, The Ghanian Dance Ensemble, The West African Folkloric Troupe and
The Pan African Orchestra.
47
For a discussion of jazz and funk rhythm in terms of Schillinger's theory see Chapter 3,
section 3.4.
48
This is the standard London Brass instrumentation.
144
of images and narrative ideas according to their relative tension and
relaxation. The process of ordering is facilitated, but not determined, by
associating each idea with an image or mnemonic, such as 'Bayo walks out
into the city' or 'Playing for laughs'. From these examples it can be seen that
I associate musical ideas with types of physical movement as well as states
of emotion. My personal tendency to relate image, movement and music was
reinforced when I encountered Schillinger's ideas. He suggests that music
could in part be described as a representation in sound of our physical
experience (Schillinger 1978 page 1410 ff.)
49
and ascribes the following
quotation to Aristotle.
Rhythms and melodious sequences are movements quite as much as
they are actions (Schillinger 1978 page 233).
The following table is a more detailed version of Figure 9.1. There are more
sections illustrating the complete trajectory. They are displayed with their bar
number, mnemonic tag, and a description of their formal function along the
trajectory.
Bars
Mnemonic Trajectory
1-48 Bayo walks out into the city. Introduction/accumulation of tension.
49-64 Arrival at the club. First climax.
65-80 Bayo aknowledges greetings. Relaxation.
81-96 The performance Sudden change, increased tension.
97-104 Playing for laughs. Sudden unexpected change producing
humour.
105-112 Band leader. Sudden change provoking a sense of
the absurd. Increased tension.
113- 136 Night into day. Second climax and release.
137-176 Bayo 'chills-out'. Maximum relaxation.
177 "On the edge". Increasing tension.
178-217 New day. Finale, climax.
Figure 9.2. Bayo's Way : the narrative trajectory .
The exact sequence of the narrative trajectory shown in Figure 9.2 was
largely the result of instinct aided by use of mnemonic tags and some
general principles concerning the means of creating tension and relaxation.
Once again I found my own beliefs concerning musical tension were in
keeping and enhanced by Schillinger's work. Musical tension and relaxation
are related to the forms of motion of natural bodies
50
. Continuous movement
plotted on a graph can be used to illustrate tension and relaxation. A sine

49
See also Chapter 2 of this thesis, section 2.12.4.
50
See Schillinger's Theory Of Melody, Schillinger 1978 page 283 and Chapter 2 of this
thesis, section 2.5.
145
wave, with its regular and uniform motion is neutral with respect to tension
and relaxation. Other wave forms suggest different degrees of tension as a
consequence of how they change in time. Forms of motion can be viewed as
those falling within the bounds of the expected and those which behave in
unexpected ways, the latter are more likely to produce a response in the
listener of amazement or wonder (Schillinger 1978 page 282). Parameters
associated with changes in musical tension are, for example, changes of
dynamic or changes of duration: rapid change in any parameter generally
produces an increase in tension. In order to achieve a sense of climax over a
relatively long period of time, it is necessary to pass through several lesser
points of tension and relaxation. For example, during the first 48 bars of
Bayo's Way, the soloist plays continuously while the density and intensity of
accompaniment rises and falls, accumulating tension until the first climax is
reached. During the process of composition, I gave this opening section a
mnemonic label, 'Bayo walks out into the city' which helped me to focus my
imagination on the character and shape of the music. The entire composition
is rigidly organised in 8 bar groups (to be explained later) and as a result,
significant changes in the accompaniment occur at intervals of 8 bars. The
following diagram is a general illustration of how tension varies throughout
the composition as a whole.
Bars
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
t
e
n
s
i
o
n
1 1
7
3
3
4
9
6
5
8
1
9
7
1
1
3
1
2
9
1
4
5
1
6
1
C
a
d
e
n
z
a
1
7
8
1
9
4
2
1
0
Figure 9.3. Bayo's Way : Variation of tension throughout the piece as a whole.
9.5 Form II
9.5.1 Rhythm
The most important aspect of the composition of Bayo's Way, was the fusion
between the narrative trajectory (see section 9.4) and the rhythmic structure.
This involved devising rhythmic structures which articulated the emotional
intention of each section of the trajectory shown in Figure 9.2. I shall now
146
describe in detail the composition of rhythmic structure in relation to the
opening section (bars 1 to 48) of the score.
Two Schillinger techniques were of particular importance.
1) Generating variants of a pattern through the rotation of its elements
51
.
2) Squaring techniques
52
.
Of these, the latter was by far the most important as theyenabled me to
create numerous parts or what Schillinger calls 'counter themes' (Schillinger
1978 page 74) from a small amount of original material. Figure 9.4 shows
the original rhythmic pattern from which the opening section evolves.
·
¸
¸
œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ
,
œ


3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 2 2 3
Symmetry
Figure 9.4. Bayo's Way : the original rhythmic pattern.
This pattern suddenly came into to my imagination and did not emerge
slowly through deliberate crafting. It appealed to me for a number of reasons.
It is symmetrical around its centre, suggesting economy and balance. I had
become aware of the qualities of symmetry through my study of Schillinger's
work (see Chapter 2, section 2.2) and these ideas had no doubt filtered into
my imagination allowing them to manifest themselves, as it were,
unconsciously. While the rhythm is symmetrical, it is also irregular in the
sense that its total duration, 31 semi-quavers, cannot be accommodated in a
simple bar scheme. This irregularity suggested to me that the pattern might
yield a variety of interesting syncopations. In Figure 9.4, it can be seen that
the pattern was conceived as having the semi-quaver as its fundamental unit
of duration which ensures the rhythm is flexible enough to have a 'funky'
quality (see Chapter 3 section 3.4). However, I felt that a true funk rhythm
necessitated the use of 4/4 metre and so the pattern in Figure 9.4, was
modified in order to lie neatly within bars of 4/4. This decision was also
taken on practical grounds: an unconducted ensemble would play more
accurately and effectively if the metre was relatively uncomplicated. My

51
See Chapter 2 section 2.2.4.
52
See Chapter 3 section 3.3.2
147
solution to the problem of barring was to repeat the pattern in Figure 9.4, four
times and add four semi-quavers at the end. The following illustration shows
the pattern as it appears in the score
.
¸
¸
1
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1st time 2nd time
3rd time 4th time +4 .
Tuba
Figure 9.5. Bayo's Way : four repetitions of the basic pattern with four added semi-
quavers.
Straightforward repetition was avoided by adopting techniques of variation
as suggested by Schillinger. Figure 9.6 shows the original rhythmic pattern
(top stave) and one of its variants (bottom stave).
·
·
¸
¸
¸
¸
œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
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,
œ


œ œ
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œ
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œ
œ
œ œ
œ
œ
œ
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3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 2 3
2 3 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 3 2 2 2
Figure 9.6. Bayo's Way : the original pattern (top stave) and a variation (bottom stave).
The second half of the variant (bottom stave of Figure 9.6) has been altered
in two important respects.
1) The symmetry of the original has been modified by rotation:
(3,2,2,3,2,2,1,1,1, 2,2,3,2,2,3 ) becomes (3,2,2,3,2,2,1,1,1, 3,2,2,3,2,2 ).
In other words the second half of the variant is the retrograde of the same
portion of the original form.
148
2) The durations of the altered portion have been split into single units
(semi-quavers). This creates groups of semi-quavers indicated in Figure 9.6,
by a displacement of the notehead on the lower stave line.
In the score these groups are further emphasised by accent markings. Apart
from this relatively local variation rotation is also used on a larger scale
53
.
The pattern shown in Figure 9.5, repeats every 8 bars for the first 48 bars of
the piece, on each repetition the entire sequence of notes is rotated by one
place. This causes the accents and stresses of the rhythm to shift to different
parts of the bar so creating variation.
9.5.2 Using squares to create the accompaniment
Once the soloist's basic phrase had been established it was necessary to
create accompanying parts. These were composed with the character or
mnemonic of the opening section in mind: increasing tension as though
'storm clouds were gathering' (see Figure 9.2). I decided to generate
accompanying parts using Schillinger's squaring techniques. The reader
may remember that this technique involves squaring the master time
signature and its sub-groups (see Chapter 3 section 3.3. ff.).
The matter of the master time signature in this composition requires some
explanation. The original pattern (Figure 9.4) was based on semi-quaver
units and for this reason it might seem obvious that the master time signature
would be 16 (16 beats in the bar). However, I was satisfied with my
extension of the basic pattern which had produced a phrase lasting 8 bars
(see Figure 9.5).
The squaring technique requires that the number of beats in the bar and the
number of bars in the bar group must be identical and for this reason I
decided that the master time signature of the accompaniment should be 8,
(quavers) rather than 16 (semi-quavers). Consequently the music
simultaneously involves two types of durational unit: quaver units define the
rhythm of the accompaniment while semi-quaver units define the rhythm of
the tuba part. This state of affairs might be compared to a ruler marked with
more than one gauge.

53
For a more detailed discussion of rotation, see Chapter 2 section 2.2.4.
149
The technique of evolving accompanying parts requires a source rhythmic
pattern exactly one bar in length. After experimentation it proved most
satisfactory to use a fragment of the basic pattern thereby linking the
accompaniment to the solo line. The fragment (3,2,2,1) is derived from the
first three elements of the basic pattern with one unit added at the end. (It is
important to remember that while the basic pattern was originally conceived
in semi-quavers, the fragments just described were treated as though they
were based on quaver units). Applying the squaring formula to this fragment
produced a new rhythm which perfectly accompanied the eight bar pattern
shown in Figure 9.5.
(3,2,2,1)
2
=
(3
2
+3×2+3×2+3×1)+(2×3+2
2
+2×2+2×1)+(2×3+2
2
+2×2+2×1)+(1×3+1×2+1×2+1
2
)=
(9,6,6,3)+(6,4,4,2)+(6,4,4,2)+(3,2,2,1)= 64 (8 bars of 8 beats).
The following shows how the accompaniment is combined with the original
solo pattern in bars 9 to 16 of Bayo's Way. The rhythm has been distributed
between the French horn and the trombone, an example of what Schillinger
calls 'instrumental form': a rhythm is distributed between parts or 'places' and
is thereby enriched through timbre contrast (see Chapter 2, section 2.2.1).
150
F.H
Tbn
Tuba
.
.
.
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9
6 6
3 6
4
4 2 6
4 4
2 3 2 2 1
(In F)
Figure 9.7. Bayo's Way : solo tuba and accompaniment, the latter generated by
squaring.
The squaring technique described above can produce a very large number
of parts. Of course not all the results produced will be suitable for use but the
act of rejecting a particular pattern serves to sharpen one's instincts as to the
essential qualities required of the material. There is of course always the
possibility of modifying a phrase or pattern using techniques such as
rotation or rhythmic ornamentation, in order to create more material.
Schillinger suggests that the material produced by any technique should be
used as efficiently as possible. Perhaps the most basic method of achieving
efficiency is through the use of the retrograde form.
Figure 9.8, shows how the accompaniment (French horn) shown in Figure
9.7 is combined with its retrograde (trumpets) in bars 17 to 24 of Bayo's Way.
151
Tpt 1
Tpt3
FH
Tuba
/
/
.
.
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17

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21
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1 2 2 3
2 4 4 6 2 4 4
6 3 6 6 9
9 6 6 3 6 4
4 2 6 4 4 2 3 2 2 1
(In F)
(rest)
Figure 9.8. Bayo's Way : the accompaniment (French horn) and its retrograde (trumpets).
9.6 Pitch
9.6.1 Scale
152
Pitch was largely derived from the Aeolian scale in F. This scale was then
modified, by omitting certain pitches, to give it a pentatonic and 'blues' like
quality.
.
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Aeolian scale Pitches omitted Melodic form
Figure 9.9. Bayo's Way : the basic scale of Bayo's Way, and its modifications.
Figure 9.9, shows the Aeolian scale (first bar) and two further stages of
modification. By omitting certain pitches (bar 2) and rearranging them (bar
3), I created the bass line motif heard in the opening bars of Bayo's Way
(see Figure 9.5).
9.6.2 Harmony
There are relatively few harmonic structures and progressions in this
composition. The scale shown in Figure 9.9, dominates the harmonic
dimension and chords usually result from the melodic or polyphonic
movement of parts (see Figure 9.8). When harmonic structures occur they
are used to fulfil a particular function. The chord shown below could be
described as a major chord with a sharpened fourth and a major seventh.
/
.
.
.
. ¸
Figure 9.10. Bayo's Way : a harmonic structure used to evoke the spirit of Big Band
music.
This chord has a quality which I associate strongly with jazz and in particular
the 'Big Band' arrangements of Count Basie and Duke Ellington: I have used
this harmony to evoke the spirit of that style.
153
The chord appears in Bayo's Way, in various transpositions and with various
couplings, particularly between bars 81-96 (see Figure 9.2) where the
ensemble punctuates the exuberant outbursts of the tuba.
A different kind of harmony occurs later in the score. Between bars 137 and
176, the tuba plays a solo accompanied by the following type of harmonic
progression.
/
.
˙
˙
˙
˙ ,
,
˙
˙
˙
˙
,
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¸
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,
,
,
,
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C Min.
Min 7
11th
F Maj
Min 7
Flat 5
Figure 9.10.1. Bayo's Way : harmonic progression underlying bars 137 to 156.
Figure 9.10.1, is a reduction of the harmonic progression between bars 137
and 156 of Bayo's Way. The roots of the harmonies (lower stave) do not
actually appear in the score as shown here but are included in the
illustration for convenience. The harmonies form pairs: a minor chord with a
minor seventh and an eleventh, followed, a fifth lower, by a dominant
seventh chord with a flattened fifth. Each pair is a semi-tone lower than the
last. In realising this progression in the accompanying parts I assigned
different durations to combinations of chordal voices, so blurring the change
from one chord to the next.
154
Tpt 1
Tpt 2
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Figure 9.11. Bayo's Way : the realisation of the progression in Figure 9.10.1
Rhythmic displacement results in a quasi-polyphonic texture, and produces
a series of suspensions (harmonically ambiguous moments) which helped to
avoid the possibility of the music becoming a jazz stereotype.
Between bars 114 and 137, a different kind of harmonic structure is used to
create contrast to the surrounding jazz influenced harmonies. The entire
section is based on a single harmonic block derived from the octatonic
scale(Figure 9.12)
54
. This proved particularly useful in neutralising the
relatively strong tonal structures heard so far and helping to create a sense
of transition.

54
The harmonic structure shown in Figure 9.12, has also been used in other
compositions presented in this thesis. For further discussion of its derivation see chapter
10, section 10.8.
155
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Figure 9.12. Bayo's Way : harmonic block derived from the octatonic scale.
The following illustration shows how this structure was realised in the score.
As described earlier, rhythm has been applied to each voice in the harmony
creating a whole variety of accents and emphasis on the different interval
combinations of the harmonic structure.
Tpt 2
Tpt 4
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Figure 9.13. Bayo's Way : rhythmic realisation of the harmonic structure of Figure 9.12.
9.7. Conclusions
Bayo's Way marked the start of my new approach to composition. In all my
previous works form and structure evolved from the imagination stimulated
by the poetic background. For example, Moon Shaman, in which the setting
of the bass clarinet solo, its continuous semi-quavers and sudden melodic
leaps, were inspired by imaginary ritual, effort and hyperventilation. Bayo's
Way was also born from ideas of imaginary narrative mnemonics and
imagery. It is theatrical and draws upon my impressions of exuberant live
performance. As the title suggests, Bayo's Way, is a celebration of the
human spirit through the example of Bayo Oshonbiyi's life. Its detailed
musical form is also influenced by Marshall's playing techniques and
156
references to jazz and funk. The difference between this composition and
those completed earlier is that it is heavily influenced by Schillinger's
rhythmic techniques which determine what might be called the architecture
of the music, a quality I associate with predetermined proportions. Large
sections of the composition are derived from the smallest fragments of
original material. For example, the solo and accompanying parts of the first
48 bars are all derived from the first bar of the tuba solo. Schillinger often
compared the development of a musical composition with the growth of
natural forms
55
and the structures in Bayo's Way which result from squaring
techniques could be described as crystalline as the largest and the smallest
parts are essentially the same. Structures such as those evolved from
squaring techniques contribute to overall coherence because a single
rhythmic idea is expressed on every level, the rhythm of the composition as a
whole is clearly felt and it is this more than any other factor that determines
the architectural quality of the composition. The success of Bayo's Way
56
confirmed that the Schillinger techniques used in its composition were of
proven practical value and encouraged me to explore his theories in greater
depth.

55
Schillinger 1948 page 222.
56
Bayo's Way was received very well at its premiere in the Queen Elizabeth Hall in March
1994 and went on to receive over forty performances around the world. It was not always
liked. in Germany, for instance, it caused much controversy between those who felt it
abused the tuba and those who felt it represented an exciting development of the
instrument.
157
Chapter 10 Make Night Day
10.1 Introduction
Make Night Day is a composition for violin, bass clarinet and tape, with a
duration of 14 minutes. It was composed in 1993 as a commission from the
Schreck Ensemble
57
, and given its first performance in December 1994 at
the Ijsbreker in Amsterdam. The instrumentation was given by the directors
of the ensemble whose members included the bass clarinet player Hein
Pijnenburg
58
. Make Night Day was my second composition made using
techniques derived from The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition
(Schillinger 1978). At the time of writing I was still most interested in
absorbing and exploring ideas contained in Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm
(Schillinger 1978) and relatively less concerned with the practical
application of other techniques, such as those dealing with pitch. In terms of
technical development, Make Night Day represents an extension and
exploration in the field of rhythm.
10.2 Title and origins
My initial inspiration for Make Night Day, came from a poem by Shelley
entitledTwo Souls
59
. The poem is set as a dialogue between two spirits who
represent opposing forces, most obviously light and dark or perhaps good
and evil. I believe the poem also describes something of the opposition or
contradiction within the mind of the individual: the incomprehensible
complexity of personality which may cause a person to have conflicting
emotions or hold a particular point of view to be true at one time and false at
another.

57
An electroacoustic music ensemble based in Holland.
58
For whom I also composed Moon Shaman and Vision and Prayer.
59
I discovered this poem on reading Claire Tomalin's excellent biography of Shelley from
which I have quoted the text. Tomalin 1980 page 111.
158
The poem is too long to reproduce in full but the first two verses will give the
reader a clear idea of its nature.
First Spirit
O thou, who plumed with strong desire
Wouldst float above the earth, beware!
A shadow tracks thy flight of fire-
Night is coming!
Bright are the regions of the air,
And among the winds and beams
It were delight to wander there-
Night is coming!
Second Spirit
The deathless stars are bright above;
If I would cross the shade of night,
Within my heart is the lamp of love,
And that is day!
And the moon will smile with gentle light
On my golden plumes where'er they move;
The meteors will linger round my flight,
And make night day
In Make Night Day, the dualogue and the opposition between Shelley's
spirits is given musical expression by the contrasting register, timbre and
style of articulation of the violin and bass clarinet. However, it is important to
point out that Shelley's poem was for me a starting point and as the
composition developed it became more distant as a source for musical form
and structure. For example, the sequence in which Shelley's spirits speak
has nothing to do with the order of the solos in Make Night Day and in my
musical realization I have often blurred the boundaries, so clear in the poem,
between the 'two souls'. For example, the first solo of the violin is tense and
strained and set in a context suggesting 'darkness' as a contrast to its
character which represents light and intensity. The bass clarinet solo (bars
76 ff.) is both moody and dark but has a sensuous dance-like quality which is
seductive and perhaps more positive than might be expected. The soloists
are accompanied by a tape which surrounds and unites them with computer-
manipulated sound. Its world is inspired by Shelley's poem particularly his
imagery and suggestion of space ('Bright are the regions of the air') terrifying
natural forces ('The red swift clouds of the hurricane') and celestial visions
('The deathless stars are bright above/ If I would cross the shade of night').
Before describing the sound of the tape part and the role of rhythm and pulse
I will discuss in more detail the form of the composition and the role of the
soloists.
159
10.3 Instrumental forms
Make Night Day is made up of five sections: sections 1,3 and 5 are
dominated by the soloists, while sections 2 and 4 are connecting tape
interludes. Each section explores a different aspect of the duet between the
soloists and expresses their different qualities.
Bars Form Intention
Section 1: bars 1 to 75. .66
Violin solo. Bass clarinet
accompaniment
Light: ascending, intense.
Section 2: (2.08") Tape interlude. Descending.
Section 3: bars 76 to 132. .50
Bass clarinet solo. Violin
accompaniment.
dark: descending, slow, moody.
Section 4: bars 116 to 132 Duet in rhythmic unison Equality/Unity
Section 4: (1.17") Tape interlude. Ascending.
Section 5: bars 135 to 196.
.105
Finale: dualogue Ascending: dynamic exchange.
Figure 10.1. Make Night Day : table illustrating sectional form.
The first section features the violin accompanied by the bass clarinet. The
violin represents the spirit of light and its music is intended to sound bright
and intense. This is achieved partly through rhythm and pitch (to be
discussed later) and partly through the melodic contour, a series of
ascending phrases and a general movement from low to high register over
the course of the first section. There is also a general increase in the density
of notes as the violin becomes more active and progressively louder. The
bass clarinet at first remains very much in the background. It doubles with the
tape accompaniment, playing a pulsing rhythmic Figure in its lower register.
Both the tape part and the bass clarinet evoke a feeling of weight and
fixedness which gives a sense of struggle to the ascending and increasingly
active violin.
Violin
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Figure 10.2. Make Night Day: bar 31 to 34.
160
At bar 51, the bass clarinet begins a strident theme in the bass register
which serves to increase further the mounting tension.
Violin
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Figure 10.3. Make Night Day: bars 51 to 53.
At bar 75, both instruments are overwhelmed by the sounds on the tape, this
might be described as a 'dissolve,' where one idea is neutralised and
another is introduced.
In the second section, starting at bar 76, the bass clarinet dominates while
the violin accompanies. The bass clarinet is in general associated with the
coming darkness and plays a moody, sensuous solo in which sinuous
phrases wind and meander in the lower registers. The violin takes on the
three note motif, originally played by the bass clarinet in the opening section,
as well as a languorous legato phrase consisting of a rising interval, most
commonly a rising sixth. The solo phrases are set against a tape background
of yawning rather languorous sound and repetitive rhythms which all
together is meant to create a sense of space and weight.
Violin
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Figure 10.4. Make Night Day : bars 91 to 93.
161
At bar 116, the two soloists come together in rhythmic unison suggesting a
harmonious equality.
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Figure 10.5. Make Night Day: bars 116 to 119.
A more dynamic and intense equality between the soloists is achieved in the
finale ( bar 135 ff.). The two soloists engage in a sequence of rapid
exchanges which always ends in their separating in opposite directions. The
bursts of 'cross-fire' are separated by miniature tape interludes of only a few
bars in length. The intensity of the dialogue increases until the exchanges
cannot be sustained and the piece ends, collapsing, as it were, in a kind of
incandescent glow.
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Figure 10.6. Make Night Day: bars 135 to 138.
10.4 The tape accompaniment
10.4.1 Introduction
Make Night Day is a composition which stems from duality and contrast both
in its poetic background and its instrumentation: the violin and bass clarinet
are unlikely partners occupying very different areas of the instrumental
spectrum. The third element in the equation, the tape, also represents
difference and contrast, being an electronic instrument free from many
constraints and limitations which have shaped the expressive character of
traditional instruments
60
. However, the difference between acoustic and

60
I refer the reader to Chapter 4, section 4.2, for a further discussion of this matter.
162
electroacoustic media is also a unifying force, as the violin and bass clarinet,
both mechanical acoustic instruments, share a common bond. These three
elements fit into a scheme suggested by the poem: the violin and bass
clarinet represent the two souls in dialogue, while the tape serves as their
medium of communication, bringing together the two opposing forces by
encompassing their sound within its own. The tape also has its own specific
role: evoking the fantastical qualities suggested by Shelley's poem ("the
meteors will linger round my flight"), and very importantly, in a practical
sense, providing pulse as well as a rhythmic structure against which the
soloists measure their performance.
10.4.2 Sound sources and their functions
My first step in creating the tape part was to make a large collection of
recordings and samples of the violin and bass clarinet
61
. These recordings
were then manipulated using a computer and selected to create a palette of
sounds serving a variety of functions. A separate source of sounds are those
created with an FM. synthesiser
62
. These are used very sparingly as, in my
opinion, FM. sounds tend towards coldness, a quality which contrasts well
with the earthiness of sampled sound but which can be obtrusive if
overused. For example, at 1'27" in the first tape interlude a continuous
throbbing texture generated from samples is decorated with a single FM
sound: a high pitched, swelling, metallic ring. Sounds in general fall into
three categories: extension, gestural and percussive.
10.4.3 Extensions
Sounds that are recognisably derived from an acoustic instrument or are
compatible with the live acoustic sound of that instrument might be described
as 'extensions'. These are usually sounds of fairly definite pitch which can be
used melodically or harmonically to double a note played by the soloist.
Extensions work well in creating 'auras' or 'resonance' surrounding the

61
Hein Pijnenburg visited the City University in 1991 and allowed a group of students to
record his sound for sampling. In 1992 I invited the violinist John Francis to the
university for a similar recording session. A few sounds were taken from earlier pieces
such as Moon Shaman and Riddle and from other sources such as the Akai sound
library; these latter were then modified using a computer. Michael Rosas Cobian kindly
allowed me to use several of his original samples and programmes.
62
The technical resources were as follows: Akai S1000 sampler, Yamaha TX 802 FM
synthesiser, Sound Designer II and Alchemy Software.
163
sound of the acoustic instruments, helping the soloists blend with the
accompaniment. For example, during bar 7, of Make Night Day, the violin
holds the note G, releasing it on the second beat of bar 8. When the note
stops a sample of distant, grainy, airy quality, derived originally from the
violin, is heard to remain on the same pitch.
10.4.4 Gestural sounds
Gestural sounds are those which are not easily ascribed to traditional
instrumental sources. They are often of indefinite pitch and tend to have very
variable behaviour such as an extreme dynamic crescendo or a strong
frequency modulation. It is often possible to ascribe to them a dramatic or
narrative quality which suggests a context or a mood. Although I have used
gestural sounds throughout the piece they are mainly reserved for the tape
interludes. The two main tape interludes and the shorter ones in the finale of
Make Night Day are dominated by sounds originally derived from violin bow
taps which have been modified by looping and stretching to produce
rhythmic patterns. They sound like highly exaggerated clockwork
mechanisms which, as they unwind, form strange shifting rhythmic patterns.
The moments dominated by the 'clocks' are transitions and are meant to
evoke the sense of time passing. In this way they represent something of the
urgency of Shelley's lines: 'A shadow tracks thy flight of fire / Night is coming'.
Other gestural sounds are less evocative of time and place but are used to
create a vibrant wash inspired by the poem's abstract and fantastical images.
For example, the creaking sound used to begin the composition, or the
wave-like sound heard at bar 4 ( a sample of air passing through the body of
the bass clarinet), are used to suggest Shelley's 'winds and beams' or 'äery
fountains'.
10.4.5 Percussive sounds
Percussive sounds or sounds that suggest pulse are extremely important in
Make Night Day. While composing, rhythmic co-ordination and proportion
were my overriding considerations and I wanted to articulate clearly the
most basic rhythmic structures of the piece. In addition, there was the
practical consideration of how to synchronise the performers with the tape
part without using a click track or a conductor; the solution was to use
percussive sounds as cues giving the pulse and announcing each new
section of the piece. Some sounds were both gestural and percussive, such
164
as the 'clocks' described above, which generated rhythm through looping.
The patterns produced in this way were extremely exciting but relatively
uncontrollable. Nevertheless, I decided to use them as free extensions of my
predetermined pulse structures. Percussive sounds in this piece, therefore
fall into two classes: those that can be placed in time with accuracy and used
to articulate predetermined rhythmic schemes, and those sounds which can
be triggered accurately but which thereafter produce relatively
uncontrollable rhythms.
10.5 Rhythm
My study of Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978) inspired a
number of ideas concerning the development of rhythm and proportion
which I wanted to explore in Make Night Day. Once the form and character of
the composition had been decided on (see Figure 10.1), I began to plan the
detailed structure of the music with the intention that each section should
have its own distinctive rhythmic character. I was originally attracted to this
idea after reading Schillinger's discussion The Evolution Of Rhythm Styles
(Schillinger 1978 page 84 ff)
63
. Schillinger believed that the rhythmic
character of an individual composition or even a style of music, such as
'swing' (Schillinger 1978 page 85), was determined by a number which I
refer to as the 'master time signature'. It is perfectly possible and frequently
the case that music exhibits the influence of more than one rhythmic
determinant or master time signature. A simple example of this is can be
seen in a dance such as the Fox Trot or Charleston in which continuous
quavers, contained in bars of 8/8, are accented by patterns of 3.

63
The reader may remember that the master time signature is a number which
determines rhythm inside the bars as well as the rhythm of the bar groups. For a detailed
discussion of the master time signature, see Chapter 2, section 2.2.3, and Chapter 3,
section 3.3.
165

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3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
8
8
-
8
8
-
Figure 10.7. A 'Charleston' Rhythm, after Schillinger 1978, Figure 140 page 86.
In Make Night Day, I have explored the combination of master numbers
64
,
using them to create rhythmic patterns, bar groups, phrasing structures, and
patterns of instrumental exchange. The rhythm of each section of the
composition is derived from a different combination of master numbers or
rhythmic generators.
The following table shows the master numbers that apply to each section.
Section Master Number
Section I. Bars 1 to 75 3,4
Section II. Bars 76 to 132 3,4,7
Section III. Bars 135 to 196 3,4,7 and 5,8
Figure 10.8. Make Night Day: the sections of the composition and their master numbers.
Figure 10.8, illustrates how the influence of the master numbers develops
during the course of the composition. I hope to show that as the
combinations of master numbers evolve in complexity, so the music seems
to develop rhythmically, shifting gear, as it were, and growing in dramatic
tension. The numbers on the right hand side of Figure 10.14, belong to the
following growth series: (1+3+4+7+11......) and (1+2+3+5+8+13......). In
section 3, numbers from the two series are combined. These series are
discussed in detail by Schillinger in his Theory Of Rhythm, (Schillinger
1978)
65
. He believed that they represented organic forms of growth and
were therefore extremely useful for creating rhythmic structure and musical

64
Master numbers means multiple master time signatures. I avoided using the term
master time signature in this discussion because it refers to the specific technique of
squaring (described in Chapter 3) and does not express the fact that there are multiple
master time signatures.
65
See also Chapter 3, section 3.5.1.
166
flow. My decision to make use of these growth series was not arbitrary but
the result of contemplation of the motif shown in Figure 10.15. This occurred
to me spontaneously, not as the result of deliberate crafting, and when I
began to consider it more closely I realised that its simplicity and neutrality
offered great potential for development.
/

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≈ .
,
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Figure 10.9. Make Night Day: the basic rhythmic material.
In the course of the composition the pattern is repeated again and again in
all the parts and registers, with different pitches and tempos (see Figure
10.19). I decided to incorporate its features into the detailed planning of the
rhythmic structure of the piece as a whole. Contemplating the three attacks,
lead me to speculate about rhythms produced by the number three. The first
and most obvious manifestation of this line of thought is in the choice of
metre (3/4) for the first section of the composition.
I adopted the same lateral approach in developing the basic rhythmic
material into more developed rhythmic phrases. In The Theory Of Rhythm
(Schillinger 1978), pulse interference, (the combination of pulses travelling
at different rates
66
) is presented as the fundamental method of generating
rhythm
67
. Beyond any purely technical aspects this method appealed to me
because it seemed to have, in common with Shelley's poem, the aspect of
opposition and duality: both rhythm and poem are the product of difference. I
decided to use the original master number 3 as one of the pulses of
interference and chose the other, 4, because it was an adjacent number in a
common growth pattern (1+3+4+7..).The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger
1978), gives two techniques for generating the rhythmic patterns from a ratio.
The difference between the two patterns is most evident in their duration: the
duration of the first pattern is the product of the numbers in the ratio, while
the duration of the second pattern is the square of the larger number. The
common bond between the patterns is in the arrangement and type of
numbers used. In the case of 4:3 the results are as shown in Figure 10.10:

66
For a full explanation see Chapter 2, section 2.2.
67
The pulses are represented by number ratios, such as 5:4. The two numbers should
not have a common divisor other than 1. The numbers in the original ratio signify the
most natural grouping of the resulting pattern. For example, the resultant of 5:4
(4,1,3,2,2,3,1,4) will easily fall into groups of 5, and groups of 4.
167
Pattern 1 4:3 = (3,1,2,2,1,3)
Pattern 2 4:3 = (3,1,2,1,1,1,1,2,1,3)
Figure 10.10. The two rhythmic patterns produced by the ratio 4:3.
The second pattern is an expanded version of the first. It contains numbers,
which are arranged symmetrically around the centre. I refer to the shorter
pattern as a ratio, (4:3) and the longer pattern as a ratio underlined, ( 4:3 ) .
The original three semi-quaver pattern (Figure 10.9), is easily derived from
either of the above resultants by splitting the first term into single units:
3 → 1+1+1.
Both patterns are used in their entirety throughout section 1. For example,
the violin part from bar 11, to 12, is derived from the rhythmic resultant 4:3 .
/

,
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œ

œ

œ
œ ,

œ

œ

œ

œ œ ¸
œ
œ ¸ ˙
(1+1+1), 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3,-----------
,
¸
Vl.
Bar 11
Figure 10.11. Make Night Day : the rhythm 4:3 worked into a phrase.
Further exploration lead me to apply Schillinger's squaring technique
68
in
which a group of numbers is used to generate a large quantity of material by
applying a formula: (A+B)
2
=(A
2
+A×B)+(B×A + B
2
). The number of
elements in the result, is the square of the number of elements in the original
and the sum of the elements in the original and the sum of those in the result
are also related by the power of 2.
The result of squaring the rhythm of 4:3 , is shown below.

68
For a full discussion of squaring see Chapter 3 section 3.3.2.
168
(3,1,2,2,1,3)
2
=
(9,3,6,6,3,9,)(3,1,2,2,1,3)(6,2,4,4,2,6,)(6,2,4,4,2,6,)(3,1,2,2,1,3)(9,3,6,6,3,9)
Figure 10.12. Rhythm produced by 'squaring'.
The original group has 6 members whose sum is 12. The squared result has
36 members whose sum is 144. Schillinger suggests that the result of this
process be used as a 'counter theme', working in conjunction with the rhythm
from which it evolved
69
. I decided to experiment with the rhythm in a different
way: instead of translating the numbers directly into the durations of a phrase
I used them to determine the points of entry of an event or phrase.
/ ¸
,
3

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≈ . ∑ ∑

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≈ .

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.
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9


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,
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œ
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∑ ∑
9-----------------------------------------3-----------------------------6-----------------------------------------
6--------------------------------------------3-----------------------------------------9----------------------------------
Vln.
Figure 10.13. Make Night Day : rhythm derived from 'squaring' determines the violin
entries.
In Figure 10.13, each number above the score represents a quantity of
crotchet beats. Each element of the resultant rhythm (9,3,6,6,3,9) is used to
'trigger' the violin. The result is a series of phrases spanning 12 bars of 3/4
which became my standard length of bar group. It might seem most obvious
to continue this process by applying the second group of the result in Figure
10.12. However, empirical exploration lead me to make a different decision:
to exclude from the rhythm in Figure 10.12 all but two sequences, leaving
(9,3,6,6,3,9,) and (6,2,4,4,2,6,), which I used to determine the points of entry
of the violin throughout the first section of Make Night Day.

69
See for example, Chapter 9, section 9.5.2
169
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,
3

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≈ . ∑ ∑

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≈ .

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11

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∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
Vln
9------------------------------3--------------------6----------------------------6------------------------------------
3------------------------------------------9------------------------------------6-----------------------------------------
2----------------4-------------------------4------------------2-----------------6--------------------(12)----------------
Bar group 1.
Bar group 2.
Figure 10.14. Make Night Day :a pair of rhythmic patterns controls the phrasing of the
violin.
The pattern, (6,2,4,4,2,6,) is clearly too short to create a 12 bar group which
accounts for the addition of 12 silent crotchet beats (see bar 22, of Figure
10.14). The use of two rhythms in sequence, one long and one short, is an
idea discussed by Schillinger in The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978
page 21) as a way of creating flow. He observes that the rhythms produced
by a ratio, such as those shown in Figure 10.10, can be used in pairs to
create expanding or contracting phrases. I have modified this idea choosing
instead to use rhythms produced by squaring. The addition of an extra
number at the end of the shorter pattern is an idea recommended by
Schillinger as a way of making two unequal groups balanced. I chose to do
this because at this stage in the composition I wanted to establish a degree
of parity between the two instruments in order to later create tension through
inequality. In this instance the rhythmic structure of Make Night Day does not
strictly follow Schillinger's prescription. Instead I have used his ideas to
produce structures but have chosen to use only those which suited my
purposes.
10.6 Section II
10.6.1 Rhythmic identity
Each section of Make Night Day has its own rhythmic identity which helps
support the emotional journey of the composition. The second section is
170
meant as a strong contrast to the first: it is slower in tempo and has a
seductive dance-like quality, the result of the interaction between the master
numbers, 3,4 and 7. The master number 7 is part of a growth series and is
created by adding the first two numbers. Rhythms based on 7 are most
distinctive in character
70
because they do not divide into even sub-groups
and (being still relatively unusual in most styles of music) have something of
a novel quality. After some thought I decided that 7 would be best used as a
square determining the basic length of a section. I divided this length into a
sequence of metre using wherever possible time signatures based on the
other master numbers 3 and 4. For example,
7
2
= 49 ×.
4/4 3/4 3/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 7/8.
Figure 10.15. Make Night Day :49 quavers grouped in bars of 3/4, 4/4 and 7/8.
The first two bars in Figure 10.15 (shaded) form a unit (4/4+3/4) which
expresses the master number 7, the third and fourth bar are simply the
retrograde of the first two. The sequence of metre in Figure 10.15, begins at
bar 80 of Make Night Day, preceded by a four bar introduction (bars 76-79)
illustrated by a shaded area in Figure 10.22.

3/4 4/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 3/4 3/4 4/4 4/4 3/4 7/8
A B
A 1
Figure 10.16. Make Night Day :Figure 10.15, with a four bar introduction (shaded area).
The sequence in Figure 10.16, was divided into two portions (A,B), which
were then rotated to produce the following variation.
3/4 4/4 4/4 3/4 7/8 3/4 4/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 3/4
B A
B 1
Figure 10.17. Make Night Day : rotation of Figure 10.16

70
"The 7/7 series is apparently of Eastern origin. In its trans-Asiatic travel it has crossed
the Ural mountains and reached central Russia (Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov)".Schillinger
1978 page 73.
171
The shaded area in Figure 10.17 illustrates how the four bar introduction has
been shifted by rotation into the second half of the metric scheme. A method
described by Schillinger as permutations of the higher order (Schillinger
1978 page 63) allowed me to create an extended sequence of metre derived
from these initial variations. The sequences in Figure 10.15 and 10.16
themselves become A1 and B1, and are subject to rotation as illustrated in
Figure 10.18.

Bars 76-81 Bars 82-86 Bars 87-91 Bars 92-97
A1
B1
B1 A1
Figure 10.18. Make Night Day :extension of larger groups through rotation.
This method helped me to create a continuously varied sequence of metre
throughout the second section of the Make Night Day. The sequence of bars
is an expression of the master numbers and has a distinctive rhythm which
contributes to the languorous, rolling quality of this part of the composition.
10.6.2 Rhythm within the bars
Composing phrases within the bars was a process which began with the
exploration of rhythms produced by the master numbers. The strong
percussive pulses heard in the tape part were placed according to the
rhythm 7:3 (331232133): each number in the rhythm represents a number of
bars irrespective of the time signature.
·
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
¸
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,
,
-
¸
,
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¸
1
.
˚

Œ . ∑ ∑
.
˚

Œ . ∑ ∑
.
˚

ŠΠ.
.
˚

. ∑
.
˚

Π.
3--------------------------------3------------------------------------1----------------2-----------------------3----------------etc.
Tape
Bar 80
Figure 10.19. Make Night Day :7:3 determines groups of bars and percussive
downbeats.
Figure 10.19 shows the first five elements of the rhythm 7:3 and how each
determines the placement of a downbeat.
Other aspects of the composition, both the sounds in the tape part as well as
the instrumental parts are controlled and co-ordinated by rhythms derived
from the master numbers. For example, the entries of the bass clarinet and
172
the three note motif played by the violin are determined by applying squaring
techniques to the numbers 3 and 4:
(4+3)
2
= (16+12) and (3+4)
2
= (9+12).
I combined the results of these squares as illustrated in Figure 10.20.
(16+12+9+12) and (5+9+12+16+7)
12
Figure 10.20. Make Night Day : two arrangements of the results of squaring.
Two arrangements of the square are shown in Figure 10.20. The first is
simply the results of squaring, while the second is a variation of the first
derived by dividing the number 12 into two portions and redistributing the
results. This type of variation came about through musical not technical
considerations and is a good example of how an apparently rigid procedure
can be applied with flexibility. Figure 10.21, shows how the scheme in Figure
10.20 was realised in the score.
/
/
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,
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,
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,
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,
,
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,
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,
80

Pizz
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. ‰
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3
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Arco
,
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.

,
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Pizz
;
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,

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5

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Arco
,
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.
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Vl
Bcl
In Bflat
16------------------------------12----------------------9-----------------------12-------------------------------
5------9------------------12-----------------------16------------------------------------------7--------------
Figure 10.21. Make Night Day :the results of squaring realised as a score.
It can be seen in Figure 10.21, that the rhythms of the phrases played by the
bass clarinet are freely composed but that the points at which they occur are
controlled by the square rhythm. I treated this scheme with some flexibility,
for example, the end of a phrase may overlap the start of the next entry point
as in the third bar of the bass clarinet part in Figure 10.21.
173
10.7. Rhythm in the finale
The most important consideration in the Finale was how to create tension
between the two soloists. In order to achieve this and suggest the idea of
dualogue, the soloists play almost identical material based on regular semi-
quavers which is 'bounced' between them in the manner of a fierce
exchange.
/
/
¸
¸
¸
¸
135

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Œ ‰

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Vl
Bcl
In B flat
3 1 2 1,1
1,3
2 1,1
2 2.....etc.
Figure 10.22. Make Night Day: cross-fire dualogue in the Finale.
The rhythm of the exchanges between the two instruments and the metrical
structure of the Finale was influenced by the rhythm 8:5,
(5,3,2,5,1,4,4,1,5,2,3,5). The two numbers in this ratio can be found in the
Fibonacci series (1,2,3,5,8,13..) and add a new level of rhythmic complexity
to the finale when combined with the already established master numbers
3,4 and 7. I believe that the tension and excitement of the Finale is partly the
consequence of combining multiple master numbers belonging to different
growth series.
I used the rhythm 8:5 to create a bar group in which to contain the
exchanges between the soloists. The duration of 8:5 is the product of the two
numbers (8×5=40):40 quavers is easily barred as five bars of 4/4 (8/8) and is
marked as 'first exchange' in Figure 10.23.
174
/
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135

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140
,
.

.

.

.

Vl
Bcl
In B flat
8
7
1,11
5
3
5
5
3
5
11
1,7
8
Tape Interlude
First exchange
Figure 10.23. Make Night Day: first exchange and tape interlude in the Finale.
To control the rhythm of the exchanges I modified 8:5, first doubling its
quantities in order to cope with the number of semi-quavers in the bar group
and secondly fusing some adjacent numbers thereby reducing the number
of elements in the rhythm and increasing the length of each instrumental
exchange. The modification was made by trial and error but always
preserving the symmetry of the original. For example,
(5,3,2,5,1,4,4,1,5,2,3,5)→(8,7,1,11,5,3,5/5,3,5,11,1,7,8).
40. 80.
Each number in the modified version represents a quantity of semi-quavers
allotted to a soloist. Usually, but not always, consecutive numbers are
assigned alternately to the soloists as illustrated in Figure 10.23.
The rhythm of the tape interjections is also based on the rhythm 8:5. There
are four tape interludes in all, each is a bar shorter than the one before
which creates a sense of tension through contraction. The entry of sounds in
the tape part is based on the modified 8:5, as the interludes contract so I
modified the rhythm by omitting elements on the basis of trial and error.
175
The following table describes the first three interludes.
First interlude: 4 bars of 4/4. (7,1,11,5,5,11,1,7,8)
56.= 3.5 bars of 4/4
Second interlude: 3 bars of 4/4 (11,7,1,5,5,3,11)
48. = 3 bars of 4/4
Third interlude: 2 bars of 4/4 (11,7,1,5,5,3)
32. =2 bars of 4/4
Figure 10.24. Make Night Day :the proportions of the contracting tape interludes.
10.8 Pitch
The harmonic and melodic material in Make Night Day, is derived from the
octatonic scale.
/
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Octatonic scale on G
#
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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Maj. 3rd / min. 3rd
Melodic form Harmonic form.
Figure 10.25. Make Night Day :the octatonic scale (top stave) rearranged (bottom stave).
The modified arrangement of the scale shown on the lower stave of Figure
10.25, came about through improvisation at the keyboard, and reveals a
sequence of major and minor thirds. The configuration of pitches is
crystalline in its symmetry and when sounded together or in rapid
succession the structure has a bright and intense quality. The scale naturally
falls into sub-groups of three-note cells which have a satisfying melodic
potential. Their contour is circular and self-contained, constructed around the
major and minor third.
The melodic arrangement of the scale has the quality of tonality in greater
measure than the normal closed form of the octatonic scale. This may be
because my arrangement reveals harmonic intervals, such as thirds, and
that the last note of the sequence lies a perfect fifth higher than the first note,
176
thereby suggesting a dominant/tonic relationship. I explored a different type
of tonality during the Finale of Make Night Day. This might be described as a
kind of twelve tone tonality
71
achieved by introducing and repeating eleven
out of the twelve possible notes of the chromatic scale. The twelfth pitch
sounds particularly fresh and significant when it finally arrives and could be
considered the tonal centre or goal of the chromatic scale. Starting at bar
180, of Make Night Day, I gradually interpolated alien (chromatic) notes
between the pitches of the original scale (see Figure 10.7) thereby delaying
the arrival of its final note C, which lies at the heart of the climax at bar 184.
The whole sequence starting at bar 180 is based on scale form A, (see
Figure 10.9) and its chromatic pitches. In Figure 10.26 the bass clarinet is
notated in C, for convenience.
/
/
¸
,
¸
,
180

,
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;
˙ ,
;
˙
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B.Cl.
↓ ↓↓ ↓↓↓
↑ ↑↑ ↑ ↑↑
(12th note)
Figure 10.26. Make Night Day :scale form A, with interpolated chromatic notes indicated
by arrows
As an aid to composition I constructed a chart of all twelve transpositions of
the scale, shown below in Figure 10.27.
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A B C D
E F G H
I J K L
Figure 10.27. Make Night Day : twelve transpositions of the original scale.

71
Not a reference to the book Twelve Tone Tonality by George Perle (Perle 1977).
177
Different transpositions of the scale are used to create the soloist's material.
For example, the violin part of the first 21 bars is based on form F of Figure
10.27, only the F natural in bar 11 is a deviation from the scale.
/ ¸
,
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/ ¸
,
11

,
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;
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Form F.
Vl.
Figure 10.28. Form F, of Figure 10.9, is used to create the violin phrase starting at bar
11.
Between bars 37 and 38 of the violin part the melody is a directly derived
from form D of Figure 10.27.
/ ¸
,
37

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;
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Figure 10.29. Make Night Day :form D (Figure 10.27), is evident in the violin part.
I found that interpolating intervals between the pitches of the original forms
produced satisfying results. At bar 80 the bass clarinet solo is made by
interpolating the interval of a major second between each note of form C.
/
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Form C. Form C with interpolated pitches
178
/ ¸
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,
80
. ‰
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3
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œ
Form C: C# A B# D# G E Bb Gb
Interpolation B G A# C# F# D G# E
œ ,

œ
3
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3
œ
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5
œ
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;
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.
B.Cl.
In Bb
Figure 10.30. Make Night Day :the bass clarinet part based on Form C.
10.9. Conclusions
Make Night Day, represents a rather free exploration of the rhythmic
techniques suggested by Schillinger which have been modified and
combined in a way he never suggests in his writings. The application of a
technique has always been in response to a musical need, shaped and
inspired by the poetic material and musical instincts. This has sometimes
meant embarking on a process of lateral thinking which cannot be described
as rational and yet it has always lead to a sequence of procedures which
have a solid technical base. From this experience I conclude that
Schillinger's ideas are flexible enough to be applied, as it were, creatively.
As the title of his books suggest, Schillinger's work is not so much a theory
but a system designed to be a technical aid to the composer. Schillinger
states that he wishes to help the composer to reach a clear decision,
whatever that may be
72
.
My system does not circumscribe the composer's freedom, but merely
points out the methodological way to arrive at a decision. Any
decision which results in a harmonic relation is fully acceptable. We
are opposed only to vagueness and haphazard
speculation.(Schillinger 1978 Page 1356)
In the light of such a statement and my own experience I would suggest that
a personal interpretation of his methods is in no way inappropriate.

72
As mentioned in my introduction section 1.1.
179
Chapter 11 Trilogy
11.1 Introduction
Trilogy for orchestra was composed in 1995 and has a duration of
approximately 12 minutes. As the title suggests it is in three parts: two outer
sections, which are fast moving and scherzo-like and a middle section which
is slower moving and features a melody with harmonic accompaniment. The
opening section of Trilogy was intended to suggest intense growth and
struggle, a journey leading to the calmer second movement. The idea of a
journey fraught with difficulty is the stuff of myth or fairy tale: fighting one's
way through a dense forest is symbolic of inner struggle
73
. The journey may
lead to a better place, a clearing or place of safety but a haven in the centre
of the forest or the eye of the storm is temporary and must eventually be
abandoned and the struggle continued, the subject of the third section of the
composition. Although the three parts of Trilogy can be explained by this
story, the music is not inspired by metaphor or narrative to the same extent
as some of my other compositions. By the time I came to compose Trilogy I
had absorbed the majority of Schillinger's theories, enabling me to create a
composition in which the poetic background and the intellectual dimension
balanced and complimented one another.
11.2 Section I
11.2.1 Rhythmic structure

73
See J.C. Cooper 1978 page 71.
180
The opening section of Trilogy, evolves from a melodic line the rhythm of
which is strictly based on the following interference pattern
74
:
7:2 = (2,2,2 [37× 1] 2,2,2).
The total length of the rhythm is determined by the square of the larger
number, 7
2
=49.
Figure 11.1 shows the rhythm as it appears in the score (1=.·).
Vcl
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2 2 2 37×1.................
2 2 2----
Bar 1
Figure 11.1. The rhythm 7:2 . as it appears in the score.
Figure 11.1 shows one cycle of the rhythm 7:2 as it appears in bars 1 to 4 of
the score. This rhythmic cycle is the main component building block of the
opening section and its form is very clear: three attacks of quaver duration,
followed by many more attacks of semi-quaver duration culminating in the
return of the three quavers. I chose this rhythm because it evoked the feeling
of a journey: the 37 semi-quavers lend themselves to runs and arpeggios
which suggest the contours of a route, the regularity of the semi-quavers
suggests neutrality and give the 6 quavers special significance as points of
departure and arrival. Besides the characteristic just described, rhythms
based on 7 appeal to me generally as they have an uneven quality due to

74
See Chapter 3 section 3.2.
181
the fact that they do not naturally divide into balanced portions
75
. In addition,
the number 7 is often associated with the folk music of Eastern Europe and
has often appeared in the music of composers whose work I admire such as
Stravinsky, Shostakovitch, Bartok and Janacek.
11.2.2 Counter themes
One potential advantage of using a rhythm such as 7:2 is that its duration is
based on the square of the larger number in the ratio, which means that it
can be used to create rhythmic structures derived from Schillinger's squaring
techniques
76
. This method enables one to create accompanying rhythms or
counter themes by squaring significant rhythmic patterns whose duration
equals the master time signature. Although I used this technique on
numerous occasions throughout the composition of Trilogy, in this case
experimentation lead me to conclude that the original line was best left
uncluttered by accompanying parts. I mention this here because it is an
example of how Schillinger's methods and techniques are at the service of
the music and can simply be discarded if they produce no beneficial result.
My early sketches of the opening section of Trilogy contain several counter
themes and the vestiges of one of these remains in the final score. For
example, the rhythm of the piano part in bars 1 and 2 and bars 13 to 14 is
based on the following square:
(2+2+3)
2
= (4+4+6)+(6+4+4)+(6+9+6)
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Figure 11.2. Trilogy: the piano part shows vestiges of the squaring technique.

