COmm.andcr-Jn.Chicl of tIl e Army and Navy
This special edition has been published for orranintions of the
Army Air Forces by Pocket Books. Inc .• New York 20. N. Y., .
arrane:ement with the Army Air Forces Aid Society, copyriiht
owners. For this edition the Socfety has relinquished all royalties.
rhe Official Guide to the Army Air Forces
Pocket Book edition published June 1944
1ST PRINTING .....••.•.. .• . MAY 1944
2ND .. ..••••••... JUNE 1944

Printed in the U. S. A.
AAF is more than the abbreviated term for the Army
Air Forces. It is a symbol of massed American striking
power. Fundamentally, the AAF is a people's air force,
and its bombs dropping on the enemy represent the
work of milli ons of Americans in and out of uniform.
In a democracy it is fitting that the people should
have the opportunity to obtain a thorough understand-
ing of their military air organization. This book fur-
ni shes that opportunity. It coordinates l:he many as-
pects of OUT activity and provides an integrated picture
of the AAF as it is today.
"This book is a useful, accurate guide to our opera-
tions and should be of wide personal interest to those
who know the AAF through relatives and friends in
the service. It will be especially valuable to those who
hope to become directly associated with us. To the
officers, men and women of the AAF it should serve
as a helpful work of reference.
General, U. S. Army
Commanding General, Anny Air Forces
" T MGET-An Introductioll to tlle AAF
Tcam1Aork: key to AAF operations-Organization for air war-
Continental air forces and commands-Parts of an air force:
aircrcws, flights, squadrons. groups, wings, divisions, com-
mands-An air force ill combat-Command, staff and control
-Unified planning-\Vorking with others.
"HO ''IE ARE 37
Personnel expansion and requirements-Aviation cadets-Gen-
eral duties of air and grollnd crcws-\liIitary occupational
specialties-Aeronautical ratings and badges-Pay scales-In-
signia-The redistribution program-\\'omen in uniform-
Civilian personneJ-'Vomen \'olunteers.
Training for pilots, navigators, bombardiers, gunners, glider
pilots, observers-Technical, administrative and supply
training-J low air and gronnd units prepare for com hat-
Ch.'erseas training-AAF Tactical Center-School of Aviation
officers cOtlrscs-Convalcsccnt and rehabilita-
tion training-Prevention of flying accidents.
1 0 1
Procurement and airplanes: types. perform-
ance, characterishcs-Engineering-Engines-Jet proplllsion-
Aviatioa fuels-Propellers-Electrical and hydraulic systems-
guns, turrets. aerial c.'1nnon-Bombs-lnstruments-
Parachctes-Photographic equipmcnt-\Vright Field-Tcst pi-
lots-Proving for combat.
Air logistics-Sopply and transport al;cllcies---Types of slIpplv-
Air depots, baSe IUPPIy, JCn'ice ccntcrs--Tramportation hy
ana IerrMovinc lUI AAF unit-(hcrscas mo\'elll cllt-
of aircraft-Air trans-
port-M pnontleS-Maintenance prohlclll ,) and methods-
Ecbelou Of maintenance-Reclamation and "':l lv:lge.
The need for airbascs-Types and functions-Maintenance and
control-The battle for airbases-llow we build our bases:
construction facts and figurcs-Camouflage-Aviation and air-
borne engineers-Use of combat bases.
Natural hazards of the air-Army Airways Communications
System-:\AF \\feather Service-The body in flight: anoxia.
and redouts, cold, fatigue-Oxygen
-Anabon me(hcllle-Btllhng out-Forced landings-Sun'j"al in
tropics, desert and arctic.
Strategic and tactical operations- Target selection-The homb·
ing problem-Heavy bombardment and the bombsight-Me-
dium and light bombardment-Fighters and fighter escort-
Air defense-Airborne warfare-Reconnaissance-Na\'igation-
-Intelligence-Communications-Gunnery-The combat air
forces-Unit and indi"idual citations-Chronological war rec-
ord. .
Chronological record from Civil \\' ar to Pearl Harbor.
Color Plates .... - ............. _ " ...............
Our Leaders (with biogmphies )-Mcn of .\\1' .. ...... 56
Aircraft of the AAF .... ......................... 1 n
The AAF in Combat ............................ 301
Listed by subjects in the iude)"
Bibliography ..................... •• . . . . ........ .,:;:8
'bb ..
no revlatlons .................... . .. ... .. ...... 366
AAF Vernacular ........•.....•.....•....••..... 36S
I f you would know the Army Air Forces today, consider first
a global network of men and airplanes, supply lines, COI11-
munications routes and airbases; think of this network as a
striking force that since the start of the war has made morc
than 700.000 combat fl ights, dropped more than 600,000
tons of bombs, fired morc than 75.000,000 rounds of am·
munition against the enemy.
Now think of a part of this striking force: of 1000 heavy
bombers stretched across 100 miles of sky, with as many
fighter planes fanning a protective cover; 30,000 tons of
metal, 11,000 fighting men and 2500 tons of high explosives
roaring along in battle formation to a common objective.
Consider the objective: a production center that is 3
source of enemy power; a German equivalent of Detroit or
Pittsburgh fashioning weapons of war for use against Ameri·
can troops and the troops of our Allies; a vital, stmtegic
target protected by land and sca, accessible only through the
Think of the attack: 1000 bombers forci ng thcir way to
within 5 vertical miles of this enemy stronghold; men who
take aim and hurl their bombs down those 5 miles onto the
target; metal and men who wi11 be back over the target to·
morrow or the next day, who are capable of repeating the
:performance again and again, of shifting their attack to other
'targets at will; think in terms of repeated bombings; think
:o{ each mass attack -as a major military campaign taking
iplace within the space of hours.
In that sober hour on Dec. 7, '94', the challenge to the
:AAF was clearly outlined:
I Could we, the air organization of the u ~ S. Army, mass
and perfect the men and materials to graduate from a minor
tairpower to the mightiest air force the world had ever
i Could we, with our limited strength, fight holding actions
lover 5 continents while we amassed the necessary resources?
I Could we, in minimum time, launch an air offensive that
I would fatally weaken the enemy's ability to resist?
Actually, considerable planning had gone before. The na-
tions already at war had proved that airpower would be a
I decisive factor in the struggle, that airpower could only be
defeated by superior airpower. Ever since World War I
farsighted military men and civilian students of military
. affairs in this country had been convinced that the airplane
would have a profound effect on future warfare. During the
i 19'0'S this thinking and study began to crystallize into
I certain definite conclusions within the AAF. We believed :
. That the most efficient method of waging war was to destroy the
enemy's weapons while they were still in production, thus de-
priving his armies of those weapons and eventually rendering him
,That 2irpower. capitalizing upon its inherent long-range strategic
: capabilities and operating in sufficient strength, could accomplisll
this objective.
That precision bombing was the heart of such airpower and the
I key to our operations.
I That airpower, operating in cooperation with ground and Se.1 units,
could be a decisive factor by isolating the battle area and par-
ticipating on the battle6c1d.
11lat land·based aircraft. with emphasis on the long-range, high alti-
tude heavy bomber, would be the backbone of our air force, and
that supcr-bombers would bc required.
That the maximum st rength of our weapon could be realized and
its limitations offset by our ability to make sustaill cd mass att::lcks_
Nlore than 3 months before Pearl Harbor, the AAF, in
response to an instruction of the President, submitted to the
\Var Department an air war plan based on the following
That we might be at war with Ccnmmy and Japan si11lulbneollsly.
That Germany, as the center of thc Axis system and its principal
military power, would have to bc dealt with first.
That a land invasion of Cermany would take considerable time to
prepare. ,
That a sustained and powerful bombing assault against specific
targets might m.-;lke an invasion unnecessary, or if nccessary, would
playa vi tal role in any such effort.
That a specific numbcr of bombardment planes cOl1ld be sct lip as
the power element of an air offcnsivc.
That in addition to bases in Britain, cfforts should be made to de·
velop bases in the Ne:u East; and to obtain Atlantic and \ Vestem
Mediterranean bases-if necessary by land. sea and air action.
That a long-range, heavily armed escort fightcr would be needcd to
offset German defenses.
That a "strategic defensive" would be necess.lry in Asi.l until Ger-
many was defeated.
The plan, as submitted, called for the crcation of an al r
force numberi ng more than 2,000,000 men and upwards of
88,000 planes.
The val uc of an air offensive was predicated on the con·
viction that the German industrial effort, and conscqucntly
the continued existence of the German anny, was dependent
on the following elements: the electric power system, the
transportation systcm, the oil and petroleum system, eivili,m
vVe believed that destruction of specified targets in the
first 3 categories would paralyze the functioning of c.leh, and
that the same result could be accomplished by a collapse of
enemy civilian morale.
\Ve realized that it might be desirable to accomplish certain
"intermediate" objectives, as: neutralization of the Gennan air
oree, on airbases, attack on aircraft factories (engine
nd airframe), and attack on aluminum and magnesium
lants producing the essential metals from which airplanes
re built.
In order to secure OUT bases and maintain supplies, we
ecommcnded "diversionary" objectives such as submarine
bases, surface sea craft, "invasion" bases.
A weol after the U. S. was attacked, the AAF submitted
lC following recommendations:
Since the Axis powers command a substantial advantage in forces
available for immediate use, protection of the military and in-

dustrial strength of the U. S. is the FIRST and most basic COIl-
sideratioo; protection of the British Isles, as a base for future of-
fensive operations, is the SECOND consideration.
' Offensive action against the sources of Axis military strength is
mandatory, if we are to win.
As steps In the creation of an air force for the preservation
of national security and the defeat of the Axi s powers, we
recommended the acquisition of 88,000 planes and-stepping
up the Harbor estimate-2.,90o,Ooo men and offi-
cers. \Ve further recommended the prm·iding of air defense
for the U. S., Panama and Hawaii; the providing of
sphere defense; the providing of supplies necessary to secure
I bases in Britain and the Near East; the maintenance of lines
of communication; the reinforcing of the Philippines; the
providing of shipping needed for the offensive; and the con-
struction of bases in Alaska and the Aleutians for an ultimate
offensive against Japan.
Since all military plans are subject to alteration in the
face of action before the enemy. new wavs must be devised
for attaining the objective, new plans dra,,'n to conform with
changing circumstances. Objectives originally tagged "di-
versionar)"" or Hintennediate" may for immediate reasons be-
come "primary," thus inRuencing other elements of a plan.
However, the overall strategy remains unchanged.
Pearl Harbor converted our long-delibcrated PLAN of ac-
tion into ACTION itself. In the sudden h"ansfonnation from
a nation at peace to a nation at war, our air program was
like an animal unleashed from its cage after long
ment, but with neither his tceth nor claws sharp enough or
strong enough to be immediately effective.
The very nature of the war made it necessary that we, as
the flying force of the nation, should bear the brunt of the
enemy's first rush of conquest. Our efforts during the first
6 months of war were valiant but meager when measured
by today' s standards. Yet we did delay the enemy, and in
some, measure held him and interfered with his plan of
domination. We built up the hard way the combat
ence required to put our own plan into full-fledged action.
In the early days of expansion everything we wanted was
needed "yesterday"; and mostly we wanted strength. The
quotas we set up were of necessity as changeable as our
initial organization charts. And while we were still CREATING
the essential industrial means, the enemy was in a position
to USE his means to push us further and further back from
the points from which we could launch a future offensive.
Between 1939 and 1941 the production facilities at our
disposal had increased 400%, but the liou' s share of that
expansion had gone to Great Britain under "defense aid" and
agreements. Yet, foreign purchases of the na-
tion's aircraft had given us the valuable asset of
planes. And although had cost us immediate
strength, it had also prompted expansion of our original
duction facilities and prepared us for the far greater
pansion needed.
Our training facilities were wholly inadequate for the job
ahead, but we could utilize those of private and commercial
fl ying that fortunately had becn built up in the peacetime
years; we could make use of the nation's educational system,
could transfonn hotels into training centers. The "combat
aircrew," as we know it today, was unknown in early 1942.
Balance was lacking among the necessary components of the

.\AF-the ainnen, technicians, ground crews-and we didn' t
have enough planes with whicb to instruct OUT men. But a
training program initiated in 1939 had us a nucleus of
skilled personnel; and every rural and CIty area of the nab on
I could contribute to a vast pool of trainable men, many of
whom not only had a keen interest in the airplane, but a
similarl) valuable aptitude for things mechanical.
\V e lacked both transport facilities and bases. Naval
strength had to be devoted largcly to securing lines of com-
munication; this not only placed a heaVIer burden on air
operations but also gave the enemy a chance to wage
marine warfare, which in turn absorbed some of our aerial
operations and by necessity diverted them from industrial
targets. However, after the first threat of direct attack. had
passed, the location of the U. S. guaranteed security for the
productton program that lay ahcad. \Ve could grow without
the destructive time·loss factors of bomb·harried production
which both Great Britain and GermanI' had suffered. The
Briti'ih Isles could become one huge 'airbase for strategic
bombing operations. In the South Pacific we could benefit
from the aid offered by Australia. Throughout the world we
had other Allied nations to assist us in our prosecution of the
After we had pushed through the first year of combat,
graduallv the cycle of war began to turn to our advantage.
Our accumulation of strength began to mesh with the con-
ce"P.b of our war plan; combat experience meshed with train-
ing, supply and communications with the establishment of
bases-until the global network took shape.
fo:arly in 1944 we massed our first loo-mile procession of
bombers, Simultaneously, we were preparing to strike in
even numbers, were Hying even larger bom bers, and
were planmng to carry massed aerial attack across the world
to ,apan Bllt early '944 was the start of the real air offensive.
Today, while 1000 of our bombers stretch across the sky
over Ccmlany. alJ O\'er the glob<; om men art making thcm-
selves understood in Hindustani, Italian, Arabic,
Eskimo, pidgin English; and our planes are making them
selves understood in the tropics, arctic and desert; over sc'
mountain and glacier, .,
In China, at thi s moment, some of us may Just be.Iand11l
medium bombers after raiding Japanese warehouses n.l Ind
China. Every ounce of gasoline plan:s th
gas for the jeeps and trucks o,n the In Chma, like th
gas for the hcavy bombers Just now. tak111g off for ,a daw
mission to bomb Formosa-was earned over the I-Illnalaya
by air. In India our ,transports are coming i,n after a day 0
shuttling these supplies. Several thousand 1111l es to the sout
east, on a Pacific island once headquarters for the Japanes
others of us are beiilg briefed to o,vcr an
and from zero altitude attack hIS shlppmg. On a tiny Isbn.:!
in the Arabian Sea we ' si t out a sandstorm and wait for til(
evening transport. On the h?t Tuni sian desert we arc stil
busy looking for salvageable Items from the ycar-old wreck!
of enemy planes, Over the Central Pacific our seard
planes with their equipment that sees better III the dad
than man has ever seen in daylight, are on patrol. 01
the west coast of the U, S., while another shift is coming of
work in the great airplane factori es, thousands of us arc till.:.
ing off in training in small, aircraft that ollt-perforn
the combat planes our pIlots flew 111 the .last war. In a Nc"
York City procurement office a .eolonel a request fa;
4 mi11ion rivets. In the Aleutians the I Bombed Japa n
club is initiating some new members. Vi e are Kansa:
on our first solo; high over central With encl11)
fighters attacking; low over a Japanese airfield strafing plane:
on the runway; far out over the Pacific with an, enemy wnr
ship clearly fi xed in the cross-hairs of our bombSight. \Ve
the AAF.
* * *
In this bOOK we tell about our men and our planes- wile
they are and what they do- and about our whole globa
We have a saying in the AAF that 10 men in a bomber will
never replace a combat aircrew. Similarly, 210 million men
and 100, 000 airplanes will never replace an air force.
The AAF is, first of all, a huge team. Teamwork is the
corncrstcne of al1 our acti,"ities-in the air and on the ground.
No onc man in a bomber crew can carry out a 111ission by
himsc1f. Unless the work of each member is planned, disci·
plincd and coordinated with the others, all will fail. One man
cannot win a battle, but one man can lose it.
Between plane and plane, teamwork is as necessary as it
is between man and man. A cohesive formation of bombers
is essentlal for mass bombing and for seU-protection. If one
;1ircraft fail s to mai ntain its appointed positi on it jeopardizes
not only itself the formation, and pcrhap!; the suc-
cess of the n1lSS1011 . Fighters must work c10sely with the
hom bers they are escorting. rnley fl y in teams, cover one
.mother, attack in uni son.
AAF aircrews have no monopoly on teamwork. It must exist
between them and their ground men; among ground crews
themselves; and among the forces back home-both
and civilian-whi ch develop and build the planes, ship the
suppli es and train the men. Nor is teamwork confined to any
one branch of the anned forces. Essential to success in the
war is AAF teamwork with the ground armies, with the Navy,
and with Allied forces in combined ai r-sea-ground operations.
Evolution of the AAF-The AAF stems from modest be-
ginnings. Created in 1907 as a tiny branch of the Signal
Corps, the Army air arm mushroomed during World War I
to what then seemed giant proportions. During the latter
months of the war the Ai r Service was set up as a separate
branch of the Anny, di stinct from the Signal Corps. In 1926
it was renamed the Air Corps. In 1935 a combat air organiza-
tion was established to complement the Air Corps-the
General Headquarters (GHQ) Air Force. Later renamed the
Air Force Combat Command, this was a unified combat force
composed of the various fighting air units. It was an early
testing ground for the strategical and tactical doctrines on
which our present aerial offensives were conceived.
" lith the creation of the Air Force Combat Command,
the Air Corps concentrated on supply and training functions.
From its Materiel Division and its training centers grew the
continental commands of the AAF which have been chiefly
responsible for building the AAF into the fighting machine
it is today.
Shortly after Pearl Harbor, the U. S. Army was reorganized.
The Air Corps and Air Force Combat Command were
merged into the Army Air Forces. The Infantry, Cavalry,
Fi eld Artillery and other surface combat elements were
merged into the Army Ground Forces. The supply and
service agencies-Quartennaster, Ordnance, Chemical \Var-
fare, etc.-were merged into the Services of Supply, subse-
quently renamed the Army Service Forces. ResponSi bility for
coordinating the 3 forces was lodged in the General Staff, a
body composed of equal numbers of air and ground officers.
The military air arm currently consists of the following
clements: the Commanding General, AAF; the Deputy Com·
I mandcf; the Air Staff; 4 continental air forces; 6 AAF
i mands and certain other AAF agencies which are m
I various specialized activities; and 11 combat air forces m the
I theaters of operations.

The Commanding General, AAF and the
Air Staff- The Commanding General, AAF, 10
, addition to the duties of his command, is a
member of the Combined Chiefs of Staff and
the Joint Chiefs of Staff , which determine the strategic ob-
jectives and plans of the Allied aml ed forces (see page 3?)·
11,e Air Staff is the arm of the Commandmg General whIch
enablcs bim to direct and control all the far-flung parts of the
_ AAF. It translates the war plans laid down by the PresIdent
I and the higher planning agencies into concrete courses of
I AAI" ac!lon. It keeps in cl ose touch with the theatcrs of opcra-
I tions in order to see that productIOn and trammg programs
geared to the changing requirements of war. Month? m
advance it plans where, when and what kmds and
of plane:; and men will be It develops and
a synchroni zed schedule takmg mto the .mulbpl.c
factors affecting fully trained and eqUIpped aIr UnI ts. TillS
schedule serves as the basis for specific directives from the
Commanding General to AAF agcncies in the field.
T he Headquarters of the AAI", m Washmgton, D. C.,
incl udes the Commanding General, AAF, the Deputy Com-
mander, and the Air Staff . The Air Staff consists of a Chi ef
of Air Staff (who is also the Deputy Commandcr, AAF ), as-
sisted by 4 Deputy Chiefs; 6 Assistant Chiefs ?f Air Staff, each
responsible for a main phase of AAF operations; and several
special o/licers, each a specialist in a particul ar fi eld.
B. M. GILES-Assists and advises the Commanding Ceneral; directs,
supervises, coordi nates act ivities of the Air Staff , the commands
and the conti nental ai r forces.
VVILSON-Assist the Chief of Air Staff in the performance of 1
ommcnds strategy and deployment of air combat uni ts; interpret
appro\'ed war plans in terms of air combat requirements.
QUIREMENTS: MAJ . G EN. H. A, CRAIG-Translates approved al
war plans into an integrated AAF program covcring personnel
equi pment , trained uni ts and replacement crews; establishes tactic
and techniques of aerial warfare, standards and characteristics rf
quired of aircraft and combat uni t plans; orders the creat ion 0
units. the mo,oement of units and aircraft to overseas theaters.
- Plans, establishes pol icies for and supervises the AAF personne
program, both military and civilian; supervises recreational an<
morale activities; administers personnel operations for the personne
of the Air Staff .
\ VIIITE- Establishes policies and plans for air intelligence activities
including counter-intelligence, photo. interpretat ion and in telligenc(
trai ning; collects, evaluates and disseminates information
on the air war.
- Establishes training schedules and policies and supervises AAF
training act ivities; stimulates and coordinates the development and
lise of t raini ng aids, such as texts, training 61ms, synthetic training
devices and posters.
BUTION: MAJ . GEN. O. p , ECllo Ls-Establishes plans and poliCies
for all supply activities of the AAF, including the development,
procurement and prod uct ion of aircraft and related equipment,
the supply and maintenance of all such supplies within the conti·
nental U, S" and air transportation to overseas thcaters; also works
in close coordination wit h the Army Service Forces in the furnish-
ing of supplies and services by other branches of the \ Var Depart-
ment to the Army Air Forces. .
organiza tional. administrative and procedural matters; prepares rec-
ollllnendations to obtain t he most effi cient utiliz.1 tion of AAF man-
power; obtains and mai ntains current statistical information rela·
t i,oc to all A:\F acti\'ities.
Alit I'NSPECT01l: BRIC. GEN. J. \V. JONEs-Develops plans and polio
I ties for all AAF inspections; conducts periodic and special in·
spections of AAF activities for the Commanding General.
AIR SURGEON: MAJ . GEN. D. N. W. GRANT-Plans and directs all
: medical facilities and personnel of the AAF, including aero-
• medical research.
Supervises and administers all AAF budget and fiscal mattcrs.
I counsel Jf the AAF.
-Determines policies and programs for air communications activi-
ties, including radio, radar, teletype, pigeons, etc.
matters involving relationships with Congress, including proposed
-Advise, on all antiaircraft activities affecting the AAF.
special projects as the Commanding General may from time to
time ass:gn.
I carries out a fl ying safety program for the prevention of aircraft
accidents; develops and enforces procedures for the control of
military air traffic.
Under direction of AAF Public Relations Board plans and super·
vises public relations and related activities.
The AAF Commands and the Continental Air Forces-
During tbe prewar period and the early months of the war,
tthe AAF concentrated on growing. In 1943, as it approached
its scheduled size, it gradually shifted its emphasis from
training to op<;rations. But even after it has reached its peak, it
must continue to train mcn and produce planes and equip·
mcnt in ordcr to maintain its combat forces at full strength.
ew and better planes mllst replace old ones as well as those
damaged and destroyed; new crews must be trained to replace
hose lost in action and those relieved from combat duty.






z c
c ..



- ...












- --



u u


z c

z ;;:



.. c
u c






.. c




c z c
- -


z c
u z


u c

- :0:


, In charge of building and maintaining combat air forces
. arc the several AAF commands, the 4 air forces in the con-
tinental U. S., and certai n other AAF field agencies. Subject
! to the overall di rectives and programs of the Commanding
General , AAF, the commander of each of these organizations
has full authority and responsibility for organizing his
mand and devc10ping methods and procedures for accom-
plishing his objectives.
111e 4 continental air forces originated as Air Districts
under the old GHO Air I'orce in the winter of '940-41.
Sct up as air comb:rt organizations, each was assigned a ecr-
Itain area of the U. S. in which to operate. Thus the 1st Air
1 Force operates along the eastern seaboard; the 2nd in the
: Ilorthwestern and mountain areas; the 3rd in the southeastern
I area; and the 4th along the west coast and in the southwest.
IDuring the early part of the war, a major responsibility,
I ticularly of the 1st and 4th Air I'orces, was to guard against
I possible attack on the continental U. S. Today, although
they still maintain a defensive force, their main job is the
organizing and training of air units for overseas combat.
Each rommand and air force has its own headquarters and
its own subordinate field organization. ll1ese organizations
are characterized by the nature of their varying activities. The
Materiel Command, for example, which deals primarily with
. private industries, functi ons through procurement di stricts
located at or ncar principal industrial centers. These districts
maintai n offices in the varioll s aircraft factories. The Air
Service Command has 11 air depots as well as a number of
special depots and stations. Each major AAF installation has
a supply and maintenance organization which draws on an
. appropriate air depot for supplies and heavy maintenance
The 4 continental air forces opera te through sub-com-
mands or wings, each of which supervises airbascs of a par-
ticular type or in a particular area. The Training Command is
' organized into several sub-commands, including 2 techlli cal
training commands, each operating technical schools in a
pccified area of the continent, and 3 flying training com·
ands, £<jch operating Hying schools in a specified area.
The Air Transport Command is composed of a ferryin
division whi ch ferri es new airplanes from factory to destin
tion, either in the U. S. or abroad; a domestic transportatio(i
division for the transport of suppli es and passengers in
continental U. S.; and several foreign wings, each
transport routes over a specified region of the world.
TRAINING COMMAND-Fort \¥orth, Tex.; Lt . Gen. B. K. Yount. Or·
ganized-Tech. Tr. Comd. 26 Mar. '41; Flying Tr. Com(l. 23
Jan. ' 42; combined into Training Comd. 7 July '43. Function-
Training of pilots, bombardiers, navigators, gunners, mechanics
and other ground technicians; basic training of aU incoming per-
sonnel ; offi cer candidate training.
I TROOP CARRIER COMMAND-Indianapolis, Ind.; Brig. Gen. F. \ V.
Evans. Organized-As Air Transport Comd. 30 Apr. '42; redesig-
nated I Troop Carrier Comd. 20 June '42. Function-Organiza-
tion and training of troop carrier, glider and medical ai r evacuation
units and crews; joint training with Army Ground Forces of
airborne units.
AIR TRANSPORT COMMAND-Washington, D. C.; Maj. Gen. H. L.
George. Organized-As Ferrying Comd. 29 May '41; redesignated
Air Transport Comd. 20 June ' 42. Function-Ferrying of new
aircraft from factory to llsing locations all over the world; worl d-
wide air transport service for personnel, supplies :md mail.
MATERIEL COMMAND-Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio; Maj. Gen. C. E.
Branshaw. Organized-As Air Corps Materiel Division 15 Oct.
'26; redesignated Materiel Comrl. 9 Mar. '42. Function- Re·
search, development and procurement of aircraft and related equip-
AIR SERVICE CO:MMAND-Patterson Field, Fairfield, Ohio; Maj . Gen.
\V. H. Fr;lIlk. Organized-As Air Corps Provisional Maintenance
Comd. 15 Mar. '41 ; as Air Corps Maintenance Comd. 29 Apr.
'41; redesignated Ai r Service Comd. 17 Oct. '41. Function-Dis-
tribution and supply to AAF units of AAF equipment and sup-
plies; maintenance and repair of aircraft; training of service, supply
and maintenance units for assignment overseas.
PROVING CROUND COht:MAND-Egli n Field, Fla.; Brig. Gen. G. Gard-
ner. Organized-As Air Corps Proving Ground 15 May '41 ; re-
designated Proving Ground Comd. I Apr. '42. Function-Opera-
tional test s and ,tudies of aircraft and aircraft equipment.
1ST AIR FORCE-Mitchel Field, Hempstead, t. I., N. Y.; Maj. Gen.
F. 0'0. Hunter. Organized-As NE Air District 16 Jan. '41;
redesigns.ted 1St Air Force 9 Apr. '41. Function-Organi7..ation
and training of bomber, fighter and other units and crews for
assignment overseas; participation with Army Ground Forces in
combat :r3ining maneuvers; provision of units and planes for de-
fense of the continental U. S.
2ND Alit FORCE-Co1orado Springs, Colo.; Brig. Gen. U. C. EDt .
I Organized-As NW Air District 16 Jan. '41; redesignated lnd
Air Force 9 Apr. '41. Function-Same as 1St Air Force.
:3RO AIR FORcE-Tampa, Fla.; Maj. Gen. W. T. Larson. Organized
-As SE Air District 16 Jan. '41; redesignated 3Td Air Force 24
May '41. Function-Same as 1St Air Force.
14TH AIR FORCE-San Francisl:u, Calif.; Maj. Gen. W. E. Lynd. Or-
ganized-As SW Air District 16 Jan. '41; redesignated 4th Air
Force 31 Mar. '41. Function-Same as 1St Air Force.
MF BOARD, Orlando, Fla.-Development and determination of AAF
military requirements.
TACTICAL CENTER, Orlando, Fla.-Testing and demonstrating tacti-
cal unit organization, equipment and techniques; training of se-
lected MF, Army and Navy personnel in air tactics and doctrine;
training of air intelligence officers and air inspectors.
1 REDISTRIBUTION CENTER, Atlantic City, N. J.-Processing and assign-
ment of AAF personnel returned from overseas; operation of rest
I camps for such personnel.
Provision of world-wide system of communications along military
airways, including radio stations, airbase control towers, beacons,
I telctype systems, radio ranges and other communications facilitics.
WEATHER WINC, Asheville, N. C.-Provision of scientific weather in-
fonnation service for the AAF' and the rest of the Army.
SCHOOL OF AVIATION MEDICINE, Randolph Field. Tex.-Training of
AAF medical personnel; research and development in science of
aviation medicine.
FIRST MO'T10N PICTURE UNIT, Culvcr City, Calif.-Production of mo-
tion pictures for the training and orientation of AAF personnel.
AEkONAUTICAL CHART PI.ANT, St. Louis, Mo.-Procurement, repro-
duction and distribution of 3cronautical charts for AAF operations
around the world,

To understand precisely what an air force is and what
makes it tick, it is necessary to know fhe units which compri se
it and how they arc organized to work together,
The Airplane and Crew- Basic unit of .all aerial combat or·
ganizations is the individual airplane and its combat crew.
In the fighter airplane, the crew is a one-man organization-
the pilot, who also acts as his own navigator, gunner, radio-
operator and even bombardier. In contrast, a heavy bomher
-has a crew of 10 or morc highly specialized men, The medium
bom ber normally has a crew of 6.
The Flight-Two or morc ai rplanes may be organized, for
tactical purposes, into a flight. ll1is means that they tn-lin,
fly and fight together. One of the planes is the flight kodcT;
its pilot, the flight commander, directs the operations of the
entire flight. The flight, as a sub-division of the next larger
unit, the squadron, simplifies the problem of control by the
squadron commander, who would otherwise have to deal
directly with a large number of individual airplanes. A fli ght
usually consists of 4 or more airplanes which in combat may
fly in pairs, trios, or fours known as elements of the Hight.
The Squadron-rnle smallest air force unit having both
t actical and administrative duties is the squadron. Unlike the
flight, it includes ground personnel whose duties 3re to
minister the squadron and to furni sh nccessary ground service.
When necessary, it can be stationed at an advanced base and
operate on its own resources for a short period. The
of a squadron is determined by the type of airplane it operates
and the nature of its mission. Basic types of flying squadrons
include very heavy, heavy, medium and light bomber,
gine fight er, single-engine fighter, night fighter, troop carricr,
tactical reconnaissance, photo-reconnaissancc, transport and
ferrying squadrons.
While the composition of these different types varies
widely both in equipment and personnel, squadrons of a

erial engineer-
55' t . aerial engt-
! neer-gunner
diD opcmtor-
meChanic gun-
Ass' t . radio oper-
1ST LT.-Commands airplane
and crcw; pilots airplane.
2ND LT.-Assists pilot in Aring
plane; operates fi re control.
2ND LT.-Locates, ident ifi es and
bombs target; directs plane
while over target.
2ND LT.-Navigates plane to tar-
get and home.
T .!ScT .-Handles and corrects
mechanical trouhles in Right;
checks airplane before Right;
S,/SCT .-Assists aerial engineer-
gunner; gunnery.
T.lSc1.'.-Operates all radio com-
munications; makes necessary
radio repairs; gunnery.
S,/SCl' .-Assists radio operator·
mechanic gunner ; gunnery.
Chin turret
Alternate on
chin turret
Top turret
\Vaist gun
Radio hatch
Ball turret
T '!ScT.-Maintains and repairs Waist gun
annalllcnt, incl uding gUllS,
gunsights, turrets, bomh racks,
etc.; gunnery.
IAss't. armorer- S./ScT.-Assists armorer-gunner; Tail gun
gunner gunncry. . .
(Note: Ranks and duty assiglllll cnts varv somt:wh;:lt III different
organizations. Offi n :r r;l1l ks are 'all ont: grade lugher jf
the airplane is a fl ight leader.)
given type are similar. T est s and determine th e
number of planes which should be grouped In one squad ron
for maximuin efficiency in combat , and what
equipment and supplies are required to kecp the planes Hymg.
Such determinations then become a prescnbcd TIl ey
are published in Tables of Organi zation (T / Os) which state
!thc number of personnel in each specialty and in each rank,

and in Tables of Equipment (T /Es) whi ch authorize equlJ)-
ment by t ype and quantity for eaeh kind of squadron.
The squaClron has a command ing . officer and a group of
sllbordinate officers to assi st him in plann ing and carrying out
the squad ron's mission. Its activi ties normally fall in to 4
basic divisions:
1 . TilE TACTICAL DIVISION includes an operations nnd an intell igence
section and all t he aircrews. The operations officer usually acts as
the squadron commander's chief assistant. lJe directs the training
of all the crews and prepares the detailed plans for all missions.
The intell igence officer collects and provides necessary information
relative t o the enemy, the war situation, targets, etc. TIle opera-
tions offi cer is also assisted hy a communications officer, an arma-
ment offi cer, an oxygen officer and perhaps other specialists.
2. THE ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION handles all the office work required
for squadron administration, and such housekeeping activities as
squadron supply, transportation and mess. It is headed by the
squadron executive and includes the squadron adjutant.
3. TilE SERVICE DIVI SION consists of chemical, medical and ordnance
services, and includes the squadron flight surgeon and the squad-
ron ordnance officer.
4. TilE TECHNICAL DIVISION is responsible for all ground mainten:l.I1ce
and servicing of airplanes and equipment. It normally handles the
supply of technical aircraft equipment and parts. This di vis ion
is headed by the squadron enginecring officer. It may also include
armament, cOllllllunications and photographic sect ions.
Service and Repair- T he scrvice and repair person ncl of a
squadron are organized into ground crews, eaeh of which
is normally rcsponsible for the scrvice and maintenancc of a
partic ular plane. Ground crews consist of aircraft mechani cs
and specialists in propel lcrs, instruments, armor, etc. Each
ground crew is supervised by a crcw chief and the crew chiefs
arc supervised by a 1ine chief-a master scrgcant .
The p ersonnel of cach sqlwdron are divided into an air
cchelon and <l ground echc1on. l11e air echelon may fl y when
the squadron moves from one station to another. It includes
the squadron commander, the aircrews, the engincering offi-
cer, the fl igh t surgeon, key ground mechanics and specialists.
'l1l e ground ech elon, whi ch incl udes the rest of t he squad ron,
travels by b oat , rai l or t ruck.
The Group-Next organizational level above the squadron
is the group. This usually consists of from 2 to 4 combat
squadrons and a group headquarters. It is both tactical, in
that it provides a grouping of aircraft to perform combat
missions together, and administrative, in that it forms a
nucleus for administrative services for all its squadrons. All
squadrons in a particular group fly the same type of planes;
groups, like squadrons, are referred to by type of plane-
heavy bomber group, light bomber group, fighter group, etc.
When an entire group is stationed at one large airbase,
the ground personnel of the various squadrons may he
pooled to provide conso1idated maintenance, mess, transpor-
tation, personnel and other services. However, squadrons are
sometimes stationed at separate bases ~ n d must furnish these
services wholly or in part. All squadrons of a group train
together and the group usually moves and fights as a unit.
It is a vital organization in combat operations and is the
basic yardstick in AAF planning.
Higher Levels of Command-Above the group level, the or-
ganiz<ltionallayers in different air forces reflect a variety con·
ditioned by the requirements of a particular theater and its
air strength. Normal1y, 2 or more groups constitute a wing,
OJ non-administrative body concerned chiefly with tactical
plans and operations. Similarly, 2. or more wings are usually
grouped with auxiliary units to form a command, which is a
large striking organization of one major category of air
strength. In some cases where a particular type of aviation
is too unwieldy, in point of size, for a single command to
control, air divisions may be formed between the wing and
command levels. The air force itself is the next level, usual1y
composed of 3 or more commands.
It is difficult to avoid overSimplification in describing
i these organizations. In practice, they follow no standard
formula. If direct air force control is desirable, a group or
wing may be attached directly to an air force. Dominance
I of one type of activity may cause an air force to be formed
within a theater air force. Because of this, tactical and stra-
tegic air forces were formed in Africa and in England. (For
explanation of strategic and tactical operations see page 255.)
Supporting Units-The bomber or the fighter squadron is
only and temporarily self-sufficient. It cannot supply
Itself wIth the bombs, bullets and gasoline necessary to 8y
mISSIons day after day_ It cannot carry the heavy equipment
necessary to overhaul 3 fouled engine or scrape a smooth
runway out of a jungle_ For these needs and others combat
upon ground organizations, or supporting serv·
Specially trained units supply and, if necessary, repair
g,uns and other ordnances; chemicals, medical sup-
phcs, . radiOS and telephones. Truck units move up men and
sUl?phes fro.m the. rear and transpo.rt salvaged equipment.
MIlItary pohce furnish ground protection to bases and aircraft.
\V detachments vital forecasts for the planning
of r:"JSslons. units perform any number of
dutJe:. Other umts provide the ordinary needs of living: food,
c1othmg, shelter. units range all the way from
work battahons to hIghly skIlled groups of topographic engi-
neers, and specialists.
Certain specialized umts In an overseas air force are at·
tached directly to combat units or to higher headquarters.
of them, however, become part of the air force air
service command (see page 178). This command is on the
same level as the bomber and fighter commands and performs
dubes e9ually essential; It draws heavily upon the supplies
and services of the Army Service Forces in the theater. In a
where the only forces arc the air force, how.
ever, It may have to prOVide a11 the supplies and services itself.
. The Air Forces in Combat TheaterrEach theater of opera-
tions nonnally has one or more al[ forces. The air force
commander normally is responsible to the theater com.

for air In additi on to commanding lhc
air force, he adVISes the theater commander on air matters.
No two air forces are identical. Eaeh is conditioned br its
strategic si tuati on, geographi c ;md climatological condit{ons,
cncmy operations and tactics, and oth er factors. As the war
progresses and the strategic "I itnation changes, rapid shifts
occur in the loc'l ti on, nature and use of the different air
forces. The commandi ng gcncral of an ai r forcc dctcT1nines
its organization.
All units of an air force are comhincd under a single com-
mander for the accompli shmcn t of a common objcctivc. nlC
essential offensive elemcnt of air organi za ti on is a bomhi ng
forec for strategic att1cks wcll behind the cnemy's front
lines on and transportation centers and other key
targets. This force may be organized as a strategic air force
(such as the 8th and 15th Air Forces) consisting of heavy
and sometimes medium bomber units, fi ghter unit s for escort,
and photographi c aviati on. In other cases, these attack); arc
carried out by a bomber command of an air force with fi ohtcr
escorts drawn from the fi ghter command.
In a an air force is operating with ground
forces, a .tactical au force becomes a basic component of the
theater au force. It usually contains light and medium bomber
units, fighter-bomber uni ts, reconnaissance units, fighter units
and troop carrier units. " ' hen, as in the New Gui nea cam-
paign, transportation of ' and equipment by air is an
Important d cment of opera bans, a troop cmricr command or
a troop carri er wing may be established dirccth- under the air
force. .
force normally possesses an air defensc command,
which fighter as wc! l as various ground de-
f: l1 se command s mi ssion is to protect
aIr and ground lIl stall nhons and communica tions from en-
emy attack. "fllc air force air service command controls the
units to an. air force is responsible for
provldlllg services and supplICs to the enbre air force.
Another important air force activity is reconnaissance in-
rcconna.i'\sancc. Vital both to air' unci
ground operations, a rcconn;]Jss:mce group or wing may be
attached directly to the air force headquarters. Construction
of mbases IS ordinarily planned and controlled by air force
headquarters. IS a. air force activity.
The ExperIence-BasIc requirements of air
force orgaDlzatJon are 8exibilitr and adaptability. A specific
the of aIr force organization to a par- .
tlcular situabon IS the experience of the Northwest
Afncan Au Forces in 1942-43.
AttIcki 1m fa. btpts .1Id cDmmlllicatioDS.
" NY)' Miters; ISCtrt
_TAl AI. 10RC[
_.,""' ...... Contrel ttl, air, IttJck tr"". iI·
IiiI; ........... "'lnl: stallatiOlls; coop'rate witt! 11'01IIII
SOl "" ... is ... ; ... \
f.rets; "".aliuance. lair
1IiY-= -.. io-., liPton.
H,,,, & lIIedium Hllllars;
M_, 1iPt; ............
,. 1IIir. tieater.
ASrfitIll cMS1nIetieI1IIII

Sewtr. NilltetallC.
TI'IiAiI( of lIIWIy 'niwed
uti smite.
All types of aireratt.
Airborne OPlrJtioa; air
I'facuation of wound ...
Troop CllTi.r pllnts.
The forces originall y available to the All ' d A' C
rnaod . N th f ' . Ie rr orn-
er OD or A nca !Deluded the bomber fi It ·
support . > g 1 er au
, ... cOlllmands and troop carrier win of' th
U. S. 12th Au I'orce; and, British air units. Ann;
Cooperation Command as well as eoastal defense, photo-
reconnaissance and service units.
As the campaign progressed it became apparent that these
forces would have to be integrated. In attacks against rear
targets, fighter aircraft had to be used in conjunction with
heavy bombers. In mi ssions against enemy ground and air
forces in the battle area, fighters had to team up with
medium and light bombers. In defense against enemy air at·
tack, fighters had to be used alone.
The bomber command was confronted by similar de-
mands for flexibility, For attacks on enemy shipping and
enemy ports, a striking force of. bombers was required. For
coordinated mass attacks on enemy forces in the battle area,
medium and light bombers had to he removed from the con-
trol of scattered anny commanders in the field and concen-
trated under a single air control. Another air. force mission,
the defense of Allied shipping and Allied ports in North
Africa, required various types of aircraft.
In February 1943, the month which marked the turning
point of the African campaign, a11 the air elements in the the-
::Iter were reorganized on the basis of types of tasks to be per-
formed rather than types of aircraft employed. .
A strategic air force of heavy bombers and escort fighters
was established for attacks on enemy shipping, ports and
bomber bases in Sardinia and Si Cily. Air units previously as-
signed to ground commanders were fused in a tactical air force
undcr air command. Its tasks included operations against
cncmy air forces, bombing and strafing attacks on enemy
armies and transportation lines, and reconnaissance and map-
ping. :Morcover, a tactical bombardment force to bomb en-
cmy ground forces was set up under the direct control of the
tactical air force, whil e a coastal air force was set up to defend
Allied ports and shipping.
Because of the tremendous areas that had to be covered,
the coastal air force was divided into 4 gcographical coastal
commands, and the tacti cal air force into 3 geographical
tacti cal divisions.
Thi s reorganization safeguarded and enhanced the peculiar
advantages of the air weapon in regard to mobility and 8exi-
bility by rctaining ccntral planning and control in the stra-
tegic air force and the tactical bomber force. Units and air·
planes were not frozen under any command; they were used
wherc they could function most effectively. In attacking key
targets, the tactical air force and the strategic air force fur-
DIshed each otl,er w,th bombers and escort fighters. This kind
of collaborallon was also reBected in the relationship between
the tactical air force and surface forces . It has become a model
for combined action .. It is no exaggeration to say that the
Northwest Afncan Air Forces furnished the pattern for sub-
scqocnt operations in Sicily and Italy, and that the plan of air
for the, on western Europe follows simi-
lar pnnclplcs of BeXlblhty and collaboration.
111c Principle of Comm3nd- The North African air cam-
paign was won by an air force composed of several hundred
men, operating equipment worth several hundred
dollars area of thousands of square miles. For
all ,Its nnmense Size, It was won by an air force operating as ooc
UIlIt, controlled and directed by one man.
no single commander can personally direct al1
the men In such a force. Nevertheless his plan and his will
n.lUSt .controJ every n,-tan. The . device which makes this pos-
Sible IS the orgamzatlon of umts and levels of units under a
plan known as tl,e principle of command. According to the
of command, every unit has a single commander
who IS completely responsible for his command and who di-
the .actions. of his subordinates. By this method no man
receives I11structions from more than one immediate com-
. 'Joe number of one commander can pcrsonally
duect and control IS 111TI1ted. When it exceeds that limit it is
subdivided into groups, each one under a subordinate 'com-
This subdividing continues all the way down the
hne. Smce a squadron commander cannot personally direct
:111 or more o.f his men, hc organizes his squadron into
\cctions. When Ius planes arc in fli ght, it is difficult to COll -
trol di rectly the movement of marc than a few of them:
therefore the pl anes arc into fli ghts, each under
fli ght commander. Since the fhght commandcr pe r
sonally direct the aiming of all the guns or the of
the bomb bays of all tl, e planes in his Bight,h e deals WIth t e
ai lane commander of each plane-the pilot. 111e pilot 111
commands the aircrew of his plane. In the la.rgest pl::tnes.
crews arc subdivided into sections so that the auplane
mander will not have more than 3 or 4 subordmates With
whom to deal. .
The Use of Staff- Although a commander must see. t? It
that hi s orders are carried out and must take full responslbl.hty
for the way they are carried out, he ca,?not
solve all the problems of his l' or thiS h e requtrcs
expert advice and assistance from staff. .
The purpose of a staff is to the commander III the
performance of his command dutIes. .
In the AAF, an airplane commander does not a
fonnalized staff, nor does a fli ght The
assistants to a squadron commander adVise lll!,n bu.t are not,
the strict sense, a staff to him theu cllIcf responsI-
bilities are operational- the carrymg out of orders. In a group
and in all higher levels, however, every air commander has ;1
sizeable staff. .
The staff does not , of itself, possess any nu y
issue orders to subordinate commanders, but m so domg It
merely carries out the wishes of its and employs
the autllOrity of his posi tion. Its dull es may be de-
fined as assisting the commander of the umt by (I ) :1dvlsmg
him on poli cy matters and on and
(2 ) maintaining current informabon and hun 111-
formed at all times, ( 3) elaborating upon hiS gencral phlns
,md preparing appropriate orders to carry them out, and ( 4 )
following up to sec that his orders arc properly e.xecutcd ..
Staff Organization-"ll, e duties of staff offi ce; s are logIcall y
divided into 4 main categories, or staff sections. For con-
venience of reference, these sections are commonly referred
to in the wing and h igher level s by as A.- I.
nel ); A-l (intcll igence); /\-3 (opcratlons and trallllllg), and
- " - -
--- - -- A-4 (supply). Similar staff sections in the groups are desig-
I: _-

... E:

nated as S (for staff) -S' l, S-2, S-3 and S-4.
!! ... ==

- - -
'" --

A- I , OR 5-1, is concerned with all policics and plans relating to per-

1: ....
sonnet These include such matters as personnel authorizations,
- "
procalurcs, classifications, procurement, assignment, promotions,
leaves, rewards, citations, honors, punishment, religious and rcere-
ational services, morale, Anny postal service, custody of prisoners

;: x

of war, quartering of soldiers, relations with civil government and
., .,


- -
civilians, maintenance of order and discipline, burials and similar


t o::l

C> D

A-2, OR $-Z, keeps the commander informed as to the situation and

capabilities of the enemy. This office is concerned with photo-

o •
0 :;;:
graphic intelligence and reconnaissance, interrogation of prisoners
· -

- .§
z u
E of W2r, issuance of intelligence reports, maintenance of pertinent ... x

maps and charts, interrogation of pilots after return from missions z
:;: :;:
., .,

and intelligence training of all personnel. It also makes studies of v>


o •

';:: enemy targets, han.dles policies and regulation::; relating to sccurity
o ,
and counter-intel1igence and advises the commander on public re-
latior:s matters. A most important function of a squadron inteIli-
-;:: <.l
genet officer is to brief combat crews prior to missions, providing ...
o •

• =
them with relcvant information on the enemy.
:.: (;
· -
A-3, OR 5-3, is concerned with all plans and policies pertaining to the

:;; :;; ..

· "


o _
organization and movement of the unit or subordinate units, to ...
"", their training, and to combat operations. This office prepares the
tactical plans for all combat missions. It must keep informed as

to the strenrh and state of training of units, the availability and
- - - • •
condition 0 aircraft and other equipment, and combat readiness z
- - -

- -

geneony. It is concerned in all matters pertaining to fl ying, such



a .. t
- - - -
u as oxygen equipment, communications, weather, flight control. D D D U
I C>

- -


flying safety and others.
- .-

o • "' 4, OR 5-4. performs an staff functions pertaining to supply and C>
" ..
maintenance. This office must keep thoroughly familiar with the
o ••
<>-- status of all supplies, determine supply requirements and prepare

- ""
logistical plans to support tactical operations. It is responsible for


policies, organizations, facilities and personnel for servicing and


· .;;