75
See chapter 3 section 3.3.1.
76
See Chapter 3 section 3.3.2.
182
In Figure 11.2, the square rhythm is clearly very much in the background and
is obscured by layers of adornment. The first three quavers (bar 1) are
clearly the first three elements of the rhythm 7:2 but are also related to the
squared rhythm because when taken as a group their sum (6) equals its first
element.

(2+2+2) [37×1] (2+2+2)
(6+4+4)+(6+9+6)+(6+4+4)
The next three durations, 4, 4 and 6, shown in Figure 11.2, are most clearly
articulated by the bass notes in the left hand of the piano part. After this the
squared rhythm is abandoned and the original line ( 7:2) dominates the last
part of bar two and the beginning of bar three.
11.2.3 Metre
Rhythms produced by the interference of pulses can be barred most
naturally in meters indicated by the original ratio: the rhythm 7:2 falls into
bars of 7 beats or bars of 2 beats. However, I chose to place the rhythm 7:2
in bars of 6/8 adding another level of rhythmic complexity to the music in
order to further enhance the rolling, dance like quality of the original rhythm
and increase the feeling of travelling motion.
11.2.4 Development of the line
After repeating the rhythm 7:2 several times I began to introduce variation. In
keeping with my theme of growth and change I decided that on succeeding
cycles portions of the rhythm should be silenced and then allowed gradually
to be heard again; the intended effect was for the line to disintegrate or
dematerialise and then reform itself. For example, at bar 13, the line is
fragmented: groups of attacks are controlled by the Fibonacci series
(1,2,3,5,8,13) and each group of attacks is separated by a semi-quaver rest.
183
.
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Vcl
1-2-------3-------5---------------------8--------------------13-------------------------------
.
Bar 13
Figure 11.3. Trilogy: attack groups controlled by the Fibonacci series
At bar 21 for example, a sequence of silences is controlled by a portion of
the Lucas series (11,7,4).
.
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≈ Œ

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Bar 21
11------------------------ 7------------------------------ 4----------
. . .
Figure 11.4. Trilogy: silences controlled by the Lucas series.
11.3. Pitch
The melodic structure of the line is built out of chains of four note cells, the
interval structure of each cell is 4,2,5 (1= semi-tone)
77
(for example, Figure
11.5).

77
Later on in the piece these cells also form vertical harmonic structures. The same
structure appears in Bayo's Way, see chapter 9 section 9.6.2.
184
.
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œ
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œ
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œœ
œ
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œ
4-----2------5
4------2--------5
4-----2------5
Figure 11.5. Trilogy: melodic line evolved from interlocking interval cells.
As can be seen from Figure 11.5 the cells lock together into chains, the last
note of one cell doubling as the first note of the next. The interval structure is
built from the bottom up or from the top down (shown by arrows) in order to
articulate clearly the direction of the line.
The following example shows the arrangement of auxiliary notes within the
cell.
.
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ
œ ¸
œ ¸
œ ¸
Auxilliary note
Figure 11.6. Auxiliary note arrangement in the melodic cell.
The arrangement shown in Figure 11.6 can be seen in the cello part of bar 1
in the score.
11.4. Adornment of the line: orchestration
The orchestration of the first section of Trilogy is based on a single line which
has been adorned mainly by doubling and occasional harmonisations which
have been distributed to different instrumental groups. For example, the
strings play the original material reinforced by octave doubling, the
woodwind provide colour and support for the strings, but their parts are
subtly modified although they follow the same contour and compass as the
original. In order to create doubling of this sort I selected a portion or phrase
of the original line and then calculated the interval range over which the new
185
part would have to travel. For example, in bar 6, the first violin part falls by a
distance of 18 semitones and the doubling was derived by sub-grouping this
interval. For example,
18 = 9+9 = (1+8)+(1+7+1)
flute
violin 1.
/
/
,
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,
¸
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Œ

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Œ

Bar 6 1 8 1 7 1
2 5 4 2 5
11.7. Trilogy: the original line (violin) and its doubling.
This method is derived from a technique described by Schillinger in The
Theory Of Pitch Scales (Schillinger 1978) in which an interval can be made
to generate scales by division into sub-groups. This is essentially the same
technique as that used to create familial rhythms by sub-grouping the master
time signature
78
. Although my method may be less rigorous than the formal
procedure described by Schillinger it allows speed of writing while still
guaranteeing against too much duplication of pitches and consequent
neutrality which might easily occur if no method of control were adopted.
Some local modifications were necessary on occasion as it was not always
desirable that the doubling parts had exactly the same span as the original
which would inevitably have lead to moments in which all parts produced
prominent octaves or unisons.
11.5. Section II
11.5.1 Melody and harmony
The middle section of the Trilogy is intended to be a complete contrast to the
two surrounding scherzo sections and represents a respite from the journey,
a safe haven from the struggle. It is introduced by a tutti climax (bar 48) built

78
See Chapter 2 section 2.2.3. and Chapter 3 section 3.3.1.
186
around the basic pitch cell (see section 11.3) now used as a harmonic
structure.
/
.
.
.
.
Figure 11.8. Trilogy: the basic pitch cell used as a harmonic structure.
In this composition harmony represents security and common action; I think
of harmony as being like a bed of soil in which plants (melodies) grow. The
climax starting at bar 48 is the first harmonic moment of the composition and
represents a discharge of tension accumulated over the first 48 bars of linear
music. From bar 53 onwards the harmonic and melodic system comes into
its own. In the middle section of Trilogy melody exists both in the bass and
the soprano registers, surrounding a central harmonic 'filling'.
The basses and celli play a pizzicato line formed from a pitch sequence
derived from the basic cell.
.
. ,
.
.
. ¸
. ,
. ¸
.
.
.
. ,
.
. ,
. ,
. ,
. ,
. ¸
Figure 11.9. Trilogy: the original pitch sequence derived from the basic cell.
The line shown in Figure 11.9, is gradually elaborated by splitting the
intervals between adjacent pitches. This process was inspired by
Schillinger's method of generating scales (described in section 11.4 above).
Figure 11.10, shows how the process occurs: the first interval (F to E) is 11
semi-tones and is split into two smaller intervals (3+8) as illustrated by the
crotchet note head between the two principle notes; the second interval (E to
B) is 5 semi-tones and also divides into two (4+1). This splitting process
happens altogether five times, each time producing a longer cycle of
pitches
79
.

79
I chose not to split some smaller intervals and of course it is not possible to split a
semitone in this way.
187
.
.
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.
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. ¸
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.
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.
.
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.
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3+8
11
Figure 11.10. Trilogy: the elaboration of the original line shown in Figure 11.9.
The central harmonic 'filling', is a progression played as block harmonies by
the upper strings that supports melodic writing in the wind. Like the bass line
it is derived from intervals occurring in the original pitch sequence (Figure
11.9), but it is important to note that the two layers (bass line and harmony)
are independent. They may originate from the same pool of pitches but the
bass line does not provide the root tones for the harmonic progression. To
create the harmonic progression I first developed four chords based on the
original harmonic cell.
The interval structures for these chords are as follows:
2 3 4 5
5 5 or 5 2
6 6 6 4
/
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2
5
6
3
5
6
4
5
6
5
2
4
or
, , ,
Figure 11.11: Trilogy: harmonic structures in section 2.
The two central structures surrounded by the box are used alternately as the
four chords are repeated. The roots on which the chords are built form a
188
complete circle of fifths and therefore produce a progression of 12 chords.
Rather than just repeating the sequence of chords shown in Figure 11.11, I
decided to create a more sophisticated harmonic progression by applying a
technique described by Schillinger in The Variation Of Music By Means Of
Geometrical Projection (Schillinger 1978)
80
which involves mixing chords
from the original progression its retrograde and inversion. In Figure 11.12,
the original progression is shown on the top stave and the inversion (around
the root) of each chord on a stave below. Single horizontal arrows above the
stave designate the original progression and its retrograde while double
horizontal arrows below the stave indicate the inversion and retrograde
inversion.
/
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.
.
.
.
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A
D
B
C
5A------------------------------
3D---------------
4A------------------------
1C
Original
Inversion
NB. Accidentals are independent for each chord and do not influence the bar as a whole.
/
.
.
.
.
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,
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5A------------------------------------ --- 3D---------------------- 4A------------------------------- 1C
Figure 11.12: Trilogy: original (top stave), its inversion (second stave) and the result
below.
Schillinger suggests that a chord progression made by mixing portions of its
four possible forms (original, inversion, retrograde and retrograde inversion)
has the quality of continuously fluctuating tension. This is because a chord
undergoing inversion exhibits a change in quality: if originally major it
becomes minor and vice versa. The chords in Figure 11.12, do not belong to
a traditional major/minor system but nevertheless undergo an equivalent
change of quality when inverted. The complete procedure involves tracing a
path, as it were, backwards and forwards through the original progression
and its inversion as shown by lines and arrows in Figure 11.12. The exact

80
See also Chapter 2 section 2.4.
189
route and choice of direction is a matter for speculation and experimentation.
Schillinger refers to the different variations as follows
81
:
the original is direction A (→),
the retrograde of the original, direction B (←),
the inversion of the original, direction D (⇒),
the retrograde of the inversion , direction C (⇐).
A number of chords from each variation are chosen and placed in a
sequence. The exact number can be described as a scheme such as
5A,3D,4A,1C which is marked Figure 11.12 above
82
.
11.5.2. Rhythm
The rhythmic structure of the middle section of Trilogy is an example of how
a score may be co-ordinated through squaring techniques.
83
From bar 53
onwards the various parts of the score are all products of the master time
signature 7. The sub-groups, squares of sub-groups, and rhythms of pulse
interference
84
, all combine to form an extended and rhythmically harmonious
structure. The square of the master time signature determines the length of
the basic structural unit. Typically this is realised in quavers:
7 bars of
7
8
= 49×e
The different parts in the score based on the master time signature and its
square are described below.
1. The timpani part is based on the resultant rhythm of 7:3 which has been
modified by combining adjacent numbers.
7:3 = (3,3,1,2,1,2,[25×1] 2,1,2,1,3,3)→(3,3,3,3,3,2,2,3,3,2,3,2,2,3,3,3,3,3)

81
The letters A,B,C,D appear in this order because they represent the four quadrants of
the graph. D is the inversion of A and C is the inversion of B.
A B
D C
82
Schillinger suggests using rhythms made by the interference of pulses as the
coefficients of recurrence for the directions A,B,C and D.
83
See Chapter 3 section 3.3.2.
84
See Chapter 3 section 3.3.2.
190
This modification was made in order to produce a more regular and stable
rhythm suitable for the timpani. The choice of rhythm was influenced by the
strong presence of the pulse 3, which produces a dance-like quality (Figure
11.13).
.
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53
3
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3
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3
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3
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3
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2
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2
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2
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2
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3
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.
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3
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3
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.
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3
œ
3
œ
.
œ Timps
Figure 11.13. Trilogy: the timpani part based on 7:3
Each succeeding cycle of the timpani rhythm is derived by rotation of the
pattern above.
2. The cello and bass parts are based on the rhythm 7:6
= (6,1,5,1,1,4,1,2,3,1,3,2,1,4,1,1,5,1,6) (Figure 11.14).
.
,
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53
6
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6
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Figure 11.14. Trilogy: the bass and celli parts based on the rhythm 7:6
It can be seen from Figure 11.14 that the numbers determine only the
duration between attack points and not necessarily the duration of the
sound. I chose the rhythm 7:6 because it had a good deal of contrast
between adjacent numbers and created a quality of lightness, animation and
surprise.
3. The rhythm played by the gongs was determined by squaring a sub-group
of the master time signature.
7→(4+3)→
(4+3)
2
= (16+12)+(12+9) (Figure 11.15).
·
,
¸
53
,
L.V
,
œ Œ Œ

∑ Œ

‰ œ ∑ Œ

‰ œ ∑ Œ

‰ œ ∑ ‰ œ Œ

16---------------------------------12-------------------------12-------------------------9---------------------
Gong
Figure 11.15. Trilogy: the gong plays a rhythm derived from squaring.
191
4. The tambourine, claves and piano take over from the gongs at bar 77 and
are based on the rhythm 7:4 = (4,3,1,3,1,2,1,1,2 [13×1] 2,1,1,2,1,3,13,4). The
three instruments share this rhythm which is distributed between them
85
.
Tamb. 4 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 4
Clave 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1
Piano 13×1
Figure 11.16. Trilogy: the distribution of the rhythm 7:4 between three instruments.
The arrangement in Figure 11.16, is realised in music notation in Figure
11.17 below. There is one tambourine attack at the very centre of the rhythm
(fifth bar) which is not shown on the diagram above, it should be thought of
as simply duplicating one of the piano attacks.
·
·
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.
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,
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,
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Tambourine
Claves
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Bar 77
Doubling of piano
4-------------3-----------1--3------------1--2-------1-----1---2--------------------
13×1−−−−−−
−−−−
(13×1)−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−
2----------1---1-----2--------1---3-----------------1---4----------------
Tamb.
Clave
Pnf.
Figure 11.17. Trilogy: Figure 11.16 realised as a score.
5. I wanted to create a contrapuntal rhythmic relationship between the
melody and harmony in which both were independent and yet perfectly co-
ordinated. This was achieved using a technique described by Schillinger in
The Correlation Of Melody And Harmony (Schillinger 1978)
86
in which two
rhythms (e.g. 3:2 or 4:3)) are used to determine the following:

85
See Chapter 2 section 2.2.2.
86
See Chapter 2 section 2.7.
192
a) the number of melody notes per harmony,
b) The duration of melody notes and harmonies.
It was important that the rhythm of the melody and harmonic accompaniment
be co-ordinated, not just with each other but also with all the parts of the
score and, as before, this was achieved by using rhythms derived from the
master time signature. The durations for each phrase of melody were
determined by squaring sub-groups of the master time signature. This
produced rhythms which spanned the basic rhythmic structure: 7 bars of
7
8
.
The following rhythm (Figure 11.18) is an example of just one melodic
phrase.
(3+1+2+1)
2
=(9+3+6+3)+(3+1+2+1)+(6+2+4+2)+(3+1+2+1)=49
Figure 11.18. Trilogy: squaring a sub-group of the master time signature.
The choice of the sub-group is, of course, crucial to the character of the
squared rhythm and this part of the process was a matter of trial and error.
For example, I decided that the retrograde version of this rhythm was more
suitable as it begins with relatively short durations and progresses to longer
durations. This causes the melodic phrase to slow down towards its
resolution and could be said to be in keeping with the theme of respite and
rest (Figure 11.19).
(3+1+2+1)+(6+2+4+2)+(3+1+2+1)+(9+3+6+3)
Figure 11.19. Trilogy: the durations of a melodic phrase in retrograde.
The durations of the melodic phrases were themselves grouped by applying
a second rhythm, for example, Figure 11.20.
4:3 = (3,1,2,1,1,1,1,2,1,3).
Figure 11.20. Trilogy: the rhythm determining attack groups.
The choice of the second rhythm was influenced by two factors: the flow of
melody notes and harmonic changes and the need to ensure that all
elements of the first rhythm were included in the process of grouping. This
last requirement meant that the number of elements in the first rhythm
(melodic durations) had to equal the total duration of the second rhythm
(attack groups). In Figure 11.19, the number of elements in the rhythm of
193
melodic durations is 16 and the total duration of the rhythm controlling
grouping ( 4:3) is also 16 (see Figure 11.20). When combined, the groups of
melody notes determine the duration of each harmony.
Attack group 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3
Melodic
durations
3,1,2 1 6,2 4 2 3 1 2,1 9 3,6,3
Chord durations 6 1 8 4 2 3 1 3 9 12
Figure 11.21. Trilogy: melodic duration and attack groups determine chord duration.
In Figure 11.21, the first attack group contains three durations (3+1+2) the
total duration of which determines the duration of the accompanying chord:
6. The second attack group contains one duration (1) which is accompanied
by a harmony of the same duration. The third attack group contains two
attacks (6+2) accompanied by a harmony equal to their total duration, 8. The
extract shown in Figure 11.22, shows how the above scheme was realised in
the score
87

87
During the fifth beat of the second bar in figure 11.22, the string accompaniment plays
rapid semi-quaver runs, this is simply the product of ornamentation and is independent of
the process being described.
194
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Bar 85
(3,1,2)---------------------------------(1)-(6,2)---------------------------------(4)-----------------------(2)--------
-----------(3)-----------------(1)----(2,1)-----------(9)-------------------------(3,6,3)-------------------------------
[6]
[1]
[8]
[4] [2]
[3] [1] [3] [9] [12]
Figure 11.22. Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11.21.
11.6 Section III
11.6.1 Introduction
The last section of Trilogy is a return to the world of the opening but with
modification and development to create a highly energetic conclusion to the
piece as a whole. The return to the metaphorical journey is initially
suggested by the pulsating tutti chord first heard at the climax of the opening
section (compare bars 48 to 51 with bars 134 and 135). Following this the
lower strings take up running semi-quaver motion suggestive of the opening
195
material which is a short transition (bars 136 to 143) leading to a prolonged
scherzo-like passage in which the linear material is developed and explored
eventually creating such an accumulation of energy that it collapses in on
itself. Bars 182 to 190 represent the beginnings of the this implosion which
leads to a moment of suspension (bar 191) and ultimately an explosive
release of energy in the finale (bars 196 ff.).
11.6.2 Rhythm
The development of the material in section three is primarily a matter of
rhythmic evolution and as with the opening section the master time signature
7 is of primary importance. Almost the whole of the third section (until the
very end) is made up of continuous semi-quaver motion. My intention was to
create increasing tension by imposing evolving patterns of accents on the
semi-quaver motion. These patterns are derived from sub-groups of the
master time signature:
7 ⇒ (1+6) ⇒ (1+5+1) ⇒ (1+1+3+1+1)
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Bar 136
Bar 144
(see also the strings at bar 159 in score)
(see also piano bar 178)
Figure 11.23. Trilogy: patterns of accents based on the master time signature.
Where in a pattern of accents single units (1) occur they are marked out for
special emphasis not only by articulation and dynamic marking but also by
octave placement and (in the final scoring) through orchestration and
doubling. The method by which the above patterns were arranged was
inspired by a Schillinger technique which he refers to as progressive
196
symmetry
88
. This technique allows a gradual change of emphasis from one
element of a pattern to another.
For example, four elements A B C D can be arranged as follows:
A (A B) (A B C D) (C D) D
In this arrangement element A is at first dominant but by the end of the
sequence its position has been taken by element D. I decided to use this
scheme in order to determine the appearance of the patterns of accents and
thereby control the progression of musical tension. Each of the different
accent patterns in the Figure 11.23, were labelled A B C D and treated as
elements in the progressive symmetry. As a consequence the music
gradually changed from regular phrasing groups of seven semi-quavers (7)
to the relatively more tense phrase groups (1,1,3,1,1,).
Each accent pattern contains 7 semi-quavers and is repeated seven times
whenever it occurs in the progressive symmetry:
(7A,(7A,7B),(7A,7B,7C,7D)(7C,7D),7D)
This is in keeping with the principle of squaring and allows for the
combination of other independent lines or counter themes. An example of
this can be seen at bar 136 of the score where the groups of seven semi-
quavers in the lower strings (pattern A) are combined with a flute solo. The
flute solo, which fits perfectly with seven repetitions of pattern A, was created
by squaring the sub-groups of the master time signature:
(3+3+1)⇒(9+9+3)(9+9+3)(3+3+1).

88
See Chapter 2 section 2.12.3 and also Chapter 5 section 5.7.3.
197
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Figure 11.24. Trilogy: pattern A and its counter theme produced by squaring.
11.6.3 Metre
The interference between the 6/8 metre and rhythms derived from the master
time signature (7) was a constant feature of the first section of Trilogy and
occurs again during the last section of the composition as can be seen in
Figure 11.24. However, as the rhythms of section three evolve they become
too complex to be notated easily in bars of 6/8 and more importantly the
process of rhythmic evolution overwhelms any audible influence that the 6/8
metre might exert. For these reasons I decided that from bar 154 to 181 the
metre would be determined by accent, such as the patterns in Figure 11.23,
or the weight of orchestration.
11.6.4 Rhythm and orc hestration
Between bars 136 and 182, tension increases as ever more complex
patterns of accents are imposed on the continuous semi-quaver line. At bar
182, I felt that a new tension-making device was needed in order to continue
the drive towards a final climax. I decided that the orchestra itself might
provide the effect I was searching for: to overwhelm the ear through sudden
changes in textural density and variation of timbre. Schillinger described a
method for the control of these qualities in his General Theory Of Harmony
(Schillinger 1978)
89
. He identified two kinds of textural density: the density of
timbre, a matter of instrumentation, and the density of texture which concerns
changes in the harmonic or melodic texture of the music. Both of these

89
See Chapter 2 section 2.10.1.
198
qualities can be controlled by rhythmic techniques such as those described
in Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978). I decided to explore the
former quality (instrumental density) as the texture of the music at this point
in the composition was completely dominated by linear semi-quaver motion.
I divided the orchestra into several groups shown in the table below (Figure
11.25).
Low strings: bass, cello, viola + contra bassoon and piano.
High strings: violins I and II
Low Brass: trombones and tuba
High brass: trumpets.
Wood-wind I: flutes, clarinets and horns.
Wood-wind II: oboes and bassoons.
Figure 11.25. Trilogy: scheme of instrumentation for bar 182 ff.
Occasionally other combinations occur due to local considerations of tone
colour but essentially the orchestra is divided along family lines. The
percussion other than the piano plays an independent role helping to
provide pulse and so is not included in this scheme.
The different orchestral groups shown in Figure 11.25, were treated as
places of attack
90
(that is, treated as a single part), and a sequence of attack
groups (a group of durations applied to a part) was derived by sub-grouping
the master time signature (7). In this case numbers representing attack
groups (such as 4,3) define the quantity of semi-quaver attacks played by an
instrumental group before the next group enters. The attack group does not
specify when an instrumental group stops playing, only when the next group
starts and therefore, the overlapping of instrumental groups often occurs
intentionally. Figure 11.26, shows part of my sketch for the attack groups,
arrows indicate that a group continues to play.
Instrumental
groups
Attack groups
High Strings 1 → → 2 →
Wind+Horns 3 → → 2 → →
Low Strings 4 → → → → → →
High Brass
Low Brass 2→ → → 2
Figure 11.26. Trilogy: a scheme showing attack groups and instrumental groups.

90
See Chapter 2 section 2.2.2.
199
In Figure 11.26, the attack groups are applied to the instrumental groups in a
vertical direction with rotation: when the highest instrumental group has
entered, the process begins again starting with the lowest instrumental
group. For example, following High Strings is the entry of Low Brass. In order
to introduce more variation to the scheme I introduced a rule that after every
four movements through adjacent places a new starting place was chosen
freely. Figure 11.26, corresponds to bar 182 of the score which is shown
below reduced to its main constituents in order to better reveal the pattern of
orchestration.
Hrn.III&IV
Tbn III/Tuba
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Figure 11.27. Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11.26.
11.7. Rhythm in the finale
The Finale beginning at bar 196 is a release of all the previously
accumulated tension. This is achieved in two ways: firstly by the
abandonment of the rigid semi-quaver motion in favour of flowing melodic
phrases which expand and contract rhythmically suggesting a wave-like
motion and secondly by switching to a new master time signature (8) which
possesses a quality of greater stability and regularity in contrast to the
200
previous master time signature 7. This change at the very end of the
composition represents an evolution or transcendence from struggle to
certainty.
The technique for creating wave-like phrases originates in Schillinger's
Theory Of Rhythm
91
in which he explores the possibility of combining the
two alternative but related rhythms produced by pulse interference
92
.
The two rhythms can be combined in sequence but as they are not equal in
length they form a pair which tends towards expansion or contraction. For
example, the rhythms produced by 4:3 (3,1,2,2,1,3) and 4;3
(3,1,2,1,1,1,1,2,1,3) combine to form two types of phrase:
Expanding: (3,1,2,2,1,3)+(3,1,2,1,1,1,1,2,1,3)
Contracting: (3,1,2,1,1,1,1,2,1,3)+(3,1,2,2,1,3)
The melodic phrases in the finale of Trilogy were developed with this
technique in mind but do not make use of interference rhythms as Schillinger
suggests. Instead each phrase is made up of three rhythms which are
related by the identity of their numbers 1,3 and 5 and which have a total
duration equal to the square of the master time signature:
8
2
=64×..
Each of the three phrases is symmetrical around its centre and each is
longer than the previous one due to the insertion of single units around the
axis of symmetry.
(5,3,1,1,3,5)⇒(5,3,1,1,1,3,5)⇒(5,3,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,3,5)
A slight modification, an un-balancing of the regularity of the scheme,
produced the variation which can be seen in the score example below.

91
See Schillinger 1978 page 21. See chapter 3 section 3.2.
92
That is, different rhythms produced by the same ratio.
201
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Boxed numbers have been modified from the original scheme.
.
5------------3------------1,1--3---------4-------------4-------3-----------1----1----1------3------5
----5------------3---------1-----1----1-----1--------1---1----1----1-1---1---3--------------7
Figure 11.28. Trilogy: expanding and contracting melodic phrases of the finale.
Each of the three rhythmic sequences maintains the essence of the previous
one (5,3) but also includes new material (1,1,1,...). The growing number of
single units creates a sense of increasing neutrality as one unit cannot be
rhythmically distinguished from the next. This process of increasing neutrality
represents the dissipation of energy, the 'wave fronts', as it were, gradually
spread out and die away.
In order to create the excitement in keeping with the metaphor of the rushing
'wave', I decorated the line as shown in Figure 11.29. The most obvious
example of decoration can be seen in the upper string parts from bars 196
onwards. These highly ornamented parts are derived from the technique of
sub-grouping the intervals of the original line to create runs or passing notes
between the primary pitches.
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Figure 11.29. The melodic phrase (top stave) and its ornamented version below.
11.8 Conclusions
202
In Trilogy I have combined both aspects of the compositional mind: the
spontaneous imaginative and the deliberate intellectual. As the last
composition to be composed for this thesis and the third to be composed
using techniques derived from Schillinger's work it is the most ambitious in
scale but the most economical in technique. The usual sources of inspiration
influence this work but the poetic background, so overtly present in earlier
compositions, has been absorbed and digested making it possible to draw
on the world of symbol, narrative and metaphor without explicitly describing
them first. Trilogy is also more refined in terms of its technical organisation. In
earlier compositions, such as Make Night Day, I explored abundant technical
possibilities within a single section of music. Trilogy by contrast, makes use
of relatively few technical devices: its form is a simple ABA and most of the
music evolves from a single line; squaring techniques, of which I am so fond,
are sparingly used. This economy of means is, I believe, not a reaction
against Schillinger's ideas but an instinctive realisation that a body of such
range and power as the orchestra requires a musical structure of appropriate
definition and clarity.
203
Chapter 12 Conclusions
This thesis charts the course of my development as a composer between the
years 1990 and 1995. It is a record of a period in which I began to
investigate fundamental processes in composition and to develop my
musical language. The discussions of my compositions and their origins
which form the majority of the chapters of this thesis have contributed to the
process of defining myself as an artist. There are influences on my musical
imagination which have become more clear as I have written this text. These
are ideas that inspired the aesthetic and poetic background of my
composition and belong to the realm of the imagination: but this is a very
general description and as a conclusion to this thesis I feel it would be
appropriate to discuss these influences in more detail.
Nature is a theme which underlies several compositions presented in this
thesis. Moon Shaman, Make Night Day and Riddle, all include references to
the natural world represented by sounds on the tape which mimic wind,
water, breath or animal cries; in the case of Riddle, the storm is the subject of
the composition. Rêve de l'Orb, is a composition inspired by the river and the
life which surrounds it.
This last composition suggests another theme central to much of my work,
that of dream states, magic and meditation. This in some ways is in contrast
to the theme of nature which concerns the outer world as opposed to an
inward journey; but ultimately the two ideas are connected and not separate
at all.
204
In all their delvings into the nature of reality, Western thinkers, until
recently, dismissed dreams as the last place to look....The great
analogy for which the Upanishads are renowned is that of the waker-
dreamer- deep sleeper. This beginningless, endless Universe is the
dream of Brahman. We are the dreaming Figures in that world which
is constantly in the process of being dreamt up. (Brown 1988 page
xxiii)
In strictly musical terms there are certain features which seem to recur in
almost every work. It will be apparent that I am fascinated with bass
instruments. Possibly their power and depth attracts me, perhaps I am
naturally inclined to favour instruments that are traditionally not given
prominent solo roles. This may be a legacy of my own days as a bassoonist.
There is also the recurrent appearance of passages based on regular semi-
quaver motion. This type of texture expresses something of the obsessive
and energetic nature of contemporary life, as do musical forms such as jazz
and funk of which I am extremely fond. In my electroacoustic composition I
have developed a particular group of sounds which have particular meaning
and which I use in several compositions. For example, Moon Shaman and
Riddle, have many sounds in common.
Various musical styles and particular composers have influenced my work.
These are so numerous that a list would be inappropriate here. It is more
useful to list certain types of music such as early 20th Century French music,
in particular that of Ravel and Debussy, which I value for its lyricism and
colour. Music with a strong rhythmic character has always been important to
me, this includes jazz of all kinds, early 20th Century Russian music, such as
that composed by Prokofiev and Stravinsky, American composers such as
Ives and Carter, the music of Bela Bartok and the British composer Harrison
Birtwistle. However, early on in my studies I became unhappy with the idea
of modelling my work on that of another composer. It seemed to me to be
more important to understand what it was in general that attracted me to a
style of music or to a particular composer's work. The type of information
Nature within and without, dreams and natural forms are the source of the
symbolism and metaphor which inspires much painting, poetry and of course
music. As a musician I naturally look to other art forms to see how they reveal
and express the issues concerning man, life and the universe. For this
reason my compositions have a poetic (Riddle, Make Night Day), narrative
(Moon Shaman, Trilogy), theatrical (Bayo's Way) or visual element (Vision
and Prayer).
205
produced by the analysis of music is on the whole not the type of knowledge
required for composing; analysis is rather a means for interpreting and
discussing a work of art. Revealing some of the techniques involved in a
particular composition does not necessarily lead to the discovery of one's
own compositional methods. This is, I think, well illustrated by the work of
Harrison Birthwistle whose music is rhythmically complex and fascinating.
However, Birtwistle is not known for his willingness to discuss the systems at
work in his music and so far I do not believe that any analysis of his work has
revealed how he actually composes.
I started composing by capturing and examining improvisations believing
that my spontaneous imagination would reveal a structural scheme. A major
shift in my approach was triggered by my acquaintance with the work of
Joseph Schillinger whose ideas provided me with some most useful
structural models. The work of Joseph Schillinger has significance in this
area because it is not derived primarily from the analysis of music: indeed it
is at its weakest when discussing the work of other composers. Instead it is
designed as a series of tools, techniques, one might even say recipes, for
the building of musical structures which can be modified or adorned to the
composer's personal taste. Its general principles are based on concepts
derived from the study of natural forms and pattern making and not a
particular style or school of music. This makes it infinitely adaptable and non-
dogmatic. And yet by itself it is not enough to compose music. Through
teaching the system to a wide variety of students of all ages and abilities I
have come to the conclusion that the student fails to compose with the
techniques offered by Schillinger only when he or she has no idea or source
of inspiration. When there is nothing to express, no reason for writing music,
composition is simply a technical matter, an intellectual exercise from which
little satisfaction is derived. In chapter three in hisPoetics of Music,
Stravinsky, identifies the creative need.
The very act of putting my work on paper, of, as we say, kneading the
dough, is for me inseparable from the pleasure of creation. So far as I
am concerned, I cannot separate the spiritual effort from the
psychological and physical effort; they confront me on the same level
and do not represent a hierarchy. (Stravinsky 1947).
The combination of aesthetic intention and technical procedure into a single
process seems to me to be the central problem faced by the composer. The
206
painter Cecil Collins beautifully described this as "the eye of the heart"
(Anderson 1988 page 109)

where the eye represents our intellect and the
heart our soul and imagination. During the course of composing the works
presented in this thesis I believe that I have achieved a balance between
these two states and that my work has become more focused as a result. For
example in the final work, Trilogy, there is notably less tension between the
spontaneous imaginative and the deliberate intellectual in the process of
composition. The basic aim of my research was to unite these two sources of
creativity, and in doing this I have defined my artistic process.
Finding a group of techniques which will effectively realise the imaginative
idea is a matter of careful consideration for each individual case but once the
correct approach is found, the use of Schillingerian techniques will most
likely have certain desirable consequences. The most important of these is
not symmetry or even efficiency but relatedness of structure. Schillinger's
rhythmic techniques generally produce results which although varied,
originate from a common source. The proportions of the source material are
evident at every level and in this sense the structure might be described as
hierarchical. Hierarchical structures are very powerful, often stable and
contribute to the clarity of the intention. As a consequence of my use of
Schillinger's techniques it has been necessary to describe his work in some
detail and I have attempted to interpret and explain his ideas. I believe I have
shown that Schillinger's work is of great value to the composer despite being
obscured by layers of eccentricity of pseudo-science. It is my intention in the
future to produce a thorough interpretation of his theories which can be
understood and used by even relatively young musicians. I believe that
Schillinger should be seen as part of a long and honourable tradition starting
with Pythagoras and including Plato, Boethius and Zarlino. These writers
were natural philosophers who adopted what they believed to be a scientific
attitude to music and all discuss music in terms of harmonic proportion and
number (James 1993). Schillinger believed that music was a response to the
world and the laws which govern its behaviour. To this end his ideas
concerning the nature of music come not just from his musicianship but from
his knowledge of subjects such as physics, biology and psychology. It does
not matter greatly that Schillinger was less knowledgeable in these areas
than he thought. Rather, he was able to make a connection between basic
principles of these subjects and the construction of musical forms. This is
what makes Schillinger's work different from most other theories of music
(which may recognise natural phenomena such as the harmonic series) but
207
which are essentially derived from the author's knowledge of the repertoire
and history of music. Schillinger's work is both unusual and attractive
because it attempts to discuss all areas of music and embrace all styles.
From my own point of view as a composer and a teacher this is most
welcome as much writing about the craft of composition fails to tackle with
enough rigour the precise nature of the process or does so only in a limited
way. Schillinger is different in that his work is more like a cook book from
which I was able to compose successfully. At first this was a somewhat
formal affair but I am now sufficiently fluent in the systems I use that the
process in no way inhibits my aural imagination. The process is self-
perpetuating: imagination provokes the structural mind which in turn fuels
the imagination. My musical development will no doubt continue and cannot
be predicted. However, the use of Schillinger's ideas in compositions which
have had successful public performances and the enthusiasm of my
students, suggests that Schillinger's work deserves to rise from the relative
oblivion to which it has been consigned.
208
Bibliography
Anderson. W. (1988) Cecil Collins: the quest for the great happiness.
(London: Barrie and Jenkins).
Backus. J (1961). Re: pseudo science in music. Journal Of Music Theory
55:220-232.
Brown. K. (1988) The essential teachings of Hinduism. (London: Rider)
Colin . C. (1976). Encyclopedia of rhythm.(New York: Da Capo Press)
Cooper J.C. (1988). The meaning of symbols.
(New York: Doubleday)
Crossley-Holland. K. (1979). The Exeter Book Riddles. (Penguin).
Duke. V. (1947). Gershwin, Schillinger and Dukelsky.
Musical Quarterly 75:119-24
Hazell. A. (1995). The first fifty years.
(New York: Berklee press publications).
Forte. A. (1973) .The Structure of Atonal Music. (New York: New Haven).
James. J. (1993)
The Music of the Spheres. Music,Science and the natural
order of the universe. (Little, Brown and company)
Perle. G. (1977) Twelve tone tonality. (University of California Press).
Schiff. D. (1985). The Music of Elliot Carter. (New York: Da Capo Press)
Schillinger. J. (1948). The Mathematical Basis Of The Arts.
(New York: Philosophical Library)
Schillinger. J. (1978). The Schillinger system of musical composition.
(New York: Da Capo Press)
Schillinger. F. (1976). Joseph Schillinger. A memoir.
(New York: Da Capo Press)
Stravinsky. I. (1947). The poetics of music in the form of six lessons
(Harvard University Press)
Tomalin. C. (1980) Shelley and his world. (Penguin).
Thomas. D. (1952) Collected poems 1934-1952 (London:Dent).
D'Arcy Thompson, in particular Growth and Form.
209
Appendix I: details of accompanying recording
PG Time Performances Duration Personnel Recording
1
0'12" Moon Shaman 10'36" Bass clarinet: Tim
Lines
City University 10/96
2
11'.00
"
Riddle 5'.00" Voice: Loré Lixenberg City University 10/96
3
16'12" Bayo's Way 12'48" Tuba: Oren Marshal
Band: London Brass
Qeen Elizabeth Hall
3/94
4
29'08" Make Night Day 13'08" Bass clarinet:Tim
Lines
Violin: Anne Wood
City University 10/96
PG Time Tape accompaniment Duration
5
43'31" Moon Shaman 9'25"
6
53'17" Riddle 5'00"
7
58'27" Make Night Day 14'10"

Tables and illustrations Acknowledgements Abstract Introduction Chapter1 Joseph Schillinger 1.1 Introduction Chapter 2 Summary of the Schillinger system 2.1 Overview 2.2 Book I: The Theory Of Rhythm 2.2.1 Pulse interference 2.2.2 Instrumental Forms 2.2.3 The determinant or master time signature 2.2.4 Rotation and re-ordering 2.2.5 Growth series 2.3 Book II: The Theory Of Pitch Scales 2.3.1 System of s election 2.3.2 Application of rhythmic techniques to scales 2.3.3 The primary axis and modal modulation 2.3.4 Scales constructed on symmetrically spaced 'tonics' 2.3.5 Scale expansion and the harmonic potential of scales 2.4 Book III: Variation Of Music By Means Of Geometrical Projection 2.5 Book IV:The Theory Of Melody 2.6 Book V: Special Theory Of Harmony 2.7 Book VI:The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody 2.8 Book VII:Theory Of Counterpoint 2.9 Book VIII:Instrumental Forms 2.9.1 Arpeggiation 2.9.2 Harmonic strata 2.10 Book IX:The General Theory Of Harmony 2.10.1 Strata harmony 2.10.2 Harmonic density. 2.11 Book X:Evolution Of Pitch-Families (Style) 2.12 Book XI:Theory Of Composition 2.12.1 General approach 2.12.2 Part I:Composition of Thematic Units. 2.12.3 Part II:Composition of Thematic Continuity 2.12.4 Part III:Semantic (Connotative) Composition 2.13. Book XII:Theory Of Orchestration 2.14.Conclusion Chapter 3 Seminal Techniques 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Rhythms Produced By Pulse Interference. 3.3 The master time signature 3.3.1 Sub-grouping the master time signature 3.3.2 Squaring the sub-groups 3.3.3 Realising the results as a score 3.3.4 Incorporating the original sub-group 3.3.5 Incorporating rhythms produced by 'fractioning' 3.4 Jazz and funk rhythm 3.4.1 Introduction 3.4.2. Conclusions 3.5 Organic forms 3.5.1 Rhythms Of Variable Velocity 3.5.2 Organic forms in melody

6 11 12 13 15 15 21 21 21 21 23 25 26 27 28 28 28 30 31 31 33 35 36 37 38 39 39 40 41 41 44 45 46 46 47 47 49 52 52 54 54 54 56 56 58 59 60 61 63 63 67 68 68 70

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3.6 Book VI:The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody 3.6.1 Introduction 3.6.2 Sub-grouping the master time signature 3.6.3 Rhythms produced by pulse interference and attack groups 3.6.4 Attack groups and squaring techniques 3.6.5 The rhythmic co-ordination of melody and harmony 3.7 Conclusions Chapter 4 Compositions by the author 4.1 Introduction 4.2. Acoustic and electroacoustic Chapter 5 Moon Shaman 5.1 Background 5.2 The bass clarinet 5.3 Narrative and metaphor 5.4 Form 5.4.1 Part I : (bars 1-115) 5.4.2 Part II: (bars 160-180) 5.4.3 Part III: (bars 181-254) 5.5 The tape 5.5.1 The relationship between the tape and soloist 5.5.2 Sounds of recognisable origin 5.5.3 Contextual sounds 5.5.4 Bass clarinet sounds 5.6 Revision of the score 5.6.1 Introduction 5.6.2 Pulse analysis 5.7 Approach to re-composition 5.7.1 Introduction 5.7.2 Re-barring 5.7.3 Re-composing pitch 5.8. Conclusions Chapter 6 Riddle 6.1 Background 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Collaboration 6.2. Form 6.3. Word Painting 6.4. Pitch 6.4.1 Pitch clusters 6.4.2 Interval Cells 6.5. The tape 6.6. Conclusions Chapter 7 Vision and Prayer 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Literary source 7.3 Poetic form and background music structure 7.4 Local forms 7.5 Bars 1-92: meditation and procession 7.6 Bars 90 to 113: transition 7.7 Bars 114-122: first climax 7.8 The application of Schillingerian concepts 7.8.1 Introduction 7.8.2 The wave form 7.8.3 Pitch axes 7.9. Conclusions Chapter 8 Rêve de l'Orb 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Libellule

71 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 77 78 80 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 84 85 88 88 88 89 92 93 93 93 93 95 96 98 98 100 101 102 104 104 104 105 107 108 111 113 115 115 115 116 117 118 118 118

3

8.2.1 Musical tapestry 8.2.2 Time and rhythm 8.2.3 Pitch relationships 8.2.4 The cell method 8.3. Reflections 8.3.1 Introducti on 8.3.2 Pitch 8.4 Cells 8.5 Chaleur 8.5.1 8.5.2 Forms of motion 8.5.3 Resistance and climax 8.5.4 Acceleration 8.5.5 Bar groups 8.5.6 Interference rhythms 8.5.7 Symmetrical forms 8.5.8 Links between movements 8.6 Conclusions Chapter 9 Bayo's Way 9.1 Origins 9.2 The extended tuba 9.3 The soloist and the bass line 9.4 Form I: narrative, metaphor and trajectory 9.5 Form II 9.5.1 Rhythm 9.5.2 Using squares to create the accompaniment 9.6 Pitch 9.6.1 Scale 9.6.2 Harmony 9.7. Conclusions Chapter 10 Make Night Day 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Title and origins 10.3 Instrumental forms 10.4 The tape accompaniment 10.4.1 Introduction 10.4.2 Sound sources and their functions 10.4.3 Extensions 10.4.4 Gestural sounds 10.4.5 Percussive sounds 10.5 Rhythm 10.6 Section II 10.6.1 Rhythmic identi t y 10.6.2 Rhythm within the bars 10.7. Rhythm in the finale 10.8 Pitch 10.9. Conclusions Chapter 11 Trilogy 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Section I 11.2.1 Rhythmic structure 11.2.2 Counter themes 11.2.3 Metre 11.2.4 Development of the line 11.3. Pitch 11.4. Adornment of the line orchestration 11.5. Section II 11.5.1 Melody and harmony

118 122 123 124 126 126 128 129 129 129 130 133 134 134 135 135 138 140 141 141 141 142 143 146 146 148 152 152 152 155 157 157 157 159 161 161 162 162 163 163 164 169 169 171 173 175 178 179 179 179 179 181 182 182 183 184 185 185

4

6. Rhythm in the finale 11.6 Section III 11.8 Conclusions Chapter 12 Conclusions Bibliography Appendix I: details of accompanying recording 189 194 194 194 196 197 199 201 203 208 209 5 .6.3 Metre 11.5.7.11.2.6.2 Rhythm 11.4 Rhythm and orchestration 11.1 Introduction 11.6. Rhythm 11.

Incorporating 'fractioned' rhythms. Rhythmic structure of a canon based on 5:4.29 3.10 3.15 2.12 2.8 2. Three groupings of the rhythm 3:2. Doubling of harmonic strata. The harmonic potential of an expanded scale. Scales derived from sub-groups of 12.5 3. The results of squaring realised as a score.18 2. Oscillatory motion applied to the secondary axis.4 2.26 2.28 2.9 2.Tables and illustrations Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2.19 2.25 2. Pentatonic scale and its harmonic derivatives. Psychological dials and axial correspondences.17 2. The rhythm 5:4 realised in notation as a canon.1 3. A 'Charleston' type rhythm (after Schillinger 1978 Figure 140. The axes of melody.6 3. Re-ordering of intervals.4. A density group of three ∑. The relationship of the original sub-group to its square.11 2.27 2.) Swing. Three variations produced by vertical rotation.24 2.21 2.16 2.6 2.1 2.22 2. Expanding the original sub-group.10 2.4 3. Chord progressions derived from 'geometrical projections' Geometrical expansion. and its variations. attack groups and decorated variation.9 3. Psychological dial (After Schillinger 1978 page 281).3 2. the result of combining patterns of 8 and 9. Intervals are multiplied by the coefficient 2.14 2. Two parts based on symmetrically spaced tonics. 2 2. The second method of generating rhythm.7 2. 'Interference' rhythm determines intervals of a scale.5 2.3 3.11 The 'interference' of two pulses Pulse 'interference' producing rhythm Attack groups distributed through places of attack.2 3. Sub-group of the master time signature Circular permutation (rotation) of three elements. Re-ordering of pitches. Evolution of the master time signature through a power series. 21 21 24 24 25 25 27 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32 34 34 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 50 51 54 55 55 56 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 6 . Two part harmony with alternating voice leading. page 86.8 3. Rhythm superimposed on attack groups and places of attack Metre applied to Figure 2.13 2. Scale expansion.7 3. Pulse 'interference' of 3:2. Sub-groups of the master time signature 5.23 2.20 2. Two part harmony. Scale expansion in music notation.

13 Figure 8.1 Figure 7.10 Figure.4 Figure 8.12 Figure 3.6. 69 Organic forms of melody.4 Figure 5.16 An example by the author of a funk rhythm based on sub-groups of 16.8 Figure 7. 75 The scheme in Figure 3. 112 Comparing the bass clarinet motif of bar 106 with a passage from the finale bar 243.5 Figure 6. 71 Contrasting attack groups.14 Figure 8.12 with ornamentation. 75 Two rhythms determine attack groups and durations. 107 Vision and Prayer: falling bass clarinet phrase. 100 Riddle (time 2'01"): interval cells 101 Vision and Prayer: two verses from the poem and their outline shapes.3 Figure 7.19 Figure 3.19. as a score. 100 Cell construction from a single starting point. 123 Rêve de l'Orb: octatonic scales in the woodwind. Figure 8.11 Figure 7.8.3 Figure 5. 110 Vision and Prayer: general movement of pitches from bars 90 to 111. 76 Table of works in order of discussion and categorisation.8).1 Figure 6.3 Figure 8. 124 Rêve de l'Orb: cell construction from a single starting point (after Figure 6. 92 Results of collaboration: style and embellishment. 116 Rêve de l'Orb: distribution of pitches between parts. 122 Rêve de l'Orb: cross fertilisation between parts.7 Figure 5. 120 Rêve de l'Orb: violins take on bird . 131 Spiral form (after Schillinger 1978 page 312).8. 97 Riddle (time 1'50"): contrast in characterisation. 90 Moon Shaman:bars 1-17. 89 A four 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with neighbour notes. 87 Pulse groups are modified by the insertion of rests in place of semi-quavers.8. 105 Vision and Prayer: the sections of the piece. 67 Combining rhythms of variable velocity. 109 Vision and Prayer: harmonic structure of tutti chords.14 Figure 3.6 Figure 7. 107 Vision and Prayer : falling cello Phrase.6 Figure 8. 131 Rêve de l'Orb: chaleur: bars 1 to 5 132 7 . 72 Attack group patterns derived from 7:6.125 Rêve de l'Orb : cell networks.1 Figure. 89 A two 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with 'sectional scales'.2 Figure. 106 Vision and Prayer (bars 52-57): the 'heart beat' motif.16 Figure 3.2 Figure 7.9.9 Figure 7.13 Figure 7.Figure 3. shown below the stave. 8.6 Figure 5.3 Figure 6.15 Figure 8.6 Figure 6. 119 Rêve de l'Orb: wandering harp.5 Figure 7. 120 Rêve de l'Orb: violins before bar 39. 74 Squaring techniques applied to durations of attack groups and harmonies.1 Figure 5. 108 Vision and Prayer: expansion of the trill coincides with the 'heart beat' motif. 127 Rêve de l'Orb: parts develop from different transpositions of the octatonic scale.4 Figure 7. 88 The octave divided symmetrically in five different ways. 104 Vision and Prayer: two climaxes. 114 Vision and Prayer: primary axis in a melodic phrase.7 Figure 6. 98 Riddle (time 1'43"): alternating between pitch clusters 99 Riddle (time 0'37" ff): transition between clusters.7 Figure 8. 113 Vision and Prayer: rhythmic patterns in the climax.14 Figure 8.12 Figure 7.2 Figure.9 Figure 8. 94 Riddle (time 0'04"): the composer's addition to the text.4 Figure 6.17 Figure 3.9 Figure 7. 98 The two pitch clusters. 121 Rêve de l'Orb: viola phrases suggest a human presence.12 Figure 8. 86 Moon Shaman: the weighting of pulse groups in Figure 5.2 Figure 5. 111 Vision and Prayer: comparing the violin motif of bar 93 with earlier passages.10 Figure 7.13 Figure 3. 114 Vision and Prayer: the basic pattern of Figure 7. 121 Rêve de l'Orb: the cello provides depth and resonance. 77 Groups of Semi-quavers suggest pulse.15 Figure 3. 127 Rêve de l'Orb: pseudo mirror symmetry.1 Figure 8.like roles.2.11 Figure 8. coefficients applied to pulse groups and tonics. 65 Rhythm based on 32 producing a style more associated with modern jazz. their mnemonic and function. 85 Moon Shaman: opening section pulse groups barred in 4/4.5 Figure 5.7 Figure 7.18 Figure 3.8 Figure 6. 128 Rêve de l'Orb: clarinet part made from cells derived from the octatonic scale129 Forms of motion displayed graphically(after Schillinger 1978 page 284). 96 Riddle (time 2'42"): examples of word painting.20 Figure 4. 126 Rêve de l'Orb: unfolding viola phrase.5 Figure 8.1 Figure 5.8 Figure 6.

152 Figure 9. 180 Figure 11. 160 Figure 10.19 Rêve de l'Orb: the resultant of interference in the harp part.30 FMake Night Day :the bass clarinet part based on Form C.23 Make Night Day: first exchange and tape interlude in the Finale. 144 Figure 9. 177 Figure 11.22 Make Night Day: cross-fire dualogue in the Finale. 143 Figure 9. 167 Figure 10.9 Bayo's Way : the basic scale of Bayo's Way. 184 Figure 11. 136 Figure 8. Make Night Day :the results of squaring realised as a score.5 Make Night Day: bars 116 to 119. with interpolated chromatic notes (see arrows). 183 Figure 11. 139 Figure 9.15.21 Rêve de l'Orb: bar 106 to 113 ofChaleur 137 Figure 8. 161 Figure 10.7 A 'Charleston' Rhythm.2 Bayo's Way : the narrative trajectory .12 Bayo's Way : harmonic block derived from the octatonic scale.25 Make Night Day :the octatonic scale (top stave) rearranged (bottom stave).27).18 Rêve de l'Orb: acceleration in the cello part. 170 Figure 10. is evident in the violin part. 173 Figure 10. 173 Figure 10.20 Rêve de l'Orb: diagram showing melodic movement in the first half of Chaleur.9.27 F Make Night Day : twelve transpositions of the original scale. the latter generated by squaring. 71 1 Figure 10. 152 Figure 9.11 Make Night Day : the rhythm 4:3 worked into a phrase.12 Rhythm produced by 'squaring'. and its modifications. Figure 140 page 86. 176 Figure 10.26 Make Night Day :scale form A.24 Make Night Day :the proportions of the contracting tape interludes. 151 Figure 9.13 Bayo's Way : rhythmic realisation of the harmonic structure of Figure 9. 135 Figure 8.11 Bayo's Way : the realisation of the progression in Figure 9. 177 Figure 10. 146 Figure 9.22 Resonance of the second movement. as it appears in the score.6 Bayo's Way : the original pattern (top stave) and a variation (bottom stave).1 Bayo's Way : harmonic progression underlying bars 137 to 156.4 Trilogy: silences controlled by the Lucas series. 181 Figure 11.28 Form F.4 Bayo's Way : the original rhythmic pattern.8 Trilogy: the basic pitch cell used as a harmonic structure.1 The rhythm 7:2. is used to create the violin phrase starting at bar 11. 171 Figure 10. 159 Figure 10.1.147 Figure 9.21 Figure 10. 4/4 and 7/8.1 Make Night Day table illustrating sectional form.7 Bayo's Way : solo tuba and accompaniment. 138 Figure 8. 145 Figure 9.16 Make Night Day :Figure 10. 176 Figure 10.1 Bayo's Way : six sections with bar numbers and descriptions. 155 Figure 10. with a four bar introduction (shaded area).6 Auxiliary note arrangement in the melodic cell. 172 Figure 10.17 Make Night Day : rotation of Figure 10.20 Make Night Day : two arrangements of the results of squaring. 182 Figure 11.10.5 Trilogy: melodic line evolved from interlocking interval cells. 160 Figure 10.7 Trilogy: the original line (violin) and its doubling. of Figure 10.19 Make Night Day :7:3 determines groups of bars and percussive downbeats.10 Bayo's Way : a harmonic structure used to evoke the spirit of Big Band music.17 Patterns of motion in bars 1 to 54 of Chaleur 133 Figure 8. 150 Figure 9.10. 184 Figure 11. 159 Figure 10. 77 1 Figure 10. 168 Figure 10. 175 Figure 10.2 Trilogy: the piano part shows vestiges of the squaring technique. 134 igure 8.4 Make Night Day: bars 91 to 93. 174 Figure 10. 161 Figure 10. 183 Figure 11.5 Bayo's Way : four repetitions of the basic pattern with four added semi-quavers. 172 Figure 10.23 Rêve de l'Orb : resonance of the first movement. 168 Figure 10. 170 Figure 10.9 Make Night Day: the basic rhythmic material.21. 155 Figure 9.2 Make Night Day: bar 31 to 34.16 170 Figure 10. 166 Figure 10.12. 165 Figure 10. 65 1 Figure 10.18 Make Night Day :extension of larger groups through rotation.13 Make Night Day : rhythm derived from 'squaring' determines the violin entries.15 Make Night Day :49 quavers grouped in bars of 3/4.3 Make Night Day: bars 51 to 53. 154 Figure 9.3 Trilogy: attack groups controlled by the Fibonacci series.29 Make Night Day :form D (Figure 10. after Schillinger 1978.6 Make Night Day: bars 135 to 138.3 Bayo's Way : variation of tension throughout the piece as a whole. 185 8 . 153 Figure 9. 147 Figure 9.8 Bayo's Way : the accompaniment (French horn) and its retrograde (trumpets).Figure 8.8 Make Night Day: the sections of the composition and their master numbers.

16 realised as a score. 186 Trilogy: the elaboration of the original line shown in Figure 11.21.10 11.29 Trilogy: the original pitch sequence derived from the basic cell. 196 Trilogy:scheme of instrumentation for bar 182 ff.25 11.17 11.19 11.20 11. its inversion (second stave) and the result below. 195 Trilogy: pattern A and its counter theme produced by squaring. 192 Trilogy: melodic duration and attack groups determine chord duration. 190 FTrilogy: Figure 11. 197 Trilogy: a scheme showing attack groups and instrumental groups.13 11.188 Trilogy: the timpani part based on 7:3 189 Trilogy: the bass and celli parts based on the rhythm 7:6 190 Trilogy: the gong plays a rhythm derived from squaring.26 11.27 11.23 11. 198 Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11.18 11. 201 9 .11 11. 199 Trilogy: expanding and contracting melodic phrases of the finale.15 11.14 11. 190 Trilogy: the distribution of the rhythm 7:4 between three instruments.Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 11. 187 Trilogy: original (top stave). 192 Trilogy: the durations of a melodic phrase in retrograde.9 11. 193 Trilogy: patterns of accents based on the master time signature.24 11.12 11.26.9. 200 The melodic phrase (top stave) and its ornamented version below.16 11. 186 Trilogy: harmonic structures in section 2. 192 Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11.28 11.22 11. 192 Trilogy: the rhythm determining attack groups. 191 Trilogy: squaring a sub-group of the master time signature.21 11.

10 .

I would also like to thank my father Professor G. 11 .Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor Dr. scores and tapes. This permission covers only single copies made for study purposes. Simon Emmerson for all his help.B. subject to normal conditions of acknowledgement. Permission to copy volume 2. I grant powers of discretion to the University Librarian to allow this thesis to be copied in whole or in part without further reference to me. should be gained from the author. Arden and my colleague Michael Rosas Cobian for their help and support.

Chapter 3 is a detailed technical discussion in which I describe Schillinger's theories and illuminate those ideas which are most significant to my work. cello. for violin. Moon Shaman for bass clarinet and tape. The compositions are presented in an order which describes the evolution of my thought as a composer starting with work completed before my discovery of Schillinger's theory and ending with my most recent compositions. In Chapter 1. for flute. for contralto and tape. for tuba with live electronics and brass ensemble. Bayo's way. Make Night Day. Chapter 9. Chapter 12 is a conclusion to the thesis. Chapter 4 is an introduction to my own compositions. Chapter 7. I present a brief outline of his most important work. Chapter 10. bass clarinet and marimba.Abstract This thesis presents the author's musical compositions in the light of the theories of Joseph Schillinger. bass clarinet and tape and Chapter 11. Vision and prayer. harp and string quartet. describing how the aesthetic and technical ideas underlying the works will be analysed in relation to Schillinger's theory. 2) The role of Schillinger's theories in the technical development of the music. There are two main subdivisions of the thesis: 1) The initial concept and aesthetic background to my work. In Chapter 2. Trilogy. Rêve de l'Orb. 12 . The pieces and chapters are as follows: Chapter 5. Riddle. In the introduction I discuss the original aim of my research and describe how it has changed and developed. for violin. for orchestra. Chapter 6. I introduce the work of Joseph Schillinger and discuss in general terms its significance to the field of musical composition. clarinet in A. Chapter 8.

I initially decided to devise compositional strategies by analysing MIDI sequencer recordings of my keyboard improvisations. I recorded. I wanted to embrace into a single working process. My intention was to analyse significant patterns captured in the recorded data and develop strategies to create variants of these patterns thereby building larger structures and ultimately 13 . narrative and poetry. The aim of my research was to develop a rational method of crafting into coherent structures the spontaneous conceptions of my imagination. I wanted to explore the relationship between imagination and intellect in the process of composition.Introduction Original aims This thesis represents the history of my efforts to solve (as every composer must do) some of the fundamental problems of musical composition. two different forms of musical activity which might be called the 'spontaneous imaginative'. History of the research During the period of writing this thesis my ideas and methods of composing have changed and evolved quite dramatically. This seemed to offer the best chance of capturing my most spontaneous musical ideas. numerous 'free' keyboard improvisations. My immediate experience of musical imagination has always been in the form of spontaneous internal sound impressions. often stimulated by visual images. and the 'deliberate intellectual'. via a MIDI sequencer. I believed that the assertion of intellectual control over the products of my musical imagination would allow me to effectively explore an aesthetic vision. Having focused my imagination on a musically stimulating subject.

This system uses numbers and methods which it is claimed are derived from basic scientific and mathematical procedures to describe general principles of musical construction. The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) which is described in detail in later chapters. (Schillinger 1978) and attempts to describe. Chapter 2 is a summary of The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition. This part of my research was to some extent successful. it is necessary to present some explanations and clarification of his techniques in order to explain my own work. it became clear that this method of working was limited.complete compositions. in very broad strokes. I collected some valuable material and I believe came to understand more about my musical predilections. fitting bits of material together in an ad hoc manner and improvising my way from one point to the next. of this introduction). in particular the co-ordination of independent musical events within a score and the generation of large structures. Schillinger offers practical solutions to a great number of compositional problems. I also developed some techniques which are described in detail in later chapters. Although a proportion of my compositions presented here were written before I had encountered Schillinger's work. I began to apply his methods to develop my musical material (with. to my mind. 14 . his ideas are often relevant to the analytical discussions of the pieces and I partially revised one of them using his methods. the nature of his ideas. My efforts to analyse captured material did not reveal general principles of musical construction and development and so composing larger structures remained a matter of trial and error. in particular. satisfactory results) and in absorbing and adapting his techniques I feel I have achieved the basic aim of my research (see section 1. However. In studying Schillinger's extensive work I have naturally become fascinated and involved with his ideas and their significance to composers in general. Chapter 3 is a detailed exposition of specific Schillinger techniques which I have personally found to be significant and useful in my own work. In 1993 I discovered the work of Joseph Schillinger. the reader will soon understand the essence of Schillinger’s theories and I shall attempt to indicate where (for my purposes) he succeeds and where he fails. While I do not intend this thesis to be primarily a justification of Schillinger's theories.

Schillinger collaborated with Leon Theremin. it also predicted certain developments. in the field of electronic music and encompassed all styles of music most notably American Jazz2. in honour of his visit. unlike his more famous contemporaries1 Schillinger was a natural teacher and communicated his musical knowledge in the form of a precise written theory. On his defection from the Soviet Union in 1928 he visited Berlin. design (Schillinger 1948) and most insistently. having been a student of the St Petersburg Imperial Conservatory of Music. (1947). 15 . the Theremin. active in New York in the 1930s. V. the State Radio of Berlin broadcast a programme of his music (Schillinger 1976 page 170). great composers who were the product of the renowned Russian system of music education which was geared towards creating truly professional musicians. Furthermore he tried to apply the same general ideas to all the arts. Today his name is largely forgotten and his books are not widely read.1 Introduction Joseph Schillinger was a Russian-born composer and teacher. Gershwin.Chapter 1 Joseph Schillinger 1. Duke. Schillinger and Dukelsky. where he won the gold medal for composition in 1918 (Schillinger 1976 page 155). 2In the field of electronic music. architecture. He attempted to use mathematical expressions to describe art. for example. In New 1For an account of Prokofiev's inability to pass on his musical knowledge see. However. The unprecedented migration of European knowledge and culture that swept from East to West during the first decades of the 20thCentury included Figures such as Prokofiev and Rachmaninov. Schillinger came from this background. the inventor of an early electronic musical instrument. and with most detail and success. so the mathematics for one would apply to all. His work not only described the theory of music in a new way. Musical Quarterly 75: 119-24 . and since he was a member of the Genossenschaft Deutscher Tonsetzer. music.

Indeed it was his public pronouncements in a lecture given in the State Academic Choir Hall in Moscow in 1929 entitled 'The Jazz band and music of the future' (Schillinger 1976 page. founded a music school in Boston to continue the dissemination of the system. Those students who never met him wrote to him with their questions and he apparently spent much time on lengthy replies (Schillinger 1976). Nathan Laval. These number. Lawrence Berk. Gershwin. Henry Cowell. Schillinger flourished. 167) that was the cause of his having to flee the Soviet Union. Jazz was of particular interest to Schillinger because of its unusually active rhythmic structure and while still in Russia. There are some hundreds of examples worked out for 16 . becoming famous as the advisor to many of America’s leading jazz musicians and concert music composers. Schillinger’s skill as a teacher rather than a writer might partly explain why his work faded into obscurity after his death. John Cage visited Schillinger in 1943 and was apparently greatly impressed by his ideas on rhythm (Schillinger 1976 page 198). Schillinger House. These were only fully developed towards the end of Schillinger's life and so the one-to-one tuition he offered must have been important to the communication of his ideas. he had founded the first Russian Jazz orchestra and had applied his theories to explaining the basis of swing music. page XII). inter alia . Benny Goodman. one of these. Glenn Miller. Gershwin spent four years studying with Schillinger (Duke1947). particularly its orchestration. During this period he composed Porgy and Bess and consulted Schillinger on matters concerning the opera. was opened in 1945 and later became the Berklee College of Music where the system was taught until the 1960's (Hazell 1995).York. famously composed the hit ‘Moonlight Serenade’ as an exercise for his teacher (Schillinger 1976). John Cage and Earl Brown (Schillinger 1978. Tommy Dorsey. At the same time another Schillinger student. Glen Miller. Charles Colin. The system as it is published today was in fact born out of a series of correspondence courses. and Arnold Shaw (one of the original editors of The Schillinger System of Musical Composition) produced ‘The Encyclopaedia Of Rhythm’ (Colin 1976) in which was realised in musical notation a complete table of the most important rhythmic structures developed from Schillinger’s theory. In 1966 an attempt was made to revive his work. It is reported (Duke 1947) that those students who knew Schillinger found him an inspiring teacher. A small group of students were accredited by Schillinger as qualified teachers of the system and after his death. Oscar Levant.

piano. This. It would seem plausible that his celebrity status made him unpopular with the traditional music establishment and that his ideas would be treated with greater scepticism than they deserved (Schillinger 1976. Schillinger. Any decision which results in a harmonic relation is fully acceptable. Music was no exception and if its various components and their behaviour could be described. On the contrary he was clear that his work was meant to allow any style of composition to be undertaken more effectively (Schillinger 1976 page 126). all human endeavours could be better understood and improved through the application of rational scientific thought. I found. two large volumes entitled ‘The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition’ (Schillinger 1978). but merely points out the methodological way to arrive at a decision. then methods could be devised for its synthesis. Although Schillinger’s work is forward looking. in my view. just as in the realm of physics and engineering. The production of an ‘Encyclopaedia’ of this sort suggests that Schillinger’s writings had already proven indigestible to the would-be student. being couched in an apparently modern ‘scientific’ form. I began to read the first volume and was immediately struck by an abundance of mathematical formulae: being largely ignorant of mathematics I almost decided to not to continue but in the end curiosity got the better of me and I took them home and began to read. It has been suggested that envy played a part in Schillinger’s neglect by the establishment (Schillinger 1976 page 201). Schillinger. We are opposed only to vagueness and haphazard speculation. In 1993 I came across his work in the Westminster Music Library. page 126). it would seem. (Schillinger 1978 Page 1356) 17 . was never really celebrated for his own music or for a particular stylistic innovation made possible by his system. it is also intended to clarify traditional music theory by debunking misconceptions from the past. which the student composer was supposed to transfer directly to his own work. believed that science was the answer to all things and that. My system does not circumscribe the composer's freedom. As a result of his postal tuition courses he became very rich and at one time rented a twelve room apartment on Fifth Avenue. did Schillinger a great disservice since it suggested a mechanical approach to composition and (more importantly) was of no practical use since the master patterns alone cannot be used effectively without an understanding of the complete system.

triggered personal insights into the workings of music such as Jazz improvisation which had always fascinated me. in the 19th Century attraction towards the cult of the inspired genius. I began to question Schillinger's judgement when in The Theory Of Rhythm.. in the belief that Bach had not fully explored his own material. and one suspects that many of Schillinger’s readers simply abandoned the study of his work at this point. (Schillinger 1978. By revealing the underlying principles of the organisation of sound through scientific analyses he hoped to free the composer from the shackles of tradition. To me this was terribly exciting as it confirmed various half-thought-out ideas of my own. Bach’s Two Part Invention No. The Schillinger system begins with the Theory Of Rhythm based on the premise that time is the fundamental dimension in music. Music education. I could create rhythmic structures and phrases of sophistication and balance and that the most simple material could be made to yield all manner of variations. techniques for modal modulation and redistributing the pitches and intervals of scales. van Beethoven. In 'The variation of music by means of geometrical projection' (Schillinger 1978 page 193) Schillinger gives us his own version of J. However. he believed..’ Later. There is no getting 18 . These extraordinary claims inevitably make the reader wonder if any part of the System has validity. in particular. The most significant advantage in adopting Schillinger’s ideas was the ability to think and work in large segments of time and to view an entire piece as being the organic development of the smallest part..Schillinger believed that music theory had become mired in tradition and. Elsewhere. Borodin and Wagner as if they were to be pitied for their inadequate knowledge of harmony and it is implied that they would have faired better had they had the advantage of the Schillinger System. I soon found that by using the techniques described by Schillinger. Schillinger refers to Mussorgsky. to resolve) which were only true in certain cases and not in others. was largely based on individual stylistic observations (such as the tendency of the leading note to ascend or the 'dominant seventh'. page 21) he introduced a technique for constructing pairs of phrases with the comment that ‘These procedures were performed crudely by even well-reputed composers. 8. For example L. In the area of pitch scales.S.. in The Theory Of Melody (Schillinger 1978 page 250) Beethoven is again taken to task over the 'flawed' construction of the opening melody of his Pathétique Sonata.

3 He consistently misuses mathematical terms and notation often with highly misleading results (see Chapter 2 section 2. recounted in Schillinger's biography (Schillinger 1976). (Schillinger 1976.away from his excesses: they were not simply of vanity and an uncritical conviction in his Theory.2) and it seems probable that many readers attracted to his work because of their own understanding of mathematics were quickly put off by his dreadful confusions. In relating these eccentricities it is easy to make Schillinger sound like a fraudulent charlatan and obscure the true value of his work. It showed Schillinger sitting on a mossy bank arm in arm with Ludwig van Beethoven. He was clearly fascinated by the work of Albert Einstein and it may have been misplaced admiration or a desire to make his own ideas seem more impressive that lead him to call the parts of his system which deal with harmony ‘The Special Theory Of Harmony’ and the ‘General Theory Of Harmony’. page 117). His pupils in America included some of the most distinguished Jazz musicians of the century and one wonders how eminent musicians such as George Gershwin and Benny Goodman maintained any interest in his highly 3 For a highly critical account of Schillinger's theories see Backus. In my opinion it would be a mistake to consider Schillinger merely as a numerological crank. who temporarily succeeded by hoodwinking the ignorant and credulous. (1961). Schillinger’s belief in the power of science and mathematics makes much of his work complex for the mathematically illiterate but it would seem that Schillinger was no mathematician himself. who. Re: pseudo science in music. clearly fond of his old school fellow. the implication of this delightful joke being that Schillinger was there at the moment of inspiration for the Pastoral symphony and had also been of some influence on its composition. JMT. Schillinger was obviously very keen to be thought of as a scientist and it would seem that for a musician he had a fairly active knowledge of scientific development at the time. Schillinger was a personal friend of Shostakovitch. 19 . prepared a doctored photograph which he sent to Schillinger in New York. Clearly Schillinger was liked and admired by eminent musicians such as Shostakovich who tolerated his lack of moderation with humour. To redress the balance it is worth mentioning the following anecdote.

a charge later levelled against Schillinger .but they merely assist the composer to realise his or her vision through facilitating the planning and execution of large musical structures. unless they were of immediate practical use. 1973) 20 . The numerous techniques described by Schillinger in the field of rhythm offer a unique and attractive approach to the student of composition and to some extent compensate for what I perceive to be an imbalance in composition literature which is still largely dominated by considerations of pitch. As a byproduct of discussing my work I hope to show that Schillinger's techniques are like tools which must be used imaginatively. Many of the concepts contained in the system have already penetrated modern compositional practise4 and it has been of incalculable benefit to many of the works presented in this thesis.technical numerical theories. It is my belief that Schillinger's work has much to offer the contemporary composer and deserves to be revived. 4 For example Elliot Carter's numerical chord charts (Schiff 1985 pg 324) or Allen Forte's work on 'pitch class sets' (Forte. They do not by themselves compose music .

2. Theory Of Pitch Scales. Instrumental Forms. The correlation Of Harmony and Melody. In order to communicate the essence of Schillinger's work I will briefly summarise the contents of each Book. Evolution Of Pitch Families (Style). Theory Of Composition.2 Book I: The Theory Of Rhythm 2. The Theory Of Rhythm is based on the very simple idea that rhythm occurs when two or more separate sources of pulse are combined.1 Overview The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) is an ambitious attempt to provide a complete theory of musical composition. Special Theory Of Harmony. However. Schillinger believes that time (and therefore rhythm) is the fundamental dimension of music. General Theory Of Harmony. It is divided into twelve sections (which Schillinger refers to as ‘branches’) each of which occupies a separate 'Book'. Theory Of Melody. Its techniques are consistently applied in all areas of his writings on music.2. I can do no more than describe some of the most significant themes which refer to the present submission and must omit many interesting details. The twelve books grouped as two volumes are as follows: Book I: Book II: Book III: Book IV: Book V: Book VI: Book VII: Book VIII: Book IX: Book X: Book XI: Book XII: Theory Of Rhythm.Chapter 2 Summary of the Schillinger system 2. Theory Of Orchestration. Schillinger refers to this process as 21 .1 Pulse interference The Theory Of Rhythm is the foundation of Schillinger's work. It is assumed that the two sources of pulse begin at exactly the same moment but that their frequencies are different. Variations Of Music By Means Of Geometrical Projection. The entire work is contained in two volumes and totals 1640 pages of text. Theory Of Counterpoint.

4. The double arrows show the effect of two pulses combining to create a specially strong pulse. If the period of B ≠ 1 and the relationship between the periods of A and B is such that there is no common divisor other than 1 ( for example. Interference actually occurrs between wave forms and cannot be simply applied to pulses. In the following diagram two different pulses are superimposed. as shown in the left hand column. 3:2. A=3 B=2 Result (A+B) Result displayed numerically Result in music notation ↓ ↓ ⇓ 2 q ↓ ↓ → 1 e ↓ ↓ 1 e ↓ ↓ 2 q ↓ ↓ ⇓ → 2 q ↓ ↓ → 1 e ↓ ↓ 1 e ↓ ↓ 2 q → Figure 2.3.1 The 'interference' of two pulses. 22 . A/B = n where n can take the value of 2. 5:2. 5This is an example of how Schillinger’s terminology may be confusing. The pulses are represented by down arrows.'interference'5. He uses numbers and graphs to represent and calculate rhythmic patterns generated by pulse 'interference'.. A B Result ↓ ↓ ⇓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ⇓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Figure 2. The strong pulse can be interpreted as a down beat or bar line and in this way Schillinger explains the phenomenon of metre.. 2 Pulse 'interference' producing rhythm.e.). the pulse B does not occur in every time interval.2. In Figure 2. Each column represents a unit of time. 4:3. (A=3.. the number 2. The periods are characterised by the number of time units between each pulse. Meter only occurs when A is an integer multiple of B. B=1).. might represent a note held for two beats but could equally represent a staccato attack for one beat followed by a beat of silence. i. a complex rhythm results.. For example. The numbers represent durations between pulses and do not tell us anything about their final musical presentation. etc.. Pulse A recurs every 3 units of time and pulse B recurs every 1 unit of time.

attack groups. In this example the moments when A and B combine are not shown in bold in the result row (A+B) since the resultant rhythm can be barred in several different ways as will be explained in chapter 3. 'Attack groups' consist of a predetermined number of attacks. two complete cycles of 'interference' are shown. an attack group pattern of 3. In Figure 2. Attacks have no duration and only represent a potential event. that is. and metre. 2.6 For example.2. this technique touches on the field of orchestration. 6It follows that a place of attack could be represented by timbre or even location in stereo space.2. However. since one half generates the other. The procedure involves the co-ordination of the following components: rhythms.2). the combination of the first and second rows.3 means that in successive places there will be a group of three attacks (group A). The third row shows the result of ‘interference’.In Figure 2. balance due to the mirror symmetry and a quality Schillinger refers to as contrast. Schillinger suggests that symmetrical rhythms have important musical qualities: economy. Each complete cycle is symmetrical around its centre (2. Pulse A recurs every 3 units of time and pulse B recurs every 2 units of time (A=3. B=2). followed by a group of two attacks (group B).2. All rhythms generated by this method are repetitive. places of attack. 'Place of attack' refers to the source of a sound such as an instrument.↔1. The greater the difference between numbers the greater the contrast. 23 . Attack groups are distributed through the 'places of attack'.2 Instrumental Forms Although presented exclusively in terms of rhythm. For example. places of attack can also be different parts within a score or the pitches of a scale. two drums represent two different places of attack. The different components of this technique are described in more detail as follows.1. being intended to control the entry of different instrumental groups. In the following example each of the three groups occupy a different place of attack. the contrast between the numbers is 2-1=1.2. the difference between successive numbers. followed by a group of three attacks (group C).

3 œ. (312213) is superimposed.4. Rhythm superimposed on attack groups and places of attack 24 . there are three places of attack (parts).4. In Figure 2.3 Attack groups distributed through places of attack. one attack followed by three attacks. 1 œ J 1 1 3 Figure 2. J ÷ ÷ 3 œ œ J 1 2 2 œ 1 2 œ 3 œ. Short solid lines show how the attack groups are distributed through the places of attack. The next step is to superimpose a rhythm of durations on the attack group pattern. The attack group pattern is (1.3). The rhythm 4:3. This pattern is distributed through the places of attack but in addition the rhythm of durations 4:3. is shown above each part in small type and the attack groups are labelled with bold type below the parts.P l a c e s ÷ ÷ ÷ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Attack group C Attack group B Attack group A Figure 2. that is. 3 3 œ. ÷ p l a c e s 1 œ J 2 œ 1 3 œ œ.

in which all rhythms originate from the master time signature 7. Sub-group of the master time signature 7I refer the reader to Chapter 11. This method is described in detail in Chapter 3. 2.5. From now on I will refer to the 'determinant' as the master time signature.2).6.The final step is to introduce metre. In addition the master time signature is at the centre of a several important techniques (described in more detail in chapter 3) which generate rhythmic structures.3 The determinant or master time signature Schillinger develops a number of powerful techniques based on a function he calls ‘The Determinant’. the above example is now shown barred in 3/4. a metre.2. which is a discussion of my orchestral composition. Each pattern created by this method fills one bar. if the master time signature = 4 a typical sub-group would be 3+1. Schillinger states that the master time signature represents the rhythmic style of an entire piece7 or even the rhythmic origin of a national style (Schillinger 1978 page 72). The determinant is simply the numerator of the time signature or the number of beats in the bar. (section 11.5. 1)The master time signature can be divided into sub-groups in order to evolve a set of related rhythmic patterns. and in Figure 2. For example.4. 4 & 4 ˙. 3 + œ 1 (=4) Figure 2.6. Metre applied to Figure 2. The following diagram shows this realised in music notation. 25 . ÷ 3 4 ∑ Œ œ‰Œ J œ Ó Œ ‰œœ J Ó ∑ œ œ œœœ ∑ ∑ ÷ 3 Œ ‰œœ 4 J ÷ 3 œ œ‰Œ 4 J œ œœœ Figure 2.Trilogy.

B) (A. For example. a group with four different elements (A.D.B.C.B. Rotation of the elements in a group is. Schillinger presents rotation as a second. Confusingly. Schillinger develops a further technique in which patterns generated through the interference of pulses (see section 2. therefore. This simple rule ensures that the number of beats in the whole bar group will always be a number that can be generated by squaring the master time signature.C. variations (4!=1×2×3×4=24): (A.B. This technique lies at the heart of the system because by this method a pattern contained in one bar can directly exert its influence over a much larger duration or number of bars. 3) Patterns created by method 1) can be extended by a squaring formula (described in detail in chapter 3) to fill the entire bar group. Two methods are presented and referred to as 'general permutation' and 'circular permutation'. In this way the products of the various techniques described in The Theory Of Rhythm are co-ordinated into a single complex and sophisticated structure. the principle method by which variations are produced.D) (A.C.2) The master time signature not only determines the number of beats in a bar but also the number of bars in a more complex structure which I refer to as a bar group. However. The only difference between the two types of rotation is 26 .D) has 24.2.D) (A. a scale or the sections of a composition.2.C. these techniques and their practical applications are described in more detail.D.C. In Chapter 3. alternative method of producing variants which he refers to as 'circular permutation'. For example.B) (B.C) (A.) can be combined with the structures created by the master time signature which I have just described. 2. It can be seen that this process involves the rotation of three of the four elements until all possible combinations have been exhausted. 'General permutation' reveals all possible combinations of the elements of a group. 4 bars of 4/4 will have a duration of 16 crotchet beats.4 Rotation and re-ordering Schillinger's primary technique of creating variation is by the re-ordering of elements of a group whether they be those of a rhythm. Schillinger only tells us how to calculate the total number of combinations (factorial n.C.D.D. or n! where n= the number of different elements in group) and does not provide a method for deriving the various combinations.A) etc.B.

B) →(B. section 3. Schillinger first illustrates 'circular permutation' with two elements. in which one element remains stationary while the others rotate.. accelerando and flow in general.5.A). The variant is the retrograde of the original. BCA. CAB. In a counter clockwise direction. Circular permutation (rotation) of three elements. With three or more elements the direction of permutation (clockwise or counter clockwise) becomes important.3. CBA.2. 2.. (A.. In a clockwise direction.3..4. BAC The method of rotation described may appear simple but it is an excellent way of revealing the potential of a musical idea. rotation produces the following variants: ABC.5 Growth series Number series which are characterised by growth. Schillinger refers to these as 'rhythms of variable velocity' and they will be discussed in more detail in chapter 3.8.5.that the rotation of all the elements of a group ('circular permutation') produces a more limited number of combinations than 'general permutation'. A C B Figure 2. 27 .5.2.7.. such as the harmonic series (1.) the Fibonacci series (1.) and other forms of summation series are introduced as methods of generating rhythms useful for controlling rallentando.2. rotation produces the following variants: ACB.13..

3 and 4. The 'primary selective system' is the method of defining which frequencies.1)(2)(2. out of all possible frequencies. such as C major.3 Book II: The Theory Of Pitch Scales 2. Traditional music theory views a scale. are to be used for music.2.2. Scales are defined by the intervals between pitch units and are represented numerically.1) where 1= a semi-tone. as having a single tonic. Rhythms generated by the 'interference of pulses' (see section 2. All scales ranging from one pitch unit ('Monotone') to twelve pitch units are acceptable and Schillinger provides an apparently complete list of scales containing 2.2 Application of rhythmic techniques to scales Scales can be represented by number sequences and subjected to many of the rules governing rhythmic techniques offered in The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978).3. The 'secondary selective system' can be any method of arranging the pitch units of the equal temperament system into musical scales.2. pitch units. 28 .1 System of selection Schillinger begins by discussing 'primary' and 'secondary selective systems'. those with one tonic which exceed the range of an octave. those with more than one tonic contained within the range of an octave and finally those with more than one tonic which exceed the range of an octave.3. 2. by convention this is now agreed to be the system of equal temperament. is represented as (2. He does not attempt to list scales with more than four pitch units partly through lack of space but also because four unit scales include tetrachords and therefore provide a convenient platform from which to launch a discussion of traditional diatonic scales.2) provide excellent material for pitch scales. Such scales with multiple 'tonics' are referred to by Schillinger as 'symmetric scales'. Schillinger identifies four types of scale: those with one tonic contained within the range of an octave. The major scale for example.

1.The following example uses the rhythm produced by the interference of pulses 4:3 (3.9. A number of techniques are designed to reveal the melodic potential of a scale. 12→(7+5)→(5+2+5)→(2+3+2+3+2).3) to determine the intervals of a scale.2.3) to make a series of 'hybrid' scales. 5 œ 7œ+œ5 b œ œ +2 +5 b œ 2œ+3b + 2œ+ 3 + 2 œ œ 4 &4 œ œ œ œœ 12 Figure 2.1. Another method of generating pitch scales involves the technique of subdividing the master time signature (see section 2. 'Interference' rhythm determines intervals of a scale. a process based on rotation. 29 . Scales derived from sub-groups of 12.2.8. These methods involve the re-ordering of the pitches or intervals of the original scale. It can be seen that exactly the same techniques used earlier to generate rhythmic structures are also used to generate melodic structures. œ & œ œ bœ bœ œ bœ 3 1 2 2 1 3 Figure 2. These number sequences are realised in music notation in the illustration below. In the following example the octave (12) is sub-divided according to this method.2.

The P.4 Scales constructed on symmetrically spaced 'tonics' 30 . may change over a relatively short period of time (a few bars). Re-ordering of intervals The melodic variants of a scale. 2. The P. The P. Establishing the P.11. the melody would be rooted in the Dorian scale.11. This is only true in the absence of harmonic accompaniment which will override the P.The following examples show just a very few of the possible variants generated by the re-ordering of pitches and intervals.A. is essential to the success of the various techniques for modulating between different portions of melody and is central to Schillinger's 'Theory Of Melody' which is fully developed in Book IV. It is suggested that the pattern of repetition of the variants is (see section 2. &œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Figure 2. 2. is a pitch which occurs more frequently and/or for a greater duration than any other pitch during a phrase of the melody. such as those in Figure 2.3.A. of the melody as the root of a scale. and the key signature was C major.A. For example.3.10 and 2. was the pitch D.A. is a root tone of a scale and defines the modal identity of the melody.2) best determined using rhythmic patterns such as those presented in Book I.' and can be joined in sequence to produce a 'melodic continuity'.A. if the P.A. Re-ordering of pitches &œ œ œ œ bœ œ Figure 2.3 The primary axis and modal modulation Schillinger states that modulation requires a melody to have a clear 'Primary Axis' (P. are referred to as 'melodic forms.A).10.

2).3..). Instead each pitch in the scale is treated as a root tone ('tonic') on which other scales are built.12. is built on two 'tonics'. For example.. Two parts based on symmetrically spaced tonics. Scale expansion. Schillinger suggests that polyphonic music based on symmetrically spaced tonics is the key to successful polytonal writing. Each scale has only one type of interval: a chromatic scale of semitones (1+1+1+1. In Figure 2. 2. œ 9 * bœ œbJ œ & 8 œ. These scales are not used in the ordinary manner as a means of making melodic forms. The process of re-ordering involves stepping through the scale omitting adjacent pitch units. Each tonic (B and F) is marked on the diagram by an asterisk.5 Scale expansion and the harmonic potential of scales Schillinger describes a method of re-ordering the pitches of a scale which results in an expansion of its range over more than one octave. a whole tone scale (2+2+2+2+2+2). 31 .13.3.. Original First expansion C C D E E G F B G D A F B A Figure 2.Schillinger shows how the octave can be divided into five symmetrical scales.2. a single scale (2. a scale of minor thirds resembling a diminished seventh chord (3+3+3+3). separated by the interval of a tritone (6+6).. a scale of major thirds resembling the augmented triad (4+4+4) and the tritone division of the octave (6+6).12.3.#œ 2 3 2 3 2 * œbœ œ œ bœ j J œœ 2------3 2 3 2 2 Figure 2. œ * œ ? 9 œ J œ # œ œ # œj œ 8 2------------3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 œ * œ #œ J œ œ.

An exploration of scales naturally leads to a discussion of their harmonic potential.14. ˙ ˙ ˙ &˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ∑ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Diads melody notes ˙ ˙ ˙ & &˙ ˙ 1 ˙ ˙ 2 ˙ ˙ 3 ˙ ˙ 4 Figure 2. tetrads and pentads of any particular scale. Figure 2. This is a preliminary discussion of harmony and in no way preempts those parts of the text which deal exclusively with that subject.&œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Original œ œ œ œ œ œ œ First expansion Figure 2. The harmonic potential of an expanded scale. Scale expansion in music notation. He describes techniques for deriving the diads. Expanded scales such as that in Figure 2. The lower line shows an arrangement of some of those diads.14.15. In this case the melody note is always C. clearly have harmonic potential. Schillinger uses the term 'sigma'(∑) to describe a structure in which all pitches of the expanded scale are superimposed. Schillinger describes tension as measured by the distance between pitches of the original expanded scale. shows an expanded scale and its diads. The middle line represents a melody note above the diad. triads.15. If the pitches of melody and harmony lie far apart in their common scale the tension is greater than if they 32 . as a constant reference showing the changing level of tension between harmony and melody.

in which this technique is described in relation to the middle section of my orchestral composition. There is nothing new in Schillinger's discussion of these traditional ideas but he presents useful examples of how these methods might be used to make variations in melodic sequences. Chords in the result stave have been re-arranged to facilitate voice leading. and one from RI. The numbers above the 'result' stave show how many consecutive chords have been used from a particular variation: two chords from O. as both are equidistant from the note C. shows an original progression (O) and its three geometrical variations.16. Chord 4 has tension equal to that of chord 2. These quantities and the fact that the scheme progresses by step (stave) through each variation is purely a matter of convenience and is not the result of any rule imposed by the method. one chord from I.5. retrograde. &w w w w &bw w &w w w w & bb w w w w w w w bw ww w b ww w ww w bw ww w w w w w bw w w w w bbw w w w w bw w w O I R RI refer the reader to Chapter 11. 8I 33 . inversion. Lines with arrows indicate the 'route' taken through the different variations. section (11. in the scale. These are familiar to musicians as terms which indicate direction: original.are close. Chord 3 is the most tense as the melody note and the root of the diad lie farthest apart in the original expanded scale.1).4 Book III:Variations Of Music By Means Of Geometrical Projection In this portion of the text Schillinger describes methods of creating geometrical variations derived from the rotation of co-ordinates through the four quadrants of a graph. is the least tense as the melody note is identical to the root of the diad beneath. For example chord 1. Figure 2. retrograde inversion. 2. One unusual technique concerns the generation of chord progressions8. two from R. These are used to form a mixed sequence of chords shown on the bottom stave (Result) in the illustration.

Geometrical expansion. fear invokes muscular contraction.17.3. This process alters the pitch units of a melody and so is not the same as the method of 'scale expansion' described in section 2. This seems to me to be one of his more absurd ideas although his observation that the history of music shows a general trend towards expansion of intervals is. bœ bœ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ & œœ 3 1 2 2 1 3 #œ œ œ #œ 4 4 6 2 2 6 Figure 2. 34 . A chapter on Geometrical expansion is concerned with the expansion of intervals in a score through multiplication by a coefficient of expansion9.2(O)----------------------1(I)------------2(R)------------------------1(RI) Result &w w w w w w w b ww w w w w w w w ww Figure 2. convincing. Intervals are multiplied by the coefficient 2. Chord progressions derived from 'geometrical projections' Schillinger observes that the relationship between an original chord and its inversion is like that of major and minor but he argues should more accurately be called 'psychological' major and minor as the chords generated in this method are not linked by the same scale in the way that the relative major and minor keys are related.16. For example. in my opinion.5. Schillinger suggests that our primitive spontaneous vocal responses to these stimuli eventually crystallised into formal melodic utterances.5 Book IV: The Theory Of Melody In The Theory Of Melody. lust or desire produces expansion. In between the 9Schillinger observes that music written in the 17th century can be 'modernised' by interval expansion. 2. Schillinger believes that melody has a biological origin. The information flowing through our sense organs stimulates our bodies to produce electrochemical and bio-mechanical responses. Schillinger reveals some of his most interesting ideas concerning the nature of music alongside his most disappointing techniques. Joy.

19. represents expansion. Moving towards the P. For this reason different forms of oscillatory motion are superimposed on the secondary axes in order to create a more typically melodic outline as in figure 2. above and below the primary axis represented by the pitch F. a rhythm is superimposed giving duration or proportion to the contour of the melody. 35 . &˙ PA œœœœ œœœœ˙ œœœœ˙ ˙ œœœœ secondary axis PA Figure 2.A. represents contraction.19.18. These movements around the P. Moving away from the P. Oscillatory motion applied to the secondary axis.extreme forms of response (such as fear and joy) there is the 'resting state' characterised by regular motion such as regular breathing or heart beat.3. Secondary axis PA &œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Oscillatory motion Figure 2. Once a pattern of secondary axes has been decided.18. are termed 'secondary axes'. The secondary axes represent the direction of the melodic contour and not its detailed surface motion. Schillinger attempts to translate these ideas into the contours and direction of melody. The Primary Axis.A. either above or below it. (see section 2. shows melodic contours or secondary axes. Figure 2.3) represents the point of balance or rest. The axes of melody.A.

is a bridge between the subject of diatonic harmony and counterpoint.15 illustrates the process in the case of diads but the principle is the same for triads.6 Book V: Special Theory Of Harmony The Special Theory Of Harmony. The first expansion produces a scale whose intervals are major and minor thirds (see Figure 2. Schillinger states that the most satisfactory melody/harmony relationships are those in which melody is derived from an existing chord progression (the subject of Chapter 1).The final chapter of Book IV. although the opposite method. (see section 2. deriving harmony from an existing melody.2. The subject is divided into three chapters: 1)The Melodization Of Harmony. is 36 .7 Book VI: The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody Book VI. Figure 2. is generally too ambitious in its aims and does not succeed in revealing exactly why a melody is satisfying or otherwise although many of the observations and insights it contains are of use to the composer. Schillinger refers to this as the 'cycle of the third' and it alone is used to generate the diatonic triads. 3)The Harmonisation Of Melody. a type of music that might be referred to as homophonic. Both root progressions and chord structures are derived from the same scale through the method of scale expansion. deals specifically with techniques pertaining to traditional harmony derived from diatonic scales. In conclusion. I would say that The Theory Of Melody. the Correlation Of Harmony And Melody.3. 2. Organic Forms In Melody is in my opinion. It describes techniques for the composition of melody with harmonic accompaniment. It seems to me that melody is a far more complex a phenomenon than Schillinger claimed while the techniques he devised for its 'synthesis' are far too cumbersome for practical application.5). It deals with the practical application of growth series (such as the Fibonacci series) to melodic structures.5. section 3. of great interest and will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 3. Schillinger makes a strong distinction between root progressions (bass progression) and the chord structures which are built on those roots. 2)Composing Melodic Attack Groups.14). first described in Book II. 2.

Schillinger describes four possible tonal relationships between Cantus Firmus (CF) and Counterpoint (CP).covered in Chapter 3.7. in connection with my orchestral composition Trilogy. are used to determine both the quantity of pitches in a group as well as the duration of each pitch and in this way the rhythmic flow or 'animation' of the melody can be controlled. Chapter 2. Both Chapters 1 and 3. The Theory Of Rhythm. 37 . Techniques are largely dependent on the hierarchical arrangement of chord functions (1. These will be described in detail in Chapter 3. Special Theory Of Harmony and Book IV.13) and the organisation of the axes of melody (see sections 2. Many of the 'techniques' are to do with ornamentation. 2. It concerns the composition of 'melodic attack groups'. On the whole. in which both parts belong to the same scale. This includes ordinary forms of counterpoint.6 and 2. it is stated that in general when the 9th or 11th chord function appears in the melody it must be immediately preceded by the 7th or the 9th respectively and that the root of the harmony must be in the bass. Schillinger develops techniques in this portion of the text on the basis of the observation of conventional practises. 'Rules' such as these are apparently justified on the grounds of the 'statistical rarity' of alternative forms. the most significant portion of Book VI. describe numerous relationships between melody and harmony most of which depend on the theory presented in Book V. begins with a traditional classification of intervals and their resolution. Rhythmic patterns derived from techniques presented in Book I.5. as well as more exotic polytonal types. For example. is. involving the insertion of chromatic tones between the main 'functional' pitches of a melody. in my opinion. which in this case refers to a group of melody notes belonging to a particular chord. The Theory Of Counterpoint.11.5 respectively). The most interesting techniques concern the rhythmic relationship between melody and harmony. Apparently Schillinger was preparing material dealing with counterpoint in more than two parts before he died (Schillinger 1978 page 822). and also in Chapter 11.3. The Theory Of Melody. Different species of two part counterpoint are described and alternative resolutions of dissonant intervals are given.8 Book VII: Theory Of Counterpoint The Theory Of Counterpoint only deals with counterpoint in two parts.

œj ˙ œ 1 3 2 2 3 1 4 Figure 2.1.1.4) might be arranged as a two part canon.4 Figure 2.21. 5 ˙ œœ &4 J 4 1 3 2 2 3 œ˙ J 1 4 ˙ œ œ.1. refers to a variant of the original scale derived by the rotation of its pitches..3. An imitative structure can be made by superimposing symmetrical rhythms such as those described in Book I. CF and CP belong to different modes10 of the same scale.3.3.3.21) .3.. Rhythmic structure of a canon based on 5:4. (see section 2.1. The rhythm 5:4 realised in notation as a canon. 38 .The following diagram shows how the rhythmic resultant 5:4 (4.2 Continuation 4. Announcement Voice 1 Voice 2 4.1. The following example shows the above rhythmic structure realised in music notation where 1= e (Figure 2.2 -------------- Imitation 2.5) and that the initial interval between the two axes is always consonant. It is assumed that the two parts (CF and CP) have established Primary Axes.2. CF and CP belong to different scales and different modes.20. 10Mode.1.3.2.2 2.2). (see section 2.The various relationships are as follows: CF and CP belong to the same scale and the same mode.5). œ œ œ. œ œ œ. The relationship of the contours (secondary axes) of the two voices is discussed using terminology first introduced in the Theory Of Melody (see section 2. 5 &4 ∑ ˙ 4 j œ.4 4.1. J 4 œ 1 3 2 etc.3. The techniques described for the composition of canons and fugues are approached as primarily concerning rhythmic structure. CF and CP belong to different scales (tonics) but are identical in mode.

2. Schillinger sets out the scope of the discussion as follows: "What we are to discuss here is all forms of arpeggio and their applications in the field of melody.9. (see section 2.9 Book VIII: Instrumental Forms.1 Arpeggiation The Theory Of Instrumental Forms elaborates upon the ideas first presented in Book I. and correlated melody" (Schillinger 1978. it is implied that as long as the tonal relationship between the two Primary Axes is consonant. the other interval relationships between the two parts will take care of themselves (Schillinger 1978 page 783). 2. attack groups and decorated variation. durations) may be distributed between the voices of a harmony.22. Techniques are suggested for the development of melodic figuration through the ornamental variation of harmony. Two part harmony. The result of combining the 39 . harmony.2. page 883) A large portion of the Theory Of Instrumental Forms is devoted to tables illustrating how attacks (notes. The Theory Of Rhythm. Figure 2. Diads &˙ ˙ Attack groups &œ &œ result œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Figure 2. events.In the case of imitative forms such as canon.22 shows two diads (top line) which are modified by two attack groups each containing 3 attacks (middle line).1).

A large number of examples of ornamented harmonic progressions accompany these tables. When strata are superimposed the resulting assemblage is referred to as a Sigma (Σ). Schillinger lists all possible arrangements for attack groups ranging from 2 to 12 attacks distributed through harmony of two.2 Harmonic strata Schillinger introduces the possibility of duplicating or doubling chordal structures or harmonic blocks which are referred to as 'strata'. By ensuring that the overall spacing of harmony notes in the score is widest at the bottom register and narrowest at the top. 40 .3. Schillinger discusses this in relation to orchestration and it is suggested that combined strata may represent different instrumental ensembles within an orchestra.two upper lines is shown on the bottom stave. the composer mimics the natural spacing of the harmonic series and ensures maximum acoustical clarity. the chord function (1..9. Two strata with nonidentical positions must be arranged so that the strata with the most closed spacing is on top.. The General Theory Of Harmony..7. which is concerned with all aspects of 'strata' combination. The durations of each attack have been chosen freely.5. A harmonic strata may be doubled at the octave under certain conditions: the position or spacing of the two strata must be identical or else the resulting harmonics and difference tones will cause distortion leading to loss of clarity and balance (Schillinger 1978 page 1003). three and four parts. However. 2.22 is an extremely simple example of a technique that can be made to produce highly complex results. Figure 2. In some respects this discussion would seem more appropriate in the context of Book IX. chapter 6 is exclusively concerned with the octave doubling of identical harmonies.) in the uppermost voice of each strata must be identical. When combining strata with nonidentical positions (inversions).

10 Book IX: The General Theory Of Harmony 2. develops principles for the construction and co-ordination of harmonic groups or 'assemblages' of all types.15). This involves the superimposition of pitch units of a scale and its various 'expansions' (see section 2.special harmony is but one case of general harmony.. Strata 2 Figure 2.5 and Figure 2. Doubling of harmonic strata. Schillinger clearly distinguishes between the General and the Special Theory Of Harmony.3. As the main purpose of the General Theory Of Harmony is to satisfy demands for the scoring of all possible combinations of instruments or voices.10.1 Strata harmony The General Theory Of Harmony. (Schillinger 1978.. it should be flexible enough to make any instrumental combination possible.23. page 1063). Unlike the Special Theory Of Harmony... which utilises only the first 'expansion' of a diatonic scale as a source of harmony 41 .Octave doubling.. (Schillinger 1978 page 1155) Schillinger's method of generating harmonic structures is the same as that described in his Special Theory Of Harmony.. (see section 2. this system has not been based on observation and analyses of existing musical facts only.6). This portion of the system pertains directly to the field of orchestration providing techniques by which the various instrumental groups within an ensemble can be controlled and differentiated through the co-ordination of independent. simultaneous blocks (strata) of harmony. or both. it is entirelyinductive. 2.identical positions Strata 1 w w &w &w w w w w w w w w Non-identical positions Top chord functions alligned. Contrary to what was the case in my special theory of harmony.