u u
m:Jinten:Jnce of aircmft; for procurement, distribution, transpor-




tation, storage, reclamation and salvage of supplies; for construe-

- == x=

tion and maintenance of airbases, supply depots and other fa-







"" --
u u
It should be noted tllat while the squadron does not have

.. x
formalized staff, its principal officers are grouped along the
= =
= =
u u
u U ..,
general lines as the staff sections.
. The Sl""'ial Staff- In additioll to the gcneral staff scctions
lust .dc.scnbed, each commander is provided with a group of
spcctahzed officers., commonly referred to as the special staff.
.officers advise the commander and his staff on matters
III which they are particularly qualified. Some of them arc
also responsible carrying out ?perations in their particular
fields. The special staff usuall y lIleludcs some or all of the
ADJUTANTS OR IIandling of official correspond-
ence, authenttcation and distrIbution of orders; maintenance and
of records, rosters, reports; office procedure and adminis-
INSPECTORS CENERAL OR INSPECTORS· Inspections and investigations
for :he commander of the internal situation of his command.
OFFICERS' Pay of troops and maintenance of a finance
JUDGE to the commander and his staff;
l1llStratton of mlhtary Justice; the handling of all other legal
STATISTICAl: CONTROL OFFICERS" Provision of factual data necessary
for effectIVe management. ,
WEATI:ER OFFICERS · Provision of information. forecasts and advice
on weather.
OFFICERS " Advice and staff supervision of air com-
Advice and .on the health and physical fitness
of a.l personnel, samtation, medical problems, evacuation
of sd: .and wounded,. medical training; technical supervision
of rne(ilcaI troops, facilities and supplies_
SPECIAL SERVICE OFFICERS · Development and maintenance of the
and physical well-being of the troops by utilization of wel-
re, recreation, information and morale acti vities.
MARSIIALS' AsSistance in supervision and operation of all
pollee matters.
PJlOTOCRA.PHlC • Advice and technical supervision of pho-
tograplJJC activities.
CHAPLAINS" Provision of rc1igious and morale guidance to an pcr.
sonnel of the command.
CliEMICAL OFFICERS· Advice on all matters pertaining to chemical
warf.ne. •
Ala ENGINEERS · Technical advice on engineering matters and
command of engineer troops in the construction of land
ing fiel ds and relnted facilities.
ORDNANCE OFFICERS ' Advice on all ordnance and
supervision of ordnance activities.
QUARl'f; RMASTERS' Advice on all quartermaster matters :md tcd1l1iC::I1
supervision of quartermaster troops.
The Inspection System- A primary means of control , whi ch
has long been establi shed in all military organiZ<ltion"" is that
of inspection. Inspection in t he AAF starts at the very bottolll
- the mechanic inspecting a planc, the sergeant inspecting
the military bearing of hi s men. At higher levels the COlll -
mander of every unit must make frequent inspections of the
units immediately below him and occasional inspections of all
subordinate units.
However, the commanding officer of a large organizahon
lacks the necessary time to make regular inspections. For this
reason the commander of each unit is assisted by an inspector,
or a staff of inspectors whose full -time responsibilities arc to
keep him currently infonned of the condition of his COI11 -
mand and to initiate corrcctive action wherever necessary.
There are 3 main types of inspection in the AAF: adminis-
trative inspection, deSigned to deternl ine the degree of effi -
ciency of administration and to assure compliance with orders
and regulations; technical inspection, concerned with the
condition of aircraft, aircraft parts and techniques empl oyed
in their maintenance; and tactical inspection, whi ch is the
inspection of an entire unit to ascertain the effi ciency with
which it can perfoml its primary mission and its readiness for
active combat service. "-
A spccialized type of inspection made by the Air Inspector
of the Commanding General, AAF, is known as the Prepara-
tion for Overseas Movement (POM) Inspection. This is a
thorough and detail ed inspecti on which is made of every AAF
unit before it is sent overseas. In this inspecti on every factor
bearing on the ability of the unit to perform its assigned job
is checked-from the condition of the teeth of every man,
the compl eteness of every record, the spark plugs in every
pl ane, to the combat effectiveness of every airerew. An in-
spection of this type culminates in ,3 detailed report which is
submitted to the Commanding General, AAF. Upon the
basis of thi s information, it is determined whether the unit
should cr should not be sent overseas, and appropriate action
is recommended to the War Department General Staff.
Control System-Basis for an decisions and for
all plans of a unit comomandl"" is accurate and complete in-
formation. He must know exactly what his subordinate unit$
are able to do---how many planes they arc able to put in the
air, how many trained crews arc rcady to go on a III ission,
l what shortages or deficiencies of supplies, equipment or per-
sonnel might impede operations. To furni sh such factual data,
a statistIcal control system has been established throughout
all eehe:ons of the AAF. It is a system for the coll ection,
compilation, analysis and presentation of statistical data con-
cerning: personnel, housing, training, operations, aircraft,
I equipment, supply and maintenance.
Summary rcports on al1 AAF operations arc regularly fur-
nished to the Commanding General, AAF in \Vashington,
D. C. These provide him and his staff information upon
whieh are based the strategic, tactical, production, training
and personnel plans of the AAF.
Budget and Finance-Financial control is exercised in the
AAF through its budget and fi scal system. Budget and fi scal
officers are assigned to cach of the higher lcvels of command;
through their allocation of funds and accounting of cxpcndi-
tures, they arc able to maintain for their commanders com-
plete control over the fiscal aspects of their organizations.
Anny Air Forces Board-TIl e Army Air Forces Board is the
AAF laboratmy group for tactical research and experimenta-
tion. The board utilizes the personnel and facilities of the
AAF Tactical Center and the Proving Ground Command to
conduct tests which precede its decisions and recommenda-
tions. Direetives issued by the board foml a basis for de-
termining operational suitability of individual aircraft and
I items of equipment, and for developing improved operational
technique. The key assignments on the board- tactics, or-
ganization, equipment, aircraft, armament and ordnance, and
communications-are held by offi cers with combat experi-
ence who are speCialists in their fields.
A bomber formation bombs a small railroad bridge. south
of A cloud of B-17S and B-24S baiters an alrphne
factory deep in Germany. Several of medlUm bombers
attack a storage dump in northenl It ranee. All of these .op-
erations seem unrelated except for the common denOtnmCl-
tor that they arc air attacks on enemy targets. But why these
particular targets? How docs the AAF. happen to
particular planes, personnel and bases III these \\ <l r
areas? How was it decided what types of : nd III what
numbers should be provided for such operatIons.
TIle first of these questions is a matter of. target selec-
tion. The second is onc of deployment of avmbb1c forces.
TIle third is one of program. T he answers to all of them must
be determined in the light of an overall waf :plan for the
defeat of the enemy. This war plan must take mto account
all the forces available for usc against the Army,. N3\·Y
and Allied forces. It must be correlated With productive re-
sources, manpower, shipping facilities and other broad
in an all-out war. . ...
Combined and Chiefs of
for our war plan rests III the Commander-m-Chtcf- the 1
dent- together the. leaders of our Allies.
Their broad strategic deCISIons arc nllp1cmentcd by the Com-
bined Chiefs of Staff, the highest mil itary plannmg of
the Uni ted Na tions. The Combined Chi efs of
the top commanders of the and .,Bn.hsh
services. Its American members mcludc the I reSident s Chief
of Staff the Chief of Staff of the U. S. Army, the Command-
ing GCl;eral, AAF, and the of the U .. s.
Fleet. In itself, thi s American group eompnses the Jomt
Chiefs of Staff. whi ch is the planning body for all U. S. forces.
The Combined Chiefs of Staff normally does not name spe-
cific targets for air but does indicate the priori tic!!
of different types of strategic targets in the various theaters.
This body also makes overal1 plans which in turn determine
the conduct of tactical air operations. On the basis of such
priorities the air force commanders select individual blrgets
and execute plans for aerial missions against them.
Th. General Staff and tbe Air Staff- The ""ar Department
Gcnernl Staff is the planning agency for the U. S. Annv. It co-
ordinates planning problems relating to air, ground and sen-·
icc activities. It maintains direct contact with all the theaters
of operations, determines what units will be sent to what
theater, correlates supply and transport rcq,l1ircments with
tacticaJ plans, steers the entire Army training program to meet
anticipated war needs. TIle Air Staff of the Commanding
General, AAF, works in cJose coordi nation with both the
Combmed and Joint Chiefs of Staff and the War DelJart-
ment General Staff. The Air Staff prepares and submits to
these agencies recommendations relative to the AAF pro-
gram, the employment of airpower and the of
AAF units. It interprets the decisions of these planning bodi es
into specific courses of AAF action a.nd follows through to
see that they are successfully accomplIshed.
Nothing better illustrates the fact that this is a war of a
whole people than the teamwork between the military forces
and ci vilian agencies. The continuous, hour-to-hour inter-
dependence of the AAF with countless other organizations
almost every aspect of OUT national life. \Vithin the
Army itself, the AAF, the Army Service Forces and the Armv
GroUI},C Forces work as one team. .
T1le Army Service Forces provides our food, our cJothing
and other everyday essentials for the MI". 11,e Corps of
Engineers has built many of our airbases and has provided
tiS with trained personnel to build new oncs in combat zones.
The Ordnance Department designs and procures our
and Chemical 'Varfare Service provides incendiaries and other
chemicals, and is responsible for protective llleasures .aga.inst
gas attack. The Signal Corps and our own eOI:llllullI.C:J ttons
svstcm work lwnd in hand in developing tnstlllmg t,he
communications equipment. tralllJ11g of
personnel for AAF units has been to a huge a }omt
undertaking. The AAF and the Army Ground ,,"o,rk
elosely together in joint training activities. AAF tacttcal
regularly participate in force . AAI" Ulllt.'
and equipment arc also lI sed m the traJ1l1ng of aubornc troops:
including glider troops A
weather service for the entne Army IS b) the AAI .
Similarly, the Air Tnmsport Command for
air transportation of key personnel and supplies for
the entire Arn1\' as well as for othcr agencl,es. .
Army and Navy combine ,t!le planmng ,of pro·
duetion raw material s and faclhtIes. TIle AAF Sllpen Ises the
produet'ion of scveral types of planes .for the avy, and the
Navy reciprocates on other types. the lirst and a
half of war, the AAF Antisubmarine J?ro\"l dcd an
air patrol al?ng vital lanes, The
of informatIon, techmques and taehcs betwcen N.IV) and
AAF is illustrated in the joint staff training of Aml y and Na."y
officers at the AAF Tactical Ccnter, the de\"e1opment
ing devices, exchange of maps and charts, commumeahons
and radar developments.
Through the mechanism. of lend-lease, AAF ha,s
ti cipated in the strengthemng. of all our Allies., 111
collaboration with representatIvcs of other attOns,
AAfi' has programmed. procured and superVised .the produc-
tion of thousands of airplanes for other e?untnes, and has
provided for their shipment. has also tramed thousan,ds of
fli ers for Canada, England, and o,ther
The civil agencies, both publIc and wlth whIch the
AAF works arc legion, Government ageneles the \ Var
Production Board, the Joint Aircraft the
:rvral lpower COlllmission and other ltedern.l. agencIes.
Thc Nati onal Advisory COllllTiittec on cst,jlb.
li sll cd in 191 5, has prO\'idcd invaluable aI d III ,neronauticlI,1
de"c1opments, many of whi ch arc now standard 111 the 1\/\ 1',
The Ci\'il Aeronautics Administration and the AAF work
togdbcr in the development and utilization of civil air facili-
ties, the training of pilots, the control of air traffic and re-
lated activities.
An outstanding example of civil participation in the AAF
prog"'" is the Civil Air Patrol (CAP). This organization
consists of volunteer civilians, many of them fliers using thei r
own planes. The Civil Air Patrol has operated in close col-
Jaboration with the AAF on various types of projects since
the war began and it was made an AAF auxiliary by Executive
Order on April '9. '943. During the bitterest part of the
antisubmarine campaign, from :March 1942 to August 1943,
it prmlided an antisubmari ne air patrol which totalled more
than 14 mi1lion miles of over-water flying and spotted 173
submarines. The Civil Air Patrol provides an cxtcnsi"e air
courier service for the transport of critical supplies, parts and
mail between AAF bases as weB as for other <lgcncies. Other
important Civil Air Patrol contributions include training of
pre-induction personnel (see page 121), search missions for
lost aircraft, a southern air patrol over the :Mexican border.
Combined Operations-The ultimate flowering of team-
work is rcRected in combined military operations of ground,
sea and air forces. 111e necessity for timing, for integrated
planni:lg and for joint action in sll ch operations involves
more than mere cooperation between one service and an-
other. Combined operations, such as those carri ed on in the
offensives in the Pacific and in the conquest of North
Africa, require the application of military power in mass and
speed as one force. In North Africa, combined ground-air op-
erations werc developed to a point where the ground com-
mander and the air commander worked in the samc headquar-
ters; the ground plan and the air plan were one plan. Except
for strategic air attacks behind enemy lines, virtllal1y all the
major offensive operations of the United Nations have been
combired operations-air-ground, alT-sea, or air-sea-ground.
We total more than two and a third million individuals. \Ve
hail from every part of the country and we have been sentbto
almost every part of the globe. Soon one-half of our num er
will be on duty outside our borders,
Nine out of every ten of us werc gathered into the
in the last four years- siuce June of 1940 when our expan-
. began Ycstcrch)' we were the clerks, salesmen,
slon program . < • T d ' e tl e
students and farm h ands of the nabon .. 0 ay we.u 1 f
pilots, gunners, radio operators and mlIl1ten:.mce men 0
the AAF. .. t II t tl c
\ \forking alongside us and contnblltmg no a) y . ? le a -
complishmcnt of our .arc some 500:?OO cl.v1han elll-
loyccs at AAF stations, rangmg ll1lskllled laborers
highly speciali zed technicians. Ad,chtlOnal thous:.
ds serve m
auxiliary capacities-including natlves of the arctic, desert <lnd
h as bcen a twofold problem of expansion; first ,. that of
buildi ng an imll1ensc organi 7 ..ation fr.om scratch; secolld,. tl.wt
of investing til ,lt untraill ed body With hundreds of sep.u,ltc
skills. TI, e possessors of these skill s arc not only the fighting
men of the AAF, but also the far larger number requi red to
maintain, supply and support the figllting men.
Today OUf problem of expansion is licked. Our strength is
at its intended peak. Our acqui sition of personnel is now based
on rCFiacenl cnt.
. The men who pa\'cd the way for our expansion grew up
with the AAF and with the predecessor air arms from which
the AAF sprang. Despite dwindling appropriations and conse-
quent lack of personnel and equipment, these pioneers carried
on the essential plan'ning and experimenting.
Tociay the pioneers and the newcomers merge to fornl the
air force in the world.
Requirements- Personnel procurement is a continuous proc-
ess, subject to constant modification in its details. For ex-
ampl e, a decision, moti vated by combat experience, to add one
gunner to the crew of each heavy bomber might cause a revi-
sion i:l the number of men to be taken into the AAF, thc
nurnb::: r of gunners to be seleetcd from tha t intake, the nUI11 -
bcr and size of gunnery schools to be establi shed and the in-
tensity of the training period for gunners already in school s.
This hypothetical case concerns tll C addition of just one
man to a crew. Procurement changes arising from a more COI11-
plieated probl em such as tll e adoption of an enti rely new air-
pJan.e are Jl?turalIy greater. Such changes are constantly oe-
Once. all owance has been made for such changes, and once
the dcsITed strength has been reachcd, the problem becomes
one of keeping strength at the desired level. Here several fac-
tors enter:
AU'l'IIORIZED STRENGTII- This is the minimum plus the
reSCTves of manpower reqUired for superiority over the
"0 I A:1I 0N-1l1C rigors of aerial combat makc it necessary t o
relieve personne1 for rest aft er a period of service; this re-
qui -cs aV;:lilable reserve personne1.
REPLACEMENT- Replacements must be made for those unablc
to continue: the casualties. Such replacement varies COII -
stantly with the fortunes of war.
All these factors arc afleeted by the course of battle. Mod-
em aerial warfare knows no static plan.
Growth- In 1938 tll cre were approximately 1300 offi cers
and 1 8 , 000 men, wi th an addi tional 2 8 0 0 officers and 4 00
Jll en ill the Reserve Corps, to bcgi n the job of expanding thc
AAF to its present strength.
Various metlJ ods wcre used to attain tllis strength . Officers
and enlisted mcn in the Reservc Corps were call ed into serv-
icc; officers and men in other components of the Regul ar
Army were permitted to apply for t ransfer into the AAF; 4 00C
men in the National Guard were taken inj recruiting cam-
p;ligns utilizing such facili ties as radio, pamphlets, posters and
motor trailers werc used from time to time to obtain more
mechanics, radio operators or a\' iation . cadets, depending on
the urgent nceds of the moment.
New offi cers were obtained by 2 methods: civil ians with ex.-
pcrience valuable to the technical needs of the AAF wcrc com-
missioned by a special procurement organi zati on; potential of-
ficer material among enli sted men was selected and sent to the
Offi cer Candidate School at Beach, Fla. , and graduates
were granted commissions. ...
1940 1940 1941 1942 1943
AI:hough the Selective Service program supplied quantities
of personnel to tJle AAF, our growing and specialized needs
continuously out-distanced the supply_ ln the fall of 1942, a
SPCCi,ll recruiting campaign was undertaken to obtain sorely
needed mechanics, armorers, radio technicians and other spe-
cialists. This campaign alone resulted in 1 28,000 enlistments.
During this period, from September to December 1942, over
500,000 men were absorbed by the AAF.
Present Procurement-Selective Service is the basic procure-
ment source for male military personnel. Those entering mili-
tary pass through its induction centers, and are as-
signe:l to one of the 3 major forces of the Army in prorated
vo]une dependent on needs and available supply.
not yet of Army age may prepare tllcmselves for fu·
ture aviation training tluough the Civil Air Patrol training
program. The original CAP enrollment compri sed 40,000 ca-
dets. Present plans call for enrollment of 250,000 by the end
of 1944- High school students from the ages of 15 to 18 will
be enrolled with the cooperation of civic organizations
throughout the country. ll1is training is planned on a 3-year
period; future aviation cadets will have the most thorough
prcp<iration for flying studies ever furni shed to citizens of tllis
coun:ry. CAP, Chambers of Commerce Rotary Kiwanis , , ,
Elks, Lions and other civic organizations can furnish infomla-
tion on this program. ...
The AAF's principal source of fl yi ng officers and ground
officer specialists has been the Aviation Cadet Recruiting
This suspended in March 1944, was
open to cl':Jhans and enlIsted men able to satisfy certain en-
trance reqUirements. Successful completion of Aviation Cadct
Training qualified men to be commi ssioned 2nd lieutenants or
appointed flight officers page 52) .. 11,e program com-
prised aircrew trainees-pilots, .and
and men trained in armament, commulllcabons, engmeenng,
meteorology and photography. .
At present, entrance to the Aviation Cadet Program IS con-
fined to certain AAF officers and enlisted men. However, the
requirements of war may at any time prompt the re·establish·
ment of aviation cadet recruiting.
For the most up·to·date information, civilians may consult
their nearest U. S. Recruiting and Induction Center; an Avi-
ation Cadet Examining Board; a Civil Air Patrol .unit head·
quarters, or the adjutant of any Army post.
AAF Enlisted Personnel-The only enli sted personnel who
may apply for aircrew training are enli sted men of the AAF
who are combat crew members returned from overseas thea·
tcrs after completion of a prescrihed number of mis-
sions or in accordance with 'Var Department regulatIOns.
Application for those eligible may be made through the or-
gclllization commander or at a Redistribution Station upon
return to the U. S. An enlisted man found qualified and as-
signed to aircrew training (bombardier, pilot or navigator )
mav elect to train as an aviation student instead of accepting
apljointment as an aviation cadet. He then retains all the pay
and al10wances of his enli sted grade during his training period.
OfJieers-A very limited number of AAF officers in the grade
of 2nd and 1St lieutenants are being qualified for aircrew
t raining. These men are called student offi cers.
Basic Physical Requirements
VISION-Minimum 2 0120 each eye without glasses; mllst ha\'c
pcrfect COIOT vision.
TI::ETH-No minimum, jf free from gross dental infections and •
cOTTec tible bv full OT paTtial dentures.
Il EARINC-M 2 0120 each ear (whispeTed ,'oice).
llE1CHT- Mininllllll 60" maxi mum 76" (pilots minimum 64").
WEICHT-Miuimum 105 Ibs. maximum 200 Ibs. (pilots milli·
mum 114 lbs.)-based on relation to height and age.
Educational Requirements- Formal schooling is not re·
quired; applicants are given a qualifying examination of short·
answer, multiple·choice type.
'Tlle foHowing subjects have -been found extremcly helpful
for young men of school age in preparation for fl yi ng service
with the AAF:
PILOT-ScieIiCC (gases. he.'lt, gravity, stress, strain, energy, forces);
matllC'llatics ( fund:nncnt;11 processes, fomlulas and equations ) ;
shop, bench mctal work, mechanical drawing, blueprint
reading and physic-.Il training.
BOM8ARDIER-i'. fa thematics tll rougll trigonomctry; science (propcrties
of nlaterials, heat, gascs. forces, frictions, air currcnts); mcellani-
eal drawing, map and blucprint reading and physical tra ining.
NAVIGATOR-Mathematics as above; science (astronomy, weather cle·
ments, temperature, variation, air masses and currents, electricity);
maps, charts and radio; geography, blucprint reading, mcchanic:tl
drawing and physical training.
. Tests-Applicants arc givcn a series of ps),chomcter and
i placement tests at the Basic Training Center in order to check
mental and muscular coordination. Scores made on thesc
tests detennine the particular phase of fl ying-pilot, bom-
bardier or navigator- in which applicants can be best and
I most qcickly trained. Failing to meet the minimum standards
I for any of these, applicants arc eligible to apply for aerial
gunnery training.
Classification-From Jan. 1, 1942, to June 30, 1943, the
period of grea test growth, eXjJanded fron: 354,161 to
1,197, 1l4----o
520%. Each Illdlvldua had to be mterviewed
classified and assigned- l ,842,953 in 18 months. The
curement program poured into uniforms a varied mass of
skills, backgrounds and mental abilities, and varying dcgrccs
of cduc<ltion and training.
AAF a high level of aptitudes or
abIlities (see .Mllitary OccUpatiol1al Specialties, page 45 ) .
claSSification procedures were not adequate to obtain
slIItable personnel. New methods had to be devised.
Reception centers arc the first step in Army and AAft c1nssi-
fi cation for the enli sted man. Here the newcomer is issued his
first eCluipment and the Army obtains the first indication of
hi s ability. After an introductory orientation lecture, he takes
the most important of the various tests-the Army General
Classification Test, known as GCT. Other tests given at the
reception centers inc1ude: Oral Trades Test; General Me-
chanical Aptitude Test; Radio Operator Aptitude Test.
ll1ese tesfs are not intended to furni sh proof of exact or de-
tailed knowledge but to serve as an indication of aptitude for
training in the technical categories involved.
From the reception centers the AAF receives its quota of
enli sted personnel. Then addi tional tests are given to select
men for the various techni cal training schools. Tests given at
AAF Basic Training Centers are: Weather Aptitude Trade
Test; Radio Operator Trade Test; Cryptography Test; Tut
and Bolt Manual Dexteri ty Test; U-Bolt Assembly Test; Tech-
nical Trade Test.
AAF classification does not stop here. With each new job at
each new station, individual classification is rechecked in the
light of the soldier's current activities as compared to hi s
tentialities. Officers follow the same general procedure.
Typical AAF Jobs- Listed below are more than 2 0 fi elds
of skill required by the AAF. Pilot, bombardier and navigator
are officer members of the aircrew. Unl ess indicated, all other
classifications in this section are held by enlisted men. All du-
ties are described in broad tenns, with only major functions
li sted.
controls of plane and commands aircraft; in addi-
tion, fighter pilot fires guns, navigates, communicates with radio.
sometimes directs and releases bom bs.
lIOMBARDIER-Directs fl ight of bomber when approaching and 01'er
target; operates bombsight; releases bombs; gunner during attack.
NAVIGATOR- Plots course of plane to and from t he objective; fur·
nishes pilot with flight directions; keeps Bight log bookj gunner
during attack.
.AERIAL ENGINEER- Flies with multi.engine bomber and t ransport ;
makes repairs and adjustments in flight; substitutes tor or helps
copilot opcmte Raps, landing gear, ctc.; gunner during Mlacl::.
RAOIO oPuAToa-Opcratcs plane radio, direction finder, radio com-
pass, etc.; rcl.1YS data by radio to personnel au ground; rcccil' Cs
wcatllcr and otller information; gunner during attack.
AU!.\l guns; informs pilot of approaclling enemy
pia Irs; services guns and turrets in flight.
OFFIcER-Superviscs maintenance, loading and repair
of armament equipment; responsible for knowledge of l;ltcst
armament devices and techniques.
OFf:ICER-Supcrviscs maintenance, operation and
repror of radar, radIO, telegraplJ, teletype and directional equip-
mCJlt including radio compasses.
engineering ground
duties ot crew chiefs, 3eIJal engmecrs, inspectors .1nd mechanics.
wcatller conditions; forecasts COI/ .
ellhons along flIght routes; keeps navioator informcd· supcH'iscs
" 'cather tecImicians. /) ,
1·1I0TOGRAPHY. OFFICF.R-Dirccts operations of mobile and fixcd
photographIC 1.1boratories supen,jscs aerial pho.
tographers .and camcra rcpamnen; IS responsible for accurate
pholograpluc mapping of strategic arcas.
adjusts and repairs acrial machiuc guns, can.
nons, synchro.lIlzcrs. gun c.1mcms, bomb racks aud other anna-
METAL .WORKER-Rcpairs airbase cquipment including tools; rcmakes
ccrtam brokcll and worn parts.
\\,EI.DER-l"USCS metal parts by means of electric weIcliug apparatus
or o.tyacclylcnc tordl.
AIRI'LA.'lE MJ'.CHA:"IC AND REPAIRMAN-Chccks tIle coudition of air-
planes and eu!;mesj m:lkcs repairs, rcplacements and adjustments;
cJcctncal and control systems, undercarrj;lge, bmkcs cn.
gUlcs and propellers. '
WIRE 1ECIINICIAN-[llstalls, inspects, scrviccs and rcpairs tclephone
communicMions systcms; scts up switcllbo;mls;
mamtams Illlcs O\'cr largc arcas.
S\'NTI.IETIC 'I:RA INI NC DEVICE INSTRUCTOR- Teaches instrumcllt Hying
Ilr mg) to pilot students t11Tough tlle lise of thc Link
Trainer; mstructs 011 oVlcr syntll ctic training deviccs.
P.\RACHUTE and patcll cs by lland ;lIId mach inc dam-
aged paraclwtc canoplcs; rcplaces defective shrouds; rcpairs har.
IICSSCS; repacks par:lclJutcs.
PIIOTOCRAPHIC TECHNICIAN-Develops films and prints pictures; as-
sembles mosaic maps; takes motion and still photographs in RigM
or on ground.
all transmitter and receiver equipment; repairs detective radios
and parts; tests circuits and tubes.
WEATHER OBSERVER AND FORECASTER-Analyzes weather conditions;
observes illstruments recording wind velocities, changes in tem-
perature, humidity, barometric pressure, amount of rainfall aud
othcr conditions; prepares weather maps and reports.
SU PPLY CLERK-Receives, stores and issues equipment, material, mer-
cll andise and tools; checks incoming orders; counts, grades and
weighs articles; takes periodic inventories; prepares reports,
AI)'I1Nl STRATlVE CLERK- Prepares reports; tabulates and posts data
in record books and on bulletin boards; operates office machines;
may supervise l)eadquarters clerks.
Distinctive Pat ches for Specialties-Enlisted technical spe-
cialists of the AAF in job categories of annament, communi-
cations, engineering, photography and weather arc authorized
to wear the patches shown below. Patches are orange on blue
background and worn with lowest point 4 inches above edge
of right sleeve (left breast pocket on fati gue uniform) .
qualifying period of time in hi s assigned duti es, every soldier
is classified according to his Military Occupational Specialty
(MOS ) . Each specialty has a number which becomes a part
of the soldier's record. Progressively, as more specialized tasks
are performed, his record is supplemented by additional MOS
numbers to show a complete picture of the soldier's experi-
ence. The AAF utilizes approximately 500 military occupa-
tional specialties, about evenly divided between offi cers and
enlisted men. The fo11 owing summary indica tes the diverSity
of technicians required to accompli sh the AAF mi ssion.
• • PERSONNEL-l9 types of
p!'ots from glidcr to 4.cn.
glllC, 7 types of bomh:lCCliers
and navigators; airbase Com-
1I13mtcnancc ellgillcers, ill'
Speclors alld aeronautical en.

mccbamcal, surveying COli-
camouflagc' aud
mappmg engincers.
eludes . torpedo, hombsigltt
alld mmc specialists' bomb
disposal and oHlcr drdnallcc
cOMMUS'ICATlON5-includes sig-
nal, messagc centcr, crvptallil.
l.\'.tic ami pigeon officers; ra.
dlO, telephone, telephoto,
radar and telegraph enginccrs.
OJ'ERATioN,s-personal equip.
ment. Rlgllt control, prioritics
and traffic, and weight and
balance officers.
• . \DAR-.. irborne alld ground of-
PIiOTOCIlAPIIIC-i.lcllldes grotlJld
pllOtogmphers, mo-
tI?'! pJcture producers, tecl!-
DJCI:ms, laboratory supervisors.
INI'P.LI.!CENCE-hi<;torical, pllblic
and prisoner of lVar
officers; pIioto
gists, occauograpltcrs.
IJcatJons and inspcctioll offi-
ccrs, non-tactical utlit COil/-
I' persolluel
and CJVJ/J;lll personnel officcrs
classification and assigumcllt
officers; psychologists.
CIJ .\f'L.\INS
SERVICES-iucltldcs phvs.
Ical fitncss and orientation
.\IEJ)lC.U-S3 types including Sur.
nurscs, l'cteriuarians,
cngineers, dieti.
cmus, l?hysical tllcrapy "iels
and vaned mcdical specialists.
SUI'I'LY-quartclillaster, arlllY c\".
change. sahtage, laundry, tech-
nical, freight , pctrolcum. pro.
CIitClOent and rencgotiation
as master, mare iwd
ellgl1leer; motor and -",'/ t
." r,lllS-
portation officers.
U:C.AL-iudge advocates; lcgal as.
slstance :Iud claims officers.
CIJEMICAL-alt iatioll Cllcllli cal
lV:Jrfare spccia/ists.
{'k?VOST MARSIJAL-includes lIlil-
Itary police aud prisou officers.

PILOTs-liaison and service pilots.
AIRcREw-gunners, photogra .
radio operators, aerial
ADMINISTRATIvE-financial, typ-
ing and mail clerks; interpre-
ters, translators and investi-
gators; business machine op-
erators; supply technicians in
communications, ordnance,
engineer and qua.rtermaster
AIRCRAFT WARNINc-control1crs,
aircraft observers, information
center operators.
ANTIAIRCRAFT-includes gunners,
repairmen, beightfindcrs, lis-
teners, searchlight men.
power turret, bombsight, mu-
nitions and armament techni·
BANDSMAN-12 types classified by
CHEMICAL-toxic gas handlers,
decontaminating equipment
code, cryptographic, pigeon,
signal and facsimile techni-
cians; radar mechanics and ra-
dar repairmc;n; radar operators,
radio operators; telephone tech·
nicians and telegraph techni-
DRAF'TsMEN-draftslncfl and pho-
togra til Jll C t rists,
military police at1detic
instructors, technical instruc·
tors, airplaue handlers,
includes geodetic computers,
surveyors, laundry technici:lns;
construction men including
bricklayers, camouBeurs, rig-
gers, carpenters.
MAINTENANCE-includes super-
cllargel, power plaut, and fab-
ric and dope specialists; elec·
trical instrument, automatic
pilot and fire control special.
ists; gyro, optical, hydraulic
and mechanical instrument
technicians; machinists; para-
chute, and propeller special-
ists; sheet metal workers, weld-
ers, woodworkers.
MEDICAL-laboratory, supply, op-
tical and dental technicians;
pharmacy and veterinary spe-
}.tARINE-includes able seamcn,
mates, oilers, engineers, etc,
PHOTOGRAPHiC-includes camera
and motion picture techni·
cians, photograpll ers and pro-
jectionists, laboratory assistants.
lithographic and printing spe·
cia lists. •
shoe repair, leather and can-
vas lVorkers; painters; refrig-
eration mechanics; demolition
specialists; water supply tech·
TRAINER EQUIPMJ::N I'-n:lvigation
tr:liners; instrumcnt Bying
trainers; altitude chamber alld
Be,'(ible gunnery speci:llists,
TRANSI' O RT ATION-a 1I t 0 11101 i ve
operators aud re-
p:urmcn, diesel meclmnics,
motor ,mel tractor specialists.
WEATHER-forecasters. observers;
cqlllpl11Cnt, radio·sonde men.
trainers, tire (ebuilders, cuter·
tainmcnt directors, physics

-- AERONAUTICAL RATINGS-In order to be rated as anv 01
tJle various types of Bying personnel , officers, warrant
flight officers and enlisted men on duty with the AAF must
meet certain qualifications.
PI LOT-A rating of pilot in the AAF may be obtained:
* By success ful completion of a prescrihed course of instruction
ftt heavier-thrln-air pilots at an AAF advanced pilot school. This
method is the onc from which the bulk of our pilot personnel
is ohtained.
* U')on the recommendation of a board of officers on the basis of
meeting one of the following requirements :
(1) Pre"iolls aeronautic.11 ra ti ngs held or pre"iolls acronautical in-
shuction passed within a specified past period; certain rec}uire-
ments of fI ying time; completion of a Right test . .
(2 ) A rating as service pilot currently hdd; ecrtain requirements
of Hying time; determination by the hoard of qualifications and
radincss for assignment to the comb<lt duties appropriate for a
pi:ot who has graduated from an AAF <ldva nced fI ying schooL
(3 ) Graduation from a course of instruction for hC;I\-icr-than-air
pilots in :mned forces of friendl y forcigh nations or the accumu-
L'ltion of certain required fl ying time with the armed forces of
hiendly foreign nations.
lENlOft PILoT-Reqllires not less than 5 years' service as rated pilot
wi th aviation componcnts of the militarv or naval services and
not bs than 1500 hours' logged time acCording to \Var Depart-
ment records.
COMMAND PILOT-Obtain;lble by any ra ted pilot having certai n com-
the following: 10, 15 or 20 years' acti,c duty or serv-
Ice Wlth air components of the military or n;I\'al sen 'ices, and
2000 or 3000 hours or more logged time according to \Var De-
partment records. Credited at 100% is time fl own in heavier-than-
air military aircraft as pilot. copilot, or whcn not at the controls
hilt octing in c.1J>:1city of command pilot in unit opcr;ltions of 2
or more aircraft , All other fi yi ng time in milit:1ry he:tvier-than-air
aircraft is cred ited at 50%, Lighter-than.ai r pilot timc is creditcd
at 25 %, Flying timc in non-military aircraft of 400 or more horse-
power is credited at 100%. . ,. I
SERVICE PILOT- Obtainable by lOdl\'lduals between 18 and 4, \\,ho
have passed physical qualifi cations and ,who , possess. outstandmg
qualifications for the performance of service pilot duties as
in AAF Reg. 35-23. Completion of a flight test profesSional
examination. certain fl yi ng time. and a recommendation hy a board
of officers is required. , '
SENIOR SERVICE Pll.oT- Obtainable by a rated servlCC pil ot who has
1500 hours' logged time according to 'Var records,
and has had 5 years' e:-''Pcricnce as a licensed pilot With the C.
L IAISON PILOT-Granted onl y to officers, warrant
men assigned to organic air observat ion of Fld d Laal;
son pilot ratings formerly granted to enlisted men III the AAI
have been discontinued.
GLIDER PILOT- Requires successful completion of a prcsc:ribed
vanced course of glider pilot at .an AAF spcclal ,serVIce
schooL Individuals may be rated glider pilot who hold ,rati ngs .as
command pilot, senior pilot, pilot, service pilot or sCOIor serncc
pilot and who have fl own as pilot of tactical type gliders 3 hours
or more and have made at least 10 landings, passed a flight test,
and ale recommended by an examining board.
AI. CRAY':' oBsEIIVER-Obtainable by individuals who hold rati ngs as
command pilot, senior pilot, pilot, senior balloon pilot or balloon
pilot-provided they have qualified as expert aerial gunner or
aerial sharpshooter . have been certified by their commanding offi-
cers as competent to carry out the fun ctions of an aircraft ob-
server. and satisfy onc of the fonowing additional requirements:
(I ) Have served as a regularly assigned member of a combat crcw
in observation and reconnaissance aviation units of the AAF;
completion of a course in aerial navigation, including celestial;
establishment of quali6cation as bombardier 1st class, 2nd class,
or 3rd class.
(2 ) Have served as a regularl y assigned member of a combat crew
in iI balloon squadron, and are certified by their commanding
ofOCers as competent to carry out the functions of an aircraft
(3 ) Have graduated from the AAF tactical school and have 6
service as a rated pilot in the AAF.


AIRCRAFT OBSERVER (bombardier, navigator, radio obscrver nigllt
fighter, radio observer Re M, Right engincer )-Cranted upon
successful complction of the prescribed course of instruction for
SUch. ratings at an authorized AAF special service school. Rating
as aIrcraft observer (bomb:lrdicr, navigator and radio obscn'cr
night fightcr) is also granted to individuals who havc demon-
strated in a theater of operations their ability to satisfactorily per-
form the duties of bombardicr, navigator or radio obscn'cr night
fighter, are certified by their commanding officers as competent
' to carry out the functions proper to such ratings, and have Aown
50 ,hours, performing combat missions as bombardier, navigator or
radIO observer night fi ghter.
SENIOR AIRCRAFT OBSERVER-Obtainable by rated aircraft observcrs
who have not less than 5 years' service as ratcd aircraft observcr
with ai r componcnts of the military service and have flown as
rated aircraft obscrver 500 hours or morc.
TECHNICAL OBSERVER-Obtainable by commissioned officcrs who hold
ratings as cO,mmand pilot. pilot, senior balloon pilot
or balloon pilot, whose prmclpal duty should be that of a technical


observer and whose experience with the AAF makes them espe-
cially qualified to perform technical duty incident to the opera tion
of aircraft in Hi ght . Requirements include certification by t he com-
maDding officer of the individual concerned that the principal
duty of the individual should be that of technical that
he is qualified by both experience and ability to perform sl1ch duty,
wlut specific duties arc to be performed as technical obscn"cr,
and a summary of the applicant's c).:perience pertinent thereto.
SENJOI BALLOON PILOT-Obtainable by ho1ders of balloon pilot rating
who have 10 years' service with air components of the mil itary
service and who have piloted military airships or military motorized
balloons for 100 hours.
BALLOON PILOT-Crantcd only to individuals who complete a pre-
scri bed balloon pilot course. No such course is bcing conducted
at the present time.
(AAF Regulation 50-7 describes in detail aeronautical ratings.)
Fligbt Oflicers-On July 8, '942, the grade of fli ght offi ccr
was established. Upon graduation, aviation ( fl ying training)
cadets who have not qualified for commi ssions as 2nd lieuten-
ants may be appointed flight officcrs with a status equi,·alent to
that (If warrant officer, junior grade. Promoti on from fl ight of-
ficer to 2nd lieutenant is permitted.
Wearing of Aerial Gunner and Aircrew Member Badges
AERIAL CUNNER- Upon authorization by his commanding officer, a
reglilarly assigned aerial gunner member of an ai rcrew, who 113S
demonstrated his profi ciency as such, may wear the badge during
such time as he is assigned to such duties. Graduates of an AAF
flexible gunnery school, or of an AAF instructors' school (flexibl e
gU':1nery L may wear the badge during such time as they afC
as a regular gunner member of an air crew, are awaiting
assi€nment to such duties, Of are perfonning duties of an instruc-
tor :n flexible gunnery.
AIRCREW MEMBER- Upon authori zation by his commanding offi cer,
a regularly assigned member of an aircfew who has demonstrated
bis proficiency as such, may wear the badge during suell t ime as
he i5 assigned to such duties. Individuals authori zed to wem spe.
cific badges may cont inue to wear such badges when no longer
to assigned if they meet one of the following requirements:
( 1) 150 hours' fl ying duty as regularly assigned aerial gunner or
aircrew member.
( 2) Participation as aeri.al gunner or aircrcw
member in 10 combat miSSions durmg which exposure to enemy
6re was probable and expected.
(3) Physically incapacitated through action or while dis·
charging duties as member of an Slrcrew.
Army Air Forces Technician Badl;e-AAF enlisted techni-
cians and mechanics have been authOrIzed to wear a distinctive
silver badge indicating the skills !n which they are quali fied.
Qualifications: at least 6 months serVICe With the AAF and
ci"ther graduation from an course in technical
training or evidence of 111 one or more of . the fol-
lowing 24 specialties for whIch the badge has been deSIgnated:
Airplane annorer; airplane electrical, hy?raulic a?d
instrument specialist; airplane mechamc, machm-
ist, metal worker and welder; airplane power plant
specialist; airplane propeller AC.S
specialist ; bombsight mechamc, Lmk T ramer m-
structor, parachute rigger, photographer, photo·
graphic laborat ory technician, t urre.t and
gunsight specialist, radio V-I mechamc, radiO V·I
observer, radio mechanic. radio operator, teletype·
wri ter mechanic, weather forecaster, observer.
OFFICERs-Commissioned, warrant and Right. The f?llowing chart
showing rank identifying insignia (worn on garnson caps and
outer clothing), and rates of pay and does n?t 1T:clude
pay increases based on length of service, etc. Information 111 the
chart on the next page is base pay only.
ENLISTED MEN-Grades arc known by both name and number, i.e.
enlisted man, 7th grade, is a private; 6th grade, a private 1St class.
The chart on page 55 shows grades, identifying chevrons (worn on
sleeves of outer clothing) and pay scale of enlisted men.
AVIATION CADETs-Base pay $75 per month and a subsistence allow·
ance of $1 per day. (As with officers, aviation cadets, after gradu-
ation, arc granted $250 clothing allow;mce.)
Rank Insignia Yearly Pay Rent Allowance (Mo.)
with d!!ndlnls
$120 $105
Lt General

8,000 120 105
Maj. General

8,000 120 105
Brig. General

6,000 120 105
4,000 120 105
Lt. ColQnel • (SiIYlr)
3,500 120 105
Major $ (Gold)
3,000 105 90
Captain § 2,400 90 75
1 st Lielltenant
c:::J (Sil ver)
2,000 75 60
2nd Lieutenant = (Gold)
1,800 60 45
Warrallt Officer (chieO = ("OWl) 2,100 75 60
Warrant Officer U.g,l
1,800 60 45
Right Ifficer
1,800 60 45
In the above, all officers with dependents receive $42 per month
(30 day period) subsistence allowance; single officers, $21 . (Ex-
ceptKm: Lt. Col. and Maj., married, receive $63. )
PLYING PAy-Flying officers and enlisted men receive an increase
of 50% of their base pay when by orders of competent authority
they afC required to participate regularly and frequently in aeri.11
flights. Non-flying officers receive flying pay at the rate of $60 per
month when they participate in regular and frequent aerial flight s
ordered by competent authority.
Rank Sleeve Insignia Monthly Base Pay
Private (7th grade) no chevrons $50
Private first class (6th grade)
Corporal (5th grade)

Sergeant (4th grade)

Staff Sergeant (3rd grade)

Technical Sergeant (2nd grade)

Sergeant, (1st grade)
First Sergeant

Pay scale noted above shows. base pay amounts. This is the lowest
amount paid to each grade. To this may be added other amounts
for Bying pay, longevity, etc.; descriptions of which follow.
LONGEVITy-Every enlisted man receives an increase of 5 % of his
base pay for each 3 years of service up to 30 years.
FOREIGN SERVICE-The base pay of officers is increased by 10% (en-
listed men 20%) for any while on sea duty or duty in
any place beyond the continental limits of the U. S. or in Alaska.
ALLOWANCE FOR DEl' ENDENTS (Class F Allotment )-Under the
Oct . 26. 1943 amendment to the Servicemen's Dependent AI·
lowance Act of 1942, dependents of enlisted men receive increased
benefits. Several classes of benefits are allowed-for wife and chil·
dren, for parents, brothers and sisters whose chief support is the
serviceman, and for combinations of these famil y relationships.
Men with dependents al10w the government to deduct $22 per
month from pay, the remainder of the amount received by the
famil y is contributed by the government. A wi fe will receive
$50 per month; with one child, $80, and $20 for each additional
child. A mother as a dependent will receive $37, i.n case of total
dependency, $50.

Brief Biographies of Some AAF Men wilh Key Assignmenls·

ARNOLD, General Henry H.
First airman to achieve the rank of General and one _of the nation's
first miitary piloh, Gen. Arnold serves on the Combined Chiefs of Staff
and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Gen. Arnold was born in Gladwyne. Pa., June 25, 1886. He grad·
uated from the U. S. Military Academy and was commissioned 2nd Lt.
Inf. June 1-4, 1907; served in -the Philippines; was detailed to the
Signal Corps in April, 1911. After completing flying instruction at
Dayton, Ohio, in June, 1911. Gen. Arnold beceme an instructor at the
Signal Corps Aviation School; he was promoted to 1st Lt. in April,
1913. In February, 1917, after serving in the Philippines and California,
he we"t to the Panama Canal Zone to organize and command the
aviation service there. He was promoted to Capt. in May, 1916; to
Maj. (temp.) .in June, and to Cor. (temp. ) in August, 1917.
With U. S. entry into the World War, Gen. Arnold was placed in
charge of the Information Service, Aviation Division, Signal Corps;
later appointed Executive Officer; then, Assistant Director, Office of
Militar) Aeronautics. In 1925 he became Chief, Information Division.
Office Chief of Air Corps. He commanded Air Corps troops at Ft.
Riley, 1926 to 1928, graduated from the Command and General Staff
School in June, 1929. and until 1936 held command posts at Fairfield,
Ohio, and at March Field. Calif. · Gen. Arnold received the 1934
Maday Trophy award in recognition ' of his leadership of the U. S.
Army Alaskan flight of that year. He was promoted to Brig. Gen.
(temp.) in February. 1935.
Service as Assistant Chief of the Air Corps was followed by ap-
pointment as Chief of the Air Corps, Sept. 29, 1938. He was desig-
nated Acting Deputy Chief of Staff for Air in October, 1940, and ap-
pointed Chief of the AAF in June, 1941. He became a permanent
Brig. G.n. in December, 1940; permanent Mai. Gen., February, 194';
Lt. Gen. (temp.) , December, 1941. When the War Department was
reorganized March 9, 1942, Gen. Arnold became Commanding Gen-
eral of the AAF; in March, 1943, he was promoted to General (temp.).
Ratings: Command Pilot, Aircraft Observer, Technical Observer. Dec-
orations: DFC, DSM, Air Medal.
• Ranl.s and assignments as of May 1, 1944. Space limifations do nof
permit a complete listing of Army Air Forces' /Nders.
LOVETT, Hon. Robert A.
Born Huntsville, Ter., Sept. 14, 1895. Graduated
Yale Uni .... , 1918. Post·graduate courses Har-
vard Law School 11919-19201 and Harvard Grad.
uate Sch. of Busines5 Administration. 1920- 1921.
Naval pilot, ensig n in 1917; served in France and
awarded French wings. Established U. S. Naval
Air Service Transition Flying School ume year.
Promoted to Lt. Commander and received Navy
Cron in 1918. Between 1921 ud 1940 engaged
in interesh served as di,rector !rustee of
cus ,orporations. He resigned from bUSiness acti Vi t ies and obtained
leo .... of absence from other interesls in 1940 to acce pt appointment as
Special Assistant to the Secretary of War; was appointed Assistant
Secrttary of War for Air in April 1941.
McNARNEY, Lt. Gen. Jo,eph T.
Born Emporium. Pa. , Aug. 28. 1893. Graduated
USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt . Inf. June 12.
1915. Completed flying training and recei ... ed
rating of Jr. Military Avi ator in April 1917.
Served in France during World War I. Grad-
uated Army War College 1930. Served in War
Plans Di ... ision. General Staff, 1939, and ap-
pointed member of Joi nt Army and Navy Plan-
fling Committee. Member of Special Observers
GrClup, Lo ndon. 1941. Member of Roberts Commission 1941 -42. Desig-
nated Dep. Chief of Staff, U. S. Army, March 1942. Roltings: Command
Pilot. Technical Obser .... r. Aircraft Observer.
GILES, Lt. Gen. Barney McK.
Born Mineola, T til., Sept. 13, 1892. Attended
East Texas College and Univ. of Texas. Appointed
flying cadet and commiuioned 2nd Lt. Aviation
Section of Signal Corps Reserve April 9, 1918.
Rece i ... ed Reg. Army commission July I. 1920 •.
Served in France and in Coblenl, Germany. Dur-
ing 1918-19. Organind and commanded 4th
Air Ser ... ice Area Command and designated Co m.
manding General of 4th Bomber Command
19.a. Made Commanding General 4th Air Force. San Francisco. Calif .•
Sept. 1942. In March' 1943 became Au·t. to Chief of Air Staff and in
Jul., 1943 nemed Chief of Air Staff. Rat ings: Command Pilot, Tech-
nical Observer. Aircraft Observer. Decordtions : DFC. Air Medal.
EMMONS, Lt. Gen. Oelo, C.
Bor n Huntington, W. Va., Jan. 17, 1888. Grad·
uated USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. June
II. 1909. Executi .... officer for Au't. Secretary
of War for Air 1928-31. Commanding General.
G HQ Air Force March 1939. Assigned Chief
of Air Force Combat Command June 1941 and
designated Commanding General, Hawaiian Dept.
De c. 1941. Named Commanding General West-
ern Defense Command Sept. 1943. Ratings:
Command Pilot. Aircraft Observer. Decordtions: DFC, DSM, Air Medal.
YOUNT, Lt. Gen. Barton K.
Born Troy, Ohio, Jan. 18. 1884. Attended Ohio
State Uni.... Graduated USMA, commiuioned
2nd Lt. Inf. June 14, 1907. Member Board of
Officen for reorganiIation of Air Ser ... ice 1918·
19. Ass' t . Military Attache for Aviation, Paris
1925-29; served as Techni cal Expert at Geneva
Disarmament Conference. G raduated Army War
College 1936. Commander Air Corps Tra ining
Center. Randolph Field, Tex., 1938. Appoi nted
Au' t . to Chief of Air Corps July 1938. Placed in charge of all train·
ing activities of the Air Corps l'n9. Commanded Panama Canal De pt.
Air Force Oct. 1940; Southeast Air District Dec. 1940. Commanding
General of AAF Flying Training Command March 1942. In July 1943
became Commanding Ge neral , AAF Training Command . Ratings:
Command Pilot, Technical Observer, Aircraft Observe r.
HUNTER, Maj. Gen. Frank 0'0.
1st AI R FORCE .
Born Savannah. Ga .• Dec. 8, 18904. Enlided as
fl ying cad et , and co mmissioned 1st Lt. Aviation
Section , Signal Corps Reserve , Sept. 12, 1917.
Reg. Army commission as 1st Lt . Air Service July
" 1920. Shot down 9 planes in World War I.
Military Observe r in London 1940. In May 1942
became Commanding G ene ra l of the 8th Air
Force Fighter Co mmand . Returne d t o U S in
Sept. 1943 and de signa t ed C ommanding General
1st Air Force. Ratings: C ommand Pilot. Aircraft Observer, Technica l
Observer. Decorations : DSC with 4 Oak Leaf Clusters, Sil ve r St ar,
leaion of Merit, Purple Heart , Fre nch Croix de Guerre with Palm.

ENT, Brig. Gen. Uzal G.
Born Northumberland, P •. , Ma rch 3, 1900. At·
tended Susquehanna Un;..,. 0' enlisted
man in Inf., Aviation and Ba lloon compani.s
1918- 19. Graduated USMA and commissioned
2nd Lt. Ai, Service June 1924. Military attache
at Lima, Peru, 1940. Assigned to 9th Air Force.
Middle East Command. Oct. 1942. Returned to
U. S. and designated Comm"nding Gener.1 2nd
Air Force Jan. 1944. Ratjngs: Commend Pilot,
Aircr.ft Observer, 8.lIoon Pilot , B.lloon Obs.r .... r. Decor.'ions: OSM
with O.k Luf Cluster, DSC, OFC with Oak leaf Cluster, Ai, Medal
with O.k Leef Cluder.
LARSON. Maj . Gen. Wesnide T.
Born Ve,nalis, Calif., April 18, IB92. Attended
Polytechnic College of Engineering at Oakland ,
Calif. Enlisted Aviation Section Si9nal Corps
Reserv. Oct. 19, 1917, and completed flying
training at Perk Field, Te nn. Commiuioned
2nd Lt. May 18, 1918. Sarvad at Park, EUin9ton
end Kelly fields, and in Panama Canal Zone 1920·
28. Commanded 13th Bombardment Group,
langley Field 1941. Designated Commanding
S."."I: 1st Bomber Command 1942: Antisubmarine Command , 1'1 .. 2·
43 : 3rtl Air Foree, Tempa, Fla. , Sept . 19 .. 3. Ratings: Commend Pilot ,
Aircraft Ob .. rver.
L YND. Maj. Gen. William E.
Born Santa Fe, Kan., Sept. 10, 1893. Attended
Univ. of Seettle. Commiss ioned 2nd Lt. Inf.
Id.ho Nat'l C)uard April .. , 1917. Served in France
during World Wer I. Graduat_d Naval War Col·
I_q_ June 1918. Air BaSIl Commander , Wheel.r
Field, Hawaii 19)9. Commending G.n.ral 7th
Bomb.,. ComrnenO i" Hawaii, aftd in No..,. 19 .. 2-
named Army Air Offie.r on staff of Commander.
in·Chief of Pacific FI.et. Commandinq Gen_ral
4th "'-r Foree July 194). R.t;n9': Command Pibt, Aircraft Observ.r.
Silver Star laward.d in 1918). OFC, Air M.dal .... it h Oak
i.e.f Clustar. Purpl. H.art.
GEORGE, Maj. Gen. Harold L.
Born Somerville , Mass., July 19. 1893. Commis'
sioned 2nd Lt. Aviation Section, S:gnal Corps,
March 29, 1918. Served in War Pl ans Division,
Air Service, 1925·29. Chief of Bombardment and
Air Force Instruction and Director of Air T adics
a nd Strategy. Maxwell Field, Ala. 19)2· 36. Com.
ma nd ing General Ferrying Command March
19 .. 2: Air Transport Command Aug. 19"2.
Ratings: Command Pilot , Aircraft Observer. Decoration: Silver Star.
SPAATZ, Lt . Gen. Carl
Bor n Boyert o .... n. Pa. , Jun. 28, 1891. Gr<!lduated
USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. June 12,
1914, Stationed Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 1914-
IS, then detailed <!IS student at Aviation Sch. San
Diego, Calif. Served in France during World
War I and credited with 2 German planes. Com.
manded Kelly Fi eld, Tex" 1920·21. Special Mili·
tary Observer in En gl<!lnd 19-40. Chief Mate riel
Division of Air Corps Od. 1940. Chief of Air Force Combat Comma nd
J<!In. 19 .. 2. Commanding General 8th Air Force May 19"2 : Nort h ..... st
African Air Forces, Nov. 1942. In Jan. 19 .... bec<!lme Commandinq Gen.
eral of U. S. Strateqic Air Forces in Europe. Ratings: Command Pilot ,
Aircraft Observer. Decorations: DSC, DSM, DFC, Le gion of M.rit.
EAKER. Lt . Gen. Ira C.
Sorn Llano, Tex .• April 13 , 1896. Commini on.d
2nd Lt. Inf , Reg. Army Nov. IS, 1917. Com·
rT'!anded Mitch. 1 Field, N, Y., 1921 · 23. Named
Commander of Bombardm. nt European Thut.r,
J"ly 19 .. 2 <!Ind l<!It er Ge n.ral of 8th
Air Force. Designated Comm<!ln der Mediter.
ranean Alli.d Air Forces in- Jan. Rot in9s:
Command Pilot . Technical Obs. rve r, Ai rc raft
Obse rver. Decor.tions: Sil..,e, Star, DFC .... it h Oak Leaf Clust .r, l.gion
of M.rit.
DOOLITTLE, Lt. Gen. James H.
Alameda, Calif" Dec. 14, 1896. Attended
Unt¥,o of C.lif. Enlisted.s flying c.det, Sign. I
Corps Reserv., Oct. 6, 1917. Commissioned
2nd ,Lt. March! I, 1918. Entered MIT 1923 end
recerved $ and Doctor's degrees 1924 and
1925. ReSIgned Reg_ Army commission on Feb
15. 1930 and ,commiuioned <II Maj., Spec. Res:
Ord,.red to .chv" duty.s Moj. July I, 1940. On
. I Apr.' 18, 1942 led first uri,,1 ,.id on J •• nele
m",n .nd. Commanded 12th Air Forc. Sept 1942 Com d' P G
er.l : NW African Strategic Air Forc. March' 1943: 15th A"!a"F '"9 N,n.
194] ' 8th A' Fo J . It oree 0'1'
I ., rce "n. 19 ..... Rating' Comm"d P',lot D , .'
M d I f H OS" S' I . . ecor. Ions:
':d" o'th 3
Co," "", I ver Star, OFC with O.k L..,f Clulter Air
me " WI LIsters. '
TWINING, Maj. Gen. Nathan F.
Born Monroe, Wis., Oct. II, 1897. Graduated
from USMA and eomminioned 2nd It Inf N
I, 1918. Served at March Field C,I','f " dO,'"
H .. 1927 ' " n In
awa,! . ·32. Designated Director of War
and Movement AAF 1942. Ap.
pOinted Commanding Gener.l 13th Air Force
July 1943 usigned Commander of
:,rcr.ft .n Solomon Islands, in which capacity h.
Co' i,.dad .11 air strength in thet ere. Becem
mmend,ng Gener.1 15th Air Force Jan 1944 R ,··C d'
Pilot- Airer ft Ob D ' " . "'9S: omman
LN,' CI .. Air M'ed:i: KOI",OIr.: OFC, legion of Merit with O.k
BRERETON, Lt. Gen. Lewis H.
Allegheny, P • . , June 21 , 1890. Graduated
. S .• ... . r Academy 1911. Resigned a. ensign,
commissioned 2nd It Coed Arty Co A
17 1911 0" . 'ps ug.
, '. urlng World War 1 laW action in
Frlnce. Air Attach.e. American Embassy, Paril ,
Officer France Field and
anama Air Depot, and Acting Ai; Officer Pan_
Cana l Department 1931·35. 'n Jul 19<41
• .'Slgned to command 3rd Air Force C y d
I 1119 S." •• I: 10th Air Foree March 19<42 . 9th A' F . Oomman -
ReI;"9': Comm."d Pilot Tachnical Observ ' . Ir orce, ct. 1942.
,.tio",': DSC. Silve, St.,' with Oak luf MDdci"
urp. H •• rt, Fre"ch Croix de 61.1." with 2 p' I . . Ir e" ,
• m • •
CANNON, Moj. Gen. John K.
Born S.lt lake City. Utah, March 9, IB92.
Gr.duated U'.h Ag,icultural Collage 191<4. Com-
minioned 2nd Lt. Inf. Reserve Nov. 27. 1917.
Director of Flying, later of Trai"ing. Randol ph
Field. Tex., 1931-35. Chief of U. S. Military
Min;on '0 Buenos Ai,es 1938. Commanding
General '5' Interceptor Command , Mitchel Field,
N. Y., Feb. 19<42. Became Commanding General
12th Air Force Dee. 19<43. Rutings! Command
Pilot. Aircraft Observer. Decorations: DSM, Air Med.l, legio" of Merit.
ANDERSON, Maj. Gen. Frederick L. Jr.
Born Kingston. N. Y., Oct. <4, 1905. Graduated
USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. Cov. June 9,
1928. Graduated Advanced Flying Sch .• Kelly
Field. Te •. Sept. 1929. Served in the Philippines
until 191<4. Director of Bombardi er Instruction
Air Corps T adie,,1 Sch. July 19<40. Deputy Direc-
tor of Bombardment, Hq. AAF. in Jan. 19<42.
Assigned .s Commanding General of 8th Bomber
Command. Became Deputy Commander for Operations USAFE in Jul y
19<43. Ratings: Command Pilot, Technical Observer, Aircr.ft Observer.
Decof,J/ions: Silver Star, DFC, legion of Merit, Air Med.1.
VANDENBERG, Maj . Gen. Hoyt S.
Born Milwaukee, Wis., Jan. 24, 1899. Graduated
USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. Air Service
June 12. 1923. Served in Hawtlii 1929· 31. Grad-
uated Army War Coll ege 1939. Operations .nd
Tr.i ning Officer IA-3) Air Staff, Washington,
D. C. , March \942. Assigned to United Kingdom
.nd assisted in plans for African invasion June
1942. Chief of Shff '2th Air Force Oct. 19<42.
Returned t o U. S. and designated Deputy Chi ef of Air Staff Aug. 19-43.
Bec. me Deputy Comm.nder-in.Chi ef Allied Expedition.ry Air Forees
March 19<44. Rollings: Command Pilot, Technical Observer, Aircraft Ob-
server. Decorations: DSM, Silver Stu, DFC, l egion of Merit, Air Medal.
STRATEMEYER, Maj. Gen. George E.
Born C inci nnat i. Ohio. Nov. 24, 1890. Grad.
uated USMA and commiuioned 2nd Lt, Inf. June
12. 1915. Commanding Officer. Air Service
Mechanical Sch. Kelly Field. Tex. 1917 and Com.
manding Officer. Chanute Field. III. , 1921 . In-
strudor at USMA until 1929. Graduated Army
"'!ar 1939. Chief Training and Opera-
. flons DIVI Sion, Office of Chief of Air Corps April
1941. Genera l, Southeast Air Corps Training Center Jan.
1942. Chief of Air Staff June 1942. Air Advisor to Commanding Gen-
er.l, • . 8urma-l ndia Theater July 1943 : Commanding General , East-
ern Air Commend. Aug. 1943. Rolfings: Command Pilot , Aircraft Ob-
server. Decorations: DSM, Air Meda l.
DAVIDSON, Maj. Gen. Howard C.
Bo,n Wharton , Tex .• Sept. 15. 1890. Graduated
USMA. comminioned 2nd Lt. Info June 12, 1913.
Served at Tours and Paris 1917· 19. Ass ' f Mili .
tary Attache, London 1922-26. Command ing Of-
ficer Bolling Field, D. C., 1928·32. Commanded
19th Bombardme nt Group 1935·36. Graduated
War College J une 1940 and ordered t o
Hldam Ha .... aii as Commanding Officer .
Commanding General: Ha .... ai ian Interceptor
Comm •• d Dec. 1941 : 7th Air Force June 1942; AAFTTC Mississippi

Nov, 1942; 10th Air Force July 1943. Rolfi"9S; Comma nd
lot, AI'cr.ft Observer.
CHENNAULT. Maj. Gen. Claire l.
.CommercE', Tex. , Sept. 6, 1890. Attended
State Univ. and Normal College. Com_
miSSioned 1st Lt. Inf. Reserve Nov. 27 , 1917. In.
structor .end Diredor of Flying at Brooh Fi eld ,
Te ..... unfll 19)0. Author : Role of Defensive Pur.
1935. Retired Apri l 30, 1937 and .... ent t o
China : mede a Brig. Gen . in the Chinese Air
end pieced in charge of AVG (Flying
Co' Tigers): to act ive duty April 1942.
I A,AF In Chin" July 1942; 14fh Air Force, March
'43. R.,,,,gs: AI,pl.,... Pilot, Aircr.ft Observer , Decorations: DSM, OFC.

KENNEY, Lt. Gen. George C.
80'" y.,mou,h, Nov. Sco';" Au • . b, 1889. At·
tended MIT. At of World I en·
listed as fly ing commissioned 1st Lt. in
Sect ion. Signal Corps Reserve, Nov. 5,
1917. Served in end Ge rmany 1917·19;
credited .... ith destruction of 2 enemy
Army Coll ege June 1933. Au't
for Air in Paris in 1940.
General 4th Ai r Force April 1942. Command· .
ing General Allied Air Forces in theater; 5th AIr Force
Sept. 1942. Rolfings: Command Pilot, Aircreft Observer. Decorat ions :
DSC .... ith cluster, DSM, Silver Star , OFC, Purple Heart.
HARMON, Lt. Gen. Millard F.
Born Francisco, Calif., Jar'! . 19, 1888.
uated USMA, commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. June 12 ,
1912. Saw action Somme duri ng World War
I. Ass' , Prof. Military Sci e nce & Tactics, Univ. of
Washington 1923·24. Army War Col.
lege June 1925. Commanded Luke Field , Ha waii
and 5t h Bombardment Group 193b-3 R. Air Ob·
server and member Commiss ion 1941 .
Commanding Gene ral 4th Interceptor Command of 4th A.ir Force April
1941 ; 2nd Air Force July 1941. Chief of Air We.5hlngton. D.
Jan. 1941.. Commanding General U. S. Army Forces In South
Jul y 1942. Rolt ings: Pilot , Technical Aircraft
Observer. Decorol t ions: Navy DSM. Fre nch eroi .. de Guerre .... Ith bronte
HARMON, Maj. Gen. Hubert R.
Born Chest er, Pa., April ) , 1892. Graduated
U5MA, commissioned 2nd Lt . Coast Arty. Corps
June 12 , 1915. Became Chief of Air Air
Serv ice Command. Third Army 1919. Aviation
Officer. U. S. Liquidation Committe e London
1919.20. Instructor USMA 1929· ) 2. Commander
19th Bombardment Group 1936·37. Graduate
Army War College July 1938. Chief of Oper.
a"tions , Personnel. Washin9ton, O. C. 1937·40.
Comma nding Gen eral : Gulf Coast Traini ng Center 19-41 ; 6th Air Force
1942 ; 13th Air Force Jan . 1944. Rat ings: Command Pi lot , Aircraft Ob-
server . Decorolfior'!s: Legion of Merit, Air Medal.
HALE, Moj. Gen. Willis H.
Bor" Pittsburg, Ken., Jan, 7, 1893. Lt. in Philip.
pine constabulary 1913 to March 20, 1917 when
commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. Reg_ Army and pro-
moted fo 1st Lt. same date. Served in Chine
end France 1917.18. Prof. Military Science and
T"ctics Yale Uni". 1920-22. Gradueted Army
War Colle ge June 1937. Inspector Gene,.1 of
GHQ Air Force, langley Field. Va., 1939.40.
Chief of St.ff 3,d Air Force, Tampa , Fl • . , 1940 .... '.
Commending Gener.' 7th Ai, Force Ha .. eii July 1942. Rating:s: Com-
mend Piot, Aircraft Observer. Decordtions: DSM, legion of Merit,
Purpl. H •• rt, Navy Cross.
JOHNSON, Moj. Gen. Davenport
Bor" Tyler, Tex., March 28, 1890. Graduated '
USMA, commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. June 12, 1912.
Military Observer with French Army during
World War I. Graduated Army War College
June 1929. Commanded 3rd Attack Group to
July 1932. Commanding Officer Hamilton Fi eld ,
Calif., 1937. Ass't to Chief of Air Corps in
Washington, D. C., 19"0. Commanded 6th Air
Forc e, Pa nama, C. Z., 19"2. Became Director
I Militory l equi,.. mants Hq. AAF Nov. 19 .. 2. Commanding General 2nd
Air Forc. Feb. 1941; 11th Air Force Sept. 19"3. Ratings: Command
Pilot, Aircr.ft Oblerver. Silver Star, Air Medal, Fre nch
Croj .. de Gue"a.
GILES, Brig. Gen. Benjamin F.
Born Mineola, Ter., Se pt. 13, 1892. Attended
Univ. of Ter. and commissioned 2nd Lt. Inf. Res.
April 28, 1917. Served in Fra nce during World
War I. Commissioned 2nd Lt. Air Service, Reg.
Army July I , 1920. Chief of Aviation Di vision,
Nat'l. Guard Bureau 1939. Commanding Gen-
eral: Hq. North Atlantic Wing, Air Tra nsport
Command Aug. 19 .. 2; 9th Air Force Troop Car-
I rler Commend Oct. 19 .. 3; U. S. Army Forces, Middle East Feb. 19 .....
R.,i",s; Command Pilot, Aircraft Observe,. D8<o,.., ;ons: DSM, Air
WALSH, Maj. Gen. Robert LeG.
Born Walla Walla, Wash., July 25, 189". Grad-
t d USMA and commissioned 2nd Lt. C.av.
"' . 13 1916 After service in France dUring
une, . O. . . f
W Id
W I he was assigned to 1'1 lSI on 0
or ar h' tOe 1919
Military Aeronautics in w.
Ing 'd 'M d ' d
20 Ass't Attache for A" at Pam an a fI
1929-31. Commanded Field, C. Z. ,
35. Graduated Army War College !9040·
• Transport Command June
manding General: South Atlahntic If 1942. Command
1942 ; U. S. Army Forces Sout an IC .ov. f Merit
Pilot, Aircraft Observe r. Decor.I,on: legion 0 .
BREIT, Lt. Gen. George H.
Born Cleveland Ohio, Feb. 7, 1886. Graduated
VMI 1909. Appointed 2nd Lt. Philippine Scouts
March 22, 1910; 2nd Lt. of Cay. Reg. Army 1911.
Commanded Crissy Field 1921 -24.,
Arm War College June 1936. Ass t to Ie 0
Air torps Jan. 1939. Chief of Air Corps May
1941. Became Deputy of
Allied Forces in South PaCific and .. n April '.942 d C ndin
d Ch' f f Allied Air Forces In Australia . Name omma N 9
name Ie. 0 f Command and Panama Conal Dept., ov.
General De ed""p"lot Technical Oblerver Aircraft Observer.
1942. R.tlngs: omman I , ,
Decorations: DSM, Silver Star, DFC.
WOOTEN, Brig. Gen. Ralph H.
Born Tate Co., Min., Aug. 30, 1893 .•
A & M College of Texas, 1916.
Lt. Inf. Reg. Army Aug. 8 1917;. ChIef of
Procurement and Transportation,
o C 1924-28. Military Attache, Santiago,
Chile " 1929-33; 1938-41. Graduated Army War
Colle' e June 1937. Air Of!icer Hq.,
1941 9 Assigned AAF Technical Training Com-
mand, and Chief of
Commahn F enera

Commanding Gene ral 6th Air Force Nov.
Staff 6t If orce. b
1943. R.tinqs: Command Pilot, Aircraft 0 server.
.. •
.. .... .
In the last analysis. AA F effectiveness rests upon the indi-
vidual soldi er and the eff orts hc expends in his assignment.
A discontented soldier, or a sick soldi er, is seldom a good sol-
dier. The AAF therefore takes a special interest in the ll se of
leisure time, personal and family problems, recreation and
Special Service- T'he duties of special service officers with
the AAF" arc many-sided. The 2 main secti ons of the special
service division, however, are physical fitness and orientation.
An extensive physical fitness program for all AAF person-
nel is supplemented by intra- and inter-unit athletic compe-
tition. A physic<lI fitness test is givell each quarter to eheck the
progress or improvement which m;:1Y have resulted from this
sustained conditioning program.
Early in the war the need for current films and periodicals,
for touring stage entertainment and for recreational supplies
of <1I1 kinds was recognized by the AAF. Indoctrination
ca tional progralll s of orientation, and Army Institute courses
are available to the men; from ping-pong to textbooks: the
problems of leisure time arc given constant attenti on. In the
forward stations for example, one of the first buildings con-
is often an enlisted men' s squadron dayroom.
provision of spiritual guidance for the men
is essential at all Army stations, whether at a permanent base
in the U. S. or an isolated outpost on New Britain or Iceland.
The AAF chaplain at island stations of the South Pacific is
likely to make his visits via bomber. 1\
fore than 1 600 chaplains
serve with the AAF.
Personal Affairs-T'o provide assistance and advice 0 11 per-
sonal and financial matters for the soldier and his dependents,
a Personal Affairs Division has been created, with Personal
Affairs Officers in the field . \Vhcn an individual joins the AAF,
Personal Affairs is interested in seeing that:
lie is adcquately protectcd by U. S. CO\'Crnlllclit insurance.
Legal bellcficiarics arc dcsign<ltcd 10 rccei\'c gratuity p:l}" in cvent
of 'lis death.
In the las t analysis, AAF effectiveness rests upon the incli-
vidual soldier and the eff orts he expends in his i.lssignmcnt.
A discontented soldier, or a sick soldier, is seldom a good sol-
dier. The AAF therefore l akes a speci al interest in the use of
time, personal and family problems, recreation and

Special Service-The duties of special service offi cers with
the MP arc many-sided. The 2 mai n sections of the special
service di vision, however, are physical fitness and orientation.
An extensive physical fitness program for all AAF person-
nel suppl emented by intra- and inteT-unit athletic COlll )>C-
titian. A physical fi tness test is given each quarter to check the
progress or improvement which may havc resulted from this
sustained conditioning program.
Early in the war the need for current films and periodical s,
for touring stage entertainment and for recreational suppli es
of an kinds was recognized by the AAF. Indoctrinati on, edu-
ca tio:laI programs of ori entati on, and Army Institute COurses
are availabl e to the men; from ping-pong to textbooks: thc
problems of leisure time are given constant attention. Tn the
forward stations for example, one of the fi rst buil dings con-
structed is often an enlisted men's squadron dayroom.
Chaplains-Tl1c provision of spi ritual guidance for the men
is eS5cntiai at all Aml y stati ons, whether at a permancnt base
in the U. S. or an isolated outpost on New Britain or Iceland.
The AAF chaplain at island stations of the South Pacific is
li kely to makc hi s visits via bomber. t\'[orc than 1 600 chapl:1 ins
serv(; with the AAF.
Personal Affairs-To provide assistancc and advice on per-
sonal and financial matters for the soldier and his dependents,
a Personal Affai rs Division has been created, with Personal
Affairs Offi cers in the field. \ Vhen an individual joi ns the AAF,
Affairs is interested in seeing that :
llc is adequately protccted by V. S. GO\'cnl lllcnt inslInlllce.
Legal bCll cficiarics arc dcsign;Itcd to recci\'c gt:lt uity Pi' )' in C\'Cllt
01 his death.
.. "
-.; -.?-
Q <2D -..J:; __ -'" -.I:
, ,
...... ... "air IIr wallr
... _ .. -.-

, ,
AAJ'i' NURSES-At the present time, more th:1 11 6500 1I11,rscs
\ arc on duty with the AAF. Of this number, 500 arc flight
nurses servino throughout the world wherever we arc cvncuat-
ing woundel by plane. The of the
I Army lursc Corps, arc on duty at AAl' statton hOSP!t.ll s.
Training. Duties, Pay-Nurses assigned to the AAI' . ,sent
to one of 11 different training centers for 4 wc:eks of
indoctrination, tmining and physical conditioning before bcmg
sent to AAF station hospitals in the U. S. . .
1\.tcmbcrs of the Army Nurse Corps are granted the pnvl-
lcocs of the sen 'icc as prescribed by their rank. They do not
I ccmmissions as do V.; AC and male officers, but hold
appointme,nts ,the 1\1,cdical Nurses are accordcd fun
mcmberslllp pnnlegcs 111 officers clubs.
Pay ii the same as that of Army (sec pay tables on
page 5A) except in the instance of Ri ght who draw
$60 per month extra when they plaec.d on
Flight Nurscs-f\ftcr 6 duty 111 an h?splt<ll,
members of the ANC arc eli gible to make a!,plleahon . for
fli ght llllfse training. The physical reqtllTed
prior to assignment arc the same as all other fl yll1g personnel
must pass. In addition, the must be recoln.mcnded. by
the senior fli ght surgeon of thelf command as bemg partlcu-
larl v adapted to duty in the air evacuation service.
Tf they meet these requirements, the nurses are sent to the
School of Air Evacuation, Bowman Ficld. Ky. Here they
dcrgo 8 weeks of academic, professional, and physical
training to prepare them the strcnuous ahead. Sub-
jects in which they arc requlfcd to be profiCient
geney medical treatment, intravenous therapy, tr0l?lcal medi-
cine, fl, eld sanitation, and compass. map and aenal
raphy ori cntation. Upon graduation, they arc rated flight
nurses and aTC permitted to wear gold fli ght surgeons' wings
with the ANC insignia superimposed. (Sec page 51.)
By the end of 1943, there were fli ght nurse units in . every
tll cater of opemtions where units of the AA.F were
Flight nurses arrived in the Si cilian and ItalIan campa igns as
soon it was possible to send transport planes to the fmn.t.
Within 3 days af ter the initial landing in the Tarawa-Makm
campaign, the wounded to I,lawaii aboard
4-engi ned transport planes With fli ght nurses 11\ attendance.
WASP- Includi ng trainces, there are now about
1200 women pilots on active duty with the AAF'
as members of the W omen' s Airforce Service Pi-
lots. This group is engaged in 10 different kinds of
non-combat fi ying mi ssions. W omen pilots assigned
to the Air Transport Command ferry 43 diffcrent
types of aircraft, cverything from small PTs to our fastest
fighters and our heavy cargo ::md bombardment planes,
factorics to points th roughout the country and to bases 111
Canada. \;Vasps take meteorol ogists up for wea ther obsen;1-
tions and fly admini strative mi ssions in 8 domesti c AAF
transp,ort break in engines
With slow-tunc Ayl1lg at 2 0 chffercnt I rillntng Command bases
and perfonn various courier du.ti es. . .
Training- Primary, intermcchate and advanced tramlll g for
the 'Vasps is conducted at Avenger Fi eld, Sweetwater, Texas,
by the AAF Training Command. 27-week course is re-
quired regardless of previous fl ying It i.ncludes
ing training. ground school, II1strumcnt mstruchon, and IS
gcnerally the same as that given to aviation cadets. \Vhcn
necessary. \Vasps receive additional transitional fl ying instruc-
tion at the particular to whi ch they are assigned.
Special mi ssions. such as tow target work, may require tmining
at B-17, B-24, B-26, or C-60 schools.
Pay and S,tatus-Although '''asps arc on Civil Service status
(as of Spring 1944). the), are entitl ed to the pri vil eges of offi -
cers when on an Army base and must conform to military reg-
ulations whcn on dllty. They arc paid $150 a month whil e in
training; $250 a month whcn placed on operation;]1 duly.
\\' ASP wings arc the st:1nci:1rd AAJi' silvcr wings with a lozenge
in the center (sec page 51).
Entrance Requirements-(As of Spring 1944):
35 hours' flying timc (CAA ccrtificatc)-ll eigilt : 62 inchcs,
ruiuimUln- Age: J8 years 6 IIIOS. to 3S-Educ;ltion : high school
or equiv,zlcnt- Persoll:ll iutcrvicw with official \ VASP represcnt·
ativ(}-I\!lust pass a physical ex;,unillatioll [or flying and avi:ltion
cadet qualifying examination.
Civi lian employees pl ay an important role in the AAF.
. 1.940 when the AAF had 51,000 military membcrs, the
cl1vlhan. numbered 8,:0.0! today, with more than
2 mllhon In AAF clvlhans total 350,000 within
the U. S. Add to th IS fi gure tllOse employed by the ' arms
and .servlces at AAF mstaJl atJ ons and the estimate is 5
An Important 18% of the AAF wear mufti; ha1f or more are
Some J 83,000 civilians are working in Air Service Com-
mand depots country in maintenance, repair
and supply o.f aircraft, engmes and radios. Over 34,000 arc
connected With the procurement activities of the Matcriel
Command. TIle employs approximately
64,0:>':'. not only tn offices but as Instructors and mcchanics.
ex£erts in the Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics ( NACA) are deSlgnmg and testing the equip-
ment of tomorrow. Our school programs were planned
and executed by clVlhan meteorologists. The high pri-
enemy mdustnal we bomb are selected partly by
Ian economists and mdustnaiIsts who advise military strat-
egists. fn all phases of AAF work civilian experts act as con-
sultants to the military.
• " .'"S UTl HlC' U'
as the military personnel receive awards for outstanding
too do civilian employees of the AAF. rnli s custom '
was IllItlated on December 8, 104, . Civilian decorations arc
shown above.
. Groun.d .<?bscrvcr Corps-The Ground Observer Corps con-
SiSts of CIVIlian men and women of all ages who, without pay.
kept thousands of observati?" posts up and !=lawn our coasts in
continuous 24-hour operation fr om the day we cnt.ered the
war until the fall of '943. When tlueat of cnemy aenal attack
on our shores diminished with our offensive acti ons abroad,
it was decided to reduce the burden on existing comm.e!cial
telephone faciliti es and to release this. large pool of mIlItary
and civilian manpower for other essential war work by plaCing
the GOC on an alert status. Since Oct. 4, 1943, members of
the corps have manned their observat!on posts at intervals f?[
test and training in pl ace of the prevIOus Z4-hour-a-day baSIS.
AAF awards for civil!an volun.tccrs wi th -
the Aircraft Warnmg ServIce. mus-
trated: (left ) J Fighter Command
(right) IV Fighter Command. Bars
indicate number of hours served.
Aircraft Warning Corps-TIle Aircraft Corps in-
cludes all those volunteers in filter and informati on ccnte.rs. of
our continental fighter commands who are on the recclVmg
end of, the ground observers' reports. At its peak this corps
num bered more than 25,000. Like the GOC, the Aircraft
Warning Corps is now al so on an alert status; those assigned
to filter centers serve on the same days that ground observers
arc on duty. Information centers, however. differ in this re-
spect : radar informati on comes in to them 24 hc:mrs a day;
continuous operati on is demanded of that porhon of the
AWe required to plot radar information.
AAF Women Volunteers-Some 25,000 women members of
AAF families arc engaged in a wide variety of volunteer
itics throughout the country. At almost every AAF base and It1
many communities a local AAF women' s club is the hub
around which revolve welfare projects for AAF personnel. To
coordinate the work of these hundreds of local AAF women's
groups, the National Association of .Air Forces. was
organized on Feb. 8, 1944. The maJor of the
groups serving with the NAAF\¥ arc outlined III the chart on
the following pages.
The Army Air Forces Aid Society, whose address is Wash-
ington 6, D. C" was incorporated in the Di strict of Columbia
March 9, 1942, lor the purpose of relieving distress of AAF
, pCr\Ollnel , including those who have honorably served with
ti, e AAr, and their dependents.
' J1,c Society. composed of persons interested in the AAF,
113' 4 classes of membership, each having the same rights and
the difference in tIle classes being the fce or an-
nual dues paid by the member. Patron members pay an initi al
fcc of $100; life members pay $50; benefactor members and
memhers-at-large pay annual dues of $5 and $1 respectively.
The Board 01 Trustees of the Society is as follows:
! General llenry 11, Arnold
MT\ , /ICllrv H. Arnold
Ma; . Cell .,ame, M , BcvanJ
11011 . John M. Costello
M(f. lI oward C. Davidson
M ( I>. I ;/Jlles /-I . Doolitt Ie
Mr. Hohert V. Fleming
Lt. CCIl. A1. Giles
Mr. ltobcrt A. Lovett
Brig. Cen. BCI/Ilett E. Meyers
Mr. Floyd B. OdIum
Capt. Eddie Rickcnbackcr
Brig. Cen. Cyrus It Smith
Mr. T/lomas ,. Watson
Mr. Charles E. Wilsoll
All er Ihe war the Society plans:
-RTo assist I\AP personnel find tll eir depcndents i n obtaining gov-
CrJln:c1lt bcncfits to whic11 they may be Jawf uJJy
-trTo :lSSist in providing for education, vocatIOnal rehabilita·
tion mel ;ob placement.
<Ct To provide financial assistance in wort11Y cases.
111C Army Air Forces Aid Society is at present accepti ng
voluntmy memberships and contriblltions for future usc to-
ward the fulfil1ment of its mission when other agencies cur-
rentl y p<"1'fonning simi lar functions cease to operate.

I n the AAF we must be more than individ uals organized into
teams. 'vVe must be trained indivi duals and trained teams.
J\1ore than 500 separate skill s to the success of . a
routine bombing mission-skills. that of a dnll
sergeant helping to make reCTlllts to that of a
bombardier synchronizing thc cross-hairs on hi s. target.
Our training problem has been further compli ca ted by the
h ighly techni cal nature of many of these duties, by the
for vast expansion, and by our oldest enemy-lack. of tlmc.
Based on pre-l' c.:1rl Harbor wc expcnenced as
much as a 2 0000% increase 111 the trallllll g of somc spe-
cialists. 1n oth'cr spccialties, in which training did not even
begin until after 1941, the increasc cannot be measured per-
centage-wise. .
T he statist ics of our trall1l1lg CXP:lI1SlOn would givc
to an Einstein. During the first 2 yea rs of war onc .mllilon
men- nea rly half our total strength- were engaged 111 AAF
t raining eithcr as trainers or tralllces. Dunng the yea r. of
1943, 120,000 aircrew trainees I"n ore 3 b!llton mtl es
in the U. S.- as though the entire population of Savannah,
Ca., seized by an uncontrollable impulse and equipped with
the necessary priorities, flew 134,000 trips around the
The Training Program-The AAF training program has
I been a continuing experiment in. mass education. Originally
small , scattered and loosely coordmated, the bulk of it had in .
early 19,4: been unified under 2 n.ew comn1.flnds-the Techni·
cal Trammg Command and the Flying Training Command.
The Technical Training Command used every available type
of educational facility to train hundreds of tllOusands of tech-
nicians .in duties from-repairing an airplane engine
to ro:astmg a Thanksgl\rmg turkey. It leased 68 civilian me-
?hamcs school s, turned factory shops into classrooms, and
Increased the number of its own schools from 3' to 33. It
I bought or leased 452 hotels and converted them into cambi·
school s and barracks. Within 2 years of its inception,
It turned out some 600,000 graduates. Men unable to attcnd
for reasons of time and space learned on
the Job by workmg alongside training-school graduates.
FIrst problem of the Flying Training Command was the
of sufficient fields to train pilots, bombardiers
and navIgators. In the south, as training stations sprang up
Figures below, showing total number of 544,37.
I training course graduates in 1941 and
I 1943 , reveal tremendous expansion of AAF
Training Command program. Most im-
pressive iJl crease was production of gunners
and technicians, for whom there was not
even a formal training program in 194' .
I 1941 1943
aviation cadets arrived at fi elds; training planes
fl ew over bulldozers at work laying runways. By 1943 the
Flying Training Command's yearly output had rocketed to
65,797 pilots, 16,057 bombardi ers, 15,928 navigators.
Once the Flying and Technical Training Commands had
trained individuals in their particular skills, there remained
the final training task of tcaching them to empl oy these skills
with combat equipment under combat conditions and of
welding them into operati onal teams. The 4 domestic air
forces trained new fi ghter and bombardment groups and also
replacements for aircrews lost in battl e or returned home
from overseas groups.
The T roop Carri er, Air Transport and Air Service Com-
mands fused technical and £l yiilg school graduates into spe-
cialized units. Such units as reconnai ssance, air warning and
fi ghter control were activated and trained. Many units were
com,posed of specialists by the Army Service Forces
- . SIgnal, Ordnance, ChemIcal Warfare, Medical,
Finance, Quartermaster and Transportation.
Training Commands Merged- In July of '943 the Flying
and Trallll ng Commands were merged into the
AAF Tralllmg Command. In December the training of all
but a few Army Service speciali sts was taken
ovcr by the AAF. The fonnati on of new units dropped off
and way to a replacem.cnt training program.
(Exception: the B-29 Superfortress umt program which got
under way late III 1'943 and IS now 111 full swing. )
Today, combat has replaced training as the AAF' s largest
function. As more and more of our men go overseas the
training program will contract furth er. Because of new
bat Icssons, new techniques and new methods however it
always will be a vital factor. "
Every man assigned to AAF learns at the outset t'o be
a soldi er. He takes a 5 weeks' basic military course which
clndc\ 73 hours of :lnd lllllrches; 15 hours of pl' ysicnl
training. 54 h OUfll uf 13 hours of military pro-
cedure; R hours of fir!'>1 aaJ; 1 2 hour!'> of !lnni l al'i on; 3 hours of
pcr!\ollal 5 of cafe of clothing and equip-
ment ; S hours of defense agnimt chemical att ack; 5 hams of
indi vidl1al :lnd camoufl:lgc; 4 Ii ours of map find photo-
interpretation; nnd 4 of defell se ngninsl' air attack.
ll:l , ic tmining for men enli sted for aviation cndct tr:lining
:1ho incl udc5 cxh:Hlsti vc physical , psychological and 111(.: nla1
tcsh to det ermine their fi tness for 1"l1C fl ying program and to
ascertai n til e specialty for whi ch they nrc best suited . After
basic Imining each man is rC;lciy to begin tr:1ining in his spe-
cialty. 'TIl e individlla l I'mining schedul e is di vided into 1
t jor categories: Flying Tmining, and Technical, Admini s·
t"rati vc and Service Twin ing.
I· R ..... l.I GtrJ SCII OOI..- IO wecks' course: Sea and ai r recognition , )0
hours; code, 48 h6ms; physics, 24 hours: math, 20 hours; llIf1pS
and chu ts, . 8 ho urs; dail y physical :Ul d military training.
1,.Ut.1 AR\' .. I.VINC SCHOOL- IQ weeks' course: 70 hours in 125 t·o 225
hI' Op<.1l cockpit biplanc .. or low wing monoplanes; 94 hours :IC:1·
demic work in groLlnd school; 54 homs lIIilit:lry t rain ing.
KAS IC FI.TINe SCIIOOl..- IO weeks' course : 70 hOllrs in a 4 50 horse·
power basic trainer; 94 hours ill grollnd school; 47 hours miJital")'
Imining. By the end o( basic school tmill(:es have learned t·o ny a
plane competentl y. I"nrtber t raining wi ll teach them to fl y n war·
plane the AAF wa)' . Before the end of basic. trainees arc classified
--on the basi.. o( choice and imlrllct'ors' reports-for single.
engi nc training ( fi ght er pilot ) or 2· engine training (OOrl"lhe r,
traml>o"j or 2 cnginc figh ter pi lot ).
ADVANCED )ILVINC TRAININC- IO wecks' coursc (sing1c engine and
2 cuginl!): 70 hours o( fl ying; 60 ha ms o( ground school; 19
luJt1rll military tr:lining. Si ngle·cngine trainees fl y 600 horsepower
AT 6\ : nd take a course in fi xcd gunncry. T wo engine tminees fl y
A' I 24!. , AT- 17!., AT9S, Of AT l OS. Ba\ed on pcrformance and
c11f)j (c, they arc carmarked (or hC:lVY or medillm
tr:lII \pOlt , troop car rier or 1 engine fi ght er. AI the end of ad.
' rainillg thc graduates, <; ingJe and 2.engille, arc :Iwardcd the
sihh pIlot's o( the AAF and appoinLed flight officers 0 )
2nd licllt cllants.
Fli ght i ll Millllll nl cd
when !lltulc' lIl ,
ctolitd undt r C,1I1011Y,
USCS instrtUllellt fl to
mallcuvt'r Ihe t..ill k
011 il ll !twivd mOllllt.
N c:NI1C 011 illll i
lor 's desk recordll the
Link'lI act ion.

TRANSITI ON TRAININc-Bcfore they hegin to train in IInil ,
pilots learn to fl y the t ype of w:lrplane Ih.ey ,\'ill handle in comh:!t;
For example, those marked (or 13 ' 26 amglllll cnt a 10 weeks
transit ion COllfse of which 105 hours are spent fl)lng 13' 265 and
t.he rest in grollnd school. 13-17 and B' 24- pil ots also homs
4.cngine fl yillg lime alld tmmmg III a
weeks' post.gmd ll:1. le tranSition course. "Igili cr pilot s get :J 5 wed .. s
tranfl it ioll cOllrse; si ngle·engine pi lots 10 hours in P' 40S;
pil ots take 10 hours in P' ;22S ( mo(lified p. ,Ss}. Gunnery a
part of fighter transition A,I .t he of Iml'I\, I'Oll
t'raining, report to tllllt lr:1l1l1l1g groups where the), :Irc
welded illt'o fighting teams.
Navigator and Uombardicr Training
I'lt tW Ll C I/ 'I' SCII OOL- I O weeks' course: Trai nees lI tt end the "!lIne pre-
fli ght school. Both and na\igators take 48 hOIlf'i of
code' 28 hOllfS of mathelllatlcs; 24 hours uf llIaps and charh: 30
of aircraft rc{'ognit ion; 12 hours of n:1\'al recogni tion; 12
hours of principles of fli ght; 20 hOllrs of aero.ph)'s ics; 9 hunrs o(
altitude cqll ipill ent.
CUNNlmv SCII OOL-6 weeks' course: ever)' I>omher ("few
melllber III1ISI be all expcrt gllILll er. 1I:1 \' igatm [l nd hOlllh:lf(licr
t minee .. arc sent to a Jl exibJe gunnery M: hool aft cr preflight M: huol.
They iC: lnt weapoll '>, ballistics, turret operaliun. and II willI Cll rl ll:'e;
gl lll repairs; flir , lIe:l and I:md rCl:ognit ion; frolll a 1II00IIIg

bHC nnd frolU n t urret ; firi ng from the nir nt ground obj ect's, nt'
tow Inrgds nnd nl olher plulI cs wilh n gUll cnlll crn. Aflcl'
school Ixuubardier and navigator traillces scparnt c nnd eneh tukes
n II PCC,lllCd adva nced course.
nOMIl AIlOI JlR S It OOL- ::O weeks' course: Following gunnery school,
bOlllhardier Iminees spend 1::0 hours i ll A'I'. \ I tmini ng plnncs on
pratlicc homhing rllns and 718 hours in ground school. T he Inli er
of: nnvignlion, 96 hours; bombinG, 388 homs; lInvigllHolI
lind bonhi ng nnd relnted tmini ng (code, meteorology, nir lind
sen recogniti on ). 13.1 hours. AI I'he conclusion of Ihe course
trainees nrc [(warded bombardier's sih'cr wi ngs, nppoint cd flight
offi cers or commiss ioned 2nd lieutenant s, find sellt on 10 unit
t rain ing.
NAVICATO" SCIIOOL-10 weeks' course: Following gunnery school
navigatcr Imi nces spelld 10'1 hours ill the nir on I>rncticni nflvi$fI '
lion prohlems, nnd 781 hOllrs in ground school. The III It er III.
eludes : pilot:lge, 8 hours; instrument s, 8) homs; cl end reckoning,
54 h OlliS; melio, 8 hOllrs; celeslinl Il nvigl \lioll , $'l hours; met'cor·
ology, 47 hours; code find r ecognitiOIl , 9 hours cacho Upon com.
pleting the course, trainees fi re aWfl rded nnvigll lor's wings, np.
pointed Aight offi cers or cOHl missioned l nd lielll ennnts, nnd tid·
va llced to unit twilling,
nOMnARDIf'M, ·NAVICATOM, SC II OOI.- t l weeks' CO\lrse: Ench 1I101lih n
specified number of gradl1ntc nnvig:lt ors ( 180 llIonthl y On Murch
! , 1944) receive fulf bombardier's tmining, excluding nnvignlion
III which they nrc :drend), profi cient. BomlxlI'Clier.nnvigator tmin.
IIIg provides the doubly twined officers needed for n ' 29S li nd for
lend pl:1I1 cs in mcdi um bomber missi ons.
Glider Pilol s- AAF enli sted men belween the ages of 18
::Ind 26 who hnve had 115 hours fl yi ng lime either in :l glider
or power aircrnft nrc eligible for glider pilot '"raini ng, (Quotas
arc nl present fill ed.) The 6 months' course is as foll ows:
Fi rst 1 monlhs nrc el evoted to ground trnining. Trainees
take cOllll1l:l llci o type tmining in personnl olllba t :md
weapons During the next m o ntl l tllC': Y learn glider repair and
Hlaintcnancc. The fourth I!l ontll they Oy powered aircrnf l';
then spend a month i C:l l'lling 1'0 fl y gliders nnd stucl r,i ng
meteorology, naviga tioll .1I1e1 selected nC;ldcll1ic silbie IS. I'he
final 111 0,11h is devoted to ndv:l1Iccc! glider fl ying, I'Il e trai nees
becoming profi cient in the tncli cai lI ses of gliders, \ Vhcn
v;tlleed tmining is o\'er, they arc (Iwn rdccl sil ver glider pilot's
wings. apl.oi lltecl or
tenant s, )0 111 I-roop orfl cr IlIlItS for Imloms:'IS t e. lm
Rndl1f Observer, Night Fightcr- Aviution ndets wl t,lI 1-op<" .
cinl qllft lir. cntions who nrc climillul cd fr om Ri ght. l rui llll.' g (or
reasons which do not c1 bql1ulify 111 (' 111 h om fur ther {l l rt'l ew
dllties tHC el igibl e to Imill fl S rndrH obs rvcrs, ni ·ht fi ghly r.
Becall se their work rcqllir S a thorOllgh .of
tCc1111iqIl C, !'II CY rnll st Il nvc had III' 50 honrs fi ylll S I II li t.' .
They firsl' toke n 6 wcd.s· SUlinery COHfSC, foll owed hy 9
weeks' radar opCl'flti ons. Twini1l g is to cnnl?I ' them
10 Oy wit h 0 pil ot in fI l ·sca t ·d niglll' lighl cr il ild direct tll c
pilot to ell emy aircraft by mell ll S of mdar. Rndrll' ObSCIVCl'S
II rc appoint cl Oight of!l ccrs or lnd
lind lroeced to opcra t lOnul Will i night r. ghl cr
Aircrcw, Enli sted ]\lIen- Ali cnh:-. lcd III llib rs of un :'111'
crew ar il cri nl onl y the career ,r. howe"er: i ..
ex lll sivcly n gllnll l:r. 111", oll1(:rs :Irc tmllH..'d III n I 'chnl cnl
sp ciolty bcfor ' Ih 'Y be ome gHllnc.;rs,

AI '"he clld of the b:tsic lruining P 'ri o I. 111 n to
t rain as cure r gunners fIrc eli 'iblc to cnt'er the 6 we gun
ncry school. (For Olltlin of gunnery coursc, sec page 101i
uncl er Navigator unci B Olllb:nd ier:) Airplnnc
trainccs 1'lIke n 10 wccks' COllrse 111 1'11 ' op rn hon tlnd rnnlll
t CU:lUCC of nirpl:lnc nrmamcnt. Airplull c lll CCh:llli
tT:linccs '":IKC 27 weeks' tmining in ni rplnn ulld
llI nin tcn:ln c. Radi o opcrulor !Occhani ·gullll cr t minces gl'l
10 weeks of combat r w rncli o opcl'll lioli :lnd r(")lair, AI the
cOll cl usion of th ' ir technical '"mini ng, spceinlisl SUIlli cr Imi n-
ces go 10 gunnery scho 1.
TRAI NIN . : Officers nud Officer Truin 's
A .... AN!) l nAI to: IOC11 00 I ..... I 6 weeks '
1" rOIlI Ihe nlnks of 1I1 CI1 , both ill ('0\11111 )' nlld ()\(' I M" .I ',
come qualifi ed candidates for this school, commonl y called DeS.
course is divided into two 8 week pcrioru. For the fi rst 8 weeks
all candidates study the requisites for administration of AAF uni t'! :
c1'lssification, mil itary discipline, sanitation, squadron duties, voice
and command, arms and marlc.sman.ship, first aid, protection
agailUl chemical attack, guard duty. camouAagc, and maps and
chart!. At the end of 8 weeks candidates arc assigned to special ized
t raining in the type of administration for wh ich they arc best
(Iualified : ad jutant, personnel, intelligence, mess management,
physical training. statistical, supply, or trai ning. During the last
8 weeks 10 days are spent in fi eld trai ning. Upon graduat ion all
candida tes 3rc commissioned l Oci lieutenants.
AVIA.TION CADETS. arc selected enlisted men or offi cers
with special educat ional qualifications. Before they begin cadet
training;. they generally have spent several mont hs in the service.
at the very least 8 weeks of hasic training. After a 12 weeks ' spc·
cial basic course, they proceed to specialized t(:chnical
course!, after which they afC commissioned 2nd lieutenants. Ca-
dets altend one of the following schools: Photogra phic labora-
tory Commanders School,. 16 weeks; Communications Offi cefs
School, 18 weeks; Armamen t Offi cers School, 19 weeks; Engineer-
ing Officers School, 20 weeks; Weather Officers School, 33 weeks;
Radar Officers School (3 types), 38, 42 , nd 48 weeks.
the service directly from t heir fi nal year at medical school or from
internship, work for the first 6 months under t he supervision of ex-
pcrienaxJ medical officers in an AAIf hospital, T his half year's
training supplies the practical experience nCCCS5.1ry to fulfill the
duties of medical officers.
NUI.SE'l TlAININC PROCRAM-30 days' Coursc. Upon assignment to the
AAF, arc given a course in milit<l ry orga nil..a tion, 5. 1nitation,
food inspection and hospi tal proced ures, After completing the
Wurse, they report for duty at AAF hospitab,
Mo P SCIIOOL-3 months' course, At W right Field, Ohio,
t he Command Rives a et;>u rse ill . aeronautical engineering
for pilon WIth degrees. nle CUrriculum 1<; designed to make stu-
denn more val uable for Materiel Comm<l nd duties.
Enl isted Men- TII C preparati on of enlisted men for ground
is th e la rge.5t single training job; 314 separate
skdls are taught \0 80 different types of courses. A digest of
the courses is listed bel ow:
Communications (radio, telegra ph, telephone, radar): .6
courses ranging from 4 to 44 weeks; airplanc repai r and ma in-
tenance: 15 courses, 5 to 29 weeks; armament and equip-
ment : 5 courses, 8 to 2 3 weeKs; wea ther : 2 courses of 11 and
33 weeks; photogr:1phy: 5 courses, 2 to 16 weeks; aviation en-
gi neers: 8 courses, 4 to 12 weeks; motor transport: 4 courses,
5 to 1 0 weeks; Link Trainer: 4 courses, 8 to 12 weeks; mis-
ccllancous: 7 courses, 3 to 9 weeks.
There arc no schools, as such, for the training of AAF en-
l isted medical personne1. Enli sted men qualifi ed for medical
work arc placed in AAF hospitals, train under supervision on
the job, arc awarded technicians' ratings when they achieve
profi ciency.
TIl e second part AAF tra,ining-unit crew trai ning
-is devoted to maklll g coordlllatcd, eff ecti ve teams out ot
within ai rpl anes, teams of airplanes,
teams of airplanes and ground personnel, teams of ground
personnel al one.
Immedi ately after Pearl lIarbor there was a pressing need
for compl ete new units: fighter, bombardment, t ransport, re-
connaissance, troop carri cr. These ul1its were suppli ed by the
operati onal unit training (OTU) program. Simultaneously,
a repl acement unit training (RTU) program was initiated to
provide replacements for overseas ai rcrews wh ich had been
lost in battle or returned home for reassignment. By the end
of 1943 most of the authorized new uni ts had been foml ed.
Stepped-up air acti on increased the demand for repraccmenb,
and RTU became a larger program than OTU.
Today, except for units and a few others, all ai r unit
and crew training is RTU. Because the low casualty rate
among AAr ground personnel obviates the need for an ex·
replacement training program, the training of ground
units. which have no fl ying personnel or airplanes, is nlmost
entirely OTU,
Following is an outline of unit and crew training divided
into the 2 main classifications of ::l ic units and ground units.
Bombardment: Medium, Heavy and Very Heavy- Tn the
days when medium and heavy bombardment OTU was fUll c-
ti oning. units were formed by breaking off cadres or skeleton
units from groups within the 4 domestic air forces and sup-
plementing this c.xpericnced nucleus with new graduntcs of
fl yi ng and techni cal schools. Ground and fl ying personnel
were trained together, and the unit was cal)nblc of admini s-
tering, feeding, clothing and housing itsc1 . The unit went
overseas after 90 days of training.
Under the present RTU system, fl ying personnel ( pil ots,
navigators, bombardiers, gunners) report to groups with in
the 4 domestic air forces. T hey arc trained by instructor
crews, nlany of them with combat experience. Administration
and mai ntenance work are done by a ground echelon which
is a regular part of the group. Trainees undergo a 9o-day
course, divided into 3 overl appi ng phases: First, the trainees
increase their proficiency in indi vidual skills, learn to work as
a team, and become famil iar with equipment and techniques.
Second. formation fl ying is stressed. Finally, trainees move to
a training area which approximates a battle zone, fl y long
formntion bombing mi ssions by day and night, learn to live,
work and fight under cOlli bat conditi ons.
When there is time between the date an aircrcw completes
its training and the date it is to report at an overseas base,
the crtw will often train with a tactical air division . Tactical
air divisions operate in conjunction with Anny Ground
Forces in !nancuver areas, act as fl ying pa rtners to the ground
troops in war games. Fighter units also train when they can
with tacti cal air di visions; whenever it can be arranged, fi ghters
and bombers fl y together in joj,nt training exercises.
The sole remaining bombardment OTU- the format ion
of 8-2.9 ( very heavy) Supcrfortrcss units-recruits pilots with
at least 300 hours 4-cnginc fl ying time from stnrF nnd i1l
strtlctor positi ons at £ -17 or tra1lsition schools or frail I
4-cngine groups. opi lots nrc new grncluntes of "'
engine trn nsiti on scllOols. Other mcmbers of thc B-':9 nir
crew arc 2. bornbnrclier navigators, nn acrial cngincering offi-
cer,. a radi o opemtoNncchfi ll ic and gunners. The aircrcw:-. arc
jOined by technical, Administra tive :mcl suppl y personnel who
have had t.'{ pericnce in the ground echelons of 4-clISl nc
groups. Twining timc for the whole 13-2.9 \1n it is 4 months.
Fighter, Fighter-Bomber and Night fightcr- Fighll:r and
fi ghter-bomber RTU trnining resembl es b n1bard1ll cnt RTU
except for these 2. differences: li rs t. becal1se all nirernft in
these categori es arc single-scaters, only pilots nrc tmill cd; sec-
ond, training is measllred in hours as well as months (:1 pilot
mll st .get nt 60 exp ricnec). Thi s level. how-
ever, IS eonstnntly hems r:1 lseel. fhe prescnt goal is 1 20 hOl1rs.
Although fi ghters have been II scd advan tageously as fi ght 'r-
bombers, their primary role is nir lighting. Training. thcre-
fore, must accompli sh 2 things: teach a pilot to positi on h is
aircraft properly, and to aim and lire hi s g"IlS aeclIrfitcly.
The fi ghter and fi ghter-bomber OTU program is abollt
cO.mple.tc, but fi ghtcr OT U is sti!1 acti ve
N ight fi g,htcr nlrcrcws take a 4 monl"ll s 0 ru cOllfse. rhey
fly P-70S o,r P-61S specialize in night opem·
hons. 1 he crew consIsts of a pil ot ,wel fi n observer (sec IXlgc
274) who :11so doubl es as a gunner. rews nre taught to seck
out :mcl attack enemy pl anes. The ground complement: of n
, ni ght un.it joins the unit halfway through the cOllrse
and tmms With It fO,r the Ii l1al 2 months, Night li ghter RTLI s
- alrcrcw 5 months.
Reconnaissance- Two types of grol1ps, photo
and tncti cal rcconnnissa nec, arc trained :
PIIO' I'O·RECONNAISSANCF.- Pilots wilh lClIst 40 hours' fl ying time:' ill
:I 1'·)8 toke an 8 weeks' coursc. Thcy fl y an F· S (eom·crt ed. \111
P.· )8), practice high nltitHdc fl ying, lcarn the ttX' i1niQHc of
t:lk111g :nr photos and become proficicnt in evnsive nctioll . nu\
pl ct'e B' :! 4 crews nlso r(:ccive 8 weeks' training. III nn F . .., (COli
verted they \e:lm phol'o mapping. In photo.ll\flppiug tlt t·
pl:lne (li es over the are:1 to be pltotogrnphed until pict ures nrc
made of every square foot of it . Then the pictures are mounted in
a nnsnic to provide a photographic map.
TACTI CAL RECONNAISSANCE-Here, photography is secondary; the
main job is observation. Pilots with at leas t 60 hours' experience in
iI P' ?1 train for 6 in an F-6 (converted P·S l ). 111ey-fl y at
and low al titudes, become experts, in recognition and
learn to detect camouflage and how to adjust long-
range fire and naval gunfire. They use cameras chiefl y for
confirmatlo':l of, wlmt they have seell, but their primary task is to
seck out obJectlVcs on the ground. .
Combat Camera Crews-Crews of officers and enlisted men
photographi c and moti on picture experi ence, are trained
In a 10 weeks' course. l11cy learn by taking newsreel and stilI
picturc:s of simulated combat action and arc assigned as cam.
era units with overseas air forces.
Carrier .Units-Troop carrier' training is now almost
entirely RTU. PIJo.ts mar.ked for troop carrier are graduates
of . flymg schools. After taking 30 days'
.tramIng 111 C47S, they are sent to train in a troop
ca rner UnIt. At the of 2 are joined by their
crew engmeer, operator and, in
some cases, navigator. When the new crew is ready to fl y as
a team, it begins to practice dropping small units of airhorne
fo:ces .stationed. at 111is troop.carry.
mg opera.tl?" Increases III size as trammg progresses. A glider
lOl11s the crews and the troop carrier teams learn to
tow glIders. Working as a unit, in airplanes and gliders they
arc taught . techniques they will in
c?l11bat- aIr dl sclpl1l1c, low altitude Hying, all-weather opera- .
bons, wcal?ons, communications, naviga tion, glider and para-
supply. by air, air evacuation (sec page 19
and IdentIficatIOn of aIr and ground objects. W11 en the crews
have complcted training (5 months for pilots, 3 for other crew
ll1em ben), they are assigned to troop carrier units overseas:-'"
Air Transport Units- Since the planes fl own by the Air
range from bantamweight primary train-
giant .4-engl11.c cargo planes, the ATC training program
Pil ots Hymg for ATC arc classified into 5 categories
Identified by the type of planes flown, as foll ows:
CLASS ONE-S111<111, singlc-cnginc t raincrs; CLASS 'l'WO- 2·cn-
gine advanced tra iners and small 2-engincd cargo pJancs; CLASS
THREE-heavy 2-engi ne cargo planes; CLASS FOUR-2-cngine
fi ghtcrs and mcdium bombers; CLASS FlvE- hcavy bombers and
4-engine cargo aircraft. Upon attaining the rating of Class
Five pilot, the ATe pilot can fl y any in the AAF.
From the day he starts hi s training with ATC as Class One
pi lot, he is a student, constantl y learni ng by working at hi s
job. He becomes steadily more profi cient through progressive
transition from Class One to Class Fi vc, from the lightcst to
the heaviest type aircraft. Every Ri ght he makes is a t raining
Right. In addition to on-the-job training in the air, intensive
ground school courses in aircraft engi necring, instruments,
naviga tion and meteorology arc completed. All pil ots must go
th rough thi s entire sequence, the length of time requircd de·
pending on the ability of the pil ot to advance, availability of
aircraft and Hying conditions. Pilots are trained individually
for single-engine domestic fl yi ng but crews are trained as
units for bombers and multi-engine transports. These crews,
incl uding pi lots, copilots, navigators, radio opera tors and
Hight cngincers; train as units for several weeks in a special-
ized school.
In addition to fli ght personnel, ATC trains ground per-
sonnel in sllch fields as traffi c, travel and insurance, loading,
fli ght control, wcather foreDlsting. engi neering, communica-
ti ons, personnel , administration, supply and mess.
The training of ground units (units contai ning no Hying
personnel and no aircraft) is ll suall y a 2-phasc process. First.
techni cal school graduates report to a training base opcra ted
by a domesti c grollnd group. Under the directi on of the
parent group the indi\' iduals arc formed into squadrons (not
groups, as is the ease with com hat units) and t rai n as Sti ch
during the first phase. [n the second phase the squ:1drons arc
sent to domesti c bnscs where they lenrn to coordinate their
particular functi ons with the work of other types of squadrons.
Tlli s is call cd combined training. Foll owi ng is a table of
principal types of ground units trained and length of trai ning:
.... TYPE OF uN"lf- __ ' _' _r _' _"
Unit COIllbined
Airborne engineer aviation bat-
Airdrome squadron. special
Aircraft warning unit
Airways detachment
Aviation squadron
Chemical company, air opera-
Chemical depot company
Chemical maintenance company
Depot repair squadron
Depot supply squadron
Engineer a\'iation battalion
Engineer aviation camouflage
Engineer aviation fire fighting
Engineer depot company
Engineer topographic company
Engineer utilities detachment
Fighter control unit
Headquarters squadron, service
Medical dispens.1T}', aviation
sections, service or de-
pot group
Medical supply platoon
police company
· Ordnance ammunition COIll -
·Ordnance maintenance com·
Quartermaster eomp..lny. service
Quartermaster service company
Quartermaster truck company
Sen'ice squadron
Signal company
Signal company
Signal construction battalion
Signal radio interception com-
Station complement
Rehabilitates C:lptured airfields. advance
Uperates advance & auxiliary airbases
Radar detection of fri endly and enenw aircraft
Maintenance of transient aircraft .
Housekeeping; general labor functions
Loads airplane spray tanks with liquid smoke. chem-
icals; operates chemical warehouses
Stores & issues chemical ammunition & equipment
Repairs & s.llvages chemical warfare equipment
fa jar aircraft repairs
Supply for major repairs
Constructs, Illaintains, defends airbases
Supervises camouflage activities
Fire fighting & crash crew service
Operates engineer supply depot
Prepares charts, maps, photomosaics
Provides & mnintnins water & electric facilities
Directs aircmft by mdio·telephone; furnishes naviga-
tional aids
Administ ration, transportation of service group
Functions as dispensary
Performs medical duties for service or depot groups
Stores, issues medical supplies
Guards inst .. llations, conducts crimin .. l im-estiga'
tioll s
Stores, issues & maintains :1I111uunition
Repai rs, maintains ordnance mnterieJ
Stores & issues general supplies
Forms generaI.labor pool
Transports troops, ammunition, equipment
Aircraft maintenance & repair
Procures, installs, operates commllnications facilities
Installs. does major repairs on radio & radar com-
Constructs heavy wire installntions, strings cables
Intercepts and analyzes enemy radio traffic, oper-
ates direction finders
Provides continuous operation of .. irbase
• Recei ve unit training from Army Service Forces.
II 0
9 4
6 4
13 0
9 4
I 5 6
10 4
10 4
8 16
8 16
II 0
II 0
6 0
II.. 0
II 0
II 0
6 0
8 16
8 0
Unit Combined
8 16
6 0
10 0 ,
16 8
16 8
8 8
5 8
8 8
8 16
12 5
12 14
8 9
6 0
16 0


AAF training may be compared to assembly line produc·
tion. The parts of the machine arc forged in the individual
training program and assembled in the unit and crew training
program. The last step is modification; making alterations in
c the fini shed product necessary for the particular rcquircll) cnts
of each overseas theater. :Modificati on is done in training cen·
teTs in the theaters of operations themselves.
In the British theater, for exampl e, the 8th Air Force op-
erates a combat crew replacement center to which every new
crew rcp:)Tts for additional tmining before it begins combat
opera tions. TIle course has 2 purposes-first, to correct any
flaws of individual crew members; second, to indoctrinate
every man in the procedures and problems of the theater.
First the crews hear lectures which provide them with gen·
eral infonnation about the theater. They receive instruction
in the use and care of high altitude personal equipment, bail·
ing out, pri soner of war procedure and escape techniques,
obsen'ation and reporting, of intelligence data , air and naval
recognition, geography of EutOpe, and Gemlan air fighting
I methods. After the lecture session the individual crew ll1em·
I bers-pil ot, bombardier, navigator, radio operator, mechanic
and gunners-get intensive checks in their specialti es to
make sme that they meet the standards for combat profi.
eienc}, . Faults arc corrected before the crewman is sent to
lil e AAF Tactical Center, headquartcred at Orlando, Fla. ,
occupies an arCil of 8000 square mil es-approximately the
'Jize of SIcily. Here ,a threefold program is conducted: the
training of cadres to form the nuclei of new units, the train·
ing of inGividual s in highly speciali zed duties and the testing
f new tactics and techniques under combat conditions. Since
' ts inception in late 1942, the Tactical Ccnter at Orlando has
umed out more than 35,000 graduates, Illtlde about 500
actical te!) ts.
The Tactical Center's t raining program is divided into
demic and pmctieal j)hases. Lectures and classes are . held 111
the AAF Sch ool 0 Appl ied Tactics; field problems are
workcd out in a simulated theater of operati ons.
Cadres reporting from opera tional units take a
courSC-2 weeks of acadernic work and 2 weeks learnmg battle
tactics. communi cations, control systcJ?s, emergency proce·
elures intelligence mcthods and defenSive safeguards.
other courses, including some under the Anny·Navy
Staff College, are taught to oflicers from all branches of the
Army Navy and tvfarines.
Fo; AAF offi cers, the Ttl ctical Center also conducts several
spccial short courses: senior offi cers. 1 <? officers, 14
days; tactical inspectors, 15 days; 4
wceks; technical inspectors, 4 weeks; 8
weeks; 8 alTbase 4
weeks; pri soncr of war mterrogatlon, 4 weeks; scmor
offi cer, 6 days; staff wcather officers, 2 weeks;
mcnt officers (oxygen devices, electri cally heated c1othmg, hfe
veo;;ts, etc.) 2 wecks. rvfore than ,0 other specialized courses
arc oiven in the AAF 'Tactical Center,

School of Aviation Medicine- Three courses are taught at
the School of Aviation Medicine. Randolph Fi eld, A ?
weeks' aviation medical examiners course teaches AAI' medl ·
cal officers ( men who wcre in life) to safe-
guard the health of airerews-physlOlogy of alti tude, effects of
gravity and They al so taught to
ri gid physical. eXtl lTIlllatlOns to a.lrcrew members.
medical examl11crs may become RI ght surgeons after a year s
experience, including 50 hours' Hying time, and wear
fl ight surgeons' gold wings (sec pogc 51).
A 6 weeks' aviation physiologi sts course trains doctors and
in research methods. TIlei! work, after
tion. is to ascertain whether new techmqucs and equipment
can safely be used within the limits of
it\". Aviation physiologists also conduct the altItude tratnmg
program. Another 6 weeks' course trains enlisted
technicians to help aviation medical examiners in aiTerew
physical examinations.
School of Air Evacuation- To teach the methods of trans-
porting patients by air to hospitals far behind the lines, the
AAF School of Air Evacuation was set up in June, 1943, at
Bowman [i'ield, Ky. In a 2 months' course, flight surgeons,
nurses and enli sted men learn field medical technique, care
of airborne patients, preparation of medical records, camou-
fl age, protective measures and probl ems of the battle zone.
AAF Staff Course- As our overseas operations expanded, a
need arose for skill ed young officers to assume staff duties in
higher echclons-wing and above. In July 1943', an AAF Staff
Course for captains, majors and, in some cases, colonels be-
twecn the ages of 25 and 35, was established. The selected
officers take a 3-phase course: First, a 2 weeks' course at the
AAF'Tactical Center (sec page 116) to learn the duties of a
staff officer in a combat theater. Next, a 2 weeks' tour of sta-
ti ons to observe the work of the ?\1ateriel Command, the
Antiaitcraft School, the Airborne Command, an amphibious
force and a port of embark<ttion. Finally, 4 weeks arc spent at
AAF headquarters studying personnel, intelligence, training.
operations, commitments and requirements, materiel , mainte-
nance and distribution, and plans.
Emergency Rescue Training- Any AAF man forced down
on land or sea can be sure that he wi1l be thc object of a
sc;u eh, A training program is dcvoted to prep:lTing special
squ<lcirons for searching out and rescuing stranded personnel.
'T'he pJOgram is divided into 2 parts: aircr<lft and marine,
Members of aircraft rescue squadrons are pilots, navigators,
flight surgeons, sea search radar observers, and enlisted tech-
nicians who perform lll<1intcnancc and administrative func-
Pilots first report to the Navy's air training st<1 tion at
Pensacola, Fla., where they take a 10 weeks' course in fl ying
seaplanes. Mechani cs take a 6 weeks' course in seaplane main-
tcnance. Then all fl ying, medical and ground personnel spcnd
45 days learning to function as a unit.
Sea rescue squadrons are composed of
men who have had extensive nautical expenence 111 clvlha.n
1ife. The training period is 24 weeks: the first 6 on the baSIC
principl es of and sea rescue; tl?e 1 on
instruction of cach IIldl v,dual crew member III IllS partIcular
du ty; the final 6 on unit training ..
, Convalescent Training- The of convalescence has
bcen profitably relievcd in AAJ', hospitals a program of
convalescent training. The trammg program
in code chemical warfare, camouflage, map readlllg, calis-
thenics, ' first aid, booby traps and land mines,
cation, geopolitics, weather, . arctic and . tropical medlclll e,
foreign languages, mathemati cs and
Pati cnts wcll enough to leave theIr bcds lectures
and training films. vVhen a patient must remam 111 bed, the
training is brought to his bedside. Lect ures. and demonstra-
tions are given in the wards; even complete aIrplane mock-ups
have been set up in hospital bays.
Besides increasing the soldier's knowledge, convalescent
tT<lining has definite therapeutic advantages. It has shortened
the average c'onvalescent period by 30 to 40 % (sc.·ulet fever
convalescence, for example, has been cut from 33 to 23 days).
Hospital readmissions have dropped a full 25 %. I.n t.nany c.'lses
the need for a conval escent furlough has been el1l11lnated, en-
abling the soldier to return morc qui ckly to duty.
Rehabilitation- Eight large convalescent have. been
establi shed in the United States to reconcl1tlOll casualtlCs so
that they can once more useful w?rk or.
if they are unfit for furth er lluhtary duty, III clvll wn lIfe.
Patients sent to convalescent centers from ovcrseas hos-
pital s are kept busy. Light cali sthenics, useful work in 11l<lIlual
craft s shops and gardening projects, and lectures a.nd ti cm.on-
strations on military subj ects arc part of the daIly routllle.
Pati ents who have undergone amputations arc taught usc
of artificial limbs. By easy stages they master the tcehlllques,
develop confidence in and acquire a high degrce of
, profi ciency. As soon as a paticnt:s health he begins a
: course of actual job training. If It has been to
him to M F duty, he is given a refresher course In the specialty
· to which he will be assigned. If the pati ent is to be honorably
I he is given guidance:: in a skill that will help assure
( him empl oyment in civil life.
· Instructors for pil ot, naviga tor, bombardier and gunnery
I schools are trained at AAF central instructors schools. Both
J newly commi ssioned offi cers and. aircrew members
· from combat are taught instructIon methods. TIle pIl ot
: structor course is 4 weeks, navigator 9 weeks and bombardier
• 9 weeks. Ground school instructors at pilot training fields
take a 4 weeks' course in the latest academic instructi on
i methods. Gunnery ccntral instructors school, the only one for
enli sted men, conducts a 4 weeks' course.
Because all·wcather operati ons require a
of instrument fl ying, an instrument central I11structors school
I was opened in ea rl y '943. In spite 01 Hying blind th rough all
kinds of weather, stu?ents there over .250,000 hours
duri ng the first year WIthout even a Inmor aCCIdent.
In 1943 some 6500 foreign students were trained at ap-
proximately 50 AAP stati ons in the U. S.; 2 8 00 were trai ned
the year before. Early in the war, about onc-thi rd of U. S.
! airfields were bt:ing used to train foreign students.
• Students from all participating nations cxcept the British
t and Duteh take their traini ng, whether Hying or technic::11 ,
I trainees in regular !,-AF . t raining
JlatJons. I he Bnhsh and Dutch usc Ml' eqlllprncnt and au-
I pl anes, but conduct their own programs.
! Tra ining of all forcign students, including British and
· Dl1 tch, is under AAF supervision, wi th training costs being
leharged in the mai n against lend-lease. Upon completing
.their COlil ses, foreign students return to the air forces of their
lown nati ons- except the who report to tIl e Chincsc-
lAmcric:l n wing attached to the U. S. 14th Air Force in China.

AAF training aids are di vided into 5 classifi cati ons:
PUBLICATIONs-Hundreds of highly technical publications have been
printed in attractive illustrated forms. .. .
POSTERS-A staff of skilled artists prepares posters willch dchvcr Im-
portant training messages in
FII.Ms-Training films arc prod uced In conJunchon With the AAF mo·
tion pict ure unit . Combat mov.ie:> taken by AAr overseas camera-
men are often spliced into tnnmng fi lms. In the .past year Ill ore
than 1 50,000, 000 feet of training fi lm were distnbutcd to AAF
stations here and abroad.
RECOCNITION DEVICES-A Rash system of ai rcraft recognition. has
de,'c1oped. In the Rash method a silhouette of, an airplane IS
Rashed on a screen for a fraction of a second, all owmg only enough
time to pick out major identi fying feat ures. a stu?ent h:ls
learned by the Rash system. he is able to recognize any In
a minimum of time. Picture cards and models of planes, slups and
ground equipment are also included .
MEc nANICAL DEVICEs-These are speclahzed tralll lOg eqlllpment.
Link Trainers (see page 105 ). navigation, bombing and gunnery
trainers, and all other mechanical training devices which are not
act ual operational equipment.
Aids to training are coordinated and supplied th rough the
AAF Training Aids Division, loca ted in New York City.
Two civilian training programs. the High School
Corps -and the CAP (Civil Ai r Patrol ) Cadets, are engaged '!'
preparing young men and women for future duty. In the AAI'.
The AAF training organi zation has only an COlmec·
tion with both programs. Members of the Victory Corps are
students in about 20,000 high schools who take courses
whic11 increase their aptitude for military training. Crcdit is
given in the school cur riculum. AAF course incl udes 1.11 athc-
Ill'ltics, phYSics, phYSical training. elementary aeronautics.
CAP cadet trai ning is extracurric.ul ar program f? r .
and girls 15 to 18. In 10c.JlJbes where VI?tOry Corps tram,ll1.g IS
given. a boy or girl must be a member m order to be eli gible
for CAP c:lelet training. The cadets wear AI' nnifonns. meet
rcglll :ul y for evening classes. nrc instru ted by C P members,
RC(luirc:.l ourses nrc militnry and physi al training, code,
craft identificn tion. As the student progresses, he may hegin
preflight trainillg-c1cl1I cntary navigation ::md meteor logy,
first aid, principles of night.
The n)' ing ' .1fCly record for the last half of ' 943 IV.1' 6
fntal accidents per l OO,OOO hours 0 0\\,11 , the same :IS the rec-
ord for the prewar decade 19 1- 1940. and considerabl y less
than the ovcrnll rotc for 1942 and 1943. This safety recol'd
was accompli shed in SI)itc of the trcrnclIdous cxpnnsioll ill
the traiuing progrnm, t lC vast increase in numbers of ai rcraft
and the increasing mechanical complexities of Ryi ll g.
The Ollice of I,'l)'i ng Safety ( formerly Fli gh t ontrol Com-
Ill and) conducts a 5*phase flying S:1fcty program:
AC IOEN7 RBPORI'INc-AlI accident s arc reported first by rndio and
wire. 3Ild later on a standard questionnaire known as Form 14.
This information provides both nn tlp· to thc milllltc ftnd a de·
t3ilcd account of the accident si tuation from which studies arc
made 10 ass ist in dctermining the nccessity for IHc\'cnti\'c mcasures.
FIELD SM'ETY orU\TIONs-Stntist ical infonn:ltion on the nnture and
of accident s combined with the experi encc of sa fety of·
fi cers in the ficld . These. veteran pilots, assist the contincnt .. l air
forces and the Training Command in accident prevcntion. This
is accomplished through obscf\'a tioll of tmining and opcrating pro·
cedurc), resulting in corrective :and recomlllcndations for
mod ification of :airem£! or changes in tmining policy.
tDUCATION- By emphasis. repetition and j" spi rahon, pilots
:Ind arc cncollOlgcd :lI1d assisted in obtai ning SOll11ci
fl ying knowledge. The media for program consist of trai ning
aids. films, posters and other educ:lliol1011 nids.
FI.U; 1I1' cON'r ltOL- l'he fli ght control svs tem l1t ili zes nil nvail nblc
aerial aids, meteorologic:"i (bta and experience, !Iud
tcchni(llIC III the :lIId control of military flights. Fligllt
contro rcquiremclIt nrc determincd :l1Id night control procedures,
mcthods lind practices established for t he AAF.
1'.ljtf)ICAL I>lVI SloN- Openrtillg under the medic:11 policies of
the Air nrgeon. medical invcstigntions of nircmft rl ccidel1 ts :Ire
Illude JpOI1 to determinc the need for prot ecti ve de"iccs,
cmcrgcllc)' equipment and '<lfety procedures.
In the AAF we ent er in to n pnrtll crship with our machines
and inst ruments. It' is a losc rdntioll !) hip, nt tilllcs condu ted
vi rtunll v on a 1Il:11I ·tO·1t1:l1l basis, nlld our nH:.'chanicnl needs
a rc grc;it, both in quality :l1ld I1llln bers, I t takes somc 500,000
scpamte i tems to kecp the AAF in opcrntion. nc 4< ngi nc
bornbcr rC(luircs en ough aluminllrn for 55,000 coffce perco·
In tors; cnough alloy st cel to make 6800 elect ric irons: enough
steel for 160 wash ing Illachines; eHo ugh rubber to rcc:! p 800
:Iut omobilc ti res; enough copper fo r Sso rad io receivers.
To provide uS with Hl c necessary aircraft und coroll ary
c(luipmcnt, a civilian arlll Y of s 'vcntilllill ion mcn :I nd WOmen
work :Iround the clock in more l han 15.000 factories through.
Oll t the nation. To kccp !'his hug' production whc'l tumi ll g:.
som e 60 bi llions of doll ars havc hecn upprop riatcd in th '
la:-. t 1 ycnrs. Itl 1939, a totul of 568 l'lIil ilary nil' raft was pro
dll ced in I'h e U. S. In 1940 0111' production goal sct nt
1)0,000 pl:1 ll cs- a figure soon boost'cd 10 125,000.
Our progmm for glol>:11 nil' suprcmacy c:l ll ed for planes
!)lIpcri or to anything trl c cll cmy ould put in thc nir ag'lill!) l us.
It caned principally lor long-range bombers and fighters to
strike deep into the enemy homeland; for aircraft.
since onl¥ from land bases can aircraft carry the great weigh t
of explosIves necessary to produce any considerable effect on
strategic targets.
Along with the war of production and combat goes the
war of experimental development, of design and research, to
provide the planes that will be in the air tomorrow.
Procurement and production of AAF aircraft, equipment
and accessories are supervised and administered by the Ma-
teriel Command, which al so has the major responsibility for
engineering and inspection.
Production directives reach the Materiel Command with
technical instructions as to the quantity of each airplane by
type, its performance requirements and its delivery schedul es.
TIle actual administration and supervision are done by 3 sec-
tions of the command: production engineering, production
control, industrial planning.
AAF procurement is administered by procurement district
offi ces throughout the U. S. Supervision of these districts,
originally under civilian inspectors, now is conducted by
AAF officers who are also stationed at manufacturing pl ants.
Designations of Aircraft- Letters are assigned to aircraft ac-
cording to the mission each type is designed to perfonn; nu-
merical designations refer to particular models. TIIUS, bomb-
ers bear the designati on "B" for bombardment, as t he B-17 or
B-25. "P" stands for pursuit, although pursuit planes are
now called fighter planes (P-40, P-Sl or P-38). 111is system 01
nomenc1ature was adoptcd in the middle 1920'S, and theo-
Petically, numerical deSignations indicate the order in which
designs were accepted by the AAF for certain types of aircraft.
However, numbers are often assigned to designs which are
subsequently cancelled. Therefore the number 17 in B-17
does not necessarily identifv this model as the 17th bomber
dcsign produced lor the AAF.
"A" stands for attack planes (A-20, A-24 ) whose mi SSion
is low altitude bombing, dive-bombing, or strafing. A P-; 1
modified for dive-bombing is known as an A-36.
Other designations inc1ude: "c" for cargo aircraft (C-47,
C-87); UC lor utility cargo ( UC-78); " F" lor photo-rccon-
nai ssance (F-S is the P-38 photo-type plane) ; " ROO lor rotary
wing aircraft; HC" for gliders ("Ce," cargo glider; ··Te."
training glider ); "0" for observation; " L" for liaison; " AT,"
"BT," "PT" for advance, basic and primary trainers; " X"
indicates plane is experimcntal; "Y" is for service test aircraft.
Dropping of "X" and "Y" indicates p1:me is in producti on'
"z" indicates it has becn dcc1ared obsolete. '
""hen a number is followed by a letter, it means that a
modifi cati?n- such as a change in engine. arma-
or 1l1ternal cql1l£mcnt- has becn eff ected on this par-
ticular type 01 plane. ne B-17G, lor exampl e, indicates the
seventh step of modification in the production model "C"
being the series letter.
Vnltee 0 ·49 Vigilant .
Curtiss . 0·52 Owl
Lockheed 0 · 56 (B. J4) Ventura

Taylorcraft 0 · 57 (L.2). Grasshopper
Aeronica . 0 · 58 (L·3). Grasshopper
Piper. 0 · 59 (L·4). Grasshopper
VlIltee 0 ·62 (L· 5). Sentinel

Boeing . B· 17 Fortress
North American. AT·6

Douglas . B· 18 Bolo
Beech AT·7 Navigator
Douglas . B·23 Dragon
Beech AT· IO \Vichita
Consolidated B·24 Liberator
Beech AT· I I Kansan
North Americ;m. B·25 Mitchell
Boeing AT· 15 Crcwmaker
Martn B·26 Marauder
North American. AT-1 6 I-Ianmd
Boeing B·29 Superfortress
Cessna AT· 17
Vega . B· 34 (0· 56) Ventura Lockheed AT· 18 (A. 29 )
Douglas A· 20 (p. 70) Havoc

VuJtee AT· 19
Douglas A-24 Dauntless
Fairchild . AT·21
Curtiss A·25 Helldiver North American. BT·9. BT·14
Locbeed A·29 (AT. 18 ) Hudson
Flcetwing BT· 12
Martn . A·30 Baltimore
Vultee BT-I3, BT- 15
Vultee A· 31, A· 35 . Vengeance Steamlan I'T· I3, PT· I 7
Brewiter . A·34 Bermuda PT-1 8, PT· 27
North American. A· 36 (1'·51 ) Mustang Fairchild. PT· 19, 1'1'· 23
Ryan. PT· 21 , PT- 22 Recruit
Lockheed 1'· 38 Lightning
Bell P·39 Airacobra
Curtiss P-40 Warhawk Beech
C·43 Traveller
Repu':>lic 1'-47 Thunderbolt Beech CA5 Expediter
North American. 1'·5 I (A· 36) Mustang Curtiss
C·46 Commando
Northrop 1'·61 Black Widow Douglas C-47 Sky train
Bell 1'·63 King Cobra Douglas
C·49, C-53. Sky trooper
Douglas . P·70 (A.20) Havoc Douglas C· 54 Skymaster
C· 56, C·60 . Lodestar
Lockheed C-63 (AT. 18)
Taylo:craft L· 2 (0 ·57).
Grasshopper • (A-29 ) Hudson
L· 3 (0 · 58 ) .
Grasshopper Lockheed C-69 Constellation
L·4 (0·59). Grasshopper Curtiss C·76 Caravan
L· 5 (0·62). Sentinel Consolidnted
C·S7 Liberator

OA·9 Goose
Removal 01 CamouRage- ln Deccmber '943 the AAF or-
dered the removal of camouflage paint from almost all Its aIr-
craft. It is estimated that removal of the fami liar grecnish-
gray p2. int gives AAF planes a slight in top speed, a
weight reduction in fighter types of approxImately 15 to 20
pounds, and in heavy bombardment types of from 70 t o 80
pounds. The action was taken upon recommendahons of com-
bat commanders. Only specialized planes overseas will retain
their camouflage, and in the cont inental U. S. practically all
aircraft will roll off the assembly li nes a metal color.
... _______ UtI."
8 M ______ _ $115.-
•• ____ ___ SIII.-
an _______ 'l1,li1.
1I1I _______ 1735,l1D11,1IIIO
1I1I _______ II52.J14,J5I
1121 _______ 121,123,513
1124- ______ 112,121,lIII0
1121 _______ 121.&11,431
1m _______ $3I,II2,s&1
1133- ______ 125,&73)31
113L ______ I3O,917,702
1131 _______ 150)17,191
193L ____ $62,602,127
I93L ____ $67,308,374
193'- ____ $74,099,532
1940 _____ $243,941,941
1941 _____ $3,893,287,570
1942 ___ .$21,950,242,480
194L __ $10,615,132,795
1944 ___ $23,655,998,000
"Buy A Bomber" Plans-The AAF has received several
thousand military airplanes through voluntary cash contribu-
tions and special War Bond purchases sponsored by com-
munities, organizations and other groups.
Under the cash plan, citizens have made outright gifts of
more than $3,000,000 for the purchase of planes for the
"AI". These contributions have been made both in cash
and in the form of man hours through voluntary payroll de-
ductions. W herever possible, the AAF makes availabl e a
specific plane for a dedicati on ceremony.
The bond purchase " Buy a Born ber" plan reached the
$550,000,000 mark early in 1944. This represents more than
300 0 individual planes, with requests for participation com-
ing in at the rate of about 300 a month . Planes financed
by War Bond purchases can be painted with the name of the
sponsori ng community or non-commercial orgamzatIon.
Quotas set for the purchase of various types of planes for
the AAF under these plans arc as foll ows :
T"incr $ 10.000 $ 1;,000
Fighter 50,000 i;,OOO
Medium bomber 150.000 175,000
I-Ieavy bomber 250,000 300,000
Arrangements for cash purchases arc made through the
office of the Assistant Secretary of \OVar for Air. MF accept-
ances of War Bond financed planes are handled in coopera-
ti on with the U. S. Treasury Department.
Performance and Characteristics-Aircraft characteristics,
such as amlament instal1ations, are undergoing constant
modificat ion. In our B-25s, the bombardier and his compart-
ment were eliminated on some models for installation of a
75 mm cannon and fixed .50 caliber guns. Because modifica-
tions are constantly being made, accompanying chart presents
only normal equipment found on each aircraft type.
A plane'S performa,nee primarily is by its, gross
weight, speed and altitude. A bomber carrymg a maXlfllllm
bomb load of 3 tons cannot fl y as high as when it carries only
onc ton of bombs. a fighter fl ies at high spced, It re-
duces its range by burning up gasoline faster , A plane has
greater range and spced at 30,000 feet, where air is thin, than
at 10,000 feet where more power is expended to overcome
resistance of denser air, For these reasons. it does not neces-
saril y hold true !hat a bomber can ca,rry its
load at its 111aXIIl1UITI speed a n d altI tudc for Its maximum
range, Figures in the foll owing charts nlUst be considered as
presupposi ng spccific operational conditions.
Wing Span Length SPEED (lbs.) CEILING
B-I7G l-Wright 1200hp J03'UY 74'9' 300+ 60,000 JO,OOO
B-24J l-P&W 1200 bp 110' 66'4' 300+ 60,000 30,000
B-25G I-Wrigbtl700hp 67'6' 53' S' 300+ 35,000+ 25,000
B-26B !-P&W 2000 bp 71' 58'2' 300+ 35,000 20,000
B-29 4-Wright 2200 hp 141 '3'
r a d i ~
99' Very heavy; effective speed'
high altitude. '
A-ZOG !-Wrightl700 hp
61'4" 48' 320+ 25,000 20,000+
P-38J 2-Allison 1520 hp 52'
37'10" 420+ 18,000 40,000
P-39Q I-Allison 1325 hp 34'
30' r 375 8500 35,000+
P-40N l-Allison 1325 bp 37'4'
33'4' 350+ 9500+ JO,OOO
P-47D I- P&W 2000 bp 40'S'
36' 1" 420+ 13,500 40,000
P-51D I-Rolls Royce 37'
1500 hp in-line
32'3' 425 10,000 40,000
2-P&W radial Restricted: Long-range, effective speed
air cooled and rate of climb.
P-63 I-Allison 1500 hp
Performance data restricted.
C-46 l -P&W 2000 hp
108' 76'4" 265 45,000 25,000+
C-47 I-P&W 1200 hp
95' 64'6' 200+ 29,000 22,000+
C-MA 4-P&W 1350 hp
117'6'" 93'1()'"
250+ 60,000 20,000+
C-69 <-Wright 2200 hp
123' 95'1'
300+ 90,000+ 30,000
700 6000 13-.50 cal guns;
750 6000 10 or more .50 ca.l
guns; turrets.
400 2000 12-.50 cal guns;
350 2000 12-.50 cal guns;
9-11 Optional; external B-17G
bomb racks.
9-11 Cargo type: e-87,
1000 mile radius B-24J
5-6 Attack:75mmcan- B-25G
non; 14-.50 cal guns.
6 Provision for tor- B-26B
Heavy armor and armament. 4-blade props. B-29
250FB 2000 5 to 9.50 cal guns;
600E turrets.
250FB 2000 1-20 mm cannon j
400+E 4-.50 cal guns.
100E 500 1-37 mm cannon;
4-.50 cal guns.
150E 1000 6-.50 cal guns.
250FB 1000 8-.50 cal guns.
250:FB 1000 6-.50 cal guns.
Heavy a rmor.
1-37 mm cannon;
4-.50 cal guns.
FLG--fixed landing gear
Lyco--Lycomi ng
P&W-Pratt and Whitney
NOTE: Suffix letter after
plane denotes model on
which maximum informa-
tion could be released as
of A2ril 15, 1944.
Night fighter P-70: A-20G
4-20 mm cannon.
Photo type F-5: P-38J
belly tanks, no guns.
Photo type: F-6 P-51D
Dive bomber: A-36
Night fighter; twin- P-61
tail and booms.
Improved super- P-63
36+ men or C-46
15,000+ Ibs. cargo.
28 men or 6000 Ibs.; C-47
36 men or 8000 Ibs. C-54A
Pressurized cabin. C-69


.., ...