24. A strata does not have to originate from a scale and can instead be derived from a single interval. All harmonies are derived from one interval (a major second) and are built on a sequence of root tones which for convenience progress by the cycle of the fifth. In the following diagram. 11 Discounting the octave and the unison. Schillinger observes that only scales with seven different pitches produce regular structures on expansion. that is. unlike the products of the scale in Figure 2. 'expansions' with identical intervals. 42 . Figure 2. 'expansion' Figure 2. a represents the root function of the harmony while b represents a second function which lies at the interval of a major second from the root. In the case of two part harmony there are only eleven possible two part chords within the octave11. Voice leading (chord connection) in two part harmony is limited to only two possibilities: either chord functions (third.the General Theory Of Harmony. Figure 2.24. the alternating voice leading causes inversion of the chord structure: the major second transforms into a minor seventh. fifth etc. In Figure 2.) in a two note chord alternate between consecutive chords (a → b ) or the functions remain b a unchanged (parallel) between chords. A simple case of two part harmony will give the reader a good idea of how harmonic strata are generated and controlled.25 shows a sequence of two part harmony (strata) in the upper stave and the roots on which it is built in the lower stave.24 shows a pentatonic scale and its derivative harmonic structures resulting from scale 'expansion' Pentatonic scale 0 'expansion' œ & œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 1st. allows chord structures to be derived from all scale 'expansions'.25. Pentatonic scale and its harmonic derivatives. 'expansion' œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 2nd.

When three part chords are introduced the number of potential voice leadings dramatically increases. These methods largely involve combining techniques from earlier portions of the system (such as Book VIII. it should be observed that while the two strata are co-ordinated harmonically. 2.25. Schillinger develops ever more complex combinations of strata (∑) with ever more parts and hybrid doubling. However. Schillinger develops methods of creating scores with huge numbers of parts. a violin. Such an arrangement might be suitable for distribution between two distinct instrumental groups. Despite the simplicity of the example shown in Figure 2. For example. melody with accompaniment and contrapuntal textures including canons in more than two parts.10. it is 43 . Schillinger describes a number of techniques for converting the strata into musically satisfactory forms. Instrumental Forms) and do not merit detailed description here.25 represents what Schillinger refers to as 'hybrid three-part harmony'. Figure 2. Strata may be assigned to various instrumental groups within an ensemble helping to create a co-ordinated but defined orchestral texture. Schillinger introduces an idea which he refers to as 'textural density'. This is one of the most impenetrable discussions because it is largely written in Schillinger's own highly complex system of algebraic notation and is accompanied by very few musical examples. The roots in the lower stave represent an added strata of one part. taking the upper part and bassoon playing the roots in the lower stave.Strata Roots # œ # œœ œ # # œœ # œ # # œœ # œ # # œœ ‹ œ œ #œ #œ œœ œ œœ œ #œ œ & ? œ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ #œ #œ #œ #œ œ b---------a--------b-------a a--------b-------a--------b a a a a Figure 2.2 Harmonic density In Chapter 15. For example. Each strata can be defined or independent from the surrounding strata because of its individual voice leading.25. Two part harmony with alternating voice leading. their independence in voice leading facilitates the clarity of the chosen orchestration.

substitute harmonic strata. The first element is a 'sigma' (∑1) which contains three 'strata' (shaded areas).∑1. For example. A sequence of Sigma such as this would be referred to as a 'density group'. (∑3. The density of music changes very rapidly: an orchestral work contains numerous instrumental combinations ranging from solo to tutti. It is important to note that the harmonic structures which constitute each strata do not change their position which would radically alter the harmonic structure of 44 . Once a density group has been composed its variations can be generated by rotation. For the house substitute Sigma. then with its ground and top floors missing. I personally find it helpful to imagine a sigma as being like a geological diagram showing a cross section of the Earth's crust. A density group of three ∑. can be generated by the rotation of the three ∑. This is rotation around the x axis of Figure 2.(∑2. Imagine a sequence of slides in which the same three story building appears at first complete. Schillinger suggests that there is another kind of density which he implies is more fundamental to musical flow than instrumental combination.26.26 which causes the textures (forms of arpeggiation) belonging to the various strata to rotate in a vertical direction. this might be described as the density of orchestration. 'Textural density' depends on varying the number of 'strata' in a score from one moment to the next. and its variations.∑3. Strata 1 Strata 2 Strata 3 ∑1 ∑2 ∑3 ∑3 ∑1 ∑2 ∑2 ∑3 ∑1 Figure 2.∑2). The following diagram shows a three element density group. The complete procedure for the composition of 'textural density' involves the simultaneous occurrence of a second form of rotation. and finally with the top and bottom floors intact but missing the middle story.25.one of Schillinger's more unusual and far reaching ideas and deserves clarification.∑1). This is the complete form and it is followed by two incomplete versions of itself (∑2 and ∑3). for the floor levels. Variations of the density group shown in Figure 2. The General Theory Of Harmony is based on the idea that a score can be made up of independent but co-ordinated harmonic layers: these collectively are referred to as a 'sigma' (∑).

I have applied labels to each strata to indicate a hypothetical form of arpeggiation. might be different types of melodic arpeggiation. It is certainly true that texture and density became important considerations in the work of later generations of composers. Three variations produced by vertical rotation. M1.can also be looked upon as modernisation of the source. I believe. harmonic form 1.. of any scale. In each variation the forms of arpeggiation rotate around a horizontal axis moving upwards by one place at a time as indicated by the arrows. There may be a certain national style which.. H and M. The Theory Of Pitch Scales. Often styles of intonation can be defined geographically and historically.the entire score. and M2. it is not my intention here to suggest that they were directly influenced by Schillinger's work. Let us assume two types of musical texture. The General Theory Of Harmony.The various forms of "jazz" and "swing". The textures. such as Stockhausen and Ligeti. is a short summary of ideas found mainly in Book II. (M2).. It contains no new ideas but is concerned with distilling and combining various techniques into a procedure for developing the full potential. and melodic form 2.12 2....11 Book X: Evolution Of Pitch-Families (Style) Book X. one of Schillinger's more far sighted ideas. in due course of time. 45 . The following diagram shows three variations of the original density group.. undergoes various modifications.. The concept of density as a musical dimension which can be used to control the texture and flow of a composition is. however. This is done in order to trace the evolution of a scale from its original (primitive) form to its 'modernised' fully developed hybrid form. Strata 1 ↑ Strata 2 ↑ Strata 3 ↑ M1 ↑ M1 ↑ ↑ ↑ H1 H1 M2 M1 M2 M1 ↑ ↑ ↑ M2 M2 H1↑ H1 M2 M2 ↑ M1 M1 H1 H1 Figure 2. (M1). These apply to Figure 2. the "Indian" music of MacDowell or Cadman or 12However.27. both melodic and harmonic. (H1).27. are moved. These modifications. as follows: melodic form 1. while H1 might be a form of chordal accompaniment. and Book IX.

however. 2.12 Book XI: Theory Of Composition 2. Schillinger outlines three basic approaches to composing: 1) Composition of parts or themes without prior knowledge of the whole form: this may potentially result in the connection of themes or material which do not belong together. is divided into three parts: 1) Composition Of Thematic Units.1 General approach In the introduction to Book XI.each. Works of different quality may result from each of these three basic approaches.2 Part I: Composition of Thematic Units In Part I. 2) Improvisation. Each approach contains different ratios of the intuitive and the rational elements by which the process of composition is accomplished. otherwise referred to as a theme or a subject. 3) Semantic (Connotative) Composition. Schillinger's view of composition is perhaps less rigid than one might expect.(Schillinger 1978 Page 1277) The Theory Of Composition. (Schillinger 1978 page 1255) 2. Schillinger introduces the idea of the 'thematic unit': the basic building blocks of a composition. are stylised or modernised primitives . 2) Composition Of Thematic Continuity. Often these forms of creation are fused with one another. A 'thematic unit'. 3) Conception of the whole form prior to creating its various parts.Stravinsky ( Les Noces). The Theory Of Composition deals with the last of these approaches. of course. which almost by definition does not anticipate the whole and tends towards loose structures and /or excessive repetition.12.12. in its respective field. is a structure which will yield variations and ultimately 46 .

(A.3 Part II:Composition of Thematic Continuity Part II. a 'thematic unit' derived primarily from rhythm (a 'major' component) might well involve pitch as a secondary ('minor') component. B2T. Rhythms. A few examples of different schemes of 'thematic sequence' are as follows: binary forms (A+B). The different sources are referred to as the 'major' and a 'minor' components. such as those presented in Book I. The last entry in the list above (orchestral resources). subject A. For example. For example. in the following scheme.9) as potential components for the composition of a 'thematic unit'. is a discussion of musical form and how 'thematic units' (themes or subjects) are joined to form a 'thematic sequence'. For example. dynamics. scales. No new ideas are presented but these chapters are useful summaries of the different subjects and techniques presented in earlier portions of the system. orchestral resources (Schillinger 1978 page 1279). the sequence of 'thematic units'. melodies. CT) where T represents a 47 .10. symmetrical forms (A+B+A) and rotational forms (A+B+C)(B+C+A)(C+A+B).C) could be assigned the following durations. Such an arrangement offers possibilities for the gradual transformation of one idea to another. includes the possibility of tone quality. Composition Of Thematic Continuity. The most interesting of these. Schillinger devotes a chapter to each of the seven categories listed above.2) and instrumental forms (see section 2. Chapter 12 Temporal Co-ordination Of Thematic Units outlines methods of controlling the dominance of a subject ('thematic unit') within the composition as a whole. in my opinion. (2. A 'thematic unit' may often be composed from more than one source.1) are used to determine the duration of the 'thematic units'. is the so called 'progressive symmetric' form.1) resulting in (A2T. (see section 2.harmonic progressions.B. is replaced by subject C: A+(A+B)+(A+B+C)+(B+C)+(C). counterpoint. density (see section 2. Here a subject ('thematic unit') gradually looses its dominance to another subject.whole sections of a composition. arpeggiated ('melodized') harmony. 2. Schillinger lists seven sources from which to develop 'thematic units': rhythm. These represent the basic technical resources from which the 'thematic unit' is developed.12.2. Each 'thematic unit' is represented by letters of the alphabet.

'Temporal saturation' (point 2) is the degree of density of events (notes..) within a given time. In this arrangement.and merely consumes time. C. harmonies etc. 5) Temporal definition and distribution of thematic groups. This theory repudiates the academic point of view. Integration Of Thematic Continuity.predetermined unit of bars. Schillinger describes the process of composition in ten stages. 7) Composition of thematic units. 1) Decision as to total length of composition in clock time. 3) Decision as the number of subjects and thematic groups of subjects. 4) Form of thematic sequence. 2) Decision as to degree of temporal saturation. 10) Instrumental development (orchestration / instrumentation). 'Temporal definition and distribution of thematic groups' (point 5) refers to the different weight or duration applied to each subject . Planning A Composition. In Chapter 14. 6) Organisation of temporal continuity.. according to which some themes are so unimportant that they function as mere bridges tying the main themes together. When a subject ('thematic unit') is repeated in the course of a composition it does not necessarily occupy the same length as in its original exposition. (Schillinger 1978 page 1335). (After Schillinger 1978 page 1353)...the ratio or balance between 48 . is relatively less prominent than subjects A and B. the longer our perception of time.. attacks. Schillinger believes that our perception of musical time is dependent on the saturation of events: the greater the density of events. Schillinger is very clear on the matter of the relative importance of the various subjects. it should not participate in the composition. 9) Intonational co-ordination (key structure). In Chapter 13. 8) Composition of thematic groups. Schillinger suggests that 'thematic units' should initially be composed in their 'maximal' form (longest duration) after which they may be subject to fragmentation or contraction. If a certain thematic unit is unimportant..

quaver. The remainder of Part II. From this we can conclude that a great many of the early sonic symbols probably originated as imitation of sonic patterns.subjects and the form of their distribution. 'Organisation of temporal continuity' (point 6) refers to the basic duration unit (crotchet. coming as stimuli from the surrounding world (Schillinger 1978 page 1411) Schillinger points to forms of language. 2. 49 . Book XI.28). the meaning of which is influenced by intonation.4 Part III:Semantic (Connotative) Composition Part III. Semantic (Connotative) composition. and asserts that at some point in human evolution a single 'language' of sonic symbols separated into two forms: speech and music. it is no wonder that primitive man inherited highly developed mimetic responses. He concludes that. is based on the idea that musical forms are 'sonic symbols'.12. triplet quaver etc. on which the various possible responses to stimuli are represented. Book XI. As the response to sonic forms exists even in so-called inanimate nature in the form of sympathetic vibrations or resonance. music is capable of expressing everything which can be translated into form of motion (Schillinger 1978 page 1411) The composition of notation to describe 'sonic symbols' begins with the development of a 'psychological dial' (Figure 2. is devoted to working out examples of monothematic (theme and variations) and polythematic compositions.) for each subject or 'thematic unit'.

As described in the Theory Of Melody. Theory Of Melody. The theory by which events influence psychological states and are in turn translated into music is developed from ideas first presented in Book IV. Consequently any point on the dial can be translated into the motion of a secondary axis. the steeper the angle of the axes with respect to the P. when moving towards the primary axis it corresponds to the negative zone. When the secondary axis moves away from the primary axis it corresponds to the positive zone of the 'dial'. the left half is negative ('loss of energy and decline') and the right half is positive ('gain of energy and growth).A.28 Psychological dial (After Schillinger 1978 page 281). For example. Alternatively he is asked to pay $100 for a pencil. Schillinger illustrates the use of the 'dial' through anecdote. his response is 'normal'. Schillinger believes that the direction of melodic contours in relation to the primary axis corresponds to contraction or expansion. a man who enters a bargain basement store expecting to pay no more than ten cents for any item has his expectations confirmed. negative and positive respectively (see section 2. as suggested by the dial.5). which is represented on the dial at 180°. The dial is divided vertically into two halves.Negative Subnormal 135° Normal 180 ° Positive 225° Supernormal Infranormal 90° 270° Ultranormal Subnatural 45° 0° 360° Abnormal 315° Supernatural Figure 2. his response is astonishment or disbelief which can perhaps be represented on the dial at 90° (infranormal). The more extreme the required stimulus and response. 50 .The following diagram shows five 'dial' positions and their corresponding potential axial configurations..

Monotony. (3) Melodic Forms: Only stationary and regularly oscillating forms.A Psychological dials Positive P. such as programme music or film and stage music (Schillinger 1978 page 1461).A. Inactivity. harmony. (2) Pitch Scales: Scales with a limited number of pitch units and fairly uniform distribution of intervals. timbral density and so on. Schillinger gives lists of examples of how such correspondences can be translated into rhythm.Uniformity. Secondary axis Balance P. a fashionable device in contemporary film 51 . Contemplation.29. such as those shown above. There are musical examples and verbal descriptions. Psychological dials and axial correspondences.Negative P. The qualities associated with a particular dial position. For example. (1) Temporal Rhythm: Durations ranging from very long to moderately long. Quiescence. For example. and a wide range for association with large dimensions. He suggests that this technique is invaluable for composition based on narrative forms. depending on the degree of activity. in uniform or nearly uniform motion. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Figure 2. Repose.A. within a moderate pitch range for association with small dimensions. Passive. are in my opinion only useful to the composer in a general sense: it is valuable to consider melodic contours in terms of expansion. Normal: Associations: Balance. (Schillinger 1978 page 1433) Schillinger discusses how sonic symbols may be combined into sequences. melody. contraction and balance but to take into account the precise angle between two axes while composing is less helpful. It is also true that the qualities Schillinger ascribes to particular axial forms cannot be universally applied.

quiescence. quite the opposite from the feeling of suspense and fear they are intended to evoke. 2. 2. would be classified by Schillinger's method as suggestive of balance.music is to associate moments of extreme tension with sustained bass tones. This seems generally to accord with Schillinger's own point of view (see Chapter 2. The quality or beauty of a structure depends on the imagination and cultural experience of the artist. the reader may be asking the following questions: how do Schillinger's numerical techniques aid the process of composition? Is every part of his 'system' necessary or can some of it be used in isolation from the rest? In answer to the first question. Book XII: Theory Of Orchestration This portion of the text is mainly a very standard description of the tuning. an emotional impulse. one might say that the tools traditionally used by cabinet makers assist in the accurate manufacture of furniture but they hardly guarantee the quality of the design. music begins with an idea.12) which acknowledges a mixture of the rational 52 . For myself. but after acknowledging the difficulties inherent in this task the chapter ends. acoustical basis. Chapter 8. Schillinger's techniques satisfy the second part of this process. as it were. Chapter 9. and 'keyboard controlled'). An editorial note suggests that Schillinger left notes on this subject but had not completed them before his death. The original impulse is realised and nurtured into maturity by intellectual effort and technical knowledge. they are tools that enable the composer to build structures. Schillinger clearly intended to develop an understanding of instrumental combination from a scientific. Acoustical Basis Of Orchestration. Instrumental Combination. Conclusion Having summarised The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) in such a compressed form.14. the head and the heart. I view the art of composition as a dual problem involving. is an attempt to classify and compare instrumental timbres. Schillinger also includes a chapter on electronic musical instruments which contains a description of different types of Theremin ('space controlled'. passivity and contemplation. is only a few paragraphs long. range and basic performance characteristics of orchestral instruments.13. section 2. Drones such as these. which motivates me to compose. repose. By comparison. 'finger controlled'.

For example. the balance between intuitive and technical decision making is not easy to define and in my opinion there is still a polarisation of opinion in the world of music between those who believe only in structures consciously devised by the intellect and others who adopt the opposite point of view.12.and intuitive. Consequently. I personally find all of Schillinger's work thought provoking. are applied consistently to all branches of his system. such asTheTheory Of Composition. There are original and surprising concepts contained elswhere in the system but one finds throughout that the rhythmic techniques described in Book I. His approach is remarkably consistent. are presented as the pinnacle of his work. section 2. attempting to reveal a 'methodological way to arrive at a decision" (Schillinger 1978 page 1356). in those of my compositions that have been influenced by his work I have used only a very few of his methods and these have mainly been techniques relating to the composition of rhythmic structures. and yet I find the ten point plan for making a composition (see Chapter 2. However. by step. However. 53 . The Theory Of Rhythm. describes the latter attitude well using a quotation from the poet Robert Burns: "Gie me ae spark o' Nature's fire. An editorial footnote in the introduction to Schillinger's Theory Of Melody. parts of his 'system'. there is much that I cannot agree with or else believe to be irrelevant to my own work as a composer.3) extremely unappealing as it attempts to order. a complex process that I believe happens in a more complex simultaneous manner. That's a' the learning I desire" (Quoted in Schillinger 1978 page 227) In answer to the second question.

.... .2. ↓ ↓ 1 e ↓ ↓ 2 q...1-1....... The following diagram is presented to remind the reader who will find the full explanation of this method in Chapter 2 section 2....2... Rhythms produced in this way are always symmetrical around their centre point..... .2 Rhythms Produced By Pulse Interference In Chapter 2 (section 2....4:3.1) I described how pulses of different frequencies combine to produce rhythm. ..... Two methods of generating rhythms are offered... The numbers in the ratio are referred to as the 'major' and 'minor' generator according to their relative size... Pulse 'interference' of 3:2.... For example.1... . ...... (2. I will try and show how they can be applied in practical composition and in this way I intend to make later discussions of my own music more easily understood.. 3... the first method was described in Chapter 2...1 and in particular Figure 2.. A=3 B=2 Result (A+B) Result displayed numerically Result in music notation ↓ ↓ ⇓ 2 q....Chapter 3 Seminal techniques 3...2.. Figure 3... .. → .1 Introduction The aim of this chapter is to amplify those of Schillinger's ideas which are important to my own work..........2)... ↓ ↓ → 1 .. e ... . Schillinger refers to this process as 'pulse interference' and represents the various pulse relationships using ratios such as 3:2.. The 'generators' provide information about possible barring of the rhythm. 54 ...5:2 etc...

2. In Chapter 2.2.2) can be grouped in bars of 3. This technique is the more significant because it produces results which can be combined with the structures generated by other methods such as those associated with the 'master time signature' (see Chapter 2 section 2. Method 1 produces rhythms whose duration is the product of the two generators. or bars of 2.2. I alluded to a second method of generating rhythm through pulse 'interference'. it will be observed that in order to complete a cycle of 'interference' several groups of the 'minor' generator are required. 3 &4 ˙ œ œ˙ 2 ˙ 4 œœ ˙ 6 ˙ 4 œ œ˙ Figure 3.2. or bars of 6 (the product of the generators). For example. In Figure 3. in the case of 3:2. The key difference between the two methods is in the duration of the resultant rhythm.Figure 3. Three groupings of the rhythm 3:2. the duration of the rhythm will be 9 time units.1. These groupings represent the most efficient barring of the rhythm and reveal potential contrasts . In order to distinguish between the two methods I shall adopt Schillinger's notation: a ratio without underlining (3:2) represents method 1. The second method of generating rhythm. (2. the rhythm 3:2 has a duration of 6 time units (2+1+1+2). The following diagram shows the graph of 3:2. a ratio underlined (3:2) represents method 2.1.3. shows how the rhythm 3:2. 55 . Figure 3. * ** ↓ ↓ ↓ 2 ↓ ↓ ↓ 1 ↓ 1 ↓ 1 ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 1 ↓ 1 ↓ ↓ 2 ↓ 3×3 3 × 2 (phase 1) 3 × 2 (phase 2) Result Numerical result *=phase 1 of 'major' generator . each group starting on succeeding phases of the major generator. **=phase 2 of 'major' generator.3). Method 2 uses the square of the larger 'generator' to determine the duration of the resulting rhythm.

1 t3 1 8 1 t2 1 4 1 t 1 2 t t 2 2 t 2 t2 4 t3 8 Figure 3.3. I described the following rule: the number of beats in the bar equals the number of bars in the bar group.1. Consequently an entire rhythmic scheme develops from a single number.1.1. The second method of pulse 'interference'.2) 4:3 by method one = (3. 3.1.1.2.Schillinger refers to the process shown in Figure 3.1. 2. 56 .1 Sub-grouping the master time signature The master time signature controls both rhythm on the small and large scale: the rhythm within the bar and the rhythm of the bars themselves.4.3) Both methods produce symmetrical rhythms.3) is also based on the process of squaring and this common process allows the results of the two techniques to be combined into a single structure.1. In fact he suggests that cubes may be used as the upper limit after which the bar groups and meter become too large.4.2.1. Below is an illustration showing the development of the master time signature. In Chapter 2 (section 2.2.3) I described how the master time signature could be used to create patterns within bars as well as bar groups.3) 4:3 by method two = (3.1.1. the results of which are related to one another.2. Evolution of the master time signature through a power series. 13looking at figure 3. that is evolution by means of a power series13.3 The master time signature 3. Squaring the master time signature is a process Schillinger refers to as 'involution'.2.1.1.1. described above (see Figure 3. it might appear that Schillinger contemplated the use of powers higher than 2. This ensures that the total number of beats in the whole bar group is a number that can be generated by squaring the master time signature.1.3 as 'fractioning' and it produces results which are very obviously related to the results obtained by the first method.2) 3:2 by method two = (2. being made up of different quantities of the same numbers. Compare the following rhythms produced by the two methods: 3:2 by method one = (2.1.

It is more usual that each beat is divided by 2. method 1).The 6 series is described as a typical 'hybrid' of the 3 series and the 2 series. it is useful to apply Schillinger's special technique of fragmentation. groups with 8 bars and so on15 The choice of the master time signature and the process of defining bar groups and metre is the first step in the application of this technique. such as 4.14 The letter t represents time units and or bars. Composers arrived at 3 bar groups by expanding a 2 bar group or contracting a 4 bar group. however. In the case of a master time signature that is an even number. It is important to stress that this is not a mechanical process. This produces increasingly fragmented sub-groups which are 'related' to one another. means one bar of 2 beats.In Figure 3. For instance. It is related to the first box on the right of the master time signature. For example the rarity of true 3 and 9 bar groups in classical music is attributed to the influence of 2. the master time signature is shown at the centre of the series (shaded area).4. For example . In practise.2. which means a bar group of 2 bars. the first sub-groups would be (1+4) or (2+3). (see Chapter 2. to the left hand side of the master time signature. The master time signature (a single number) is divided into two parts. Continuing to compare equivalent boxes on the left and right hand sides we get the following relationships: bars with 4 beats. However.3. than evolving through its power to 9. 57 . Schillinger suggests a method of generating basic rhythmic material with which to start the process. Once the total length of bars and beats has been determined it is necessary to create the rhythmic material that will be contained by the bars. fractions represent the number of units or beats in a bar while the right hand side represents the number of bars in the bar group. creating a bar of 6. 15Shillinger believed that the 2 series has greatly undermined the development of western music because its use has inhibited the evolution of other series. the first box to the left of the 1 master time signature. This involves sub-grouping the master time signature. On the lower line. 2. The two fragments are then subject to rotation in order to 14For the complete table see Schillinger 1978 page 71. The composer who practises this method soon learns to analyse his or her spontaneous imaginative thoughts for their potential use with this particular technique. 2 . It is always better to avoid dividing it into equal portions which lead to less dynamic rhythms. if the master time signature were 5. Another example would be the rarity with which music in bars of 3 beats evolves into bars of 9 beats. Sub-grouping (fragmentation) of the master time signature may be accomplished by any means as long as the resulting fragments are whole numbers whose sum equals the master time signature. bars with 8 beats. groups of 4 bars. section 2.

.a)..3. This is important because it will be expanded by a squaring formula to completely fill the bar group. 3. This process can be continued until 'uniformity' (1+1+1+1..5..) is reached. For example. section 2.produce a variant (see Chapter 2 section 2. The two variants are then combined through 'interference' (see Chapter 2..b)→(b. A three element sub-group combined with all of its variants by rotation will produce a five element sub-group. The squaring formula is as follows: 58 .4): (a. ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 3+2 2+3 2+1+2 1+2+2 2+2+1 1+1+1+1+1 Figure 3..2 Squaring the sub-groups A sub-group represents a rhythmic pattern of one bar and should in practise be a carefully considered motif. (2+1+2) combined with (1+2+2) combined with (2+2+1)→ 1+1+1+1+1 (uniformity) The method just described is now shown in the form of a table.2) to produce a new sub-group with more elements: a two element subgroup combined with its variant by rotation will produce a three element subgroup. In this way a rhythm contained in one bar exerts its influence over many bars. Sub-groups of the master time signature 5.2. 5→ (2+3) rotation (3+2)... The squaring process is perhaps the most important technique in the entire system because it causes rhythmic material to evolve organically: not only is new material generated but it is distributed in a manner that is harmonious and consistent with the original. (2+3) combined with (3+2)→ (2+1+2) rotation (1+2+2) rotation (2+2+1)..

Furthermore it is possible to create 'interference' between the two to create yet another rhythm. The relationship of the original sub-group to its square. most interesting as they are rhythms which accelerate or retard. Original: A+B A. The following example shows the same procedure using 5 as the master time signature.a+a.a+c.g. and (3+2) as its sub-group. A and B represent the two elements of a sub-group derived from the master time signature16.3. 5→(3+2) (3+2)2 =(9+6)+(6+4)=25 Taking the above example we see that a sub-group (3+2).B Square: Figure 3.b+b.c)+(c. 59 .6.b+a.A--A. E.c) This aspect of the process is related to a much later part of the system in which types of progressive symmetry are described. A AB ABC BC B. that is the arrangement of elements so that the dominance of an element changes over time. The squared sub-group and its retrograde are.B--B.a+b. 16The 17 formula can be simply modified to accomodate any number of elements in a subgroup.B)+(B. Realising the results as a score Continuing our example of 5 as the master time signature.A + B2 ) In the above formula.c)+(b. See Chapter 2 section 2.( A+B)2 =(A2 +A.(a+b+c)2 =(a. As in most other branches of the system a rhythm can be used backwards or forwards or in some kind of rotated variation.A--B.17 The following diagram illustrates this relationship. when squared produces 4 elements (9+6+6+4) and that the result is related to the original by emphasising first one of the original numbers and then the other. Eg. in my opinion.b+c.12. the results of the squaring process are combined into a 5 bar score as shown below.

A=3. w ˙ 6 œ ˙. Schillinger provides another. However. in every bar of the score.7. ˙.2).3.4 Incorporating the original sub-group It would be possible to repeat the sub-group or a rotated variation of it.(3+2) 2 (2+3) 2 5 9 & 4 ˙. as with the squaring formula (see section 3. The results of squaring realised as a score. 3. & œ & 1 9 6 ˙ 6 w œ œ ˙. more elegant method.3. of incorporating the sub-group. 4 w ˙ œ 4 w œ w Figure 3. 6 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙. only the original elements of the sub-group are enlarged. until the bar group was filled. 5 The above combined 1 œ 5 ˙ w 5 œ ˙. 5 4 &4 w 5 4 &4 w & ˙. The sub-group can be combined with its square by applying the following formula: A[ A+B] +B[ A+B] For example. It is important to note that no new elements are generated. 60 . B=2 3[ 3+2] +2[ 3+2] =15+10=25 In effect this expands the original sub-group allowing it to be combined with its square.

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ The above combined Original sub-group expanded ˙. & œ & œ & ˙.(3+2) 2 (2+3) 2 5 & 4 ˙.3) in which the duration is determined by squaring the 'major' generator can also be combined into the score so long as the major generator is identical to the master time signature. Expanding the original sub-group. 3. 61 . œ w ˙ w ˙ ˙ ˙. & ˙.8. w ˙.5 Incorporating rhythms produced by 'fractioning' The method described of creating rhythms by the 'interference' of pulses (see Chapter 3. w w ˙ œ ˙. 5 &4 w 5 &4 w 5 10 & 4 ˙. ˙. ˙ œ œ ˙ w ˙.3. Figure 3. 15 ˙. ˙ ˙ œ ˙. Figure 3.

(3+2) 2 (2+3) 2 5 & 4 ˙. They are stable structures which I can only describe as possessing a satisfying rhythmic wholeness. &œ &œ & ˙. Square structures such as the one shown in Figure 3. ˙. 5 . ˙. œ ˙.9. ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ œ 1 The above combined Sub-group exapnded œ 1 œ 1 5:3 œ 1 œ 1 œ 1 œ 1 & ˙.9. The entire structure is generated from a single bar's worth of material. 62 . w ˙. There is diversity and syncopation of rhythm within the structure combined with a cyclical inevitability of the whole. Incorporating 'fractioned' rhythms. &œ 1 ˙ w w ˙ œ 1 œ ˙. 3 ˙ 2 ˙ 2 Figure 3. ˙. &4 ˙ 3 ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ 2 w ˙. 5 &4 w 5 &4 w 5 & 4 ˙. œ 1 w ˙ w ˙ ˙. can be generated with a very large number of parts. œ 1 œ ˙ œ ˙ ˙ 2 ˙.

section 2. My own research began with the aim of revealing structure in improvisation and in my composition I have always been influenced by the flow and spontaneity of semi-improvised music such as jazz. In fact it would be more accurate to describe Figure 3..) Figure 3. (Schillinger 1978 page 85) suggests that much music and particularly Jazz is based on the combination of more than one master time signature 18.10.3. œ. A 'Charleston' type rhythm (after Schillinger 1978 Figure 140. patterns of durations derived from the number 6 are placed in bars with 8 beats creating an accented or syncopated 'jazz' feel. In Figure 3. 18See Chapter 2.10 as the result of combining the master time signatures 3 and 8. page 86. 'Charleston' type rhythms come about through combining the master time signatures of 6 and 8.. These patterns can be represented as durations tied across the bar lines (bottom stave) or as a pattern of accents in quavers (top stave).4. œ œ œ œ œ œ J J J J 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Figure 3.10 shows how durations (3. 63 . For example. 8 8 8 8 > > > > > > > > œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœ œ.10.) are distributed in bars of 8 beats. Schillinger's observations on the rhythmic structure of jazz have been of considerable interest because they deal with jazz as it was in the 1930's and 40's.4 Jazz and Funk Rhythm 3.2.1 Introduction One of the attractive aspects of Schillinger's work is that it does not attempt to exclude any style of music on the grounds that it is not worthy of theoretical study or so loosely structured as to make analyses impossible.3.3. œ œ œ J œ œ. Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm. More recent forms of Jazz and funk are very different from the swing music Schillinger describes and yet his observations can be extended to provide insight into more modern styles.

. Schillinger suggests that the number 3.The bottom stave of Figure 3.11.. Schillinger's analyses of swing and rhythmic hybrids is perhaps somewhat 64 .. 4 + 1+4 9 + 1+4 + 1 Figure 3.. He observes that although the music is notated as though it conformed to patterns derived from 8. the rhythmic unit (4+1+4) is not consistently distributed through the bars. illustrates the development of swing rhythms. it is by convention automatically performed in triplets. 8 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 8 8 œ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœ œ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœ 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 œ œœœ œ œœœ 8 JJ JJ 3 3 3 3 œ œœœ œ œœ œ JJ JJ 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 œ œ œ œœ 8 J J 3 3 2 + 1. Schillinger claims this to be an example of a true hybrid of the 8 and 9 series. (4+1+4) distributed through bars of 8 beats. œœœ œ œœœ œ œœ JJ J 3 1.11.... however.. 1+2..Schillinger suggests that swing music such as that performed by Benny Goodman and his band (Schillinger 1978 page 88) is the result of the combination of the master time signatures 8 and 9. 2 + 1. Swing.. is "engaged in a struggle for crystalization' (Schillinger 1978 page 86).. However. the result of combining patterns of 8 and 9.. Schillinger believes that this is not really the case: both 3 and 9 belong to the same power series.11. (2+1) or (1+2)... Figure 3..11. the top stave shows bars of 8 beats which 'evolve' into bars of 12 beats (second stave) through the influence of triplets. It is this common factor that establishes their dominant influence on the rhythmic patterns.. shows a subgroup of 9. In Figure 3. At this point the reader may reasonably consider that 12 is really the dominant influence on the rhythm. The third line shows typical swing patterns in triplets which are derived from sub-groups of the number 3..11. as can be seen from Figure 3. of the triplets. Schillinger concludes from this that 9.. reveals the influence of the power series of which 9 is a member.

Schillinger's observation that patterns of 8 underlie swing and traditional jazz rhythm has lead me to speculate about the developments of rhythm in later forms of jazz. It is also true to say that some of the compositions presented in this thesis will serve as illustrations of how the theory is applied in practise. ÷ 4 œ‰ œ‰ œ≈‰ œ ≈ ≈ œ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰. Drum ≈ œ‰ œ ‰ œ Œ J 3 Ó œ‰ œŒ Ó (13) (13) Bass j ? 4 œ ‰ ‰ œ˚≈ ≈ ≈ 4 bœ œœ œ b œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œœ œ œœ œ œ b œ ‰ ‰ œœ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ b œ ≈ œ œ ≈ # œ œ œ #œ œ œ 3 3 2. œÓ J (13) œ ‰. In the decades after his death. I believe that in these later styles. An example by the author of a funk rhythm based on sub-groups of 16. it is useful to consider their rhythmic structure and historical development in terms of Schillinger's theory.12. 65 . 1. 2 3 Figure 3. Œ 4 J 2 7 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 Clave œ‰ œ‰ œ ≈ ≈ œ‰ œ ‰ J J 3 3 3 œ‰ 3 œ ≈ ≈ œ ‰ œ ‰. jazz evolved into more developed forms as is evident in the music of John Coltrane. Œ 4 J (13) ÷ 4 œ‰. In the introduction to this chapter I indicated that I would illustrate some of the practical applications of Schillinger's rhythmic techniques. 4 J J J J J J J 12 2 2 ÷ 4 2 œœœœ œœ œ1œ2 œ 2œ 2 œ 2 œ 4 œ 9 ÷ 4 œ‰.2. J ‰. J J J 12 3 3 3 3 4 Hi Hat 12 12 2 œ œ œœœ 2 2œ 12 2 œ 2 œœ2œœ œ œ œ2 œ œ1 2 œ2œ œ 2œ œœ œ 9 œ œ œ œ 2 œ2 œ 9 12 2 2 7 Snare ≈œ‰ Œ J Œ 3 7 œ ‰. a process of rhythmic evolution has taken place: in funk a whole variety of typical rhythmic patterns can be derived from sub-grouping the number 16. œ‰ œ≈≈ œ‰ œ ‰. The examples given so far in this chapter are intentionally bland in order to be as clear as possible. I shall present two small examples showing how rhythmic techniques can be applied to the composition of funk and contemporary jazz-type rhythm.12. and 3. illustrate these developments. While I do not wish to suggests that funk or later forms of jazz have only one route of origin. Herbie Hancock or the Modern Jazz Quartet. 2 . Figure 3.1. ≈œ‰ J ˚ ≈ ≈≈ j œ œ nœ ‰ 3 3 1. In the 1970's a style of popular music known as funk emerged which could be described as a fusion of Jazz and African music. J Œ Œ ≈œ‰ Œ J Œ B. However. œÓ J 3 7 9 œ ‰. while more contemporary forms of Jazz rhythm can be evolved from sub-groups of 32.over-complicated and in practise it is more convenient to think of tuplets of any sort as ornamentation of a background pulse rather than as the hybrid form of two master time signatures.13. 1. J ‰. 2 (12−−−−−−−−−−) (12−−−−−−−−−−−)(12−−−−−−−−−−−−) 2. J œ ‰.

3. The exception to this is the bass line which is a modification of the interference rhythm 8:3 (see section 3. Nearly all rhythmic patterns in this example come about through the subgrouping of the number 16.2.3). Although the music is barred in 4/4 it is conceived as having 16 beats to the bar (semi-quavers).2 [36×1] 2.Figure 3.2.1. 66 . I divided it into three groups of 12 (36) and arranged each group of 12 into 8 semi-quavers followed by 4 semi-quaver rests.1. Once the rhythm has been decided on.1). This rhythm has a total duration of 64 semi-quavers and will therefore be contained by 4 bars of 4/4.3.1). which carries some melodic content. (see section 3.12.1. The middle segment of this rhythm is characterised by 36 repetitions of 1. variation is achieved in each successive bar through rotation of the elements of the rhythm. I felt that such a number of repetitions represented too much musical activity and so I modified the central section of the rhythm accordingly.2.1. shows a typical funk rhythm. This was desirable because I felt that the bass line. The complete rhythm of 8:3 is as follows: (3.2. should have a more developed rhythmic structure than the accompanying percussion instruments whose patterns exist within a single bar of 4/4.2. This is a good example of how 'ideal' rhythmic structures are modified to serve the musical intention.

13. 3 5 2 6 2 5 3 2 1 (1+2+3+5+8+13) superimposed on (13+8+5+3+2+1)=(1+2+3+5+2+6+2+5+3+2+1). Œ œ ® ≈. bœ ® ® ‰ Bass œ ® ® nœ ® bœ ≈ œ œ ® ®≈ Page 92). 5 œ œ ‰ 1 (10) ‰ 1 ®œ œ ®Œ ‰. J ® œ ‰. (1+2) 3. Of particular interest is the bass line ˚ j ‰. œ Ó B.. . However. which originates from the Fibonacci J series. 2 6 ≈ b œ ® œ ≈..‰ Each part is derivedœ ® œ ® Œ Hi Hat ÷ terms of 32 ˚ (13) (13) from a different sub-grouping of 32. 1 œ ÷ J ‰ . œ ®Œ J ‰ (13) (10) 1 1 Hi Hat œ œ Œ œ ‰.. Drum ÷ œ ‰ . Drum œ ® ‰ J Œ œ ≈ 2 5 Bass ?4 œ 4 bœ ® œ ≈ 1 2 3 œ ® bœ 2 ≈ 6 ≈.4.Claves q60 (10) ÷ 4 œ ‰. 4 ÷ 4 ≈ 4 (13) ≈ ‰ ... Schillinger observes that the sum of the first six terms of the Fibonacci series equals 32 (Schillinger 1978 œ ? ≈ œ‰ . œ œ® ≈ ≈ œ ® bœ 3 2 1 Claves ÷ œ œ ‰. ≈ 1 (10) ‰. Rhythm based on 32 1producing a style more associated with modern jazz. Drum ÷ ® œ ‰.. J ® œ œ œ 1 1 1 B. (10) (10) (10) Claves ÷ œ ‰ .13. in my experience. (10) ≈. 4 J ÷ 4 1œ œ1 ‰ . illustrates a rhythmic structure which has been conceived 1in 1 1 1 1 œ œ1 œ Œ divisions ‰of the barœ (demi-semi-quavers). (13) 1 (10) Hi Hat ˚ œ œj‰ .. 67 . Conclusions It would be a gross generalisation to claim that the master time signature alone determines the style of the music being composed.. œ J 1 Figure 3. ‰ Œ ≈ 5 œ œ ≈. I superimposedœthis sequence on its retrograde to create a variant form.. J (13) Œ ® 2 5 ? Bass œ 2 ®œ ≈ 3 œ ≈ œ ® œ ≈. Clearly the choice of instrumentation and the composer's intention to create music of a particular type are equally important. 1. œ ≈ œ ® œ bœ 3 2 1 1 Figure 3. If that were true any music barred in 4/4 and based in units such as semi-quavers or demisemi-quavers would automatically sound like contemporary jazz or funk. J ≈ œ œ ‰ ‰ ®œ ≈ J ‰ . J 1 ˚ 1 œ œ 1 B.2.

19There is no bibliography included with The Schillinger system Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) but it would seem likely that he would have known the work of the biologist D'Arcy Thompson.5 and 2. The patterns of growth stimulate in human beings a response which is more powerful than many other similar but casual formations. and aesthetic objects.5. Chapter 14. biological. This is why a composer like Wagner is capable of projecting spiral formations. such as the summation series..2. without any analytical knowledge of the process involved. (Schillinger 1978 page 352) In Book I. Thus we see that forms of organic growth associated with life.8. That is. For example. I referred to Schillinger's use of growth series ('organic forms') as a means of creating both rhythmic and melodic forms19. well-being. section 2.32).. self preservation and evolution appeal to us as forms of beauty when expressed through the art medium.5. Rhythms of variable velocities can be derived from growth series.4. (2. 68 . As general rule greater musical fluidity and rhythmic subtlety are achieved when rhythmic patterns are based on the larger master time signatures of such a series as the composer must design structures based on ever smaller units.1 Rhythms Of Variable Velocity In Chapter 2. are only special cases in the general scheme of pattern making. Schillinger introduces techniques of applying growth series to the generation of rhythmic patterns.it is useful and effective to adopt as a general principle the idea that typical jazz rhythms can be evolved using master time signatures which belong to a power series originating on 2. 3.5 Organic forms 3. viewed in the universe of physical.16. in particular Growth and Form. In fact Schillinger's belief in the importance of growth series extends to art forms such as design and the visual arts. where every number is generated by the summing of the previous two. Musical patterns. (Schillinger 1978 page 352) Building on the idea that "art imitates nature" Schillinger says.. Intuitive artists of great merit are usually endowed with great sensitiveness and intuitive knowledge of the underlying scheme of things.

4. 69 .. 2+3=5. acceleration suggests beginning.7.8.18. of course. J J J J ÷ 4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.1...2.5. Original rhythm: (3..14.. For example.4.. Schillinger suggests that the results of interference between a series and its retrograde produce climactic rhythms as can be seen in Figure 3... Schillinger believed that the natural choice of a particular series for a particular type of music depends on whether the master time signature of the music occurs in the series..3. Rhythms created by growth series can be used to articulate musical form. 23...1. Although any series may be used to create acceleration. In order to produce acceleration in an existing musical rhythm it is suggested the terms of the growth series are used as coefficients of acceleration or retardation....4.. œ ˙ w Retard ÷ 4 J J J ˙ œ œ. retardation suggests ending.3) Growth series: 1...11..3.5..2. Combining rhythms of variable velocity. a summation series.8 20The harmonic series is not... Third summation series: 1..... For example.. the most suitable series would be the third summation series.5. 1. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4J J J J J combined 1 2 3 5 8 13 13 8 5 1 2 3 5 2 6 2 5 3 2 1 3 2 1 Figure 3.. 5+3=8 First summation (Fibonacci) series.6... œ œ œ œ œ ÷ 4w 4 accel.3.14....2.. If the master time signature of the music were 9. Harmonic series20: 1.2.2..14.3........1+2=3. ˙ œ œ. 4 œœ œœ œ œ œœ˙ œ.5. for example.13. Other series suggested by Schillinger include the following: Second summation series: 1.9.

2. See Schillinger 1978.e.. Changes in tempo in a film score traditionally depended on the orchestra following the instincts of a skilled conductor.2.. (Schillinger 1978 page 333) The following example shows two 'spiral' forms. Chapter 8. which are truly organic as they exhibit the processes of growth of intervals. The configuration of seeds in a sun flower.2.. the first developing through the Fibonacci series in one direction (unilateral) the second developing in two directions (bilateral). Schillinger applies organic forms21 to melodic progression.2. Pg 331..5.2. It has been shown that the growth of living organisms can be described using growth series. Schillinger notes that this technique is particularly useful for composers working in film (Schillinger 1978 page 91).10.4.2 Organic forms in melody In the Theory of Melody .1. 21 70 .3)+(6.5.6)+(9.(3.Book IV..9)+(15. melodic forms. are arranged according to the Fibonacci series.1.1. Schillinger suggests that to rely on a conductor is unwise and that the tempo changes must be reflected in the durations of the music as determined by the growth series.3..4.2. The growth of semitones through the summation series in unilateral and bilateral symmetry develops motifs.15..15). 3.10.3. 1 2 3 5 Unilateral & w bw bw bw 1 2 w w 8 b w 13 3 5 Bilateral &w w bw 1 w bw 2 w bw w w 8 bw 3 5 Figure 3.6.1..5. Organic forms of melody.3)+2(312213)+3(312213)+5(312213)+8(312213)= (3..6. for example... i.

describes methods of deriving melodic lines from harmonic progressions as well as harmonising pre-existing melodic lines.7. produce organic or nearly organic effects. This requires rhythmic techniques first presented in Book I.6.22 deals with methods of controlling contrast. all of which can be applied to melodic forms. See Chapter 2 section 2. These series of constant or variable ratios with harmonic arrangement of number values. when translated into an art medium. (Schillinger 1978 page 352) 3.6. (page 642) Composing Melodic Attack Groups.6 Book VI : The Correlation Of Harmony And Melody 3. The Correlation of Harmony And Melody. Contrast between successive attack groups of a melody and the overall pattern of distribution of melody notes to their harmonies can be controlled using the following resources: subgrouping of the master time signature.1 Introduction Book VI. Chapter 2. Rotation of the elements of a rhythmic pattern can be applied as a secondary technique to all the above. squaring sub-groups of the master time signature and rhythms produced by pulse 'interference'.2 Sub-grouping the master time signature 22 The number of melodic attacks/events ocurring over the duration of a chord is called an 'attack group'. Spiral formation as revealed through Summation Series affects us as being organic because there is an intuitive interdependence of man and surrounding nature.The Fibonacci series is only one of many different summation series. 71 . 3. balance and animation in a melody with harmonic accompaniment.

16. A stands for attack group and H represents its associated harmony. a master time signature of 8. & œœœœœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ A1=4 A2=4 A1=5 A2=3 A1=7 A2=1 ? ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ H1 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ H2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ H1 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ H2 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ H1 ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ H2 Balance Medium contrast Maximum contrast Figure 3. might produce the following subgroups each with two elements: (4+4). Rotation produces (A1 =3) + (A2 =5) The above attack groups placed in sequence produces a 'balanced symmetry': 5 ---H1 3 ---H2 3  ---H3 5 ---H4 72 . For example. In Figure 3. since stems are only used to make attack groups clear. Rotation of the two elements in an attack group produces a variation.16. (7+1). The first represents balance. For example. the second exhibits more contrast between attack groups. Contrasting attack groups.The master time signature can be fragmented into sub-groups of two or more elements which can represent attack groups of varying degrees of contrast. (5+3). The attack groups just described are shown below in music notation. Note that durations are irrelevant at this stage. (A1 = 5) + (A2 = 3). the third represents maximum contrast.

Contrast between pairs is high at the beginning.4.1)(5. For instance 7:6 (6. Durations and pitches have been chosen freely in order to give the example some musical realism but these have no relationship to the current discussion.2→5.3.1 3.3→4.3)(3. The following example. Rotation of the elements of the rhythm often reveals forms which have particular musical functions.The same procedure may be carried out with any number of elements but gradual contrast produced by balancing and unbalancing is not as obvious with more than two attack groups.3).6. but reversing the order of the last pair produces a less active ending: (6.5. The original pattern ends with a 6.3.1.4)(2.2. 73 .3 Rhythms produced by pulse interference and attack groups The resultants of 'interference' provide excellent material for attack group patterns over longer ranges.6) potentially provides twelve23 attack groups.3.2. For example.1.2)(4.3.2)(4. a highly animated attack group. a restful ending point can be found through re-arrangement of the elements of the rhythmic pattern. The following is an example of a three element attack group gradually changing from a balanced state to an unbalanced state: 3.1). shows this re-ordered pattern in music notation.4.1)(5. 23 The number of elements in the result. These combine well into pairs such as (6.2. balance is achieved at the centre and contrast is re-established at the end.5. Attack groups are shown by phrasing marks.5)(6.

4 œ œ# œ b œ œ œ &4 ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ? 4 #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 4 ˙ 3 3 œ œ œ œ œ.6.17.1. the latter provides the durations of each harmony. b œ œ œ œ œ œb œb œ J œ œb œ ˙ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙ Figure 3.. For example.3. if the master time signature is 4. then the squared sub-group would be as follows: (2+1+1)2 = (4+2+2)+(2+1+1)+(2+1+1) By expanding the original sub-group we obtain the following: (2× 4) + (1× 4) + (1× 4) = (8+4+4) The squared sub-group and the expanded sub-group can now be combined in two parts: the former provides the attack groups and the durations of each attack. can be used to create attack groups and their durations. Squaring techniques.(see section 3. œ œ ˙..4 Attack groups and squaring techniques The techniques described above produced attack groups of melody notes for a sequence of chords but the durations for the attacks in each group or the duration of each chord was not defined. 74 .1). and the sub-group was (2.2 and 3.3). # œ . œœ ˙ 5 5 œœœœœ œ œ ˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ 6 3 œ b œ. & œ œ œ œœ ˙ bb˙ ˙ ˙ ? ˙ b˙ ˙ ˙ 3 3 œ œ. œ ˙œ. # œ. 3. Attack group patterns derived from 7:6.2.

2.1. Attack groups Chord duration s 6 1 5 1.3 3 3.3 5 3.2.2.6) controls the attack groups (top line). where 1= x &4 4 ?4 4 œ œ œ œ œœœ œœ b ˙˙ ˙ ˙ œœ bœ œ œ œœ œ Figure 3.2.2.19.1.5.2. the duration of the chord assigned to that attack group is the sum of those durations.5 The rhythmic co-ordination of melody and harmony This method involves using two rhythms. In Figure 3. 1 2.3. 75 . one to control the attack groups and the other to control the duration of the attacks.(middle line).1.1.2.1 1 6 3 3.2.19. (3+1+2+2+1+3).1.Attack groups and durations (4+2+2)+(2+1+1)+(2+1+1) Duration of harmonies 8 + 4 + 4 The following example shows the above in music notation. 3.2. The sum of the durations for each attack group will determine the duration of the harmonies (bottom line). 4:3 (3.1.3 3 12 3 9 4 8 6 6 8 4 9 3 12 Figure 3.2.2 2 1. pitches are chosen freely. Squaring techniques applied to durations of attack groups and harmonies.2. 12.1. the first attack group has six assigned durations.1.1.2. 7:6 (6. Two rhythms determine attack groups and durations. in the following diagram.2 3 2.3 Durations 3.4.3 2 4 3. For example.3 4 3.2.1.4.1. 1= semi-quaver.1. phrase marks show attack groups.3.3) controls durations of attacks.1.18.1.6.2. The following score is the realisation of the above diagram.5.