0. 0.
-" .Q


How a Plane Is Born-New airplanes are not new in the
sense of being inventi ons. TIl ey are the products of expcri.
mental design and engineering, constant testing and develop·
lll cnt to produce the aircraft that will meet AAF requirements.
The AAF's aeronautical technicians decide what top speed
is required, what ratc of climb the plane must have, how fa st
it may land with safety, how much space is required for tak-
ing off and landing, its range, opera ti onal ceiling, and load-
including the number of crew, weight of fuel, oil, equipment,
bomb load and annament.
Once 3-view drawings based on established specifications
have been prepared, a wind tunnel model is constructed. The
model is subjected to high-speed flow of artificial wind pro-
duced by huge fans, while accurate measuring equipment de-
ternlines efficiency of the dcsign. Next, a full -sized mock-up,
or model of the craft, is constructed from wood and
materials to fa cilitate proper placement of annament and
accessory equipment and to determine whether or not parts
will be accessibl e for maintenance and repair. Final stage is
production of the first model of the experimental airp1anc.
415 11l1S--t
-- -t
::------' -"-t''''11- .1
la.m " t
l a _LEI I I ..
-todificatioo-Modification is the tailoring .job of the AAF
ch fills the gap between the time we on an altera-
J of a plane and the time can Incorporate the
'Ilge into production. To modlficatlO!1 centers, operated on
ttract by commercial airline and manufacturers,/
most of oor airplanes before Here the}
I modernized with the newest eqUipment available"
also are dressed up or stripped accordmg to
:' military requirements and weather conditions. of the the-
r for which they are destined. Dust filters are Installed on
Ines scheduled for operation in dry co.untnes
I their way to arctic regions are 15
ltinued on operational by. servIce m the
where many modification
Obsolescence- Without our modermzatlon system, many
our planes would become obsolete as soon as newer enemy
:uipment was developed and. similar
Iuld be made in our producbon aiTeraft, An oxygen mask
is reliable up to '5,000 feet is replaced by oxygen masks
lat are reliable as high as any of our alfplanes can fly.
eated wing de-icing developments ha,ve made our
IIOt de-icers obsolete, so changes are belllg made on all types
'mremft. ,
i Rotary Wing Aircralt-One 01 the newest types o f alTcraft
I use by the AAF is the helicopter, a rotary wlIl g deSi gn

capable of vertical flight and potentially useful in liaison, re-
connaissance and rescue work.
Whereas a conventional airplane relies on forward specd to
produce airflow over fixed wings, the helicopter flies by ro-
tating a series of small wings (rotors) to induce airflow over
their surfaces sufficient to lift the craft into the air. Its for-
ward motion is obtained in effect by tilting the rotor disc and
its directional control by varying the pitch of the tail rotor.
Like a dragonfly, it can remain stationary in a hovering position
or fly forward or backward, or, unlike a dragonfly, sideways,
Similar in appearance, but different in operating princip1c,
is the autogiro. It differs from the helicopter in that its rotor
only provides lift as does the wing of an airplane, does not
provide forward motion . The plane obtains its forward speed
from a conventional engine-propeller power plant, must main-
tain forward speed to be airborne. It is incapable of zero
speeds, cannot fly sideways or backward and cannot ascend
Gliders- In towed flight, gliders are dependent for forward
motion upon a powered aircraft to which they are attached
by a tow-rope. In free fli ght the glider maintains safe forward
motion by means of a controlled rate of descent. A free fli ght
glider can execute many of the maneuvers done by powered
aircraft and has the added advantage of being able to land in
restricted areas and on almost any type of terrain. Two types
of gliders are now in use by the AAF. One can carry 15 full y-
equi ppcd infantrymen or paratroopers and anothcr 30 t roops
wi th their heavy equipment. Equi pment has been developcd
for pick up of gliders on the ground by planes in fli ght.
The airplane fundamentally is composed of 3 major com-
ponents: the ai rframe, the cngi nc and the propell er (engine
and propeller comprise the power plant ) . An else on the air-
pl ane comes under the headi ng of accessories or equipment.
Airframes- The load-carrying structure of an airplane-thc
airframe- includes wings, fuselage, control surfaccs and thc
meta11ic or fabric skin that covers them.
Aluminum-alloy, alclad and stainless steel arc the ma-
most commonly used in Alclad, IS an
with pure alumInum coating. IS used
I( skin Aluminum-alloy is used for ribs,
of wings and fuselages, and longerons. Stall1-
steel is used for parts, such as engme mounts fi rewal1s
ivhich must withstand high wmg, panel s
being huilt of stainless steel. Even . the basIc com-
airframe there arc many mtncate parts and
details. For example, in the metal wing of a
8. there are 14 pieces of tubing, ri.bs and sheet Skill, and
bolts and nuts plus hundreds of nvets.
J.I."CAI.. _
' . /UPS
il ••• _
l __
.. t.=rr ClWAlTMm
Plastics and impregnated plywoods have been substituted
for metals in some airframes. However, because physical
erties of non-metallic materials change under radical varia-
tions of tempcrntuTc and humidity, plastics and similar sub-
stitutes are not as reliable as metal s for structural parts of
combat aircraft.
Airfoils- Techni cally, an airfoil is any 8at or curved surface
designed to obtain reaction from the air through which it
moves. The largest airfoil is the wing, which is designed to
develop the major part of the lift of an aircraft .
The AAF today is using 2 types of airfoil cross sections:
conventional. and low drag or laminar Row sections. The con-
ventional airfoi l has its maximum thickness about 30 % of
a 0
.ID· ... S
"",,· WIN' BlPlANI
the distance from the leadi ng edgc of the wing Th I .
flow airfoil seer h . . e am mar
. Jon as Its maximum thickness 40 to 60 Of
rom the leadmg edge. 10
Conventional types are I . .
"f d . ess sensitive to surface irregular-
lies, an be caslly produced. For extremcJ hi h.
speed and hIgh altitude performance, the laminar Ho: airfoil
IS bemgth,dopted because It IS designcd for higher speeds with
a smoo er fl ow of ai r over the wing
Pressurized C . .
th . . in the substratosphere where
f e IS to sustain life has led to development
o e . cabIn on some AAF combat aircraft A
enables ai rmen to mOve about freel jn 'the
s mtenor, breathing nonnal air at high altl d . 't
C Immatcs the need fo r individual oxygen supply. u es, 1
are z methods of pressurizing. One is an indepcnd-
to the cabm Itself; such air is of sufficient density
em perature to allow normal breathing The . . I .
the same. as a hot air blower system' . The IS
utd;ze; :e engme supercharger to divert back into the
par.O e ai r supplied to the cngine.
guthn crew locations and danger of bul-
. at render it inoperati ve, make
sunzatlOn of combat aupJancs difficult. prcs-
I every aircraft has a system of landing fl
3re . owered from. the trai ling edge of the win
to mCrease til e hft coellicient of the' d
wmg an t lllS

lower stalling speed. The drag eflects are benefi cial t.o a cer-
tain extent in slowing down the aircraft . The popular Fowler
flap protrudes beyond the trailing edge of the wing and hence
increases total wing area. Other types fit into the underside
of the wing. Dive Haps, or dive brakes, applicable on fighters
and dive bombers, slow down the airpl ane in its dive to gi ve
the pilot more time to sight the target accurately, permit a
steeper dive angle and a slower pul1-out. Maneuver fl aps may
be lI sed as auxiliary control surfaces whi ch facili tate the mak-
ing of sharper turns by high-speed aircraft . Flaps are operated
from the cockpit.
Landing Gear- Landing gear, or undercarriage, is the air-
plane's means of mobi li ty when it is on the ground. In the
air, landing gear generally is retracted into the plane's engine
nacelles or wings to help streamline the aircraft, although a
fixcd type is found on liaison and trainer type planes.
The AAF utilizes 2 general types of landing gear on its
planes: conventional gcar with tail-wheel or ski d, and the
tri cycle gear wi th a wheel extended from the nose of the fuse-
lage. T he latter permits easier operati on on small fields by
eliminating the ground looping tendency common to con-
" cntional type gears; however, on rough fi elds the nose wheel
of the t ricycle gear is more susceptible to damage .
Retractable t ypes operate e1cctrically or hydraulicall y.
Some gears retract outward and sideways into wing wells as
on the B-24; others rctract inward into wing well s as on the
some pull up into engine nacell es as on the
TireS-Ai rplane t ires wear out rapidly because of high land-
ing and takeoff speeds and incrcased weigh ts of modern air-
cmft. In wartime the probl em is doubl y serious because our
comba t aircmft often land on crushcd rock, coral, dirt or
metal runways. reinforcing layers of rubber, synthetic
and natural, and cotton or rayon arc rcquired to withstand
the impact of 3o-ton bombers landing on rough strips at
speeds over 1 00 mi les pcr hour. Sizcs of ti res range from tiny
ones that support the tails of training gliders and light air-
planes to hugc 8·foot ti res on the B"9 "Bying laboratory."
Engines- Before the airplane crill Ry it must have a source
of power- the engine. \ Vithout power, the airframe is little
more than a Speed, altitude, performance and the
amount of weIght that can be sustained in Hi ht de end
upon the and number of engines insrall ed. P
Most development today is concentrated
types: radial all-cooled and in-line liquid-cooled.
large frontal area of radIal engines tends to dest 'd I
d . d . roy an 1 ea
aero ynanuc eS,lgn, new radial engines have a red uced
fr?"tal area Improved cowli ngs which compare favorabl
WIth the deSign of m-line engines of cOIn parable h Y
M . bl < ( orsepower
. alor pro ems that must be solved in aircraft engine
SIgnS are devc10pment of ,more horsepower for a iven dis-
pJacem.ent, and m?re effiCIent and economical bon
of fuel, mOre specific problems are cooling, high altitude ig-

nition, carburetion and supercharging. Additional fins on the
cy1inders have helped solve the cooling problem on radial
engines; installation of special dampcrs and other devices has
eliminated some vibrations; new fuel inj ecti on systems and
new lubricating oils have eliminated other problems. Con-
tinual progress in solution of these problems has made high
horsepower engines possible without increasing the pound-per-
horsepower ratio.
Jet Propulsion- Perhaps the greatest development in aero-
nautical engineering of the last decade is the jet propelled
airplane, the most interesti ng feature of which is elimination
of the propcller. The principle of jet propulsion overcomes
some of the speed limitations of the propeller-driven airplane.
\Ve can reasonably expect the jet engine to add 1 00 miles
or mOre an hour to the speed of airplanes.
In its practical application jet propul sion may be defined
as any kind of reaction motor which develops forward thrust
by the rearward emission of a jet of air, gas or liquid. In the
AAF jet propelled fighter, now in production, the engine is
quite simple. It is a gas turbine, and the gases it creates, after
driving a turbo-compressor, are discharged through a re-
stricted tail pipe nozzle, thus giving the engine its thrust.
The engine is a modification of a British design; it presents
few new problems to the pilot other than how to fly a sim-
pler airplane.
Takeoff Rockets- Rockets may be utilized to assist take-
offs, are slung under the fuselage or wings of a fighter or
bomber aircraft with conventional engine-propeller power
plant. Ignited by the pilot from the cockpit, the rocket adds
forward thrust to the horsepower pull of the engines, thus
permitting shorter takeoff runs with maximum loads.
Superchargers-Engines, like people, must have oxygen to
breathe at high altitudes; engines need oxygen to mix with
gasoline to obtain a combustible mixture in their cylinders.
The oxygen mask for the aircraft engine is the supercharger,
of which the AAF has 2 types: the turbo-supercharger and
the geared supercharger. Both compress rarefied air to a den-
sity equal to air at sea level: both function at altitudes up to
43,000 feet.
_--- CIWII(I
The turbo-supercharger is operated by the force of engine
,exhaust g3SCS upon a turbine wheel and impcl1 er or air com-
g>ressor. The gases pass through the turbine wheel, spinning
it; the wheel rotates the impeller which compresses the rarc-
fied air. The air is then fed back into the engine in sufficient
to support combustion when mixed with gasoline.
The geared supercharger, as its name implies, is driven by
!3 series of gears in train which turn its impeller, compressing
Ithe air ard at the saIne ,time feeding it into the cylinders.
Aviation Fuels-Except for those airplanes which have
engines. aircraft must be serviced with a spe-
leial fuel (high octane ) and not the type of motor fucl used
in automobi les. The use of an inferior anti-knock value fuel
in tactical aircraft would result in overheating, detonation
nd pre-igniti on which would burn holes in pistons and cause
ther damage.
Octane rating is an arbitrary scale adopted to indi cate thc
omparative performance relative to the fuel's resistance to
ctollation. This scale runs from zcro to 100 octanc. Fuc1s
ratings above 100 arc rated on a different scale desig.
rated as the Performance Number Scale. Ninety-five per cent
f the uscd in U. S. combat pl anes today exceeds
he 100 octane number in anti-knock values.
Below is shown adaptation of fuel s to type of aircraft:
Liaison 80-octane or aJl-purpose motor ve-
hicle fuel
Primary Trainers 73-octane aircraft engine fuel
Trainers 87 to 97-octane
AJI Tactical T ypes 100/ 130 Performance Number
Self-sealing Gasoline Tanks--To help prevent igniting of
gasol ine tanks by enemy gunfi re, our aircraft engineers have
developed a gasoline tank which, wh il e not bull etproof, less-
ens danger of explosion and prevents loss of large amounts
of fuel through bullet holes. Thi s was accomplished by insert-
ing a series of linings of rubber and other materials in the
tank. The linings are capable of sealing instantly multipl e
punctures made by bursts from both light and heavy machine
gun fire and flak. This development has saved countl ess air-
men and aircraft.
Droppable Fuel Tanks--The range of fighter planes, once
hampcred by limited fuel supply, has been increased sub-
stantially by the use of droppable auxiliary fuel tanks attached
bencath wings and fuselages. Streamlined to the shape of a
teardrop, these droppable tanks enable fighter planes like the
P-47 and P-51 to fl y long bomber escort mi ssions. Once the
fi ghter plane has used up its auxiliary fuel suppl y, the tanks
are released by the pilot, enabling the plane to fight off en-
emy attacks and return to its base on the fuel supply in its
wi ng tanks. Capacity varies from 150 gall ons to 300 gallons.
Some fi ghters carry 2 auxiliary tanks under the wings and one
tank under the belly of the fuselage.
Propellers-The power plant of any airplane is more than
just the engine. Jt is the combination of engi ne and propeller.
The engine is the source of power for the propcll er. The
propeller transforms thnt energy into thrust by boring itself
th rough the air and pulling the airplane af ter it.
Today the AAF has propell ers whi ch range from small
wooden 2-bladed propellers less tllan 6 feet in diameter to
giant 4-bbded all-metal propell ers 2 0 feet in diameter. Most
comlnon in use today is the 3-bhlded propell er although 4-
bbded props are becomi ng increasingly conventional.
I Pitch-Propeller blades are so constructed and operated that
! they may be turned at varying degrees, to take larger or smaller
} aIr. Increasing or decreasing forward thrust .
I Smce au densIty varies with altitude, it is desirable to vary the
I angle of the prop blade to maintain a constant degree of
I thrust. The angle at which the blade is set is called pitch.
A comparatively new experiment with propellers is the use
I of reversible pitch control which enables the pilot to reverse
, completely the pitch of the blades, thereby creating nega-
tive thrust which acts as a brake to the forward movement of
: an Th.c pitch ,propener is useful in slowing
down, aircraft In flight. decreasmg the landing run after a
I plane 5 the ground and supplementing
the flaps In reducing landing speed of large airplanes.
Propellers also are classified according to the followino
operating principles: b
1 The fixed pitch propeJJer, as its name implies, has a fixed pitch
: that is !tatiollary at all times.
'The adjustable propcJJer has detachable blades, the pitch of
. 15 whllc tIlC planc is on the ground and the propel-
ler IS not In mohon. -
The has. a mechanism operated by
I a hydrauliC wlHch permits tIl e pilot to control pitch during
I fa.keoO In flI ght at eltlwr a predetermined low pitch or lligh
pitch pos.hon. The low pitch position is used for takeoff and thc
high pitcll for normal flight operations.
. The hydraulic .constant propeller is conttolled in Right by a
I governol whIch automatically changes the pitc1J of the propellcr to
maintain constant engine speed. The revolutions per
minute may be adjusted by the pilot dUl1ng There. are. 2
types: one employing oil prcss ll1e Jrom the lubncatmg
system, the other having a selt-contall1ed hydraulIc UnIt .
The electric constant speed propelJer operates much the same . as
the hydraulically-controlled propeller the power lor changmg
the pitch is provided by a small e1cctnc motor on the front of the
propeller hub, which is c<:>ntrolled by a constant speed governor ad-
justable from the cockpit.
Feathering- The hydrauli c and electri c constant pro-
pcllers llsed on are .. A
full -feathering propcllcr IS onc m which pItch changmg
mechanism can turn the blades to approximately a 90-degree
angle of pitch relative tothe leading edge of the wing, thereby
presenting a knife edge m the dIrection of flight .
tages are twofold: it propell er from
and causing excessive VibratIOn lTI. thc event of fml -
ure and. with motion stoppcd, It presents the minimum
amount of drag, whereas a turning propcll cr would create
considerable resistance.
1 2 3
Electrical Systems--Elcctrical systems P?wer f?r
more than 100 pieces of equipment and III an alf-
plane. These include. vari ous of radiO e9Ulpment , all
kinds of lighting eqmpment, every 1?lece of arma-
ment; heatcrs, motors and other auxlhary esscntIals. .
Motors are llsed for many purposes: the largest oncs 11ft
landing gcar and turn gun turrets; small est operate gyro-
scopic instruments. thesc limIts, motors are llsed for
starting engines, opcratmg .bomb bay and cowl . 8<1.1)5,
remote positioning of eqmpment, opcratI on of ventIlatmg
fans and other functions_
A normal installation provides for onc generator on each
engine with a rating of 6 kilowatts ( I Y3 horsepower): The
units on 100 heavy bombers generate enough electnclty to
care fOi the requirements of a community of 1200 people.
The electrical systems of large plancs require approximately
6 miles of electrical wiring.
During the last 5 years, as aircraft demands on the
trical system have increased, generators have been reduced
from" weight of 43 pounds per kilowatt to 4 pounds per
Hydmulic Systems-Hydraulic systems wind like intricate
pipe-lines throughout the aircraft, supply the extra forces
which easily and smoothly motivate the airplane's flaps,
gine cowl flaps, dive brakes, landing gear mechanisms, bomb
bay doors and turrets. It would impossil:1e to p.cr-
fonn these operations manually In fhght due to wmd
ance. For operation of the system, heavy 011
is stored in a reservoir. When the hydrauhc system IS actu-
ated by the pil ot, Huid pressure is built up in a hydraulic
pump, then released into the proper pipe-lines; the flipping
of a switch or handle operates a series of diaphragms to raise
or lower the flaps, landing gear, etc.
Today's warplane is virtually a Hying gun platform. OUf
• with eight . 50 caliber guns, can firc in salvo at the rate
of 6000 rounds per minute, creating 96,000 pounds of impact
pressure. A Hight of 13 P-47S has 3 times the striking poweJ
of a machine gun unit in a Gennan infantry regiment while
a formation of 13 bombers. with 75 mm cannon, carries twice
the firepower of the same rcgimcnt' s howitzers.
FIXED CUNS are those mounted in rigid position, generally fi red by
remote control and set to fire in one direction in respect to the
airplane. \Vith a fi xed gun the airplane itself is aimed at the target,
as in single.scat fighters.
i ,.........- SJ "

=- / 7- ( -
r ',. (turret·operated)
" -
FLEXIBLE GUNS are those which are installed on movable mounts
which emJble the gun to be fired in various direct ions and to fol·
low a moving target. They may be either hand-held or turret·
.50 CALIBER MACHINE GUN-The .50 caliber gun, capable of fir ing at
a rate of more than 800 rounds per minute, weighs only 65 pounds.
Its projectile leaves the muzzle at a speed of over 2900 feet per
second and is capable of penetrating any and all parts of an air-
plane including the engine. The small size and light weight of t he
complete round (shell ) permit more than 1000 rounds per gun
to be carried in some planes. This gun is mounted in the fuselage
or in the wings, or both, of most of our fi ghters. All flexible guns,
both hand·held and power turret mounted, in AAF bombardment
ai rplanes are at present .50 caliber.
CUNSIGHTS-In the last war the ordinary ring and bead sight, common
to the hunter, was standard for all aircraft guns. Now the ring and
bead sight is used only on hand-held gUlls. Refl ector type and
comput ing type gunsights in our turrets and fi ghter aircraft elimi-
nate the need for lining lip the gunner's eye, front and rear sights,
and the target ; the sight itself actually projects a sight reticle
image on a transparent refl ector plate which, at infinity, moves
with the gunner's eye. Thus, although the gunner's head may be
in continual movement in rough ai r, the sight line and target will
remain together. New computing sights have been developed and
placed in production for use in all gun positions.
AIKCRAFT ROCKETs- Investigat ions and experimentation with aircraft
rockets arc being conducted to produce new rocket projectors
and projectiles not only as offensive weapons but for defensive
action as well .

.. BAll TUlRET
TURRETS-Because the high velocity of air that flows over an air-
plane' s surfaces in Hight makes it difficult to turn guns into the
airstream by hand, booster motors 3rc lIsed to help move and aim
Acxible guns in aircraft. Most effective method of solving the
problem has been the development of hydraulic and electrically
operatce gun turrets.
The turret is an independent unit . It has: a seat; hand controls
that tum it in azimuth and eleva tion and fire the guns; oxygen and
interphone communication equipment; heating units for elec-
trically heated Hying suits, gunsights, ammunition belts and con-
tainers; its own armor protection; a plexi-glass dome or enclosure
to provide maximum visibility for the gunner. Other than remote
controlled turrets which at present are limited in use, there arc 6
basic ty?CS of turrets on AAF bombers : nose turrets, chin turrets,
ball turrets, tail turrets, upper turrets and training types.
.EMOTE CONTROLLED TURRETs-Certain new turret installations in-
corpor.de remote control mechanisms that enable the guns to be
6red electrically from sighting st1tions apart from the turrets
themselves. ( By taking the gunner out of the turret , size and
weight of the turrets can be reduced.) Such installations permit
cleancr acrodynamic features resulting in increased speed and
r AERIAL CANNON-A 75 mOl cannon now is standard armament on
some models of the B-25 and AAF armament experts are experi-
menting with the installation of still larger millimeter guns. The
75 mm gun is mounted in the forw<lfd fuselage and nose of the
8 -15. It is a standard M-4 cannon with a specially constructed
spring that absorbs the recoil shocK. The breech of the gun is
located behind and below the pilot's seat. The barrel extends for-
ward under the cockpit through the tunnel formerly used by the
bombardier in reaching his nose position; the muzzle emerges
from a concave port on the left side of the nose. The complete
rOllnd fired by this cannon weighs 2 0 pOllnds. Each projectile is
26 inches long and weighs 15 pounds. Just above the breech of
the gun is a shell rack holding about 2 0 shells. The rapidit}' of
fire depends on the loading technique of the cannoneer USlIflll y
the navigator. The cannon has an eff ecti ve range of about 2000
yards but can toss a projectile several miles.
The 37 mm c.. 1nnon, alt hough not a rapid-fire we."1pon, does fire
its shells from clips of 5 in much the same manner as an automatic
pistol. A new magazine employs a horse-collar cl ip that can feed
30 shells into the gun. The 2 types of 37 mm cannon in use today
are the M-4 and M-9 guns. Both hurl the same size projectile,
which weighs littlc marc than onc pound, but t he M·9 has in-
creased veloci ty over the M-4. Both have a penetrating force that
will cut through armor plate the thickness of their diameter. It is
used on the 1'-39. Smallest cannon in AAF fi ghti ng planes is the
20 mm rapid fi re gUll which uses a projectile 3 times the size and
weight of the .50 caliber. This cannon has a muzzle velocity of
about 2800 feet per second and the projectile can penetrate an
inch of armor plate. T he P-38 is equipped with a 2 0 mm cannOIl.
Ammunition- Three types of ammunit ion are used in 111a·
chine guns: armor picrcing, incendiary and tracer. They arc
uscd in variolls .combinations on gun belts, the most common
being 2 each of incendiary and armor piercing to one tracer.
Tracer ammunition contai ns a chemical composition that
burns from the rear forward. giving the illusion of a stream
of fire. TIl ey arc used in observing the direction of fire, for
incendiary purposes, in signalling and for the psychological
effect upon the enemy.
Incendiary ammunition has the primary purpose of start·
ing fi res. T he charge is designed for conAagration rather than
pcnetrati on.
Armor Protection- Protcction against gunfire in airplanes
is provided by steel armor plate, aluminum-all oy deAector
piate, bullet resistant glass and splash shields (guards bolted
along the edge of armor platc). The use of ea(;h depcnds
upon how mueh of the plane st ructure the bullet must pass
through before it hits the protective material, the angle at
which it hits the material , and the necessary requirements as
to vision and movement.
Today we arc using many types of specialized bombs:
. incendiary. fragmentation, annar piercing, semi-annor piere-
. ing, general purpose, light case blast and chemical. Approxi-
: mate weIghts of some of these bomb types 3fC:
General Purpose
Armo: Piercing
2, 4& 100 Ib,.
20 & 260 Ib,.
4 Ib,.
100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 & 4000 lb •.
1600 Ib, .
.n ....
General purpose hom bs are designed for destruction or
demolition, the effect being produced chiefly by the violence
10.£ the although fragments may cause addi-
bonal damage, particularly when the detonation occurs above
pi ercing and semi-armor piercing bombs are
designed to pierce the deck armor of battl eships, heavy con.
cretc structures, and similar highly resistant targets.
Incendiary bombs range in size from 2 to 500 lbs. Small
types generall y are rel eased in an aim able duster that dis.
perM.:s after leaving the aircraft. Various chemical fillings are
used the construction of the target determining which is
empioyed. Frequently high explosive. b?mbs are released
upon a target first, followed lOcendI,anes; then, more ex-
plosives. The result is that Rammg debrIS and sparks are
t ered throughout the devastation caused by the exploSIves.
Biggest of the bombs we are usi ng today are as
block bust ers. These giants weigh 4 000 pounds apIece and
are made with a light metal casing; 77.4 % of thClf total
weight is a high The :z.ooo-pound
bomb has about 56% hIgh explosIve content and the 1000-
pound bomb, whose metal. components weigh about 435
pounds, carries a high explosIve charge of about 530 pounds.
initiatinl flash
usually 1/10 $econd
first hiah order detonatioll
buitds up detanation to hilber oreer
compiete detonation
Destructive force bombs varies with the size and high
explosive content. A l oo-pound bomb with an instantaneous
fuze, when dropped from a given altitude on sandy. will
blast a crater approximately 2 feet deep, and 9 feet III
ter, displaci ng about 40 cubic of dirt. A bomb welghll1g
a full ton will blast a hole approxImately 7 feet deep and 20
feet in diameter, displacing about 1300 cubic feet of dirt.
On the other hand, a delayed action bomb will greater
destruction. For instance, a 10o-pound bomb With delayed
action fuze in sandy soil will make a crater 5 feet deep and
I 20 feet 1Il diameter, di splacing approximately 800 cubic feet
of dirt. A 2ooo-pounder will di splace more than 1600 cubic
feet, resulting in a crater approximately 17 feet in depth and
50 feet in diameter at the surface.
Bomb Racks and Release Mechanism-Internal bomb racks
are designed to carry all sizes of bombs in use except the 4000
1 pounders which are carried on special external racks. Made of
f steel alloys, bomb racks are part of the airplane structure,
: sometimes serve as reinforcements in the plane's fuselage.
1be number of bombs that can be carried on a rack de-
, pends upon the diameter and length of the bomb itself.
I That is, more l oo-pound bombs can be carried than 500-
pounders because the lighter bomb is smaller in diameter;
consequently more of these can he placed one above the
t other in bomb racks.
· Shackles hold the bombs in the racks. Inside the bomber
I the shackle and the bomb release mechani sm are like a nut
and bolt. One is of little use without the other; normally
! bombs are hooked onto the shackle in 2. places. The small
hooks, operated electrically or manually, will support several
I thousand pounds and, with the proper pressure, will allow the
bomb to drop. On a mission the release is operated elec·
I trically. Hand mechanisms are for emergency only. Bomb
bay doors are controlled by electricity on B-! 7S and by hy-
draulic systems on other planes. ] n both instances they are
· operated by a switch in the bombardier's compartment. ]t is
mechanically impossible for a bomb to drop from its shackle
when the doors are in closed position, thus safeguarding the
airplane. This safety measure is made possible by a tiny
J switch which completes the circuit on the bomb release only
when the doors are in open position.
No bomb is considered ali ve when it is inside the bomber.
I A special anning device arms the bomb fuzes only when they
• are free of the plane. Generally spe.1king. as the bomb fall s,
1 a propeller, whirled by the air, unscrews itself to arm the
fuze. Upon impact of the bomb, fuzed inst.1ntaneol1sly, the
powder train of the fuze detonates the explosive charge. A
time fuze in the bomb can delay its detonati on for any desired
t length of time. (CHAPTER CONTINUED ON PAGE 110)


C- 87 (cargo version of 8-24)




14 . PDl equip. gen
mellt indicator. pressure.
15. Bomb doors 29 & 30. Mani·

® CDQ)0 CD
® @
®®® \V\V 33 1
12 13. i®@@
@@@@ 45 1111 @®
open. fold pressure,
16. 130mb release. left & right en-
17 & 18. Hydrau. gilles.
lie pressure 31 & )2. Tacllom-
waming lights. eter, left &

J & 3. Carbu-
retor ai r tem-
2 . A<:<:elerometer.
4. Radio compass
; . Turn indicator.
6. Artificial hori·
zon or Right
J 9. Vacuum warn- right engines.
ing light. 33. Flap position
2 0 . Volt meter. indicator.
21 . Hydraulic 34 & 35. Fuel
pressure emer- pressure, left &
gency system. rigl1t engines.
22 . Hydraulic pres· 36 & 37. Oil pres·
sllre system. sure, Jeft &
7. Marker bea- 23. Vacuum rigllt engines.
Call. ga uge. 38 & 39. Oil tern-
B. Mtirneter. 24 . Air speed perature, left &
9. Air speed in· control. right engines.
dicator. 25 & 27. Pilot's& 40 & 41. CyJill-
JO. Tnrn & bank. copilot's oxy- deT head tem·
I J . Hate of cli mb. gen flow indi- perature, Jeft &
1 2 & 1 3. Prop ca tor. rigllt engines.
{cather, left & 26 & 28. PiIot's& 42 . "rce air tem-
right engines. copilot's oxy- perat ure.
43. Fuel tank
44. Fluorescent
light control.
45. Ignition mas-
ter switch.
46. Switch for
fuel, la nding
gear, etc.
47. Auto pilot turn
48. Turbo-super-
charger regu-
49. Lock for mIx·
ture controls
and super-
50. Mixture con·
5J. Lock lor
52 & ;3. Throt
54. Carburetor cur
Instruments-Airmen depend upon instruments to get
them off the ground, to keep them in the air, to keep them
on the right course, to bomb their target and to return
them to their base. Consequently the instruments that go
into the modem fighting plane arc its mechanical brains,
the liai son devices between man and science. Flight
ments, navigation instruments and engine instruments 3rc of
equal importance to the Success of a mission. A few funda.
mental Hight instmments are: bank and turn indicator, air
speed indicator, rate of c1imb indicator, fli ght indicator or
TIE r",1CN. mil AlWAYS
ruos 10 PIIIMI 10 IH[

--- . --
--- -- ,
. --
-- - J ....... __
n ,. 4--- r ___ _
fi r.. ....

artificial horizon, and directional gyro. They tell the pi lot the
position of his airplane relative to its Own axis, the speed at
which it is being propelled through ti,e air and its rate of
climb. (For illustration of instrument panel with explanatory
ley see page
Engine instruments indude: temperature gauges, fuel mix-
ture indicators, oil gauges, coolant and pressure gauges;
vacuum, fuel, manifold tachometers.
Navigation instruments enable Our AAF fliers to make
long-range flj ghts over water and through unfavorable weather.
With the aid of electronic devices, they also make possible
bombing through the overcast.
11 B- Mitchel1 bomber contains approximately 128 in-
t Ie ts
thermometcrs docks, altimeters. etc.; the B-17 s rumen - ,
h s 323' the P-3 8 fi ghter 90 . f
a Auto-Pilot- The automati c pilot which enables some f
aircraft to maintain straight and level 37{ot(
attitude independent of manual contro y )' d'
great value in a bom,bing run (see page 2 0 an In
hydraulic, usually adapted
u 0 t PI nes and ti,e electri cally controlled, usually to transpor p a ,
ad;) ted to combat aircraft . Both contain 2 vacuum-opcrated
p 0 es one revolving on a vertical axis, the other on a
Each of these gyroscopes has a series of
control points which act uate impulses that
lane's controls, ai1crons. elevators and rudder: lC ,P
are operated automatically by the changmg atlltude of
the airplane ItSel f.
I Electronics-The unusual speed and mobility of air opera-
tions have stimulated the development of electrical devices
which bll within the sphere of e1ectronics_ Such devices are
I used to obtain and transmit information needed to put com-
i bat aircraft in the right place at the right time; they are play-
ing an increasingly important part in combat operations and
strategic planning.
These devices are of 2 types: the 6rst includes radio as
we have always known it; the second includes new locating
devices which are considered among the outstanding techni-
cal achievements of the present war.
Science is making great strides in giving eyes to aircraft
operating in darkness and above the overcast. 111cse eyes are
needcd for navigation, for 6nding and hitting the target and
often for landing.
The airplane, depending on the type, may have such elec-
tronic equipment as command radio set (relatively short-
range ) ; liaison radio set (short and long-range ); radio com-
pass: electronic altimeter; devices for precision and automatic
navigation; devices for locating the target; identification de-
vices to determine whether detected aircraft 3rc fri endly or
hostile; devices for detecting enemy transmi ssions; devices for
interfering with enemy transmi ssions; electronic gear to be
droppe<l or parachuted for special operations.
Fire Extinguishers-Fire extinguishers are standard
tionary equipment on all aircraft because of fire hazards from
inftamrnable gasoline and incendiary bullets. The 2 types are
hand-held and built-in extinguishers. Hand-held extinguishers
are located where the danger of fire is greatest in a plane.
Built-in systems are used in various parts of planes but espe-
cially in engine nacelles. The engine fire extinguisher system
consists of high pressure cylinders containing carbon di oxide.
These are controlled from the pilot's or navigator's
l compartment, and operated by cable controls or electricity.
Parachutes-Three types of personnel parachutes are com-
mon : seat type, back type, and chest or quick at tachable type.
In anticipation of war in the Pacific, the AAF subst ituted
, nylon for silk in parachutes before war with Japan had cut
off our supplies from the Far East. Because it is plastic, nylon
fiber does not disintegrate with age to the extent of silk 6he,
which is an animal matter. Silk chutes were limited to a usc-
ful life of 7 years; nylon chutes apparently last indefinitely.
Into one nylon chute goes enough material to make 100
pairs of ladies' hose; 4 times that much goes into the nylon
shroud line, that hang down from the folds and support the
harness, whi ch is made of a tough fabric.
The parachute used in most crew positi ons is the fl exible
back type. It confomlS to · the shape of the back, t1lCrcby
allowing compl ete freedom of movement. The pack is thin1
has a minimum of metal ribs to hold its shape. It enables
crewmen to climb about in the small confi nes of bombers and
gives the fighter pil ot more freedom and comfort.
Some crew positions, such as ' the ball turret on bombers,
arc too small for the wearing of any parachute. Such
men use the chute whi ch roll s up in a small
pack and is snappcd onto D-shaped ri ngs that are a part
of the harness worn on the chest. These harnesses are worn
at all t imes, and the chute is stored near the escape hatchway.
The seat type parachute folds into a small pack and is
harnessed around shoulders and thighs; it also serves as a
sea t cushion.
Aerial Delivery Parachutes- Cargo parachutes, varying in
diameter from small 2Y2-foot chutes for dropping messages,
to giant 48-foot chutes capable of dropping 30oo-poqnd
loads, are bei ng used by the AAF to supply ground troops
wi th equipment and materi el. A 12-foot chute is one of the
latest types used for dropping sea-rescue kits.
The giant chutes, the AAF' s largest , are util ized for
droppi ng iron matting for emergency runways, land-mines,
demoliti on equipment , mortars and heavy war vehicles.
Parachutes used for aerial delivery are made of rayon or
cotton, depending upon the weight of the equipment to be
dropped. Variously colored canopies are used, each color
representing a specific item of equipment or supply, to enable
ground troops to identify parachutes when they land.
Oxygen Equipment- In addition to oxygen masks and
lators (see page 244 ), the storage of oxygen in cyli nders has
undergone a major change. Early types of cylinders were
made of heavy sted to withstand the high pressure of 2000
pounds per square Inch. When It was discovered that such
cylinders would explode with the force and effect of a small
shrapnd bomb upon being struck by bullets or Oak, new
hght-wught low-pressure cylinders were developed and
i,n all of our ai!craft. The change-over also fa.
clhtated refillmg of the cyhnders from conventional com-
mercial storage cylinders.
Aerial Photography Equipment-Two of the most com-
monly used high altitude cameras are the K-3B and the
K-IB. Both are electncally operated. The K-3B has 24-
lenses With 3 focal lengths; the K-IB is larger and takes a
9 by I B mch photograph. A telephoto camera is the K-
type; versIOns of tillS cam,era are into usc.
1!te T 3
, and T-S cameras are speCIal map-makmg cameras
With multiple lenses capable of photographing hundreds of
square mIles m one photograph. One. camera of this type is
equipped to record on. one fil.m the time of day, date, serial
number of the negative, aJbt1!d,e, speed, vertical angle of
and data pertammg to the mission which
might be of help m working out tactical maneuvers.
continuous-strip cameras are installed in fast-
8Ylng planes for low sweeps; these cameras have wide-open
lenses, the speed of shutter and plane being synchronized.
They have been used at low altitudes at speeds above 4
miles per hour on moving objects such as tanks cars and
vehicles: One picture taken from 3 50 head-on
a automobile on, a was so clear that
e gas, rabon sbcker on the wmdshleld was plainly visible.
Spec .. 1 stereoscopic processes enable photographs to be
such a manner that experts Can tell the height of a
bUlldmg or the depth of a trench.
Wright Field- Frequently referred to as the technical nerve
center of the MF, Wright Field is the home of the largest
aeronautical center, in the world, Seven mil es east of
OhIO, the mstallatlon was built in 1926 and named
In of the J:>i oneering W righ t brothers who had Hown
then kites, ghdcrs over thi s same plot of ground.
To a VIsitor, the 7000 acre insta1Jati on, headquartcrs of
the Materiel Command, looks like a gigantic conglomerate
of surrcalist Hollywood movie sets: huge caterpmar-like wind
tunnels, arched hangars that dwarf the B-19, a runway that
leads from the level field almost to the top of
a 200 foot hill , a gaping trench excavated from
the hillside as the practice firing range for ex-
perimental aircraft and a maze of weirdly
shaped steel and concrete structures where
propcllers are whirled until they shatter and engines roar day
and night.
If the equipment at the field were put into action at one
time, airplanes would swoop down over the fi eld and pi ck
up motorless gliders, and wingless helicopters would hang in
mid-air; captured Gennan and Japanese aircraft would enter
a traffic pattern filled with heavy bombers and tiny £Odio-
controll ed target planes; multi -colored parachutes woul d fl oat
down with dummies hanging from them.
In the Materiel Command laboratori es at the fi eld are
thousands of activities : a civilian behind the control room
panel of the world' s largest high-speed wind tunnel plavs
with 40o-mile-an-hour tornadoes; frost-<::overed men, bundled
up like Eskimos, sit in test chambers that simulate the thin
air and 50·bel ow-zero temperatures of 40,000 feet altitllde;
volunteers sweat under intense arti ficial heat rays while fl oat-
ing in a small rubber raft on the sti rred-up waters of an indoor
salt water pool; a woodcraftsman carefull y puts the fini shing
touches on a delicate model of a secret plane; thousands of
pounds of lead are pil ed on the wings of a sleek-looking
combat aircraft until ribs and spars crumple and snap; a tech·
ni cian adjusts the fine internal mechanism of a bombsight
with a watchmaker's care; a 75 mm cannon blasts a warning
note to the enemy.
Test Pilots- Despite years of expert ground and paper engi-
neering, only the test pilot can prove whether the engineering
theories behind the airplane design are ri ght or wrong;
whether an airplane wi1l or will not fl y successfull y. Both the
manufacturers and the AAF depend greatly on test pilots.
One of the most diffi cult assignments for test pi lots is
fl ying radically diff erent plane types duri ng a single day's
A B-29 with 8800 horsepower requires a completely
fiymg than a sensitive P-51 Mustang or
light 95-horsepower 113lSon plane. Test pilots of the AAF
IY any and every type of airplane. including captured Messer-
Junkers. Focke-Wulfs and Zeros.
: Test pilots. are. for obtaining accurate perform-
nce data which IS mdlSpensable to the development of mili-
"aircraft and equipment. Since their findings must be as
ehable as engineering fonnu]ae, it is essential that their
-aining and their methods be standardized.
: Before each flight test. special project officers and engineers
cescribe the exact speed, altitude and maneuvers to be
Reliability of the test depends on the ability of
Ie test pilot to Oy precIsely accordmg to instructions-not
,. S miJes ,10 hour when the instructions say 355. not at
feet when directions call for 26,500.
i Proving Ground- New combat equipment developed and
at Wright Field must be proved for combat.
·ovmg IS the lob of the Provmg Ground Command, which
the battle fitness of new equipment and ascertains the
lost efficient ways to use it.
i Main base of the Proving Ground Command is Eglin
.cld, Fla. Covering 600 square miles in the northwestern
of the state. Eglin Field includes 9 airfields. scores of
Ireh?uses, laboratories, barracks, vaults, shops, hangars,
!mbmg and gunnery ranges. Under jurisdiction of the
Fmand is the cold weather testing station at Ladd Field.
whe:e equipment 15 proved under frigid temperature
Proving .at Eglin Field answers 2 questions about equip-
nt: Is It fit for combat use? What's the best way to
: It? for c?mbat is determined by a series of rigorous
Its are deSIgned to foresee, as mueh as possible, the
enCles of The best methods of using equipment
found by practi cal demonstrations.
T he very virtues of our weapon-speed, mobili ty and range
- also present certain difficulti es. Since the airplane cannot
take along sufficient reserve supplies and cannot adequately
live off the land, its continuing effectiveness depends upon
an uninterrupted fl ow of supplies to its base. Many of these
supplies-fuel , ammunition, spare parts-are requi red vast
quantities and are highly specialized. They m ust be shipped
principally by surface transportabon to Uni ts that are often
more than halfway around the world.
Logrnties-whieh means g.etting need, .we
need it when we need it- IS a consideratIOn of cnhcal 1m·
portanc'e in all aerial strategy. Although a bomber and its
crew can be fl own from the U. S. to any theater of operat ions
in the worl d in a few hours, the ground crews and supplies
necessary to keep the bomber in operati on require weeks or
even months to reach the theater by surface transport. For
this reason, the planning of supply and transport must be
carried on months in advance of major air operations, and
an error in calculations or a failure in the supply system may
cost a cam paign.
In one way or another almost every man in the AAF par-
in logistical functions. A combat aircrew. although
a tactical unit, must nonetheless check its own limited sup-
plies and even make minor repairs in 8ight. Similarly, ground
crews are concerned with supply and maintenance activities,
while a large proportion of the personnel on every base de-
vote their full time to such duties.
The commands whi ch arc principally responsible for AAF
supply, transport and maintenance are:
). AIR SERVICE COMMAND (ASC) is the stockroom and garage of
the MF. Operating within the continental U. S., it receives an
our aircraft and aircraft equipment and supplies; maintains neces-
sary' stocks upon which the using units can draw; sees to it that
such itocks are in the right place at the right time; provides for
and heavy repair work; salvages damaged or excess rna·
tenaJ. ASC schedules the equipment and supplies which will be
required by units in this country and by all the overseas air forces
they may be ordered, delivered and stocked . ASC is organ-
ized mlo )) subordinate area air service commands, each operat·
ing in a designated area of the U. S.
2 . Alit. FORCE ArR SERVICE COMMANDS perform within the theaters of
operations suppl y and maintenance functions similar to those of
the ASC within the continental U. S. While under the command
of the air force commander, each air force air service command
depends upon the :\SC at home for its stocks of supplies and for
technical as to maintenance. In a large
theater, the aIr force alT service command may be subdi vided into
subordinate area air service commands.
; . THE ,UR TRANSPORT COMMAND (ATe ) provides all air tr:msport
for tile War Department of cargo, personnel and mail -to, from
and between theaters of operations and within the continental
U. S Through its ferrying division it ferries planes within the
continental U. S. and overseas.
dUties, proVide aIr transportation both for air and ground per·
sonnel and for cargo in combat areas.
In aodition, the AAF reli es heavily upon the Anny Service
Forces ,( ASF) , with its 7 supply services (see page 180), for
matcnc, comnlOn to the entire Army as well as for certain
special supplies such as bombs. The Army Transportation
Corps, a part of the ASF, is responsible for Army land and
water transport and carries the bulk of AAF materiel to
overseas destinations.
During the earl y months of the war the AAF supply prob-
lem was principally one of production. As production has
gradually come abreast of requirements, except for certain
critical items, the suprly-distribution problem has multiplied
many times. Most 0 our supplies are now sent overseas.
Supply levels must be maintained in each
for anticipated needs plus a reserve, but not so much in any
one theater as to handicap others.
Types of Required Supply-Supplies required by AAF units
may be divided into 4 major groups. First are airplanes
selves. The AAF has received over 1 00,000 planes of morc
than '40 different types, The supply of aircraft and their aUo-
cation to the different theaters of war are determined in the
first instance by the strategic and tactical plans for the air waf.
In tum, aircraft al1ocations detennine to a large extent the
supply requirements lor almost aU other types 01 AAF supply.
second m.ajor category inc1udes aircraft spare parts.
mamtenance eqUIpment and certain special aviation equip.
ment and supplies. An AAF heavy bomber consists of as
many as 12,000 individual parts, any of which may require
replacement due to battle damage or wear. Supply require-
ments demand that Air Service Command have on hand
and located at points around the world where they \ViII
needed, 500,000 different articles, or 10 times the number
of items listed in a Sears-Roebuck catalogue. Their variety is
nuts bolts., fl ying suits, instruments, propellers,
lubneants, engmes, mamtenance machinery and tools.
Thi rd are the consumable supplies required by combat
ai rplanes: aviation fuel , bombs and other ammunition. A
single squadron of 12 B -24S may expend morc than 1 6,000
gallons of aviation gasoline, more than 30 tons of on
a typical 5-11OUf mission. However, in modern aerial warfare,
we measure our logistical requirements not in terms of squad-
rons but in terms of 500 and missions. To equip
1000 hrnvy bombers for a hypothetical mission over Berlin
from Slitish bases might require as much as l'h million
gallons of gasoline, 3000 tons of bombs and 2 million rounds
of . 50 caliber ammunition. If ]000 fighter aircraft were sent
along as escort, they would probably require more than a
million gaUons of gasoline and l Y2 million rounds of ammu-
The 4th category of supply required by AAF units con-
sists of material s procured by the Army Service Forces, to
fulfill the everyday needs of life such as food, clothing, blan-
kets, vehicles, as well as certain other special types of supply.
The major types of these supplies fall into 7 categories as
QUARTERMASTER-subsistence, clothing, personal equipment, general
supplici (beds. blankets, cooking utensils), fuel and oil for vehicles.
ORDNANCE-bombs (other than chemical bombs ). and other am-
munition, weapons and general purpose motor vehicles.
SIGNAL CORPs-communication systems (telegraph, telephone, ground
airJorne radio, radar, teletype, pigeons).
MEDICAL cORPs-medical supplies and equipment.
CORPS OF ENGINEER5-COnstruction equipment and supplies (graders,
bulldozers, concrete, lumber, landing mats, brick ), searchlights
barrage balloons, '
TRANSPORTATION-rail equipment (railroad cars), floMing equipment
( boats barges ) , pier equipment.
CHEMICAL WARFARE-incendiary bombs, smoke bombs, smoke, gas
decontamination equipment and supplies,
Domestic Supply-Near the center of each of 11 con-
tinental Air Service Command areas is an air
pot. An air depot is a large wholcsale house and
warehouse, nonnal1y stocked with 2 months'
supply of the types of property required in its
area, In addition it perfonns heavy aircraft
tenance work,
Each of the major airbases in the U. S. has a
base supply organization which furni shes air supp1ies to all
units located within its jurisdicti on, Base suppl y is under the
base commander, but works closcly with the air depot in the
area. It normally carries a 30-day stock of supplies.
When a unit stationed at a base requires a for a plane,
it requisitions base supply. Base supply furnIShes the part
and, when necessary, replenishes its own stock from Its ,alI
depot, or from one of the ASC depots whIch
maintain central stocks of certam speclahzed typ,es
ment. Air depot stocks are maintained by dehvenes, rom
manufacturers and from ASC specialized
stock controls are maintained at all these mstallabons, mak-
ing it possible at short notice to correct shortages that
ve10p in one area by calling on depots in another area and
shipping by air. .. ..
Overseas Supply-The AIr Servlc,e and
sues initial equipment and supphes to umts, gomg
and maintains supply levels in each theater With continual re-
plenishments on req,uiSiti?ns from the theaters, 0x:
plies have been received 10 ,the thea,ter, re
sponsibility for them rests With the air force air service
mand of that theater. .
The for supplying combat units i,n a theater aIr
force is fundamentally comparable to domesllc supply except
that the need for mobility and flexibility is more, pronounced.
During a tactical campaign ,when air combat umts may move
rapidly forward, supply UllIts must be prepared to leap-frog
from field to fi eld, Fixed bases with pennanent faCIlItIes are
found only in areas well to the rear, ,
. Each theater air force includes at least one air force gen-
eral depot which provides a center for AAF
cal supplies as well as suppltes procured by Army Service
Forces; it also renders heavy mamtcnance (see page 20 1 ).
Operated in connection with the air force general depot, and
also under the command of the air force air service
mander arc a number of branch depots which store and
issue su'pplies that require methods ?f handling and
storage. They include an aViatIon gas , and Oil an ord-
nance ammunition depot and a chenllcal ammumhon depot.
In addition, the following branch ,depots, which
plies used by both ground and OIr forces, are. cstabllshcd If
suitabl e ground force dcpots are not convcmcntly located :
quartermaster class I depot (for consumable suppli es such

(and blse depots)

--.... --I 8TO 8 CDMSA.T 1--0+
/" '#,.,1'$ Sltt\''' ..........
/ \
" " lYS
, .
.. k
lilt: WPW flOll OfPCIts lA' n ·,ASS SOYIC(
as food ). quartermaster class 11 I depot (for motor fuels).
engineer depot (for construction, camouflage materials).
The retailers of supplies are the service centers which
respond roughly to the conti nental base supply organizations.
Service centers, located closer to the front lines than depots,
furnish supplies and provide repair servi ces for al1 types

of equipment. Sections may be separated from the service
center and assigned to advanced fi elds or may work as a
unit at the service center. A servi ce center may service
as many as 8 combat squadrons. Its supplies arc replenished
by deliveries from the air force general depot and branch
The general pattern of overse.1S supply systems is adapted
to the peculiar military and geographic fcatures of each
theater. In England. service center personnel are merged with
the supply and maintcnance sections of combat units; air
force general depots are not located far to the rear and,
indeed, are sometimes in advance of combat units. Service
ccnter organizations in the Pacific have bcen adapted to the
island campaigns by splitting into sections for rapid move-
mcnt to advanced bases.
AAF' supply and maintenance organizations contain ele-
ments thoroughly familiar with the equipment and suppli es
procured by the Army Service Forces. The service center
provides for supply and maintenance of materiel originally
procured by Army Service Forces for AAF use as well as AAF-
procured materi el. Likewise. the AAF furni shes the rest of
the Army with such aviation supplies as parachutes liaison
airplanes. aerial del ivery containers and cargo ch;ltes. In
advance areas or in theaters in which no ground establi sh-
ments the air force air service command is responsibl e
for all duties normally performed by the Army Service Forces.
The Supply System- To the maximum possible extent, AAF
supply procedures have been standardized and Simplified. On
the basis of study and experience, standard tables have been
prepared each man, each airplane
and each umt reqUIres. Consumption data is constantly ana-
lyzed so that rates of consumption may be used in predic-
ti ons of ,future Combat supply tables based
upon esttmated reqUIrements for units in combat are em-
pl oyed in the initial of such units overseas. Through
the of perpetual s¥stems and records. supply
agcnclcs are ablc to then stocks at a safe level.
Due to ever-changi ng situations in the theaters and to
improvements in plan, design and tactics. supply tables and
procedures are under constant revision. No table, no matter
:how perfect. will solve the supply problems faced regularly
combat areas. Unlike the ground forces whose supply
lou)ve, forward gradually with the attacking army, air force
advance in a series of jumps. Between such jumps sup-
operations at a base may be reduced to routine, but when
new base is captured from the enemy, movement of supply
forward areas becomes a feverish activity of the highest
Off the Land- As far as possible, supply personnel
materiel available within their theater. Such sup-
may take the form of food, clothing, raw materials, fuel
even annament and other equipment. Allied countries
which OUf troops are stationed, such as England and
have provided us millions of doBars' worth of sup-
faci litated by the appJication of reverse lend-lease. In
and China, native labor has been trained to produce
of our required supplies-even to airplane parts and
In term, of world logi stics, the U. S. is an island, serarated
eve£)' active war t11 cater by thousands of miles 0 water.
effectiveness as a fi ghting air force has rested from the
upon the ability of the United Nations' transpor-
reS<Xl£ces to ship our personnel and supplies to the com·
areas. An war transportation agencies have joined together
the unprecedented development of transportation facilities
in their operation against all obstacles the enemy could
The merchant marine and the shipbuilders are over
hump of early shortages and submarine losses; the AlTIeri.
and British navies have overcome the threa t of the Ger·
undcr·water fl eet; our railroads and other commercial
p rriers arc satisfying the heaviest demands in their history;
Army, through its Transportation Corps1 has regulated
and coordinated transportation by land and sea for all U. S.
Army troops1 their equipment and supplies; and the AA 17,
through its Air Transport Command, operates the greatcst
world·wide air transportation service ever achieved.
Mediums of Transport-Medi ums of transport for the AA F'
and the characteristics which determine their use are essen·
tially similar to those affecting the civilian traveler carrying
on hi s normal business. "Vhen he is in a big hurry, or in
cases where other means of transport do not exist, he fl ies.
'Vhen he is traveli ng overland for a relatively short distance,
he goes by motor vehicle-automobile or truck. For long
trips ovcrland
he travels by rail. To go across an ocean, he
normall y goes by ship.
:Military transportation differs from civilian transportation
principally because of its tremendous mass movements, the
greater urgency and speed required and the necessity of
operating in littlc·developed areas of the world under natural
obstacl es and those imposed by the enemy. "Vater transporta·
tion, though relatively slow
is economical of manpower and
and essen tial to move the bulk of our men and 111a·
teri el overseas (see table). Rail and truck are equal1v in·
dispensable for inland transportati on
though inland water.
ways are preferable for the movement of bulky goods when
speed is not a prerequisite.
Turnaround time is the time required to load a ship, to move it to
destination. unlond and reload, and return to home port and unload.
with an allowance for normnl repairs. A\'cmge turnaround times be·
tween U. S. ports and maj or theaters, based on AAF experience,
New York· North Africa 49 days 79 days
New York·Engbnd 42
Snn Francisco·ll nwaii 30
San Francisco·Australia iO
West Canst, USA-India 120
Seattle-Alaska 30 " 45 "
Fastest of all mediums is air transport. The quantities
I which cm be handl ed by individual airplanes are limited and
air transport is therefore reserved for movements of the high-
est urgency-such as key personnel, emergency supplies and
equipment, rapid evacuation of the sick and wounded, and
mail. HJwever, air transport is vital out of all proportion to
the mocest capacities of the cargo airpl ane. It provides access
to regions where surface transportation is blocked by enemy
control, as in Burma; by natural obstac1es, such as the I-lima-
laya mountains; or where roads and railroads do not exist,
as in New Guinea. By the employment of many cargo air-
craft, 13ige quantities of supplies can be moved over mod-
erate distances with the greatest speed.
..... 1
Rough, undeveloped areas call for morc primitive means
of transport- wagons, beasts of burden, even human car-
riers. In the Pacific islands, nati ve carriers play an important
part in supplying advanced and otherwise isolated units.
Moving an AAF an AAF unit from one base
to another means picking up an enti re community- its in-
habitants. their personal equipment , their industries, their
mechanical equipment- and transport,ing it intact another
locality hundreds or, th?usands of ",lIles away. most
other military orgamzatlOlls, many alI comba,t umts must be
split for movement; part of a umt, for example,
fli es in its own airpl anes; the remamder uses other means
of transport.
A heavy bomber group consists of. about 179,0 persons and
or B-24S. Its ground eqUIpment weIghs 830 tons
of which approximatel y are trucks and other
vehicles. The airplanes Will tran,sp.ort al1 crew
bers and about 32 tons of eqUlpment. If It IS to. fly
the remainder of the air echelon (see page 19 ) whI ch consists
of 222 persons, 13 cargo airplanes .be provided for
this purpose. 'TIlis leaves about 1100 mdlvlduals and about
tons of ground equipment to be moved by other mea,ns.
If the distance is not more than a few hundred miles
and roads are available, these probably will travel by motor
transport. TIle group's own vehicles include more than a
dozen 2Y2 ton trucks and a large number of small t rucks,
trailers and special vehicl es, capable of moving suppli es an?
equipment. To these must be added about 30 or more
tional 2 112 ton trucks from a motor transport pool, makll1g
a total procession of over 250 vehicl es. th,ese will not
take care of 8 tractors assigned to the umt, whIch must bc
sent by rail, water or special motor carriers , . '
If the distance is t oo great for motor transportatIOn or If
roads are not availabl e, all of the ground echelon's personncl
and equipment may travel by rail. a movement would
require a total of 173 railroad cars of vanouS types, as foll ows:
107 40' Hat cars
17 ;0.5' automobile cars
9 40,S' box cars
30 sleeping cars (or 22 coaches)
5 baggage aus
5 kitchen cars
If neither road nor railroad is available, and if it is abso-
lutel y essential to fl y the unit, it will ;25 cargo
airplane loads in addi tion to the capacity of the umt sown 4
mbers. (Assuming an average capacity of 6250 pounds,
r 27 pasrengers per cargo airplane.) Even these, however,
",ill not take care of the unit's vehicles, which must be shipped
some other manner or left behind.
Require:nents of AAF service units are even
peater than combat units since they have no assigned air-
craft. For example, a depot supply squadron of 137 men
uires 3" railroad cars to move entirely by rail. If it is
I own to its destination, 44 cargo airplanes are required for
rsonnel .nd equipment other than vehicles. Approximately
00 tons of vehicles then have to be handled in some other
Moving an AAF Unit Overseas--When the training of an
MF unit is completed and it is ready for com bat operations
m one of the theaters, it is processed for movement overseas.
n the case of a bOl;nbardment unit, heavy or medium, the
hews usually By their planes over while the rest of the unit
, shipped by boat. Alter arrival in the theater, ground and
aying personnel reunite at an asJigned airbase. Fighter planes
,nd other planes having limited ranges must normally be
I:hipped; air and ground echelons both go by water transport.
The volume of shlppmg reqUIred to move an AAF unit
aepends upon whether its equipment is dismantled and
i:1'ated uncrated, and this in tum depends upon
the faCilities available at the destination. Shipments are nor-
.,ally crated to save space if destined for an established area
as where facilities for uncrating and asscm-
plmg equipment are ampl e. However, equipment bound for
, newly captured atoll in the Pacific is generally shipped
rully and ready for immediate operation. Vehicles,
r.hlch compnse the bulk of a unit' s equipment, take up
3 times as much shipping space uncrated as crated.
me . ground equipment . of a heavy bomber group, crated,
'equlfes one-thud and one-haH the usable capaci ty
.f the average liberty ship. In additi on, the group's person-
lei , other than fl ying crews, require more than haH the
pacity of an Army t roop t ransport.
. Because of their relatively. light weight and bulky shape,
Juplancs prOVide a special shipping probl em. A method now
being successfully employed is the construction of light sp"'
decks several feet above the decks of oil tankers; 20 or more
fighters or other small p1anes can be mounted on these
decks. Propellers, wing tips and certain other parts are re-
moved and the surface of the rest of the plane is treated to
protect it from moi sture. As a result, the long and expensive
process of di sassembling, crating and reassembling the air-
plane is avoided, whil e the fuel-carrying capacity of the
tanker is not materiall y affected, thanks to the light weight
of the planes.
Procedure for Overseas Movement-For the purpose of han-
dling, directing and processing the tremendous volume of
equipment and numbers of troops en route to overseas thea-
tcrs, the War Department, through its transportation corps,
has establi shed 8 large installati ons known as ports of em-
barkation which are supplemented by a number of sub-ports.
These ports, which are located adj oining key harbors such
as New York, New Orleans and San Francisco, are huge
installations whi ch include staging areas for troops and large
numbers of depots and warehouses for storage of suppli es.
All AAF personnel , supplies and equipment not flown to
their destination pass through one of these ports en route
their theater destinati on. Troops are carried by rail or truck
to a staging area near a port of embarkation where they
are checked and inspected on all such matters as physica'l
conditi on, inoculati ons, pay. personnel records, insurance
and individual equipment. Onl y after it is determi ned that
every man meets all Anny requirements for shipment does
the port commander assign the uni t to a specific ship.
Most equi pment sent overseas is shipped direct to the port
of embarkation by the procuring service. In the case of units
bound for the United Kingdom, materiel is pre-s hipped, new
equipment being assign cd to units after they reach the thea·
ter. Aviation equipment, parts and spares require special
care in handling and packing. Near the major ports of em-
barka ti on the Ai r Service Command operates intransit depots,
whi ch carry small stocks of AAF technical supplics and
where all such supplies arc processed and chccked before
thcy arc shi pped.
Procedure for Moving Air Echelons Overseas-The AAF is
: responsible for processing and monitoring al1 air shipments
; to overseas destinations. For this purpose, the Air Transport
Command operates 8 ports of aerial embarkation and a
: number of sub·ports, which perform essentially the same
functions as the water ports but on a very much smaner
: scale. Aircrews passing through these ports 3rc checked,
: processed and then briefed for their overwater hop. At each
: port of aerial " embarkation, the Air Transport Command
: operates an air freight terminal which handIest stores and
. repacks air cargo.
, Debarkation-At the end of their journey overseas, troops
,and supplies leave their ships at theater ports of debarkation,
I which may be regarded as ports of embarkation in reverse .
. At a number of such ports of debarkation, air depots,
: times called extransi t depots, are maintained by the theater
air force air service commands.
Shipment of Supplies and Replacement Equipment-Once
lthe air unit has been moved and established at its theater
I base, it requires immediate and continuous support in the
Ifonn of consumable supplies and replacement equipment.
:As our forces in the theaters grow, these replenishment
lplies consume an increasing proportion of total shipping re·
;quirements. Except for gasoline and oil, which 3re usually
ishipped direct from refineries, such supplies pass through
'ports of embarkation, water or air, and arc handled like
ioriginal shipments.
Nonna] supply requirement for units overseas- other than
.aviation fuel, bombs, ammunition and aircraft-may be
:roughly averaged at one ship ton per man per month. Thus
:to keep an air force of 100,000 men supplied with food,
:clothing, replacement vehicles and their gasoline, parts, and
:s imilar items for one month requires about 100,000 ship
I Present consumption of aviation fuel by our theater air
forces is nearly 150 million gallons per month, or 35 oil
tanker loads (assuming average tanker capacity of 1 00,000
barrels). It is normally shipped by tanker to theater destina-
tions which are equipped with pumping and storage facilities.

· In the case of newly established bases, however, immediate
· fuel requirements are met by gasoline shipped in drums 111
cargo vessels.
Transport Within Theaters-As far as possible, existing
transportation lines-railroads and highways-are employed
in the movement of supplies and equipment within the
I theater. However, conditions vary so widely in the different
theaters of operations that there is no standard pattern. In
Great Britain, distances arc relatively short and railroads and
highways arc well developed. The North African offensive
I was material1y aided by the existence of the railroads skirting
I the northern and western coasts. The campaigns in the Pa-
· cific islands must rely largely upon air and water transport.
i In India and Bum13, where rail and highway facilities are
... oA6 ...... _ lOAr
... .. .. - TIUCI
....... - ..
... ,
c-..r.... "-


limited, the movement of supply to an advanced may in·
volve a combinationof ship and barge transport, air transport,
wagon, pack animal and human .
To a considerable extent the eXistence of transportation
facilities determines the location of depots, service centers
and advanced airbases. For a large·scale action it is alm?st es·
sential that rail or highway lines connect the depot w.th all
its service centers, and that the service centers be located at,
or be within a few hours motor distance of, the bases they
support. Where such facilities .are limi ted or. distances
are great, the imp.ortance of. alI wltlun. the theater
increases. Cargo alIplane umts are to
ai r force air service command to provide fast au service
between depots and service centers and between service cen·
t ers and bases.
The amount of transport required to keep combat units in
operation may be gauged by the fact that a heavy bomber
group, averaging 10 missions per month, calls for .average dally
deliveries by more than fifty 2Y2 ton trucks. Estimated trans·
port requirement for one B-17 group operate one hypotheb·
cal mission with 1000 pound bombs IS about 130 loads of 2 V2
ton trucks with one·ton trailers. Of this total, about 40 trucks
and trailers are loaded with bombs, about 10 with other am·
munition, and about 80 with aviation gasoline drums.
Ferrying of Aircraft- Princi l?al of our
major item of supply- the auplane .tself-IS ferrymg .t to
destination under its own power. Months before Pearl Har-
bor, we began ferrying lend-lease plan.es for the and
ferrying our own planes from factones to bases.
Since then, ferrying operations have grown with the mcrcas-
ing production of aircraft and with the wor1?-wide
ment of our theater air forces. AAF ferry pdots of the Au
Transport Command pick up new planes at the factory and
deli ver them to domestic bases, to overseas bases, and, 111 the
case of lend-lease aircraft, all the way or part way to the using
nation. In a typical month, ferry deliveries may be as high
as 8000 planes, total ferrying mil es between 10 and 15 million .
In addition to ATC ferrying operations, many combat planes
are fl own to overseas desti nations by their combat crews.
· Air Tlansport-The AAF, through its Air Transport Com·
· mand, is responsible for all transport by air of cargo and per·
sonnel for the \VaT Department. In addition, it provides air
transport services for other governmental agencies and for
governments of the Vnited Nations. The ATC's principal
I transport functions are the operation of air transport services
• within the V. 5., between the V. 5. and all of the theaters of
operations. and between different theaters of operations. It op-
I erates over air routes in the U. S. totaling 35,000 miles and
: overseas air routes tota1ing more than 95,000 miles. More
than 1 00 bases along these routes have been established by
the AAF as wen as a world-wide communications network
· and essential weather forecasting units. During December
t 1943, ATe operations totalled more than 35,000,000 ton
' miles of cargo and almost 100,000,000 passenger miles, of
I which more than 9 0 % were on foreign routes.
The development of ATC has been materially assisted by
the use of existing civil air Cc1rriers. \Vith the need for
tary air activity to all parts of the world it was found neces-
sary to militarize many of the existing commercial airlines
extending overseas. A number of civil carriers entered into
contracts with the Government under which
they operate scheduled transport services with
planes allotted to them by the AAF. L"ge
numbers of the flight and ground personnel of
the air carriers have been absorbed into the
AAF, and the carriers also have rendered an
important service in the training of military
· pilots for air transport operations.
I ATC operates schedul ed flight s over AACs routes, but
I much of its unique importance ari ses from the speed and
mobility with which it can mcet emergency demands in
I bat operations. Air transport can bc L1 sed to capitalize on the
opportunities, avert the threats and minimize the of
battle. For example, when Rommel was making his deter-
mined thrust at Cairo, Alli ed suppli es of antitank
tion were running short. Tons of it were flown to Cairo from
the V. 5 through bad weather and deli vered within 3 days,
which helped turn the tide in the battl e for Egypt.

An ontstanding operation of the Air Transport Command
is the supply of vital. material s to the armies and air units op-
erabng III Chllla. Smce the closing of the Burma Road in
April 1942. the only link between China and the other
United Nations fighting Japan has been the air route over
the hump of the Himalaya mountains. (See page 29
Troop Carrier Operations-Air transport of

cargo and personnel by troop carrier units has
an ,element in combat areas, par-
bcularly In the PaCIfic, Mediterranean and India-
Bum13 theaters. 111csc operations include the
":s;._ • carrying of key personnel and troops and rush
orders of freight to advanced units, both air and
ground. Wh,crc ot,her means of transport are too slow or afC
bl?Cked, umts may be carried and supplied by air. Sup-
pltes, eamed to places before landing fields aTC available are
specIally packed and dropped from a low altitude usually by
parachute. In operations, troop ca'rrier planes
enabled ,umts ,to leap forward rapidly to advanced air-
fields by flymg m engmeer and maintcnance units first. It was
their job to prepare the landing fields and service the aircraft.
Evacuation of casualti es from the front lines is another im-
portant function of troop carrier aviation. During 1943 more
than 113,.000 wounded and sick were evacuated by air by
troop carner and other AAF units. Air evacuation provides the
greatest possible speed in carrying casualties to hospitals where
they can be properly cared for, and at the same time relieves
vehi.cular equipment and hc1ps keep the roads c1car for
tactical movements overland. Troop carrier units 11 ave also
80wn hospitals into combat arcas.
Air !im!tations in capacity of air trans-
port, a sys tem of aJ[ pnonbes IS employcd by which space is
. in w!th. de!?ree of urgcncy of each
I Item and Au pnonbes, which apply to domestic as
wen alT transport, both military and commercial,
t are diVided mto 4 c1asses of relative urgency:
j CLASS 1 .. Traffic whose movement is required by an urgency so acufe
: sJlOuJd no circumstances be delayed emoute (or
collecholl of acldJtlollal passengers, mail or cargo.
; ,
CLASS 2. Traffic whose movement by air is absolutely necessary to ac-
complishment of a missioll necessary to prosecution of the war
(aircrews to combat theaters on scl1edule, bomb fuzes necessary for
combat operations).
CLASS 3. Traffic vital to the war eflort and of urgent nature, but less
so than class .2 (personnel necessary for maintenance of equipment
in an active theater; radio tubes).
CLASS 4. Traffic of sufficient importance to justify air transport, but
not so urgent as classes I, .2 or 3; or overseas, specially needed per-
sonnel or materiel moving to destinations accessible only by air.
Priorities vary with circumstances. Medical supplies rate a
high priority. and parts for grounded airplanes generally re-
ceive class 2 priority. In early 1944. electrically heated gloves
and boots for aircrcws, essential for high altitude missions,
were assigned class 1 priority to meet a critical shortage in
the United Kingdom. In one theater, a mimeographing ma-
chine, badly needed for preparation of orders, was given
higher priority than ammunition because of greater urgency.
Priorities apply also to return flight s from theaters. Serious
casualties, urgently needing special treatment, are flown to
U. S. hospitals. Critical cases from India have reached \ Vash-
ington, D. C., in 5 days. High priorities are assigned to some
crucial raw materials-mica from India, tungsten from China,
platinum from Persia, crude rubber from Brazil.
To keep an airplane opemti ng, even under the best condi-
tions in peacetime, call s for continuous maintenance. In war-
time the job is many times multiplied. Few aircmft return
from a major combat mission without some battle damage
from fl ak or enemy aircraft. One shell through the fuselage of
a bomber may damage the hydrauli c system, gun control
mechani sm, a number of instruments and wiring systems.
As an illustration of the demands of wartime maintenance.
consider one hypothetical daylight bombing attack against a
1 ..
well-defended target by a force of 150 bombers and 75 escort
fighters. A fair assumption of losses and damages would be:
10 planes lost over enemy territory; 6 forced to land in loca-
tions 3",ay from their bases; 2. 5 extensively damaged; 50 mod-
erately c:amagcd; 25 with minor damages; and )09 unscathed.
The 6 forced landings would require about 7200 man-llOUTS for
maintenance; the 25 extensively damaged would average about
450 man-hours each, making a total of 11 , 250 man-hours;
the 50 moderately damaged, at an. average of 300 man-hours,
would require 1 5.000 man-hours; and the 2. 5 sligh tly damaged,
averagi ng: 150 m,m-hours, would total 3750 man-hours. The
total maintenance for repairs alone (110t service) would be
37,200 man-hours, or a 48-hour work week for 775 men.
AAF maintenance problems are aggravated by purely geo-
I graphic and climatic conditions in many of our theaters. In
Alaska and the Al eutians maintenance is a continuing fight
I against the cold-against freezing batteries and carburetors,
icing on a plane's surface as well as in the controls and
mechanisms, frost and snow. Abrasive sand is the chief foe of
the maintenance man in the deserts of North Africa and the
Ncar East. Without constant vigilance and care, sand will
get into evcrything- wi1l ruin valves, cylinder wal1s, and all
moving parts; will clog up filters and will pit propell ers. In
the tropIC areas of the South Pacific, maintenance wages its
toughest battJe agai nst humidity---corrosion of metal sur-
faces, condensation of moisture within instruments, leakage
and shoJt circuiting of wiring and electronic systems. The
abrasive effect of dust in the Pacific islands and in India is
another major probl em for maintenance men.
Echelons of Maintenance-The AAF maintenance system
has 2 main objectives: first, Jetention of maximum mo-
bility for airplane and combat unit; second, economy in
. the use of specialized personnel and repair equipment. AAF
I maintenance is divided into echelons, or levels, ranging from
. repair work done by the aircrcw to complete overhaul by an
air depot. These echelons may be compared roughly to the
I maintenance with which the ordinary automobile owner is
I familiar. As the driver, he is abl e to make certain repairs him-
,self on the road slIch as changing a (Continued on page 200)
Echelons of Maintenance
FIRST ECHELON-Maintenance performed by the air of the
combat unit. Responsibilities. consist of servlcmg 3uplanes
(fueling) and equipmen.t; V
and daily inspections; mmor repairs
(tightening of nuts and bolts, hose ::!!A _ :
clamps ), adjustments and repla?c-
ments. All essential t ools and eqUlp- !Ii!II1t),
mcnt are transportable by air.
SECOND ECHELON-Maintenance performed by ground crew of
the combat unit, and by airbase
and airdrome squadrons. co.nslst servlcmg au-
lanes and equipment, periodic prevent ive mspecbons, and .such
repairs and replacements as may .be
hand tools and mobile equipment authonzed for thIS pur·
pose. Most repair equipment may
be transported by air, but certain
items surface transporta-
tion. Second echelon maintenance
includes checking timing, adjusting
valves, engine changes, etc. .
THIRD ECHELON-Maintenance performed by the base
. t· . the U S and the service center In overseas
orgamza Ion In .. . d 1 t
theaters. Responsibilities consist of repalfS .an rep s
quiring mobile machinery and equipment which groun
means of transportation. It includes field repairs and salvage,
removal and replacement of majo.r
unit assemblies. fabrication of 1111-
nor parts and minor repairs to ai r-
craft structures. Normally, 3rd eche-
lon maintenance embraces repairs
which can be complet ed within a
limited time.
FOURTH ECHELON-Maintenance perfonned by the ai r depot. Re-
sponsibilities include complete of or
aircraft, periodic overhaul of assemblies and accessOries, fabrication
of such parts as may be required to
supplement normal
plishment of techmcal Ill()(hfic.a.
tions as directed, and the final (lis-
position of reclaimed and salvaged
tire (ISt echelon); to fix the punctured tire he goes to a
service station (2nd echelon); for a major repair job he takes
his car to a garage (3rd echelon); and if the engine needs a
complete overhaul, it is sent back to the factory (4th echelon) .
The maintenance echelon organization is Bexible, espe·
cially under combat conditions on quickly changing battle
fronts. Aircrews sometimes must perform both 1St and 2nd
echelon maintenance. Where bases are stable as in England.
ground crews and service center personnel may be integrated
and perform all echelons of maintenance except 4th echelon.
Aircrews have done vital maintenance work in Hight.
Aboard a B·24 on an overwater flight it was discovered that
the pump would not transfer gas from the bomb bay tanks to
the wing tanks. With only 3 hours of wing tank gas left, the
engineer of the aircrew dismantled the pump, found its
valves corroded, repaired the pump in 2 hours and got gas
into the wing tanks one hour before the plane would have
crashed for lack of fuel.
MobDity in Maintenance- Service squadrons, which are a
part of the service group, may operate at the service center
base, or with the combat squadrons at forward bases in
tain instances. In some cases, service center functions may be
earned out at permanent instaHations with hangars and fixed
machinery, but under a combat situation such
conditions are the exception. Service center organizations are
I able to move rapidly and to operate in the field, away from
their headquarters sometimes for extended periods. The
service Kluadron includes mobile units which have the func-
tion of taking 3rd echelon repair to planes whi ch have
crashed or for any other reason can't get back to their base or
which operate in advance areas or at dispersed fields. It may
consist of one or more of the fo11awing: a machine shop to
spare parts and an instrument repair shop, both hOl1 sed
In heavy duty vans; an electric shop; a paint and fabri c shop;
a propeller shop; a sheet metal shop; and a cabinet shop for
woodwork. Most af these shops are hOll sed in tents and can
be transported by truck and set up qui ckly.
Units devised to increase the mobility of aircraft mainte-
nance include the airdrome squadron, which performs 2nd
echelon repair in lieu of the ground personnel of the combat
unit. It is used in leap-fragging operations to provide imme-
diate service and repair for combat units without waiting for
the regular ground crews. It is capable of supporting one to
3 combat squadrons for a week or 10 days.
Maintenance Methods-The importance of rapid and effi -
cient maintenance can be demonstrated easily by an analysis
of some hypothetical statistics. Assume that maintenance
keeps each plane of a combat group out of commission an
average of 45 % of the time. If, by improved maintenance
methods, this percentage can be reduced to 20%, the effect
is equivalent to a 50% increase in the number of effective,
fl yable planes.
As far as possible, AAF maintenance is systematized ac-
cording to sound industrial practices. In 1st and :md eche-
lons, ground crews are grouped into specialties so that maxi-
mum use can be made of specialized training and many can
work on each plane at the same time. Thus in servicing, one
group may check the spark plugs while another is checki ng
radios, another landing gears, another fuel. Further speciali za-
tion in both men and equipment occurs in 3rd echelon
nance, and where possible, 4th echelon maintenance is set
up on a production line basis.
In India one air force general depot operates a production
line on C-47S. The airplanes run through the shop in reverse
of the way they were built; one de-assembly line tears them
down; the pieces are reconditioned; and the plane reassem-
bled. Such methods make possibl e the simplification of jobs
so that they may be easily taught to native labor. In the U. S.
and in the large theaters of operations the depots are special-
ized. One will handl e the overhaul of engines, or of certain
types of while others will overhaul particular parts
or acceSSOrIes.
Under battle conditi ons, however, maintenance depends
he<1 vily upon the ingenui ty and inventiveness of ground per-
sonnel who cannot wait for overhaul or replacements. In
China a service squadron needing insulators found that carv-
ing them out of the base of a water buffalo' s hom served the
purpose. In New Guinea a 2 Y2 ton truck was needed at a new
field but it wouldn't go through the door of a C-47- Mainte-
nance men dismantled it and cut the larger pieces with acety-
lene torches, loaded them into the plane, and welded them
together again after they had been fiown to the new field.
Gasoline drums are improvised into washing machines,
door showers, etching tanks for propeller blades. In North
Afnca the bomb release on an A-36 would not always free its
bombs. A %th inch spring was needed to provide the nec-
essary extra kick. There were no springs in stock but it was
discovered that the springs under the saddle of a German
motorcycle would do perfectly. Every captured motorcycle
was stripped and springs supplied for the A-36 bomb releases.
Preventive Inspection-The basis of the AAF maintenance
system is of. all parts to accident, damage
or/art occurs. For purpose a detailed
an systematic inspection procedure IS prescribed, and defi-
is fixed for phases of each inspec-
tion. The Maintenance Inspection Record is a complete Jog-
book of each airplane's operations and maintenance. It con-
tains the record of fiying time and tells when engine should
be changed, when 011 IS to be changed and similar items. In-
. spections are made before every Bight; daily; after 25, 50 and
100. hours of 8lght; at bme of engme change; 15 hours after
change, and at special per!ods as required by the par-
ticular of airplane. These mspecbons are progressively
more detaIled and thorough, and by the time a plane has
completed 500 hours ",:ery part and every accessory has been
checked. Upon these tnspechons dcpend the lives of the
crews, ttx: success of the missions. A 2,.hour inspection of a
7 requires about 100 man-hours, and a l oo-hour inspection
! mav take,400 man.h<?urs. . .
. To di sseminate adequate, autllenti c
umform techlllcal mstructions for the operation and
mamtc:nance .of all AAF equipment throughout the world,
the Air SQvice .Command issues a series of publications.
known as Techmcal Orders. These range in size from one
page to a book; a complete set consists of about 190 volumes.
Tech Orders cover .evcry tyl?e of .plane, every part and ac-
cessory. They prOVide detailed, Illustrated instructions of
maintenance metllOds for all the various skilIs and trades re-
quired in aircraft maintenance. Four Tech Orders are issued
with each plane as it leaves the manufacturer's assembly line:
are constantly revi sed to keep pace Witll improved
maintenance methods and modifications in aircraft and equip-
ment. Thus, speed is essential in the distribution of Tech
Orders; some are microfilmed and fl own to thei r overseas
destinations. Tech Orders also are known as TOs.
Manufacturers' Representatives-Aircraft, engine and air·
craft accessory manufacturers arc under contract to the AAF
to furni sh technical personnel in the theaters of operations to
and instruct in the maintenance and operation of
eqUIpment. TIl ese men are responsible to the air force air
service commander who usually requests them, and to whom
they are required to make weekly reports.
Manufacturers' representati ves arc subj ect to military law
and lawful bel1igerents. They are treated as prisoners of
war If captured. Their privileges are the same as those of
commissioned officers and they wear the same uniforms wi th-
out insignia of grade, arm or service. At present there are over
800 m.mufa:turers· technicians in the theaters of operations.
. Reclamation all:d .to the value of the military
arrplane and all Its It IS Important that nothing be
thrown away. In fact, III most theaters, a principal source of
technical . supplies is from pl anes damaged in action. \ Vher-
ever p.osslbl e a. or damag.ed. plane is repaired and put
baek III the aIr agam. When thiS IS not feasible, the usable
parts are st ripped off and either used immcdiately on other
planes or are stocked. l1lis is known as reclamation. What·
ever is left after a pl ane has been stripped for parts is returned
to the depot where it may be mel ted down for use in fabrica-
t ion or for its basic 'TIli s is known as salvage.
and I.n some theate.rs assume, such la rge
proportions that orgalll1 ..atlons are sometimes detml ed for the
purpose. Thcse units follow the path of war to pick up re-
claimabl e material and glean ilny parts lef t.
-- -

J ust as a boxer demands a solid footing to deliver his blows,
I we must have airbascs from which to initiate our attacks.
I Because of its global responsibilities and the geographic posi-
tion of the U. S. in relation to the fighting fronts, the AAF,
r more than any other air force, is dependent upon a
network of bases.
Airbascs are the stepping stones of our offensive. Full-
Hedged campaigns- involving ground, naval and amphibious
forces-are often waged to establish heavy bomber bases
within range of the enemy's factories and interior
OUT bases at home serve for training and national defense,
for the development of planes and the general Sllpport of our
' air estab.lshment. Intermediate bases between home and
front are links in a world-wide chain of airl anes over which
we transport vital supplies and ferry combat planes and air-
I crews to the battlc zones. .

We had only 200 bases on Dec. 7, 1941. Two years later
our airmen were Bying from 1400 bases, 800 of them overseas.
Types of Bases-Because an airbase is a military establi sh-
ment designed for the landing and takeoff of airplanes, its
core is necessarily the landing field. This consists of one or
more runways and connecting taxiways. A runway is the
ground over which a plane begins its takeoff or concludes its
landing. A taxiway is the path on the ground which a plane
takes in leaving or approaching a runway. The landing
field is located on ground as nearly fi at and level as it is possibl e
to obtain in an area free of obstructions in the directions by
which airborne planes approach or leave.
AAF airbases vary as to purpose, size, strength and pcr-
manence of landing field, and nature and number of installa-
ti ons. For example, a base within the continental U. S. whose
prime purpose is training, does not ordinarily possess the
dispersed layout, camouflage, antiaircraft and other defense
installations characteristic of an overseas base, whose prime
purpose usually is combat . Nor does a base built to accom-
modate transient planes have the same aspect as one calling
for the permanent stationing of planes.
Maintenance and repair f,]cilities of a permanent heavy
bomber base are far more extensive than those of a stagi ng
field, which is a forward base used for assembling and refuel-
ing an air striking force whose components are regularly based
el sewhere. Again, a base used by F1ying Fortresses or Libera-
tors or B-29 Superfortresses has runways much longer and
stronger than those of a fighter base, because of the greater
weight and takeoff roll of the bombers .
Furthennore, the location of some bases is dictated by
the necessity to meet the continuing demands of war and the
eventual commercial requirements of peace. Others, the
product of the chance geography of battlelines, and short-
lived as to usefulness, are located in remote places.
Offensive Base-A completely equipped offensive base for
a combat group consists of runways, di spersed parking fa -
cilities and connecting taxiways, control and operations
bui ldings, service and maintenance fa cilities, defense and
cmnouflage instal1ati bns, housing, and necessa ry utilities,
:such as ... ater, electric 1ights, and roads. However, ad·
vanced landing strip for liai son flights might contain only a
.single runway, and that merely a crudely cleared piece of level
r In order to avoid presenting an easy bombing target, a
combat base, following the principle of dispersal, scatters its
airplane parking places (commonly designated as hardstands),
its gasoline and bomb storage units, its housing and its
· runways. If there is only one runway, its direction is that
lof the prevailing wind. Additional runways follow the diree·
· of the most frequent winds. 'Depending on the
I Size of planes usmg them, runways are from 2000 to 8000
· feet long at sea level. Sea level lengths are normally increased
: by 500 feet for each 1000 feet of elevation, since the thinner
air accompanying increased elevation requires greater speeds
and consequently longer rolls for a plane to become airborne.
Standard minimum width of a runway is 150 feet, although a
Width o.f 100 feet has been used successfull y in at least one of
the active theaters. The runway proper is surrounded by a
I cleared zone of prepared ground.
The surfacing of a runway may he one of 4 kinds or a
NATURAL, .which sometimes calls for
· up. mOls:enmg ar:d the ground for added finnnessj
STABILIZED SOlL, m which asphalt or cement is mixed with
the ground and compacted and rolled; PAVED, which involves
a series of earth-moving. and earth-treatment operations, plus
asphalt ()[ concrete pavmg; and LANDING MAT, which is an
I annor of linked metal plates or grids laid over the ground.
\Vhen not fl ying, planes must be parked off the runways.
In the U. S., where attack is unlikely, they are often parked
111 array on spaces along the hangar line known as
r parkmg apro.ns. At. combat bases, however, planes
are parked sll1gIy. pairs, or, at most, in threes, at widely
separated spots 111 dispersal areas adjoining the runway arca.
!hc ground or hardstand on which an airplane is so parked
IS surfaced to the same extent as the runway. Single hardstands
arc at least 450 fect , triple ones at least 600 feet apart. Hard-
are placed at least 500 feet di stant from the centerline
of a runway. •

, '.'
.-=<'W ..........

Dispersed hardstands are additionally protected by conceal-
ment- under trees, along hedge lines and occasionally bv
revebnents. A revebnent is a breastwork or embankmen't
to protect planes from bomb splinters and strafing. Taxiways,
like runways and hardstands. are at least 30 feet
III Width. and are bordered by cleared zones on each side equal
to at least half the wingspread of the types of aircraft operating
from them.
Mai{1te_"ance and Conhol- ll1e principle of dispersal is
followed in. out ,an overseas base' s servicing and
mamtenance facJl1beS- repaJr shops, installations for weather
observation and communications, access ro.:: ,ds. fuel and
bomb storage. Bombs, along with ammunition and chemi-
cals, are stored in the open and protected by revetments
where possible. Incendiarv bombs, however, are stored under
shelters with roofs. Gasoline and oil are usually stored in
bulk at permanent and semi -permanent bases, but limited to
operating quant ities at temporary bases. Drums and cans arc
used for storage of reserve fuel and oil supplies at advanced
or remote airfields or for supply during initial stages in a
comb'lt area.
~ - @ .... --
Bulk storage can. for large tanks, either underground or
partly dug into the ground and partly revetted, spaced at
least 1 00 feet apart and '50 feet from the nearest plane.
Existing buildings 3re used when suitable for maintenance
facilities; sometimes a hillside is dug out. When a new
building is needed in a hurry, the answer is a portable hangar
made of canvas and light steel ribs. Two skilled men and 30
unskilled men can erect a portable shelter 80 by 120 feet in
12 hours. Nose hangars, smaller portable canvas-and-steel
units, afford enough shelter for working on engines. Housing
may vary from shelter under airplane wings to a community
of buildings and utility installations which, on a base for a
heavy bomber group, accommodates more than 2300 men
and women.
Nerve center of the base is the operations building where
assistance and control of flying operations are focused. A
necessary adjunct to the operations building is the control
tower through which the operations office controls al1 air
traffic in the vicinity by ground-to-air communications. Since
traffic direction is visual, the control tower must command
a view of the entire landing field.
Access roads are of the utmost importance in keeping a
base supplied with necessi ties. These sometimes run to as-
tonishing proportions. During a peak period, a single heavy
bombardment group in North Africa required 174 tons each
day of fuel, ordnance, spare parts and rations. Inadequate
access routes can cripple an entire base.
A complete base is often surrounded, at varying distances
up to several dozen miles, by a number of less complete bases
toward which it occupies the position of a parent base. Out-
lying bases, dependent upon the parent base for advanced
maintenance and repair facilities, in tum provide enhanced
dispe"al and alternate fiying facilities in the area of the parent
Defense-The defense of an airbase begins long before any
attack. The defensive measures fall into 2 categories: active
and passive. Active defense is handled in the air by intercep-
tion fighter planes and the related aircraft warning system (see
page 274), and on the ground by ground fighting and such
mstallations as antiaircraft gun emplacements road blocks and
"n positions. The latter command not dnly the key ap·
w,roach<s 10 key mstallations bllt also neighboring areas which
1"'< enemy mIght use for landing airborne troops. Alternate
rand dummy posItions are sometimes prepared. For active
efense, the base commander normally has at his disposal
an l\lP (aviation); antiaircraft artil1cryj a chemical
rfaTe service detachment; and an aviation engineer mainte-
nance dClachment. A sentry system guards against sabotage
rand sneak attacks and acts as a factor.
1. Measures for passive defense (which do not involve fight.
ling) mclude slit trenches, revebnents underground or
mounded-over splinterproof and g!1sproof' shelters, di spersal,
camou8age (see page 221) 7 radio silence, smoke screen bar-
rage and such demolition preparations as mi'ning.
Rehabllttation measures at an include the filling in
1of bomb craters, removal of debns, replacement of twisted
mat and. patchlllg up of landing surfaces in general.
I Installation .... Not all AAF stations are airbases At
Ithe. peak of expansion there were more than 1200 AAF
stallons In the U. S. alone, only about 600 of which were air.
bases in the sense of this chapter. Others were depots, of
which there were more than 300 of various kinds--<:ontrol,
storage, special storage, intransit and subdepots. 111cre were
more than 150 college training detachments, more than 50
war service training detachments and well over 100 technical
schools covering a wide range of subj ects from welding to
111ere were 18 modification centers and 8 government-
owned assembly plants. At 23 other AAF stations, air depot and
service group training was carried on. Besides these there were
numerous miscellaneous stations, such as bombing and gun-
nery ranges, searchlight stations, rest and redistribution centers.
Because of the great variety of these stations, some of
whi ch are referred to in other chapters, and because of the
changing status of some of them, due to the requirements of
the war, a more detailed discussion or listing of AAF Stations
is not possible in this guide.
FIELD is a field or strip of
ground specially prepared and
maintained for landing and
takeoff of airpancs.
BASE FACILITIES is a collective
term covering fuel and ord-
nance storage and service fa-
cilities; maintenance and re-
pair facilities over and above
those provided by airplane
tool kits; and weather and
communications facilities and
living accommodations.
An AIR8ASE, in its exact sense,
is a fie1d to which a su1xlepot
or service squadron shop has
been added.
A SATELLI TE F I ELD is a field
whose base facil ities are nor-
mally very limited, intended
for use in case the unit fiel d or
airbase has become unfit for
service, or for dispersal and
A SUBBASE is an alternate fi eld
which has been placed under
the jurisdiction of the com-
manding offi cer of an airbase.
An AI R BASE AREA is an area of
responsibilit y for admin ist ra-
tion, supply, maintenance and
reclamation, charged to the
ai r base, and possibly includ-
ing a number of alternate
landing fields.
military establishment consist·
ing of a landing fi eld and serv-
icing facili ties, used primaril y
as a refueling station for tr:.l11 -
sient aircraft .
On A'g. 28, '939, 3 days before Gemlany set off World
War II by invading Poland, the AAF was regularly using
Ii9 airbases. .
To appreciate the expansion of the AAF airbase system
&om this nucleus to morc than 1400 bases ;0 months later,
it must be realized that figures do not tell the whole story.
For one thing, all kinds of airbases, from a temporary landing
strip in New Guinea to a great permanent base in Hawaii,
count "'lually as one base. For another, today's standards for
airbase construction arc notably more rigorous than those of
Increase in weights and landing speeds of planes has neces·
sitated longer, stronger runways. The our largest plane
in tactical use in the 1930'S, weighed 16,500 pounds with
JrulXimum permissible overload and landed at Ii9 mph; today's
Liberator (B-24D) weighs 56,000 pounds loaded and lands at
105 mph. Another factor affecting runways is the develop.
ment of blind fiying by the AAF since '939. This makes it
posSIble for • pilot to land in weather which is nearly zero-
zero, and requires- longer and wider runways by way of com-
Expansion for Defense-Defensive bases were acquired in
the lJ. S. and its possessions before Pearl Harbor.
Domestically, the Civil Aeronautics Administration ob-
tained funds from Congress for the general development 01
aviation and in 1940 prepared a civil airport expansion
program caning for the building or improvement of some
public airports in the U. S., its territories and posses-
sio'.lS. Out of this grew 543 airports lor defense purposes, 01
, which the AAF regularly uses approximately 200.
Another contributor to domestic airbase growth was the
Army Curps 01 Engineers which between mid"940 and the
end of '943 made available some 500 bases to the AAF
Unlike the CAA bases, which were undertaken with an ey<
to eventual commercial use, these were mostly new establish
ments constructed solely for military purposes.
Our defensive airbase network was extended to foreigr
territory in September '940 by the destroyer-base deal witll
England by which 50 over-age U. S. destroyers 01 Worl,
War I vintage were traded to Creat Britain in return fOI
U. S. rights to air and sea base sites in 8 British possessions i fj
the Western Atlantic, the Caribbean, and South Amerid
The Corps of Engineers at once began construction of air;
bases in these areas.
Another important addition to our airbases consisted 0 ]
commercial airports developed by Pan American
(PAA) in Latin American countries. Since Pearl Harbor
nearly every South and Central American country in whid
these fields are located has declared war on the A'Xis and h3:
made its bases available to the AAF.
Another PAA·built system 01 delensive airbases came II
us as the result 01 our pre-Pearl Harbor policy 01 sell·delcns.
through aid to Britain. In 1941 negotiations were completec
between the British Government, the ' Var Department an(
PAA for a chain of bases extending across the African in
terior from Accra on the Gold Coast to Khar toum in Anglo
Egyptian Sudan, thence north to Cairo, with connections t<
the Middle and Far East. Necessary clearance lor flying acros
French Equatorial Africa was secured by consultation witl
Free French authorities. Britain made available all existinl
facilities along the route. In 1942 these bases wen
Offensive- The AAF began to acquire offensive bases iJ
1942. , when the ,British Air Mini stry turned over 77 bases il
the United Kingdom to the 8th Bomber Command. Many 0
these were either complete or in advanced stages of construe
tion. In other cases, sites were released to us and AAF engi
neers did the building. On Aug. 7, 1942, the invasion 0
Cuada1canal by the Mari nes yielded us our first base capturec
from the enemy-Henderson Field. Since then, many 01
fensive bases have been obtained by force. In this, U. S
avv, Bri:ish and Australian units, among others, help os
tablish and construct bases.
AAF ofensive combat bases fall into 2 classes, strategic
nd tactical, corresponding to the 2 major ways in which
e AAF uses airpowcr offensively.
Strategi: bombing (see page 256 ) , translated into tenns of
bases, means that the heavy and very heavy bombers used
by the AAF for strategic operations can be effectively based
m areas SO distant and in so many directions from enemy
rwnes of the interior' that the enemy's ability to act offensively
and defensively is impaired by division of his forces and his
long-and therefore vulnerable-lines of com-
, In tactical operations (see page 257), where the targcts are
the enemy forces and air and ground installations opposite
our lines, as well as enemy naval installations and sea supply
Iroutes in the vicinity, range does not play the same part as
:in strateg:c operations. And since the enemy, by choice or
I"ecessity, is likely to shift the disposition of the targets with
in the tactical situation, Bexibility is essential. Since
AAF goes in the van of surface offensives, there is a
nstant struggle for forward and Hanking airbases from
which air supremacy can be most confidently sought.
An advantageously located tactical base cuts down the
consumption of gasoline and thus makes for increased
power and bomb loads. However, all sites with similar ad·
' vantages of position are not al ways equally suitable for bases.
Other factors affecting their value involve such considerations
as prevailing weather, problems of defense and supply, the
amount of work, materials and equipment needed for
1 Althoud> offensive airbases are often won by ground and
lDaval surface forces, these depend on friendly air forces for
initial ail supremacy. And while supply lines on which air
.and grolDJd and naval forces mutually depend are chieHy
surface lines, no surface force can maintain them without
the protection of fri endly air forces. TIli s interdependence,
calling for 3·way teamwork, has been a continuing relation-
ship in the Allied conduct of the war. .
An excellent example of the battle for airbases is the
Solomons-New Guinea fighting, which is illustrated on pages
216-17. The Solomons-New Guinea principle of struggle for
airbases has been extended to larger areas. Capture of the
Gilbert and Marshall Islands bases, along with those in New
Britain and the Admiralty Islands, Hanked and isolated the
Japanese air and naval bastion of Truk in a pincers-like
The Italian campaign provided us with invaluable airfield.s,
such as Foggia, for a deeper penetration by our strategIC
bombing forces into Nazi indust ry. An airbase built in eady
1943 by the aviation engineers on the outer Aleutian island
of Amchitka, 70 miles from Ki ska, during the Japanese oc-
cupation of Kiska, so jeopardized the enemy position by the
threat of isolati on that eventually he evacuated the island.
Temporary AAF forward fighter and light bomber bases
in combat theaters oft en have to be built quickly. In the
case of an amphibiOUS invasion, for example, airbase con·
struction after a successful landing on a hostile shore ideally
confonns to the following schedule:
vVithin 36 hours of the establishing of a beachhead, land-
ing strips must be available for fighter planes for purposes of
refueling and range extension. During the 3 or 5 days be·
tween capture and consolidation of the beachhead, landing
fields must be provided on which to base fi ghter and sup-
porting plane units; some of the original temporary strips
may be converted to this purpose. Once the advance fr om
the beachhead commences, landing grounds have to be pro-
vided for fighters not more than 50 to 75 miles behind the
In charge of this construction are aviation engineers who
form part of an air task force. There are always heavy de·
mands on beachhead communications routes and a high
premium on invasion shipping tonnage, so priorities rarely
penn it an engineering battalion to begin construction with
'+- ..
... , ..... \1.

MUVT ,DMBW, u.s.
"+' MED. IOMB£JS : u.s, lW,lIIlAf
T nmEls, F!;IITEl·IDMBW: u.s. Wf, IIIlAf
• 2.. 400
L _ _ 1 I

i N


Two campaigns are shown up to the end of 1943--ooe from the
east, advancing up the Solomon Islands, the other from the west,
moving up New Guinea. Captured bases converge like pincers on
Rabaul and Kavieng.
The prime objectives of Allied battle strategy were airbases.
Operating from these, Allied land-based planes:
1. Reduced ground fighting, by isolating enemy occupying forces
through destruction of communication lines, thus preventing
the enemy from accomplishing reinforcement, supply or evacu-
1, Cut down the scale of surface offensives. since only small areas
needed to be sei7..ed and held for bases from which air opera-
tions could isolate thousands of the enemy.
3· Enabled the Allies to by-pass Japanese positions.
The triumph of the Bismarck Sea Battle, in which a Japanese
convoy of 2.2 ships carrying an entire di"ision with supplies was
virtually destroyed by land-based aircraft, would have been diffi-
cult, if not impossible, without the Allied advanced base at
Dobadura, New Guinea. The battle was fOltf:ht March 1-4. 1943.
Air strips at Dobadura, seized by the Allies In January and subse-
quently improved, served as a staging field for AAF bombers based
at Port Moresby, thus nullifying the obstacle of the Owen Stanley
Duwuula·J.,;.,.,)cu lighlcl.) v\clhcaJ t:UYCf
which enabled our hombers to carry out operations virtually un:
molested. Allied planes shot down SO enemy fighters, lost only
one 8-17 and 3 P-38s. Aliled eround forces had one less Japanese
division to fiaht.
full equipment. Thus. aviation engineers must employ key
equipment resourcefully. Wherever possible captured enemy
fields are used. Steel mat may be used for surfacing runways,
but since even the lightest type of metal runway surfacing for
a fighter strip occupies 800 ship tons of space, it is not gen-
erally available. Engineers do their best with existing surfaces,
taking every possible advantage of the terrain. Minimum
standalds are the rule.
Because of these limitations, thorough engineering
rations have to be made prior to a landing. The air force
engineer. who commands the aviation engineers, and the
air force commander must agree on definite standards for
all The air force engineer must study po-
tential sites, using all available information from maps,
charts, reconnaissance photographs and intelligence reports.
The number of engineering battalions and the essential
equipment needed must be detennined on the basis of the
time it takes one battalion to build one airbase, the number
of advmced fighter bases needed for operations, and the
estimated rate of ground progress.
Once a landing has been made, these factors are recon·
sidered in the light 01 actual conditions. Final choice of each
site is :he joint responsibility of the air force engineer and
an experienced AAF operations officer whose opinion as to
the be,t available flying .leatures in both site and landing
field layout is consulted. Although aerial reconnaissance may
be used to eliminate unsuitable sites, no base is finally ap·
proved until it has been surveyed on the ground.
Actual construction commences only after consultation
with the ground forces commander (corps or division) in
whose orca the projected landing field lies, who determines
whether the tactical situation permits it. This liai son--cal·
culated to avoid conflict or duplication in the use of com·
munications routes, plans for defense, location and scope of
supply dumps-is a continuing lactor at every phase 01 con-
Once construction of an advance fighter base is to be
started the engineering battalion in charje moves up to the
site in echelons, beginning with a headquarters com·
pany reconnaissance party to out and
rough plans. Next come inteml edlate partl:s With adchtlOnal
equipment, and finally the rest of the umt. Because an ad·
vance base is often only temporary, and because of the speed
with which it has to be built, it devotes a minimum of con·
struction to storage units for fuel , and
Its access roads and defense installatIOns are neeessanly hasty,
and its camouflage consists largely of a judicious
of the conspicuous. For housing it on what IS found
at the site, what can be brought to It and what can be
improvised on the spot.
1101 OiJWN 10 StAll
Bomber Bases-Considerably more extensive constructi on
is requircd for mcdium or heavy bom.ber bases, some. of
which have been built in such remote regIOns as the Aleutians
and the jungles of New Guinea. Because of their range,
bombers can be based some distance behind the lines. They
use the same for long periods, so construction is gen·
erally on a permancnt or scmi·permancnt basis. Enginc?rs
working on bomber bases nonnally have complete eqUip·
mcnt. and sometimes access to special materials. 'Vhercver
possible, th.ey hire natives to assist them. Compared to engi·
neers working on fighter bases, they have adequate time.
Runways on bomber bases cannot be makeshift, must be
strong and durable. First step in runway construction consists
of soJ stability tests which detennine the bearing ratio of
, the ground. This is measured by the weight necessary to
I force a standard plunger a given distance into the soi l. It
I dcpct1ds upon the soil's moisture content and compaction-
l the degree to which it is packed. Thus mud and dry sand
I both have low bearing ratios, while sand which has been
moistened and packed has a fairly high bearing ratio. Mud
and dry sand are unstable; moi stened, compacted sand is
Soil stability tests, taken by sampling material at variolls
depthi on ,and around the projected base, enable the engineer
to dctennme what sort of runway he must build. He may
h .. 'e to strip top soil down to the best available founda-
tion and build the runway from there up. Such a runway
of a stabilized subgrade and a pavement. The pave.
ment IS a smooth" hard, weather-proof surfacing rigid enough
to support the wClght of a plane as concentrated in the small
contact areas of its tires. Since importati on of select material
even over a short involves a outlay of
man.h0':lrs and vehicles, SOIl survey plays a vital part in site
Landing Mat ... The landing mat most widely used by thc
AAF is pi erced steel plank or Marston mat (see accompany-
mg dl3wmg) .. ngld enough to bridge over small
mequalltles of the ground, it is used to best effect on
subgrade. T his combination providcs an adequate
scml·permanent runway, as exempl ified by those at Kualoa
and Haleiwa in the Hawaiian Islands, which were laid in
January 1942 and are stiB in use.
. Although transportable in compact bundles, Marston mat
IS ,heavy; enough for a 3000 foot runway 150 feet wide
nearly 1200 tons. Jy. runway this size can be put down
an 9? nours by 1<:>0 unskIll ed men, As of Jul y 1, 1943, ap-
proximately 1 75,000,000 square feet of mat had becn

... --....
" .
• •
• J
\ "
" ......... '
WOUIT-51' LIS-I'D st. n.
shipped overseas, and 300,000,000 were on order for 1944.
on magnesium alloy and aluminum mats, designed
to weigh less without sacrifice of strength and durability, is
currently under way.
CamouAage-The object of camouflage is to concCc11 and
Since man is not naturally equipped to Oy, hi s in-
stmcts do not help him to foil aerial observation or attack.
Every vestige of human activity on the ground-trampled or
t racked earth, scars from digging or fires, the regular outlines
or shadows of man-made objects--conspires to betray his
presence. Thus a fundamental requisite of camouOage is
camoufl age discipline, which t rains every member of an air-
base complement to cover himself and his traces for the
safety of the entire establishment.
Plans for camouAnge begin with plans for the airbasc.
The natural outlines of the terrain are left undi sturbed or
are imitated as well as possible. Existi ng structures are used
to the utmost, as being least subject to suspicion. Since
texture differences are more easily di scernible from the air
than color differences, violent contrasts in texture of t errain
are avoided or minimized. Every object alien to the setting
-airplanes, tenting and suppl ies-is concealed in hillsides,
... -:: ·A'
l .... CItSSItADS l .....
under trees or beneath garnished nets resembli ng continuation
of foliage, grass, sand or other natural surface features.
Deception includes construction of dummy installations
or simulated destruction after an air attack. Such construe.
tiOD must far enough away for safety but not so far as to
arouse SUspIcion; 3 to ,5 is about right. Roadways or
paths leadmg to key bUlldmgs are continued beyond them in
a cons:stcnt system known as a track plan.
o Camouflage need not be refined in order to succeed.
Smce other agencies of airbase defense, such as fighter planes
and antiaircraft fire, leave the enemy only seconds to locate
the target, momentary confusion or misleading of an enemy
bomber usually is sufficient.

Facts and Figures-A full account of the rna.
tcnals, methods and. native labor used in building AAF bases
all over the world IS beyond the scope of this guide. Here
are a few Sidelights:
IN NEW CUINEA. na.tives under build landing
fields for airplanes by cleanng the high kunai grass, and
tramp out runways with their bare feet.
IN NORTH AFRICA, where mud and sand constitute a problem. long.
wide strips of sand are moistened and compacted by rollers. French
troops and Arabs have helped out short-handed aviation engineers.
IN THE UNITED KINCDOM. heavy bomber bases, costing an average of
$3,000,000 each and taking sC"eral montlJs to build, have required
the importation of AAF aviation engineers because the thorough
absorption of civilians in the national war effort has not left
enough trained British civilian contractors to do the job.
IN ASSAM, native women working for native contractors hired by the
British but supervised by the AAF, mix concrete by hand and
carry it in trays on their heads, passing it from one to the next
every few yards until it reaches the forms. Supplies and equipment
must travel Galcutta over inadequate railroads of many
) different gauges.
IN CHINA, as many as 1 00,000 natives have worked on a single air-
basco At a word from Generalissimo Chiang Kai -shek and under
t he direction of Chinese engineers, who are capable airfield build-
ers, the Chinese will build a huge base in 3 months. Runways arc
)' crushed stone bound by mud and are 2 or morc feet thick. Rock
is quarried by hand pick, crushed by hand hammer and transported
in wheelbarrows and baskets_ Mud cement is mixed with bare
feet . Runways are laid by home-made concrete rollers weighing
3 Yz to 1 0 tons and dragged by 150 Chinese.
The Aviation Engineers, charged with providing airbases
for the AAF in theaters of operations, were established in
June 1940. The original unit consisted of some 800 officers
and men. However, aviation engineers' expansion quickly
foll owed that of the AAF in general, and by Nov. " '943,
the organization, although still not up to its authorized
strength, totaled about 80, 000 troops, of which more than
65,000 were overseas.
Aviati on engineer units include airborne construction bat·
tal ions and companies whose equipment is specially designed
for movement by transport plane and glider. The first of
these, the 871St Airborne Aviation Engineer Battalion, was
activated at Westover Field, Mass., on Sept. 1 , '942. The
Troop Carrier Command promptly furni shed planes and
pilots for the intensive training whi ch followed. Twelve
weeks later, 2 airborne engineer companies were in North
Africa ride by side and sometimes in advance of the invading
Allied troops. Today, aviation engineers, both regular and air-
borne, are permanently stationed and trained at MF bases and
copstitute an integral part of the MF.
A battalion's equipment consists of »0 pieces and
146 vehicles. Mostly devoted to landing field construction,
these include many road-building and agricultural-type ma-
chines, ranging in weight up to 32,000 pounds and in ca·
pacity to 8 and ,. yards, which handle earth moving, soil
treatment and paving. All are power-operated, either by their
own engines or by attachment to gasoline or diesel units.
Trailer.mountcd compressors power a ' yariety of pneumatic
To defend itself and its projects, a regular battalion packs
more fire power than a World War I brigade. Its weapons
mclude multiple M mobile machme guns, .50 caliber anti-
aircraft machine guns, mortars and bazookas, rifles and car-
equipment, on the other hand, was desigued to
fit IOto the C-47 cargo plane and CG-4A glider. This limits
the load to 4500 pounds for the plane and 3200 pounds for
the !:lider. The limiting width is 80 inches and the maximum
height 60 inches. An airborne battalion is equipped with track-
laying (caterpillar) and rubber-tired tractors, scrapers, graders,
,heepsfoot rollers, dump trailers, 2 ton trucks, jeeps, air
compressors, electric generating sets, welding sets and a pool
I of organizational items. It takes 79 C-47 ·cargo planes to move
a battalion and its equipment, or a smaller number il gliders
are usc:<'. The CG-4A glider carries 15 men or any major piece
of equIpment; a loaded C-47 can tow 2 loaded CG-4A gliders.
An battalion's bantam equipment is too light for
. operations on the scale attainable by a regular battalion',
heavy and more abundant apparatus. Airborne units are used
in special cases only, as. of opportunity. Thcy are
approl?nately .employed m SItuations calling lor airbases in
areas maccessl ble except by air.
Here aTe a few notable aviation engineer accomplishments
culled from many: '
In the Aleutians in September '942, a regular battalion
built a fightcr strip on the sand-and-marsh bottom 01 a tidal
lagoon on Adak Island in 8 days. The lagoon. bed! whIch be-
came a creek bed at low tide, was dried by dwerbng It at Its
head and building a gate at the seaward end. A landmg mat lor
the runway, 3000 by 1 00 feet, was put down In 1 days.
CO.S11UCTIDI Of 1011 .. l_
In 3 weeks, starting July· 10, '943, an airborne battalion
at Tsili Tsili, 40 miles lrom Lae, New Gumea, bUIlt a landmg
field 01 2 runways, one 6000 leet long and ti,e other 45
feet, as wen as hardstands. Between August . 17 and 21 thIS
base was used as a staging field for a stnkmg force which
destroyed or totany incapacitated 309 Japanese planes at
Wewak. One fighter group based at Tsili Tsili proVIded the
same support for operations agamst Lae as would have re·
quired 3 fighter groups based on Port Moresby, the other
side 01 the Owen Stanley Range.
This same battalion moved in mid-September to Nadzab.
just outside Lae and behind enemy lines, after its capture by
Allied vertical envelopment . It was lomed there by another
airborne battalion, fl own in from Port Moresby.
these units rehabilitated the fonner Japanese base, which
became a maj or AAF bomber base. .
At Sbeitla, in Tunisia, a regular battahon took only 3 days
to build 5 landing fields requested by an AAF commander
Part of this battalion built a 6cld in no man's land .
During 10 days of September '943, Baker tiny
PaCIfic landspot 650 mIles west of Tarawa, which was then
held by the ]al"'nese-was transformed by a regular aviation
battalion mto a complete forward bombing base,
WIth • 3700·foot steel mat runway which was subsequently
expanded to 5500 feet.
. At Ben Tunisia, aviation engineers removed 17
from a runway of a captured German basc. The
,ob was done In BVz hours. with no casualties.
Two days after the 5th Army landed at Salerno, a fighter
field was ready on that narrow beachhead. ) I
The ultimate in AAF combat bases is the heavy bomber
base, . such as a typIcal base of the 8th Air Force in Great J,
BntalD. It bases 48 to 72 Flying Fortresses or Liberators, each
a hIVe of In.tncate c!1gincs, delicate instruments, and thousands
of Wh.lCh reqUire constant replacement, repair, adjustment
or cahbrallon because of the wear and tear of flying and the
damage of enemy shells.
The base also houses nearly 1700 officers and men of the
bomber group, a base maintenance detachment a service
group and administrative pcrsonnc1-a total of than
1.30? men and women. At the base they eat sleep receive
med",. 1 care, get their I)lail and pay, shop at the px, 'carry on
religIOUS, social, athletic and recreational activities and
Airplanes are worked on da; and
fOf fCJ>3lf, overhaul, Improved functioning. Men, besides
bemg lept m the best health and spirits possiblc, arc constantly
Instructed In methods, purposes and results.
.case of a by the 8th Air Force, the
parhClpatJng group will be nohficd of its rolc the previous
evenmg, when headquarters, having waited 00 the
weather, has decIded to stage the mi ssion. Dctailed field
Come around or two A. M., and during the
remamder of the night the tunlllg IIp ... of engines at di spersal
places by ground crews envelops the base with a heavy
drone. Mechanics apply kill-frost to wings, clean and dry
guns. Squadron arming and servicing crews arm and service
the planes, obtaining their materials from storage units main-
tained by speciali sts.
Aircrcws are wakened about 4 A.M., ride to the base messes
in vehicl es fumi shcd by the motor pool. Base kitchens hoard
their eggs to give them a good breakfast. Diet is watched to
avoid foods causing distention at high altitudes .
Next they draw their personal fi ying equipment from the
supply room, where a personal equipment officer sees that
their oxygen units, elcctrically hea tcd fl ying suits, Mae Wests
and flak vests are in top condition. 111is is followed by briefing,
which consists of an organized presentation of all infonna-
tion bearing on the successful completion of the mission-
maps, target charts, analysi s of target and reason for its selec-
tion, weather infonnation, most recent information on fl ak
and fighter opposi tion to be expected, procedure orders, and
the supplying of communications ciphers on edible rice
paper. This information is the joint product of such installa-
tions as the group intelligence library, the signal office and
the weather office.
The bombardiers obtain their sights from the base bomb-
sight vault. Cameras and films are installed in one of evel)'
4 to 6 planes by thc photographic officer. Ready in the planes
are. parachutes, life rafts, flares, an oxygen system, emergency
rations, manual radio equipment and navigation instruments.
Responsible for thi s equipment is a seri es of base specialist
shops charged with maintenance and replenishnl ent.
The great planes trundle out of their parking area and
marshal along the taxiways and at the runway ends. A flare
from the control tower signals the lead ship into its takeoff
and the rest follow at 30-second intervals.
Base area controls now go into effect, implementing plans
for escort rendezvolls and diversionary mi ssions which have
been initiated at scores of base operations offices throughout
the base area. Aircraft forced to drop out of formati on bv
Aak or fight er damage receive high and medium fr cquenev
a series of stati ons all ovcr the base arcn, each o'f
wh ich gIVes a specified signal during a specified time in
corda"ce with the rice paper schedule of ciphers. Planes
whose radios are knocked out ean get " talked in" on com-
mand radio set s from positions near any British base. Crews
foreed to ditch in the Channel are quickly spotted and picked
up by the British air-sea rescue service.
r Planes returning from a mission are met by ambulances
and fi re trucks waiting at the runways with engines turning
over. Red flares fir ed from the incoming planes indicate
wounded personnel and give these planes landing priorities.
Blood plasma has been warmed at the base hospital; the
operatmg room is ready for immediate surgery.
Motor pool transportation al so meets each plane as it fo11s
to a stop. After the removal of injured crew members, the
rest ale rushed to the briefing room for the all -important
interrogation. Red Cross workers supply hot coffee, dough-
nuts and cigarettes. Then all airplanes are taxied to their
dispersed hardstands, 'except those too seri ously damaged,
which are moved aside for later transfer to base hangars and
major repair or salvage. At the dispersal point the photo-
graphic offi cer removes camera and films from the planes to
the base photographic laboratory.
At the interrogation, trai ned intelligence offi cers get first
hand reports from the ' aircrews. When the interrogation is
over. the films, still damp from processing, are studied in the
photo lab. A period of suspense then ends, as these are the
unmistakable evidence of the success of the mission.
Immediately fonowing a mission, maintenance and repair
of the participating planes is resumed. The crews are en-
couraged to rest and relax. Al ready the facilities of the base
are concentrated on sending the group on its next mission.
The Military Aviators Badge,
and ability to complete qua li fica tion tests
military aviation" was authori zed on May 27. 1913. ThiS
first decoration for miJitary airmen was awarded to !4
officers then on aviation duty with the Signal Corps, JO.
eluding General (then Lt.) H. H. ArnoJd, now com-
manding General, AAF.
DECORATIONS-Deeds of high valor, wounds received in
action agai nst the enemy, military achievcments 1I1 .actIOn.
honorable service over a period of years-all are recogmzed by
the President of the United States who, through the \Var De-
partment, awards appropriate decorations. Ribbons, represent-
ing the medal awarded, are worn on the left breast of the
uniform. .
Two awards arc granted specifically for achievement
aerial flight- the Distinguished Flying Cross and the A"
Medal. These are in addition to numerous other War De-
partment awards for which are The
Medal of Honor, hi ghest mIlitary decoration of thIS country,
has been awarded to both officers and men of the AAf'. .
Units, organi zations and detachments, .as well . as the
dividual soldier, may be cited for outst:mdlllg ac1l1evement. m
action, a device bcing issu€d to all members of .such umts.
Thi s device is worn on the right breast of the umform.
None of the decorations authori zed is issued morc than
once to any one person (except a posthumous award of the
Purple Heart ). but for each succeeding achievement
cient to justify an award, a bronze oak leaf cluster m<ly be
awarded. One sil ver oak leaf cluster is authorized for wear in
place of 5 bronze oak leaf clusters.
MEDAL OF HONOR · Highest of
our military decorations. Es-
tablisl; ed in 1862, it is
awarded in the name of Con-
gress '0 an officer or enlisted
man who, in actual conllict
with the enemy, distinguisl1 es
himse!l conspicuously by gal-
lantry and intrepidity at the
risle of his ljfe above and be-
yond the caJl of duty.
For extraordinary heroism in
conne:::tiol) with military op-
erations against the enemy.
SILVER STAR· For gallantry in
action which does not warrant
the award of the Distinguished
Service Cross.
For lieroism or extraordinary
achie\'ement during aerial
tfight while serving with the
SOLDIER S MEDAL· For heroism
not involving actual conflict
with the enemy. The medal :
on a bronze octagon is dis-
played an eagle standing on a
fasces between groups of stars
and above a spray of leaves. A
shield on t he reverse is in-
scribed "U. S." and support-
ed by sprays of laurel and oak
leaves. The words "Soldier's
M edal, For Valor," and the
recipient's name, appear as in-
AIR MEDAL· For meritoriOIlS
achievement while participat-
ing in aerial flight, not war-
ranting award of the Distin-
guisll ed Flying Cross. May be
awarded for single actions or
sustained operational activities.
PURPLE HEART· OriginaJly es-
tablished m J 782 as the
Badge tor Military Merit this
award was not issued for many
ye:lrs. Today it is awarded for
a wound which necessitates
treatment by a medical officer
and which is received in ac-
tion with an enemy of the
U. S. The medal : all a pur-
ple enameled heart within a
bronze border is a profile head
of Geneml George \Vasllillg-
tall ill military uniform; above,
in green enamel is his coat
of arms between 2 sprays of
leaves. On the reverse, below
a shield and leaves, is a raised
bronze heart with the inscrip-
tion "For Military Meri t ,"
:md the name of tile recipient.
BRONZE STAR· For heroic or
meritoriolls achievement not
involving participation in ae-
rial combat (but not warrant-
ing the Silver Star or the Le·
gioll of Merit), have
been ac11ieved m dIrect com-
bat or in support at combat on
the ground. The medal :
star in center of whIch IS
smaller raised bronze st ar. the
center lines of all rays of both
stars coinciding. Reverse: " He·
roic or Meritorious Achieve·
ment" and space for the re-
cipient's name to be
Ribbon is glory red with verh-
cal blue stripe in center . Bl ue
stripe and ribbon ends are
piped in white.
For exceptionally
service to the Government m
a duty of great responsibility.
LEGION OF MERIT· Like the Pur-
ple Heart this decoration
stems from the Badge for Mil-
itary Merit, America's oldest
decoration, and is awarded to
outstanding officers and en-
listed men of the armed forces
of t he U. S. for exceptiona1Jy
meritorious conduct in per-
tonnance of outstanding serv-
ices. It is also awarded, in sev-
eral degrees, to personnel at
the armed forces of friendly
foreign nations.
Service awards and current cam- who, on or aft er Dec. 7.
paign medals denoting theater honorably completed one year
of service are represented, at at acti ve Federal military serv-
present, by ribbons only. Ap- ice and who a.re recommended
propriate medals for these t or the award by t heir com-
awards will be manufact ured mandi ng officers for exem-
and distributed after the war. plary behavior, efficiency and
sued to military pcrsonnel THEATER CAMPAICN .MEDALS ·
who entered on a tour of duty For 30 davs, consccutive or 60
at J 2 months or longer and days, service
who, in discharge of such in the present war in the fol-
service, served at any time be- lowing theaters: Europe:1l l:
t ween Sept. 8, 1939, and Dec. African-Middle Eastern; ASI-
7, 1941. atic· Pacific; American T hea-
COOD CONDUCT MEDAL · Aut hor- ter- for service within the
ized for award to t hose en- American theater outside COII-
l isted men of tile U. S. Army tinenta' U. S.
S qtH!dron. insignia were adopted during the last war by the
first U. S. airmen to fight for the American flag.
Above are the earliest of these insignia- the Indianhcad
of the Lafayette Escadrille, famed American volunteer squad-
ron which fought with the French before our entry into
World War I; and the Hat-in-the-Ring of Capt. Eddie
Rickenbacker's 94th Aero Pursuit Squadron.
Today the tradition is a part of the AAF- a tradition that
is being carried to all our global fighting fronts by young men
like ~ h e aviation cadet shown on the opposite page saluting
Old Glory at retreat.
Official insignia have been adopted by morc than 800
AAF squadrons. In the U. S. these are widely used on air-
planes and equipment. Overseas, supply and tactical con-
siderations limit their use; here identifying insignia may be
found on crewmen' s flight jackets and stati onery, and on
plaques hung in messhall s and squadron huts.
Like the coats-of-amls emblazoned on the armor and
trappings of olden-day knights, AAF squadron insignia shmd
for more than identification; they represent a mission and a
For a few samples of AAF combat unit insignia, turn the
next p a g ~ .
718th Bombardment
344th Flpte r
114th hmba,..ttt
4I1t1i rlpt.r
42. Iombardmaot
338th Bombardment