. œ œ 12 œ . œ œ œ # J œ . œ J œ & 8 J b œ ...œœ ... œ. œ. w ? 12 w .... œ œ œ w 8 w & œ. œ œ œ œ œ. J J n ˙ ... ˙. ˙ ˙ œ œ. J œ ˙ ... ˙. ˙ ˙

œ œ œ. J ˙. ˙˙ ... ˙ œ œ œ. J œ œœœ ... œ œœ œ . œ œœ œ J

œ. œ œ J j œ .. œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œœ

œ œ œ. J ˙ ... ˙. ˙ ˙

? # ˙˙ ... ˙ . ˙ j & bœ. œ œ ? w ... w. w w

œ. œ œ œ œb œ . J J ˙ ... œ ... b b œ ... ˙ œ. bœ. ˙. œ œ ˙ œ œ

bœ œ J œ. w.

Extra bar to end

w.

Figure 3.20. The scheme in Figure 3.19, as a score.

3.7 Conclusions Whatever the shortcomings of Schillinger's methods and writing style, many parts of the system are, to my mind, extremely robust. In my opinion it explains more about the nature and construction of music, the 'nuts and bolts' as it were, than any other theory known to this author. Schillinger puts this point well in the preface to his book, The Mathematical Basis Of The Arts. Whereas one scientific theory overwhelms another only to be overwhelmed by new facts and new evidence, this system overwhelms the available facts and evidence. Hence its pragmatic validity. (Schillinger 1948)

76

Chapter 4 Compositions by the author 4.1 Introduction The compositions in this thesis fall into two main categories. 1) Those composed using techniques derived from Schillinger's work; 2) Those composed without knowledge of his methods. There is a further subdivision: compositions involving an electroacoustic element and those that are entirely acoustic. The table below shows the various compositions, the order in which they are discussed and the categories to which they belong. The order in which my works are presented in this thesis represents the general evolution of my compositional method. Chapter 5, Moon Shaman Chapter 6, Riddle Chapter 7, Vision and Prayer Chapter 8, Rêve de l'Orb Chapter 9, Bayo's Way Chapter 10, Make Night Day Chapter 11, Trilogy Pre-Schillinger Pre-Schillinger Pre-Schillinger Pre-Schillinger Post-Schillinger Post-Schillinger Post-Schillinger Plus electroacoustic Plus electroacoustic Acoustic Acoustic Plus electroacoustic Plus electroacoustic Acoustic

Figure 4.1. Table of works in order of discussion and categorisation.

Each work shown in Figure 4.1, is considered from two perspectives: the aesthetic or imaginative impulse, what might be called the poetic background to the music, and the technical analyses of its method of composition. Wherever possible, I show how the initial inspiration gave rise to the technical approach. Throughout the following chapters, I use words such as, 'free', 'intuitive' and 'improvised' in relation to the process of composition. At this point I must clarify my use of these terms to avoid ambiguity and confusion. As I explained in the introduction to this thesis, my initial research involved the analyses of MIDI recordings of my keyboard improvisations in order to discover characteristic musical structures. Improvisation, inspired by the 'poetic background' has, therefore, often been the starting point for many of my musical ideas. A single improvisation of this sort would never produce an entire piece or even a significant part of it and so the process of composition developed in stages of improvisation each of which followed periods of deliberate intellectual thought. When I use words such as 'free' or 'intuitive', I am in no way suggesting randomness or chance, I mean rather the absence 77

of a precise or exact preconceived method but not the absence of deliberate intellectual activity. Consequently, in the music composed before my discovery of Schillinger's work there is sometimes no clearly definable relationship between the stages of imagination and technical realisation. In analysing my own pre-Schillinger compositions I have applied Schillinger's ideas wherever they seem appropriate. This has sometimes revealed structures in my 'intuitive' compositions that were previously unrecognised. In the case of Moon Shaman, I have re-composed part of the opening, applying Schillinger's techniques to the original material. However, Schillinger's techniques are designed as tools for construction, not analysis and so there remain aspects of these compositions which cannot be explained in terms of Schillinger's ideas. 4.2 Acoustic and electroacoustic It is arguable that the computer has been the most significant development and influence on music of the Twentieth century. Schillinger predicted in the 1940's, that the composer would very soon be in complete control of the medium of performance and sound production through the use of machines (Schillinger 1978 page 228). This is the case today but the reluctance of classical music audiences to accept computer generated sound as readily as that made by traditional acoustic instruments and the limitations of simulating acoustic timbre has to some extent made electroacoustic music a specialist field. However, as a composer, I cannot separate the process or the results of composition into mutually exclusive types. My music is intended to be a communication to the listener through structures articulated in the medium of sound and its fundamental reason for existing is not influenced by the means of generating sound. Of course, I place great importance on the aesthetic quality associated with a particular sound source and the aesthetic background to the music will dictate my choice of instrumentation but the meaning, organisation and structure of my work is not primarily determined by the use of acoustic or electroacoustic technology. For this reason the compositions presented in this thesis combine those written exclusively for acoustic instruments and those which involve a mixture of acoustic and electroacoustic sources. In mixing my colours, as it were, I have given consideration to the very great differences between the two types of sound source. The tape part of a composition and electronic sound in general is free of many limitations and 78

constraints which have shaped traditional mechanical instruments. This freedom has lead to the creation of many new and exciting sounds but In my view, has also contributed a certain lack of identity. With relatively fewer limitations electronic instruments suffer a loss of distinctive character: physical constraints, it would seem, have greatly contributed to the individual and expressive qualities of traditional instruments. There is a second consideration in the use of computer generated music: events are essentially fixed and rigid once they has been committed to tape; the individual sounds which make up the tapestry are fixed and immutable. In a performance, the projection of sound can increase the level of spontaneity and spatial sensation and live electronics offer still greater flexibility but it remains the case that the most sensitive and varied production of timbre and dynamics are produced by a traditional acoustic instrument in the hands of a skilled performer. For this reason, I have always felt it necessary to place the performer at the centre of the composition. However, musicians often find it rhythmically difficult and emotionally unsatisfying to play against a fixed tape part. I have attempted wherever possible to minimise problems of coordination: in Riddle or Moon Shaman, for example, the tape accompaniment is largely made up of timbres of indefinite pitch and impressionistic textures which relieve the pressure of absolute synchronisation. In Make Night Day, the problems of co-ordination are more critical. One solution would be the use of a silent click track, but this seems to impose a distance and rigidity on the performers and so instead I have composed clear pulse and cues into the tape part. Perhaps the most effective way of combining acoustic and electroacoustic sounds is to conceive of the latter as being extensions of the sound of acoustic instruments. In my composition Make Night Day, I have at times adopted this approach which helps form a link between contrasting sound worlds. In general, I choose sounds for computer manipulation and select the results of that process according to how closely they refer to my own aural experience. I prefer processed sounds to be related in some way to environmental, urban, or traditional musical sound. For this reason my electroacoustic work often contains sound that has the quality of animal cries, wind, rain or clocks, for example, but also timbres derived from traditional orchestral instruments. Different types of sound are needed to articulate structure. This includes percussive sounds and sustained sounds, capable of providing harmonic accompaniment. Chapter 5 Moon Shaman 79

like a pipe. Its lowest notes are powerful and resonant and suggest a velvety omnipotence while its higher range evokes a sense of vulnerability. The sound of the bass clarinet has a quality reminiscent of both a human and animal voice. Pijnenburg gave a seminar and concert. The idea for this composition dates from 1991. suggesting potency and darkness. the time of Hein Pijnenburg's visit to the City University. The bass clarinet has a powerful visual appearance which stimulated and inspired me. He also took part in a recording session so that the sound of his instrument could be used for processing and it is from this recording that many of the sounds in the tape part of Moon Shaman. 5. a device for taking something intoxicating into the body. This newer version has not yet received a public performance but a studio recording is presented with this thesis on the accompanying tape. It is an instrument that seems to me imbued with mysterious qualities: black and serpent-like.5. This work was composed before I encountered the work of Joseph Schillinger but the score presented here has been extensively revised using techniques derived from his theories. for bass clarinet and tape. overblown sounds and multiphonics add a note of pain or anger to its range of expression. It received its first performance at the Ijsbreker Amsterdam in March 1992.2 The bass clarinet One tendency in my work is to compose for bass instruments such as the bass clarinet or the tuba. demonstrating a huge variety of playing techniques ranging from multiphonic sounds to key clatter effects.3 Narrative and metaphor 80 . The sound is driven by the breath of the performer and the instrument must therefore be connected to his or her body: this provokes the fantasy that the instrument is somehow drawing out the spirit of the performer or that it is. originate.1 Background Moon Shaman. 5. was written in 1991 for the bass clarinettist Hein Pijnenburg.

The tape enters at bar 52. and in invoking spirit forces he must literally blow them into life. In this composition the clarinettist is the shaman. 81 .2 Part II: (bars 160-180) 24A very similar image suggested by Shelley's poem Two Souls inspired my composition Make Night Day. The initial invocation is represented in the opening section of Moon Shama n: a rhythmically challenging solo passage of almost continuous semi-quaver motion. 5. Finally the magic decays and the shaman begins the opening ritual again.1 Part I: (bars 1-115) The narrative form described in section 5.4. divides into three parts which correspond to three sections of the piece. the nature of which I have tried to capture in the metaphorical image of a 'celestial dance'.The mystery of magic and religious ritual stimulated me to create a series of narrative images which informed the process of composition: a shaman ritual. The clarinet begins unaccompanied playing in the lowest register.3.2. The music is dominated by rhythm. Having called the magic forces the shaman engages in a dialogue with the spirits. around and about the celestial bodies. section 10. a constant semi-quaver pulse.24 5. Part I reflects the process of invocation. occasional leaps to higher registers suggest the rhythm and intensity of prayer or ritual spell.4 Form 5. explains the presence of the word Moon in the title of the piece. This is a mystical communication.4. See Chapter 10. The idea of a dance through the expanses of the universe. the conjuring up of magical forces through the repetition of some kind of prayer or spell. suggesting the arrival of the magic forces. I imagine that shamanic rituals involve the expenditure of large amounts of energy and concentration: the shaman appears to hyperventilate thereby inducing a state of trance.

5. setting the scene. occasionally threatens to overwhelm the soloist. The clarinettist must perform several changes of tempo within this sound world without there being a reference pulse of any sort in the tape part. There are seven phrases for the clarinet separated by short tape interludes.5.4. the tape is somewhat like an opera orchestra. They are followed by two phrases in the upper register of far more frenetic character ( bar 125 to 139 inclusive). However. the tape is also one of the protagonists in the drama and in a very real sense is not under the control of the soloist.5 The tape 5. representing unpredictable magical forces.Part II represents the period of mystical dialogue. The fifth phrase (bar 140 to 150) is a return to the lower register and the feeling of calm.1 The relationship between tape and soloist In composing Moon Shaman. Sounds on the tape are 82 . 5. This uncertain relationship is reflected in the scoring of the piece which avoids a strict synchronisation between the soloist and tape. it is to my mind something of a lament and represents the fading of the magic. providing atmosphere and supporting plot . whose answers are represented by the tape interludes. suggesting that some of the magic remains but that the shaman has been transported into another world. I deliberately created a flexible relationship between the soloist and the tape part.the music of the bass clarinet in the middle section is like an aria.3 Part III: (bars 181-254) In part III the invocation of the opening section begins again and at bar 220. material first heard in the middle section returns but in a more strained and distorted manner which represents a sort of death . The sixth phrase (bar 155 to 165) is exuberant and is most obviously expressive of 'celestial dance'. The first two clarinet phrases are low in register and quite gentle (bar 117 to 118 and bar 120 to 124). His departure is confirmed when the tape part continues after the soloist has finished. Without wishing to stretch the comparison too far. The clarinet phrases are of contrasting character and represent the shaman's questions of the spirits. It is made up of largely unpitched sounds and impressionistic clouds of rhythmic texture which. The final phrase (bar 166 to 179) is less energetic and placed in the lower register of the bass clarinet.the shaman leaving the physical context of the listener.

2 Sounds of recognisable origin Sounds on the tape were chosen because of their potential to create mood and convey the theme of the work.) or a modified double bass tremolo combined with a bass clarinet sound (see bar 88. but in Moon Shaman.4." is a modified composite sound but has a recognisable origin. 83 . almost an improvised quality. 5. As a consequence there is a varied mixture of sounds from a number of sources. the bass drum has the added effect of suggesting magical ritual.5. Its low register and tremolo component suggest a fervour of activity and the impending presence of powerful forces. bells and double basses) partly to suggest the traditional relationship between orchestra and soloist but mostly because I felt they had a unique power to suggest atmosphere. At times I deliberately use sound derived from the instruments of the standard orchestra (for instance. For example. "Rotating Bass". both these sounds have a particular expressive quality.notated in the score only as cue points for the clarinet to begin a phrase. All of these suggest to me atmospheres associated with religious ritual. Finally there are numerous bell sounds modified through programming with envelopes and filters. The bass drum is used to accompany the bass clarinet in its 'celestial dance' and its thuds punctuate the bass clarinet's tumbles and somersaults suggesting an acrobatic performance. tape time 2'16"). Here the brass ensemble punctuates the tuba's leaps and tumbles. in the score called "Rotating bass. gongs. This has two important effects. first the soloist must take special care to learn the tape part and not rely on a click track and secondly he must play his part with a flexibility.5. In both pieces there is an element of circus at these moments. Contextual sounds 25See Chapter 9. 5. the use of a sampled orchestral bass drum (see bars 155 ff. The double bass/bass clarinet sound. For me.3. The same effect occurs in Bayo's Way for tuba and brass ensemble during a section originally given the mnemonic tag 'the beast enters the ring'25. section 9. which is appropriate to the dramatic content of the piece.

"Waa". I therefore re-composed the opening attempting to preserve the character of the original while removing the element of extreme difficulty.07"). Bayo's Way. For example. for example.4. at tape time 5'13" (bar 151) there is a sound derived from the key clatter of the bass clarinet.1 Introduction One of my tendencies as a composer has been to write lines of music which have a continuous semi-quaver pulse. However.6. Vision and Prayer and Moon Shaman all exhibit this feature to some extent. It is used mainly in the middle section of the composition between clarinet phrases and is associated with the responses of the spirit forces. However. the sound described in the score as "Cymbal Swell" (Tape time 5'06") is in fact derived from a scraped piano string and to me suggests the huge expanses of space and the rushing winds created by the magic forces or. 5. It therefore seemed appropriate to attempt to apply some of the ideas in the process of re-composition. In the original score of Moon Shaman. in the intervening period since the first performance my interest in the work of Joseph Schillinger (see Chapters 2 and 3) had developed. at relatively high speed and in the lowest register this material proved impractical for the performer. These sounds might be described as contextual as they tend to be used to create a sense of physical surrounding.6.6. (tape time 3'33") or "Ah Ha" (tape time 3. however. Rêve de l'Orb. 5.2 Pulse analysis 84 . the opening bass clarinet solo was composed of continuous semi-quavers. Revision of the score 5. 5.5.Sounds which have recognisable origins such as those based on orchestral instruments have their effect partly because of their cultural and historical associations. I have called this sound 'water' because for me it suggested the crisp energy of a water fall or spring. the tape part also includes sounds that have no recognisable origin. such as a sea bird or a hyena and in this context represent the bleak wailing or chattering of the spirits: see for example. Bass clarinet sounds A number of sounds derived from the reed sound of the bass clarinet have the quality of an animal cry.

The pulse groups appear to be balancing and unbalancing around a rhythmic axis. The idea of balance and imbalance occurs regularly in The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978) and elsewhere in Schillinger's writings26.0.. During the opening section of Moon Shaman. Chapter 6. and Chapter 2 section 2.2. Groups of Semi-quavers suggest pulse. pulse groups of three semi-quavers are defined by pitch and are identified by phrase mark.As rhythm is central to Schillinger's methods. 26See 85 . Although the composition of this section originally involved improvisation. last paragraph. Page 184: "Balance. he thought imbalance was a tendency necessary to produce forward momentum in music. A pulse group establishes itself and is then replaced by a longer or shorter pulse group. Fragmentation of the master time signature is the process of creating rhythmic patterns within a bar. I decided to analyse the rhythmic structure of the opening section of Moon Shaman. in the process of fragmenting the master time signature (see chapter 3 section 3. The Mathematical Basis Of The Arts. Schillinger believed that unbalancing two equal quantities was one of the processes by which rhythmic patterns could be generated.2. shown below the stave. 4 œ œ œ. Unstable Equilibrium and Crystallisation Of Event". œ. It is characterised by continuous semi-quavers which form groups due to accent. œ. (Schillinger 1948). phrasing or pitch changes: sequences of these groups suggest pulse.1). pulse groups are not regular but are continuously varied. & 4 œ œœœœœ œ Ek Ek Ek Ek Figure 5. In Figure 5.1. This can be seen. for example.1. Furthermore. For example. analysis revealed some interesting patterns which can be interpreted by adapting a concept found in Schillinger's work.

27 As far as I know the idea of an axis of pulse is not explicitly mentioned by Schillinger but can be seen as a straightforward development of his ideas following from his discussion of pitch axes and symmetry in general.2. 27 See Chapter 2. section 2. Numbers indicate the number of semi-quavers in the pulse group.For example.2.2. 3 or occasionally 4 semi-quavers.5. The 'unit of deviation' used to bring about 1 unbalancing is 8 .2. creating syncopation. Each row of Figure 5. These pulse groups are arranged into bars of 4/4 shown by bold vertical lines. Figure 5. should be read from left to right starting at the top. It can be seen from Figure 5. it is indicated by shading and there is no bold line. Figure 5. a master time signature of 8 (beats in the bar). 4 3 2 5 4 2 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 4 3 7 4 6 2 2 3 3 5 7 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 4 2 5 3 3 7 4 4 4 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 2 4 2 6 3 3 4 Bar line 4 5 2 2 5 3 8 6 6 2 2 2 5 2 2 7 4 2 3 2 6 3 4 8 5 2 3 3 5 2 4 7 2 2 2 3 4 3 6 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 6 6 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 5 2 2 3 2 2 14 4 5 2 3 2 3 3 4 4 Syncopation crossing bar line. shows the semi-quaver pulse groups as they appear in the opening of Moon Shaman. 86 . Moon Shaman: opening section pulse groups barred in 4/4. that groups of 4 semi-quavers are established over the first two bars and could be said to represent an axis or a point of balance around which later pulse groups expand or contract by 2. 4 1 4 1 3 5 -8 +8 +8 = 8 + 8 8 or (3+5) Balance and imbalance are also discussed in relation to pitch and in particular to movement around the axes of melody. divides into two equal (balanced) portions 4+4. Where a pulse group falls over the bar line.

28The pulse groups 8.The following table shows the weighting (number of occurrences) of the different pulse groups.6. the sequence (3. (2. For example. It can be seen that the pulse group 4 has 34 occurences and a total duration of 136 semi-quavers making it the most dominant pulse group. 87 .) in bar 5.2. (boldened and underlined numbers in Figure 5.6 and 7 appear more frequently. the axis of pulse once again becomes more dominant and there is a partial reestablishment of balance.2. through longer pulse groups. Moon Shaman: the weighting of pulse groups in Figure 5.2) in bar 6. Pulse groups smaller than the axis tend to produce an effect of higher tension and greater effort.2).2. the pulse group 2 dominates bars five to seven and is then challenged for supremacy by the pulse group 3 in bars nine to thirteen.2.3.5. for example the sequence (4. Finally. within a single bar.2.4. Furthermore. For example. From bar 14 onwards pulse groups of 5.4).2. Pulse Group Number of occurences Total duration 2 36 72 3 31 93 4 34 136 5 9 45 6 8 48 7 5 35 8 2 16 14 1 14 Figure 5. can be interpreted as the unbalancing (-1) and overbalancing (+1) around the axis.2.2. or the sequence.2.5.4. Developing this interpretation it would appear that the axis is strongly present for the first two bars but is rapidly undermined by over-balancing in bar three (6. The music is at its most rhythmically dynamic when there is a strong fluctuation around the axis. The process of balancing and un-balancing can be seen on the local level. Overall this section might be described as a journey around the axis of pulse at first through the establishment of shorter pulse groups and then by contrast.3). and 14. exactly what one would expect from the axis of pulse. the longer pulse groups produce the effect of dissipation of energy or dying away. The fluctuations of pulse around the axis produce a feeling of drama or tension in the opening section of Moon Shaman.4.2) and then underbalancing in bar four (4. it lies more or less equidistant between the extremes of the range of pulse groups28 a necessarry feature if it is to function as an axis or pivot.5. can be considered as insignificant because of their limited number of occurrences.

7. I could improve on it. Figure 5.4. For example.7 Approach to re-composition 5. The original was barred in 4/4 for visual simplicity which was acceptable because there was continuous semi-quaver motion which allowed the use of phrase markings and accents in order to show the different pulse groups. I was faced with the question of how.7. 5. Pulse groups are modified by the insertion of rests in place of semi-quavers.3 Re-composing pitch 88 . there would now be 2 semi-quavers followed by a quaver rest. if at all. 5.2 Re-barring As a consequence of introducing rests it was necessary to completely re-bar the opening section to indicate more clearly how the pulse groups should be articulated.7. illustrates this process. After much consideration I decided to preserve the original scheme of pulses: during the original composition process the rhythm and proportions of the opening had been a matter of careful consideration and I felt that to alter it would be rather like trying to shift the foundations of a building. I decided to break up the continuous semi-quavers of the original by introducing rests thereby allowing the performer time to breathe and prepare for the next phrase.1 Introduction Having observed a scheme of pulse groups in the opening section of Moon Shaman.4. bars of 4/4 were misleading: phrase marks (traditionally not placed over rests) could not be used to indicate the start and end of pulse groups mixed metre was the only accurate way of doing so. Once rests had been introduced. where in the original there were 4 semiquavers in a pulse group. 4 & 4 œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ œœ‰ Figure 5.5.

For example. section 2. A two 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with 'sectional scales'. 89 . Sectional scales & ˙ bœ œ œ #˙ œ #œ œ Tonic Tonic Figure 5. Chapter 2. As Moon Shaman is a solo composition I used this method.6.5 The octave divided symmetrically in five different ways. In another context the loss of a large number of pitches from a score would be catastrophic but it was clear to me that rhythm was the most important feature of the Introduction. Schillinger suggests that the effect of polytonality can be achieved by using these scales simultaneously in different parts of the score. section 2.30 In The Theory Of Pitch Scales (Schillinger 1978).3.The introduction of rests meant that many pitches in the original were lost. not as a means of effecting polytonality but in order to create a feeling of continuous modulation. Schillinger describes each pitch of such a scale as a 'tonic' because further 'sectional scales' are built on each of them. the primary role of pitch was to help articulate the rhythm groups. This produces five "scales" with a varying number of pitch units Two 'tonics' Three 'tonics' (Augmented) Four 'tonics' (Diminished) Six 'tonics' (Whole tone) & œ#œ œ (Tritone) œ bœ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ #œ œ & Twelve 'tonics' (Chromatic) œ œ #œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ Figure 5.12. Schillinger introduces the idea of dividing the octave into symmetrical portions.3. I decided to completely re-compose the pitch content of the opening in a more structured manner than the original which had come about through improvisation. 29See 30See Chapter 2. I made use of two techniques described by Schillinger: symmetrically distributed pitch units29 and progressive symmetry.3.

7 A four 'tonic' symmetrical division of the octave with neighbour notes.expressive of the progressive working of the magic. The sequence in which the tonics are heard is controlled using a technique described by Schillinger as Progressive symmetry. I chose a scale starting on the pitch C. E flat. I wanted to evoke a sense of 90 . & ˙ b œ n œ b ˙ b œ n œ b ˙∫ œ # œ n ˙ b œ œ Neighbour notes Figure 5. This method allows any number of different elements to be arranged in a 'symmetrical' and 'progressive' form. ABCD. the leading note of 'tonic' C (element A). in order to correspond with the lowest note of the bass clarinet. Having decided on the sequence in which the 'tonics' appeared it was necessary to fix their rate of occurrence. corresponds to the pitch B natural. The elements ABCD are arranged as follows: (A)(AB)(ABC)(CD)(D) This is a symmetrical grouping of the four elements which brings about a transformation. and ornamented each 'tonic' with its upper and lower semi-tone neighbour notes. at the end of the sequence of elements: (A)(AB)(ABC)(CD)(D)(E) Group E. C= the pitch G flat. four elements. B= the pitch E flat. D= the pitch A. and A. I used a symmetrical scale of four 'tonics': C. G flat. In this case. I modified this arrangement by adding an extra element ( E). I wanted this note to be heard most often during the opening and for there to be forays to the other 'tonics' culminating in a return to the C 'tonic'. and thereby facilitates the repetition of the scheme. represent the four 'tonics': A= the pitch C. a progressive change in the emphasis or dominance of succeeding elements.

one group of numbers to control the number of repetitions of a second group of elements is mentioned by Schillinger in The Theory Of Pitch Scales (Schillinger 1978. The next 7 pulse groups are assigned 'tonics' C.11. Of course the pulse groups are highly irregular and when combined with the terms of the growth series (18. Each member of the growth series served as a coefficient of repetition31 for each bracketed group of elements shown in the scheme of progressive symmetry. As a consequence the rate of change is generally accelerating but is not precise. Figure 5.7. E flat and G flat.1) which seemed to offer the right degree of change and tension. The next pulse group is assigned B natural.8.increasing tension and so I employed a growth series (18. The next 3 pulse groups are assigned 'tonic' A.7.11. alternately.4. The growth series and the scheme of progressive symmetry were combined into the following arrangement: 18(A) 11(AB) 7(ABC) 4(CD) 3(D) 1(E) The final step was to combine this sequence with the pulse groups shown in Figure 5. The next 11 pulse groups are assigned 'tonics' E flat and G flat alternately.3. 31Using 91 . The first group become the "coefficients of recurrence" for the second group.1) distort its acceleration.4. Page 104).3. below shows the final realisation of the score.2. This is described as follows: The first 18 pulse groups are assigned 'tonic' C. The next 4 pulse groups are assigned 'tonics' G flat and A alternately.

Figure 5. Coefficients applied to pulse groups and tonics. Most of the score needed only minor revisions but impracticality in the original score was most critical in the opening of the piece and as this material re-appears several times it was essential that I revised it.1 &4 4 5 3 8 ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ 3 ‰ ‰ ‰ 16 ‰. 4 b œœ ‰ ¬ ¬ 18 pulse groups on 'tonic' C. 5.. was written before my discovery of Schillinger's work and was originally composed intuitively.. 7 4 #œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œb œ œœ œœ œœ œ b œœ œœ ‰ ‰ #œ b œ œ œ œœœ œœœ 3 5 16 ‰. the musical substance and poetic motivation remains the same. Moon Shaman: bars 1-17... G flat and A. &7 8 8 ‰ 11 ulse groups on 'tonic' C and E flat... Conclusions Moon Shaman. 3 3 5 ≈ 16 16 œ 16 8 # œ #œ b œ œn œ œ œœ œœ œ b œœ œ bœ œ œœœœbœ ¬ 7 puls gruops on 'tonic c.. whether or not they have been deliberately considered in the act of composition. In describing this process I hope to have shown that analyses and re-composition using techniques derived from Schillinger's work have improved the structure of the opening section. Chapter 6 Riddle 92 ... ¬ 4 pulse groups on 'tonic'. 4 13 3 ‰. 16 6 ≈ 4 œ ‰ œ 16 œ ≈ ≈3 8 8 # œ œœ ‰ œ #œ œ #œ œ #œ #œ œ œ œ 3 Pulse groups on 'tonic A. they are not just intellectual ideas but real qualities which influence music.8.8. Although my approach to the technique of composition has changed greatly since the time of writing.. 5 & 16 bœ œ 3 ‰. I have attempted to demonstrate that the concept of balance and imbalance around an axis can be applied to areas of music other than those explicitly described by Schillinger and most importantly that.. E flat and G flat.. ¬ 1 pulse group on 'tonic' B. #œ ‰ ‰ œ 3 16 œ n œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ 3 4 & 16 ‰.

1 Introduction Riddle.2 Collaboration By the time I came to compose Riddle. The product of this kind of work can be seen at the end of the score at tape time 3'56". Riddle was composed in 1992 for the singer Loré Lixenberg. These pieces certainly had an influence on my composition of Riddle. with whom I had previously worked as conductor on performances of Birtwistle's Down by the Greenwood Side and Maxwell Davies' Miss Donnithorne's Maggot. donated to Exeter cathedral library in 1072 on the death of Leofric. The method of collaboration was as follows: I would present notated ideas which Lixenberg would embellish through improvisation and positive results would be incorporated into the subsequent version. Using the expressive powers of her voice the singer not only imitates the sounds and violence of the storm but conjures up its spirit which is represented by the sounds of the tape. for contralto and tape is a setting of the first riddle in the Exeter Book Of Riddles (Crossley Holland 1979) an ancient anthology of Old English poetry.1. 6. The unusual placement and elongation of vowels and 93 . the dramatic nature of the piece might be enhanced by lighting. magician and story teller.1 Background 6. the first Bishop of Exeter. I have suggested that in performance. the singer must embrace the dramatic nature of the piece taking on the role of 'keeper of the riddle'.6. In performing Riddle. The choice of an Old English text and the mystery associated with riddles reflects the influence of Birtwistle's music theatre work while Miss Donnithorne's Maggot introduced me to the possibilities of extremes of contrast in vocal style and extended vocal techniques in general. I was very familiar with Lixenberg's own particular vocal range and especially her repertoire of extended techniques which included the production of multiphonic tones. The process of composition involved extensive collaboration which resulted in a richness of vocal writing which would have been impossible otherwise.1. the answer to this riddle is 'a storm'.

Ÿ ~~~~~ j Ÿ ~~~ b œ ..56. Results of collaboration: style and embellishment 3 & b completed before I discovered the work ofœ Joseph œ œ Riddle.b œ bœ mer 6 Ÿ ~~~~~~~~ œ œ ged 3 j œ to - Figure 6. Form 94 . indicated by the direction "Eastern" are all examples of our collaboration." .bœ œ œ œ œ the bwa ge ter n i and therefore is representative of a type of approach which depends less on ther predetermined structural principles such as those described in chapters two and three. In fact the method of collaboration described above meant that the exact rhythm and timing of events was very much determined by the text and the vocal phrasing which it inspired.a .ry o n Voice 11 &4 œ I "Eastern" œ my œ ba - Ÿ ~~ ˚ j œ œ ck 4. œ œ œ œ œ ." & œ œ œ b˙ a nd soul œ œ su . b œ .2.1 . was œ Schillinger nœ .. see Figure 6." . œ what 3 3 & œ o - ˙ nce 6 œ .07.. c . & œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ e vry ma n bo 3 œœ dy 4.1.consonants and the nasal vocal tone.24. co 3 œ bœ - œ bœ ver - Ÿ ~~~ œ ed . j 6. Ú 52 3.

The text of the Riddle. [and fell timber. body and soul submerged together in the water. driven far and wide in pursuit of vengeance by powers above. angry. ashen over roofs. sometimes causing havoc: when I burn houses and ransack palaces? Smoke rises. 3) A further challenge to guess the meaning of the riddle. I carry on my back what once covered every man. // Say what conceals me or what I. who bear this burden. naturally divides into three portions: 1) An introduction in which the riddle-teller challenges the audience to guess the answer to the riddle. the flourishing trees. at times awesome: When I roar loudly and rampage over the land. am called. The text is shown below with double slashes marking the different sections and brackets representing words omitted in my setting.] I with my roof of water. Which man is so sharp and so quick [witted ] as to guess who sends me on my journey // When I get up. Crossley-Holland (1979) page 21. There is a din on earth and men die violently when I shake the forest. 2) A dramatic description of the consequences of the storm. 95 .

‡ Ó J de - - Rrrrr ¿. F Œ - . Word Painting The form and structure of many of the compositions submitted in this thesis. such as Moon Shaman or Bayo's Way. p Œ ‡ J Re ‡ J de Œ ‡ J le. It is which are whispered and sung as meaning. The Exeter Riddles. the image of the wind shaking the 'flourishing trees' produces a direct parallel in the vocal part. la. ‡ ‰ J de . In this way I have tried to evoke a sense of mystery at the very Ú .2. ‡ J di - p - & Ó ‡ J Ri - ‰ b> ˙ de - F ˚ Ó j ‡ . are full of potential for this kind of treatment. In this case the text was a direct source of inspiration for the vocal line and tape part through the device of word painting. 96 . ‡ J le U Ó - b˙ π Ri - . with their rich metaphorical imagery.de p 60 3 1 (0'04") Exaggerate consonants .I have added the word 'riddle' to the broken into its individual syllables fragments in order to disguise their introduce a puzzle of my own and to start of the piece. Figure 6. Riddle (time 0'04"): the composer's addition to the text 6.3. ‡ & J b˙ Ri . have been inspired by poetry or narrative. For example. introductory section of the piece.

The final appearance of the word 'trees' is screamed.3. suggesting the sound and force of the wind.1 (2'42") U Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ œ wœ 19 8 bœ j & 16 J 8 J œ j Ó œ ¿ ¿ when I sha ke fo . is coquettish. 97 .rest the P Ÿ ~~~~ Ÿ ~~~~ j #œ. Reference to 'the forest' is articulated with a softer dynamic and sweeter tone in order to contrast its fragility with the storm's fierceness. For example. which. The word 'flourishing' engenders a series of ever increasing trills and embellishments. coming unexpectedly between violent outbursts. 6. the line "sometimes causing havoc" is marked piano and dolce.' by ululating and trilling.ing ƒ trees Figure. I have injected a note of mischief into the character of the storm. œ œ ˚ j œ œ #œ ˙ #œ œ bœ 11 &4 ‰ œ #œ ˙ ¿ æ Ululate Dolce 3 5 11 4 ¿ trees F The 4 flou - ri - shing œ & œj f The flou #œ - Ÿ ~~~ œ #œ œ œ œ œ n˙œ 6 Exaggerate trill ¿ j ¿ "Multiphonic scream. Riddle (time 2'42"): examples of word painting. The singer performs the word 'shake." · ri - sh .

5. Cluster A.1 Pitch Clusters The choice of pitches was not a result of the collaboration but came about through the use of two different processes: pitch clusters and interval cells. Riddle (time 1'50"): contrast in characterisation. cau." &Œ Dolce 3 œ p ˙ bœ œ œ œ.4. indicate a certain capricious character to the storm. 6..sing ha - j #œ voc ∑ some . Pitch 6. ¿ hou - j œ œ ses ‰ Œ ¿ I f burn Figure 6.50.4. w # ww # ww# ww The vocal line alternates between the pitches of the two clusters whenever contrast is required. 98 .1.4. & # ww # ww w Figure 6.times "Cabaret-like" "Caberet-like" & #¿ When 3 œ. The melodic form of the vocal line and the definite pitched sounds of the tape accompaniment are made up from two main pitch clusters. The use of sprechgesang and the marking cabaret. The two pitch clusters. Cluster B.

the la . The mixed pitches form an augmented triad (G.ver . cau ." -------------Cluster B------------------------- bœ. 99 . & œ ƒ &Œ And ram - œ J œ œ #œ œ ˙ o .43. enclosed by a box in Figure 6. The most obvious example of this comes at the end of the introduction just before the evocation of the storm.6. is not a member of cluster A.nd 5 page -------------Cluster A---------------------Dolce 3 œ p ˙ bœ œ œ œ. and is an example of a local deviation from the system. Riddle (time 1'43"): alternating between pitch clusters The pitch G natural. In order to effect a gradual transition between the two clusters I combined their pitches into hybrid forms. Figure 6.For example.5 shows how a switch from one cluster to another occurs between the end of a violent passage and the immediately following softer phrase.times Figure 6. 1.sing ha - j #œ voc some .6. E flat and B) which for me suggests expansion and transformation especially in the context of the surrounding material made from the relatively dissonant intervals of the clusters.

Riddle (time 0'37" ff): transition between clusters. I also found it useful in creating transitions between the two pitch clusters as the method of creating melodic forms through connecting a limited series of intervals was described in detail in my analysis of Rêve de L'Orb.2 Interval Cells32 A sequence of intervals.4. œ ‰ J‰ ¿j. . 32The 100 . Clus ∑ Cabaret Œ 3 ˙ f As to ¿ #¿ ¿ When I get up. & 4 4 ˙ 1 œ 5 œ ˙ 5 œ œ 1 ˙ 1 #œ 5 œ & ˙ 1 œ #œ ˙ 1 5 #œ #œ ˙ 5 1 #œ #œ 5 Figure 6. The direction of any interval or its inversion is a matter of free choice. .‰ j ¿ Is so quick F f Aggressive ∑ & œ bœ Dolce Mixture œ who œ sends œ me.2. - n. p Figure 6. I used this method as a contrast to that of pitch clusters.8.4. can be started from any chosen pitch. œ bœ #œ œ on my jour .ney. for example a semi-tone and a perfect fourth. p 6. In the following diagram each bar represents a different 'route' starting from the same point and following the interval pattern (1.. In Riddle. This method often creates unexpected variations which are related through characteristic intervals. . See Chapter 8 section 8. b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ Ó . . Cluster A 6 Which ma p F œ guess.5) where 1=a semi-tone. . .Ÿ ~~~~~ U U & Œ œ œb œ b œ .7. Cell construction from a single starting point.

la ces ƒ ra ß cell U Ó Cluster A--------------------- &# œ Smoke œ ri 3 bœ œ nœ ses . Riddle (time 2'01"): interval cells 6.. .5) . f - œ œ œ > a . flutes and bells.interval cells almost inevitably contained a mixture of pitches from both of them.And an . . At the beginning of the piece I have used sounds derived from an organ.shen o f 5 œ ver œ œ roofs Cells follow the interval pattern (1.. It serves to evoke atmosphere and images associated with the text. 101 . .œ.5. and I also associate the flute and the organ with the mysterious quality of vibrating air columns. . in order to evoke a sense of ritual and suggest an aura of power surrounding the performer. Cluster B--------- Cells 9 & "Cabaret-like" "Caberet-like" 3 j‰ Œ œ.œ œ #¿ ¿ ¿ f When I burn houses # œ œ # œ œ # œ. The tape The tape part has several different roles.9. # œ. These sounds are also intended to remind the listener of the origins of the text and its link with Exeter cathedral. Figure 6. œ. The organ and bells are both types of instrument connected with religious ritual. a reference in the text to the screams of dying men is accompanied by the sound referred to in the score as "Ahh" (2'38"). The tape part suggests location and action in a way similar to contextual sounds in radio drama. For example. . ? œ œ œ œ .sack pa.

This is not the case in Riddle. Riddle is also unusual amongst my compositions in being written for a particular performer and in evolving out of a strong collaboration between singer and composer. However. Other compositions in this thesis have been initially inspired by texts but in their final form they have evolved beyond them into works which are largely determined by purely musical language and considerations. It has a strong music theatre element deriving its form and much of its detail from the text. 102 .6. a metallic sound which rapidly swells in volume. as it were. Bayo's Way was less directly collaborative than Riddle: the soloist is given space in the performance to improvise. is unique in terms of the compositions presented in this thesis. Conclusions Riddle. For example. Bayo's Way is also in this category as it was specially composed to compliment Oren Marshall's style of performance. (2'04" in score) are accompanied by a sound referred to as "Dog's bark" which I associate with scenes of mayhem as the storm tears through buildings.The words "ransack palaces". being performed by the singer and directly inspiring much of the musical detail. prepares the word "sharp". It would be pointless to apply Schillinger's ideas to explain this work as so much of the rhythm and proportions of the music were determined by the rhythm of the spoken text. whereas in Riddle. where the text is always central to the work. Other less obvious sound references include "lightning" (2'18") which I have characterised as a high pitched sound played as a volley of descending arpeggios. 6. the sound "cymbal swell" (0'37"). providing context but should be experienced by the listener as something created by the performer and which responds to her words and punctuates her phrases. The tape part is not just an accompaniment for the performer. there is no equivalent improvisation due to the fact that the process of composition itself involved the performer's skill in this field. hurled across the performance space. The performer should embrace the theatrical potential of this relationship through some gesture indicating that this sound is controlled by her and. Collaborative work of this kind makes theoretical analysis of compositional method relatively redundant.

Similarly.It would of course be possible to apply Schillinger's techniques to the further development of material in the piece. For example. subject to standard techniques of variation. in composing the pitches of the vocal line I have adopted a systematic and predetermined approach involving two pools or clusters of notes. As far as I am aware. Chapter 7 Vision and Prayer 103 . Schillinger never specifically describes this particular cluster arrangement but in any case would have treated it as just another scale. my use of interval cells is not derived directly from Schillinger's theory but could be deduced from The Theory Of Pitch Scales as being an example of the evolution of melodic forms from scales containing two intervals.

2 Literary source Vision and Prayer takes its title from a poem of the same name by Dylan Thomas and is a direct response to the poem itself.1 Introduction Vision and Prayer for violin. Who are you Who is born In the next room So loud to my own That I can hear the womb Opening and the dark run Over the ghost and the dropped son Behind the wall thin as a wren's bone? In the birth bloody room unknown To the burn and turn of time And the heart print of man Bows no baptism But dark alone Blessing on The wild Child In the name of the lost who glory in The swinish plains of carrion Under the burial song Of the birds of burden Heavy with the drowned And the green dust And bearing The ghost From The ground Like pollen On the black plume And the beak of slime I pray though I belong Not wholly to that lamenting Brethren for joy has moved within The inmost marrow of my heartbone Figure 7. bass clarinet and marimba was commissioned by the bass clarinettist. cello. As the title suggests. Hein Pijnenburg.7. 7. Vision and Prayer was written before my discovery of Schillinger's work and was composed without the background of such a method. Vision and Prayer: two verses from the poem and their outline shapes. I believe that the composition as a whole can be better understood by reference to ideas found in Schillinger's theories. In this chapter I will discuss the poetic background of this composition and show the origin of its musical material. 104 . the poem resonates with spiritual and religious imagery and in the light of some of my other work inspired by dream states (Rêve de l'Orb) or imaginary religious ritual (Moon Shaman) it is unsurprising that this poem should provide a source of musical inspiration. However.1. It was composed in 1992 and given its première at the Ijsbreker in Amsterdam in the same year.

In order to compose music based on these two wave shapes I devised a more detailed set of narrative or mnemonic references based on moods and 105 . certain specific references in the poem have been translated into details of the music. Vision and Prayer: two climaxes. 7. the second having much greater intensity than the first. My observations concerning the rise and fall of intensity in the poem lead me to look for equivalent forms in natural phenomena. I wanted to compose music which flowed in the same way as Thomas's poem. At the centre of the verse the longest lines occur consecutively producing a period of greatest intensity. On the local level. the more complex are the images contained in it and the greater its intensity seems.1. there is a gradual increase in what might be called poetic 'information'. In the case of the verses which expand towards the centre. After reading past the centre of the verse the mirror image or retrograde form begins and the intensity diminishes.The influence of this poem on the composition can be seen in various ways. are inspired by moods evoked by the poem. Climax II.2. I arrived at a background form in which the metaphor of the wave was expressed in the rise and fall of the musical dynamic around two points of climax. Figure 7.3 Poetic form and background music structure. Climax I.2 shows a simple diagram of how the wave shape manifests itself in the form ofVision and Prayer. The longer a line. Bar 144 Bar 220 Figure 7. There is striking symmetry in this arrangement of the verses which effected my reading of the poem. the foreground. The poem itself has an extraordinary form as can be seen from the shape of the verses in Figure 7. sub-sections of around 50 bars in length. The middle ground of the piece. one inverted and joined to the other at their common base. The final six verses are the opposite: the triangles are joined at their tips. such as the rise and fall of a wave or the shape of the breath and from these create musical phrases and the form of the composition as a whole. The large scale or background shape is influenced by the form of the verse. The first six verses have the shape of two triangles.

their mnemonic and function. "And the heart print of man Bows no baptism" Part I. Or. "Brethren for joy has moved within The inmost marrow of my heart bone" Part II Verse 1. Vision and Prayer: the sections of the piece. 106 .3) but also a number of foreground. The 'heart beat' motif first appears at bar 52. For example.4 Local forms The poem not only inspired background and middleground structures (Figure 7. 7. its rhythmic pattern suggests the beating of a heart. From this table it can be seen that on two occasions the music reaches a climax progressing from a meditative state to one of vision and revelation. for example. verse 1. The scheme and its six sections are shown below. This reversal came about unconsciously and illustrates how musical considerations ultimately become more important than the original source of inspiration.3. Section/Bar I:1-92 II : 93-114 III : 144-122 IV : 123-196 V : 197-219 VI : 220-280 Mnemonic/Mood First meditation/prayer Thought rising Incomplete vision Second meditation/prayer Thought rising Complete vision Form Introduction/exposition Transition First climax (short) Second exposition Transition Climax and ending Figure 7. several references in the poem to the heart inspired a motif which I named 'heart beat'.images evoked by the poem. The direction of this progression (meditation→revelation) is the inverse of the direction that would logically be suggested by the title of the poem. played by the cello and. surface details. as can be seen below.

52 Vcl j 5 ? 3 ‰. jŒ 3 ‰ 4 œ œ bœ bœ . œ ‰. œ œ.4. (Bar1) ?3 Ó 4 Solo . œ. The wave shape manifests itself in the instrumental phrasing of Vision and Prayer. œ nœ F F F F 5 5 5 5 5 Pizz Sonore 5 œ‰ Œ œ. ˙ Figure 7. œ. b œ b œ. œ #œ #˙ f ¯ œ œœ œ. j 4 ‰ j. ? ‰ ‰. the solo phrases of both the cello and bass clarinet tend to rise up suddenly and then fall away. 107 . Œ ‰. œ. Œ ≈ œ ‰. F 5 Œ Figure 7. Cello. Vision and Prayer : falling cello Phrase. œ œ 4 n œ ‰.Vision and Prayer (bars 52-57): the 'heart beat' motif. Œ Œ ˚ ‰.5. >. œ œ. For example. œ œ F 5 œ ‰ Œ ≈b b œ ‰. œ F 5 œ ‰.

6. Vision and Prayer: falling bass clarinet phrase. clarity and intensity of this painting. a sparse landscape.5 and 7. For example. For 108 . Accordingly my composition begins in a very still and focused manner and is meant to evoke a sense of space. in particular that of the early Italian Renaissance. the second was the symbolic processional nature of the imagery. The first was colour. particularly the use of gold which suggests to me a hypnotic intensity.4) and a tutti chord which is discussed later.b œ 4 . The order of these events is intended to be processional and ritualistic and thereby evoke the feeling of meditation or prayer. There is a pattern to the procession as follows: solo phrases are followed by tutti chords. the 'heart beat' (Figure 7. Two aspects of this style of painting were of special interest to me and directly influenced my musical imagination. or the 15th Century Flemish masters. œ œ #˙ -f j #œ #œ ˙ P 3 Figure 7. the 'tumbling strain' and forms of incantation or prayer. for instance the paintings of Bellini. This type of gesture is an expression of the wave shape inspired by the poem but also a reference to the human cry. it also has a second meaning: vision in terms of seeing. This inspired what might be called a lateral connection with certain types of visual and religious imagery. Jan and Hubert Van Eyck. occupied by musical objects: the solo phrases for the cello and bass clarinet (Figures 7.Bass Clarinet in B flat (bar70) &c œ œ b˘ œn œ œ œ œ ˘ œ œ œ ˘ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ p f pf 3 b œ.5 Bars 1-92: meditation and procession Although vision (in the sense of spiritual revelation) is an idea which inspires this composition.6). Jan and Hubert Van Eyck's polyptych painted for the altarpiece of the cathedral at Ghent is a revelatory painting showing the procession of apostles and soldiers of Christ as they make their way through fruit groves towards the altar on which lies the Holy Lamb. 7. I wanted to capture something of the order. 3 œ.

a cello phrase is followed by a tutti chord. ˙ . # œœ 3 ˙ . ˙. ˙ ˙ Bs Cl (In B flat) &4 4 4 &4 &4 4 ∑ ∑ 3 4 #˙. Œ Œ œj ‰. œ F ˙. A continuous trill on the marimba creates a background to this procession of events. œ. ∑ Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~ 3 4 . This pattern is repeated from bars 7 to 19. Other parts in the score possessing their own individual rhythms and tempos appear to float on the surface of this 109 . It represents stillness and focus of thought. &4 4 æ 4 P · Pizz Sonore œ b· · bœ œ jÀ ?4 Œ 5 Œ Œ‰b b ·   Œ 3 œ ‰ . œ w ˙ ∑ 3 4 ˙. œ. b œ F F Gls. fp ˙. continuous and relatively unchanging. When even the smallest change occurs in the marimba part the effect is huge.7. 4 ˙.b œj 4 4 4 œ œ œ. 5 4 ˙. P 5 4 5 b˙.example. œ Œ ‰ . and might be likened to a sudden change of illumination. These accents create the impression of time passing and soon become part of the forgotten background. ˙ ˙ Mrba ˙. from bar 3 to bar 5. œj Œ b œ. æ 5 5 ˙ ˙ æ 5 5 5 ˚ ‰ b œj. In fact the tremolo is not continuous but is punctuated by dynamic accents. this time with enormous extension of the cello phrase. 50 Vln Vcl #˙. ˙. and again for a third time from bars 20 to 42. ˙ b˙. Gls. . Vision and Prayer: expansion of the trill coincides with the 'heart beat' motif. 4 # ww 5 b˙. ˙. it soon ceases to be noticed by the listener. fp Figure 7.

Vision and Prayer: harmonic structure of tutti chords.3). The dissonant harmonic relationships 110 . there is a change in the harmony: the root of the chords changes from G to C sharp. Figure 7. In this way I suggest both the infinite neutrality of time as well as the unique value of every passing moment. its formation is represented by the violent coalescing of accelerating parts which culminate in a climax.background texture. The switch of polarity is the only significant harmonic change for 90 bars and contributes to the feeling of stillness in the opening section. shows that from bar 52.8. contribute to the general evocation of stillness and subtle change. This movement is reinforced by the change in the spacing of the chords from relatively closed to open positions.8. The accumulation and subsequent release of energy is another expression of the wave metaphor. Very gradual modifications in the pitch structure of the tutti chords shown in Figure 7. In the following diagram the marimba notes are in black and always lie at the centre of the chords. 7. The mnemonic tag associated with this section during composition was that of 'thought rising' (see Figure 7. The thought is not a peaceful or comfortable one.8. is a transition between the relatively peaceful atmosphere of the opening and the highly energetic climax which begins at bar 114. Analysis of the transition section reveals how the narrative idea is supported by pitch and rhythm. An image which I associate with this section is of the gradual disturbance of a smooth surface. . Bars: w & wœ wœœ wœœ œ w w w ? w #w w w 1 11 16 36 40 w w # # ww wœœ œœ w w w w # 52 w w bœ œ œ œ w #w w 83 w w w w œ œ œ œ nw ##w w ww # w w #w # w nw w 64 76 w w œ œ Figure 7.6 Bars 90 to 113: transition Section two.