. ~
'lst Service
6th Weather
551th; Bomb.rdm.nt
25th Ualsoo
532th Bombardment
20th Tlct R.connllnnce
425th Bombardment
310th Fllhler
17th Troop Carr!er
528th Iomb. riment
1 st Elstern U. S. 2nd W.st.rn U. S. 3rd S. Eastern U. S. 4th Far Western U. S.
5th SW Pacific 6th Canal Zan. 1th C.ntrll Pacific 8th United Kin,dom
9th Unit" Kilt,dom 10th Indla·Burma 11th N. Pacific 12th M.dite"ane.n
13th S. Pacific 14th China 15th ltal)' HQ. and Commands
Th. present Ins 11111. Is vlslbl. at 60 perc,nt ",.ter
renp than the previous AAF marklnl. The red dllc
was removed to pr.vent confusion with Japanese ,
marklnc. ,Dates show when chlnles were made.
I"R i 'D")' a". 1. 1Q" I ..... "Q
T he air is our battl efield . It provides not onl y the fi eld of
action but al so, in itseH. a number of positi ve hazards. To
minimi ze these we continuall y enlist the elements of the
atmosphere as allies, but the same elements often become
formidabl e enemies.
Our machines are built to withstand the tremendous
stresses of the air, but we who fl y the machines are
tomed to the natural forces at the earth's surface. Our physi-
ology is designt:d to work on the ground. Airhorne, we are
di"orced from our natural habitat. Before a mission Celll be
flown or a bomb dropped, the basic probl ems of air adapta-
bilitv must be mastered.
act of Hying through the air is a temporary truce with
gf<wity. :Man and phlll c must eventuall y C0111e down. Oreli·
narily the landing is dclilx;rate and safe, but sometimes it is
unexpectedly abrupt. To the problem of returning to
C' • .lTth there is frequently added the problem of survival in
areas unnatural tu us.
The atmosphere, terrain of the air war, is the most fickle
and treacherous of all terrai ns. If a ground commander were
\ confronted daily with mountains changing height, rivers
altering their course, ground moving up and down like an
elevator and oceans going dry, his terrain problems would
begin to resemble those of an AAF tactician.
I '"Inc atmosphere is like an ocean extending nearly 200
miles above the earth's surfacej through it move deep masses
of air, like currents in the ocean, Cold air masses travel from
the polar regions, warm air masses from the equatorial belt.
i TIle velocity of air movement varies from a gentle breeze to
a heavy wind. ''''hen warm air and cold air meet, clouds are
formed which often result in rain, snow or storm. Within
the air masses there is constan t motiorr as heated air rises
and cold air drops. Above all this is the intcnse cold of the
upper air.
High-velocity winds .whi ch a off its set
necessitate constant adJustments 111. Greatest
menace is a headwind blowing dlfectl y agaInst the plane s
front . Bucking such headwinds, a p,lane
so much fuel that it fall s short of Its Tal.lwmds,
on the other hand, push the plane more qUickly to Its goal
and make it possibl e to reduce the fuel load. Updrafts and
downdrafts may move at speeds up to 2 00 mil es per
In places where an updraft passes a downdraft, a conchhon

\...l9"" . .1) . JJ I "-

I {/'\

callcd turbul ence results. Turbulence can toss a plane about
like a cork-even rip its wings off,
Fog lies close to the ground, can reduce visibility to zero,
make landi ngs and hlkeoffs extremel y dangerous. Snow and
rain can seriously curtail visibility in the air. llail can blast
holes in a plane'S wings 3119 fuselage. l ee can
a phmc in a matter of mmutes, reduce Its lift and make It
a ••• _LI$
eLMS .. _".
Clouds may. be both friend and foe to the Rier, who all
through Ill S fli ght traming is taught how to interpret and
make of them. s?mc douds he learn the stability
of the alT and the dlfcctlOll of approachmg storms' he can
employ douds for cover in air battlc. Often, douds
) ,

mean trouble. They affect visibility and stability of the air.
On occasion we must combat the dark towering cumul onimbus
( thunderhead ) , most dangerous of clouds, a center of ex-
treme turbu1cnce.
Such is the dynamic terrain of the air battlefi eld.
Communications Network- All over the world radio navi-
gational aids are provided to AAF and Allied airplanes by the
AAF' s Army Airways Communications System, whose stations
are located in al1 48 states and in 52 foreign countri es and
territories. It is now possible for a plane to fl y blind all the
way around the world guided entirely by AACS radio
tional aids. In addition to direction beams, AACS sends out
signal s warning against mountain barriers and enemy aircraft.
\Veather data supplied by the AAF 'Weather Service is trans-
mitted by AACS.
Weather Service- Like AACS stations, wcather service bases
,HC locatcd in the far reaches of the world, in lonely outposts
in the arctic and tropics where weather is born. Reports
from these stati ons are transmitted to Headquarters in vVash-
ington, D. C. , where wea ther maps are made and forecasts
M: nt out al1 over the world. To provide short-range
forecasts, weather servi ce units accompany tacti cal, transport
and t roop carrier units. there is an AAF base, there
<l re weather personnel to interpret and forecast climatic condi-
tions. Often the wea ther stations <lrc mobile; in the landing
;It Salerno, for instance, a jeep fitted with weather observing
t: quipmcnt was with one of the first units to make a landing.
\Vc<1ther airplancs regularly fly long di stances
to gather data before fighters. bombers or transports take off.
Foreknowledge of the weather is more than a protective
meaSlHC. I t is a tactical weapon. A typi cal instance was dlH-
ing an attack on \ Vcwak. New Gui nea. 'T'he planes which
attacked were based at Port Between the airhase
and the target hly the 16,ooo-foot Owcn Stanicy Range. Over
the Owcn St;mlcvs there ,He I.l snallv banks of thunderhcads
rising as high as 40,000 feet. The attack could not he carried
Ollt while the thunderheads blocked the wav. The weather
'1e n'ice was asked to predict a cloudless d:1Y. Seven days
daps<.:d before the wCHthcr officer decided that proper condi-
hom. were on the way. He issued a forecast 24 hours in ad-
,anec. pledieting just the type of weather desired. The attack
wa\ timed precisely to the forecast and 309 planes which the
Japs had thought safe were destroyed.
Sometimes, in combat, had weatller is advantageous. In an
attack on Trondhcim, Norway, for example, bomber aircraft
b:1scd in Britain took advantage of a blanket of overcast that
extended almost to the edge of the target before it opened.
TI,e bombers flew undetected to Trondheim, dropped their
bombs on the perfectly visible targets and made their journey
home protected by the overcast.
On the ground the human bOdy- with the aid of proper
food, clothing and shelter-is well adjusted to such natural
,forces as air pressure, gravity, temperature and inertia. But
when man goes up in the air 10,000 feet or more, these same
forces may run to extremes far the body's breaking
Yet every day air operations are being conducted at alti-
tudes far above 10,000 fect. The answer is that aviation medi-
cine has made discoveries that compensate for the strains of
.high altitode-discoveries that adjust earth-accustomed physi-
ology to aerial activity.

Anoxia- The air we breathe is 78% nitrogen, 21 % oxygen
.nd I % .ga.ses. is necessary to sustain human
Ifc. When air IS IIlhaled mto the lungs, oxygen is picked up
by the blood stream and delivered to all parts of \he bOdy.
Carbon diOXide, a waste product, is transported back to the
lungs, exh.1led along with the other unused gases of the air.
: The amount of oxygen which can be absorbed by the
-,1ood-strcam depends on the quantity of air present in the
iungs; this is detennincd by the outside atmospheric pressure.
13IIIID' --I
·111lI0II' --I
" oro
OXYGEJI----- 0
IlOOO ----- ,
As the altitude increases, the pressure fall s and the abnosphere
becomes more and more rarefied. As the air contcnt of the
lungs becomes progressively smaller, so does the oxygen con-
tent. This condition is primarily responsibl e for the oxygen
want which develops with increased altitude. Its effects begin
to be felt when an altitude of 10,000 feet is exceeded.
The medical name for oxygen-want is anoxia. To combat
anoxia, we rely on the oxygen system, which increases the
oxygen content of the air that the fli er breathes at high alti -
tudes. At 18,000 feet, for eX3lnple, the oxygen content of the
lungs has fallen to one-half its ground level wlue. At this alti -
tude the oxygen system wises the pcrccnhlge of oxygen in the
Hir breathed by Hi ers from 2 1 % to 4 2%, thus raising the oxy-
gen content of the Il1ngs to its normal ground level valuc. At
34,000 feet, 1 00% oxygen Illust be breathed; above 3 4 ,000
feet, even 1 00% oxygen does not providc a sufficient quan-
tity of oxygen, although the defi ciency does nO.t bec.ome criti-
cal until an altitude of 4 0,000 feet. Above thiS altitude, the
pressure is so low that even pure oxygen will permit con-
sciousness only for short periods.
All aircrew mem bers are instructed to wear oxygen masks
Iwhen Bying above l O,OOO feet. Masks are fitted to the con-
tours of the 8ier's face and have a small built-in microphone
to facilitate interphone and radio communication. The
re connected by hose to a central oxygen system. There are
• types of oxygen systems in usc by the AAF; the demand
ystem and the continuous flow system. In the demand type,
n autorr:atic mixer steadily increases the oxygen content
of the as the airplane gains altitude in order to main-
tain the quantity of oxygen equal to that present at ground
evel. This system is fuHy automatic, saves oxygen by func-
·tioning only when a man is actually inhaling. and adjusts
litself to the speed of breathing; it supplies all the oxygen
ceded when exertion causes faster The continu-
ous How oxygen system is an older type and is not regulated
utomatically. The flier himse1f adjusts a valve that governs
the amount of oxygen flowing into the mask. This system
las largcl:t been replaced by the demand type.
In bombers it is often necessary for men to walk around
inside the airplane while performing their duties. In planes
equipped with demand systems, the flier disconnects his mask
lOse from its fixed oxygen outlet and plugs it into a walk-
round bottle which can be rcfilled from the main lines. A
mall type bottle lasts about 5 minutes under average condi-
tions, while a new and larger type lasts between a half hour
and an hour. With the continuous flow system, the walk-
round bottle contains an hour's supply, is non-refil1able,
For parachute jumps from high altitudes, bailout bottles
are provided. TIley are usually strapped to the legs, and con-
tain a 10 minutes' supply of oxygen, sufficient to al10w a para-
chutist te descend safely through the upper air. In an older
type bottle, the oxygen is sucked through a pipestem, while
'n a newer type it is delivered into the mask.
In night operations, fli ers do not wait until they reach
10,000 feet to ut on their oxygen masks, They wear them
from the time take off, for the first effect of anoxia, even
Islight anoxia, lessens the ability to sec in the dark.
Aeroerabolism- When a bottle of soda pop is uncapped, the
gas which has been imprisoned in the liquid under pressure
escapes rapidly in the form of bubbles. The same type
thing can happen wlthm the body flUIds 10 the upp<!r . .
Nitrogen gas (and small quaptities of oxygen, carbon dIOXIde
and water vapor) is normally found 10 .the blood
and other body fluids. These gases are kept 10 soiubon by the
pressure of the atmosphere. At high altitudes the mtrogen
pressure within the body may exceed the 11It,rogen .pressure
in the air outside. The gas in the blood, forms
bubbles in the joints and fat tissues mother
parts of the body. The result is a very pamful condlbon call ed
aeroembolism, known as the bends to deep sea dIVers and
The occurrence of aeroemboli sm is It
happens at 30,000 feet and above, and th.e maJonty ?f fil ers
are not susceptible to it even at those altitudes. A fil er
has had trouble can guard against by breathmg
pure oxygen for 45 minutes before takmg off and then
bnuing to breathe 1 00% oxygen from the ground up. Thl,s
method, called denitrogenatIon, reduces the pressure of 111-
trogen in the lungs to zero and allows a part ?f th,e gas
in the body to escape painlessly. When am:nan IS stncken
with aeroembolism, he normally can obtall1 rehef by descend-
ing immediately to 5,000 feet or, Descent t? a ,level
'of higher pressure Will prevent senous InJury to ;.t fher In all
cases if it is done in time.
Blackouts and Redouts-The symbollC represents the force
which is exerted on an object by the pull of gravity. \ -Vhen
the body is subjected to a pull greater t1, an the
force of gravity, it may not funcbon properl y. Such a pro-
longed pun is measured in terms of numbers of GS, such as
. Cs, 3CS, 4CS, depending upon the degree of force exerted.
Centrifugal force, the force that throws an object outward
when it moves in an arc, may be greater than I C, When a
flier loops, or pulls out of a dive or force
affects the body. Inside looping or pulhng out of a dIve (sec
diagram) forces the blood toward the lower part of the body.
The bl ood, forced away from the head, ,leaves th: ,bram
out sufficient oxygen. TIle first eff ect 1S gray An
crease in force results in a blackout. Usually the Alcr does not
become unconscious during blackouts, but he may if the
force continues.
During outside looping or termination of a climb, the blood
rushes in the opposite direction- toward the head. If the
force is strong enough, the head ·throbs with pain, the eyes
feci as though they arc bulging and vision becomes red.
and redouts are of short duration, rarely have last-
mg effects and occur only under highly accclerated gravity
puns. To reduce the danger of blackouts and redouts, Ri ers
learn to level off gradually from dives and climbs. Another
aid is tensing the muscl es and yelling to help slow the fl ow
of blood.
ClITllflfCAl 'lICE (Cf)
Cold- Normal temperatures at alti t udes of 2 5,000 to 3 0 . 000
feet range from 30 to 50 degrees below zero. Consequently,
I body warmth ranks next to oxygen supply as the most im-
portant need of the airman for effi Ciency at high altitude. A
hand exposed to 4o-below temperature becomes frostbitten
1 few minutes, and a severe frostbite of one finger is
suffiCient to ground a gunner for days and sometimes weeks.
The AAF's fl cece-lincd leather fl ying suit and the im-
proved alpaca type fl ying suit have bccn designcd to provide
the airman the maximum protecti on from cold with the
minimum restriction of movemcnt. The winter fl ying suit in-
cludes felt boots and leather gloves, both of whi ch can be
worn o\'er additional layers of wool, Reece or rayon in any

desired combination. Tight fi tting clothing is avoided, be-
cause adequate ci rcul ation is also essential to keep the hands
and feet warm, However, measures which mcrely insulate the
body against loss of heat are insuffi cient for long
extreme cold. The ideal solution is cabin heat ing, which IS
effective in fighter planes and the closed compartments of
bombers, but not feasible in the exposed porti ons of the fuse-
lage. Electrically heated suits, gloves and boots are necessary
to protect tail, waist and turret gunners.
Night Vision- The retina, an area at .the back of the eye
which does the actual "seeing," is made up of tiny cells call ed
rods and COll't!S. The cones, which distinguish colors and
st ructural detail, are used when bright light is available. Since
they are principally grouped in the center of the retina, an
obj ect is best seen when we look directly at it. However, the
cones are unable to parti cipate in vision at night when the
light is very dim. We are then dependent on the rods. which
enable us to see the general form of objects in various shades
of gray. Since the rods are distributed arollnd the sur-
faces of the reti na. objects are best seen on a dark mght by
looking at them a little off center. To do this accurately re-
quires constant practice.
Abil ity to see in the dark can be lost quickly if the eyes are
exposed to a bright light. A period of protection from bright
light is required to adjust the eyes to night vision. Adapting
the eyes to the dark can be accomplished by spending 30
minutes in a darkened room before a Right or by wearing red
goggles for the same period. Red goggles shut out all colors but
red. which least affects night vision.
Pil ots read their instrument boards rapidly during night
fl ight, thus exposing their eyes to the lighted panel for the
shortest period possible. To further minimize the period of
adjustment back to darkness after reading an instrument
board, panel lights are kept as dim as practicable. Fluorescent
ligh ted instruments reduce eye fatigue, help nigh t vision .
A normal supply of Vitamim A. found in all green and
yenow foods, is essenti al to night vision. \¥hen airmen are
unable to get sufficient Vitamin A in their diet, a concentrate
IS given .
I Diet-The gas in an airman's intestinal tract expands as the
, altitude increase;. Effects may be painful, but ordinarilv may
· be quickly relieved by passage of excess gas. Some men are
, sensitive to foods which produce excessive amounts of gas.
Onions, cucumbers, radishes, cabbage, soda pop, dried. beans,
apples. melon, cauHAowcr and fat or rich foods are taboo for
such men while on flying duty.
· Fatigue-Flying fatigue is a double problem: immediate fa·
I tigue is induced by the hard work, extreme cold, possible
accidental anoxia, constant alertness and emotional strain of
a single mission; chronic fatigue, or staleness, is brought on
In· the accumulated nerve-wear of a series of missions.
. For the fatigue of a Single mission a good night' s slcep, a
: little diversion and a satisfying meal are tlsually cure enough.
'The intensity of such fatigue is rcduced by comfortable seat·
· ing. proper oxygen and cold weather equipment, adequate rest
I between operations.
Chronic fatigue is mainly a mental condition. When it
' curs, it is best treated by complete rest, frcedom from strain,
: & change of sccne and rdief from arduous duties. AAF
' geons ha\'e been able to reduce the occurrence of chronic fa-
tigue by a program of preventive mcasurcs: 24 hours' rest
I between missions when possible, a period of Icave and alter-
:nate duty after a ccrbin number of hours of flying, and ath·
·letics and recreation.
Aviation Medicine-The peculiar medical problems of
:a\'iation have given ri se to the special science of aviation
:mcdicine. Since ''''orld War I the AAV has studicd and ex·
Ipcrimented with the physiological difficulties resulting from
.8ildlt. Today the office of the Air Surgeon supcrviscs all medi·
. caT activities in the AAF. Every mcdical officcr who wears the
'golden wings of a flight surgeon has studied at the AAV's
School of Aviation Medicine, has worked with fl ying per·
:sonnel, and has had many hours of flying time in which to
bmiliariu himself with the air.
A Right surgeon is assigned to every fl ying squadron . IIc
watche, over the daily health of the mcn and determincs
when they are 6t to fly. lIe may ground a man with a slight
cold beeause a cold which would cause little trouble on the
ground might have serious consequences in the upper. air
where the ears and sinuses are under extra stresses. The Hight
surgeon prescribes all medi cation .. Simple. drugs like aspirin
can have undesirable effects at high altitudes. A personal
equipment officer is also assigned to With the
flight surgeon he checks oxygen
in its use and conducts an educatIonal program III first aid
in flight. .. ..
All flying personnel are kept In top phYSical condition at
all times. A healthy body is tlie best safeguard agamst the
air's physiological hazards.
No matter what we have done in the way of equipment
and education to reduce the hazards of activity in our
fi eld, there is always the chance that a plane will be forced
out of the sky either by enemy action, mechanical failure or
human failure. Proper precautions must be taken. Our planes
are equipped for all eventualities and every man who Bies is
trained in the procedures of emergency evacuation and the
techniques of survival anywhere on earth.
Bailing Out- When it becomes necessary to bail out, the
ideal way is to set the plane on a level course and slow its air
speed. In a bomber crew, members use bailout exits located

1 CO·PllOt
1. PIlOt
I. UPPD tuun 'UU[I
tWIO Gf'WToa
in easily accessible sections 01 the airplane. Fighter pilots
tum the" planes over il possible, dump the cockpit canopy,
release salety belt and thrust themselves out with their leet.
II there is danger 01 enemy fire, the airman employs a long
nee fall-that is, he opens his parachute only alter he has
fallen well below the level 01 enemy planes. At high altitudes
: the free fall also is advisable because it speeds the airman's
descent through the intense cold and rarity 01 the upper air.
A bailoul oxygen bottle (see page 244) is provided lor high
altitude j'lmps. ]n a jump from a medium altitude where there
is no enemy 6re, the ainnan waits 2 to 6 seconds before
pulling hiS ripcord. The delay minimizes danger ollouling the
parachute with the airplane and serves to slow the para-
. chutisfs downward speed, thus reducing the shock when the
lparachute billows open.
Alter the paracllUte opens, the airman descends leet down,
trelaxed and, if possible, with his face in the direction he is
(lrifting. He lands with Hexed legs and attempts to run lor-
ward with the wind behind him, while pulling the shrouds
o help collapse his parachute. Should the parachutist land in
ta tree, he crosses his arms in front of his head, burying face
i n forearms; feet and knees are held together_ If an airman
in water, he releases his parachute harness just before
is feet touch the surface and quickly inAates his Mae West
"Ie vest. Pilots of single-place aircraft are usually equipped
"th one-man life rafts containing emergency rations ' and
uipment. Both life ralts and Mae Wests can be instantly
Hated by attached carbon dioxide cylinders.
Ditching-If a bomber pilot decides his plane must be
itched-landed on water- the crew immediately takes pre-
ratory measures. All loose equipment like guns, aml1luni-
.on (or anything that adds weight) is thrown out. Bombs and
epth charges arc jetti soned or disarmed. Emergency equip.
ent (including a radio set) and supplies arc placed near the
pe hatches. Bomb bay doors are closed to prevent an in-
!,sh of water upon landing. The radio operator sends out a
eady distress signal.
The pilot brings the plane down under power if possible
thcr than in a glide with the engines off. When the plane
'l i-----
/jJ/ '"
4 - _ __ • - _ _
.-.; --
A. PILOT F. l1li10 111'• •
comes to rest, the mcn exit rapidly through their assigned
ditching hatches, carrying equipmcnt with them. There are
different ditching procedures for each type of aircraft, but in
all cases every man has his specific job, a specific exit. Rubber
rafts are released from the fuselage and POP out on to the
wings. The rafts are loaded, the crew boards them and they
shove off. The rafts are tied together in the water.
As long as the plane stays 3803t, the rafts remain near it,
for a plane on the water can m OTC easi ly be spotted by rescue
aircraft. When the plane sinks, the crew strikes out in a di-
rection that has been detennincd after calculation by the
navigator. The pilot is in command. He plans a course of
I rationing for the food and water stores. It is desirable to re-
main clothed to avoid sunburn and excessive exposure.
Rafts are equipped with rations, fishing tackle, first aid kit,
• Very (ftare) pistols, an apparatus for making sea water drink-
able, and a sea markcr-a chemical which forms a large yel-
lowish-green spot on the water making the raft' s position
visible to a rescue plane. There are 3 types of rafts in use:
2500-pound capacity, loco-pound capacity and one-man raft.
Stories of raft survival have become commonplace. Life on
a raft in the open sea is not pleasant, but it is possible to exist
if the men use their equipment and provisions as they have
been trained to use them. Hope of rescue, probably the great-
est sustaining force for men adrift, need never be given tip.
Emergency rescue units, devoted solely to searching for and
rescuing lost personnd, keep looking for men as long as therc
is even faint hope that they can be found. Boats, long-range
amphibian planes and land planes equipped with ftoats are
sed for sea rescue. In theaters of operations air-sea rescue is
abelted by the work of the Navy and Allied naval and air
forces. Search operations are also conducted for men forced
cown in jungle, desert or arctic.
Forced Landing- 'Vhen in di stress over jungle, desert or
arctic, it is usually better to try t!o crash-land an airplane than
10 bail out. The advantages are that the outline of a grounded
lane can be spotted from the air and the airplane itself pro-
·ides shelter, fud and material for fashioning improvi sed
·capons and signaling devices.
The AAF has long studi ed the problems of survival . in
jungle, desert and arcti c. The .results . of studies .are IlTI-
parted to aircrew members dunng thel: trammg 111 com-
bat zones. An Arctic, Desert and T ropiC
sct up in the AAF, is dlsscnll-
nating new survival informatI on. Available to all 31rcrew mem-
bers are concise fully illustrated casy-to-carry manuals
crammed with for emcrgencies. rn lC manuals tell
how to signal for help, how to build shelter, what foods to
eat and which to avoid, how to t.reat ai lments and
health, how to deal with natives, to travel over dIfficult
terrain and scores of other useful Items. .
Crewmen are equipped with all-purpose emergency
containing sun glasses, jackknife, needle an? thread,
tackl e, first aid supplies, water and food ratIOns, and
tools and implements. The kit is in the foml of a seat cushIOn
and is wrapped in a .canvas A .small er
kit fit s snugly around the body hke a Jackct. A qUIlt, ohve dmb
on one side and blue on the other may serve as a slccp1l1g bag,
a hammock, a rai ncoat, a pup tent or a signaling device.
·C ombat operations bring into concerted action the various
. AAF eJements-personnel and equipment, organizati on and
I training. supply, maintenance and bases. All are welded to-
gether in a united eftort against the enemy. Because our
. weapon can be empl oyed effectively in many ways, our com bat
operation) arc fairly compl ex. 'The foHowing basic definiti ons
:may lead to a better understanding of how we fight.
Strategy involves planning, dctennincs the
manner in which a war is to be fought. All our .acti ons are
:conditioned by the strategy governing our nati on' s conduct
of the war.
Tactics arc the methods we employ in our operations
against the enemy; they constitute the means by which we
Implement existing strategy and apply it locally to achieve
ietory in a battle. Strategy may best be thought of in terms
f a war, tactics in tcrms of a battle.
. t t t gy so is technique
ust as tactics are 0 s e , ,
subordinate to tacti cs. T echmque consists of the manner In
which tactics are performed,
. f em loys strategy' a formation of aircraft exe-
An aIr orce , P , '0 bat
cutes tactics; individual aircraft l1,se ur c,?m _
operations fall into 2 major categones-strateglc ant h
l oth of which can be identified wi,th the terms rom W IC
:he wcre derived. Strategic operati ons, based on
y . d· d to prevent the enemy from obtammg
plannmg are eSlgne d I '
he wea 'ons he must have to make war, to liS
:m to K ht. :N[ain obj ecti ves of AAF tactical are
to and maintain air to dest roy or
enem su ly and communi catIOn lmcs, and to partl clpa e
. y bl'Ped effort of the air ground and sea forces on the
ma comm " t t'
immediate battlefront or adj acent to It. However, s ra eglc
opcrations may entail the destruction or neutraliza ti on of the
enemy's airpower as a first prerequisite to the primary strategic
Strategic Targets-The targets of stra tegic operations are
the sou;ccs of product ion and maintenance of the enemy's
I»K 1[101£
war 1IIachine. TIl ey incl ude rear bascs ;md supply lines out of
reach of tactical air units; key indust ries engaged in producing
aircraft, other machines of war, ammllnitiol\ and critical raw
materials. electr ic power, transportati on and fuel systcms.
They arc selectcd only after careful , expert analysis which
takes every conceivable factor into considerati on. For ex-
ample: How vitall y will the destruction of a given pl ant affect
the enemy's front line fi ghti ng abi lity? Which plants should
be sel ected as involving, ill the event of their dcstruct ion, the
lli hortest time-lag in maki ng their destruction fd t?
Another important considerati on i ii the sel ection of. targcb
most likely to be di srupted by bomb Factories pro-
ducing material for which no ready substitute can be de-
velopcd serve as an example. Stratcgy may ?all for concen.tra-
ti on on onc phase of cnemy production.
for instance. But sometimes cffccbve bombmg dlfccted at a
singl c vital item, stich as ball bearings,. docs morc to
cnemy aircraft producti on than destructl on of factones mak-
ing the pl anes themselves. .'
Tactical Targets-Tacti cal ta rgets .consl.st m,a1l11y of enemy
forces and suppli cs. Rapidly changll1g Situations may
these targets to change from day to day. On land, thcy 111 -
elude communica ti ons, aircraft and alfficlds, troops,
portation and ba ttl e emplacements. If the battl e area IS
sca they include shi pping and naval surface craft. In the air
land and sea- thc targets are enemy aircraft .
prerequi site of tactical operations is to establish and mamta lll
air superi ority. ..'
Basic Weapons-Bccause au operations are cha.r-
acteri zed by and sustained mass attack, th.e basIc
weapon is the heavy and very heavy aIrplane.
Such operations, however, also usuall y Ill volve re-
connaissance aircraft and escort fi ghtcrs. St rategic operatIOns
place great emphasis on complete intelligcnce. of the activities
of an enemy nation; they are furth er charactenzed .by the nced
for long-range wea thcr forccasting, and by relative freedom
from enemy at tack on ib. bases of operation. . .
Tactical air operations demand a high of
and the cmployment of specific types of aircraft for stnkl1l g
at the enemy's front line strength, such as supply and
mllnications, and for actua l contact on the ba ttl efield. 1 hese
operations may involve the foll owing medium
bombardment aircraft, light bombardment aircraft ,
and fi ghter-bomber aircraft , phot?graphlc
aircraft , antiaircraft artill ery and aIrcraft wanl Jll g
Most types of aircraft can perform ?oth . strategic
tact ical operations; and, a'i mi lita ry dictates, tactlc:11
and strategic air units may be operated aga lll st the same ob-
jecti ves. Stratcgic air forces arc combat components of the
Another important consideration is the selection of targets
most likely to be disrupted by bomb damage. Factories pro-
ducing material for which no ready substitute can be de-
veloped serve as an example. Strategy may call for concentra-
tion on one phase of enemy manufacture- aircraft production,
I for instance. But sometimes effective bombing directed at a
single vital item, such as ball bearings, docs more haml to
enemy aircraft production than destruction of factories mak-
ing the planes themselves.
Tactical Targets-Tactical targets consist mainly of enemy
forces and supplies. Rapidly changing situations may cause
r these targets to change from day to day. On land, they in-
clude communications, aircraft and airfields, troops, trans-
portation and b.lttl e emplacements. If the battle area is at
sea, they include shipping and naval surface craft. In the air
I -over land and sea- the targets are ell e!TIY aircraft. But the
prerequisite of tactical operations is to establish and maintain
[ air supefiority.
Basic Weapons-Because strategic air operations are
acterized by long,range and sustained mass attack, the basic
weapon is the heavy and very heavy bombardment airplane.
Such operations, however, al so usually involve re-
connaissance aircraft and fighters. Strategic operations
place grcat emphasis on complete intelligence of the acti vi ti es
of an enemy nation; they are further characterized by the need
for long.range weather forecasting, and by relative freedom
I from enemy attack on its bases of operation.
Tactical air operations demand a high degree of mobility
and the employment of specific types of aircraft for striking
. at the enemy's front line strength, such as suppl y and com-
munications, and for actual contact on the battlefield . These
operations may invol ve the following components: medium
bombardment aircraft, li ght bombardment aircraft, fighter
and aircraft , reconnai ssance and photographic
; aircraft, antiaircraft artillery and aircraft warning services.
Most types of aircraft can perform both strategic and
: tactical operations; and, as military necessity dictates, tactical
, and strategic air units may be operated against the same ob-
i jectives. Strategic air forces are combat components of the
type of bomb in regard to its weight, fuzing and
(See page 150.) Attacks cannot follow set formula, smee
they may be delivered at high or low altItudes, dunng day-
light or at night, by means of preCISIOn or area bombmg, and
may be opposed or unopposed by the enemy.
. . up to 1000 leet
MINIMUM.... ... . . .. ... ................ 1000 to 7500
LOW ...••• ••••••••••••••• •••••• •••• •••• ·· 7500 to 15 000
MEDIUM .•••• - • •••• •••• •••••••••••••••••. i 5 000 and ' u .
HIC H .... ...••...•..... . • •. ••. . .• .. •• .. •. , P
Bombing Problem- A target which in.eludes many
may sometimes be di vided . so aSSigned to attackmg
craft that if each structure IS hIt by one. bomb of proper size
the entire target will be destr.oyed. StIll other targets may
require a uniform pattern of hits over 3. area:
An important consideration in bombmg IS the size of the
force which a mission must employ to assure a
chance of obtaining the required number hits. vVlnIe
economy dictates the use of the small est
of planes and crews, the chance of success With the
size of the force. These 2 factors plus the enemy
opposition to any parti cular mission must be weighed for final
detennination of the number of planes to be .
Day and Night Bombing Operations-DaylIght bombmg
constitutes the core of AAF combat operatIons. Its effective-
ness lies in the ability to sight the target, and thus employ
the synchronous bombsight. ThIS pennlts hIgh al tItude pre-
cision bombing; also, dayhght operations all?w to
advantage of fonnation Night operabons, In
AAF men also arc trained, involve such problems as
the target, morc compli.catc.d. navigation, .grcate: operatIOnal
haza rds and the impractI cabIlity of formation fl ymg. .
Formations-Flying in a prescribed pattern, or formatIon,
increases offensive and defensive strength. of a
formation is usually based upon the dISpOSItion and
employment of the combat UllIt. As a rul e, all
planes in a given formation the same have
similar performance charactenstI cs 111 to mallltalll the
formati on pattern. There arc no prcscnbed types of bomber
I formations which must be rigidly followed . Each formation
must meet the requirements of the specific situation pre-
sented. must be sufficiently flexible to adapt itself during
8ight to changing situations. The possible types of forma-
tions 3fC many.
ELEMENT • ••.• ••••.....••••••.....•........ 2 to ... aircraft
FLIGHT •..•.•. . ....••. ...•• •••• ••• ••••• 2 or more elements
COMBAT BOX (OR CROUP) •••••••••••••••••• 2 or more flights
COMBAT wINe ..............•.•• ........•. 2 or more .groups
Bombardment Attack-Targets generally are classified as
fixed, transient, or fleeting. Fixed targets are immobile-
factories, dams, dock installations. Transient targets are those
capable of being moved- supplies, ammunition dumps, con-
I centratio:1s of motor equipment. Fleeting targets 3rc those in
motion- shipping, navy craft, tanks, motor transport.
Heavy Bomber- The ability of heavy bombers to drop
bombs with accuracy from altitudes in excess of 30,000 feet
is directly attributable to precision bombsights and Auto-
matic Flight Control Equipmcnt-a device which actually
Bies the plane during the bombing run (see page 171). To-
gether they solve extremely difficult and complex bombing
problems in a matter of seconds. The bombardier, who is a
specialist doing his calculations in split seconds, must deal
,with such problems as the speed of the plane. correct altitude.
airection of the wind in relation to the aircraft, identification
of the taIget at extreme altitudes, the inevitable di scomfort
~ u e to cold and the use of oxygen. and the fact that the
mber may he under enemy attack.
I Although low-level bombing is seldom performed by AAF
cavy bombers, they have been used on occasion in low level
ttacks when 1ittle ground opposition was expected, or in the
nterest of complete surprise. Because of their size and relative
ack of maneuverability and speed, heavy bombers arc ex·
dingly vulnerable at low levels.
Bombsight-As new models of our bombers have attained
ighcr altitudes and greater speeds, the problems of preci se
mbing have become more complex. Improvements in
• •
.. -
~ ill
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~
~ 1-
• •


- '-
"'" '-'- ,
-- ,-
All is BOMBING RUN. B is
the point of bomb release. C is
the posi tion of the airplane at
the time the bomb strikes the
t,eget . RANGE ANGLE which
determines proper point
is established by altitude and
tance from target. In calculating
for bombing, wind, which affects
the path of the plane and there-
fore the trajectory of the bomb
must he taken into consideration:
bombing and, accessories ha\re been necessary to
keep' pace engmeermg achievements which have made
altitudes of more than 7 miles, speeds greater than
mIles per hour, bomb loads of over 8000 pounds.
The synchronous bombsight, an instrument not much
larger t.han a typew;iter, makes possible the placement of
bombs m th.e. most vItal areas of a target. As a result, difficult
targets requmng a concentration of hits in a small arca can
be !>omhed eifcctivcJy. In general, the tactics cmploycd in
bo".'lbardment rely on the increasingly efficient use
of thIS bombSIght.
The bombsight, with data computed by the bombardi er
set mt.o the mechanism, dctcnni nes the correct point in space
at which a specific type of bomb must be released to st;ikc
3. target. The fundamental data set into the bomb-
sight I!. determined by the altitude of the plane above the
target, Its rate of speed .to the ground, and the typc
of bomb to be used. Thi s data IS figured by the bombardier
the plane reaches target Once bombing
run IS beglln, the b?mbardler s technique dctermlllcs whether
or not the bc:>mb Will reach its objective.
. Through Its telescopic mechanism the bombsight estab-
lIshes .m the . position of the plane and the
This angle, varymg with the altitude, determines the
distance the at which the bomb must be rel eased.
The computing of thiS distance is caJl ed muge. Errors in
computation will calise the bomb to faB short of, or go be-
yond, the target.
TI,e second problem solved by the bombsight is deflection.
An error in calculating deflection wi ll cause the bomb to fall
to the right or left of the target. The bombardier, looking
th rough the telescope of the bombsight, can detect the direc-
tion that the plane is drifting. The aircraft is lined up with
the target by means of Automatic Flight Control Equipment,
or by a device which enables the pilot to fl y by directions
received from the bombardier. \Vhen these 2 operations are
performed, that is, when the correct range has been estab-
lished, and deflecti on error has been eliminated, the bomb
sight is said to be synchronized. TIle bombs will then be
released automatically when the ai rcraft reaches the bomb
release point as calculated by the bombsight.
Automatic release of the bombs, indivi dually or in any
number, is done by the intervalometer. This device, when set
by the bombardi er, releases the bombs as desired. Bombs may
be released to fall every 25 feet, 50 feet, or at whatever interval
the target may require. In an emergency, either the bombar-
dier or pilot can release all the bombs manually. This operation
is caned the salvo. Bombs can also be released "safe:' (so they
will not expl ode on impact) in case they have to be jettisoned
over fri endly territory or in non-combatant areas.
Target. is sighted.
Bombardier observes aircraft
is drifting as indicated by
target " moving" across ver-
tical cross-hair.
C(1Urse target is established.
Bombsight telescope begins
TRACKING target. This is
The horizontal cross-hair is
placed on the target and
proper RATE of telescope
movement is established to
determi ne RANGE .
When the target remains in
the intersection of the ver-
ti cal and horizontal cross-hair , the bombsight is SYNCHRONIZED.
When the aircraft reaches the release point , the bombs will automati-
call y be released.
Area Bombing-Area bombing is employed when the ob-
it-ctive is large and contains a multiplicity of targets. The
attacking formation remains intact, forming the de-
sired for bomb coverage. Usually the lead plane wIll usc the
bombsight, in which case the bombardiers of
the other planes will release their bombs upon visual observa-
tion th.t the lead pl.ne has dropped its bombs.
Overcast Bombing-A special method of hombing is em-
ployed to overcome complete cloud coverage when no visi-
bility of the ground exists. Bombs arc dropped on the target
bv mClns of electronic' devices which locate both the main
objective .nd the specific target. Accurate high level bombing
has been accomplished by this means through morc than
25,OOC feet of overcast.
Defensive Action- Enemy opposition to our bombing oper-
ations is concentrated chiefly in fighter aircraft and
aircraft fire. The AAF continually develops tactics to le!'l sen
the etlcctiveness of such encmy defenses. The great
tration of fire power on our heavy bom bers has been ..
vcloped solely for their protection during the performance of
their mission. A bomber never initiates an attack in the air,
and wIll avoid an engagement with enemy fighters if possible.
Enemy 6ghters are attacked by a bomber only as a
of the bomber's defense of itself.
lbe best bomber defense against attack from enemy
fighters is close formation Rying. By remaining in formati on
the fire power of a]] the planes may be concentrated to meet
attackers from any direction. If, during an attack on a target,
the enemy fighters disengage and antiaircraft fire begins,
the bombers may loosen up their formation . Should the
fighters attack again, the bombers must return to close their
Use by the enemy of rocket projectiles and
ing calls for evasive tactics-varying altitude and speed, weaves,
turns and dives. Rocket tubes instalkd on the wings of
fighters permit them to remain out of range of the
rn.nnber's guns but by the same token make it diffi cult for
the: fighter!! to fire accuratel y. Rocket projectil es Illust cx plodc
dOM! to :I bomber to be effecti ve. Similarl y, bombing
from above a fonnation of bombers requires a precision diffic.ult
to obtain in view of the high speeds of both the attackong
enemy fighters and the bombers. . ' .
High altitude flying is our baSIC defensive measure
antiaircraft fire; the greater the altitude, the less effectIve the
ground defenses. Most antiaircraft fire (commonly called
flak) is controlled on the ground by a predictor system. It
consists of devices which determme the altItude and
of attacking bombers and to predict the pomt III
space where projectile and meet.
AAF aircraft employ evaSive action to the
lions of antiaircraft g,.unners. The most en tIcal penod for
bombers during an attack is during the bomb run, when the
aircraft must be Rown straight, level and constant .speed.
In attempting to stop a large attackong formatop n of
bombers enemy antiaircraft batte.nes fire flak barrages,
forming a concentration of fire In fr ont of bomb
release line. Thi s method of fire IS much more
than predicted fire but is used as an attempt Impau the
accuracy of bombing, as wen as destroy the b?mbers.
Medium Bomber- The medium bomber IS the m311l com-
ponent of tactical . .Highly fl cxibl e, it operates fr om
medium, low or mlmmum alti tudes and can torpedoes
as well as bombs. It is well armed for defense
fighters. Its speed and maneuverabili 9-' add to ItS 111
flight . Because of the variety of tactocs employed on Its use,
modifications and developments addmg to Its effectiveness
have been frequent. .'
Medium Altitude Attack- In medi um altitude attack, for
the most part, the medium bomber uses the same tactics
the heavy bomber. During the release of bombs plane 1.S
vulnerable to fire from automatic weapons and .1.lght
aircraft guns. T he greater. spced . maneuverabilI ty of the
medium bomber govern Its tactI cs m
Low Level Bombing- Low level bomb1l1g IS one of the most
eff ective uses of the mcdium bomber. T he of sur-
prise is very great. Using the cover of trees and 11Ill.s,
ing planes often reach the target and release their. bombs
before they are detected by the enemy. Even clcct rot11c warn-
ing devices are fallible in trying to pick lip planes flying at
low altitudes. During the bombing TUn the heavy annament
of the medium bomber is used both to damage the target
and to prevent enemy ground defenses from going into
action. 1110ugh very effective, low level bombing requires
tactical precision in operations, because the planes are ex.
trernely vulnerable to ground defenses if StIch defenses are
able to open fire. Generally, bombers mll st fl y through a
cross·6re set up by the enemy. However, antiaircraft guns in
most cases cannot be directed effectively against bombers
flying .t extremely low altitudes.
Minimum Altitude Attack-Employed both on land and
sea, the attack is usuaJly made from as Iowa level as possible,
with a pull up to the necessary bombing altitude as the
target IS reached. Delayed action bombs enable the airpbne
to escape the danger area of bomb bursts. altitude
attack requires a high degree of skill and technique in aiming
the bombs and in flying. TI,e planes used for this type of
attack usuaBy have a great concentration of forward fire
power to destroy targets and minimize ground defenses.
Sine< the bomb is released so close to the target, great
accuracy results. The bomb assumes the flight path of the
plane and therefore the direction of the wind is important
the bomb to miss its mark. The
because drift can cause hich the bomb is released is a
distance from the target .at
IV t f the required di stance
. f t Accurate IU gmen 0 ..
prnne ac or. . < 1 after much practice and t rall1lng.
can be accomplIshed on y ft . cd so as to skip on the
As a variation, bombs are ° en aim
surface and thus into the target .
------_ ,.· PATH Of PLANE
-- --
-- -- -----
r I------21I5OFT ..
b b release fro m 50 feet at a moderate
Example A shows a om . I le is traveling at a higher speed;
speed. In Example B aIr) fart her from the ship. Ex-
here the bomb must t re a hewily armored vessel,
ample C shows how, w . ' Iftude the bomb will sub-
the aircraft must be at a lIg leT a I
d detonate beneath the water.
merge an . .
·1 r 1 t b mbcr supplements the mcdlUm
Light Bombcr-l. le 111' tarOets as enemy personnel , cncI.n y
bombcr, and attacks railway equipment and roll Ing
aircraft, motor t ransPb?r t· 1 S precision attack and
stock, and other 0 Jee 1\ e

_ ..... u. AlIITIII( ..... , -3$..-
wh,cedh athfe su.sccptihJe to destruction by slllall bombs II · ·1
ann e light bo be f - eav, y
bo b-' In r can stra e the enemy as it makes "t
·o'n" bomg bTun. Usual)] y and delayed action demo'l,'
m s are emp oyed to bt · . -
allows the aircraft 0 am sca tter.lOg of fire which
tactic has been hi escape 11l1s strafe-bombing
the Southwest Pac&c.
successful against enemy airfields in
Fighter-Bomber_-I11C fighter-bombe f
gen<.:raJ function as the light b b l
pehT Orms the same
om er. n t c AAF all fighter
aircraft can carry bombs; some are capable of carrying a
bOlnb load of 2000 pounds or morc. The size and weight
of the bombs carri ed vary with the type of aircraft. \Vhen
carrying bombs, the fighter is less maneuverable and for pro-
tection may be escorted by other figh ters_
Fighter aircraft are today an important component of AAF
offensive power. Developments in both armament and per-
formance have enabled fighters to perform added duties.
High speed, superior rate of climb and maneuverability
are essential factors; the flexibility of fighter aviation is per-
haps greater than in any other type of air combat.
The unit possessing superior airplanes and equipment can,
within limits, choose the time and place for initiating a fight
-3 distinct advantage. The relative maneuverability of air-
craft materially influences the tactics employed in air fight-
ing. In fighter planes, equipped only with fixed guns, ma-
neuverabi lity is of extreme importance as it governs the case
and speed with whi ch the guns can be aligned and held on
the target; it also makes evasive tactics possibl e.
Accuracy of fire is dependent primarily on the following:
( 1) The shorter the range, the more nearly will the projec-
tiles conform to their mean trajectory and hit at the point
indicated by direct sighting. ( 2) The shorter the range the
greater the accuracy of fire, since if the target is maneuvering
it may move out of the cone of fire while the projectiles are
in fli gh t. (» The greater the individual skill the more suc-
cessful the ai r figh ting, since correct estimati on of range,
accurate aiming, and, for fixed gun installation, skillful pilot.
ing are essential.
Tactics-Tactics employed by fi ghter aircraft vary with the
combat theater in which the fighters are operating. with the
design and characteristics of the particular aircraft used, and
with the tactics of the enemy. Because the tactical situation
and the geographical location of our forces vary, different de·
mands arc imposed on our fighter aircraft. Basically, the fighter
is exceedingly adaptable, and with a minimum amount of
modification C'1I1 be adapted for use in a specific locality.
. Unlike combat aviation in World War I, the glory of indio
Yldual combat has littl e place in today' s air war. No longer does
a SIngle plane go out seekmg to engage an opponent. Fighter
planes are organzzed into units trained to fight as teams. TIlcre
may be 4. 6, 8 or any number, but always more than one
(except in night fighting).
i . By renaining in formations, or by flying in pairs, the en-
tire can train its. combined fire power on the
I enemy. Also, It maneuver the enemy into
range. Flghtmg In UOits rather than singly enables
each pilot to cover the other, and provides more eyes to
search the sky for enemy fighters.
I Weather conditions and the presence and location of the
: 5U11 have consi?crable influence on air fighting, both as ad-
'yantages and dISadvantages .. Small units of fighters approach-
an obiecbve from t,he direction of, th,e sun arc sometimes
e to launch a surpnse attack. [n tImmg an attack imme-
[dzately after sunset ,or immediately before sunrise, the ad-
vantage of a silhouetted target is gained.
The of plays contrasting roles in offensive
defensIve operations. High visibility favors fighter pilots
on targets for attack. Low visibility aids defensive
or small units, in evading fighter interception.
, <?Iouds afford an excellent place for concealment from
!WhIch may be bunched against enemy planes
,proVide effect!ve cov.er enroute to and from an objective.
: Fighter Fonnations-Flghter formations call for a sufficient
of to J?<:nnit sudden rearrangement to meet
changlIlg condi tions. Maneuverability is important
order that the planes of a formation may retain the ad van-
tage of position in offensive air fi ghting, and at the same time
be able to interpose elements an attacker .a nd the
formation itself. Fighter formations must readIly con-
trollable. This requirement is effected by mdoctnnation,
visual signals, or radio. . .
There are 2 types of baSIC fighter formations: close or
nonnal formation, and search or extended formation. In close
fonTIation, aircraft are spaced only far enough apart to all?w
freedom of maneuver while remaining within close supportlOg
di stance of each other. This fonnation is used in combat.
In the extended formation, the sub-units are beyond sup-
port of each other but are still undcr tacti cal control. Adja-
cent units maintain vi sual contact at all tnnes. 11llS type of
formati on is used for patrol s and sea rch mi ssions.
Combat Operations-Fighter combat operations have 3
phases: approach to combat, the combat, and, withdrawal.
The approach to combat phase has a greater on
the result than any other phase of fighter operations. Ap-
proach toward the most vulnerable or blind sector of the
hostile formation confuses the enemy and delays p rol,er
counter action. Fighter pilots must be thoroughly famlhar
with the characteristics and the most vulnerable sectors of
enemy aircraft and fonnations. \Vhen the enemy is sighted.
the attack or maneuver-for-attack positi on should be initiated
without delay.
The first blow is very important. Sustained fire begins as
soon as the. planes are within range. Every effort is
made to mamtaIn the pattern of the attacking force and pre-
vent a of individua.l engagements.
The withdrawal phase Involves a determined effort to take
of any confusion and dispersion of the enemy
force which may result from the initial attack. If the attack
indecisive or unfavorabl e, a withdrawal is effected
utillzmg . speed and evasive tactics to minimize losses. An
attcl.npt IS then made to by regrouping.
Fighter Escort- Range IS the detennmmg factor in the em-
ployment fighter planes as escort for bombers or fi ghter-
bombers. Fighters. formations through
all or part of a mission, furmshmg a screen against enelny
attack and augmenting defensive firepower.
To be most effecti ve, fi ghter escort must be able to con-
in any. speeds, escort strengtll
and vIsibili ty conditions predicate the distance from whi ch
fighters nonnally cover fonnati ons. Escorting aircraft
only when hostile fi ghters make direct attacks
on a {onnatlon.
In escorting bombers on long-range missions over heavi.ly
defended territory, as many as 6 or 8 separate fi ghter mIS-
sions may be employed, involving a complex system of
cision timing. Air speeds, fuel .consumpt lOn, weather
tions (especially cloud formations) and enemy oppoSI tion
must be taken into conSideration. .
An attack on a target 500 miles away normally reqUires at
least 4 separate fi ghter escor.t mi ssions.
rendezvous with bombcr formations at predetennmed pOlll tS.
Since fi ghters cannot hold down their speed to that of
bombers, they must weave and forth or Circle, th us
using fuel and cutting down thetr range. One relay of
escorts the bombers for the first leg. another replaces It, and
finally the longest range fi ghters furni sh escort to the
and for the first leg of the return trip. If figh ter fuel suppli es
are dwindling on the way back, the long-range fi ghte.rs may
be relieved by another fighter escort which ac-
companies the bombers to POInt where fight ers
meet the formation, escort It back to home tern tory.
Fighter Sweeps-Fighter diversionary are
fl own over enemy airbases prior to a bombmg miSSion to act
as decoys. This action brings up enemy and exhaust.s
thei r fuel, enabling the bombers to With less OppOSI-
ti on. In this type of mission fighter aircraft have
freedom of action and normally engage any aircraft
encountered. The effectiveness of fi ghter sweeps has Increased
th rough the use of fi ghter-bombers. Even though the enemy
knows that the sweep is he Ignore thc
threat of fi ghters armed With bombs. He IS therefore co.m-
pell ed to intercept. 'n lese missions are generally fl OWI.l at high
altitudes. Figh ter sweeps also arc fl own at other altitudes
cl ear the air of enemy aircraft and to cover ground forces 111
Intruder Raids- Intruder raids usuall y are fl own at nigh t by
individual night ai rcraft to harass thc enemy. The intruder
may join an enemy fonnation . By to an
enemy airfield, strafing or bombmg It. 111c mtruder al so may
penetrate deep into enemy territory undetected, and bomb or
strafe targets of opportuni ty.
In escorting bombers on long· range missions over heavily
defended territory, as many as 6 or 8 separate fighter mis-
sions may be employed, involving a complex system of pre-
cision timing. Air speeds, fuel consumption, weather condi-
tions (especially cloud formations) and enemy opposition
must be taken into consideration.
An attack on a target 500 miles away normally requires at
least 4 separate fighter escort missions. Fighter escorts
rendezvous with bomber formations at predetermined points.
Since fighters cannot hold down their speed to that of
bombers, they must weave back and forth or circle, thus I
using fuel and cutting down their range. One relay of fighters
escorts the bombers for the first leg. another replaces it, and
finallv the longest range fighters furni sh escort to the target
and for the first leg of the return trip. If fi ghter fuel supplies
are dwindling on the way back, the long-range fi ghters may
be relieved by another long-range fighter escort which ac-
companies the bombers to a point where short-range fighters
meet the fannation, escort it back to home territory.
Fighter Sweeps-Fighter diversionary sweeps frequently are
flown over enemy airbases prior to a bombing mission to act
as decoys. This action brings up enemy fighters and exhausts
their fuel, enabling the bombers to strike with less opposi-
tion. In this type of mission fi ghter aircraft have complete
freedom of action and normally engage any enemy aircraft
encountered. The effectiveness of fighter sweeps has increased
through the use of fighter-bombers. Even though the enemy
knows that the sweep is di versionary, he cannot ignore the
threat of fighters armed with bombs. He is therefore com-
pel.led to These missions are generally Hown at high
albtudes. FIghter sweeps also are fl own at other altitudes to
clear the air of enemy aircraft and to cover ground forces in
. Raids-Intruder raids usually are fl own at night by
mdlVldual mght aircraft to harass the enemy. The intruder
may join an enemy formation and, undetected, fiy to an
enemy airfield, strafing or bombing it. 111e intruder also may
penetrate deep into enemy territory undetected, and bomb or
strafe targets of opportunity.
- Fighter Control in Tactical Operations-Each tactical air
has a tactical cont rol center which in a given area
d.lrects the fighter, fighter-bomber, and reconnai ssance opera-
bons by direct radio communications. Such centcrs are hubs of
wire and radio netw.orks.connected to airbases, military ground
radars, stati ons, air-parties operat-
mg With trooP.s, hlghcr headquarters and other military,
and CIVI] agenclcs. The centers are furni shed with map
dlsp!ays which air picture minl1te-by-minute.
Fighter Co.ntr<:>] In StrategIc Operations-Aircraft warning
and serve to warn AAF pil ots of
hostile aIr acttvlty which our bombers may encounter while
proceeding to a target.
Ground control of fighter escorts is another factor. For ex-
31:np] e, 2.bombing mi ssions, both escorted by fighters, head for
different targets. One mi ssion reports no aerial intercepti ons'
the other that it has run into more enemy fighters than ex:
pected. TIle fighter controller, acting from the ground di verts
of the fighte.rs fr om onc fli ght to the other. '
Air Defense-Air defense constitutes those meaSures neces-
sary to prevent, to interfere with, or to reduce the effective-
ness of hostile air action after hostile aircraft have left their
own airfields or carriers.