1) The tendency for the string parts to fall towards the pitch D.9 is a generalisation of a complex passage. The black note heads in the violin and cello parts show pitches of secondary importance. Both can be seen occurring in the violin and cello parts while the marimba and the bass clarinet provide a constant pitch axis or background. These processes add to the effect of increasing density of texture and generate tension. The whole of the transition is dominated by the process of acceleration and an increase in shorter durations. the primary pitches are shown by white note heads. This is 111 . The pitches in the diagram were chosen because they appear more often or for a longer duration than other pitches.9.between the parts and the agitated character suggested by rhythm and timbre conveys a sense of emotional disturbance. Figure 7. Vision and Prayer: general movement of pitches from bars 90 to 111. In terms of pitch. 90 93 Violin & & ? #w œ bœ œ 97 99 102 104 106 œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ œ bœ w #w bw nw 109 Cello bw nw Bass Cl (In C) Marimba &#w w Figure 7. 2) The gradual accumulation of pitches. Rhythm also plays its part in characterising the movement of the 'rising thought' or growing wave shape. two main processes are at work.

11). For example. the violin phrases which begin the transition section. The co-ordination and rhythms of the three parts was facilitated by recording them on a MIDI sequencer and making adjustments accordingly. During the transition section each instrument occupies its own register and wherever possible the timbre of each instrument is contrasting. presages future events (see Figure 7.10. I did not devise a specific method such as the use of a growth series33 for controlling the rhythmic development of parts.. 4 · ##· &4 œ ˙ p Gls. œ œ # œ J‰ ‰J B 4 ≈J 4 p f f Cello Bar 21 passages. œ œ. The character of transition is supported by the connection of motifs from different sections of the composition. section 3. ˙ 5 · œ ‰. Violin Bar 93 · ˙ ˙ .5.10) while the bass clarinet motif beginning at bar 106. 4 ##w &4 ˙ Violin Bar 41 ˙ œ ##œ w œœ ˙ œ œ. For example.evident in all the parts except for the marimba which provides a constant reference in contrast to the surrounding change. œ. J · ##· · œ œ ˙ Gls. are echoes of cello and violin phrases heard earlier (see Figure 7. the cello plays sul ponticello and tremolando while the violin produces glassy harmonic tones. 112 . the composition emerged in stages: the violin part was the first to be composed and served as a model for the cello and bass clarinet parts which are compressed versions of it. œœ œ œ œ. Vision and Prayer: comparing the violin motif of bar 93 with earlier 33See chapter 3. ∑ Fi gure 7. however.

œ . Comparing the bass clarinet motif of bar 106 with a passage from the finale bar 243.. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˘..Bar 106 Bass Cl In B flat &3 4 3 bœ œ œ Bar 243 b< ˙ Pitch Axis Violin &3 4 . The discharge of accumulated tension is achieved rhythmically by uniting the parts in near rhythmic unison. 7. The whole of the finale is saturated with melodic shapes derived from this form.7 Bars 114-122: first climax The climax at bar 114 represents the goal of the transition section. 113 . œ . in B flat Marimba Ÿ ~~~~~~ Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Ÿ ~~~~~~ œ œ œ ˙ 3 œ nœ &4 œ . ˘ œ œ œœ ≥ œ˙ œ. 4 5 6 3 5 Pitch Axis Figure 7. An image which inspired the character of the climax was that of an imaginary worshipper (declaiming his vision) infused with spiritual fervour or even frenzy..11 the bass clarinet motif of bar 106 (top). . œ œ œœ 5 Cello ?3 œ 4 œ Bass Cl. . . œœ œœ 5 œ œ ≥ ˙ ˙ œœ 6 œœ œœ œ. the crystallisation of the rising thought. . œ ˙ œ. It represents the theme of vision and revelation. . evolves into the phrases played by the violin marimba and cello at bar 243 of the finale (bottom four staves). œ . . œ œ œ œ œœ œ .11. @ æ ! œ Œ J J & 3 ‰. In Figure 7.

≈ ggg b œ œ . gg œ . Long. @ J B 5 8 b œœ œœ ˚ j œ œ ? œ b œŸœ~~~ Ÿ È~~~~~~ Ÿ ~~~~~~ Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ œ œj # œ Iœ 6 bœ œ œ 8 j œ fƒ 3 Arco Pizz 3 Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ œ œŸ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ b œ Èœ Pizz j œ Bs Cl 3 &4 Ÿ ~~~~ #œ œ œ ≈ J ‰ >.5.. ggg œ .. @ 5 8 œ œ ƒ > œ œ 3 bJ B flat & 4 ˚ j≈ œ ¯ œ ‰ œ J ¯ œ œ J ‰ ŸÈ~~~~~ œ 6 ‰ #œ 8 ƒ Ÿiœ~~~~~ œ 3 Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~~~ j # œ Èœ œ 6 3 ‰ ‰ ≈ 5 8 ƒ #>... ≥ œ ˚œ ˚ j œ #≥ .... œœ #œ œ. and so I will not discuss it further.. œ bœ... gg œ ƒ ≥...6 and 7. œ... long ...... Vision and Prayer: rhythmic patterns in the climax......... ƒ ≥ gg œ ... The material for these later sections is essentially the same as that described in sections 7. bœ...Long.Long. This basic pattern was ornamented with trills and arpeggiation.. Long .. gg œ ......... there is a return to the meditative opening music which leads to a second transition and then an extended climax and finale..13..... Short..The individual rhythm of each instrument is a variation on a pattern which could be described as short... ≥ #œ........... Vision and Prayer: the basic pattern of Figure 7..7. gg œ .... decoration inspired by the image of the imaginary worshipper. Bar 114 B.. Following the climax at bar 114........ Short. #œ. 7. Figure 7.. œ œ Œ > >. gg œ œ ... œ œ nœ œ. œ b œ .... For example. Short #Ÿ 6 ‰œ &8 ƒ 3 œ #œ 3 j bœ œ nœ 3 J nœ ‰4 3 œ bœ #œ œ Short... ggg œ . 114 .. ‰ Œ 5 8 œ ˚≈ j œ bœ 6 8 Long.. @ J n > >. √ ŸÈ-œ~~~~~~ ŸÈœ~~~~~ œœ~~~~~~~~~~~~ ˚ j 6 ‰ b œj˚ nŸÈœ œ œ bœ ˚ j 8 J bœ ƒ 3 114 Vln 3 &4 Vcl ?3 4 ≥ œ... Short.12.12 with ornamentation.. n> œ ? 3 b œ & ‰? @ 4 J ≈ 5 8 ¯ œ œ J f #¯ œ bœ J nœ œ #œ œ #¯ ¯ œ œ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ 6 ‰ #œ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ 8 J J nœ œ œ œ ƒ ¯ ¯ œ œ 6 b œ œ& 8 ‰ b œ œ n œ œ nœ œ œ ‰ ‰ J J bœ œ nœ œ nœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ œ œ 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Figure 7. In B flat 3 &4 œ. ‰ ≥ Œ 5 8 3 œ ˚ j œ ŸI-~~~~~~~~~~~~ œœ ‰ j ≈ . œ n œ .Cl...

Melody which reaches its peak long before or after we expect it is felt to be unsatisfying or absurd35.7. The accumulation of energy in mechanical systems may be achieved through rotary motion producing centrifugal force.1 Introduction The claims made for the Schillinger System Of Musical Composition in its introduction by Shaw and Dowling (Schillinger 1978. 35Schillinger 1978 page 283.8. and provides the foundation for a more objective method of analyses of music.8 The application of Schillingerian concepts. section 2. (Schillinger 1978. Page XXII) include the following: that it establishes general laws true in any special instance. It is important to note that Schillinger distinguishes between different forms of climax. 115 . If this is true then it should be possible to analyse and interpret music that has not been produced using the system.5. 36See Schillinger 1978. 7. Schillinger discusses the wave form in terms that are directly relevant to Vision and Prayer . can be explained in terms of natural and mechanical systems which accumulate energy (tension) for discharge (climax).8. such as harmonic climax or dynamic climax36.2 The wave form In the discussion entitled Melody: Climax and Resistance (Schillinger 1978). A heavy object attached to a string and put into rotary motion about an axis point accumulates energy causing it to travel a long distance when released. Tension and climax in the musical (specifically melodic) dimension. 7. the wave form describing frequency changes in time34. The time taken for the object to overcome inertia and reach maximum velocity after its release (mechanical efficiency) is intuitively understood by us and leads us to certain expectations: we do not expect an object to reach maximum velocity instantaneously. page 1609. page 1609) 34See Chapter 2. Melodic climax is defined as follows: The psychological effect of the climax is heightened if the maximum magnitude is reached in a series of increasing 'waves' each 'wave' being higher than the last but falling back only to be succeeded by a greater magnitude until the maximum is reached. His basic premise is that melody is a 'pitch time trajectory' (Schillinger 1978 page 303) or in other words.

œ. ¯¯ ˘ b œ œ œ œ j bœ œ œ œ œ œ . The most obvious of these occurs during the 37See Schillinger 1978. Page 125. Melodic phrases such as the bass clarinet solo shown in Figure 7. . 116 . exhibits a number of such pitch axes. there are examples of primary axes.8. Schillinger believed that the existence of such an axis was a fundamental requirement of melody. Vision and Prayer. In Vision and Prayer. Bass. œ b œ .Cl in B flat &3 4 œ œ#˙ -f j œ#œ ˙ P 6 3 œ.3 Pitch axes Schillinger refers to an essential ingredient of melody as the primary axis38: a pitch which sounds more frequently than any other and for the longest total duration ( pitch time maximum).2)-two climaxes. articulates a clear primary axis. Vision and Prayer which represents my intuitive understanding and realisation of the principles Schillinger discusses in his work. b œ. œ # œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ #< < #< œ 3 ˙.37 7. The form of the composition (see Figure 7.14. Primary Axis Figure 7. Vision and Prayer: primary axis in a melodic phrase. on the most foreground level. The primary axis is at the centre of the revolving melody just as the hand which controls the stone tied to the circling rope is at the centre of a mechanical system. page 296. the second much larger than the first-is typical of the kind of shape Schillinger refers to as possessing the quality of resistance leading to climax. A pitch which dominates a portion of music in this way establishes itself as an axis around which the melody evolves. < < ƒ p F 3 Primary Axis & . 38Schillinger 1978.14. in particular.Schillinger's ideas about the nature and behaviour of climactic shapes are highly relevant to my own work.

in retrospect. I believe that the extended emphasis and duration of these two pitches and the way the music revolves around them adds to the effectiveness of the climax. Page 290). For example at bar 239 ff. The register of its part lies at the centre of the overall pitch range (see Figure 7. In the same passage the pitch B also has a strong claim as a primary axis and in this case the two notes form a powerful 'parallel axis' .9. The painting of the early Renaissance also inspired the character of the music. It is heard constantly which gives it the fixed quality of a pedal point. Examining Vision and Prayer. 7. Schillinger makes clear that melody rotates and evolves around the primary axis which therefore represents a point of balance. to the flow of tension and release in music. is a composition informed by a number of different sources. The shape of the verses and the effect of this shape on the flow of the poetry was especially stimulating and lead me to think about the wave shape as a model for a background form. Dylan Thomas's poem was a direct inspiration not only for specific musical material such as the 'heart beat' but also the character and mood of the piece. There are other examples in Vision and Prayer of pitch axes which exist in a context opposite to that of climax. In particular I refer to my intuitive understanding of the importance of natural forms. The sensation of tranquillity evoked by the marimba trill would therefore be the expected effect given that there is no accumulation of melodic energy through rotary motion around the primary axis. it is satisfying that much of Schillinger's work reinforces the ideas that were important in the process of composition. such as the primary axis of melody. The marimba part in the opening section represents the most extended pitch axis in the entire composition. such as the wave shape. of the score (see Figure 7. in particular the processional quality of the opening section.11). Conclusions Vision and Prayer. Other ideas. Chapter 8 Rêve de l'Orb.8) and this contributes to its evocation of peace and stillness.climax and finale of the piece. the pitch A occurs in all the parts but most prominently in those of the violin and marimba. 117 . flow from these ideas and manifest themselves unconsciously in my work. one of the various types of axis described by Schillinger in The Theory Of Melody (Schillinger 1978.

is a piece which derives its inspiration from the river Orb which runs through the Langedoc region of southern France. 118 .1 Musical tapestry The opening movement of Rêve de l'Orb is an attempt to capture the essence of the river. The flute and clarinet engage in a duet shown in Figure 8.8. The instrumentation was given by the competition organisers and is based on the scoring used by Ravel for his Introduction and Allegr0: flute. Chaleur. Reflections is about the feeling of peace and melancholy which came over me as I sat on the bank but is also about the perfect stillness of the shallows.1.1Introduction Rêve de l'Orb.2. The first movement.2 Libellule 8. is made up of at least five separate strands described below. My experience of the river was dream-like in its overwhelming intensity. The web of activity associated with the river is evoked through a polyphonic tapestry in which parts are independent of one another but contribute to a common texture. The first movement of Rêve de l'Orb. There was one stipulation which was that the viola should have a prominent role. 8. My strongest impression was of the huge diversity of life engaged in individual pursuit and yet united by the river and the inevitable cycle of life and death. and inspired the title of my composition. In 1993 I had spent some time near this river and was inspired by the activity of the insect life and by the movement of the river itself this composition in three movements is a collection of impressions from that time. Libellule describes the surface of the river and in particular the extraordinary dragon flies that hover over it. Rêve de l'Orb was composed in 1992 for the Royal Overseas League viola competition. was inspired by the rippling heat of the sun and the torrents and waterfalls of the river. both its hypnotic beauty and its dark associations with death. clarinet in A. harp and string quartet.

The harp is distinct from the other instruments partly because it alone plays a diatonic scale. It might be described as wandering through the musical landscape. The dance-like quality of their duet and its continuous presence throughout the movement could be likened to the motion of the hover flies which live by the water or the glinting reflections on the river surface. Rêve de l'Orb: distribution of pitches between parts. The process of omitting pitches of the cycle and distributing them between the two parts (shown by arrows in Figure 8.2 and Figure 8.1) was instinctive rather then systematic. Œ 8 œ œ bœ #œ#œ œœŒ .3.1.1. its phrases constantly changing speed through a reduction of duration. The harp is entirely independent of the other instruments in the ensemble. This is suggested rhythmically through constant semi-quaver motion and in the cycle of pitches (see section 8.Bar 18 Fl & 6 b œ œ œ ‰.7) which is never heard in its entirety but only in fragments. the flute and clarinet provide a constant thread against which the other parts evolve. 119 . as was the choice of particular sequences of pitches for transposition. In Figure 8. œ ∑ Pitches omitted Cl In B flat œ#œ nœ œ 6 Œ #œ œbœ Œ bœ bœ œ œ n œ ≈ ≈# œ œ œ œ œ n œ bœ œ œ œ œ &8 œ œœ Figure 8. that of E minor.

2. like the harp. ≈ Figure. ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ #œ ‰ ‰ #œ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ #œ ‰ ‰ #œ Œ. Rêve de l'Orb: wandering harp. The varying acceleration of the harp and its explorations around the tonic E. although the violin parts have a tendency to accelerate.3. rhythmic unison and pizzicato articulation suggests the short jerky movements of river birds. œ œ ‰ # œ ≈ J ≈ ‰. œ œ & ‰ œ ‰ œ ≈ #œ ≈ ≈ œ ‰ œ œ #œ œ & Pizz. œ œ œ.Bar11 5:6 ? 6 œ #œ œ œ œ 8 ?6 ‰ œ 8 œ #œ œ œ. œ #œ ‰ œ ‰ #œ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ #œ Œ. œ œ œ ≈ #œ ≈ ‰ Œ. 8. Acceleration through the reduction of duration. 8 Bar 19 Pizz. œ. 8 & 6 Œ. Rêve de l'Orb: violins before bar 39 120 . œ. are meant to suggest the eddies and currents which form little whirlpools on the surface of the river. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Figure 8. Bar 13 & 6 Œ. The two violins at first play in rhythmic unison.

Œ. Rêve de l'Orb: viola phrases suggest a human presence. in their bird roles. 6 œ. Its tenor song is intended to suggest the presence of a human consciousness in amongst the firmament of river life.I Vl. œ.II 6 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ≈ Œ. # œ. At bar 39. B œ œœ œ .3.5. 15Va gliss Figure 8. œ. From this point on they are independent of each other: the second violin plays at the top of its register and glides from note to note while the first violin plucks the string behind the bridge in a manner which suggests pecking or clucking. # œ. œ.3). œ J œ œ. œ œ Œ J 5:3 ˙. Rêve de l'Orb: violins take on bird . It provides a depth to the musical image and to me suggests the reflection of the trees and sky in the water. B ˙. &8 Pizz. œ J œ. the two violins switch to arco articulation and play a vigorous ascending phrase as if. Figure 8. ˙. behind the bridge Œ œ J ‰ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ‰.4. Bar 50 Vl. œ œ. they had taken to the air. 121 . The articulation of the cello is always pizzicato but its rhythm and pitches are independent of the other parts (see section 8. &8 #œ. Bar 5 Vla 6 ≈ œ˚œ B8 j f œ #œ œ. œ.This comparison can be extended. The viola plays a series of long melodic phrases which float above the vibrating and shimmering background.like roles.

Rêve de l'Orb: the cello provides depth and resonance.2 Time and rhythm As I have shown. I had no predetermined system of co-ordinating the various parts and controlling the musical image as a whole. This involved introducing the elements of one part into another : a sort of cross-fertilisation. Ultimately I achieved the desired effect through improvisation and experimentation. I devised a method of injecting into the score both diversity and coherence. The most obvious example of this can be seen in the case of the woodwind and the violins. Not having discovered Schillinger's techniques at the time of composing Rêve de l'Orb. a process the musical effect of which is comparable to that of the visual artist who deliberately smudges the sharp edges of an image in order to create an impressionistic result. 122 . ‰ #œ P œ ≈ #œ ‰ œ ≈ Œ #œ j œ #œ œ ≈ ‰ ≈ ‰ J œ œ œ 2 2 Figure 8. This process results in subtle relationships between the parts and helped to bind the various strands of the composition as a whole. 8.2.5 Vcl ?6 8 Pizz Sonore. each part in the first movement of Rêve de l'Orb is governed by its own particular pulse which to some extent guarantees its individual identity in the aural image. The combination of independent parts creates the complex tapestry-like texture of the movement as a whole.6. The pitches played by the flute and clarinet are echoed in the first and second violin parts. qualities strongly suggested by the metaphor of the river.

Time expansion of this sort produces a reverberation or aura effect because identical material is heard simultaneously at different speeds.7. Rather than a rigorous polytonality I wanted to create a floating tonality.2. 8 ‰# œ ‰ ‰# œ ‰ œ ‰ œ‰ # œ ‰ ‰# œ Figure 8. 123 . 8 œ bœ ‰ ‰ # œ ‰ œ ‰ # œ‰ ‰ ‰ œ ‰# œ Œ . To my mind the effect of such an expansion can be interpreted as being like the image of a stone breaking the water's surface : the ripples which expand from the point of impact are a record of a past event.2). It can be seen from Figure 8. somewhat impressionistic and disembodied. that the material in the string parts has been expanded by a ratio of 3:1.3 Pitch relationships Independence between parts is partly a matter of tonal separation.8. contrasting and independent intonations. made up of simultaneous. œ œ œ 6 œ ≈b œ # œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ ≈ œ# œ œ œ œ ‰ œ n œ œ# œ# œ # œ œ œ œ œ # &8 œ œ œ œœ & 6 Œ. I felt that to use even a distantly related diatonic scale in more than one part would diminish the range of tonal space and so I turned to the octatonic scale. œ œ œ Vl I Vl II & 6 Œ. and can be achieved by assigning a different scale to each part as for example with the harp part which is set in the scale of E minor (see Figure 8.7.Bar 13 Cl In C. An example of the use of the octatonic scale can be seen below in Figure 8. Cross-fertilisation between parts involves both pitch and rhythm. 8. Rêve de l'Orb: cross fertilisation between parts.

1.4 The cell method An alternative method of creating pitch material is the use of overlapping interval cells. to 'grow' a long sequence of pitches. hovering insects. The result is a line of notes saturated with characteristic intervals.2.8.1. Scale 1 &6 8 Bar 1 œ œ œ #œ #œ œ #œ œ œ bœ œ ≈ œ #œ ≈ #œ œ bœ Cl In C &6 ‰ 8 &6 8 Scale 2 œ œ bœ œ bœ bœ nœ œ Figure 8. 124 .2. floating and un-rooted quality which is an appropriate quality given the role of the flute and clarinet in evoking the image of dancing. 8.2) which accounts for its neutral.2.1.Fl œ #œ œ nœ . I would liken the process to the knight's move in chess which allows a number of different outcomes. in the process one is free to choose the direction of each interval which can result in pitch groups with somewhat eccentric contour and pitch repetition. In 39Only three possible transpositions of this scale are required to complete the total chromatic.2. Rêve de l'Orb: octatonic scales in the woodwind The octatonic scale39 has regular interval structure (1. Although both parts share an identical scale structure their key-notes lie a semi-tone apart creating a tension between them which contributes to their dualogue. ‰ & 6 ≈ œ #œ œ #œ 8 Bar 1.

The 'cell method' is a half-way-house between completely free and rigidly structured composition: decisions are made on the local level and the result is a highly varied collection of related melodic shapes.5) where 1= a semi-tone. 125 . These cells form interlocking networks which are shown in the diagram by the overlapping boxes. 1 5 5 1 5 4 &4 ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ 1 #œ œ 1 &˙ 5 œ 1 5 5 1 #œ ˙ #œ #œ ˙ #œ #œ Figure 8. It is made up of two types of cell: semi-tones and thirds (both major and minor) and semi-tones and fourths. The cello part is an example of cell construction. Rêve de l'Orb: cell construction from a single starting point (after Figure 6.9. The type of melodic forms produced by this method might be likened to the streets of old towns in which houses (structures) evolve in unusual forms and clusters. intervals are shown by numbers where 1= a semitone. Intervals are always numbered as though in closed position even though in the score they may be inverted and in the open position.the following diagram each bar represents a different 'route' starting from the same point and following the interval pattern (1.8).

As the title suggests it is about contemplation. 126 . harp and viola. J œ 8 œ. There is an element of surprise when a sequence of cells appear to have some unusual meaning as for example in Figure 8. is scored for only three members of the ensemble: clarinet. ≈œ ≈ ˚ Œ bœ j J œ #œ œ œ bœ 5 1 5 1 5 1 Figure. memory and the surface of the water. ? 6 ‰ ≈# œ ‰ œ ≈ Œ œ ≈ ‰ ≈ . Contemplation and memory are represented in the way the viola melody evolves: a phrase is stated and then repeated before continuing to reveal more of itself. Œ 8 Bar14 œ j‰ b œ ‰ œ ‰ ‰ ≈# œ ≈‰ ‰.3. 8. where the letters which appear above the first three bars indicate an unpredicted harmonic progression (A major.9.1 Introduction The second movement. Rêve de l'Orb : cell networks The cell method typically produces a collage effect in which contiguous cells at times reinforce or oppose one another. Reflections. followed by A7 and d minor) generated as a by-product of the process.1.A/e----------------------------4 3 1 A7--d Bar 5 Vcl 1 œ j œ # œ ‰# œ . 8. or possibly e minor. .9.3 Reflections 8. œ #œ 4 1 4 3 1 1 1 Vcl ? 6 Œ.

11 below. œ œ. perhaps related by inversion but in fact there is no strict relationship between the two. œ œ. 3 j œ œœ œ ˙ 5 3 3 ≈ . œ œ œ œ Œ ‰ b œ . nœ. The parts often develop in contrary motion shown by the arrows in Figure 8. The clarinet is like a shadow or a reflection of the viola part. œ œ 4 j ‰ ‰ jŒ œ bœ œ œ n œ œ. œ Ó Œ. œ œ œ. Bar 12 Cl In A. nœ. Harp ?3 4 B 3 œ.1 Phrase 5 Repeat 3 B4 B 8 bœ œ œ. 127 . This contrary motion suggests a mirror symmetry around an axis point: the three repeated notes in the harp hint at the possibility of such an axis although they are in reality no such thing but are in fact a rhythmic event meant as a symbolic representation of time passing . Œ ‰ jœ #œ j œ Pseudo axis of inversion Ó j j ‰ œ ≈œ . It might appear that the clarinet and viola parts were derived from one another.11. œ œ œ œ Figure 8. œ bœ 5 5 ˙. b œ ˙ 5 Vla Figure 8. Continuation 3 5 bœ œ œ. œ œ œ œ ∑ ∑ 5 3 j œ œ œ bœ œ Œ œ œb œ. œ. œ œ. Rêve de l'Orb: pseudo mirror symmetry. Rêve de l'Orb: unfolding viola phrase. b˙ j j j œ b œ. b œ ˙ 5 j≈ j œ œ œ œ œ . œ &3 4 &3 4 œ# œ .10. œ œ œ n œ œ. The position of the clarinet part relative to the viola suggests displacement or echo and expresses the theme of reflection.

8. Rêve de l'Orb: parts develop from different transpositions of the octatonic scale. Each part has a different origin a semi-tone transposed: the viola on D flat. This arrangement gives each part individuality and also ensures overall the presence of the total chromatic spectrum.2 Pitch The three parts of Reflection are built around the octatonic scale.3.12. The E flat tonic in the clarinet part does not appear immediately but is strongly emphasised in bar 10 of the score. the harp on D natural and the clarinet on E flat. the pitches of each part have been taken out of context but their register and order has been preserved. In the case of the harp and viola. shows each part above its respective scale. a measure which seemed necessary partly because of the movement's length and limited instrumentation but also because of the feeling of intensity I wished to evoke. 128 . Figure 8. Harp Scale on D ? B B #œ bœ œ bœ bœ nœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ bœ œ nœ œ bœ bœ œ nœ œ œ nœ bœ œ œ œ bœ bœ bœ nœ Vla Scale on D flat Figure 8. Bars 1 to 13 Cl In C & & ? #œ œ bœ œ œ bœ bœ œ Scale on E flat bœ bœ bœ nœ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. their respective tonics appear prominently at the start of their parts.12.

rocky paths and in particular the rippling heat waves which hover above road surfaces during the hottest part of the day. melodic shapes are derived from the chaining of interval cells. Rêve de l'Orb: clarinet part made from cells derived from the octatonic scale 8. The shimmering textures which dominate this movement were inspired by the fierce southern landscape.5. Figure 8. In the first movement interval cells were combined in a manner which allowed considerable variation and often produced unusual results. its steep hill sides.13.5 Chaleur 8. is more formal and limited as the cells are produced by the re-ordering of the notes of the octatonic scale.8. The choice of this technique came about from a desire to embody in the music ideas such as contemplation.13. Octatonic scale &# œ œ #œ œ œ bœ œ #œ Interval cells/chords Melodic form of clarinet œ b œ œœ # œœ & # œœ # œœ # b œœ #bœœ b # œœ n œœ b œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ & œ bœ œ œ #œ œ Bars 6-11 Figure 8. from bar 129 .4 Cells While the pitches are derived from the octatonic scale. That the pitches of the scale are used only once severely limits the number of cells and the possible connections between adjacent cells. The modified method. memory and reflection: the linking of cells in a chain is expressive of the way thoughts connect to one another in a cascade. The technique used here is a modified version of the 'cell method' described earlier.1 Introduction The third and final movement of Rêve de l'Orb involves the whole ensemble. the scale arranged into three note chords (cells) and finally the melodic form of the clarinet line in which the pitches of the scale are used only once. used here. shows the octatonic scale on D sharp (top stave). and the result is a more focused melodic line. Towards the end of the movement.

82 onwards, new material is introduced which evokes a dream-like atmosphere and is intended to convey something of the delirious state which can be induced by exposure to such intense heat. 8.5.2 Forms of motion Various aspects of Chaleur can be discussed in terms of Schillinger's ideas. In The Theory Of Melody (Schillinger 1978), Schillinger describes basic forms of melodic motion40. Schillinger believed that forms of motion in the real world influenced the contours of a melody and that certain fundamental forms of motion, translated into music through the use of a graph, could be used directly to influence the behaviour of a melodic line. These basic types are derived from oscillatory motion of wave around an axis and are shown graphically with accompanying verbal descriptions of analogous forms. For example, 1. Repetition (correspondences: aiming, rotary motion with infinitesimal amplitudes, affirmation of the axis level as a starting point). Musical form: repeated attacks of the same pitch discontinued by rests or following each other continuously. 2. One phase motion (correspondences: preliminary contrary motion, initial impulse in archery [drawing of the bow], artillery, springboard diving, baseball pitching, tennis service, etc.). Musical form: a movement or a group of movements in the direction opposite to the succeeding leap. 3. Full periodic rotation (one or more periods). Constant amplitude. (Correspondences: rotation around a stationary point, a top, somersaults- with diving and withoutlasso, axis and orbit rotation of the planets, Dervish dances). Musical form: mordent, trill, tied tremolo, grupetto. (After Schillinger, 1978: 284-286)
1 Repetition 2

One phase

3 Full

periodic

Figure 8.14. Forms of motion displayed graphically(after Schillinger 1978 page 284).

40See

Chapter 2 section 2.5.

130

Through variations in amplitude and the introduction of secondary axes 41 Schillinger develops these basic types into an array of more complex forms. For example,

Spiral form
Secondary axis

Musical equivalent

œ œ œ &œ œ œ

Primary axis

Figure 8.15. Spiral form (after Schillinger 1978 page 312).

Schillinger's reference to baseball pitching or the tennis service seem comic, imprecise and incongruous amidst the graphs and formulae of the surrounding text. However, in the opening bars of Chaleur, it is possible to see the influence of all these types of movement. For example, in bars 1 to 4, the cello plays a series of durations on the same pitch (type1) while the woodwind and the viola play trills (type 3). In fact the trills correspond more closely to the repetitive motion of type 1, that is, 'rotary motion with infinitesimal amplitude'. They are doubling the sustained pitches in the violins but are embellished with trills which in this case are really a defined vibrato. See for example the quarter-tone trills in the second violin at bar 10.

41See

figure 2.18 and 2.19.

131

&4 4
Flute

w

&4 4
Clarinet

p w p
∑ ∑

Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ œ ˙. w w ‰ J Ÿ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ œ ˙. w w ‰ J
Type 3
Gliss.

Type 1

&4 4
Harp

∑ œ. ˙. ≈ J w

Ó w

Œ

œœœbœ

œb œb œ

&4 4 &4 4 &4 4 &4 4

p
· ∑ ∑ Ó ##· ˙ w ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ wŸ w w w

Strings

pPizz

œ œ œ œ

Type 1

œ

œ œ œ œ
5

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ
6 5

Type 2

œ bœ bœ œ #œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ Œ œ bœ bœ œ bœ bœ & œ œ bœ bœ œ #œ œ bœ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ & bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ nœ bœ nœ œ œ f bœ
6 6 6 6 6 6 6

& w &

œ

f
6 6 6 6

w & · œ bœ bœ œ #œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ B œ bœ œ œ œ & œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ f Type 3 · b· ˙ œ & · ˙
Figure 8.16. Rêve de l'Orb: chaleur: bars 1 to 5

132

Schillinger's suggested 'correspondences', such as 'aiming', or the 'initial impulse in archery', actually describe the effect of the opening bars rather well. The sustained notes, trills and repeated pitches in the cello create a feeling of poised tension (type 1), while the descending scales in bar 5, correspond to 'one phase motion' (type 2), which Schillinger compares to the drawing of the bow in archery. The third type of motion ('full periodic') is partially suggested by the arc movement of the cello and harp in bar 5. The contrary motion of these two instruments suggests the possibility of a full rotation. Schillinger's phrase, "affirmation of the axis level as a starting point" is also apt in this case as all the parts start by emphasising the pitch B, confirming it as an axis. The axis is confirmed several times in the course of the opening section the pattern of confirmation achieved by repetition and abandonment (one phase motion) of the axis over the first 50 bars is shown in Figure 8.17. Repetition (confirmation) Bars 1 to 4 Bars 8 to 19 Bars 22 to 50 One phase (abandonment) Bars 5 to 7 Bars 20 to 21 Bars 50 to 54

Figure 8.17. Patterns of motion in bars 1 to 54 of Chaleur

8.5.3 Resistance and climax The pattern of motion shown in Figure 8.17 creates an accumulation of tension which is released only after bar 54. A proper discharge of tension is denied until this point because there is always an immediate return to the 'initial' or 'aiming' stage. The effect is as if the bow was drawn but the arrow was never released. Each repetition of the 'aiming' phase is longer than the one before increasing our expectation of release and contributing to the accumulation of tension leading towards the climax at bar 51. This is a manifestation of the process described by Schillinger as increasing 'resistance' leading towards a climax.

133

4 Acceleration Other processes contribute to the pattern of tension and release. relating music to natural phenomena. This acceleration proceeds almost according to a rhythm equivalent of the harmonic series until bar 4 when the rate of change increases. An example of an expanding bar group pattern can be seen starting at bar 73 (Figure 8. such as 4 bars of 4/4 beats or 7 bars of 7/8 beats. suggest a tendency towards the establishment of a rhythm of bars. 8. section 3. Metrical patterns. a concept fundamental to Schillinger's Theory of rhythm (Schillinger 1978). The latter suggest the unrealised tendency towards building large rhythmic structures derived from a master number and resulting in bar groups of square proportions.5 Bar groups There are a number of bar group patterns which recur throughout the movement.5. and as a technical device for the development of both rhythm and scale42. Growth series such as the harmonic series are important in Schillinger's theory both as concepts. Bar 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœ œ œ œ œ 5 6 5 Pizz & 4 5 6 9? Figure 8.5. Each group is one bar longer than the one before: an incrementation through the 'harmonic series'.18.22). The only distortion to this progression is the single bar of 6/4 in what is a predominantly 4/4 section. such as these. For example.8. 134 . The cello plays a rhythm which accelerates with each successive bar.5.Rêve de l'Orb: acceleration in the cello part. These fall into two categories: contracting and expanding patterns and regular repeating groups. 42See Chapter 3. The harp arpeggios mark the start of each group of bars.

2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Figure 8. is incomplete. This pattern recurs at ten bar intervals appearing at bar 30.An example of a contracting pattern. œ œ œ œ 1. Once again the harmonic series determines the rate of contraction. The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978) produces patterns almost all of which have symmetrical structures. Bar 6 3 3 3 3 Harp & 4 bœ bœ bœ 4 œ ?4 œ 4 3:2 œ 2. 1 . 8.7 Symmetrical forms Symmetrical forms in music are very important in Schillinger's work.6 Interference rhythms An example of a rhythm produced by pulse interference43 can be seen in Figure 8. can be seen at bar 20. (Marche des Davidsbündler contre les Philistins) the right hand part of which is saturated with the rhythm (2. The structure of Chaleur shows a tendency towards symmetry which however.2. The combination of triplet quavers and quavers (3:2) in the first beat is imitated directly in the upper part of the second beat. 44A good example of the appearance of this type of rhythmic resultant can be seen in the finale of Schuman's Carnival. 3/4. such as the 'bi-fold' symmetry of the human body. Each occurrence of this pattern is separated from the next by seven bars in 4/4 metre. 135 . section 2. Schillinger frequently notes the connection between symmetry in natural phenomena. bars 51 to 54 and 43See Chapter 2. and symmetrical forms occurring in music. 4/4. bar 40 and bar 50.44 8.19.2).19. Rêve de l'Orb: the resultant of interference in the harp part.5. 5/4. This pattern evolved without conscious knowledge of Schillinger's theories in which such rhythms are treated as fundamental to the process of composition. The centre of the movement lies between two passages.1.5.1. The whole sequence forms regular repeating groups of bars which establishes their own rhythm.

20. while the second passage (bars 55 to 59) shows the reverse: all the parts ascend towards the axis. The first passage (bars 51 to 54) consists of all parts descending away from their axis point. the potentially symmetrical form is alluded to at the end of the piece. 136 .20. is not fully realised in Chaleur.16. below. as the last half of the movement is not a retrograde of the first half but takes its own individual course. are the retrograde form of the first seven bars of the movement (compare Figure 8. They represent the climax of the opening section and are relatively extended developments of the scale movement first seen in bar 5.bars 55 to 59. above) in all but some small details. The symmetrical structure suggested in Figure 8. Centre Bars 1-------------7 8------------------21 22--------------------------------------54 55---------58 Figure 8. The following diagram shows the first half of the movement in a schematic form. However. Rêve de l'Orb: diagram showing melodic movement in the first half of Chaleur. with Figure 8. Bars 106 to 113. which are related through mirror symmetry.21.

8 Links between movements The abandonment of symmetry indirectly came about from a need to reintroduce musical material from previous movements. Rêve de l'Orb: bar 106 to 113 ofChaleur: 8. the momentum of the music is suddenly stopped by a passage of sustained tranquillity and stillness which is clearly reminiscent of the mood of the second movement. 137 .21.5.b œ œ œb œ# œ œ œ œn œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ # # & 4 bœ #œ œ #œ œ œ #œ 4 # œœœœ # œœ # œn œ œ œ œ b œ œb œ œ &4 4 œ œ œ# œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ f 4 &4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Ÿ w ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Ÿ w ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ∑ Ó ˙ ˙ œœ ? 4 b œ œb œ b œ œ 4 f æ & 4 #œ 4 œ &4 œ 4 æ œ 6 æ #œ œ æ œ œ 6 œ œ æ œ œ æ 6 #œ œ æ œ œ æ 6 bw · · w Ÿ w ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Pizz f nbbnb b œn œb œ œ œ œ œ œ B4 4 b œ n œ œ œ œ & b œn œb œb œn œ œ œ œb œœ bœ œ œœœœœ ### ? 4 bœ bœ nœ œ œ œ # œœœœ 4 & œ œ# œ œ œ# œ b œ œ# œ 6 6 6 6 f œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ 5 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ w w & & p ∑ w ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ w w & · w & · w w & & ‰ œ 6 · w · w w œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ 6 · w p · w w œ 5 ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ 5 p ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ Figure 8. For example. at bar 73 of Chaleur.

Ó ≈Jœ w p œ Œ . w fp w w w w w Figure 8. œ 4 p 6 Ó Œ.. Ó ≈Jœ w p œ Œ .J ˙ w p ∑ ∑ · w 4 ∑ ∑ œ. 6 w 4 6 · .22. ∑ ∑ 4 4 4 4 3 ∑ ∑ √ #w 4 gg 4 gg # w ggg gg 4 gggg w 4 gg w g ◊ ##· 4 w 4 p œ. Following this at bar 82. there is a short dream-like passage which suggests the character of the first movement.œ ˙ 4 J p 6 4 6 4 · . Resonance of the second movement. is superimposed on the 'dream' music..II 4 Ó· · 4 ˙ w p 4 4 4 4 ∑ bw p w Ó· · ˙ w p ∑ bw p w Vla. 4 w p 6 Ó bw 4 p 6 4 w. The relationship between the two movements is confirmed when at bar 91. the viola part similar to that of the first movement. Vcl.Bar 73 Fl &4 4 &4 4 2 ∑ ∑ Cl In A Harp Vl.I √ #w g & 4 gggg # w 4 ggg g ? 4 gggg w 4 gg w f◊ ##· 4 w &4 p &4 4 B4 4 ?4 4 ∑ ∑ œ 6 Ó Ó ≈ J. 138 .J ˙ w p ∑ ∑ · w ∑ ∑ · w · w w w w #˙ Ó# ˙ 3 √ #w ∑ ggg # w gg ggg g ∑ gggg w gg w ◊ · ##· w w p · w w ˙ · w · w w ˙Ó 3 Vl.

‰ p œb œ ˙ b œ b œ œ ® ≈ œb œ æ œ#œ œœ F F ∑ Flt Ÿ ~~~~~~~ œ p Œ ?3 œ 4 œ 3 · &4 3 × &4 B3 4 ?3 4 œ #œ b· œ õô 5 œ œ · œ bb· œ ˙ ¿≥ ¿≥ ¿≥ ¿≥ ≈ π 5 #œ ##· œ bbœ œ ##· œ ôò · œ nn· œ · œ Vl1 Vl2 Vla #˙ F ∑ œ œ.23.6 Conclusions Rêve de l'Orb is a composition inspired by nature and in particular the forms of movement in the natural world.Bar 91 Fl 3 &4 Ó 3 # œœ# œœ œb œ b œ ˙ & 4 #œ æ æ 6 ~~~ bœ ‰ J p Flt Cl In A &3 4 Hrp ∑ Pres Presse de la table ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ bœ. I have attempted to translate 139 . œ Ó Reminiscent of the first movement Pluck behind the bridge Vcl Figure 8. 8. Rêve de l'Orb : resonance of the first movement.

Sometimes it was necessary to write and re-write large sections of music as part of the empirical process but on the whole experimentation took place in my head and on scraps of paper before I committed notes to paper. It would be interesting to consider how I might have composed Rêve de l'Orb. pulse interference. A process of empirical composition (refining the method of composition on the basis of the results of the last experiment) would ultimately lead to new musical ideas which would in turn lead to structural modifications. Chapter 9 Bayo's Way 9. The term empirical composition means that a decision to take a course of action or use a particular technique necessitated a process of speculative thought. I had not discovered Schillinger's work at the time of composing Rêve de l'Orb. intensity and harsh brutality. The remaining chapters in this thesis discuss compositions which have all been strongly influenced by Schillinger's techniques and have been undertaken with a more or less empirical approach. It seems likely to me that the application of such methods would not alter the essential underlying 'poetry' of the composition but the presence of a formal underlying skeleton provided by Schillinger's methods would enhance the music in a way that might be compared to the enhancement of an artists Figure by his or her knowledge of the underlting bone-structure. It would also be necessary to have several simultaneous master time signatures in order to achieve the effect of musical 'tapestry'. but analysis shows the presence of forms which he advocates for the construction of music such as symmetry. growth series and melodic axes. which would introduce very small durations and consequently flexible rhythms. numerous variations. There is no doubt that Rêve de l'Orb would demand an extremely sophisticated approach which only now.metaphorically into music the behaviour of birds and insects. all characteristics which I associate very strongly with the southern landscape. Taking these as starting conditions. after several years of studying Schillinger's work.1 Origins 140 . the flow of water and qualities such as lightness. A complex rhythmic structure such as Libellule could be achieved by recourse to larger master time signatures such as 32. would I feel able to undertake. using Schillinger's methods. each of a different quality and character could be constructed.

The title is a dedication to Bayo Oshunbiyi. Oshunbiyi frequents all the best Jazz venues and knows many of the musicians who play there. The sound is finally passed to an amplifier and loud speaker unit designed specifically to reproduce bass frequencies 141 . I had the possibility of extending these 'characters' into more extreme and distorted forms through the use of electronics. At six in the morning. flange. In writing for the tuba player Oren Marshall. Before composing. producing sounds of penetrating power or minuscule softness. its upper registers can produce expressive melodic phrases. he is still sparkling with enthusiasm for life and art. elevated by the power of the music. delay. 9. My composition attempts to capture some of the atmosphere. Each of these effects can be switched on or off by foot pedals and to some extent their various parameters (such as delay time or interval of harmonisation) can be controlled by the player during rests or at moments during the performance in which one hand can be freed from the instrument. I spent several days acquainting myself with Marshall's use of the electronics and his individual playing style. He often spends the entire time between dusk and dawn in the serious appreciation of music. Over the last few years Marshall has extended the range of his instrument by developing a style involving the use of live electronic effects. harmoniser. Bayo's Way. energy and almost continuous musical accompaniment of this nocturnal existence. The sound of his instrument is then passed through a series of effects units: wah wah. Oshunbiyi lives with an intensity that is sometimes frightening and as he would say. a Nigerian born poet and photographer whose personality and life-style inspired this work.Bayo's Way.2 The extended tuba The tuba has always fascinated me: it is capable of the lowest extremities of register. when the band has gone. At the time of composition I had only recently discovered The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978) and Bayo's Way is my first complete work influenced by Schillinger's techniques. distortion. was partly designed to be a vehicle to present the full potential of the tuba as a solo instrument and in particular Oren Marshall's extended techniques. is also a theatrical instrument capable of expressing different 'characters' from the violent and angry to the vulnerable and pathetic. for tuba with live electronics and brass ensemble was composed in 1993 as a commission for the London Brass Ensemble. "on the edge". He has designed a special mouthpiece for the tuba in which a tiny microphone has been implanted.

Between these two extremes all kinds of subtle mixtures of acoustic and electroacoustic sound worlds can be achieved. the soloist 'magically' transforms his sound. a role through which he provides the basic pulse and tempo of the music. of course. where he played 45The live electronic system just described can be heard on the recording of Bayo's Way which accompanies this thesis. that of rhythm. Pulse is.such as those of the electric bass guitar. 142 . notated music. For example. can be played back as an infinite loop against which he improvises.3 The soloist and the bass line Marshall is a virtuoso player who is equally expert in both improvised jazz and the most demanding. Using a sampler. The soloist exerts his will on the ensemble. so that it cannot be recognised as a tuba. These interests originate from different fields of study but share a common ground. the soloist captures a short portion of his performance which. at bar 105 in the score. Moon Shaman (see Chapter 5). prescribed. This set-up makes it possible to alter the balance between acoustic and electroacoustic timbre: the electronics and amplification can be switched off by the performer or be made to dominate and overwhelm the normal acoustic sound of the instrument. controlling their actions. for example. particularly important in terms of the performance of Bayo's Way. Perhaps the most important role for the soloist is what I describe as 'the keeper of the bass line'. using a flanging effect and distortion. in which he creates his own accompaniment. capable of conjuring extraordinary sounds. The most obvious of these roles is that of the provider of melody. Marshall's study of African music took him for several long periods to Ghana. held in electronic memory. The soloist's 'magical' powers are most evident during the cadenza of Bayo's Way. His versatility inspired me to conceive of a number of roles that could be played out between soloist and ensemble. (The melodic aspect of the tuba is exploited after bar 137 in the score). This is an idea which recurs in my work. as in.45 9. At the end of the cadenza. At times the sound resembles the voices of dolphins or a distorted 'heavy metal' guitar. More unusual is the theatrical role of soloist as magician. the ensemble is instructed to imitate the soloist's last phrase. but is also the key to the composition as a whole because it is central to two important background considerations: Oren Marshall's personal playing style which has evolved from his study of African music and jazz and my interest in Schillinger's rhythmic theories.

and studied with various musicians46. Ensemble plays alone. Overtones of 'big band' style. or bars 178 to the end. The West African Folkloric Troupe and The Pan African Orchestra. The Ghanian Dance Ensemble. A satisfactory trajectory comes about through the ordering example. section 3. 48This is the standard London Brass instrumentation. bars 1-49. This experience informed his personal style of playing which is strongly influenced by black American music such as funk. The sound of the solo tuba is almost always amplified and modified by electronics (described above) while the ensemble retain their acoustic sound. The tuba plays a melodic solo. Music becomes less tense. An exuberant tuba solo punctuated by the ensemble acting as a chorus. for example. Cadenza: gradual increase in tension leading back to Jazz/funk rhythm. 4 trombones48. Examples of funk rhythm can be see particularly at the beginning and the end of Bayo's Way .4 Form I: narrative.Bayo's Way : six sections with bar numbers and descriptions.4. Climactic. French horn. Balance/relaxation. Figure 9. 46For 143 . 47For a discussion of jazz and funk rhythm in terms of Schillinger's theory see Chapter 3. The soloist is pitted against an ensemble of nine brass instruments: 4 trumpets. The tuba plays a virtuosic bass line accompanied by the ensemble.1 is the result of a dual approach: a series of dramatic images were ordered into a kind of narrative structure or trajectory and then realised in music mainly through the exploration of rhythm and proportion. The sectional structure shown in Figure 9. which has enabled me to incorporate some of the qualities of this type of music into my own style47. Overtones of Jazz and funk. Each part of my narrative is a point on an emotional journey and inspires a type of musical expression: as long as the trajectory is satisfactory it does not matter how discontinuous the sequence of narrative events become. Bars 1-80 81-113 113-137 138-176 177 178-217 Description Building tension. Transition to cadenza. Finale: the tuba and ensemble are united in funky polyphonic texture.1. metaphor and trajectory Bayo's way could be described as a miniature tuba concerto in one movement lasting approximately 12 minutes. My own interest in this area has been enhanced through my study of Schillinger's Theory of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978). 9. The overall scheme of the composition can be described as in 6 sections which are illustrated in the table below. the ensemble provides harmonic accompaniment.

4. A sine 49See 50See also Chapter 2 of this thesis. New day. They are displayed with their bar number.2. Bayo's Way : the narrative trajectory . Continuous movement plotted on a graph can be used to illustrate tension and relaxation. Musical tension and relaxation are related to the forms of motion of natural bodies50. Increased tension. section 2. climax. From these examples it can be seen that I associate musical ideas with types of physical movement as well as states of emotion. The process of ordering is facilitated. Maximum relaxation. Bayo 'chills-out'. Rhythms and melodious sequences are movements quite as much as they are actions (Schillinger 1978 page 233). Bars 1-48 49-64 65-80 81-96 97-104 105-112 113. section 2. Sudden unexpected change producing humour.12.)49 and ascribes the following quotation to Aristotle.of images and narrative ideas according to their relative tension and relaxation. The exact sequence of the narrative trajectory shown in Figure 9. Night into day. by associating each idea with an image or mnemonic.1. Sudden change. and a description of their formal function along the trajectory. mnemonic tag. Figure 9. He suggests that music could in part be described as a representation in sound of our physical experience (Schillinger 1978 page 1410 ff. Finale.5. increased tension. Sudden change provoking a sense of the absurd. Band leader. First climax. Relaxation. Schillinger 1978 page 283 and Chapter 2 of this thesis.2 was largely the result of instinct aided by use of mnemonic tags and some general principles concerning the means of creating tension and relaxation. My personal tendency to relate image. Trajectory Introduction/accumulation of tension.136 137-176 177 178-217 Mnemonic Bayo walks out into the city. Arrival at the club. movement and music was reinforced when I encountered Schillinger's ideas. Increasing tension. Second climax and release. Schillinger's Theory Of Melody . 144 . Once again I found my own beliefs concerning musical tension were in keeping and enhanced by Schillinger's work. The performance Playing for laughs. but not determined. Bayo aknowledges greetings. "On the edge". There are more sections illustrating the complete trajectory. The following table is a more detailed version of Figure 9. such as 'Bayo walks out into the city' or 'Playing for laughs' .

In order to achieve a sense of climax over a relatively long period of time. Other wave forms suggest different degrees of tension as a consequence of how they change in time. The entire composition is rigidly organised in 8 bar groups (to be explained later) and as a result. During the process of composition. Forms of motion can be viewed as those falling within the bounds of the expected and those which behave in unexpected ways. This involved devising rhythmic structures which articulated the emotional intention of each section of the trajectory shown in Figure 9. R e l a t i v e t e n s i o n Figure 9.2.wave. it is necessary to pass through several lesser points of tension and relaxation. during the first 48 bars of Bayo's Way . the latter are more likely to produce a response in the listener of amazement or wonder (Schillinger 1978 page 282). I shall now 145 1 17 33 49 65 81 97 113 Bars 129 145 161 Cadenza 178 194 210 . significant changes in the accompaniment occur at intervals of 8 bars.1 Rhythm The most important aspect of the composition of Bayo's Way. The following diagram is a general illustration of how tension varies throughout the composition as a whole.3. 9. 'Bayo walks out into the city' which helped me to focus my imagination on the character and shape of the music. Bayo's Way : Variation of tension throughout the piece as a whole. with its regular and uniform motion is neutral with respect to tension and relaxation.4) and the rhythmic structure. accumulating tension until the first climax is reached. for example. I gave this opening section a mnemonic label. changes of dynamic or changes of duration: rapid change in any parameter generally produces an increase in tension.5.5 Form II 9. was the fusion between the narrative trajectory (see section 9. the soloist plays continuously while the density and intensity of accompaniment rises and falls. For example. Parameters associated with changes in musical tension are.

suggesting economy and balance. It appealed to me for a number of reasons. cannot be accommodated in a simple bar scheme. Of these. In Figure 9. This pattern suddenly came into to my imagination and did not emerge slowly through deliberate crafting. it can be seen that the pattern was conceived as having the semi-quaver as its fundamental unit of duration which ensures the rhythm is flexible enough to have a 'funky' quality (see Chapter 3 section 3. This decision was also taken on practical grounds: an unconducted ensemble would play more accurately and effectively if the metre was relatively uncomplicated. My 51See 52See Chapter 2 section 2. I felt that a true funk rhythm necessitated the use of 4/4 metre and so the pattern in Figure 9. the latter was by far the most important as theyenabled me to create numerous parts or what Schillinger calls 'counter themes' (Schillinger 1978 page 74) from a small amount of original material. as it were. Figure 9.4. Two Schillinger techniques were of particular importance.4. was modified in order to lie neatly within bars of 4/4. 31 semi-quavers.4. I had become aware of the qualities of symmetry through my study of Schillinger's work (see Chapter 2. Bayo's Way : the original rhythmic pattern.2.4 shows the original rhythmic pattern from which the opening section evolves.4). Symmetry 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 3 ÷ 4 œ. œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.2) and these ideas had no doubt filtered into my imagination allowing them to manifest themselves. 1) Generating variants of a pattern through the rotation of its elements51. it is also irregular in the sense that its total duration.2 146 .3.4. 2) Squaring techniques52. section 2. It is symmetrical around its centre.describe in detail the composition of rhythmic structure in relation to the opening section (bars 1 to 48) of the score. Chapter 3 section 3. However. ≈ 4 J 2 2 3 Figure 9. unconsciously. This irregularity suggested to me that the pattern might yield a variety of interesting syncopations. While the rhythm is symmetrical.

3.2.1. In other words the second half of the variant is the retrograde of the same portion of the original form.2.3. Straightforward repetition was avoided by adopting techniques of variation as suggested by Schillinger. œ œ . œ. Bayo's Way : the original pattern (top stave) and a variation (bottom stave). Figure 9.2.1.2. 2œ œ 2 3 œ 2œ 2œ 1œ 1œ 1œœ œ œ 2œ œ 2œ œ œ œ œ 2 œ 2 œ ≈ œ œ œ œ ÷ 4 Figure 9. 3. œ œ Figure 9.2. 147 .3. The following illustration shows the pattern as it appears in the score 1st time 1 2nd time Tuba .2).2.6) has been altered in two important respects. 1) The symmetry of the original has been modified by rotation: (3.4.2.solution to the problem of barring was to repeat the pattern in Figure 9. The second half of the variant (bottom stave of Figure 9. œ œ. œ œ.3.6. 2 ≈ ÷ 4 œœ J 2 3 3 3 4 3œ .5.2. œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ 4 œ.2.2. 3 2 1 3 4 œ . 2œ œ œ . bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ bœœ œ bœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ. œ2 œ œ 2œ œ3 œ œ2 œ œ œœ1 œ 1 2 .2.1. four times and add four semi-quavers at the end. œœ œ.2.2.2. b œ. Bayo's Way : four repetitions of the basic pattern with four added semiquavers. œ œ œ bœ œ > > > > > > > ? 4 bœ œ œ b œ.1.1. b œ.1.2. bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ.3) becomes (3.6 shows the original rhythmic pattern (top stave) and one of its variants (bottom stave). 3rd time 5 4th time x ? bœ œ œ œ.

The original pattern (Figure 9.4. repeats every 8 bars for the first 48 bars of the piece.5. 53For a more detailed discussion of rotation. I was satisfied with my extension of the basic pattern which had produced a phrase lasting 8 bars (see Figure 9.).3. However. The reader may remember that this technique involves squaring the master time signature and its sub-groups (see Chapter 3 section 3. In the score these groups are further emphasised by accent markings.6. This creates groups of semi-quavers indicated in Figure 9. by a displacement of the notehead on the lower stave line. I decided to generate accompanying parts using Schillinger's squaring techniques. Consequently the music simultaneously involves two types of durational unit: quaver units define the rhythm of the accompaniment while semi-quaver units define the rhythm of the tuba part.5).2). The matter of the master time signature in this composition requires some explanation. (quavers) rather than 16 (semi-quavers). 9. This state of affairs might be compared to a ruler marked with more than one gauge. on each repetition the entire sequence of notes is rotated by one place. These were composed with the character or mnemonic of the opening section in mind: increasing tension as though 'storm clouds were gathering' (see Figure 9. This causes the accents and stresses of the rhythm to shift to different parts of the bar so creating variation.2 Using squares to create the accompaniment Once the soloist's basic phrase had been established it was necessary to create accompanying parts. ff. 148 . see Chapter 2 section 2.5.2.2) The durations of the altered portion have been split into single units (semi-quavers). The pattern shown in Figure 9. The squaring technique requires that the number of beats in the bar and the number of bars in the bar group must be identical and for this reason I decided that the master time signature of the accompaniment should be 8.4) was based on semi-quaver units and for this reason it might seem obvious that the master time signature would be 16 (16 beats in the bar). Apart from this relatively local variation rotation is also used on a larger scale53.

(3.4.2. After experimentation it proved most satisfactory to use a fragment of the basic pattern thereby linking the accompaniment to the solo line. Applying the squaring formula to this fragment produced a new rhythm which perfectly accompanied the eight bar pattern shown in Figure 9. The fragment (3.1) 2 = (3 2 +3×2+3×2+3×1)+(2×3+2 +2×2+2×1)+(2×3+2 +2×2+2×1)+(1×3+1×2+1×2+1 )= 2 2 2 (9.6. an example of what Schillinger calls 'instrumental form': a rhythm is distributed between parts or 'places' and is thereby enriched through timbre contrast (see Chapter 2.2)+(3.5. The following shows how the accompaniment is combined with the original solo pattern in bars 9 to 16 of Bayo's Way.2.2.4.The technique of evolving accompanying parts requires a source rhythmic pattern exactly one bar in length.6.2. (It is important to remember that while the basic pattern was originally conceived in semi-quavers. section 2. the fragments just described were treated as though they were based on quaver units). The rhythm has been distributed between the French horn and the trombone.4. 149 .1) is derived from the first three elements of the basic pattern with one unit added at the end.3)+(6.1).2)+(6.2.1)= 64 (8 bars of 8 beats).2.4.2.

7. b œ œ b œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ b œœ>œ>œ> œ>œ>œb > œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ 4 œ œœ œ œ œ> 4 F.8. Schillinger suggests that the material produced by any technique should be used as efficiently as possible. ˙. 2 3 2 œ œbœ œ œ + J ‰ bœ J 2 1 Tbn ˙. œ œ œ œ œb œ œœ b œ œ œ.b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ solo tuba and accompaniment. œ œ b œ œ œ b œ œ œ b œ. There is of course always the possibility of modifying a phrase or pattern using techniques such as rotation or rhythmic ornamentation. 150 . The squaring technique described above can produce a very large number of parts. in order to create more material. Figure 9. ‰J P w 6 6 œ ˙ J ˙ œ J ‰ Œ 3 4 Ó. the latter generated by Figure 9. 6 bœ Tuba œ bœ œ w ? 4 b œ. œ b œ œ .F.7 is combined with its retrograde (trumpets) in bars 17 to 24 of Bayo's Way. bœ œ œ ˙ Tuba b œ œ œ b œ. Perhaps the most basic method of achieving efficiency is through the use of the retrograde form. Bayo's Way : squaring.H ?4 4 ?4 4 w 9 ∑ (In F) Tbn b œ œ œ. Of course not all the results produced will be suitable for use but the act of rejecting a particular pattern serves to sharpen one's instincts as to the essential qualities required of the material.H ? œ ? ? w œ œ bœ 2 6 ˙. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœœœœœ œ b œ. shows how the accompaniment (French horn) shown in Figure 9. 4 b œ œ. Œ 4 Ó.

9 Œ Ó 6 Ó œ+ ˙ œ Œ œ 6+ .17 2 4 4 6 2 4 4 Tpt 1 4 &4 1 ∑ 2 2 3 bœ p œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ bœ ‰. 3 bœ ˙ J 6 œb œ œ œ. 4 21 (rest) ∑ (In F) + ˙ œ ‰ J f b+ œ 6 Tuba bœ œ bœ œ œb œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ . ˙ œ + ˙ + œ + œ J ß 3 2 2 Tuba ? b œ œ b œ œ œ .6 Pitch 9. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ Figure 9. b œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ. bœ J FH ?4 4 ? 4 œ. J 6 Tpt1 & œ œ ˙ b œ.6.8.b œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ b œ. œ> 6 > > > > > œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ > œ œ ˙. ˚ j œ w +. n+ b+ œ œ. œ J ‰ 9 Tpt3 & w 4 œ + ˙ + œ 2 Œ Ó 6 ∑ b+ œ 4 ˙. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ bœn œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ b œ œ . 4 ≈ nœ œ ß + œ 2 FH ? œ +. 9. Bayo's Way : the accompaniment (French horn) and its retrograde (trumpets). ˙ 3 ˙ œ Tpt3 &4 j 4 œ œ œ œ.1 Scale 151 .

9. The scale shown in Figure 9.2 Harmony There are relatively few harmonic structures and progressions in this composition. & # ww w w Figure 9.9.9. by omitting certain pitches. Figure 9. ? Aeolian scale bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ bœ Pitches omitted Melodic form Figure 9. The chord shown below could be described as a major chord with a sharpened fourth and a major seventh.9.10.Pitch was largely derived from the Aeolian scale in F. 152 . By omitting certain pitches (bar 2) and rearranging them (bar 3). Bayo's Way : a harmonic structure used to evoke the spirit of Big Band music. Bayo's Way : the basic scale of Bayo's Way. This chord has a quality which I associate strongly with jazz and in particular the 'Big Band' arrangements of Count Basie and Duke Ellington: I have used this harmony to evoke the spirit of that style. dominates the harmonic dimension and chords usually result from the melodic or polyphonic movement of parts (see Figure 9.8). When harmonic structures occur they are used to fulfil a particular function.5). to give it a pentatonic and 'blues' like quality.6. shows the Aeolian scale (first bar) and two further stages of modification. and its modifications. I created the bass line motif heard in the opening bars of Bayo's Way (see Figure 9. This scale was then modified.

& b ˙˙ ˙˙ b ˙˙ n ˙˙ ? ˙ ˙ C Min. The roots of the harmonies (lower stave) do not actually appear in the score as shown here but are included in the illustration for convenience. Between bars 137 and 176.10. The harmonies form pairs: a minor chord with a minor seventh and an eleventh. followed. Bayo's Way : harmonic progression underlying bars 137 to 156.1.The chord appears in Bayo's Way. in various transpositions and with various couplings.10. is a reduction of the harmonic progression between bars 137 and 156 of Bayo's Way. In realising this progression in the accompanying parts I assigned different durations to combinations of chordal voices. F Maj Min 7 Min 7 11th Flat 5 ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ # # ˙˙ b b b b ˙˙ n ˙˙ ˙ ˙ b˙ b˙ Figure 9. the tuba plays a solo accompanied by the following type of harmonic progression. 153 . by a dominant seventh chord with a flattened fifth. a fifth lower. Each pair is a semi-tone lower than the last. A different kind of harmony occurs later in the score. so blurring the change from one chord to the next.1.2) where the ensemble punctuates the exuberant outbursts of the tuba. Figure 9. particularly between bars 81-96 (see Figure 9.

˚ j œ œ w bœ w ∑ ∑ ˚ j nœ œ Ó.8. ∑ ∑ ˚ j #œ w w w w j‰Œ Ó Ó . This proved particularly useful in neutralising the relatively strong tonal structures heard so far and helping to create a sense of transition. section 10. 154 . œ w & Ó . œ bœ w j‰ Œ Ó Ó .10. Between bars 114 and 137. Ó Ó.137 d BM Tpt 1 4 &4 Con Sor ∑ w π bw π π ˚ j œ ˚ j œ ˙ ˙ ∑ ∑ ˚ j nœ Ó Ó.12. bœ bw & œj˚ ∑ B ˚ j œ ˚ j œ ˙ ˙ j œ j œ‰ Œ j‰ Œ œ ∑ ∑ ˚ j #œ ∑ ∑ Œ . Bayo's Way : the realisation of the progression in Figure 9.1 Rhythmic displacement results in a quasi-polyphonic texture. has also been used in other compositions presented in this thesis. œ bœ w ˚ j œ Tpt 2 FH w w w w ˚ j œ ∑ ∑ ˚ j nœ w w ˚ j œ ∑ ∑ ˚ j nœ In F Tbn 1 ∑ ˚ j bœ ˚ j œ ˚ j nœ ˚ j œ ˚ j nœ ˚ j œ ˚ j bœ ˚ j œ ˚ j bœ Figure 9.12)54. ∑ ∑ FH In F π π ˚ j bœ w w w w w w B4 w 4 Tbn 1 146 π ˚ j œ ˚ j bœ ˚ j œ ˚ j bœ ˚ j œ ˚ j bœ Tpt 1 & Ó. 54The harmonic structure shown in Figure 9. œ ˚ j œ Ó Ó ˚ j nœ ˙ b˙ ˚ j œ w w ∑ ∑ ˚ j nœ ∑ ∑ w w d BM Tpt 2 4 &4 ∑ 4 &4 w Con Sor Ó. The entire section is based on a single harmonic block derived from the octatonic scale(Figure 9.11. ˙ Œ ˙. a different kind of harmonic structure is used to create contrast to the surrounding jazz influenced harmonies. and produces a series of suspensions (harmonically ambiguous moments) which helped to avoid the possibility of the music becoming a jazz stereotype. For further discussion of its derivation see chapter 10.

As the title suggests. œœœœ b ˙ . Bar 121 Tpt 2 4 &4 4 &4 b ˙. œœœœœœœœ œ œœœœ˙ .12. Bayo's Way : rhythmic realisation of the harmonic structure of Figure 9.12. Bayo's Way was also born from ideas of imaginary narrative mnemonics and imagery. œœœœ . For example. Bayo's Way : harmonic block derived from the octatonic scale. Moon Shaman. œœœœ ˙ b˙. effort and hyperventilation. is a celebration of the human spirit through the example of Bayo Oshonbiyi's life. The following illustration shows how this structure was realised in the score. œ . b æ ˙ . As described earlier. b œœœœ b ˙ æ bœ ˙ # œœœœœ æ œ FH In F Tbn 3 4 b & 4 b œœœœ œœœœœ œœœœ œ Œ b ˙ ƒ . 9. Œ œ b ˙. ƒ ˙ ƒ Œ ˙ bœ œœœœ Œ œ œ œœœœ Œ œ œœœœ˙ . b ˙. œ ƒ ? œœœœ˙ . b œœœœ œœœœ˙ b .7. æ b ˙. . ?4 æ æ 4 b œ ˙. œæ ˙. In all my previous works form and structure evolved from the imagination stimulated by the poetic background. œœœœœœœœœ œ Œ b œœœœ˙ Œ œ bœ œ ˙ æ b ˙. Its detailed musical form is also influenced by Marshall's playing techniques and 155 . Tpt 4 œœœœœ ˙ œœœœ˙ œœœœ ˙. were inspired by imaginary ritual. in which the setting of the bass clarinet solo. . Bayo's Way. b œœœœ˙. rhythm has been applied to each voice in the harmony creating a whole variety of accents and emphasis on the different interval combinations of the harmonic structure.# ww & # ww ww #w w Figure 9. its continuous semi-quavers and sudden melodic leaps. It is theatrical and draws upon my impressions of exuberant live performance. . Conclusions Bayo's Way marked the start of my new approach to composition.13. Œ˙. w # ww w # # ww w w . æ b˙ æ œ œ b œæ Œ œ œ & Figure 9.

It was not always liked. The difference between this composition and those completed earlier is that it is heavily influenced by Schillinger's rhythmic techniques which determine what might be called the architecture of the music. the solo and accompanying parts of the first 48 bars are all derived from the first bar of the tuba solo. Structures such as those evolved from squaring techniques contribute to overall coherence because a single rhythmic idea is expressed on every level. well at its premiere in the Queen Elizabeth Hall in March 1994 and went on to receive over forty performances around the world. For example. Large sections of the composition are derived from the smallest fragments of original material. 55Schillinger 1948 page 222. The success of Bayo's Way 56confirmed that the Schillinger techniques used in its composition were of proven practical value and encouraged me to explore his theories in greater depth. 56Bayo's Way was received very 156 . a quality I associate with predetermined proportions. it caused much controversy between those who felt it abused the tuba and those who felt it represented an exciting development of the instrument. the rhythm of the composition as a whole is clearly felt and it is this more than any other factor that determines the architectural quality of the composition.references to jazz and funk. in Germany. for instance. Schillinger often compared the development of a musical composition with the growth of natural forms 55 and the structures in Bayo's Way which result from squaring techniques could be described as crystalline as the largest and the smallest parts are essentially the same.

most obviously light and dark or perhaps good and evil. came from a poem by Shelley entitledTwo Souls59. Make Night Day was my second composition made using techniques derived from The Schillinger System Of Musical Composition (Schillinger 1978). I believe the poem also describes something of the opposition or contradiction within the mind of the individual: the incomprehensible complexity of personality which may cause a person to have conflicting emotions or hold a particular point of view to be true at one time and false at another. In terms of technical development. Make Night Day represents an extension and exploration in the field of rhythm.Chapter 10 Make Night Day 10. bass clarinet and tape. The poem is set as a dialogue between two spirits who represent opposing forces. The instrumentation was given by the directors of the ensemble whose members included the bass clarinet player Hein Pijnenburg58. It was composed in 1993 as a commission from the Schreck Ensemble57.2 Title and origins My initial inspiration for Make Night Day. such as those dealing with pitch.1 Introduction Make Night Day is a composition for violin. 59I discovered this poem on reading Claire Tomalin's excellent biography of Shelley from which I have quoted the text. 10. Tomalin 1980 page 111. 57An electroacoustic music ensemble based in Holland. and given its first performance in December 1994 at the Ijsbreker in Amsterdam. 58For whom I also composed Moon Shaman and Vision and Prayer. 157 . with a duration of 14 minutes. At the time of writing I was still most interested in absorbing and exploring ideas contained in Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978) and relatively less concerned with the practical application of other techniques.

And among the winds and beams It were delight to wander thereNight is coming! Second Spirit The deathless stars are bright above. The bass clarinet solo (bars 76 ff. 158 . And that is day! And the moon will smile with gentle light On my golden plumes where'er they move. Its world is inspired by Shelley's poem particularly his imagery and suggestion of space ('Bright are the regions of the air') terrifying natural forces ('The red swift clouds of the hurricane') and celestial visions ('The deathless stars are bright above/ If I would cross the shade of night'). For example. it is important to point out that Shelley's poem was for me a starting point and as the composition developed it became more distant as a source for musical form and structure. the first solo of the violin is tense and strained and set in a context suggesting 'darkness' as a contrast to its character which represents light and intensity. First Spirit O thou. Before describing the sound of the tape part and the role of rhythm and pulse I will discuss in more detail the form of the composition and the role of the soloists. The meteors will linger round my flight. beware! A shadow tracks thy flight of fireNight is coming! Bright are the regions of the air.The poem is too long to reproduce in full but the first two verses will give the reader a clear idea of its nature. who plumed with strong desire Wouldst float above the earth. If I would cross the shade of night. Within my heart is the lamp of love. so clear in the poem. And make night day In Make Night Day. However. For example. the sequence in which Shelley's spirits speak has nothing to do with the order of the solos in Make Night Day and in my musical realization I have often blurred the boundaries. The soloists are accompanied by a tape which surrounds and unites them with computermanipulated sound. the dualogue and the opposition between Shelley's spirits is given musical expression by the contrasting register.) is both moody and dark but has a sensuous dance-like quality which is seductive and perhaps more positive than might be expected. between the 'two souls'. timbre and style of articulation of the violin and bass clarinet.

Section 5: bars 135 to 196. ∑ œ. . q»66 Section 2: (2. Bars Section 1: bars 1 to 75. b œ. This is achieved partly through rhythm and pitch (to be discussed later) and partly through the melodic contour. Intention clarinet Light: ascending. Both the tape part and the bass clarinet evoke a feeling of weight and fixedness which gives a sense of struggle to the ascending and increasingly active violin. Each section explores a different aspect of the duet between the soloists and expresses their different qualities. Violin dark: descending. The first section features the violin accompanied by the bass clarinet. Make Night Day: bar 31 to 34. œ. œ. F Figure 10. b œ. œ. The violin represents the spirit of light and its music is intended to sound bright and intense.2. intense. It doubles with the tape accompaniment.08") Section 3: bars 76 to 132. while sections 2 and 4 are connecting tape interludes. œ. The bass clarinet at first remains very much in the background. p f 3 ∑ &4 œ #œ œ b œ. playing a pulsing rhythmic Figure in its lower register. Ascending: dynamic exchange. slow. Make Night Day : table illustrating sectional form. œ. Bass clarinet solo. Equality/Unity Ascending. Finale: dualogue q»105 Figure 10. a series of ascending phrases and a general movement from low to high register over the course of the first section.10. œ. Descending. Bass accompaniment Tape interlude.17") Tape interlude. There is also a general increase in the density of notes as the violin becomes more active and progressively louder. œ.3 Instrumental forms Make Night Day is made up of five sections: sections 1. F ˙ ≈ Ó ˙. 31 Violin &3 ≈ 4 q =66 B.Cl œ œ œ œ. q»50 Form Violin solo. œ. Section 4: bars 116 to 132 Duet in rhythmic unison Section 4: (1.1. œ. moody. 159 . œ. p f ≈ Ó œ. œ.3 and 5 are dominated by the soloists. accompaniment. œ. . # œ.

4 5 ∑ 4 Œ bœ 4 p Ó.Cl œ < œ œ < . < œ œ. ¯ œ œ. Make Night Day: bars 51 to 53.Cl 3 4 bœ j 4 ≈ œ bœ œœbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ 4 œ œ œn œ œœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ b œœ œ #œ# œ f 3 Figure 10. as well as a languorous legato phrase consisting of a rising interval. this might be described as a 'dissolve. b œ.' where one idea is neutralised and another is introduced. œ B. < Figure 10. ˙ . ƒ œ < f œ. 91 Violin &7 ‰Œ 8 &7 8 3 Pizz Œ 3 œ œ œ. originally played by the bass clarinet in the opening section. b œ. . œ.4.At bar 51. . In the second section. œ. most commonly a rising sixth. œ œ < b<.3. œ bœ œ bœ < œ. Arco ˙ B. 160 . œ. sensuous solo in which sinuous phrases wind and meander in the lower registers. the bass clarinet dominates while the violin accompanies. f ˚ j œ≈ 3 œ. 51 Violin 3 &4 3 &4 œ. < œ œ. starting at bar 76. The violin takes on the three note motif. œ œ. the bass clarinet begins a strident theme in the bass register which serves to increase further the mounting tension. both instruments are overwhelmed by the sounds on the tape. The bass clarinet is in general associated with the coming darkness and plays a moody. Make Night Day : bars 91 to 93. At bar 75. # ˙. The solo phrases are set against a tape background of yawning rather languorous sound and repetitive rhythms which all together is meant to create a sense of space and weight.

The intensity of the dialogue increases until the exchanges cannot be sustained and the piece ends.5. The bursts of 'cross-fire' are separated by miniature tape interludes of only a few bars in length. œ. œ. ^ ^^ ^^ ˚ 4ƒ ‰.At bar 116. ^ ‰ œ. œ. .Cl 3 œ œ œ > œ œ b œ> œ 4 œ b œ œ œ. œ. The two soloists engage in a sequence of rapid exchanges which always ends in their separating in opposite directions. œ. b œ. 116 Violin &4 4 B. œ. œ. The third element in the equation. œ. the difference between acoustic and 60I refer the reader to Chapter 4. Make Night Day: bars 135 to 138. . œ. œ. also represents difference and contrast.4 The tape accompaniment 10. b œ. ^ ^ ‰. œ. 161 . œ. œ. œ. . b œ. œ. œ. Make Night Day: bars 116 to 119. œ. œ. .2. Figure 10. section 4. & 4 bœ œ. œ. > bœ œ > œ bœ. the two soloists come together in rhythmic unison suggesting a harmonious equality.4. Œ œ.Cl 4 Œ. ^ ^ ^^ ^ ≈ ‰. œ. bœ Figure 10. ^ ˚ j ‰ œ. collapsing. Ó # œ. in a kind of incandescent glow. œ. . ^ ^ ƒ^^ ≈ œ.1 Introduction Make Night Day is a composition which stems from duality and contrast both in its poetic background and its instrumentation: the violin and bass clarinet are unlikely partners occupying very different areas of the instrumental spectrum. œ. œ. œ. œ.). ^^ ^ œ. œ. as it were. b> œ. œ. being an electronic instrument free from many constraints and limitations which have shaped the expressive character of traditional instruments60.6. œ. œ. œ. # œ. ^ ^ ˚ j œ. for a further discussion of this matter. A more dynamic and intense equality between the soloists is achieved in the finale ( bar 135 ff. œ. œ. # œ. ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ‰ œ. œ. 135 Violin B. b œ. œj œ œ œ # œ &4 Œ . b œ. the tape. œ. 10. œ. p 3 &4 4 4 œ œ œ > œ œ b œ> œ œ œ bœ œ p Legato Legato œ > œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ > œ œ œ >œ œ œ œ œ > œ bœ. However. œ.

Sounds in general fall into three categories: extension. gestural and percussive. synthesiser62. A separate source of sounds are those created with an FM. For example. These three elements fit into a scheme suggested by the poem: the violin and bass clarinet represent the two souls in dialogue. while the tape serves as their medium of communication. bringing together the two opposing forces by encompassing their sound within its own. 162 . as the violin and bass clarinet. Michael Rosas Cobian kindly allowed me to use several of his original samples and programmes. A few sounds were taken from earlier pieces such as Moon Shaman and Riddle and from other sources such as the Akai sound library.4. providing pulse as well as a rhythmic structure against which the soloists measure their performance. in my opinion. in a practical sense.electroacoustic media is also a unifying force. Sound Designer II and Alchemy Software. at 1'27" in the first tape interlude a continuous throbbing texture generated from samples is decorated with a single FM sound: a high pitched. These are used very sparingly as. and very importantly.3 Extensions Sounds that are recognisably derived from an acoustic instrument or are compatible with the live acoustic sound of that instrument might be described as 'extensions'. a quality which contrasts well with the earthiness of sampled sound but which can be obtrusive if overused. share a common bond. FM. metallic ring. These recordings were then manipulated using a computer and selected to create a palette of sounds serving a variety of functions.4.2 Sound sources and their functions My first step in creating the tape part was to make a large collection of recordings and samples of the violin and bass clarinet61. These are usually sounds of fairly definite pitch which can be used melodically or harmonically to double a note played by the soloist. swelling. sounds tend towards coldness. The tape also has its own specific role: evoking the fantastical qualities suggested by Shelley's poem ("the meteors will linger round my flight"). 10. In 1992 I invited the violinist John Francis to the university for a similar recording session. both mechanical acoustic instruments. 62The technical resources were as follows: Akai S1000 sampler. Extensions work well in creating 'auras' or 'resonance' surrounding the 61Hein Pijnenburg visited the City University in 1991 and allowed a group of students to record his sound for sampling. Yamaha TX 802 FM synthesiser. 10. these latter were then modified using a computer.

In this way they represent something of the urgency of Shelley's lines: 'A shadow tracks thy flight of fire / Night is coming'. When the note stops a sample of distant. They are often of indefinite pitch and tend to have very variable behaviour such as an extreme dynamic crescendo or a strong frequency modulation.sound of the acoustic instruments. For example. airy quality. The two main tape interludes and the shorter ones in the finale of Make Night Day are dominated by sounds originally derived from violin bow taps which have been modified by looping and stretching to produce rhythmic patterns. In addition. The moments dominated by the 'clocks' are transitions and are meant to evoke the sense of time passing. form strange shifting rhythmic patterns. are used to suggest Shelley's 'winds and beams' or 'äery fountains'. during bar 7.4 Gestural sounds Gestural sounds are those which are not easily ascribed to traditional instrumental sources. such 163 . grainy. releasing it on the second beat of bar 8. 10.5 Percussive sounds Percussive sounds or sounds that suggest pulse are extremely important in Make Night Day. derived originally from the violin. They sound like highly exaggerated clockwork mechanisms which.4. Some sounds were both gestural and percussive. or the wave-like sound heard at bar 4 ( a sample of air passing through the body of the bass clarinet). the solution was to use percussive sounds as cues giving the pulse and announcing each new section of the piece. Other gestural sounds are less evocative of time and place but are used to create a vibrant wash inspired by the poem's abstract and fantastical images. While composing. the violin holds the note G. as they unwind.4. For example. Although I have used gestural sounds throughout the piece they are mainly reserved for the tape interludes. rhythmic co-ordination and proportion were my overriding considerations and I wanted to articulate clearly the most basic rhythmic structures of the piece. helping the soloists blend with the accompaniment. 10. there was the practical consideration of how to synchronise the performers with the tape part without using a click track or a conductor. of Make Night Day. is heard to remain on the same pitch. It is often possible to ascribe to them a dramatic or narrative quality which suggests a context or a mood. the creaking sound used to begin the composition.

10. I was originally attracted to this idea after reading Schillinger's discussion The Evolution Of Rhythm Styles (Schillinger 1978 page 84 ff)63. Percussive sounds in this piece. was determined by a number which I refer to as the 'master time signature'. and Chapter 3. It is perfectly possible and frequently the case that music exhibits the influence of more than one rhythmic determinant or master time signature. section 3. A simple example of this is can be seen in a dance such as the Fox Trot or Charleston in which continuous quavers.3. Nevertheless.5 Rhythm My study of Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978) inspired a number of ideas concerning the development of rhythm and proportion which I wanted to explore in Make Night Day . I began to plan the detailed structure of the music with the intention that each section should have its own distinctive rhythmic character. and those sounds which can be triggered accurately but which thereafter produce relatively uncontrollable rhythms. contained in bars of 8/8. such as 'swing' (Schillinger 1978 page 85). The patterns produced in this way were extremely exciting but relatively uncontrollable. Once the form and character of the composition had been decided on (see Figure 10. see Chapter 2.2. which generated rhythm through looping. are accented by patterns of 3. I decided to use them as free extensions of my predetermined pulse structures. For a detailed discussion of the master time signature.3.1). section 2. 164 .as the 'clocks' described above. Schillinger believed that the rhythmic character of an individual composition or even a style of music. therefore fall into two classes: those that can be placed in time with accuracy and used to articulate predetermined rhythmic schemes. 63The reader may remember that the master time signature is a number which determines rhythm inside the bars as well as the rhythm of the bar groups.

. using them to create rhythmic patterns.. Make Night Day: the sections of the composition and their master numbers.7 and 5. and patterns of instrumental exchange.) and (1+2+3+5+8+13.). œ œ œ œ œ œ J J J J 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Figure 10. Section Section I. so the music seems to develop rhythmically... after Schillinger 1978. Figure 140 page 86. Bars 1 to 75 Section II.8 Figure 10. illustrates how the influence of the master numbers develops during the course of the composition. He believed that they represented organic forms of growth and were therefore extremely useful for creating rhythmic structure and musical 64Master numbers means multiple master time signatures.8.4.4.7 3. The following table shows the master numbers that apply to each section. œ œ œ J œ œ. In section 3. The rhythm of each section of the composition is derived from a different combination of master numbers or rhythmic generators. A 'Charleston' Rhythm.. section 3. Bars 135 to 196 Master Number 3.. phrasing structures.. œ.7. belong to the following growth series: (1+3+4+7+11.. In Make Night Day.8 8 8 8 > > > > > > > > œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœœœ œœœœœœ œœ œ.. as it were. bar groups.14. I avoided using the term master time signature in this discussion because it refers to the specific technique of squaring (described in Chapter 3) and does not express the fact that there are multiple master time signatures. 65See also Chapter 3. 165 . These series are discussed in detail by Schillinger in his Theory Of Rhythm.. Figure 10.5. I hope to show that as the combinations of master numbers evolve in complexity. and growing in dramatic tension. I have explored the combination of master numbers64. shifting gear.4 3. numbers from the two series are combined.8.1. (Schillinger 1978)65. The numbers on the right hand side of Figure 10. Bars 76 to 132 Section III.

flow. My decision to make use of these growth series was not arbitrary but the result of contemplation of the motif shown in Figure 10.15. This occurred to me spontaneously, not as the result of deliberate crafting, and when I began to consider it more closely I realised that its simplicity and neutrality offered great potential for development.

&3 4

≈ œ. œ. œ.

Ó

Figure 10.9. Make Night Day: the basic rhythmic material.

In the course of the composition the pattern is repeated again and again in all the parts and registers, with different pitches and tempos (see Figure 10.19). I decided to incorporate its features into the detailed planning of the rhythmic structure of the piece as a whole. Contemplating the three attacks, lead me to speculate about rhythms produced by the number three. The first and most obvious manifestation of this line of thought is in the choice of metre (3/4) for the first section of the composition. I adopted the same lateral approach in developing the basic rhythmic material into more developed rhythmic phrases. In The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978), pulse interference, (the combination of pulses travelling at different rates66) is presented as the fundamental method of generating rhythm67. Beyond any purely technical aspects this method appealed to me because it seemed to have, in common with Shelley's poem, the aspect of opposition and duality: both rhythm and poem are the product of difference. I decided to use the original master number 3 as one of the pulses of interference and chose the other, 4, because it was an adjacent number in a common growth pattern (1+3+4+7..).The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978), gives two techniques for generating the rhythmic patterns from a ratio. The difference between the two patterns is most evident in their duration: the duration of the first pattern is the product of the numbers in the ratio, while the duration of the second pattern is the square of the larger number. The common bond between the patterns is in the arrangement and type of numbers used. In the case of 4:3 the results are as shown in Figure 10.10:
66 For 67The

a full explanation see Chapter 2, section 2.2. pulses are represented by number ratios, such as 5:4. The two numbers should not have a common divisor other than 1. The numbers in the original ratio signify the most natural grouping of the resulting pattern. For example, the resultant of 5:4 (4,1,3,2,2,3,1,4) will easily fall into groups of 5, and groups of 4.

166

Pattern 1 Pattern 2

4:3 = (3,1,2,2,1,3) 4:3 = (3,1,2,1,1,1,1,2,1,3)

Figure 10.10. The two rhythmic patterns produced by the ratio 4:3.

The second pattern is an expanded version of the first. It contains numbers, which are arranged symmetrically around the centre. I refer to the shorter pattern as a ratio, (4:3) and the longer pattern as a ratio underlined, (4:3) . The original three semi-quaver pattern (Figure 10.9), is easily derived from either of the above resultants by splitting the first term into single units: 3 → 1+1+1. Both patterns are used in their entirety throughout section 1. For example, the violin part from bar 11, to 12, is derived from the rhythmic resultant 4:3 .
(1+1+1), 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3,-----------

Bar 11

Vl.

&3 4

œ. œ. b œ œ. œ. œ œ # œ . . œ. œ. p

œ. # œ.

˙

Figure 10.11. Make Night Day : the rhythm 4:3 worked into a phrase.

Further exploration lead me to apply Schillinger's squaring technique68 in which a group of numbers is used to generate a large quantity of material by applying a formula: (A+B)2 =(A2 +A×B)+(B×A + B2 ). The number of elements in the result, is the square of the number of elements in the original and the sum of the elements in the original and the sum of those in the result are also related by the power of 2.

The result of squaring the rhythm of 4:3, is shown below.

68For

a full discussion of squaring see Chapter 3 section 3.3.2.

167

(3,1,2,2,1,3)2 (9,3,6,6,3,9,)(3,1,2,2,1,3)(6,2,4,4,2,6,)(6,2,4,4,2,6,)(3,1,2,2,1,3)(9,3,6,6,3,9)

=

Figure 10.12. Rhythm produced by 'squaring'.

The original group has 6 members whose sum is 12. The squared result has 36 members whose sum is 144. Schillinger suggests that the result of this process be used as a 'counter theme', working in conjunction with the rhythm from which it evolved69. I decided to experiment with the rhythm in a different way: instead of translating the numbers directly into the durations of a phrase I used them to determine the points of entry of an event or phrase.
3

9-----------------------------------------3-----------------------------6-----------------------------------------

Vln.

3 &4

≈ Ó œ. œ. œ.

∑ œ. œ. œ.

≈ Ó

œ ˙ œ. œ. œ. . p f

œ

Ó

9

.. ≈ œ œ b œ œ‰ Œ & . . f œ.

6--------------------------------------------3-----------------------------------------9----------------------------------

œ. œ. b œ œ. œ. œ œ b œ œ. # œ. ˙ .. œ. œ. p

∑ ∑

Figure 10.13. Make Night Day : rhythm derived from 'squaring' determines the violin entries.

In Figure 10.13, each number above the score represents a quantity of crotchet beats. Each element of the resultant rhythm (9,3,6,6,3,9) is used to 'trigger' the violin. The result is a series of phrases spanning 12 bars of 3/4 which became my standard length of bar group. It might seem most obvious to continue this process by applying the second group of the result in Figure 10.12. However, empirical exploration lead me to make a different decision: to exclude from the rhythm in Figure 10.12 all but two sequences, leaving (9,3,6,6,3,9,) and (6,2,4,4,2,6,), which I used to determine the points of entry of the violin throughout the first section of Make Night Day .

69See

for example, Chapter 9, section 9.5.2

168

3

Vln

œ˙ œ .. Ó ≈ œ œ b œ œ‰ Œ ∑ . . . œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. f œ. 11 p f Bar group 2. 3------------------------------------------9------------------------------------6----------------------------------------∑ ∑ ≈ Ó ∑ & œ. œ. b œ œ. œ. b œ œ # œ. ˙ œ. œ. . œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. p 3 &4 ≈Ó ∑ ∑ ≈Ó
17

Bar group 1. 9------------------------------3--------------------6----------------------------6------------------------------------

2----------------4-------------------------4------------------2-----------------6--------------------(12)----------------

&

≈Œ œ. œ. œ. f

œ b œ. œ ˙. b œ œ œ.œ # œ œœœ ˙ ‰# J œœ ≈ œ. œ. œ. # œ. œ œ. # œ. œ œœ .. œ. œ. f p f F

∑ ∑ ∑ ∑

Figure 10.14. Make Night Day :a pair of rhythmic patterns controls the phrasing of the violin.

The pattern, (6,2,4,4,2,6,) is clearly too short to create a 12 bar group which accounts for the addition of 12 silent crotchet beats (see bar 22, of Figure 10.14). The use of two rhythms in sequence, one long and one short, is an idea discussed by Schillinger in The Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978 page 21) as a way of creating flow. He observes that the rhythms produced by a ratio, such as those shown in Figure 10.10, can be used in pairs to create expanding or contracting phrases. I have modified this idea choosing instead to use rhythms produced by squaring. The addition of an extra number at the end of the shorter pattern is an idea recommended by Schillinger as a way of making two unequal groups balanced. I chose to do this because at this stage in the composition I wanted to establish a degree of parity between the two instruments in order to later create tension through inequality. In this instance the rhythmic structure of Make Night Day does not strictly follow Schillinger's prescription. Instead I have used his ideas to produce structures but have chosen to use only those which suited my purposes. 10.6 Section II 10.6.1 Rhythmic identity Each section of Make Night Day has its own rhythmic identity which helps support the emotional journey of the composition. The second section is 169

For example.15 (shaded) form a unit (4/4+3/4) which expresses the master number 7. The first two bars in Figure 10. Make Night Day : rotation of Figure 10. The sequence of metre in Figure 10.16. 3.16.15. with a four bar introduction (shaded area). the result of the interaction between the master numbers. After some thought I decided that 7 would be best used as a square determining the basic length of a section. Figure 10. 72 = 49 ×e 4/4 3/4 3/4 4/4 3/4 4/4 7/8.22. Make Night Day :Figure 10. The master number 7 is part of a growth series and is created by adding the first two numbers.meant as a strong contrast to the first: it is slower in tempo and has a seductive dance-like quality.4 and 7.15. In its trans-Asiatic travel it has crossed the Ural mountains and reached central Russia (Borodin. begins at bar 80 of Make Night Day. Rimsky-Korsakov)". 3/4 4/4 4/4 A A 1 3/4 4/4 3/4 3/4 4/4 4/4 B 3/4 7/8 Figure 10. 4/4 and 7/8. which were then rotated to produce the following variation. 170 .16 3/4 7/8 3/4 4/4 4/4 A 3/4 4/4 3/4 70"The 7/7 series is apparently of Eastern origin. Rhythms based on 7 are most distinctive in character70 because they do not divide into even sub-groups and (being still relatively unusual in most styles of music) have something of a novel quality.B). preceded by a four bar introduction (bars 76-79) illustrated by a shaded area in Figure 10.17. 3/4 4/4 4/4 B B 1 Figure 10.15. I divided this length into a sequence of metre using wherever possible time signatures based on the other master numbers 3 and 4.Schillinger 1978 page 73. The sequence in Figure 10. was divided into two portions (A. the third and fourth bar are simply the retrograde of the first two. Make Night Day :49 quavers grouped in bars of 3/4.

17 illustrates how the four bar introduction has been shifted by rotation into the second half of the metric scheme. Œ Ó 4 ¿ Bar 80 3 4 ∑ ∑ j 4 ¿˚ ‰ . Bars 76-81 A1 Bars 82-86 B1 Bars 87-91 B1 Bars 92-97 A1 Figure 10.18. rolling quality of this part of the composition. Figure 10. This method helped me to create a continuously varied sequence of metre throughout the second section of the Make Night Day. A method described by Schillinger as permutations of the higher order (Schillinger 1978 page 63) allowed me to create an extended sequence of metre derived from these initial variations.18. The strong percussive pulses heard in the tape part were placed according to the rhythm 7:3 (331232133): each number in the rhythm represents a number of bars irrespective of the time signature. Make Night Day :7:3 determines groups of bars and percussive downbeats. The sequence of bars is an expression of the master numbers and has a distinctive rhythm which contributes to the languorous. 1 Tape ˚ ÷ 4 ¿j ‰ .16 themselves become A1 and B1.2 Rhythm within the bars Composing phrases within the bars was a process which began with the exploration of rhythms produced by the master numbers.6. Œ Ó 4 ¿ ∑ 3 4 ∑ j 7 ¿˚ ≈ Œ Ó 8 ¿ j 3 ˚ 4 ¿ ‰. and are subject to rotation as illustrated in Figure 10. Other aspects of the composition.The shaded area in Figure 10. For example.19. Make Night Day :extension of larger groups through rotation. Œ Ó ¿ 3--------------------------------3------------------------------------1----------------2-----------------------3----------------etc. The sequences in Figure 10. Ó ¿ 4 4 ∑ ˚ j ¿ ‰.15 and 10.19 shows the first five elements of the rhythm 7:3 and how each determines the placement of a downbeat. the entries of the bass clarinet and 171 . Figure 10. both the sounds in the tape part as well as the instrumental parts are controlled and co-ordinated by rhythms derived from the master numbers. 10.

shows how the scheme in Figure 10.21. Figure 10. œœ# œn œ œ œ œ œ œ f p 3 3 5 Bcl In Bflat 4 Ó. œ. 3 4 ˙ Œ f 5------9------------------12-----------------------16------------------------------------------7-------------. that the rhythms of the phrases played by the bass clarinet are freely composed but that the points at which they occur are controlled by the square rhythm. p Arco Œ Pizz b œ œ œ ≈Œ b œ. 172 . œ. the end of a phrase may overlap the start of the next entry point as in the third bar of the bass clarinet part in Figure 10. œ. œœœ≈ 4 œ. 80 16------------------------------12----------------------9-----------------------12------------------------------Arco Pizz Vl & 4 œ œ œ ≈Œ Ó 4 œ.20. This type of variation came about through musical not technical considerations and is a good example of how an apparently rigid procedure can be applied with flexibility. for example. œ. f &4 Ó 4 3 3 4 ∑ Œ # œ 4 ˙.20. 3 Ó ‰ j 4 œ b œb œ œ œ b œ œ b œ. The first is simply the results of squaring.21. 4 # œ. f Ó ˚ 3 ‰ œ œ œj ‰. 4 œ p 3 ≈ bœ 7 4 8 œœ # œ œ œ fœ œ œ# œ œn œ œ b œ œ b œ œ n œ œ # œ# œœ 5 3 Ó 3 4 ∑ Figure 10. Make Night Day :the results of squaring realised as a score. f Œ 7 Œ 8 œ p œ. (16+12+9+12) and (5+9+12+16+7) 12 Figure 10.20.21. œ. I treated this scheme with some flexibility. It can be seen in Figure 10. œ.21.20 was realised in the score. I combined the results of these squares as illustrated in Figure 10. œ. while the second is a variation of the first derived by dividing the number 12 into two portions and redistributing the results. Make Night Day : two arrangements of the results of squaring. Two arrangements of the square are shown in Figure 10.the three note motif played by the violin are determined by applying squaring techniques to the numbers 3 and 4: (4+3)2 = (16+12) and (3+4) 2 = (9+12). œ.

3.3.3.) and add a new level of rhythmic complexity to the finale when combined with the already established master numbers 3.. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. Make Night Day: cross-fire dualogue in the Finale. œ œ b œ. œ.5).2. œ. b œ. # œ. œ. œ. ˚ ≈ ‰.etc. ^ ^ ^^ ƒ^ In B flat 135 &4 4 3 2.2. œ. # œ. œ. ^ Œ ‰. b œ. the soloists play almost identical material based on regular semiquavers which is 'bounced' between them in the manner of a fierce exchange. œ. b œ. ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ # œ. œ. . œj Bcl & 4 .22. œ. b œ. ^ ^.1 1. œ.5. œ. œ. œ. ‰ Œ œ. œ. . œ. In order to achieve this and suggest the idea of dualogue. œ. œ. œ. b œ.4. œ.13. j œ. (5.2.23. œ. The duration of 8:5 is the product of the two numbers (8×5=40):40 quavers is easily barred as five bars of 4/4 (8/8) and is marked as 'first exchange' in Figure 10. # œ. œ.7. n œ. 2 1 2 1. œ. œ. œ.. # œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ.1 Œ. œ.1.. œ. The two numbers in this ratio can be found in the Fibonacci series (1. œ. ^^ ˚ j ‰ œ.4 and 7. œ.. œ. 173 . œ. # œ. b œ. œ. œ. Rhythm in the finale The most important consideration in the Finale was how to create tension between the two soloists. b œ. œ. ^ ^ ^ ^^ Œ œ. The rhythm of the exchanges between the two instruments and the metrical structure of the Finale was influenced by the rhythm 8:5. I used the rhythm 8:5 to create a bar group in which to contain the exchanges between the soloists.10. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ..5.1.3 ˚ 4 Œ Ó ‰. œ. ˚ j n œ.4. œ Vl œ. ^ ^^ ^ ‰ ≈ ‰. ^ ^ ˚ j ‰. I believe that the tension and excitement of the Finale is partly the consequence of combining multiple master numbers belonging to different growth series. œ. ^ ^^ ^^ ƒ 2 1.5.8. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Figure 10.

œ. œ. œ.3. b J ˚ j œœŒ n œ. œ. ^. œ. œ. œ. œ.# œ. œ. œ. Make Night Day: first exchange and tape interlude in the Finale.b œ.11 3 5 5 ˚ ˚ ≈ ‰.5.7 œ ‰. œ. œ. œ.5. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 3 5 5 11 ≈ ‰. œ. 174 . consecutive numbers are assigned alternately to the soloists as illustrated in Figure 10. The modification was made by trial and error but always preserving the symmetry of the original. b œ. first doubling its quantities in order to cope with the number of semi-quavers in the bar group and secondly fusing some adjacent numbers thereby reducing the number of elements in the rhythm and increasing the length of each instrumental exchange.4. Usually. œ. œ. n œ.3.2. # œ # œ œ. œ. œ Bcl & 4 . The rhythm of the tape interjections is also based on the rhythm 8:5. œ. œ. œ. b œ.23. œ. . (5. œ.1.5. œ. œ. but not always.# œ. œ. œ. ß ^^^ ^ ˚ ˚ ‰. # œ. The entry of sounds in the tape part is based on the modified 8:5. œ. 1. œ. œ. œ.First exchange 135 8 Vl n œ.b œ.b œ. œ. To control the rhythm of the exchanges I modified 8:5. œ.1. ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ƒ ˚ j 4 Œ ‰. œ. œ.23. # œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ.8). œ. For example. œ.11. ‰. # œ.1. œ. œ.b œ. œ. œ. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^.2. j œ. œ.3. There are four tape interludes in all.7. œ. œ.b œ. œ. # œ. each is a bar shorter than the one before which creates a sense of tension through contraction. # œ.1. œ. b œ. as the interludes contract so I modified the rhythm by omitting elements on the basis of trial and error. œ.5)→(8. œ. 40x 80 x Each number in the modified version represents a quantity of semi-quavers allotted to a soloist. œ. ^. ^^ 8 Tape Interlude &w p & ∑ w ∑ w ∑ w ∑ Figure 10. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ‰ ‰ Œ Ó Œ œ. j ‰ Œ ˚ j j ‰. œ.3.11.7. n œ. œ. œ.b œ.5/5. œ. j ‰. # œ. 1. ƒ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ In B flat 7 140 4 &4 Œ.5. œ. # œ. œ. œ.# œ.4.

1. This may be because my arrangement reveals harmonic intervals. 175 .7. and that the last note of the sequence lies a perfect fifth higher than the first note. The melodic arrangement of the scale has the quality of tonality in greater measure than the normal closed form of the octatonic scale.5 bars of 4/4 48x = 3 bars of 4/4 Third interlude: 2 bars of 4/4 (11.1. Make Night Day :the proportions of the contracting tape interludes. 3rd / min.8 Pitch The harmonic and melodic material in Make Night Day.5.The following table describes the first three interludes. The modified arrangement of the scale shown on the lower stave of Figure 10.7. such as thirds. is derived from the octatonic scale.5. Second interlude: 3 bars of 4/4 (7. Make Night Day :the octatonic scale (top stave) rearranged (bottom stave).3.5.5.11) 56x= 3.5. came about through improvisation at the keyboard.8) (11.3) 32x =2 bars of 4/4 Figure 10. First interlude: 4 bars of 4/4.11. &# œ œ œ œ œ # œ # œ œ Octatonic scale on G Melodic form Harmonic form. Their contour is circular and self-contained. # & œ œ #œ #œ œ œ œ #œ # ww ww # # ww w w Maj. The configuration of pitches is crystalline in its symmetry and when sounded together or in rapid succession the structure has a bright and intense quality.1.5. constructed around the major and minor third.24. 10. The scale naturally falls into sub-groups of three-note cells which have a satisfying melodic potential. and reveals a sequence of major and minor thirds.7. 3rd Figure 10.11.25.25.1.

thereby suggesting a dominant/tonic relationship. I explored a different type of tonality during the Finale of Make Night Day . This might be described as a kind of twelve tone tonality71 achieved by introducing and repeating eleven out of the twelve possible notes of the chromatic scale. The twelfth pitch sounds particularly fresh and significant when it finally arrives and could be considered the tonal centre or goal of the chromatic scale. Starting at bar 180, of Make Night Day, I gradually interpolated alien (chromatic) notes between the pitches of the original scale (see Figure 10.7) thereby delaying the arrival of its final note C, which lies at the heart of the climax at bar 184. The whole sequence starting at bar 180 is based on scale form A, (see Figure 10.9) and its chromatic pitches. In Figure 10.26 the bass clarinet is notated in C, for convenience.
180

Vl.