. TIle most effective measure is to send fighter aircraft
Intercept enemy planes and knock them down or drive them
off before they rcach their target. Antiaircraft artillery, auto-
mat!c weapons, barrage baBoons and an aircraft warning
service arc other weapons used to defend AAF instalIations
against air attack.
Active air defense comprises all measures which aim to
destroy, or threaten destruction of, hostile aircraft and their
crews in the air.
Passive air defense comprises other defense measures un.
dertakcl1 to make our surface objectives less susceptible to
and bombing- air raid precautionary measures,
dispersIOn, blackouts, suppression of aids to the enemy. camou-
flage and concealment.
Air defense situations are never exactly alike. The object to
defended may be a recently captured airfield in enemy ter-
ntory, a harbor where our supplies arc bei ng unloaded, im-
J1:Ortant battle positions, communications lines, an island
aubase. the Panama Canal, or one of a score of other vital areas
or installations.
Two systems of defense, with many variations within each,
have been developed to meet the requirements of different
militaf) situations, These systems are known as fixed or mobil e
characterizing respectively the type of aircraft warning and
control equipment used.
A fixed air defense system is one used for the strategic ai r
defe!lse of a area; it is custom-built to defend one
parbc.ular locality and no oUler. The warning equipment
IS more or less pennanent type and cannot be moved
easlly_ F,xed defense systems are used for defcnding tI,e United
States, Panama Canal, Iceland and Alaska, and areas removed
from the actual front line fighting.
Mobile and air transportable defense systcms are established
and operated by a tactical air force and used in forward battle
Both of these are extremely Rexible and can be sent illl-
to any forward areas into which our troops and
may be moved.
. hichever type is used, the mission of air defense systems
IS the same-: to deny the enemy the usc of the ai r.
AIRBORNE WARFARE-Airborne Forces are Army Ground
Force units specially organized, trained and equipped t.o utilize
air transportation for entry into combat. Included 10 these
units are parachute and glider-borne .
Troop carrier forces are AAF specially
trained and equipped to transport aIrborne troops and eqlllp-
ment into combat. Troop carrier units should not be confused
with the Air Transport Command whose primary mi ssion is
transporting personnel, supplies and mail between theaters.
Employment- Airborne troops ordina,rily are employed. as
part of a combined effort undertaken 10 ,close coordm.atlOn
with other military and naval forces. Tramed and eql1lpped
to accompli sh specific missions, they arc empl oyed only on
missions that cannot be performed more expeditiously and
economically by other forces. The geographical inaccessibility
of an object to a ground force is a major fa ctor in considering
the employment of airborne forces. These troops nonnally
are not employed unless they can be supported in a very
short time or unless they can be withdrawn after their mis-
sion has been accomplished.
Airborne troops are employed in mass and landed rapidly
in as smal1 an area as practi cable. Since air superiority is a
prerequisite for successful airborne operati ons, the degree of
air superiority and the amount of small arms fire to be ex-
pected arc factors in determining whether airborne operations
should be initiated during daylight or at night.
Instead of avoiding antiaircraft fire by altitude or evasive
action, routes are sel ected which avoid it entirely. Pathfinder
aircraft with highly trained crews are employed to precede the
leading troop carrier Hight to the dropping or landing area_
In order to prevent early detection, the initial approach to
hostile positi ons is made at low altitude. In the selection of
landing areas, usually one close to the objecti ve is chosen to
insure surprise. Cover near the landing area is important.
Suitable terrain for defense is required.
All land, sea and air forces in the areas involved must bt:
informed of scheduled airborne operati ons. Complete coor·
dination and mutual understanding are imperative; airborn<
troops must be advised of the identification means used b}
the grOlmd troops with whom they may operate. The objec-
tives of airborne forces are: to seize, bold or otherwi se exploit
important tactical localities such as airdromes, bridges, high
ground and crossroads, in conjunction with or pending ar-
rival of other military or naval forces; and to seize areas which
the enemy cannot readily hold or reinforce.
Reconnaissance Aviation-The mi ssion of reconnaissance
aviation is the securing of enemy information from the air.
Both photographic and visual means are used. Two types of
reconnai,sance arc employed for the procurement of such in-
formation. One is photographic reconnaissance which operates
nomlally at high altitude and at long-range in cooperation with
organizations operating strategical1y. The second is tactical re-
connaissance which normally operates at medium or extremely
Jow altitude in cooperation with organizations operating tacti-
cally. Reconnaissance should precede operations of striking
units to recure infonnation necessary for planning the employ-
ment of iI striking force, thus supplementing other intelligence
Navigation-Air navigation is the art of determining geo-
graphical position and maintaining desired direction of air-
craft relative to the earth's surface by mcans of pilotage, dead
reckoning, celestial observations or radi o aids,
Pilotage is the method of conducting aircraft from onc
point to another by observation of landmarks either previ-
ously known or recogni zed fr om a map, Thi s form of naviga-
tion is used when the pil ot or navigator has good visibility
and the terrain ft-atures are such that recognition of objects
can be made from the altitude flown .
I?c:ad recko.ning is the of determining geographi cal
poSItion of aircraft by applymg rate of speed to the Hi ght
path of the aircraft as esti matcd or calculated ovcr a certain
period of time from point of departure, or from last known
position It is employed when fl yi ng overwater in the daytime,
or when poor visibility makes pilotage impossibl e.
Celestial navigation makes use of the sun, stars, planets
and moon to determine geographi cal positi on, Cc1csti al navi-
gation is not an independent form of ail navigation but is
employed to veri fy or correct the other forms.
Radi o navigation makcs usc of the dircction from which
radio wavcs arc received to determine, by means of a loop an-
tcnna, direction of the transmitting station. The loop
antenna IS so constructed that when coupled with a suitable
beari ngs may be taken on a distant radio stati on by
th,e loop until the signal is of minimum strength.
At thi S POll1t the pl311e of the loop is perpendicular to thc
dIrect IOn of the transmitting stati on. Knowing the location of
the station, the aerial navigator is enabled to cal-
culate position in relation to that stati on. The pl ane may
also fly m on the beam direct t.o the station.
intelli gence provides material for
action in which the airercws receive perti-
nent from officers in charge of many phases of
operattons. Bnefing takes pl ace immediately prior to an air-
crcw's a mission. It deal s with target infoml ation,
enemy opposItion that may be encountered both in the air and
from ground defenses, what to do in the event of capture, im.
portance of the target to the enemy, and any informati on that
may apply to the successful accomplishment of the mission.
, Upon return from the mission the interrogation of the
aucrcws takes place. From thi s is learned what tactics the
enemy many cnemy were destroyed,
of direct luts on target and estUllate of damage, ob-
servatIOns made of troop movcments or concentrations in
encmy territory, location of enemy ground defenses and
strcngth, and concerning the cnemy.
Pho.tographlc mtelhgence IS denved from the interpreta tion
of aenal photographs taken primarily DY reconnaissance ai r-
craft, .and ,by came.ras on bombing aircraft during
bomblllg miSSIOns, Highly tramcd photO-interpreters analyze
the to prepare factual rcports on damage assess-
ment, mdustry, transportation, airfield activi ty, ground and
coa,s t defenses, camouflage, dllllllllyS and decoys, communi-
cations! ground f,orce shipp!ng and ship building.
Most Important .IS by comparison of
recent photographs With preVIOusly obtamed photographs of
the same area. Great advances have been made in the field
of aerial photography in its military application through the
of types of .cameras for specialized jobs
hIgh albtude, low alt,tude, high-speed, infra-red,
color and night photography. Photographic recon-
the largest portion 6f intenigence upon
mlbtary decIsions can be based. InteJ1igence is also
Jbtamed from captured enemy personnel, equipment and
'ocuments taken from enemy ai rcraft. •
Commlmications-The various communica tion devices and
ystems developed by the AAF have contributed greatly to
ts effectiveness. Without communications, coordination
... ould be impossible.
J Interphone communications enable each crew member to be
() constant contact with others in the same aircraft. It is
r sen.tial during an that . t?C pil ot be informed of the
F hon of. enemy anhaucraft fire, and the position
if other fnendly ancraft In the formation, so that he can
the for more effecti ve fire power.
I Au .commumcahons enable p!anes in flight to communi.
WIth each other. The formation leader can talk wi th other
rcraft, and they in turn with each other. However, enroute
the target radio silence is the rul e.
I Air·groulld communications are essential to all types of
'anes. By means of th is system planes are cleared for takeoff
!Id instructed in wea.ther infonnation is given to
ots, and fighter ancraft arc duected to areas where enemy
tackers are operating.
Gunnery-The success of a mission and the lives of a crew
te in a large measure dependent on the accuracy and effec-
:veness of :he gunner.
.Downing one airplane by another with gunfire is COrn-
"cated by the problem of keeping a fast-moving target in
ge. In one sense the quality of the equipment provided
t aenal gunner can be considered a potential of hi s fire
.wer. The ballistic behavior induced when a projectile is
td from .airplane, the human element, and the specd and
neu.verab:hty of the airplane target make aerial gunnery a
phcated procedure.

Clock system used to fi x direction of attacks by enemy fighters.
12 o'clock i s nose of bomber, 6 o'clock tail.
Gunfire from an airplane differs from ground fi re prin-
cipally in relatjon to the speed of the plane and its altitJlde.
The trajectory of a bullet is affected by ti, e speed of an air-
plane. Altitude increases the speed of a bullet because thm
air offers less resistance to a projectile on its course. T hcse
factors have brought about a new set of gunsighting rules.
Nevertheless, the gunsight doesn' t do it all . T racki ng and
ranging, the 2 main factors in aerial gunnery that detennine
the accuracy of gunfire after computation, must be calculated
by the gunner himself. Unless he tracks smoothly and ranges
precisely, the computing' guns.ight will inaccurate
on which to base its calculatIons. Trackmg Involves keeping
the gunsight precisely on the target. Ranging involves manip-
ulation of the sight's range·measuring mechanism to keep the
correct range constantly in the computer.
Just as guns on the ground must be el evated to
for the trajectoral curve of the proj ectil e, so guns on aircraft
also must be tilted upward- since aft er the projectile leaves
the muzzle of the gun the bull et foll ows the same relat ive
curve at an elevation of 4 0,000 fcet as it does at 1000 feet. •
iThis explains the slight elevation of fixed forward firing guns
; on both fighters and bombers. Conversely, attack planes, de-
signed specifically for ground strafing, have their fixed guns
' aimed slightly downward.
lOUT strategy, tactics and techniques are translated into rc-
sults through the operations of strategically located combat
air forces which blanket the battle areas of the world.
The accomp1ishments of these organizations must be ex-
amined i:J. perspective. Military necessity gives priority to
:certain enemy objectives at the exp.cnse of others; our air
Estrength bas been apportioned accordingly. Its achievements
tmllst be j:.tdgcd on the basis of planes and men available in a
19iven area at a given time.
In the early months of the war it was a taxing feat for the
fAAF's lone heavy bombardment unit in the Southwest Pacifi c
.to Oy a mission with the Hrength of half a squadron. Today,
'11 at least one theater of operations. squadrons tend to lose
their identity, become swallowed up in groups; groups are
massed in wings and wings in air divisions. The Aleutian
.island of Kiska was retaken from the Japanese only after the
J 1 th Air Force, in several thousand sorties flown over a period
Iof '4 months, had dropped some 3000 tons of bombs on the
rget. Gleat as this accomplishment was, the same tonnage
",f bombs is dropped today in a single 8-hour mission over
Europe. In turn, a fun-fledged military campaign elsewhere
'n the world might not equal in strategic importance a sing1c
assed ail attack on Germany.
December 1941 to March 1, 1944
12,656 • 4217
• AAF plane. have also destroyed a ver ified total of 1873 enemy planes 011
Following arc brief introductions to the combat air forces
nd to a few signifi cant complementary organi zations.


- - +

ESTAnLISHED: Jan. 28, 194

AREA OF OPERATIONS: Germany and occupied Europe.
. COMMAND: Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz, May 2, 1942, to Nov. 1. 8,
1942; Lt. Gen. Ira C. Eaker, Dec. 1, 1942, to Jan. 1944;
Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, Jan. " '944, to date,
SUMMARY OF OPERATlONS-Augu s t 1942 to March 1, 1944 t
t Includes 9th Air Force, beginni ng Oct ober , 1943.
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: The 8th Air Force is the daylight
strategic bombing force of a air . of-
fensive against Gennany. In coope.rabon wlt.h the
based 15th Air Force, and the mght-bomblll g Royal Au
Force, its objective is the of the Gennan war
machine and of the German win to fi ght.
In its first mission against the enemy in France
on Aug. 17, 1942, the 8th's of .11.
. By early spring of 1944, ItS au hammcnng
decp into Gcnnany, represented an Increase of nearly a
In the intervening months, the 8th. the size
demanded for its task; acquired the al)lhty to dehver repea ted
• Military ranks throughout t his St'ct ion as of May 1. 1940\ .
ass attOCKS; surmounted the most formidable aerial and
ntiaircraft opposition encountered in any theater; with the
heT of the 9th Air Force built up the 6ghter escort required;
n perfected Its tactical employment for continued deep
penetrations against priority targets.
The time required to mount these massive attacks was
subject to military necessi.ty. The experimental phase of
operabom against targets In Occupied France was hardly
begun before the demands of the African invasion gave the
latter first priority to the products of our aircraft factories.
Moreover, the heavy loss of shipping to submarine attack
made V-boat an? docking and repair facilities,
lather than the German mdustnal system, the primary 8th Air
Force objective through late '94' and early '943.
WhIle the Casablanca directive of January '943, assigned
that mdustnal system as the objective for the strategic air
offensive, months were to elapse before means would be
available for the required deep daylight penetrations. Mean-·
while, . m '943, the July attacks on the Heroya magnesium
plant m :-Iorway and the mid-August attacks on Regensburg
and. Schwemfurt, Germany, established the destructive po-
tential of daylight precision bombing. Virtually each attack
became a maJor a.lf. battle. Early in August, 8th Air Force
B-2.4S and crews lomed those of the 9th Air Force in an
attack from the l\liddle East on Axis oil refineries at Ploesti
Rumania. '
September saw the first use of instruments permitting
bombm.g through . cloud covcr. Soon a significant change ap-
peared In the chOIce of targets: after the Oct. 4, '943 assault
on Frankfurt, targets in Germany proper became the rule
lather than the exception. At the same time, the bombing
pace was stepped up : planes dispatched on mi ssions in No-
vember showed a 58% increase over October; December
November by another 53 %; and in January, de-
Iplte normal bad weather, the December gain was not only
maintained but exceeded by 7 %.
By Iare January '944, the combined 8th Air Force-RAJ?
bombing offensive was in full swing. On the night of Jan . • 8
the RAF attacked Berhn; the next day the 8th Air Force hit
Frankfurt with 806 bombers escorted by 634 fighters. On
Jan. 30, Brunswick and Hanover were attacked in strength .
These operations heralded a plan of attack, on a scale long
projected but hitherto beyond our capaCIty, dlfected toward
the No. 1 objective-the German air force and Its mdustnal
means of survival. Between Feb. 20- 25, while the RAF struck
German factories and defenses with night assaults, the 8th
Air Force de1ivert:d major blows against more than a dozen
airplane factories in Germany. Simultaneously, another arm
of the AAF aerial pincers reached up from Italy for the first
time as the 15th Air Force sent bombers against Regensburg.
Cl ear warning of things to come was to
early in March when the 8th Air Force 1I1vaded Berhn m
repeated daylight attacks. All March the assaul t on
Gennany continued, day and mght, 111 good weather and bad.
Even greater assaults were in the making.
ESTABLISHED: Nov. 1, 1943.
AREA OF OPERATIONS: Germany and Aust ria, the Balkans,
Northern Italy and the Mediterranean Coast of France.
COMMAND: Lt. Gen. James H. Doolittle, Nov. " '943 to Jan.
1, 1944; Maj. Gen. Nathan F. Twi ning, Jan. l , 1944 to date.
SUMl\:f ARY OF OPERATIONs-November 1943 to March 1944
(Opcrntions are incl uded in total for 12th Ai r Force. )
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Wi th the occupation of the southern
porti on of the Italian peninsula and especially the airbase at
Foggia, the 15th Air Force was activated as the strategic
the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces to Cooperate
With, air units. Its place in the overall strate
of attack finaJl y became integrated YI;
late February It took Its turn with the 8th Air Force in
attacks on 3ITcraft factories in Regcnsburg, Steyr and
The program began with the 15th's maiden
the Messcrschmitt factory at \ Vicncr
eustadt, Austria on Nov 2 1943' subseq" ent "
d' t"'d ' . '. • u mi SSIOns were
uee w 3lfcraft in Augsburg and KIa enfurt
b l: bcanng factones m Turin and Villa Pcrosf Italy'
ost 0 the 15th's efforts during the winter of l' .< •
\:er, T
to facilitating the ground
n ta.y. 0 thiS end It made repeated attacks on marshalin
the peninsula and on the bases of
air operatIOns. For special mi ssions it also ra"gcd to To I
and 1\1 "II F ' U On
. fi ld fS, rance, to Sofia, Bulgaria, and repeatedly to
s m t le Athens area. On March 15, in the effor't to
.ground resistance in Cassi no, pianes of the
d f' orce ,omcd by those of the 12th, dropped hun-
re S 0 tons of bombs In that area. In the early months of
'944, the 15th was the fastcst growing air force in the MF.
ESTABUSJJED: Aug. 20, 194
Italy; formerly North Africa the \"'est-
ern j e Iterranean and Sicily. '
COMMAND: Lt. Gen. Jamcs H. Doolittl e, Scpt. 23, 1 2 to
Feb. 23, '943; Lt. Gen. Carl Spaatz Feb. 18 ' 943 i: J
I , ' 944; Ma, . Gcn. John K. Cannon' Jan 26 "94 t I atn.
, . , 4 0 (a e.
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs-November 1942 to March 1, 1944 •
106,567 2959 1473
• Includes operations of 15th Air Force s ince November, 19<43.
PRI NCIPAL OPERATIONS: Ever since the first landing of Ameri -
can troops on North African soil , the lzth Air Force has
coordinated its primary activities with the movement of
Allied ground forces in North Africa, Sicily and more recently
in Italy.
In its initial encounters with the Gennan air force over
Tuni sia in late 194Z, fighters and bombc!rs of the lzth re-
peatedly achieved destruction many times that of their own
10sses on the gro.und and in the air. In a 3-month period the
lZth accounted for more than 400 enemy planes. On Feb .
18, 1943, to achieve the maximum utility of air strength, the
12th merged with other Allied air units to fonn the North-
west African Air Forces (see page 24 ). Four days later it
contributed to a heavy concentration of airpower that re-
lieved a dangerous situation at Kasserine Pass for ground
units moving toward the coast . Mounting concentrations of
air strength were utilized for the March 1943, break-through
at the :Mareth Line and for the final assaults on Tunis and
The striking power built up for the African campaign was
used to reduce resistance on the Italian island of Pantell eri a,
which surrendered after 1Z days of relentl ess attack by air-
craft of the lzth and 9th Air Forces and the RAF. \"'hen our
armies moved across the Mediterranean to invade SiCily, and
throughout the ensuing campaign, the 1 zth maintained al-
most unchallenged air superiority. In early September, when
a 1arge ground force was in jeopardy on the Salerno beach-
head, aircraft of the 12th were instTlllnenhll in the air action
that made the beachhead secure for continued ground move-
ment northward in Haly. TIl e lzth has maintained air su-
, premacy over most of the Italian peninsula and has attacked
the enemy's supplies, communications and troops in the
battle zones.
_ : ...
ESTABL1SII ED: April S, 1942 as Middle East Air Force; Nov. 12,
'942 as 9th Air Force.
AREA or OPERATIONS: The occupied countries of France, Hol-
land and Belgium; formerl y the Middle East.
COMMAND: Lt. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton, June 2 8, 19 42, to
SUM>fARY OF OPERATlONS-Nov. 1942 to Oct. 1, 1943 •
20, 127 610 227
• Later operations are included wit h those of t he 8th Air Force.
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: As the tactical force of the AAF
based in England, the 9th Air Force by early '944 was engaged
in a ca:npaign agai nst enemy fortifi cations 0 11 the Channel
coast and against airbases and other military instal1ations in the
occupied areas. Fpr most of these operations it employs me-
dium bombardment. The 9th also provides fighter aircraft lor
long escort missions with the 8th Air Force.
In the preceding Mediterranean phase of its activities,
from June '942, to the Fall of '943, the 9th prevented
supplies and reinforcements from reaching the African ai r
and ground forces of the Axis by attacks on docks, ports and
shipping. For 4 months prior to the break-through at EI
Alamein, when it rarely had more than 25 planes in the ai r
together, the 9th attacked targets in the harbors of Tobruk
and Benghazi, Navarrino Bay (Creece), and on the Mediter-
ranean; it destroyed some 60% of the fuel, food and am-
munition sent to the Axis forces. In the same period, its
medium bombers and fighters supported the 8th Army in the

. h·l ·t t 0 carrier unit transported
Battle of E1 Alamem, w r e I 'r rO t the forward battle arca.
ammunition, 0 of enemy in
In the cours.e. of t e . . arc of the 9th Au Force
Tripoli , TUOIsla SIcily, oints such as Naples,
attack widened to. mclCde dil; ated by the 9th and
Palermo and Messma. oor urrender of Pantellena.
'2th Air Forces brought abouttt thle d
to the 9
Air Force
I 943
B-24S a ac Ie . R
On U y 19, 1 I' f tl ' r on military targets m ome
made the first assau t O le. Wf,1 ceel I,y B-24S of thc 8th Air
. " t 0", Aug 1 rem or
and VICIIll y. I ., the Ploesti attack, and on. Aug. 13,
Force, the 9
struck at the strategically Important
slITIllarly rem force • It W· Neustadt Austria
' tt I nt at lener ' , " f
Messersc. pal d with the successful concluSIOn ?
Its mI SSion etc tl Air Force was relocated 1O
the 1 its present tactical duties.
Great Bntalll and rem orce
1 as Philippine Department Au
ESTABLiSHED: Sept. 20, 19
4 E t A·r Force· Feb. 5 1942 as
Force; Oct. 28, 1941 as ' ar as I , ,
5th Air Force. I' ' fi
F OPERATIONS: Southwest aCI c. t
AREA L . 1-1 Brereton Dec. 7 1941 0
o LtGcn eWIS· , ' \
COMMAN : . ·C C H Brett Feb. 23 to hug.
8 ' 942' Lt en eorge., I t
<In . 1 , ' ·C· C Kenney Sept. 3. 194 2 to (a e.
4. 1942; Lt. Cen. corge. ,
ERATIONs- December 1941 to March 1, 1944
11 7,076
21 7Z 524
DROI' !'E!)
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: 5th Air Foree ' was formed by
offieus and men who had been forced to retreat from the
Phili?pines and the East I ndies and by the first U. S. air
rcinforccmenh to arrive in the Southwest Pacific. Its initial
operations were from Australian bases.
\Vhen the defense of Australia was assurcd, the 5th ini-
tiatec a struggle for air superiority against Jap units based to
the north. In August 1942, it supported surface forces in the
initia: landings 011 Guadalcanal. Dcspite lack of aircraft and
suppl y problems, it gradually widened its arc of operations,
served as a spearhead for surface offensivcs northward, helped
prevcnt the supply and reinforcement of enemy bases.
Tactical achievements include a refinement of low-level ,
strafe·bombing attacks, and the employment-overwater-<)f
mast-head and skip-born bing. In the destruction of parked
aircraft and airbase installations, the 5th has specialized in
the p:nning down of ground defenses with massed forward
fire followed by delayed-action and parachute bombs.
On Nov. 4, 1942, the 5th began sustained action agains·
Jap invaders in the Papuan tcrritory of New Guinea. Units
of the 5th transported an Allied ground fo rce by air from
Australia to the battle area in New Guinea, subsequently
combining with the ground forces to drive back the Japanese.
On repeated hazardous hops 'over the 14,ooo-foot Owen
Stanley Range, the 5th transported to forward areas 2 U. S.
regiments and an Australian company along with their equip-
ment. It protected these with fighter cover, kept them com-
pletely supplied from the air, eventually evacuated their
wounded. Thanks to coordinatcd air-ground action, 14,000
enemy troops wcre annihilated.
In early March 1943, clements of the 5th sighted a » -ship
enemy. convoy cnroute from Rabaul to reinforce Japanese
troops III the Lae-Salamaua area of New Guinea. After some
·20 missions employing '74 planes the 5th, with some RAAF
support, virtually wiped out the convoy with its 15,000
troops and many tons of equipment at the cost of only one
B-17 aod 3 P-3BS. Throughout 1942-43 the 5th Air Force
continually blasted the enemy's supply base at Rabau\.
Heavy pressure maintaincd by the 5th on Jap bases on
·n a and New Britain has enabled Allied ground
ow Ul e I th th's stnkmg
forces to advance northward. By ear y 1944 e f5 h·b·
wcr had been instrumental in success 0 . amp. I 10US
6ndings and the resulting occupatIOn of strategIc [01l1\S non
Ca Gloucester and in the AdmIralty Islands. Is P a os
hafalso struck far overwater to Java, Borneo and Truk.
ESTABLISHED: Jan. 13, 1943· . k A h · I
AREA OF OPERATIONS: Solomons, and Bl smarc' rc Ipe ago.
COMMAND: Maj . Gen. Nathan F. Twining. Jan. 13, 1943 to
Dec. 2B, 1943; Maj. Gen. Hubert R. Harmon, Jan. 7, 1944
to date.
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs- January 1943 to March I, 1944'
33 085 11 ,638 739 198
.I:cludes operations of AAF units ill S. Pacific prior to January 1943 ..
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Throughout 1942 several AAF lI111tS
o crated in guerrill a fashion from islands of Aus-
tralia. Although numerically weak and funchonmg under
separate base commanders, their were on
atrol guarding American supply routes thc South I aClfic:
p Satisfying the obvious need for ccntrahzcd comm?nd,
. b· d · J n lary 1943 WIth actJva-
separate umts were com me III a l '.
tion of the 13th Air Forcc. Headquarters was on
Espiritu Santo and reinforcements were 111 . So.on
moved its hcadquarters to New CalcdonIa. By thi S t1lll C
shipping lanes were secure from attack, and a large part of
Guadalcanal was in Allied hands.
Initial objectives of the 13th were to gain air superiority
and to support land and sea offensives in the Central Solo-
mons, destroy enemy supply lines in the Northern Solomons.
'nlOUgh organized resistance to ground forces on Guadalcanal
ended in early February, the Japanese continued to operate
offensively against it from the air. A decisive blow to end this
threat was struck in June when in a single day airmen of the
13th, together with Navy and Marine fliers, intercepted an
enemy striking force of 1 2 0 planes, shot down about 75.
In Jnly the 13th moved its headquarters to Henderson
Field, Guadalcanal. With the combined Allied ollensive
gaining strength, the 13th began to neutralize enemy airfields
and adler installations on Bougainville; support and protect
amphibious operations in the Northern Solomons. ]n Decem-
ber the entire campaign was intensified.
Early 1944 found the 13th part of an ollensive force com-
bining aircraft of the Army, Navy, Marine and Royal New
Zealand Air Force. The main objective was Rabaul, the
enemy's supply depot for reinforcing Jap bases in the Bis-
marckand Solomon Island groups. Rabaullonghad been a target
of the AAF. Planes of the 01\1 19th Bombardment Group at·
tacked It as early as Jan. 25, 1942; throughout 1942-43 it had
been hit continually by bombers of the 5th Air Force. By the
cnd of 1943, bases were establi shed close enough to Rabaul
to permit fighter escort; the 5th had transferred its operations
to the west; Rabaul was left to the 13th.
The 13th concentrated on thi s target, meanwhile serving
as a spearhead for surface forces which took islands and parts
of . bui lt on them, movcd up planes and
shipping, took more Islands, moved up again, cut off the
Japs hom supplies and support. When Green Island was
taken, the first half of the flanking movement on Rabaul was
accomplished. In March, occupation of principal airbases
in the l slands, northeast of Rabaul, under cover
o! 5th Au Force planes, completed the encirclement. Stra-
ceased to exi st as an enemy base. Rabaul and
Jap umts III the Solomons were left to suffer military starvation.

- -
- -....-:-
............... - -,...
1 1940 as Hawaiian Air Force; Feb. 5,
1942 as 7th Air Force.
AREA OF OPERATIONS: Central Pacific, the Equator.
COMMAND: Maj. Gen. Frederick L. Martm, 2, 194

Dec 18 1941; Maj . Gen. Clarence L. Tmker, 1 •
. t 'J 7 1942. Mal·· Gen. Howard C. DaVidson,
1941 0 une, , W ·ll · H H I
June 7. 1942 to June 20, 1942; M,aj. Gen. I IS . a e,
June 20, 1942 to date.
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs- December 1941 to March 1, 1944
110 60
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: The aerial .striking force across
Central Pacific to Japan is the 7th Air Force. Its
search missions keep the enemy under constant
long-range heavy bomber attacks soften up strategIc ISlands
for amphibious invasion; medIUm bombers .and fighters
up to bring greater weight the pernneter 0_
the Japanese; gains are consolidated, IS
eated fr om newly won bases. The au action mvolves. PIl1-
targets and some of the longest overwatcr operational
fli ghts in the AAF. b
The 7
felt the first blow of the Japanese at Pearl Bar or,
suffered several hundred casualties and the loss of many. alt
craft. The remaining fighters and were qUick y
marshaled for the air defense of Hawall.
Its opportunity came in June 1942, when an
enemy invasIOn Aeet ventured within land-based bomber
range of Midway Island. B-17S of the 7th attacked the con-
voy and aided Marine and Navy aircraft in routing it with
heavy losses. .
Bombers of the 7th attacked W' ake Island in r uly and
again in December of 1942 .. In '943 they struck Jap
bases at Nauru and Tarawa In the Gilbert Island chain but
it was not Wltil Fall of that year, with the of
bases out in Central Pacific, that systematic
operabons agamst the GIlberts could be undertaken and '
their invasion accomplished. After heavy aerial attacks on
the Marshall Islands from late November, '943, through
January 1944, surface actIOn agamst these positions was
furnishing more advanced bases for deeper pene-
tration mto the system of Japanese island defenses.
ESTABLISHED: Feb. 12, 1942.
AREA OF OPERATIONS: Indi a, Burma, Thailand and the Bay of
COMMAND: Lt. Gen .. Lewi s H. Brereton, Feb. 25. J 942 to
June 23, 1942; MaJ. Gen. Clayton L. Bissel, Aug. 18, ' 94
to Aug. ' 9, '943; MaJ . Gen. Howard C. Davidson, Aug. ' 9,
'943 to date.
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs-AprjJ 1942 to rvlarch 1, 1944
21,233 11 ,407
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Offensive operations against Japa-
nese supply ports and transportation facilities in Burma have
been the ehief concern of the 10th Air Force. As part of the
larger strategy to defend India and maintain the aerial supply
route to China, this program has been pushed despite handi -
caps of supply and difficult flying during the monsoon season.
Targets of the loth have included dock and shipping fa·
cilities at Rangoon, lVfoulmcin and Akyab; storage facilities
at Lashio and Henzada; rail junctions at Rangoon, Mandalay
and Sagaing. It has attacked nearly 150 enemy targets, has
prevented the enemy's use of much of the rail facilities in
Burma, and has sunk an appreciable amount of shipping. The
air route of supply over the Himalayas to China was first flown
under direction of the loth Air Force. When this operation
was taken over by the Air Transport Command, the loth and
14th Air Forces shared responsibiJity for protecting the route.
Other achievements of the l oth include extremely long-
range attacks on objectives in Thailand.
By early spring of 1944 the 10th was cooperating closely
with allied ground forces in the combined operations against
the Japanese in Burma.
ESTABLISHED: March 10, 1943.
AREA OF OPERATIONS; Southeast and Central China, the
South China Sea, Hainan, Formosa, North Bunna and
COMMAND: Maj. Gen. Claire L. Chennault, March 10, 1943
to date.
OPERATIONs- February 1913
to March 1, 1944
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS : Our China· based air force which
wears the insignia of the Flying Tiger grew out of the China
Air Task Force which in turn originated in the Flying Tigers
of the American Volunteer Group. The latter, made up of
fanner AAF, Navy and Marine pilots, had been at war
against the Japanese for some 5 months before the attack on
Pcarl Harbor.
In presen,ing Chinese territory as a base for Our future at.
lacks on Japan itself, the 14th Air Force has worked closely
with the Chinese army, has engaged the Japanese air force
for cO;ltrol of the air in central Chi na and has devoted itself
to a steady campaign of attriti on against Jap shipping. Its
activities have persisted despite its meager strength and despite
the fact that everything it utilizes-men, materials, fuel and
ammunition- has to be brought into China by air transpor t
over the Himalayas (see page 19
Long composed almost entirely of fighter aircraft , the 14th
gradually added medium and heavy bombers. These have
attacked lIankow airdrome, the Hong Kong harbor area and
Jap bases on the island of Hainan and Fonnosa. TIle initial
attack on strongly-defended Formosa, trans-shipment base
for the enemy's Burma and Pacific bases, was an example of
perfect timing and execution. With a force of only 14 B-
and 1; escorting fighters, the 14th destroyed 42 enemy air-
craft and probably dCShoyed or seriously damaged 12 mOre.
The atlack was conducted without loss to thc 14th. As a
result of its steady attrition of Jap shipping off thc South
China Coast (274,939 tons in a year ), traffic has been
forced away from the coastal waters to regions where it is
much more accessibl e to Our submarines. An innova tion of
the 14th Air Force is its Chinese-American Composite Vving
composed of Chinese airmen trained in the U. S. who Ay our
8 -
5S and P-40S. In its early actions the wing successfully
bomtx'<f and strafed enemy grOlfnd troops, supply installations
and shipping.
Jan. 15, 1942 as Alaskan Air Force; Feb. 5. 1942
as 11 th Air Force. .
AREA OF OPERATIONS: North Pacific from the Aleutians to
the Kurile Islands.
COMMAND: Col. Lionel H. Dunl ap, Feb. 17, 1942 to l\'larch
8, 1942; Maj . Gen. William O. Butler, March 8, 1942 to
Sept. 6, '943; Maj. Gen. Davenport Johnson, Sept. 6, 1943
to date.
SUMMARY OF OPERATIONs-December 1941 to March 1, 1944
5971 3542 75 35
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: \ V'hen a Japanese forc,e
struck at Dutch Harbor in early June. 1.942, the war S
first threat to the North Ameri can c0':ltmcnt. It
little or no opposition from land-based 'lIfcraft. The mvadcrs
were turned back aft er continuous attacks by and
medium bombers of the 11 th Air Force operatmg from
secret advance bases.
WI; en the enemy had establi shed positions ?ut on
Al eutian l slalld chain the 11 th moved hll11, makmg
its first attack on the enemy's main base at on June 1. 1.
The last attack came 14 months later, after and sortlCS
conducted in some of the worst weather 111 the world. So
cffectively did the II th persist in its attack on Jap bases that
the enemy rarclr had a score of planes operatave at hme.
Construction 0 advance bases 011 Adak and Amchltka pcr-
mittcd action at closer range and made possible air assistance
to our surface forces when they occupied Attu in May 1943.
After feeling the effects of 3000 tons of bombs, dropped by
the 11th In 3609 sorties up to July '9, 1943, and after their
supply hnes had been cut by the occupation of Attu the
Kiska without a struggle. '
Ehmlnatlon of the enemy from the Aleutians enabled the
] 1 th to consolidate Its hard-won gai ns, build up new bases,
others and improve its supply lines. Operating
r.nnclpl lly from Attu, heavy bombers of the 11 th began
ong-range attacks the enemy's bases in the Kurile Islands.
By early desp,ltc weather conditions, these
attacks were l1l crcaslIlg 111 In tensity.
£STABUSIIED: Oct. l O, 1940 as Panama Canal Air Force' Aug
as Caribbean Air Force; Feb. 5, 1942 as 6th Ai;
OF OPEIlATIONS: Panama Canal Zone, Caribbean ad-
,"cent areas of Central and South America '
COMM4ND: Mai · Cen. Davenport Johnson, Sept. 19, 1941 to
Nov. 23, 1942; Mal · Cen. Hubert R. Harmon Nov 23
194' to Oct. 27, 1943; Brig. Cen. Ralph H. 'Oct'
31, 1943 to date. ' .
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Responsibility for defense of the
Canal •. Our most strategic military possession in the
estern HemISphere, has kept the planes of the 6th Air
force on a round-the-clock alert since the war started, and
or months before. Thousands of operational hours and
hundreds of thousands of patrol miles have been Bown by
6th Air Force fli ers in their watch over the Canal. During
the crucial period of the U-boat threat they participated in
antisubmarine search and attack missions in cooperation
with the Antisubmarine Command and the Antilles Air
Command. The 6th is responsible for protecting the southern
air transport route, which is in itself a year-round task. Hun-
dreds of reconnaissance and photographic missions have been
fl own by the 6th incidental to the establi shment of our chain
of new bases in Central Ameri ca and through the Caribbean
islands. More than a score of bases, and a number of auxiliary
ai rfields are utilized by the 6th Air Force. In a typi cal month,
February 1 944 , nea r1y 1000 sorties were flown as part of
their operational program. A number of squadrons now
serving in overseas theaters have had operational training as
part of the 6th Air Force.
June 1 , 1943.
AREA OF OPERATIONS: Caribbean Sea and Antill es Island
chain from Florida to the South American Coast.
COMMAND: Brig. Cen. Edwin B. Lyon, May 13, 1943 to May
31, 1943; Brig. Cen. W. P. I-Iayes, May 31, 1943 to date.
PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS: Aerial protection to the arc of islands
known as the Antilles, which form the outward defense to
the Panama Canal, has been provided by the Antill es Air Com-
mand. Operating under the Antilles Department, which is a
component of the Caribbean Defense Command, it is separate
from the 6th Air Force although its obiectives are largely the
same. Operations of the Antill es Air Command have involved
2 areas: the Trinidad Sector, which covers Trinidad, Aruba,
and Santa Lucia Islands; and the Puerto Rico Sector,
covering Puerto Ri co, Jamaica and Antigua. Most impor tant
function of the Antilles Air Command has been its ant i-
submarine acti vity. Although the U-boat no longer is a
serious threat in the area, for the fi rs t 18 months of wa r it
was an ever-present menace to shipping throughout the Ca rib-
bean. Squadrons of the command, usually using obsolete B-18
aircraft, flew continuous mi ssions against U-boats.
ESTABLISHED: Oct. 1 5. 1942; inactivated Aug. 24. 1943.
AREA OF OPERATIONS: North and Middle Atlantic Ocean,
from Newfoundland to Trinidad; Bay of Biscay and the ap-
proaches to North Africa.
CO.M \ fAN D : Maj. Gen. Westside T. Larson. Oct. 15. 1942 to
Aug. 24, 1943· .
SUM M ARY OF OPERATIONS-OCt. 15, 1942, to Aug. 24, 1943
142,842 52 10 13
PRINCIPAL OPE RATIONS: The only unit of the AAF based
within the continental U. S. to have a major operational
mi ssion has been the Antisubmarine Command. In the 1 0
months of its existence it operated from 4 continents in an ex-
pansion of functions formerly performed by the 1 St Bomber
, .vhen the Antisubmarine Command was activated, the
curve of Alli ed shipping losses by act ion was rising
dangerously; it reached a high level 01 700,000 tons 01 ship-
ping in December' 1942. By the Ian 01 ' 943 U-boat losses
were down to a tenth of that tonnage; the command had
contnbuted materially to the decrease.
During the period of its operations, the percentage of
sunk by air acti on rose fr om 10% to 50 % of all
U-boats sunk in that time.
'TIl e Antisubmarine Command used and heavy
bombers, B-25, B-18 and B-3 4 medium bombers, and
and light bombers. Its principal weapon was the
specially equipped with detection instruments, capable of
seeking out and attacking submarines ] 000 mil es at sea. TIle
tedious patrol work, conducted for long hours, wi th
sion'II short bursts of action, call ed for special traini ng and
the devel opment of special techniques of air wa rfare. 1n
August) 943, with the main U-bO'lt threat over, further AAF
anti-submarine act iviti es were ret urned to the 1 st Bomber
Command, and the Navy increased its operati ons agai nst the

. '

, ~ '
Our combat air forces are no stronger than their component
parts. Their effectiveness against the enemy can be mC"Jsurcd
in temlS of unit strength, unit pride, unit solidarity. TIle result
is greater battl e efficiency, greater daring, greater success in
the accompl ishment of their missions.
Battle honors, or ullit citations, are awarded "in the name
of the President as public evidence of deserved honor and
distinction." You can distingui sh members of cited units b)
the blue ribbons framed in gold over their right breast pockets:
a bronze oak leaf cluster is awarded for each citation in addi ·
tion to the first. (See color plate facing page 237. )
As of March " '944, World War Il battIe honors had
been awarded to ) 5 different AAF units and to 3 other mili ·
tary organizations in which AAF units were included .. !\
report on AAF unit ci tations foll ows:
THE ; Tn INTERCEPTOR COMMAND, part of the Far East Air Force
wh ich had been heavily damaged by the Japanese surprise air at-
tacks on Clark and Nichols Fields in December 1941, helped pro-
long the defensc of Bataan and Corregidor against an cnem;.r
superior in numbers and resources. The 5th withdrew to Bat:mn
for a stand wi th other U. S. and Philippine forces in early Jan-
uary 1942. There, beyond reinforcement and supply, it operated
from inadequately defended airfields, between Jan . 6 and March 8,
1942. repeatedly carrying ont perilolls reconn:lissallce missions.
Time and again it executed surprise attacks against the enemy' s
ground, air and naval elements.
T il E 19 TH BOMBARDMENT CROUP (heavy) has been
twice cited, once for its performance from January I
to March I , 1942, and again for the period August
7. 1 2, 19 4 2.
During the hrst period the 19th opposed the nu·
mcric.'ll1y superior Ja panese during thc enemy drive through the
Philippines and Netherlands East Indies to Java, cmployed all
availablc aircraft to strike wherever the enemy could be found .
Despite adverse weather and lack of adequate maintenance per-
sonnel. the 19th dail y inflicted great damage upon the enemy.
The second citation recognizes the accomplishmen t of rcpc:tted
long-rangc hom bing attacks on heavily defended Jap:lIlcse ground,
air and naval elements near Raooul, New Britain. In the face of
ha7.ardous wCo: '1ther. interception by superior numbers of enemy
fighters, and intense antiaircraft fire on practically every mission,
damage to enemy targets was extensive. ( Also cited twice as a
unit of 2 organizations engaged in defense of the Philippines, and
again as a unit of U. S. Papuan Forces.)
Til E 17 TII P URSUIT SQUADRON (provisional ) in the
defense of Ja\'a and other South Pacific islands from
Jan. 14 to f\1nrch 1, 194 2, took part in combined
operations that checked the Japanese and saved the
Allied Reet at Soercbaja. While escorting A-24 dive
bombers, the lith repeatedly entered into combat against a nu-
merically stronger enemy. In less than one month the squadron ,
undef great difficulties, destroyed 38 enemy planes. (The 17th also
was cited twice as a unit of 2 organizations which saw act ion dur-
ing -he defense of the Philippines.)
THE 7TH BOMB .... RDMENT CROUP (heavy) from Jan. 14
to March 1, 1942, threw all available aircraft against
outnumbering Jap forces, hit the enemy wherever and
whenever possible during his drive through the Phil.
..... ippines and the Netherlands East Indies to Java. Out·
standing performance was achieved despite unfavorable weather,
hazardous landing field conditions and persistent fatigue on the
part of combat crews exhausted by unremitting operations. Handi-
capped by shortages of manpower and supplies, ground units,
work:ing under enemy fire, successfully handled an excessive main·
tenance and repair burden.
THE 49TH FICHTER CROUP defended the area of Darwin, in north·
western Australia, during the time of greatest threat to t hat vital
port . In March 1942, Darwin lay directly in the path of the Japa-
nese as they swept down the Netherlands East Indies. From
Malch 14 to Aug. 25 the 49th intercepted the enemy on everyat·
tempted attack. Although greatly outnumbered by the att:ld ers,
the 49th exacted a toll from the foe fa r out of proportion to its
own losses. Its combat record and the numbcr of airplanes it
kept in action under difficult fi eld conditions were major factors
in the successful defense of Darwin. (Also cited as a unit of U. S.
Papuan Forces.)
Til E 435'1' 11 BOMB .... SQU .... ORON (heavy ) , a unit
of the 19th Bombardment Croup ( heavy ). between
Sept . 10 and Oct. 10, 1942, fulfill cd frequent recon·
naissance and photograpllic missions with ull cscorted
Flying Fortresses, inRicted sevcre damage on the
enemy over a wide are.1 including New Guinea, New Britain,
New ' Ireland and the Solomon Isl:m<1s. lIampered by ad\'erse
weather which necessitated low for observation, and by
host ile antiaircraft fire and fi ghter attacks, the 43 5th secured
and transmitted accurate information on enemy shipping, made
valuable photographs of important enemy-held bases and areas,
and damaged enemy aircraft, ground installations and shipping.
Notwithst:mding many hours of Right and repe.1 ted combat d:Ull ·
age. the ground echelon maintained 80% of the aircraft in combat
condition at all times. (TIle 435th was also cited as a unit of the
19th Group for action Aug. 7-12, 1942, and as a unit of the U. S.
Papuan Forces.)
Til E 11'1' 11 BOMBARDMENT CROUP ( hea\'y) from July
a", 31 to Nov, 30, 194 2, continually attacked super ior Jap·
"... anese ai r units duri ng the enemy attempt to gnin a
stronger foothold in the Solomon Islands. It infli cted
heavy damage upon enemy airfields, storage and Sli p-
ply areas, seaplane bases, troop positions and other installations:
5. 1nk 4 Japanese ships, damaged 15 more and probably dam:lged
9 others. Throughout these operations, the I I th fnced and solved
extremely diffi cult problems of logistics and made long, ha7 ...1fdous
overwater flights to reach enemy object ives which frequently were
located at the extreme fl ying ra nge of its ai rplanes.
THE 374TH TROOP CARRIER GROUP, taking part in the Papuan cam-
pnign, New Guinea, from Sept. 19 to Dec. 22, 1942, fl ew an avcr-
age of 100 tons of supplies dail y to troops in forward areas :md
dail y evacuated casualties. Using various types of IInanned aircmft ,
the 374th succcssfull y accomplished its assigned mission in the
face of ntt;lck by Japanese warplanes, incl udi ng the transport to
battl e areas of several thou5. 1nd t roops. (Also cited as a unit of
U. S. Papuan Forces.)
Til E 44TH, 93 RD, 98'1'11 , 3i6TlI .... ND 389'1' 11 8 0 MB .... RDlo.·IENT CROUPS
(he:l\'Y) carri ed Ollt the mass low-level ;lttad on the Axis oil re-
fi neri es ;lt Ploesti, Rumanin, on Aug. 1, 1943.
f;"lying from Middle East T he lter bases without fighter escort ,
they cO\'ered a round.trip distall ce of more than 2400 miles over
the Mediterranean and defended enemy territory, The planes were
prep:u ed by the ground echelons of the 5 groups, inc1 uding 3
which arrivcd in tIle theater with insufficient service and mainte·
nance personnel . Confronted with an in novat ion in aerial combat,
the air echelons trained untiringly for this ha:r .. 1r<1o us and ex-
perimental mission, committing to memory details as to tnrgcts,
exp<:cted cn<: my defenses and landmnrl.:s along thei r long Ri ght .
THE 4 80TH ANTISUBMAR I NE CROUP, pioneer AAF organization for
oifensi,'c antisubmarine operations in the Eastern Il cmisphere,
from Nov. 10, 1942 to Oct . 28, 194 3. played a significant part
in winDing the battle of the Atlant ic and in United Nations' op-
erations in North Africa, Sicily and Italy. Operating from bases
in the European and North African theaters, it covered Atlant ic
shipping lanes with missions extending as far as 12$0 mil es from
base and last ing as long as 17 hours. Flying alone, airplanes of
the 480t h attacked and defeated Ju-88s and FW' 200S. and al -
though outnumbered in an average ra tio of 1 to 3, destroyed 2
enemy lirplanes for everyone lost. T he unit's killed and missing
( n umbered 10 1 offi cers and men, nearl y 50% of its strength of 2 4 0.
TOE INDIA·CIII NA WING, Air T ransport Command, during December,
J943. S'Jbstant ially exceeded the tonnage quota set for transpor-
tation ()f vital suppJies to China by air, a quota which itself ex-
ceeded the tonnage of lend-lease cargo moved in a month over
t he Bunna Road before its dosing by the Japanese in April 194
The wiDg made t his record by fl yi ng contin uously at altitudes of
from J 8,000 to 22,000 feet, under trc.1chcrous weather conditions,
through territory patrolled by enemy fighter aircraft .
he massed power of our· ai r forces and the fighting strength
f thei r units are built upon the accomplishmcnts of indi-
'dual AAF crewmen. Although virtually every move in com-
t is related to the operation of a machi ne, our machincs arc
less without men to run them-men who arc will ing to
ut their lives on the line when the situation demands.
lIeroism cannot be measured solely in terms of official
ognition. Such phrases as "conspicuous gal1 antry," " Ull -
daunted bravery," and contempt for personal
danger," all common to the arc not wholly
quate. Each heroi c deed for Itself; sooner or later Its
impact is fel t by every Amenean. .
The nation's highest military deeorabon, the Medal of
Honor, is bestowed by the President of the United States m
the name of Congress for deeds of surpassing valor, of devoti on
far above the call of duty.
Up to I'vlareh " '944, the foll owing AAF officers and Illen
had received the Mcdal of Honor In thiS war:
APRIL 18, 1942: For 3 months before they
took off from the deck of the aircraft carrier,
Lt. Gen. ( then Lt. Col. ) Tames H.
trai ned his 16 volunteer ai rcrews at domestIc
bases. Day after day had their
B-2;S from n mwa}'s the size of a carner deck,
had bombed dummy Jap cities. By time
they were on the carrier Hornet ste.1 mmg to-
ward Japan, they knew their targets as well as
t he palms of their hands.
The plan was to take off about 4 00 miles from Tokyo. A!><>,ut 800
miles away the Hornet encountered a Jap trawler. TIle carner s
sank the 'boat but there was no way of knowing whether a radiO
signal had Aashed to the mainland. An dec.ision was
made: Gen. Dool ittle and his raiders left the carner 4 00 11lIles ahead
of schedule_
They came in over Japan by da)'light at a few hundred feet . TIle
Japs were caught Aat-footed. TIley scurried wildly through the
as the B-2; S laid the first bombs of the war on the
land. Gen. Doolittle's painstaking orgnnizntion and danng leadersillp
had pnid off.
On 1c.1ving the targets, the planes ran into strong headwinds and
storms which exhausted their gas supply. All were forced to make
crash or par:lchute Inndings. Although most the crews came down
in friend ly territory and eventuall), made their way to 5.1 fety, a few
of the crewmen were forced down behind enemy lines. Among these
latter were the AAF airmen who were executed by the Japanese.
( reported mis<; ing in this action)
AUC. 6-7. 1942: There were good reasons why
Capt. HarI Pease, Jr., might not have par-
ticipated in the Rabnul mission : he was not
scheduled to go; he had just returned from
a grueling att.1ck on a Jap New Guinea base;
his own plane was not fit to fly and the best
replacement he could find for it had been de·
c1ared unserviceable for combat.
Capt. Pease took off from AustraJia and
joined his group at Port Moresby, New Guinea, starting point of the
Rabaul miss ion. He had been fl ying continuously for almost a full
day. Before they left , he snatched 3 hours' sleep.
Near Rabaul about 30 Zeros hopped his formation. For 2; min-
utes a '1iolent battle was fought. Capt. Pease's airplane-the same
that had been called unserviceable for combat the day before-was
one of those which bore the brunt of Jap attack. Capt. Pease got
through to the target (Ius gunners knocked down several Japs ) and
dropped his bombs.
On the way home his crippled airplane fell behind. Zeros were
waiting for stragglers. \Vhen last seen, Capt . Pease' s plane was
a flaming gas tank; the Japs werc closing in.
(reported mlss mg in this action )
SEPT. 5. lQ42· JAN. 5, 1943 : During the
months he was did of the 5th Bomber Com-
mand. Brig. Cen. Kenneth N. \Valker habit-
uall y accompanied his fhers on missions deep
into enemy temtory. vrom personal combat
expenence he developed a highly efficient
technique of bombing in the face of enemy
CEN. WALKER fi ghters and antiaircraft fire.
On January 5, 1943. Cen. Walker led a daylight bombing att:lck
on Rabaul. In spite of swarms of Jap interceptors which rose over
the harbor to meet them. Cen. Walker' s bombers shouldered their
way through to the target. planted their bombs squarely on 9 enemy
ships. The Japs turned the full force of their attack on Cen. Walker' s
airplane. They were too many. His plane went crasll ing down.
(posthumous: killed in this action)
NOV. 8, 1942: The troopship stood offshore
at Port Lyautey, French Morocco. Col.
Demas T. Craw asked permission to land with
the first assault boats. He wanted to try to
penetrate the French lines, reach the French
commander and persuade him to cease hos·
tilities. Col. Craw was told that it was too
dangerous, but he insisted he could do it.
Permission was finall y granted.
Col. (then Major ) Pierpont M. Hami lton "ohmteered to accom.
pany Col. Craw. TIley neared the shore in the first wave of aS5..1ult
boats. French batteries bracketed their land-
ing craft with shells. The boat was forced
to withdraw, attempt a landing at another
beach . Here they made shore in spite of un-
broken strafing by 3 enemy airplanes.
Col. Craw and Col. Hamil ton got into a
bantam truck and proceeded toward Port Ly-
autey. As they approached, a concc.11ed ma-
chine gun nest opened fire at them from
point blank range.
Col. Craw was hit and instantly killed. Col. COL. HAMILTON
Hamilton was taken prisoner but managed to complete the hazmdous
mission successfull y.
( posthumous: killed in this act ion )
MARCil 18, 19 43 : The bombi ng accuracy of
the en tire squadron depended on Lt. Jack W.
Mathis. As bombardier of the lead plane in
an attack on Vegesack, Germnny, his job was
to make the calculations for the first run over
I:he target . The rcst of the planes in tIle s'l uad-
ron would bomb according to his sighting.
As Lt . Mnthis was beginning to make his
run, he was hit by a German ack·ack shell . LT. MA'f I1lS
His r.ight. was shnttered above the elbow, a Inrge wound was
t?rn III IllS Side and abdomen, :lIl d he was knocked from his homh
Sight to the rear of the bombardier's compartment.
, Although Lt. Mathis was mortally wounded, he crawled back to
!he b?mbsight. He released the bombs directly on the target. Follow-
109 Ills lead. other bombardiers scored hits. Lt. Mathis died slumped
over his bombsight.
MAY I, 1943 : On the way home from Sgt .
Maynard H. Smith's 6rst mission over Europe
his B-17 ran into a hotbox of German Aak
and fighter planes. Antiaircraft and fi ghter
cannon ripped through the FortreSs.
Two crew members were badly wounded, the
oxygen system was shot out, several vital
control cableo; were severed and fires broke
out sImultaneously in the waist section and
radio compartment. Three crewmen bailed out
into the comparative safety of the sea.
Sgt. Smith went into, He .rushed from his waist guns to
fight the to admlOls.ter fir st aid to the wounded tail gunner,
tI.-en back to guns to dnve off enemy fighters zooming in for the
I kill. e!lcaplOg oxygen fanned the fire to such intense heat that
the radIO, gun mount and camera melted. Ammunition stored in the
fuselage to explode.
Sgt. Sm.itlt .threw ammunition overboard, fought the fires until
all were exhausted . He gave further first aid
to the t,ul gunner. manned the workahle guns until the Nazi
fighters &ave up purSUit. Then he wrapped himself in a protecting
cloth and batted out the fire with his hands.
The pLlne got home.
( pmthumous: killed in this action )
16, 194 3: Every crewman in the bomber
Whi Ch , fl ew the photographic mission over
m the Solomon Islands had volunteered.
1 hey wcre told it was going to be tough.
The bombers fl ew back and forth over the
Jap base taking pictures. \Vhell they were al·
. lIlost fini shed, 20 enemy airplanes took off to
th.c11ll I J he Maj. ( then Capt.) Jay Zcmner, Jr. , can-
tmue \''It 1 t l C lIIappmg run.
N the fir!l t Jap!l closed in, Lt . Joseph R. Sarnoski, the bombardier
" .
fought them off with bursts from his nose guns, making it pos'iihlc
for the mapping to be completed. 11lCn a coordinated fr ontal
tack by the Japs blasted holes in the bomber, wounded Lt . Sarnosl.. I,
Maj . Zeamer and 5 crew members.
Lt. Sarnoski continued fi ring. T wo Jap
planes fell to his guns. A 20 mm shell ex-
ploded in the bombardier's compartment. Lt .
Sarnoski was hurled out on to the cat walk
below the cockpit . Mortally wounded, he
crawled back to his guns and fi red until he
was dcad.
The- battle blazed on. Maj. leamer was
shot in both arms and legs. One leg was bro·
ken. But he stayed at the controls, steadfastly
refusing medical aid. He maneuvered the LT. SARNOSKI
plane to help his crewmen shoot down at
least 4 enemy fi ghters. Maj. Zeamer got onc himself .
Not until the Japs broke combat did Maj. Zc..1mer relinquish the
controls, Even then he cont inued to exercise command. The 580-
mile journey home was made under his direction.
J ULY 28. 194 3: Continent bound, a B-
formation was nearing the German coast .
The Fortress in which 2nd Lt . ( then Fl ight
Offi cer) John C. Morgan was fl ying as co·
pilot was beset by a swarm of Nazi fighters.
German guns knocked out the oxygen sys·
tem that supplied the tail , waist and radio
gun posit ions. Cannon shells smashed into
the cockpit . The pilot' s skull was split open.
He fell over his steering wheel, grasped it
tightl y. The plane began to waver.
Lt . Morgan seized the controls on his side and by sheer st rength
pull ed the plane back into format ion, The pilot , not conscious of
what he was doing. t ri ed to wres t the controls away from Lt. Mor-
gan. A shattered interphonc made it impossible to call for hclp.
Mean whilc the top turret gunner, severel y wounded, fell from his
position. The waist , tail and radio gunners were unconscious from
lack of oxygen,
Lt . Morgan had to decide whether to turn back immediatel y and
risk get ting through the encmy fi ghters alone or to try to fl y all the
way to the target and back within the protection of the formation .
In spite d the wild efforts of the (atan), wounded pilot to take over
the controls, Lt. Morgan chose to make the long flight with the
For 2 hours he held his position-flying the big bomber with one
hand, fighting off the pilot with the other. At length the navigator
entered the compartment and relic\"cd the situation. Lt. Morgan's
airplane got through to the target, dropped its bombs and flew safely
back to home base.
STAD (reported missing in this action );
,NO. LT. LLOYD H. HUGHES (posthu-
mous: killed in this action); LT. COL. AD·
DISON E. BAKER (reported missing in this
AUC. 1, 1943: Every man and every group that
participated in the mission to Ploesti , Ru-
mania, was cited for gallantry. Of all the feats
of valor that day. 5 merited awarding of the
nation' s highest award:
I Brig. Gen. (then Col.) Leon \V. Johnson and Col. John R. Kane
both led 8'24 formations that were delayed by weather on the way
to Ploesti; both arrived late and found that
their objectives had already been hit by other
airplanes; both were denied the element of
surprise that is vital to a low-level unescorted
Nazi flak was ready and Nazi fighters
were in the air when Gen. Johnson and Col.
Kane re..1ched their respective targets. TIl e
refineri es and tanks which they were to
bomb from minimum altitude were blazing
and exploding from previolls attacks. De-
layed action bombs, likely to explode at any
l moment , lay scattered through the burning rubble. Over all hung a
pall of dense black smoke.
I <:;en. Johns?n and Col. attacked. Down they led their flights
unhl fl ames at the bellies of their airplanes. Flak and fighter
. plane wlustled around them, their planes were rocked by oil
. explodmg close below. TIley dropped their bombs into the inferno.
l11eir were completed as planned.
Maj. John 1. Jerstad was due for a leave
after completing more than his share of mis-
sions and he was no longer connected with
the group scheduled to make the attack. But
he believed that his long experience would be
helpful. vVhen the crews were being picked
for the Ploesti mission, he volunteered.
A burst of 8ak caught his plane 3 miles
from the target. It began to bum immedi-
ately. Rather than jeopardize the formation :MAJ. JERSTAD
he was leading by dropping out, Maj . Jerstad ignored the level land-
ing ground below, stayed on his course. The flames in his plane
spread but he managed to get his bombs away accurately. Then his
plane plummeted, blazing, into the target area.
Second Lt. Uoyd H. Hughes was in the last
formation to hit the target. By the time he
was ready to make his run, the Nazis had
all their antiaircraft in action and the target
was a seething mass of flames . Lt. Ii ughes
came in low, dodged skillfully through bar-
rage ba11oons. Then ack-ack hit his plane.
Sheets of gasoline streamed from the bomb
bay and left wi ng.
Between Lt. Hughes' airplane and the
target lay acres of table-top meadow. He had LT. HUCHES
plenty of room and ample time to land safely. But he chose to make
the bombing run.
Into the 8ames he piloted his Liberator, gasoline washing from its
sides. When the plane came out, the left wing
was ablaze. Only then did he make an at-
tempt to land; it was too late.
The airplane crashed and burned.
Lt . Col. Addison E. Baker's B-24 was set
afire by antiaircraft bursts 3 miles away from
his objective. He could have dropped out
of the formation he led and have landed in
the flat coun try below, but he refused to
place the other planes in danger by breaking
""ith the wind-fanned fl amcs spreading rapidly o,'er his plane. Col.
Baker led his flight expertly into the target . lIis bombs hit true .
\Vhen he tried to gain sufficient alti tude so I hat his crew could bail
out, the fire ra,"aged plane would not respond. Skillful1v, with what
was left of the controls. he maneuvered his plane Ollt' of the path
of the rest of the fomlation .
Then the plane crashed in flames .
(reported missing in this action )
Aue. 18, 1943: \ Vith Maj. Ralph Chcli in
the lead plane, the formation of 8 -25S nosed
down and began their dive on the Japanese
airbase at \Vewak, New Guinea. Enemv fight.
ers swooped in, centered their fire on Maj.
CheJi 's plane, which burst into flames.
The target was sti11 2 miles away. Maj.
Che1i could have pulled out of the formation
MA ,. CHELl and gained enough altitude to parachute to
safety. But he knew a broken formation would give the Japs a great
advantase. He stayed.
\Vitll flames streaming from his airplane, he led the low·level
bombing and strafing attack. ""hen the mi ssion was completed, he
told his wing man to take over as formation leader. Then he crashed
into tht: sea.
OCT. 11 , 1943: Col. Nee! E. Kearby's mis·
sion was completed. He had led a Hight of
4 P' 4 7S to reconnoiter the heavily defended
Jap base at Wewak, New Guinea. Fuel was
running low, and they were on their way
home. Suddenly Col. Kearby saw an enemy
fighter below him. He dived. TIle Jap went
down burning.
Then the 4-pl:me formation sighted 12
COL. DARBY enemy bombers escorted by 36 fi ghters. Col.
Kearby ordered an attack. Leading the way, he dove into the midst
of the Japs, shot down 3 in quick succession. He knocked down an-
other 2. who were on the tail of one of his comrades.
The Japs broke formal-jon to make a multipl e attack on Col.
Kearby's airplane. i Ie made one more pass before seeking cloud pro-
tection , Back in the c1e.1r, he called his fligllt together and led them
to a friendl y base.
A Chronological Report on the AAF Since Pearl Harbor
(For a chronologi cal report on mi litary aeronautics f rom April 19.
1861, to Dec. 7, 1941 , see Historical Hi ghlights, page 339.)
II)·H; DEC. 7. Japanese attack OEC. 17. Lt. Gen. D. C. Emmon:-
Pearl Harbor with about 105 replaces Lt. Gen. \Val ter G
carrier· based planes , strike Short as commander of Hawai ian
Hi ckam and Wheeler Fields, Department.
Hawaii, destroy 97 U. S. pla nes DEC. 18. Maj. Gen. C. L. Tinker
including 23 AAF bombers and assumes command of the H a w a i ~
66 fi ghters ; 226 officers and en· ian Air Force.
list ed men are killed or later DEC. 20. At least 4 Japanese bomb·
die of wounds ; 396 more a re ers are downed near Kunming,
wounded. AAF fi ghter pilots China. in first action of Ameri -
shoot down more t ha n 20 J ap can Volunteer Group (AVG).
planes. DEC. 22. First U. S. bombing mis-
DEC. 7·8. Japanese land and car- sion f rom Aust ralia flown by
rier-based pla nes in heavy force B·17S a ttacking ships in Linga·
attack Army installations and yen Bay and off Davao, P. I.
aircraft at Clark and Nichols Distance: 4000 miles.
Fields, P. I., and the P·40 base
at lba, P. I. , destroying a ll but
72 of t he possible 293 planes in
the Islands .
DEC. 8. First duel of war bet ween
U. S.· ma nned heavy bomber and
enemy fighter reported during
Jap attack on Clark Field, P. J.
DEC. 9. First U. S. bombi ng mis·
sion of war is flown when B-17S
of 19th Gp attack on enemy ships
off the east coast of Vigan, Lu·
zon, P. 1. Several hi ts are
scored ; one ship believed sunk.
DEC. 9. A B· 17 of the 19th Cp
scores hi t s on a 29,000-ton J ap-
a nese battleshi p of Haruna class;
pilot, Capt. Coli n P. Kelly.
DEC. 10. 16 B- 17S of 19th Cp con-
stit ute entire bombardment strik-
ing force of AAF in the Far
East. About 30 fighters remain
in t he Philippines.
D.:C. 11. Western Defense Com-
mand designated a Theater of
Operations and assigned the 2nd
and 4th Ai r Forces.
DEC. I S. AAF submits "An Esti-
mate of the Situation and Rec-
ommendations for the Conduct
of the War" to the War De-
I)art ment.
DEC. 24. 4th Air Force bomber re-
ports sinking of U-boat off Cali -
DEC. 24. Eastern Theater of Oper-
ations created and assigned the
1st and 3rd Air Forces.
DEC. 31. AAF casualties in Philip-
pines for month of December:
122 officers and men dead. 162
wounded. Enemy air losses: 40
planes destroyed.
1942: JAN. I. AAF strength :
360,2 16 officers and men.
JAN. 13. Sikorsky XR-4, si ngle
rotary wing, 2-man helicopter,
makes first successful flight.
JAN. IS. Hq and Hq Sq, Alaskan
Air Force. aClivated at Elmen-
dorf Field, Alaska.
JAN. 23. Flying Training Com-
llIand establ ished under the Olief
of Air Corps,
JAN. 23- 25. AA F B- 17! and ot her
Allied bombers join with U. S.
naval ttrils to sink 8 to 12: ships
in Battle of Macassar Strait.
\ J"N. 28. Hq and Hg Sq. 8th Air
Force. activated at Savannah. Ga.
n •. J. First operation of P-40S in
Netherlands East Indies: I lap
f bomber and I fighter downed.
"n. S. Alaskan Air Force redesig-
nated 11th Air F orce; Cari bbean
Air For.:e redesignated 6th Air
Force; !iawaiian Air FOl"ce rc-
de5ignattd 7th Air Fol"t':e; Far
East Ai. Force r edesignated 5th
Ai r Force.
rita. 9. IOlst aerial victor y re-
ported b! A VGs.
rEII. u. About this date tail guns
(.so caLI first used by B-liS in
SW Pacific.
•. u. loth Ai r Force activated
at Patterson Field, Ohio.
PY.II. 23 • .' \ir Corps Officer Can-
didate School established at Mi-
ami Beach . Fla.
rEB. 25. Maj. Gen. L. H. Brere-
ton assumes command of newly
formed loth Air Force at
I ndia.
.. ...... First C-S4 ( Doug-
las) troo? and cargo transport is
to the AAF.
".u. lotI: Air begins to
cooperate with in evacua-
tion of Eurma.
"oU. 8. Col. W. O. Butler assumes
eommand of 11th Air
" All. 9. In a reorganizati on of the
War the Army Ai r
Forces, Army Ground Forces and
the Services of Supply are estab-
lished or a coordinate footing.
The reorlanized Staff is
composed of approximately so%
Air COTPl officers. Functions of
the Commanding General, Air
Fnrce Combat Command and
Chief of Ai r Corps a re vested in
Lt. Gen. H. H. Arnold, Com-
manding General, AAF.
)fllR. 20. Eastern Theater of Op-
erations redesignated Eastern
ANt. 2. Andaman I slands attacked
by 8- 17S in fi rst mission of 7th
Bomb Gp from India.
.... PR. 4. New plan permits college
Illen to enlist in the Air Corps
Enlisted Reser ve on deferred
basis and continue college course
until graduation unless previ-
ously by Secretary of War.
APR. 8. loth Air Force begins fly-
ing over the Himalayas
t o Yunnan Province, China.
APR. IJ-14. 3 Australian-based
B-17S and 10 B-25S, Brig. Gen.
R. Royce commanding, attack
installations and ship-
ping off Phi lippines. ·
APR. 18. Tokyo. Nagoya, Kobe and
Yokohama attacked by 16 B-2Ss
from USN Carrier HORNET, Lt.
Col. ]. H. Doolittle commanding.
APR. 23. Brig. Gen. I. C. Eaker ap-
pointed U. S. Army
Bomber Command in Europe.
APR. 24. Operations of the 1st Fer-
rying Gp, known as the Trans-
India and the Assam-Burma-
China Commands re-
ported under way.
APR. 28. 22 J ap planes reported
downed over Lashio by A VGs .
)fAY 2. Maj. Gen. C. Spaatz
assigned command of 8th Ai r
WAY 4-9. Allied air units in Aus-
tralia mcluding U. S. planes par-
ticipate in Battle of Coral Sea.
WAY u. Units of 8th Air Force
arrive in England.
MAY 26. Gulf Task Force, 1St
Bomber Command, active
antisubmarine warfare.
JUNE 3. Flight trai ning for West
Point cadets begins, fi rst Major
elective in history of the acad-
emy. Training is given at
Stewart Field, 12 miles north
of West Point, with first class
numbering more than 200.
J UNE 3 & s· Bombers, torpedo
planes and fighters of the 11th
Air Force help turn back Japa-
nese task force from Dutch
Harbor in l ap assault on Aleu-
J UNE J-7. Seventh Air Force
B-17S and torpedo-armed B-26s
aid in repulsing Jap in vasion
fleet during battle of Midway .
JUNE I I. Eleventh Air Force
bombers make first attack on
Kiska, main Jap Aleutian base.
J UNE 12. Twelve AAF B-24S at-
tack oil fields at Ploesti, Ru-
J UNE 20. Ferrying Command is
reconstituted and redesignated
Air Transport Command with 2
divisions: Ferrying and Air
Transportation. Original Air
Transport Command is redesig-
nated Troop Carrier Command.
JUNE 28. Maj. Gen. L. H. Brere-
ton arrives in Cairo from I ndia
and assumes command of U. S.
Army Middle East Air Force.
JULY I. Hq AAF Foreign Service
Concentration Command estab-
JULY t. Brig. Gen. Claire L.
Chennault assumes command of
newly formed China Air Task
Force which makes its fir st op-
eration on thi s date.
J ULY 4. First U. S.-shared attack
is made on German occupied ter-
ritory in Europe; 12 RAF Bos-
t ons, 6 manned by AAF airmen,
drop bombs on airdromes in Hol-
J ULY 4. 2Jrd Fighter Gp, lot h Air
Force. takes over AVG (Flying
J UL Y 8. Flight Officer Act au-
thorizes title of flight officer.
JULY 10. First plane of ATC lands
at Ascension Island on new S.
Atl antic route.
JULY 10. Maj. Gen. C. Spaat z ap-
pointed Chief, U. S. Army Ai r
Forces in Europe.
JULY 12. Activation of followi ng
ATC wings : North At lantic,
South Atlantic, Pacific. Africa -
Middl e East . Carib1.x:an.
JULY 2J. First 8-245 of the 98th
Gp arrive in Middle East Theater
under comma nd of U. S. Middle
East Air Force.
AUG. 3. In their first combat acti on
11th Air Force P-38s down 2
Jap flying boats.
AUG. 4. l\-[aj. Gen. G. C. Kenney
succeeds Lt. Gen. G. H. BreH as
commander, Allied Ai r Forces.
S W Pacific area.
AUG. 14. First German aircra ft de-
stroyed in combat in Iceland area
by the AA F is a FW -Kurie r shot
down by a P-39.
AUG. 14. Foreign Service Concen-
tration Command becomes the
AAF 1St Concentration Com-
mand (ceases operations Dec. 5.
AUG. 17. Railway yards and shops
at Rouen, France, attacked in
fi rst mission flown by 8th Air
Force in their own aircraft ; 18
planes participated, 12 over the
target, 6 in a diversionary sweep
al ong French coast.
AUG. 18. Brig. Gen. Clayton Bis-
seH assumes command of 10UI
Air Force.
AUG. 19. Fi rst German aircraft t o
be shot down over Europe by a
U. S. fi ghter pilot is destroyed
ove r Dieppe.
AUG. 20. Hq and Hq Sq. 12th Air
Force activated at Bolling Field,
AUG. 2S_ AAF Cold Weather Test-
ing Detachmcnt activat ed at
Ladd F ield. Alaska.
SEl'T. I. Joint AAF- RAF fi ghter
sweep over North French ca., St
marks first operational flight for
P-J8s in European theater.
SEPT. I. First airborne engineer-
ing unit activated at \Vestover
reidd, Mass.
SEPT. 3. U. S. unit s of Allied Air
Forces in Australia become 5th
Air Force. Lt. Gen. G. C.
Dey assumes command.
SEPT. 12. First use of parafrags
(parachute fragmentation bombs)
by 5th Air Force against Buna
airbase; force of heavy, medium
and attack bombers with fight er
I escort destroys I' lap planes on
SEPT. 20. About this date B.175
are fitted with external wing
bomb racks.
SEPT. 23. Brig. Gen. J. H. Doo·
little assumes command of the
aewly fonned 12th Air Force in
OCT. 2. DSM awarded Lt. Gen. H.
H. Arnold, Commanding Gen-
eral , AAF, for conspicuous dem-
onstratior. of leadership upon
completio::l of flight from Bris-
bane. Australia to Bolling Field,
D. C.
OCT. 9. tn heaviest U. S. dayl ight
attack to date, industrial plants
at Lille. France, attacked by 8th
r Air Force heavy bombers.
I OCT. IS. Anti subma rine Command
activated at Mi tchel Field. N.
Y .. with Brig. Gen. W. T. Larson
OCT. I'. Alaskan Wing of ATC
",OY. 1. North African campaign
Gpl!ns. For landing operations of
U. S. troops in North Afri ca,
paratroopers are Bown to scene
In 47 AAF transports on 1400-
mile trip from bases in England.
NOY. 8. Maj . Gen. ]. H. Doolittle
announced as Commander, 12th
Air Forct in Nort h Africa ; Lt.
Cren. Fruk M. Andrews, as Com-
mander, U. S, Army Forces,
Middle East; Maj. Gen. L. H.
Breretoa commanding Middle
East Air Force. Lt. Gen. G. H .
Brett replaces Lt . Gen. Andrews
as Olief of Caribbean Defense
NOY. 12, Middle East Air Force,
redesignated 9th Air Force.
NOV. 17, AAF School of Appl ied
Tacti cs established at Orlando,
NOV. 22. Japanese-held rail center
at Mandalay, Burma. attacked by
largest formation of U. S, bomb-
ers to operate from airbases in
:Sov. 26. Attack on Japanese-held
Thailand made by nine loth Ai r
Force B-24S. Distance: more
Ihan 2000 miles to Bangkok and
NOV. 30. About this date Lt. Gen.
C. Spaatz arrives in North Af-
rica from. London to reorga nize
All ied Air Forces.
Df·:C. I. Maj, Gen. 1. C. Eaker as-
sumes command of the 8th Air
Force in England.
DEC. I , Air Transport Command
takes over operati on of ferrying
and supply to China.
DEC. 4, In first U. S. attack on
Ita lian mainland, twenty-four 9th
Air Force B-24S attack Naples
and harbor.
DEC. 7. P-40S go into action for
the first time in Tunisia.
DEC. 22. In longest offensive
massed Right made to date. 26
B-24S of the 1th Air Force stage
midnight surpri se attack on
\Vake Island. Distance: 4300
nautical miles. wi th onl y stopping
point being Midway.
DEC. 25. F irst Air Evacuation
Transport Sq leaves for North
UEC. 28. P -38s make debut in New
IH; C. 30, U-boat pens at Lorient,
France, attacked by 8th Air
Force bombers; 29 enemy fight -
ers downed,
1943: JAN, 13. Brig, Gen. N. F.
Twining assumes command of
!he newly formed 13t h Air Force
In South Pacific area.
JAM. 14. European Wing of ATC
JAN. 21. In first U. S. bomber at-
tack on Germany, 53 B-11S of
8th Ai r Force strike Wilhelms-
haven: 2 B-17S hit Emden, and
23 B-24S bomb area near Zuider
FEB. 4. Lt. Gen. Frank M. An-
drews becomes Commanding
General , European Theater of
n :B. 18. 12th Air Force and RAF
units in North Afri ca merge as
Northwest African Air Forces
(NWAAF), Lt. Gen. C. Spaatz
commanding-Maj. Gen. ]. H.
Dooli ttle commands Strategic Air
Force; Air Vice Marshal Sir
Arthur Coningham, RAF, com-
mands Tactical Air Force.
MAR. I. First group of students be-
gi ns pre-aviation cadet training
under the AAF College Training
P r ogram,
MAli. . 1-4, In Bismarck Sea action,
174 planes of 5th Air Force and
RAA F drop 213 tons of bombs,
wiping out virtually an enti re
convoy and its supplies as well as
nearly a divison of troops, pro-
ceeding from Rabaul to L..'le,
MAR. 10. P-47S of 8th Air Force,
in their initial combat employ-
meln, engage in a sweep off
Walcheren Islands, Netherlands.
MAR. 10. Hq and Htt Sq of 14th
Air Force acti vated at Kunming,
China, replacing the Chilla Ai r
Task Force operating under loth
Air Force; Brig. Gen. Claire L.
Olenllault cont.inues in cOll1llland.
MAR. 18. Automatic flight COlltrol
C<lu ipment linked to Norden
bombsight proves combat merit
in 8th Air Force operation by 73
B- 17S a nd 24 B-24S over Vege-
sack, Germany. One submarine
capsized, 6 damaged; 52 enemy
planes shot down, 20 probables,
23 damaged.
MAR, 19. Lt. Gen. H. H. Arnold,
Commanding General, AAF,
nominated by Pres. Roosevelt for
promotion to full general; he be-
comes first airman to win thi s
loIAR. 26. Test of first B-25 armed
with 15 mm cannon is completed
by AAF Proving Ground Com-
M AR, 29. In AAF reorganization ,
Hq directorates aboli shed. their
functions being assigned to Com-
mands and Assistant Chiefs of
Air Staff.
MAR. 29. Flight Control Command
establ ished,
APR. 4. Renault Works at Billan-
cOllrt, France , attacked by 85
B- I 7S of 8th Air Force.
APR, 17. Focke-Wulf aircraft
works near Bremen attacked by
over 100 of 8th Air
Force droppi ng 265 tons of
bombs; 63 enemy planes shot
down. IS probablt:s, 11 damaged.
APR. 18. Catania Harbor in Sicil y
bombed by t 2 B-24S and by 48
P-40S of 9th Air Force ; 74
German trans ports and escorting
fighters destroyed. 21 enelll Y
planes damaged,
APR. 29. Civil Air Patrol made a n
auxiliary of the AAF.
M AY I. B-24S, B-25S, P-38s and
P-40S make 104 sorties to Ki ska
and Attn.
M AY 3. Lt . Gen. Frank M. AII -
drews killed in plane crash, Ice-
MAY 7, With aid of heavy support-
ing aerial Allied troops
enter Tuni s a nd Bizerle.
MAY 14. A ht:avy bl ow st ruck by 4
simultaneous mi ssions of U, S.
bombers attacking military ob-
jectives at Kid. Germany ; Ant -
werp and COllrlrai . Belgium ; and
I jllluiden. Holland.
J U N £ 2. Chinese forces, aided hy
14th Air Force. check lap ad-
vance inte Yangtze River Valley
and dislodge laps from part of
fJUME 6. Pantelleria, Mediterra-
nean islaad stronghold of Italy,
bombed by AAF since cady May.
receives :lcavy attack by 12th
Air Fora.
J UNE II. Heavy and mediulll bom-
buclment by 12th and 9th Air
Forces. 1Vith fighters partici-
pating, compels surrender of
Pantelleria. ; 1 0,000 prisoners
are taken by occupation forces.
JUNE 16. Japanese air task force
over Guadalcanal area inter-
cepted and rOllted; 32 enemy
bombers and 45 Zeroes dest Toyed
I or damaged.
JUNE 22. AAF awarded National
Safety Council Medal for distin-
guished services.
.JUNE 28. Messina, Sicily, attacked
in beavieJt single operation of
I Mediterranean waT to date by
over 100 B-17S of 12th Air
J UNE 30. AAF strength: 2,186,-
603 officers and enlisted men.
J ULY I. jac<lueline Cochran ap-
· pointed Director of AA F women
J ULV 7. A.\F Training Command
established. combining functions
of Flying Training Command and
Technical Training Command;
Hq, Ft. Worth, Tex.; Maj. Gen.
B. K. Y cunt, commanding.
JULY 9. ,A.meri can-built Is-place
Rliden (CG-4) fint employed in
Sicily aboot this date.
}UI.Y 10. Eight 11th Air Force
B-25S from bases on Atttl bomb
· Paramushiru, Kurile Islands, in
· Japanese home waten.
l JULY 19. Military targets in Rome
attacked l:y 122 B-248 of 9th Air
: JULY 22. Longest bombing mission
i in SW Pacific to date flown by 6
8-24' of 5th Air Force to
Soerebaja, lava. Distance flown:
2400 miles.
!Jl'LY 24. Heroya and Trondheim,
Norway, attacked by 208 8-17S
of 8th Air Force fl ying without
J ULY 28. Auxiliary fuel tanks for
increased range employed by sup-
porting P-47S on mission of 95
8th Air Force B-17S against Kas-
sel, Germany.
AUG. I. Ploesti, Rumania, oil reo
fineries, most important source
for Axis petroleum products, at-
tacked at low-level by 162 Lib-
yan-based B-24S of 9th Air
Force, reinforced by 8th Air
Force aircraft and crews. Di s-
tance: 2400 miles.
AUG. 7. Hq, AAF Redistribution
Center, established at Atlantic
City, N. J., with stations at At-
lantic City and Miami Beach,
Fla., and rest camps at Lake
Lure. N. C., Camp Mystic, Tex.,
and Castle Hot Springs, Ariz.;
redi stribution program will clas-
sify and assign AAF personnel
returned from overseas.
AUG. 13.61 B'24S of 9th Air Force
attack Wiener Neustadt in Ger .
man-held Austria in 1200-mile
AUG. 15. U. S. and Canadian troops
complete occupation of Kiska,
abandoned by laps after long
aerial campaign by t Ith Air
AUG. 17. Attack on Regen5burg,
South Bavaria, by 126 B-175 of
8th Air Force with P-47 escort
is first notable example by AAF
of shuttle bombing, with planes
crossing Europe and landmR at
N. African bases.
AUG, 17. Schweinfurt attacked by
over 180 B' 17S of 8th Air Force.
which drop 485 tons of high ex·
Jllosives and 88 tons of incendi -
aries on German ball-bearing
AUG. 24. Of 85 B-T7S dispatched
from among those participating
in the Regensburg. South Ba-
varia, shuttle attack of Aug. 17,
57 bomb Focke· Wulf plant at
Bordeaux, France, on return
from N. Africa to England.
AUG. 24. Antisubmarine COllimand
redesignated 1st Bomber Com-
mand and assigned to 1st Air
SEPT. 5. 1laj. Gen. D. J ohnson ap-
pointed Conuuanding General.
11th Air Force.
SEPT. 5-8. Heavy and medium
bombers of Northwest African
Air Forces bomb Italian airhascs
and other targets south of Naples.
SEPT. 9. P -38s and A-36s cover
landing of American units at Sa-
lerno, Italy.
SEI'T. 10. 1st and 4th Air Forces
separated from Eastern and West-
ern Defense Commands respec-
tively and placed di rectly under
Commanding General. AAF.
SEPT. It. 11th Air Force B-24S
and B-25S from Aleutian bases
attack Paranll1shiru and Shimu-
shu Islands.
SEPT. 12. Air Transport Command
C·87 begins round trip Right
from Patterson Field, Ohio. to
India, establishing emergency
shipment air freight line. Dis·
lance: 28.000 miles. Elapsed
time: 12 days.
SF- PT. 14-15. Troop C1.rrier Com-
mand of Northwest Afr ican Air
Forces moves 2500 paratroopers
into battle area in 172 sorties.
SUT. 13- 16. All resources of AAF
in Mediterranean concentrated on
battle area as Germans counter-
attack st rongly around Salerno.
P - ]8s and A-36s strafe and bomb
str'ong points; B-17S, B-24S, B-
:25S and B-26s destroy road junc-
tions and supply depots to halt
reinforcements; P -40S, P-47S
and P-51 s also participated. On
Sept. 14, AAF Ries 1294 sorties
in Salerno area.
SEPT. I S. 8th Air Force stages
large scale night attack against
Romilly-Sur-Seine. Caudron and
Citroen Works. Paris. Renault
Motor Vehicle Works at Billan-
court, and Chartres Airfield ..
SEPT. 18-19. More than 200 sortIes
carried out during night of the
18th and throughout a good part
of day on the 19th, by 7th Ai r
Force and Navy bombers on Ta-
ra wa, Makin. Apamama and
Nauru Islands.
SEI'T. 22. Large force of North-
west Afr ican Air Forces B- 25S
and B-26s shift attack to Ger-
man positions east of Naples
after Salerno beachhead is made
SF-PT. 27. 8th Air Force o"ercast
bombing attack on Emden marks
deepest penetration into Germany
of P-47S equipped with long-
range tanks.
OCT. 9. 8th Air Force B-17S and
B-24S attack Arado air-frame
plant , Anklam; Focke-Wulf 190
plant. Marienburg, Germany;
Danzig, and entrance harbor,
Gdynia. Poland.
OCT. 12. Various units of 5th Air
Force strike Rabaul. Rapopo and
.oCT. 14. Schweinfurt attacked by
228 B- 17S of 8th Air Foree.
OCT. 24. Bombing of Wiener Neu-
stadt factory by 12th Ai r Force
B- 17S and B- 24S marks fir st at-
tack 011 German-held Austria
fr om Italia n bases.
OCT. 28. AA F Tactical Center es-
tablished at Orlando. Fla.
NOV. I: Hq and Hq Sq, 15th Ai r
Force, activated in
NOV. I. Maj. Gen. J. H. Doolittle
relie\' ed of duty as Commanding
General, 12th Command,
I and assirned as Commanding
of newly formed I sth
Air Force in Mediterranean
· "ov. 2. Attack on aircraft assem-
bly center at Wiener Neustadt
markll initial operation of 15th
I "OV. z. In attack on enemy ship-
I ping in Simpson Harbor , Rab."lul,
is medium bombers of 5th Air
FOTce sin( 3 destroyers, 6 mer-
chant :I freighters, 4 lug-
I .. era; seriously damage 2 heavy
cruisers. :I destroyers, 7 merchant
I vessels. :I tankers; 20 enemy air-
craft destroyed on IJ'round. Of in-
tercepting enemy aircraft , 67 de-
'XOV. 8. Turin, haly.
plant attacked by 8 , B-17S of
15th Air Force.
KOV. 14. Attack on Sofia by 9 I
· B-255 of 12th Air Force marks
first air attack on Bulgaria from
this theater.
MOV. IS. NiH and Makin Atolls
· are attacked by 8 B·24S of 7th
Air Force
.ov. IS. I\ation·wide network of
, flight control centers completed,
using facilities of
CAA, to pl"ovide Anlly fliers
with pilou' advisol"Y sel"vice.
"0". 16. Announcement made that
I assembly line for P· 39S has been
set up near Persian Gulf to ex·
I pedite delivel"Y to USSR.
I"ov . • 6. Rjukan and Knaben ,Nor·
I way, attacked by 306 heavies of
8th Air F) rce. .
I"OV. 24. Toulon, France, and So·
I fia, Bulgaria, attacked by bomb·
, ers of the. sth Air FOl"ce.
NOV. 29. Bremen attacked by I S4
B·175 of Air Force.
p.c. I). In a record single day's
bombE" , 161:1 tons of bombs
drop on Bremen , Kid and
Ham ul"g by more than 600 bomb·
f en of 8th Air Force.
E.C. IS. N. African Wing of Ail"
Transport Command acti vated.
p.c. 17. Collier Trophy for '942
awarded Gen. H. H. Arnold .
Commanding Geneml, AAF.
DEC. 24. German military installa·
tions on French coast attacked
by over 650 heavy bombers with
fighter escort-record number of
aircraft dispatched by 8th Air
Force to date.
- ... A. :