B.Cl.

. # œ. œ. . . . œ œ. # œ . œ. . œ œ. œ. œ. œ. . . œ. œ. # œ. #œ œ # œ œ# œ &3 4 p . . . œ. 3 & 4 # œ œ. œ œ œ. # œ œ œ. œ œ œ # œ # œ# œ. œ . . . œ . . . . œ. # œ. . . ↑

↓ œ. ↓↓ œ. ↓↓↓ œ. œ. n ˙. œ. . . . . œ# œ. . œ. . . œ. œ. . # œ. . . œ. œ. œ. œ. . # œ. . . œ. # œ œ œ # œ œ# œ œ #œ #œ # œ # œ# œ Ï
œ œœœ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ . . . b œ # œ. # œ. . œ. . . # œ# œ. n œ. . œ. . . œ # œ. # œ. # œ. n œ. . œ. . . b œ . . . b œ. ˙. . . Ï ↑↑ ↑ ↑↑

(12th note)

Figure 10.26. Make Night Day :scale form A, with interpolated chromatic notes indicated by arrows

As an aid to composition I constructed a chart of all twelve transpositions of the scale, shown below in Figure 10.27. œ œ #œ #œ #œ œ bœ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ œ & œ œ #œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ bœ œ #œ #œ
A B C D

bœ & bœ œ

E

H bœ #œ nœ œ b œ œ #F œ G bœ œ œ œ bœ œ nœ œ œ #œ #œ œ œ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ #œ œ #œ

bœ bœ œ #œ œ #œ ‹œ œ #œ ‹œ œ bœ #œ #œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ bœ œ bœ œ bœ œ & œ œ #œ
Figure 10.27. Make Night Day : twelve transpositions of the original scale.

I

J

K

L

71Not

a reference to the book Twelve Tone Tonality by George Perle (Perle 1977).

176

Different transpositions of the scale are used to create the soloist's material. For example, the violin part of the first 21 bars is based on form F of Figure 10.27, only the F natural in bar 11 is a deviation from the scale.

Form F.
& œ œ #œ #œ #œ œ #œ

œ

11

Vl.

&3 4

œ. œ. p

œ. œ. b œ œ. œ. œœ b œ œ #œ .˙ ∑ ∑ ..

≈Ó ∑ œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. f

≈Œ

œ bœ œ œ. œ#œœœœ ˙ ‰ # J œœ ≈ œ œ œ# œ œ œb œ. œ œ. . . # œ. œ . . œ .. œ. œ. f p f F

Figure 10.28. Form F, of Figure 10.9, is used to create the violin phrase starting at bar 11.

Between bars 37 and 38 of the violin part the melody is a directly derived from form D of Figure 10.27.
37

Vl.

n œ. ˙ 3 œ. œ. b œ. œ. # œ # œ œ &4 œ. œ. . . œ n œ . f

Figure 10.29. Make Night Day :form D (Figure 10.27), is evident in the violin part.

I found that interpolating intervals between the pitches of the original forms produced satisfying results. At bar 80 the bass clarinet solo is made by interpolating the interval of a major second between each note of form C.

#œ #œ œ #œ #œ œ œ œ #œ#œ œ œ œ nœ & # œ œ# œ# œ œ œ #œ #œ #œ#œ

Form C.

Form C with interpolated pitches

177

Form C: Interpolation
80

C# A B# D# G E Bb Gb B G A# C# F# D G# E

B.Cl.
In Bb

&4 Ó 4

, 3 ‰ j Ó 4 œ œ œ œ bœbœ œ œ bœ œ b œ. œ œ # œ n œ œ œ f p
3 3 3 5

Figure 10.30. Make Night Day :the bass clarinet part based on Form C.

10.9. Conclusions

Make Night Day, represents a rather free exploration of the rhythmic techniques suggested by Schillinger which have been modified and combined in a way he never suggests in his writings. The application of a technique has always been in response to a musical need, shaped and inspired by the poetic material and musical instincts. This has sometimes meant embarking on a process of lateral thinking which cannot be described as rational and yet it has always lead to a sequence of procedures which have a solid technical base. From this experience I conclude that Schillinger's ideas are flexible enough to be applied, as it were, creatively. As the title of his books suggest, Schillinger's work is not so much a theory but a system designed to be a technical aid to the composer. Schillinger states that he wishes to help the composer to reach a clear decision, whatever that may be72.
My system does not circumscribe the composer's freedom, but merely points out the methodological way to arrive at a decision. Any decision which results in a harmonic relation is fully acceptable. We are opposed only to vagueness and haphazard speculation.(Schillinger 1978 Page 1356) In the light of such a statement and my own experience I would suggest that a personal interpretation of his methods is in no way inappropriate.

72As

mentioned in my introduction section 1.1.

178

Chapter 11 Trilogy 11.1 Introduction

Trilogy for orchestra was composed in 1995 and has a duration of approximately 12 minutes. As the title suggests it is in three parts: two outer sections, which are fast moving and scherzo-like and a middle section which is slower moving and features a melody with harmonic accompaniment. The opening section of Trilogy was intended to suggest intense growth and struggle, a journey leading to the calmer second movement. The idea of a journey fraught with difficulty is the stuff of myth or fairy tale: fighting one's way through a dense forest is symbolic of inner struggle73. The journey may lead to a better place, a clearing or place of safety but a haven in the centre of the forest or the eye of the storm is temporary and must eventually be abandoned and the struggle continued, the subject of the third section of the composition. Although the three parts of Trilogy can be explained by this story, the music is not inspired by metaphor or narrative to the same extent as some of my other compositions. By the time I came to compose Trilogy I had absorbed the majority of Schillinger's theories, enabling me to create a composition in which the poetic background and the intellectual dimension balanced and complimented one another.

11.2 Section I

11.2.1 Rhythmic structure
73See

J.C. Cooper 1978 page 71.

179

. Bar 1 Vcl œ bœ #œ œ #œ bœ ?6 ≥ ≥ ≥ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ 8 œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ & œ ƒ f 2 2 2---œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ #œ œ ≈ fl flfl ƒ 2 2 2 37×1. This rhythmic cycle is the main component building block of the opening section and its form is very clear: three attacks of quaver duration. 180 .The opening section of Trilogy.... as it appears in the score. the regularity of the semi-quavers suggests neutrality and give the 6 quavers special significance as points of departure and arrival.1 shows one cycle of the rhythm 7:2 as it appears in bars 1 to 4 of the score.. The total length of the rhythm is determined by the square of the larger number..2).2.. rhythms based on 7 appeal to me generally as they have an uneven quality due to 74 See Chapter 3 section 3.. followed by many more attacks of semi-quaver duration culminating in the return of the three quavers.2...1 shows the rhythm as it appears in the score (1=x)). Figure 11..2 [37× 1] 2.2... Besides the characteristic just described.. 7 2 =49.. Figure 11.1. Figure 11. The rhythm 7:2.. evolves from a melodic line the rhythm of which is strictly based on the following interference pattern74: 7:2 = (2. I chose this rhythm because it evoked the feeling of a journey: the 37 semi-quavers lend themselves to runs and arpeggios which suggest the contours of a route.

Although I used this technique on numerous occasions throughout the composition of Trilogy.1. 75 See chapter 76See Chapter 3 section 3. #œ Figure 11.2. For example. Trilogy: the piano part shows vestiges of the squaring technique. This method enables one to create accompanying rhythms or counter themes by squaring significant rhythmic patterns whose duration equals the master time signature. the number 7 is often associated with the folk music of Eastern Europe and has often appeared in the music of composers whose work I admire such as Stravinsky. Bartok and Janacek. Shostakovitch. œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ≈ 4 œ ‰ œ ‰ œ bœ œ œ œ œ b œ ‰.2. 8 .2 Counter themes One potential advantage of using a rhythm such as 7:2 is that its duration is based on the square of the larger number in the ratio. In addition. 11.3. J 6 ‰. in this case experimentation lead me to conclude that the original line was best left uncluttered by accompanying parts. Œ. 3 section 3. 8 œ œ œ œ œ > > > œ p ƒ 2 2 2 4 #œ #œ #œ f ˚ j & ≈ œ #œ #œ œ Œ Œ Œ. My early sketches of the opening section of Trilogy contain several counter themes and the vestiges of one of these remains in the final score.2. I mention this here because it is an example of how Schillinger's methods and techniques are at the service of the music and can simply be discarded if they produce no beneficial result.the fact that they do not naturally divide into balanced portions75. which means that it can be used to create rhythmic structures derived from Schillinger's squaring techniques76. 181 . Œ ? 6 œ œ œ œ ‰.3. the rhythm of the piano part in bars 1 and 2 and bars 13 to 14 is based on the following square: (2+2+3)2 = (4+4+6)+(6+4+4)+(6+9+6) 1 & 6 Œ.

2. After this the squared rhythm is abandoned and the original line (7:2) dominates the last part of bar two and the beginning of bar three. dance like quality of the original rhythm and increase the feeling of travelling motion. the line is fragmented: groups of attacks are controlled by the Fibonacci series (1. shown in Figure 11. However.2. are most clearly articulated by the bass notes in the left hand of the piano part. For example. 4 and 6. I chose to place the rhythm 7:2 in bars of 6/8 adding another level of rhythmic complexity to the music in order to further enhance the rolling.In Figure 11.2. the square rhythm is clearly very much in the background and is obscured by layers of adornment.3.8.5.2.2.4 Development of the line After repeating the rhythm 7:2 several times I began to introduce variation. 11. The first three quavers (bar 1) are clearly the first three elements of the rhythm 7:2 but are also related to the squared rhythm because when taken as a group their sum (6) equals its first element. the intended effect was for the line to disintegrate or dematerialise and then reform itself. (2+2+2) [37×1] (2+2+2) (6+4+4)+(6+9+6)+(6+4+4) The next three durations. 182 .3 Metre Rhythms produced by the interference of pulses can be barred most naturally in meters indicated by the original ratio: the rhythm 7:2 falls into bars of 7 beats or bars of 2 beats. 11. 4.13) and each group of attacks is separated by a semi-quaver rest. at bar 13. In keeping with my theme of growth and change I decided that on succeeding cycles portions of the rhythm should be silenced and then allowed gradually to be heard again.

4.4). #œ 11------------------------ Vcl ?6 8 Œ ˚≈ Œ j bœ œ œ ‰ #œ œ œ œ Œ x œœ 4---------- x x7------------------------------ Figure 11. 77Later 183 . The same structure appears in Bayo's Way. Trilogy: attack groups controlled by the Fibonacci series At bar 21 for example.Vcl Bar 13 ? 6 ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ œ ≈ œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ# œ œ # œ œ ≈ 8 œ œ œ œ œ & # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈b œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ# œ œ# œn œb œb œ œ nœ bœ 1-2-------3-------5---------------------8--------------------13------------------------------- x Figure 11.5 (1= semi-tone)77 (for example. a sequence of silences is controlled by a portion of the Lucas series (11. on in the piece these cells also form vertical harmonic structures.7. Bar 21 œœ ≈Œ . 11. Trilogy: silences controlled by the Lucas series. the interval structure of each cell is 4.3. Figure 11.2.3.5).6.2. see chapter 9 section 9. Pitch The melodic structure of the line is built out of chains of four note cells.

6. For example. the last note of one cell doubling as the first note of the next.4------2--------5 ? œœ œ œ œ 4-----2------5 # œœ #œ #œ 4-----2------5 œ n œ œœ œ bœ œ Figure 11. The arrangement shown in Figure 11. Adornment of the line: orchestration The orchestration of the first section of Trilogy is based on a single line which has been adorned mainly by doubling and occasional harmonisations which have been distributed to different instrumental groups. the strings play the original material reinforced by octave doubling. Auxiliary note arrangement in the melodic cell. As can be seen from Figure 11. Trilogy: melodic line evolved from interlocking interval cells.4. 11. In order to create doubling of this sort I selected a portion or phrase of the original line and then calculated the interval range over which the new 184 . The following example shows the arrangement of auxiliary notes within the cell. ? œœ #œ œ #œœ #œ œ Auxilliary note Figure 11.5 the cells lock together into chains. but their parts are subtly modified although they follow the same contour and compass as the original.5.6 can be seen in the cello part of bar 1 in the score. the woodwind provide colour and support for the strings. The interval structure is built from the bottom up or from the top down (shown by arrows) in order to articulate clearly the direction of the line.

Some local modifications were necessary on occasion as it was not always desirable that the doubling parts had exactly the same span as the original which would inevitably have lead to moments in which all parts produced prominent octaves or unisons. It is introduced by a tutti climax (bar 48) built 78See Chapter 2 section 2. violin 1. 6 œ &8 2 œ 5 œ bœ bœ bœ Œ. This is essentially the same technique as that used to create familial rhythms by sub-grouping the master time signature78. and Chapter 3 section 3. 11. For example. the first violin part falls by a distance of 18 semitones and the doubling was derived by sub-grouping this interval.5. a safe haven from the struggle.3.1 Melody and harmony The middle section of the Trilogy is intended to be a complete contrast to the two surrounding scherzo sections and represents a respite from the journey. Trilogy: the original line (violin) and its doubling. in bar 6. 185 . Section II 11.7. For example.2.5. 11.3. 18 = 9+9 = (1+8)+(1+7+1) Bar 6 flute &6 8 œ 1 #œ 8 1 7 1 œ œ 4 2 œ 5 bœ Œ. Although my method may be less rigorous than the formal procedure described by Schillinger it allows speed of writing while still guaranteeing against too much duplication of pitches and consequent neutrality which might easily occur if no method of control were adopted.part would have to travel.1. This method is derived from a technique described by Schillinger in The Theory Of Pitch Scales (Schillinger 1978) in which an interval can be made to generate scales by division into sub-groups.

ww &w w Figure 11.4 above). The climax starting at bar 48 is the first harmonic moment of the composition and represents a discharge of tension accumulated over the first 48 bars of linear music. This process was inspired by Schillinger's method of generating scales (described in section 11.9. In the middle section of Trilogy melody exists both in the bass and the soprano registers. In this composition harmony represents security and common action.around the basic pitch cell (see section 11. ? w w n w# w w w wb w b wb w n w n w# w w nw #w Figure 11. I think of harmony as being like a bed of soil in which plants (melodies) grow. the second interval (E to B) is 5 semi-tones and also divides into two (4+1). chose not to split some smaller intervals and of course it is not possible to split a semitone in this way. surrounding a central harmonic 'filling'. Figure 11. From bar 53 onwards the harmonic and melodic system comes into its own. Trilogy: the original pitch sequence derived from the basic cell.3) now used as a harmonic structure. Trilogy: the basic pitch cell used as a harmonic structure. 79I 186 .8.9. shows how the process occurs: the first interval (F to E) is 11 semi-tones and is split into two smaller intervals (3+8) as illustrated by the crotchet note head between the two principle notes. The line shown in Figure 11. The basses and celli play a pizzicato line formed from a pitch sequence derived from the basic cell. each time producing a longer cycle of pitches79.10. is gradually elaborated by splitting the intervals between adjacent pitches. This splitting process happens altogether five times.

but it is important to note that the two layers (bass line and harmony) are independent. Trilogy: the elaboration of the original line shown in Figure 11. The two central structures surrounded by the box are used alternately as the four chords are repeated.9.? 11 w œw b œ n œ w b œ # w n w w w w b w œw b bœ w w #w 3+8 Figure 11.9). is a progression played as block harmonies by the upper strings that supports melodic writing in the wind. The roots on which the chords are built form a 187 . They may originate from the same pool of pitches but the bass line does not provide the root tones for the harmonic progression. The interval structures for these chords are as follows: 2 3 6 6 4 5 6 4 5 5 or 5 2 & b # œœ œ œ 2 5 6 b œ œ œ œ 3 5 6 or b #œ œ œ œ 4 5 6 b œ œ œ œ 5 2 4 Figure 11. Like the bass line it is derived from intervals occurring in the original pitch sequence (Figure 11.10. To create the harmonic progression I first developed four chords based on the original harmonic cell.11: Trilogy: harmonic structures in section 2. The central harmonic 'filling'.

Accidentals are independent for each chord and do not influence the bar as a whole.12.complete circle of fifths and therefore produce a progression of 12 chords. I decided to create a more sophisticated harmonic progression by applying a technique described by Schillinger in The Variation Of Music By Means Of Geometrical Projection (Schillinger 1978)80 which involves mixing chords from the original progression its retrograde and inversion.11. Schillinger suggests that a chord progression made by mixing portions of its four possible forms (original.12. This is because a chord undergoing inversion exhibits a change in quality: if originally major it becomes minor and vice versa. In Figure 11.12: Trilogy: original (top stave). backwards and forwards through the original progression and its inversion as shown by lines and arrows in Figure 11. A Original & # # ww w w 5A------------------------------ w w w nw w ww b w w w bw w w w w w b w bn ww w ww b b w # w w w w b w w # # n ww nw 4A------------------------ w b b w # n w n # ww w nw nw n w w w w B w Inversion & # ww #w D w w # ww n b ww w #w w nw w w bw nw w # ww n b w w b n ww b w b w b b bn ww w w w w w w w n w w ww n w w w b w w w w w 3D--------------1C C w w w w & b # ww w w w w ww b w ww b w w w bw w bw n n ww n ww w w w w # b bn w w w w w w w bw nw w w # w nbw nw w bw w bw w nw w w w 4A------------------------------1C 5A-----------------------------------.12. The chords in Figure 11. the original progression is shown on the top stave and the inversion (around the root) of each chord on a stave below. do not belong to a traditional major/minor system but nevertheless undergo an equivalent change of quality when inverted.4. retrograde and retrograde inversion) has the quality of continuously fluctuating tension. Single horizontal arrows above the stave designate the original progression and its retrograde while double horizontal arrows below the stave indicate the inversion and retrograde inversion. inversion. 188 . The complete procedure involves tracing a path. Rather than just repeating the sequence of chords shown in Figure 11. The exact 80See also Chapter 2 section 2. as it were. NB. its inversion (second stave) and the result below.--- 3D---------------------- Figure 11.

inversion of the original.3. The sub-groups.3.3. direction B (←). retrograde of the inversion .route and choice of direction is a matter for speculation and experimentation.2.3)→(3.3.[25×1] 2.C and D. and rhythms of pulse interference84.3) 81The letters the graph.2. 84See Chapter 3 section 3.1.1C which is marked Figure 11.12 above82.1.3.2.2. Rhythm The rhythmic structure of the middle section of Trilogy is an example of how a score may be co-ordinated through squaring techniques.2.83 From bar 53 onwards the various parts of the score are all products of the master time signature 7. direction C (⇐).3.3. The timpani part is based on the resultant rhythm of 7:3 which has been modified by combining adjacent numbers.3.3. 1. Typically this is realised in quavers: 7 7 bars of 8 = 49×e The different parts in the score based on the master time signature and its square are described below.D appear in this order because they represent the four quadrants of is the inversion of A and C is the inversion of B. The exact number can be described as a scheme such as 5A.5.2. squares of sub-groups. D A D 82Schillinger A. all combine to form an extended and rhythmically harmonious structure.3D. direction D (⇒). B C suggests using rhythms made by the interference of pulses as the coefficients of recurrence for the directions A.3.4A.B.3. Schillinger refers to the different variations as follows81: the the the the original is direction A (→).2.B.3. 7:3= (3. 83See Chapter 3 section 3.3. retrograde of the original.1. The square of the master time signature determines the length of the basic structural unit. 189 .2.C.3.2. 11.2. A number of chords from each variation are chosen and placed in a sequence.1.3.2.

2. 7→(4+3)→ (4+3) 2 = (16+12)+(12+9) (Figure 11.6) (Figure 11.5. . 3 3 j j j j j j œ.4 1.14). œ œ œ œ. I chose the rhythm 7:6 because it had a good deal of contrast between adjacent numbers and created a quality of lightness.2.3 2 1.1. œ . œ œ œ œ . ‰ j b œ b œ Œ œ # œ œ Œ b œœ ‰‰ bœ ‰ n œ ‰Œ œ # œ œ ‰ Œ œ b œ ‰ Œ ‰ œ Œ 1. œ œ œ œ œ.V ∑ Œ.15. which produces a dance-like quality (Figure 11.15).5 j bœ j œ . ‰œ ∑ ‰ œ Œ. .5.1.14. œ . The rhythm played by the gongs was determined by squaring a sub-group of the master time signature.5 1.3.4 1 1.1. 3 1. 16---------------------------------12-------------------------12-------------------------9--------------------- Figure 11. 3 3 œ.1.13).1. 1.2. ‰œ ∑ Œ. The cello and bass parts are based on the rhythm 7:6 = (6. Trilogy: the timpani part based on 7:3 Each succeeding cycle of the timpani rhythm is derived by rotation of the pattern above. 53 Gong ÷ 6 œ Œ Œ.1. Trilogy: the bass and celli parts based on the rhythm 7:6 It can be seen from Figure 11.4. 3.1.14 that the numbers determine only the duration between attack points and not necessarily the duration of the sound.3.1.1. Trilogy: the gong plays a rhythm derived from squaring.2 . 53 Timps ?6 8 n œ. œ œ œ.4.1. 6 Figure 11. 8 œ 6 œ œ ‰ Œ. 8 J p L.This modification was made in order to produce a more regular and stable rhythm suitable for the timpani.13. ‰ œ ∑ Œ. œ œ 23 2 23 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 Figure 11. œ . 53 Vcl ? 6 jŒ Œ . animation and surprise. 190 . The choice of rhythm was influenced by the strong presence of the pulse 3.

7.1.16.1.g. This was achieved using a technique described by Schillinger in The Correlation Of Melody And Harmony (Schillinger 1978)86 in which two rhythms (e. I wanted to create a contrapuntal rhythmic relationship between the melody and harmony in which both were independent and yet perfectly coordinated. 191 . it should be thought of as simply duplicating one of the piano attacks.4.4). Bar 77 Tamb. Chapter 2 section 2.2. &8 Pnf. Clave Piano 4 3 1 3 1 2 1 1 13×1 2 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 Figure 11.2 [13×1] 2.3. j œ Œ œ Œ J j œ j ‰ œ ‰ œ Œ J Œ.17 below.17.1.3.1. ∑ ‰ œ ‰ Œ J p ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ j œ ‰ ‰ ∑ œ J ‰ ‰ œ J Œ. ∑ Œ.1.2. The tambourine.1. Tamb.13.3. claves and piano take over from the gongs at bar 77 and are based on the rhythm 7:4 = (4. Trilogy: the distribution of the rhythm 7:4 between three instruments. There is one tambourine attack at the very centre of the rhythm (fifth bar) which is not shown on the diagram above.16. Œ. ÷ 6 Œ. j ‰ œ ‰ œ J Œ Œ. 5. is realised in music notation in Figure 11.2. 8 ÷ 6 8 Tambourine j œ Œ p ∑ Œ. The three instruments share this rhythm which is distributed between them85.16 realised as a score. The arrangement in Figure 11.2. œ J p Œ 4-------------3-----------1--3------------1--2-------1-----1---2-------------------- Claves Clave œ. 6 œ. j œ Œ ‰ ‰ œ J j œ ‰ Œ. Trilogy: Figure 11. Œ j œ Œ œ Œ.1. J ∑ ∑ 2----------1---1-----2--------1---3-----------------1---4---------------- (13×1)−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− & œ ? ∑ œ J Œ ∑ œ œ bœ #œ Figure 11. ∑ 13×1−−−−−− −−−− ?6 8 bœ ° j ‰ œ ‰ ∑ bœ F œ ∑ œ bœ Doubling of piano bœ œ ÷ ÷ Œ. 3:2 or 4:3)) are used to determine the following: 85See 86See Chapter 2 section 2.

18) is an example of just one melodic phrase.19.3).20. (3+1+2+1)2 =(9+3+6+3)+(3+1+2+1)+(6+2+4+2)+(3+1+2+1)=49 Figure 11.2. crucial to the character of the squared rhythm and this part of the process was a matter of trial and error. For example. the number of elements in the rhythm of 192 . It was important that the rhythm of the melody and harmonic accompaniment be co-ordinated.18.1.19. (3+1+2+1)+(6+2+4+2)+(3+1+2+1)+(9+3+6+3) Figure 11.1.1. Trilogy: squaring a sub-group of the master time signature. 4:3 = (3. not just with each other but also with all the parts of the score and. The choice of the second rhythm was influenced by two factors: the flow of melody notes and harmonic changes and the need to ensure that all elements of the first rhythm were included in the process of grouping. The durations of the melodic phrases were themselves grouped by applying a second rhythm. for example.19). Figure 11. Trilogy: the durations of a melodic phrase in retrograde. Trilogy: the rhythm determining attack groups.1. of course.a) the number of melody notes per harmony. this was achieved by using rhythms derived from the master time signature. as before. Figure 11. The following rhythm (Figure 11. This 7 produced rhythms which spanned the basic rhythmic structure: 7 bars of 8 .1. This last requirement meant that the number of elements in the first rhythm (melodic durations) had to equal the total duration of the second rhythm (attack groups).20.1. The durations for each phrase of melody were determined by squaring sub-groups of the master time signature.2. I decided that the retrograde version of this rhythm was more suitable as it begins with relatively short durations and progresses to longer durations. b) The duration of melody notes and harmonies. The choice of the sub-group is. This causes the melodic phrase to slow down towards its resolution and could be said to be in keeping with the theme of respite and rest (Figure 11. In Figure 11.

The extract shown in Figure 11. shows how the above scheme was realised in the score 87 87 During the fifth beat of the second bar in figure 11. 8. When combined. The second attack group contains one duration (1) which is accompanied by a harmony of the same duration.22.22.21. the string accompaniment plays rapid semi-quaver runs.2 4 2 3 1 2. this is simply the product of ornamentation and is independent of the process being described. The third attack group contains two attacks (6+2) accompanied by a harmony equal to their total duration. 193 .20).1 9 3. In Figure 11. the first attack group contains three durations (3+1+2) the total duration of which determines the duration of the accompanying chord: 6.3 durations Chord durations 6 1 8 4 2 3 1 3 9 12 Figure 11.1.21.2 1 6.melodic durations is 16 and the total duration of the rhythm controlling grouping (4:3) is also 16 (see Figure 11. Trilogy: melodic duration and attack groups determine chord duration.6. Attack group 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 Melodic 3. the groups of melody notes determine the duration of each harmony.

.2)---------------------------------(4)-----------------------(2)-------48 Fl. j bœ œ œ œ. # œ #œ œ # œ b œ œ n œ n n œ œ œ œ œ & #œ F #œ œ bœ œ œ œ F B #œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ & 3 3 [3] œ œ œ œ œ œ Vl2.6 Section III 11.1. œ œ . œ.œ œ œ J J ˙. ˙. œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ ‰ Figure 11.3)------------------------------52 Fl. œ œ .1)-----------(9)-------------------------(3.. J f [9] œ . œ ˙ P j bœ œ P j bœ bœ P ˙ . œ œ..6.. œ.. œ . œ bœ nœ œ œ œ œ bœ #œ œ œ œ Vla.21. Following this the lower strings take up running semi-quaver motion suggestive of the opening 194 .22. I&II œ [1] 6 œ bœ F j #œ œ œ #œ nœ œ #œ œ #œ œ #œ œ J f j œ #œ œ bœ #œ œ #œ œ œ J f j nœ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ #J f 3 3 œ. F œ. ˙ ˙.. ˙. Vla. ˙. ˙. ˙ . œ . I 6 & 8 Ó œ œ #œ bœ P Flts. F b œ œ . The return to the metaphorical journey is initially suggested by the pulsating tutti chord first heard at the climax of the opening section (compare bars 48 to 51 with bars 134 and 135). œ œ œ œ œ œ j œ ˙. J [12] œ f œ. ˙ œ œ œ J œ j œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ [4] œ bœ J [2] 3 [6] Vl1. Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11. œ œ. bœ [1] œ œ bœ œ œ.. bœ œ J ‰ Vl1. bœ œœ œ bœ 3 -----------(3)-----------------(1)----(2. 11.2)---------------------------------(1)-(6.. œ œ J f œ œ. I & œ J 3 œ f [3] œ . œ œ J f œ œ ..6. [8] 6 œ ˙ & 8 Ó #œ ˙ & 6 Ó #œ ˙ 8 œ ˙ B 6 Ó #œ ˙ 8 œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ #œœ œ bœ œœ œ 3 Vl2.Bar 85 (3. œ œ.1 Introduction The last section of Trilogy is a return to the world of the opening but with modification and development to create a highly energetic conclusion to the piece as a whole.

Bar 144 #œ œœ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ#œ ?6 Œ Œ. (see also the strings at bar 159 in score) .2 Rhythm The development of the material in section three is primarily a matter of rhythmic evolution and as with the opening section the master time signature 7 is of primary importance. 11. œ ?6 ∑ œ J≈Œ 8 œ œ œ œ #œ .b . Bars 182 to 190 represent the beginnings of the this implosion which leads to a moment of suspension (bar 191) and ultimately an explosive release of energy in the finale (bars 196 ff.6. œ œ bœ Œ bœ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ nœ œ . œœ . My intention was to create increasing tension by imposing evolving patterns of accents on the semi-quaver motion. Trilogy: patterns of accents based on the master time signature. bœ Œ Œ. The method by which the above patterns were arranged was inspired by a Schillinger technique which he refers to as progressive 195 . & 8 œ œ œ œ ?6 8 .23. 8 œ . . bœ œ œ #œ œ .). 6 bœ . A B C 1+1+3+1+1 D Figure 11. . #œ œbœ bœ 6 Œ. These patterns are derived from sub-groups of the master time signature: 7 ⇒ (1+6) ⇒ (1+5+1) ⇒ (1+1+3+1+1) Bar 136 7 ?6 8 1+6 1+5+1 #œ Œ. (see also piano bar 178) bœ . .material which is a short transition (bars 136 to 143) leading to a prolonged scherzo-like passage in which the linear material is developed and explored eventually creating such an accumulation of energy that it collapses in on itself. & 8 œ . Almost the whole of the third section (until the very end) is made up of continuous semi-quaver motion. ≈ #œ œ Œ Œ. Where in a pattern of accents single units (1) occur they are marked out for special emphasis not only by articulation and dynamic marking but also by octave placement and (in the final scoring) through orchestration and doubling.

The flute solo.7B). An example of this can be seen at bar 136 of the score where the groups of seven semiquavers in the lower strings (pattern A) are combined with a flute solo. Each of the different accent patterns in the Figure 11.7C.7D) This is in keeping with the principle of squaring and allows for the combination of other independent lines or counter themes.1.1.3. was created by squaring the sub-groups of the master time signature: (3+3+1)⇒(9+9+3)(9+9+3)(3+3+1).7.23.3 and also Chapter 5 section 5. As a consequence the music gradually changed from regular phrasing groups of seven semi-quavers (7) to the relatively more tense phrase groups (1. four elements A B C D can be arranged as follows: A (A B) (A B C D) (C D) D In this arrangement element A is at first dominant but by the end of the sequence its position has been taken by element D.(7A. For example. I decided to use this scheme in order to determine the appearance of the patterns of accents and thereby control the progression of musical tension.symmetry88.1.). 196 . Each accent pattern contains 7 semi-quavers and is repeated seven times whenever it occurs in the progressive symmetry: (7A.7D).12. which fits perfectly with seven repetitions of pattern A. 88See Chapter 2 section 2.7B.(7A.7D)(7C.3. This technique allows a gradual change of emphasis from one element of a pattern to another. were labelled A B C D and treated as elements in the progressive symmetry.

136 3Flts Fl œ. Both of these 89See Chapter 2 section 2.10.4 Rhythm and orchestration Between bars 136 and 182. I decided that the orchestra itself might provide the effect I was searching for: to overwhelm the ear through sudden changes in textural density and variation of timbre.24. I felt that a new tension-making device was needed in order to continue the drive towards a final climax. Trilogy: pattern A and its counter theme produced by squaring.3 Metre The interference between the 6/8 metre and rhythms derived from the master time signature (7) was a constant feature of the first section of Trilogy and occurs again during the last section of the composition as can be seen in Figure 11. a matter of instrumentation. bœ œ œ œ œ.6. He identified two kinds of textural density: the density of timbre.23. &6 8 9--------------------------------9-----------------------------3--------9------------------------------------9--------------œ.6. 11. Vcl Vcl 139 3Flts Vcl Pattern A #œ bœ b œ œ œ œœ ? ? 6 œ œ # œ œ # œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ n œ #œ œ b œ n œ b œ b œ œ b œ Bœ b œ œ 8 œ p fp fp fp f p f p ----------3----------3-----------3-----------(1) # œ. However. or the weight of orchestration. such as the patterns in Figure 11. b œ. œ. as the rhythms of section three evolve they become too complex to be notated easily in bars of 6/8 and more importantly the process of rhythmic evolution overwhelms any audible influence that the 6/8 metre might exert. œ. b œ œ b œ. & J bœ bœ nœ œ œ œ bœ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ #œ œ #œ œ nœ #œ œ œ œ #œ #œ œ ? œ œ #œ œ f fp fp f p f p 3 Figure 11. nœ. œ. At bar 182. # œ. œ œ . œ. tension increases as ever more complex patterns of accents are imposed on the continuous semi-quaver line.24. 11. 197 . and the density of texture which concerns changes in the harmonic or melodic texture of the music. For these reasons I decided that from bar 154 to 181 the metre would be determined by accent. œ. Schillinger described a method for the control of these qualities in his General Theory Of Harmony (Schillinger 1978)89.1. œ.

were treated as places of attack 90 (that is. Figure 11. The percussion other than the piano plays an independent role helping to provide pulse and so is not included in this scheme. I decided to explore the former quality (instrumental density) as the texture of the music at this point in the composition was completely dominated by linear semi-quaver motion. Occasionally other combinations occur due to local considerations of tone colour but essentially the orchestra is divided along family lines.qualities can be controlled by rhythmic techniques such as those described in Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm (Schillinger 1978). treated as a single part).2. Low strings: bass. Wood-wind II: oboes and bassoons. I divided the orchestra into several groups shown in the table below (Figure 11. The different orchestral groups shown in Figure 11. Wood-wind I: flutes. viola + contra bassoon and piano. the overlapping of instrumental groups often occurs intentionally. shows part of my sketch for the attack groups. clarinets and horns. Instrumental groups Attack groups High Strings Wind+Horns Low Strings High Brass Low Brass 4 3 → 1 → → → → → 2→ → 2 → → 2 → → → → → → 2 Figure 11. In this case numbers representing attack groups (such as 4.25. The attack group does not specify when an instrumental group stops playing. arrows indicate that a group continues to play. High strings: violins I and II Low Brass: trombones and tuba High brass: trumpets. cello.26.25.3) define the quantity of semi-quaver attacks played by an instrumental group before the next group enters. and a sequence of attack groups (a group of durations applied to a part) was derived by sub-grouping the master time signature (7). only when the next group starts and therefore. 90See Chapter 2 section 2. Trilogy: a scheme showing attack groups and instrumental groups.2. 198 . Trilogy: scheme of instrumentation for bar 182 ff.25). Figure 11.26.

J ß 4 œ. .26. œ ƒ Div Figure 11. 2 . 182 Hrn.27. œ. # œ œ œ #œ ƒ 1 ≥ œ #œ Œ ‰.7. bœ œ 2 œ œ œ œ b œ.III&IV ?4 Œ 4 ?4 Ó 4 Tbn III/Tuba Vln 1 4 &4 Œ Div . Figure 11. . . .œ œ œ œ ‰ 2 Cb ≥ ? 4 œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ Ó 4 œ œ œ œ #œ œ bœ . following High Strings is the entry of Low Brass. This is achieved in two ways: firstly by the abandonment of the rigid semi-quaver motion in favour of flowing melodic phrases which expand and contract rhythmically suggesting a wave-like motion and secondly by switching to a new master time signature (8) which possesses a quality of greater stability and regularity in contrast to the 199 . the process begins again starting with the lowest instrumental group. . œ. 11.26. œ œ. . Trilogy: the realisation of the scheme shown in Figure 11. corresponds to bar 182 of the score which is shown below reduced to its main constituents in order to better reveal the pattern of orchestration.In Figure 11. the attack groups are applied to the instrumental groups in a vertical direction with rotation: when the highest instrumental group has entered. œ œ ‰ œ œ œ . œ. In order to introduce more variation to the scheme I introduced a rule that after every four movements through adjacent places a new starting place was chosen freely.26. . . . For example. #œ & #œ ß f ƒ 2 .œ3 ‹ œ # œ œ # # œ # œ œ ‰ # œ. Rhythm in the finale The Finale beginning at bar 196 is a release of all the previously accumulated tension.

2.1.previous master time signature 7. The technique for creating wave-like phrases originates in Schillinger's Theory Of Rhythm91 in which he explores the possibility of combining the two alternative but related rhythms produced by pulse interference92.1.1.1.1.1. For example. The two rhythms can be combined in sequence but as they are not equal in length they form a pair which tends towards expansion or contraction.1.2. This change at the very end of the composition represents an evolution or transcendence from struggle to certainty.2. See 92That is.1.3) and 4.1.2.1.3)+(3.3.1.3)+(3.1.1. different rhythms produced chapter 3 section 3.2.1.3) The melodic phrases in the finale of Trilogy were developed with this technique in mind but do not make use of interference rhythms as Schillinger suggests.1.1.2.1.5)⇒(5.1.3) combine to form two types of phrase: Expanding: (3.1.5)⇒(5.1.2.3 and 5 and which have a total duration equal to the square of the master time signature: 82 =64×e. by the same ratio.1.2.2. Each of the three phrases is symmetrical around its centre and each is longer than the previous one due to the insertion of single units around the axis of symmetry.3.2.3) Contracting: (3. produced the variation which can be seen in the score example below.1.1.1.3.1.1.1.1.5) A slight modification. 91See Schillinger 1978 page 21.1.2.1.1.2.1.2.3.1.3. an un-balancing of the regularity of the scheme.3 (3.1.1.1.1.1. Instead each phrase is made up of three rhythms which are related by the identity of their numbers 1.1. 200 .3. (5.1. the rhythms produced by 4:3 (3.

29. Figure 11. #œ œ œœ œœ œœ˙ bœ œ bœ bœ œ. The growing number of single units creates a sense of increasing neutrality as one unit cannot be rhythmically distinguished from the next. 14 #œ œ œ 11 œ œ œ Vcl 2.). 2. In order to create the excitement in keeping with the metaphor of the rushing 'wave'.1.29..5------------3------------1.8 Conclusions 201 . This process of increasing neutrality represents the dissipation of energy. the 'wave fronts'. ?b œ b œ nœ & œ? œ ˙.1. Trilogy: expanding and contracting melodic phrases of the finale. b œ J nœ ----5------------3---------1-----1----1-----1--------1---1----1----1-1---1---3--------------7 & ˙ ˙ bœ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ J œ. 11. 1) > œ œ œ #œ bœ œ bœ bœ œ bœ œ b œœ b œ œ b œ bœ œ œ #œ œ œœ bœ œ bœ œ œ 5 (9-----------------------5----------) (1. 1.28. The melodic phrase (top stave) and its ornamented version below. The most obvious example of decoration can be seen in the upper string parts from bars 196 onwards. 2) (1..2. 3 4 ) 1(1. gradually spread out and die away. 1. 1..1--3---------4-------------4-------3-----------1----1----1------3------5 4 &4 ˙ œ Jb œ . 1. 2.1. These highly ornamented parts are derived from the technique of sub-grouping the intervals of the original line to create runs or passing notes between the primary pitches. 2. Numbers represent durations where 1= e Boxed numbers have been modified from the original scheme.3) but also includes new material (1. as it were. 1. 196 3Flts &4 4 4 &4 ˙ 11 (1 4 1 œ J bœ. Each of the three rhythmic sequences maintains the essence of the previous one (5. I decorated the line as shown in Figure 11. 3 ) Figure 11.

has been absorbed and digested making it possible to draw on the world of symbol. 202 . In earlier compositions. not a reaction against Schillinger's ideas but an instinctive realisation that a body of such range and power as the orchestra requires a musical structure of appropriate definition and clarity. so overtly present in earlier compositions. makes use of relatively few technical devices: its form is a simple ABA and most of the music evolves from a single line. are sparingly used. I explored abundant technical possibilities within a single section of music. Trilogy by contrast. of which I am so fond. The usual sources of inspiration influence this work but the poetic background. Trilogy is also more refined in terms of its technical organisation. such as Make Night Day.In Trilogy I have combined both aspects of the compositional mind: the spontaneous imaginative and the deliberate intellectual. This economy of means is. As the last composition to be composed for this thesis and the third to be composed using techniques derived from Schillinger's work it is the most ambitious in scale but the most economical in technique. I believe. narrative and metaphor without explicitly describing them first. squaring techniques.

in the case of Riddle. all include references to the natural world represented by sounds on the tape which mimic wind. These are ideas that inspired the aesthetic and poetic background of my composition and belong to the realm of the imagination: but this is a very general description and as a conclusion to this thesis I feel it would be appropriate to discuss these influences in more detail. Nature is a theme which underlies several compositions presented in this thesis. Rêve de l'Orb.Chapter 12 Conclusions This thesis charts the course of my development as a composer between the years 1990 and 1995. This last composition suggests another theme central to much of my work. that of dream states. There are influences on my musical imagination which have become more clear as I have written this text. the storm is the subject of the composition. 203 . but ultimately the two ideas are connected and not separate at all. Make Night Day and Riddle. Moon Shaman. water. is a composition inspired by the river and the life which surrounds it. This in some ways is in contrast to the theme of nature which concerns the outer world as opposed to an inward journey. magic and meditation. breath or animal cries. The discussions of my compositions and their origins which form the majority of the chapters of this thesis have contributed to the process of defining myself as an artist. It is a record of a period in which I began to investigate fundamental processes in composition and to develop my musical language.

early 20th Century Russian music. the music of Bela Bartok and the British composer Harrison Birtwistle. For this reason my compositions have a poetic (Riddle. It will be apparent that I am fascinated with bass instruments. This beginningless. Possibly their power and depth attracts me. This may be a legacy of my own days as a bassoonist. theatrical (Bayo's Way) or visual element (Vision and Prayer ). this includes jazz of all kinds. Trilogy). Music with a strong rhythmic character has always been important to me. As a musician I naturally look to other art forms to see how they reveal and express the issues concerning man. endless Universe is the dream of Brahman. Western thinkers.. It seemed to me to be more important to understand what it was in general that attracted me to a style of music or to a particular composer's work. until recently.. In strictly musical terms there are certain features which seem to recur in almost every work. narrative (Moon Shaman. early on in my studies I became unhappy with the idea of modelling my work on that of another composer. The type of information 204 . have many sounds in common. dismissed dreams as the last place to look.The great analogy for which the Upanishads are renowned is that of the wakerdreamer..deep sleeper. which I value for its lyricism and colour. However. Moon Shaman and Riddle. These are so numerous that a list would be inappropriate here. American composers such as Ives and Carter. For example. Make Night Day).In all their delvings into the nature of reality. perhaps I am naturally inclined to favour instruments that are traditionally not given prominent solo roles. It is more useful to list certain types of music such as early 20th Century French music. (Brown 1988 page xxiii) Nature within and without. life and the universe. as do musical forms such as jazz and funk of which I am extremely fond. In my electroacoustic composition I have developed a particular group of sounds which have particular meaning and which I use in several compositions. such as that composed by Prokofiev and Stravinsky. We are the dreaming Figures in that world which is constantly in the process of being dreamt up. dreams and natural forms are the source of the symbolism and metaphor which inspires much painting. poetry and of course music. This type of texture expresses something of the obsessive and energetic nature of contemporary life. Various musical styles and particular composers have influenced my work. in particular that of Ravel and Debussy. There is also the recurrent appearance of passages based on regular semiquaver motion.

Through teaching the system to a wide variety of students of all ages and abilities I have come to the conclusion that the student fails to compose with the techniques offered by Schillinger only when he or she has no idea or source of inspiration. Stravinsky. I cannot separate the spiritual effort from the psychological and physical effort. one might even say recipes. Birtwistle is not known for his willingness to discuss the systems at work in his music and so far I do not believe that any analysis of his work has revealed how he actually composes. And yet by itself it is not enough to compose music. (Stravinsky 1947). an intellectual exercise from which little satisfaction is derived. is for me inseparable from the pleasure of creation. for the building of musical structures which can be modified or adorned to the composer's personal taste. Its general principles are based on concepts derived from the study of natural forms and pattern making and not a particular style or school of music. kneading the dough. A major shift in my approach was triggered by my acquaintance with the work of Joseph Schillinger whose ideas provided me with some most useful structural models. In chapter three in hisPoetics of Music. they confront me on the same level and do not represent a hierarchy. identifies the creative need. When there is nothing to express. The 205 . This is. However. So far as I am concerned. analysis is rather a means for interpreting and discussing a work of art. The very act of putting my work on paper. of. well illustrated by the work of Harrison Birthwistle whose music is rhythmically complex and fascinating. I think. The work of Joseph Schillinger has significance in this area because it is not derived primarily from the analysis of music: indeed it is at its weakest when discussing the work of other composers. Revealing some of the techniques involved in a particular composition does not necessarily lead to the discovery of one's own compositional methods. composition is simply a technical matter. no reason for writing music. I started composing by capturing and examining improvisations believing that my spontaneous imagination would reveal a structural scheme. techniques.produced by the analysis of music is on the whole not the type of knowledge required for composing. The combination of aesthetic intention and technical procedure into a single process seems to me to be the central problem faced by the composer. Instead it is designed as a series of tools. This makes it infinitely adaptable and nondogmatic. as we say.

During the course of composing the works presented in this thesis I believe that I have achieved a balance between these two states and that my work has become more focused as a result. As a consequence of my use of Schillinger's techniques it has been necessary to describe his work in some detail and I have attempted to interpret and explain his ideas. Schillinger believed that music was a response to the world and the laws which govern its behaviour. originate from a common source. The proportions of the source material are evident at every level and in this sense the structure might be described as hierarchical. often stable and contribute to the clarity of the intention. For example in the final work. Trilogy. biology and psychology. he was able to make a connection between basic principles of these subjects and the construction of musical forms. Rather. the use of Schillingerian techniques will most likely have certain desirable consequences. The basic aim of my research was to unite these two sources of creativity. and in doing this I have defined my artistic process. I believe I have shown that Schillinger's work is of great value to the composer despite being obscured by layers of eccentricity of pseudo-science. To this end his ideas concerning the nature of music come not just from his musicianship but from his knowledge of subjects such as physics. Boethius and Zarlino. Schillinger's rhythmic techniques generally produce results which although varied. It is my intention in the future to produce a thorough interpretation of his theories which can be understood and used by even relatively young musicians. The most important of these is not symmetry or even efficiency but relatedness of structure. This is what makes Schillinger's work different from most other theories of music (which may recognise natural phenomena such as the harmonic series) but 206 .painter Cecil Collins beautifully described this as "the eye of the heart" (Anderson 1988 page 109) where the eye represents our intellect and the heart our soul and imagination. These writers were natural philosophers who adopted what they believed to be a scientific attitude to music and all discuss music in terms of harmonic proportion and number (James 1993). I believe that Schillinger should be seen as part of a long and honourable tradition starting with Pythagoras and including Plato. It does not matter greatly that Schillinger was less knowledgeable in these areas than he thought. there is notably less tension between the spontaneous imaginative and the deliberate intellectual in the process of composition. Hierarchical structures are very powerful. Finding a group of techniques which will effectively realise the imaginative idea is a matter of careful consideration for each individual case but once the correct approach is found.

Schillinger's work is both unusual and attractive because it attempts to discuss all areas of music and embrace all styles. 207 . Schillinger is different in that his work is more like a cook book from which I was able to compose successfully. suggests that Schillinger's work deserves to rise from the relative oblivion to which it has been consigned. The process is selfperpetuating: imagination provokes the structural mind which in turn fuels the imagination. At first this was a somewhat formal affair but I am now sufficiently fluent in the systems I use that the process in no way inhibits my aural imagination. My musical development will no doubt continue and cannot be predicted. From my own point of view as a composer and a teacher this is most welcome as much writing about the craft of composition fails to tackle with enough rigour the precise nature of the process or does so only in a limited way. However. the use of Schillinger's ideas in compositions which have had successful public performances and the enthusiasm of my students.which are essentially derived from the author's knowledge of the repertoire and history of music.

Music. James. Journal Of Music Theory 55:220-232. (Penguin). D'Arcy Thompson. C. Forte. J. Duke. Backus. (1976). The Schillinger system of musical composition. (1976). J (1961). (New York: Doubleday) Crossley-Holland. (1979). (1952) Collected poems 1934-1952 (London:Dent). W. (New York: Philosophical Library) Schillinger. (1978). A memoir. V. (New York: Berklee press publications). (New York: Da Capo Press) Schillinger. (1977) Twelve tone tonality. K. J. K. (New York: New Haven). (1995). G. (New York: Da Capo Press) Stravinsky. Schiff. (Little. The Music of Elliot Carter. Joseph Schillinger. in particular Growth and Form. (University of California Press).Science and the natural order of the universe. The Mathematical Basis Of The Arts. Brown. F. C. (1993) The Music of the Spheres. Brown and company) Perle. (1988) The essential teachings of Hinduism. The Exeter Book Riddles. Re: pseudo science in music. Musical Quarterly 75:119-24 Hazell. (1980) Shelley and his world. (1985). (Penguin). A. (1947). (London: Rider) Colin .The Structure of Atonal Music. (1947). I. (1988) Cecil Collins: the quest for the great happiness. The meaning of symbols. (1948). (New York: Da Capo Press) Schillinger. (1988). Thomas. The first fifty years. A. J. Gershwin. Encyclopedia of rhythm. 208 . Schillinger and Dukelsky.Bibliography Anderson. (London: Barrie and Jenkins). D. D. (1973) .C. The poetics of music in the form of six lessons (Harvard University Press) Tomalin.(New York: Da Capo Press) Cooper J.

00 " Riddle 5'.Appendix I: details of accompanying recording PG Time 0'12" Performances Duration 10'36" Personnel Bass Lines clarinet: Recording Tim City University 10/96 1 2 3 4 Moon Shaman 11'.00" Voice: Loré Lixenberg City University 10/96 16'12" Bayo's Way 12'48" Tuba: Oren Marshal Band: London Brass Qeen 3/94 Elizabeth Hall 29'08" Make Night Day 13'08" Bass Lines clarinet:Tim City University 10/96 Violin: Anne Wood PG Time Tape accompaniment Duration 9'25" 5'00" 14'10" 5 6 7 43'31" Moon Shaman 53'17" Riddle 58'27" Make Night Day 209 .

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