--...- - .....- ---'--"""

DEC. 30. 1393 tons of bombs
dl"opped on Ludwigshaven through
overcast by heavy hombers of 8th
Air Force with fightel" escort of
more than 600, largest number of
fighters dispatched in single day
to date.
DEC. 31. 14th Air Force Hq an-
nounces 125,000 tons of Jap ship.
ping slink si nce September.
JH:C. 31. More than 1200 tons of
bembs dropped on BOl"deaux and
Paris areas by over 450 heavy
bomben of 8th Ail" Force.
DEC. 31. Announcement made that
during December British-based
AAF planes have fl own appmxi-
mately 13,876 sOl"ties h om Bl"it·
ain and dmpped 14,118 tons of
1944: JAN. 1. Lt. Gen. C. Spaatz
assumes command of U. S. Stra-
tcgic Air FOl"ces in with
H(I in U. K.
JAN. I. Maj. Gen. J. H. Doolittle
assigned to command 8th .Air
Force , replacing Lt. Gen. 1. C.
Eaker who is announced as com·
mnnder of Allied air forccs in
JAN. 4. AAF pel"sonnel stl"ength :
2,385 ,000 officers and mell.
JAN. 7. 1000 tons of bombs
dropped on Ludwigsha vcll through
overcast by heavy bombers of
8th Air FOl"ce.
JAN. 7- '3. About 665 Ions of
bomb!! dropped on lap installa·
tion'S and communications at M a-
dang, Alexishafen and Bogadjilll
area. New Guinea, by bombel"S of
5th Air Force.
JAN. JO. Largest 0-17 mission yet
Rown from Italian bases dis·
patched to attack Sofia, Bulgal"ia:
heavy bombers drop 418 tons of
bombs on I"ail -yards.
J A N. II. 1258 tons of bombs
dropped on }U-88 factory at Hal-
berstadt. ME- Ilo assembly plants
at Brunswick, and Focke- WuH
factory at Oschersleben , Ger-
many, by heavy bombers of the
8th Air Force.
JAN. 21. II 42 tons of bombs
dl"opped over the Calais al"e:t by
mOl"e than :150 hea vy hombel" s of
8th Ail" FOl"ce.
JAN. 28. Reports I"el ea sed of Japa-
nese atrocities against AAF a nd
othel" U. S. milital"Y pcl"sonnel
captul"cd at Bataan and COHegi-
dar as l"c1ated by the late Lt. Col.
W. E. Dyess. Air COl"ps. a nd
other escaped prisoners of war .
JAN. 29. In lal"gesl U.S. operati on
to date, 1886 tons of bombs
dropped tlnollgh overcast on
Fmnkfurt, Germany. by over
800 bombers of 8th Air Force.
JAN. 30. 1748 Ions of bombs
dropped through overcast on
Brunswick and Hanove r , Ge r-
many . by AAF bombers of 8th
Air Force.
JAN. 30-J I. More t han 400 hea vy
hombe rs with 246 fig- hte r escort s
drop 90S tons of bombs on encmy
airbases in Villaod):t uca, Ital y.
f>y.n . J. Approxima tely 1190 t OilS
of bombs dropped all Wilhel ms-
haven, Germany, through over-
cast by over 500 hea vy bombers
I) f 8th Air Force.
,',"L 4. 9:19 tOilS of bombs dropped
on Frankflll"t . Ge rmany. through
overcast by ovel" 3S0 heavy bomb-
ers of 8th Ail" FOl"ce.
PEn. 10. 350 tons of bombs dropped
on Brunswick, Germany, by over
J 30 B- 17s of 8th Air FOl"ce with
P-38, P-47 and P-SI escort.
PEII . 10. 140 tons of bombs dropped
on Boram Airfield, New Gumea,
by n · 24S of 5th Ail" Force.
FU. I I. 388 tons of bombs dropped
on Frankfurt, Gel"many, area by
over 150 heavy bombers of 8th
Ail" Force with escol"ting P-J8s,
P-47S and P-SIS.
FEB. 18. Announcement made of
tmnsfer of 9th Ail" FOl"ce h OIll
Afdca t o England, which
strengthens AA F tactical com-
ponent of the Allied Command
in Europe. Briti sh-based 8th and
I talian-based 15th now form stm-
tegic ann. British-based 9th
(AAF) a nd 2nd (RAF) Ai r
FOl"ces fomt tactical ann.
FEn. 20. 1 n a si ngle daylight oper-
at ion AAF bombers drop 2218
tOilS of bombs on industl"i al cen·
tel"s at Leipzig, Gotha, Bm nswick,
Tutow, Oschel" sieben, Rostock
and Bernbul"g, Ge n nany.
FEB. 22. 8th Ai r FOl"ce units based
in Bdtain and 15th Ai r Force
units based in Ital y make co·
ordinated attacks on Halberstadt .
Oschersleben, Bernbll l" g, Regens·
burg. and other German targets
of opportunity.
n :n. 24. Appmximately 1750 tons
of bombs dropped by 747 heavy
bombers of 8t h Air Force on air·
craft pl"oduct ioll center at Gotha.
Schweinfurt, Rostock and Eise·
nach, Gl! rmany.
PEn. 25. 1667 t ons of bombs
dropped by more t han 650 hea vy
bombers of 8th Air Force on a i1"" -
cra ft asse mbl y, component and
ail"craft engine centers at Regens-
burg. Stuttgart, Augsburg and
Furth, Germany , a nd 560 tons
droppcd by Illore than 350 heavy
bombers of 15t h Air Force in co.
ordi nated attacks.
FF.. H. 29. 4S0 tons of bombs dropped
on Brunswick. Germany. through
overcast by a l>proximaleiy 200
B- 17S of 8th Air Force.
liAR. 2. "Battle Honors" awarded
India-China Wing, Air Trans-
• port Command, for outstanding
performan:e of duty.
lMAIl. 2. Over 750 tons of bombs
dropped OD Frankfurt, Ludwigs-
haven, Offenbach , and other Ger-
man targets by heavy bombers of
• 8th Air Force.
All. 3. n;8 escorted 15th Air
Force healY bombers attack air-
dromes an1 rail yards in Rome
area, dropping over 350 tons of
WAR. 3. First U. S. fighter mission
over Berlin accomplished when 2
groups of P- J8s Ay to a rendez-
vous point south of Berlin, then
sweep over outskirts.
All. 4. First AAF bomber attack
on Berlin made by 30 B- 17S of
8th Air Force with Allied escort.
Attacks also made on Dussel-
dorf, Colcgne and Frankfurt,
All. 6. He,,;)' hombers of 8th Air
Force attack Berlin in strength,
67.2 B-17S dropping more than
1600 tons (,f bombs.
if All. 6. Over 60 tons of bombs
dropped on Kavieng- Panapai,
ew Irelaad, by 12 B-24S of
fl3th Air Force.
AR. ,. Hzrbor and submarine
,base at Toul on, France, attacked
48 esccrted B- J 7S dropping
ver 140 tens of bombs.
8. More than 1000 tons of
drop:>ed on Berlin area by
639 hea"ily escorted bombers of
I th Air Force.
YAR. 9. Over 1200 tons of bombs
dropped on Berlin, Hanover,
Brullswick and Nauen by 489 8th
Air Force heavy bombers.
MAR. I I . Over 250 tons of bombs
dropped on Toulon, France, in-
stallations and shipping by 122
escorted B-Z4S of 15th Air Force.
MAR. II. Northwest marshaling
yards, Florence, Italy, attacked
by 35 B-26s of 15th Air Force
in first attack on the city during
this war.
MAR. I I. Over 350 tons of bombs
dropped on Munster, Germany.
and on enemy installations of
Pas-de-Calais, France, by co-
ordinated missions of 155 es-
corted heavy bombers of 8th Air
YAR. II. Wake Island attacked by
22 heavy bombers of 7th Air
Force dropping approximatel y
50 tons of bombs.
MAR. 11-15. Targets in New Gui-
nea area are attacked by 300
heavy and medium bombers drop-
ping 571 tons of bombs, during
the week ending Mar. 15. In
these operations, 5th Air Force
destroyed 59 enemy aircraft; 24
probably destroyed.
MAR. T2. Announcement made of
special trans- Atlantic aerial
freight line inaugurated by 8th
Air Force Service Command in
England to supplement regular
Air Transport Command ship-
MAR. 15. Over IZOO t ons of bombs
dropped on Cassino, Italy, during
attack by both AAF strategic and
tacti cal air force units in Medi -
MAR. 15. 8th Air Force renews at-
tacks on Germany; 185 B-1 is
and f43 B-24S drop over 700
tons of bombs on Brunswick.
ote: Infonnation in tIle WAR CALENDAR was derivcd from tll C
best source material available at the time of preparation. \Vhere
original records were not available for verification, it is subject to
revision oosed on further research. For a report on military aero·
nautics from June, 1861, to Dec. 7, 1941, see next chapter.

On Aug. 1 , 1907. an Aeronautical Division " to study the
flying machine and the possibility of adapting it to military
purposes" was established in the Office of the Chief Signal
Officer, U. S. Army. One officer and 2 enlisted men werc
assigned to the division. There were no airplanes.
Late in 1907 the Army asked for bids for an airplanc
capabl e of fl ying for 60 minutes and of attaining a speed of
40 miles per hour while carrying 2 men whose combined
weight did not exceed 350 pounds. On Feb. 10. 1908. the
contract was sign cd for the Wright brothers' plane.
The first airplane delivered by the \ Vrights crashed dur-
ing trial flight s at Fort Myer. Va .• in Sept. 1908, injuring
Orville \Vright and killing Lt. TIlOmas E. Selfridge, hi s
passenger. Until the accident, however. the plane had per-
fonned weIl , and the Wrights were given a second chance.
In June, 1909, they returned to Fort Myer with a new bi-
plane. It had approximately a 4o·foot wing spre.;ld and a wing
area of ; 00 square feet. It weighed 800 pounds empty. Two
propellers. mounted in the rear, were chain-driven by a small
gasoline engine. The landing gear consisted of a pair of
runners. Orville \ Vright piloted the plane with Lt. (later
Maj. Gen.) Frank P. Lahm riding as passenger. Wright kept
the plane aloft for 1 hour, 20 minutes and 40 seconds. TI1C
Anny accepted it- the world's first military airplane.
Under the terms of the contract the \\fright brothers had
to teach 2 Army officers to pil ot the airplane. Lts. J ......lhm
and F. E. Humphreys were the fi rst students. Lt. (latcr
1\Iaj. Gen.) Benjamin Foulois was the next pilot trained.
\ Vhen Lts. Lahm and Humphreys were called back to thcir
respective posts in the Cavalry and Engineers, Lt. Foul ois
became the only offi cer available for Hying duty. In the fol-
lowing months a few more pilots were trained- among them
Lt. Henry H. Arnold, now Commanding General of the AAF.
' Vhen we went to war on April 6, 191 7. the Aviation
Section had 65 officers (35 of them Biers) and 1087 cn-
listed men. The total of our airplanes was 55, all of which
were obsolete compared to the planes being used over the
\Vestcm Front. However, $640,OOo,Qoo--Iargcst sum ever
approp,iated for a singlc purpose to that date- was voted by
Congress on July '4, '9' 7, for the development of military
In the cl osing months of the war our air squadrons chalked
up an impressive record in aerial combat (sec summary page
34;·) Observati on, the original concept of an airplane's mili-
tary usefulness, became a secondary function. The airplane
was recogni zed as a weapon in itse1f.
The 23 years between wars, in spite of the sman number of
personnel and limited appropriations, was a period of progress
for the Army's air arm. New techniques, tactics and equipment
were tC.) ted. From peacetime research came almost all of our
present-day combat planes. High level precision bombing
was developed. Aerial formati ons and tactics were evolved.
Perhaps most important was the formation of a small body of
devoted and highly ski ll ed men who knew aviation from top to
bottom. They were the men who organized the program fo r
training the hundreds of thousands recruited for air duty when
war came again.
Below is a chronological record tracing the growth of
based mil itary aviati on in the U. S. up to the attack on Pea rl
Harbor. (For an AAF war calendar, sec pagc 329.)
188 1: APIIL 19. Inaugurating ai r
aer vice with the Army, civilian
aeronaut James Allen, 1St Rhode
Island State Militia, makes
loon in Washington, D. C.
JU!U: 2:1-24. Civilian aeronaut
T. C. Lowe and Army office rs
make fir st mil itary reconnais.
sance ascents at Arlington and
Fall s Church, Va. ; telegrapll
used fr om balloon.
SEI' T . 24. Lowe directs Union
Army arti llery fire by telegraph
from a balloon at Ft. Corcoran,
Washington, D. c., Con-
feder ate tar gets in Virginia.
1862·1863: Continuous tacti.cal
observations made f rom Uni on
Army ballool)s until discontinu-
ance of service in June, 1863;
similar obser vations also made by
Confederates. .
1892: First military aeronaut.lc or-
ganization in thi s country IS
tablished 't,y U. S. Army. With
attachment of balloon sect.lon to
Signal Cor ps telegraph Units.
1893· 97 : Aer ial photography and
air-to· ground telephony
A balloon park established
at ""'Ft. Logan, Colo.
1898 : $50,000 allotted for Army
aviation for 1899 S.
Langley for expenments In
aerodynamics ) .
JUliE 30. Ar my
t ions reveal Spani sh Reet m
tiago Har bor .
NOV. 9. Construc.tion of man-
carrying powcr airplane aut hor-
ized with all otment of $25,000 by
U. S. Army to S. P. Langley. .
1902 : MAY 6. Army balloon Uott
organized at Fort Myer, Va.
1903 : DEC. 17. First controlled
power airplane. flights mfide by
Orville and Wtlbur Wn ght at
Kitty Hawk, N. C.
1906: SEPT. 30. First Gordon Ben-
nett balloon race, Paris, won by
Lt. F. P. Lahm, U. S .. Army ...
1907: AUG. I. Aeronautical DIYI-
sion established in Office of Cillef
Signal Officer to have charJ:fe of
all matters pertaining t o mihtary
ballooning, air machi nes and all
kindred subjects.
OEC. 16. Chi ef Signal
for bi ds on lighter-than· au air-
shi p." ..
DEC. 23. Bids on hC:'tVler · tha n·;;ur
"flying machine" called for by
Chief Signal Officer. .
11)08 : $30,000 approprlatcd for
Army aviation for 1909.
l"v.n. 10. Fornm! contract for
Army's fir st flying macillne
signed by Signal Corps and the
Wright brot he rs.
MAY 19. Lt. T. E. Selfridge. U. S.
Army, fir st mi.litary m?n to a
heavier-than· alT machine, pilots
the aircraft "White Wing"
Dr. Alexander Graham. s
Aerial Experiment ASSOCiation.
J UNI': 30. Air strcngth, U. S. Army
(Signal Corps): 3 officers, 10
men, all in balloon troops.
SEPT. 3. First test flight of fl ying
machine made at Ft. Myer , Va .•
by Or ville Wright.
SEI' T. 9. First Army car·
ried in "Wright Flyer" IS Lt.
F. P. Lahm, during t rials at Ft.
Myer, Va. '11_"
SEPT. 17. Lt. T. E. Selfridge kl eu
and Or ville Wright i.njured
ing trial Ri ghts of flYlng.machme
at Ft. Myer, Va. Delivery of
machine postponed.
1909 : AUG. 2. Wright airplane ac-
cepted by Army after new test s
at Ft. Myer. Va.
OCT. 26. First Army man t? solo
the Army's first airplane IS Lt.
F. E. Humphreys; second, Lt.
F. P. Lahm, both after about. J
hours' pil ot instruction by \VII ·
bur Wright at College Park. Md.
19t O: JAN. 10-20. Weight
ping experiments fr om an
plane conducted by Lt. P. W.
Beck at Los Angeles.
JUNE 30. Air strcng!h, U. S.
Army: I officer. 9 enhsted
I \\fright airplane, I BaldwlII
airship, 3 captive balloo':!s.
AUG. 10. Tr icycle landmg gear
fitted to Army airplane by Lt .
B. D. Foulois and civilian me-
chanic O. G. Simmons. .
AUC. 20. Firing of rifle from alr-
pl:lIle demonst rated at Sheeps
head Bc.y, N. Y., by Lt. J. E.
1,lh JAN. ;-25. Live bombing
(use of bombs) demonstrated
at San Francisco, Calif. by Lt.
M. S. Crissy. Radio messages
transmitted from airplane by Lt.
P. W. Beck.
M.A •. 3. Appropriation for air op-
erations $125,000, authorized for
Anny for fiscal year 1912.
MA. •. J. lo6-mile non-stop Hight
from Laredo to Eagle Pass, Tex.,
made b), Lt. B. D. Foulois and
civilian pilot P. W. Parmalee in
Wright airplane.
MAY 20. Army's first pilot train-
ing school opens at College Park,
Md.; bids opened for airplane
SEPT. 26. Official J-man world
flight endurance record set by Lt.
T. DeW. Milling in Wright air-
p!ane at !'lassau Boulevard, L L,
N. Y. Time: 1 :54 :42.
I OCT. 10. Riley E. Scott bombsight
and dTcpping device tested at
College Park, Md. from Wright
airplane flown by Lt. Milling.
OCT. 14. Air strength, U. S. Army
(Signal Corps): 6 officers with
civil FAl (Federation
lique Internationale) airplane
certificates; 5 airplanes; 3
live balloons.
DEC. JI. 15 airplanes purchased by
the Army in 1911.
lltll MI.R. II. Army air school
opens in the Philippines.
JUMP.: I. 6540 ft. altitude record
set by Lt. H. H. Arnold (Bur-
JUNE Aerial firing wilh ma-
chine gm demonstrated by Capt.
e. deF. Chandler at College
Park, Md. from Wright airplane
flown by Lt. Milling.
Aue. 24. '100,000 appropriated for
Army air operations for fiscal
year 191J.
OCT. 9. First competition for
Mackay Trophy; won by Lt.
H. H. Arnold.
.llls FEI. 2'8. Air-ground
eration practi ced at Texas City,
Tex., in 2nd Division maneuvers.
MA •. 2. $1Z5,000 appropriated for
air for fiscal year 1914; Hying
pay authorized, 3S % over base
MAIL 28. Official American 2-man
cross-country dura.tion and
tance records established by Lts.
Milling and W. C. Sherman.
Route: Texas City to San An-
tonio, Tex. Distance: 220 miles.
Flying time: 4 :22
1914: FEB. 14. American non-stop
duration and distance closed cir-
cuit records set at San Diego.
Calif.. by Lt. T. F. Dodd and
Sgt. H. Marcus (Burgess-Re-
nault 70). Distance: 244.r 8
miles. Flying time: 4 :43 :00.
YEB. 23. Automatic attached back-
pack type parachute demonstrated
by Charles Broadwick.
JULY 18. Aviation Section (Signal
Corps) is created by Congress.
Strength limited to 60 officers,
260 men. Ratings authorized:
Military Aviator ( MA), Junior
Military Aviator (JMA), Avia-
tion Mechanician (AM). Flight
pay; 25%, 50% and 75% in-
crease over base pay to students
JMAs and MAs respectively. '
SEPT. I. First Aero Squadron is
organized at San Diego, Calif.,
with t6 officers, n enlisted men'
8 airplanes. '
OCT. 8. 16,798 ft. official Ameri -
can one·man alt itude record set
by Capt. H. LeR. Muller (Cur-
ti ss 90).
DEC. 1-16. "First radio message'
ever received in an airplane" at
Manila, P. I. from
station. credited to pilot Lt. H. A.
Dargue a nd Lt. J . O. Mauborgne
desi gner of the set. '
DEC. :23. Mackay Trophy for re-
connai ssance competition won by
Capt. T. F. Dodd and Lt. S. W.
191G: JAN. IS. New official Amer-
ica n one-man duration record is
set at San Calif. by Lt.
B. Q. Jones
70). Flying time: 8 :5J :00.
MAR. 3. National Advisory Com-
mittee for Aeronautics created to
supervise and direct the scientific
study of Aight problems, with a
view to their practical solution.
MAR. 4. $200,000 appropriated for
air for fiscal year 1915.
MAR. 12. Official world 3-man du-
ration record set by Lt. B. Q.
Jones, San Diego. Flying time:
7 ;05 :00. Mackay Trophy
awarded for record flight s.
]01(1: JAN. 17. Strength, Aviation
Sect ion ( Signal Corps) : 23 MAs
a nd J MAs, :25 aviation students,
1 non-flying officer; 25 airplanes.
MAR. 13·AUG. 15. Air operations
conducted with General Per-
shing's punitive expedition by
First Aero Squadron, Major
Foulois commanding; 540 flights
made in Mexico for carrying mail
and messages; reconnaissance;
photographic work covering over
19,000 miles.

MAR. 21. Organi zation of Esca-
drille Americaine, or Nieuport
124, is authorized by Freoc.h Air
Department; popularly known as
Lafayette Escadrille.
MAR. 31. $500,000 allocated to Avi-
ation Section ( Signal Corps) , un-
der 1916- 1 7 Emergency Act.
AUG. 29. $18,681,666 appropriated
for air for fiscal year 1917.
OCT. 27. For fiscal yea r 1918 the
Chief Signal Officcr asks for en-
listed strength of 3320 for 10
aero squadrons, 6 obser vation
balloon companies, a proving
ground and necessary schools.
1917: MAR. 29. Ai r program calls
for 1850 aviators and 300 bal-
loonists for an Air Ser vice of 16
aero squadrons, 16 balloons, 9
schools. Estimated cost: $54,-
APR. 6. Declaration of war. Avia-
ti on Section (Signal Corps) COIl1-
prises 35 pilots, 1087 enlisted
men, S5 traming airplanes, 7 tac-
tical squadrons, organized or in
process. Flying schools in opera-
tion at J\·tineola, N. Y., San
Diego, Calif., Memphi s, Tenn.
(winter 1916-t7), and Essington,
Pa., with a balloon school at Fort
Omaha, Neb.
AfA Y 12. $8,300,000 appropriated
for Army aeronautics.
MAY 16. Flying fields approved
for San Antonio, Tex.; Fairfield,
Ohio; Mt. Clemens, 1'lich.;
Belleville, Ill.
lolA Y 29. Li berty engine project
initiated to produce standard
engine in 8 and 12 cylinder mod-
els (the 8 was discontinued
JUNf: 15. $32,000,000 allocated to
Signal Corps for air operations
under Emergency Act.
J UNE 28. Langley Field, Va., au-
thorized as experimental station.
J UNf: 30. Lt. Col. Wm. Mitchell
becomes Aviation Officer , AEF.
J ULY II. Gen. Pershing calls for
69 balloon companies in France
by late summer , 1918.
J ULY 24. $640,000,000 appropri-
ated for air. Aviation Section is
authorized to expand to 9989
officers, 87,083 enlisted men.
Acrollalltical ratings and fl ying
pay revi sed.
J ULY z8. First American Aero
Sq to reach A EF, the 29th Pre-
visional (later 400th Construc-
ti on) Sq, docks at Li verpool.
AUG. 22. Air-to-ground radiophone
sets go into producti on stage.
AUG. 25. Liber ty 12 engine ends
50 hr. test. delivering 320 hp.
Sl:: I'T. 1. First Aero Sq
by Ma; . R. Roy'ce, a r-
ri ves 1O France, and assigned to
First Divi sion.
SE.I'T. 2. First American detach-
ment for Aying training arrives
in England.
$ F. I'T. 20. Balloon Sect ion A EF
created under Ma; . ]. W'. East.
SI:PT • .a8. Initial flying training in
AEF begins at Foggia, Italy,
OCT. 18. McCook Field, Dayton,
Obio, established as experimen-
tal laboratory pmding prepara-
tion of Langley Field. Va.
1818: FE3. 18. IOJrd Pursuit Sq,
AEF, fDrmed with membe:rs of
Lafayette Escadrille. begins op-
erations at front under tactical
control of the French.
If"R, 19. First operations across
t he lines made by 94th Sq of
Pint Pursuit Gp.
A.a. 6. aerial photos by
magnesi.m fl a res made by Lts.
] . C. McKinney a nd Norbert
APR. 14. 94th Sq of t he First Pur-
suit Gp. brings down first 2 en-
emy aifllianes by AEF.
MAY 9. Flight surgeons organized
and assigned to U. S. fiying
J "AY I I. First Ameri can-made air-
plane (DH4-Liberty ) is received
by AEF
KAV 12. Government's
first permanent ai n nail route
(Washington to New York) is
ft own by Army pilots until taken
over by the Post Office Depart-
MAV 20. Army ae ronautics severed
from the: Signal Corps and 2 air
created: Bureau of
Military Aeronautics and Bureau
of Aircraft Production.
M AY 29. Brig. Gen. M. M. Patrick
aPPOinted Chief of Air Service,
AEF; Brig. Gen. B. D. Foulois,
Chief of Air Ser vice. 1St Army;
Col . Wrn. Mitchell , Chid of Ai r
Service. 1St Corps.
J UN2 12. First AEF day bombing
done b,. 96th Aero Sq on Dom-
mary-Baroncourt yards.
J UNE 20 First detachment of
bombing pilots arrives at Ital ian
front, Capt. F. H. LaGuardia
eommandi ng.
J ULY 8. $124.304,758 appropri-
ated for Army aviat ion.
JULY IS-AUe. 7. In battle of Cha-
teau-Thierry, AEF !lies 3790
hours ; 3 balloon companies par-
AUG. 10. First U. S. Army AEF
organized, including First Army
Air Service to which are assigned
3 fighter groups; the 96th Bomb-
ing Sq; 2 Army and 9 corps ob-
servation squadrons; 15 baUoon
AUG. 2S. A Director of Air Service
appointed to administer the 2 new
bureaus of Mi litary Aeronautics
and Aircraft Production.
SEPT. 12-15. Greatest air armada
to date--14S1 planes-partici-
pates in St. Mihiel dri ve; A EF
flies 3593 hours in artillery di-
rection, observation, day and
night bombing, ground strafing
and air combat.
SEPT. ,S. World altitude record
(unofficial) of 2S,S99 ft. set by
Maj . R. W. Schroeder ( Bristol -
300 Hi spano) at Dayton, Ohio.
SEPT. 26-NOV. II. Meuse-Argonne
offensive. AEF operations in-
clude day and night observation
and bombardment, strafi ng, day
bombing in format ion by groups
and air combat. Americans fly
IS,505 hrs.
OCT. 9. Meuse- Argonne offensi ve.
32 tons of bombs dropped on
cantonment district between La
Wavri lle and Damvil lers, In
highest concentration of air
forces to date, with more than
250 bombers and 100 pursuit
pla nes participating.
OCT' . 12. Oxygen tanks ordered
car ri ed on all American flights
over lines. Ameri can Air Serv-
ice engage!! in its first night fight -
ing of the war.
NOV. 4. $60,000,000 appropriated
for Air Service.
NOV. 11 . Armistice.
SUMMARY-WORLD WAR 1; Upon cessation of as-
signed to armies were 45 American squadrons as follows: 2 0
fighter, 6 day bomb:: rdment, 1 night bombardment, 1 8 Army or
corps observation; these comprised 767. pilots, 4 8 1 observers, 23
aerial gunners and 23 balloon companies. These squadrons were
equipped with 740 airplanes; 12 squadrons were equipped with
American-made airplanes powered with Liberty engines. In the
Zone of Advance the American Army had received a total of
2698 airplanes, of which 668 were American·made. Air Service
pilots shot down 755 officially confirmcd enemy ai rplanes, 7
enemy balloons. Our losses were 357 airplanes and 43 balloons.
U. S. Aces credited with 10 enemy aircraft or over:
Rickenbacker. Edward V .. Col umbus, Ohio
- Luke, Frank, PllOenix, Ariz.
Vaughn, George A., Brooklyn. N. Y.
Kindl ey, Field E. , Gravelle, Ark.
Springs, Ell iott W., S. C.
Landis. Reed G., Chicago. I I.
-Putnam. David E .. Brookline. Mass.
Swaab, J acques M., Philadelphia. Pa.
.. Kill ed in combat.
Capt. 94
2Tl d Lt. 27
1st Lt . Ii
Capt. 148
Capt. 148
Capt. 25
lstLt. 139
Capt. 22
Alil- BAL·
Army Air Service units, participating in 21 5 bombing raids.
dropped over 255 ,000 lbs. of explosives; flew 35,000 hrs. over
the lines; took nearly 18,000 photographs of enemy positions.
from whid 585 ,000 prints were made by photographic sections.
They regulated artillery fire, supported ground attack, strafed and
bombed enemy batteries, convoys and troops.
Of 35 balloon companies in France with 466 officers and
6365 men, 23 companies served with armies at the front. made
1642 ascensions with 3111 Ius. in the air. They made 316
artillery adjustmen ts, reported 1 2.0 1 8 shell bursts, sighted 1 t. ·
856 enemy airplanes, reported enemy balloon ascensions 2649
times, enemy batteries 4 00 t imes, enemy traffic on roads and
railroads 1 113 times, explosions and dest ructions 597 times.
Outstanding technical developments during the war period
were: Liberty engi ne, oxygen mask equipped with telephone
connections, cotton airplane and balloon fabric, electrically
heated clothing, wireless telephone for air-ground communica-
tions, automatic camera, hel ium gas, armored pilot scat, 8-
machine gun ground-strafing airplane, aero-medical research.
NOV. 14. Brig. Gen. Will. Mitchell 1919: JAN. IS. Monoplane altitude
appointed Chief of Air Service. record of 19.500 ft . established
3rd Army. by I\'raj. R. W. Schroeder
DEC. 23. Maj. Gen. C. T . Menoher ing- Hi spano 300).
made Di rector of Air Ser vice. ),f AR.. 10. Brig. Ge n. Wm. Mitchell
succeeds Maj. Gen. W. L. Kenl y
as Director of Military Aeronau-
tics .nder the Director of Air
MAR. IS. Civil Operations Branch,
Office of the Director of Military
Aeronautics, created to supervise
civil activi ties of the Air Service.
APR. 19. American distance cross-
country record set in non-stop
flight, Chicago-New York, by
Capt. E. F. White and mechanic
H. M. Schaefer (DH4-Liberty
Distance: 738.6 miles.
Time: 6 :50 :00.
APR. 23. First jump from airplane
with free type backpack para-
chute (later adopted as standard)
made at McCook Field. Dayton,
Ohio by Leslie Irving from
plane Rown by Floyd Smith, de-
signer of the parachute.
WAY ;-15. 5 plane formation di-
rected by radiophone with inter-
plane radiophone communication
at Southeastern Air Congress,
Macen, Ga.
JUHE I. Aerial forest fire patrol
initiated in California.
J ULY [I. $25,000,000 appropriated
for Air Service for fiscal year
JULY 24-NOV. 9. Coastal and bor-
der-circuit flight of U. S. accom-
plished by Lt. Col. R. S. Hartz
and Lt. E. E. Hal'"mon and crew.
(Martin Bomber-2 Liberty 400.)
Distance: 9B23 miles. Flying
time : 114 :25 :00.
SEPT. Dive bombi ng demonstrated
by Lt. L. B. Sweeley ( DH4B-
Liberty) at Aberdeen Proving
Gromds, Md.
SEPT. 6. New unofficial world alti-
tude 2-man record of 2B,250 ft.
set by Maj. R. W. Schroeder
and Lt. G. E. Elfrey ( Lepere-
Liberty 400) at Dayton, Ohio.
8EPT. I'. Provision made by Act
of Congress for 1200 eme rgency
officers for the Air Service, B5%
of them to be Biers.
OCT. 4. Official world 2-man alti-
tude record of 3' ,821 ft. set
by Naj. R. W. 'Schroeder a nd
Lt. G. E. Elfrey (Lepere-Liberty
400 supercharged) at Dayton,
DEC. 31. Notable technical devel-
opments of the year as reviewed
by McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio,
are leakproof tanks; free para-
chute pack; development of the
DH9A; the Martin bomber; 3
SS fighters and XB I A observa-
tion planes; reversible and vari-
able pitch propeller; super-
charger ; siphon gasoline pump;
fins and fl oat s for emergency
water landing; and a 37 mm
camlon in Martin bomber, "the
first canllon mounted and fired
in an American-built airplane."
1920: JAN. 20. Record radio re-
ception, 175 miles from airplane,
achieved dllrillJ{ 37th Infantry
maneU\' ers, Ft. Mclntosh. Tex.
FEB. 27. Official world altitude
record of 33.1 I J ft. set by Maj .
R. W. Schroeder (Lepere-Lib-
erty 400) at McCook Field, Day-
ton. Ohio.
APR. 12. 8 machine guns fitted in
tests to remodeled DH4S: 2 fixed
synchronized. 2 fixed through pi-
lot's floor , 2 Bexibl e on upper
mount, 2 mOUlited in rudimentary
floor turret.
APR. Initial tests made of gyro-
scopic compass.
MAY lB. Antitank bombs (from
DH4) and J7 mill cannon (fr om
Martin) tested against L."tnks
from 100 ft. altitude by Lts. H.
R. Harris and O. G. Kelly.
MAY 2 1. $1 ,5..19, 300 appropriated
for the Air :)er vice for seacoast
MAY 26. GAX (twin- Liberty en-
gine armored Iriplane) armed
with 8 machine gUlls and J7 mill
cannon tested at McCook Field,
Dayton, Ohio.
J UN E 4. Army Reorganization Bill
creating an Air Service with
1514 officers and 16,000 enl isted
Illen is approved. New rating of
"Airplane Pilot" supersedes for-
Ille r ratings. Flyi ng pay 50%
above base pay authorized.
for Air Service; act 11I11I tS Alf
Service to land bases.
JUNE 8. Parachute jump of a.bout
' 9,800 ft. by Lt. J .. H. W.llson
ini tiates senes of Ingh altitude
jumps. . " h
JULY 1. "Cannon cngme, s oot-
ing 37 mm shells through pro-
peller shaft, produced by Wn ght
Acronautical Corp. .
I UI.Y 17-20. Flight of 9329 miles,
. with Capt. St. Clair com-
manding ( 4 D.H4B-Ll.berty 4
made from MItchel F ield, N. Y.,
to Nome Alaska and return to
gain in .naviga-
tion air route orgamzatlOn and
mov'ement of aircraft over great
di stances.
SEPT. 3. New Martin li ght bomber
MB- 2 ( 2 Liberty
400 engines) tested With 1000-lb.
torpedo and 4 aboard.

SF- I'T. 1 J. 3 airships fly formati on
undcr radio direction, Langley
Field, Va.
SEPT. 24. Air Service strength this
date: 896 flying .officers, 275
nOll-flying, 7846 enlisted men.
NOV. 25. pulitzer race won by Lt.
C. C. Moseley (Verville.Packa.rd
600) at MitC!lel Field, N. Y. Dls-
lance: 132 11111es. Speed: 178 mph.
I)EC. 31. Major accompli;;;hme!lts
listed by Air Service engllleermg
divi sion are: the GAX armored
attack pl ane; the Vervipe- Pack-
arc! raceT' Packard engmes 160,
, h "W"
300 and 600; 700 p en-
gine; the new Martm bombe,r;
the miniature air-
plane; and aerial fi ri ng of 37 mm
1921: Studies of strategic employ-
lIlent of aviati on rcveal the need
for 2 classifications of military
a irpower, "Air Service" <I nd
"Air Force'" Tables of Organi-
zation for Air Service base.d
011 enlisted strength of 16,000 IS
approved by War
FEB. 12. First section of Amencan
"model" Airways route from
Washington, D. C. to Dayton.
Ohio, inaugurated.
YEB. 21 -24. Eastbound transconti-
nental flight from Rockwell
Field. Calif. to Pablo Beach,
Jacksonville, Fla. made by Lt .
W. D. Coney. Di stance: 21 Bo
miles. Flying time: 22 :27 :00:
MAR. 15. Indicated altitude fh/-t
to 30,000 ft. made by Lt. J. A.
Macready and R. F. Langham
( Lepere-Liberty 400 super-
charged). . .
MA Y 6. First Provisional Alf
gade organized at Langley FIeld,
Va, ft' I'
J UNE 10-17. Series of 14 Igl t 5
in and about Grand Canyon, de-
scending 4500 feet the
rim leads to reconunendatlons on
, ,
aerial reconnaissance. .
J UNE 30. $19,200,000 appropn-
ated for Ai r Service for fiscal
year 1922. Air strength: 975 offi -
cers' 2820 airplanes; 38 free
ballo'ons ; 250 bal -
loons' 12 non- rigid alrslllps.
JULY ; 3-21. In a scries of Arm), -
Navy bombing tests captured
German destroyer light
cr uiser FRANKFURT and battle-
ship OSTFRIESLAND 'are sunk.
SEI'T. 23. 26. Day and night bol!l -
• bardment t est Rights III
sinking of the battleship ALA-
BAMA by 2000· lb. bomb.
SEPT. 28. Official world altitude
r ecord of 34.508 ft. set b.}' Lt.
J. A. ( Lepere-Liberty
400 supercharged) ; Mackay Tro-
phy awarded.
SEI'·r. 28. A 4300-lb. bomb
dropped from 4000 ft. br Capt.
N. Car olin and bombardier Sgt.
S. Smink (Handley-Page 0-400
- 2 Liberty 400'5) in t ests at
Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Md.
NOV. IS. Initial flight of ROM A,
largest American semi- ri gid air-
Ihip in existence, made at Lang-
ley Field. Va., with Capt. D.
Mabry commanding.
OF-C. 31. Notable teehnical devel-
opments reported by McCook
Field, Dayton, Ohio: so-hr. test
of the 700 hp "W" engine of
19Z0 the 300 hp cannon Wright
plane lland test; model test of
.:ISo Wright-engined Loeni ng
fighter: the 700 hp "W" cngined
Gallaudet day bomber test; de-
velopment of 4ooo-lb. bomb racks
and leIectrical synchronizer.
1m: ),fAY 31. National Ball oon
Race won by Maj. O. West-
over, Lt . C. F. Bone!. aide. Dis-
tance 866.5 miles from starting
point al Milwaukee, Wis.


=';;;. ..... --.-.
-.. --0;:
....... :..i'$
<C'"..- _ -.....-=--
JU"E 12. 24.206 ft. parachute
jump made by Capt. A. W. Ste-
vens from a Martin bomber pi-
loted by Lt. L. Wade, at Dayton,
JUNI!. 16. Series of night eroS!-
country flights , Bolling Field,
D. C. to Langley Field, Va., and
return, are initiated by Lt. C. L.
JUNE 16. Berliner helicopter dem-
ontitratw at Washington, D. C.
JUNY. 20. Border to border flight ,
Kell)' Field. San Antonio. Tex. '
10 Selfridge Field, Mich .. ac-
complished by Lt. D. Dunlon
(DH4B-Liberty 400). Distance:
1 J50 -niles: Elapsed time : 40:
25 :00. FlYing time: 16: 10 :00.
Averare speed, 84.5 mph.
JUNI!! 30. $12,895,000 appropriated
for A' r Service for fiscal year
192J. "'ir strength: 953 officers;
168. 'lerviceable airplanes ; 55
free balloons and 448 ohservation
balloon; IJ non- rigid airships.
AUt;. I. The First Pursuit Gp
ft1I\OVffl complement of 21 air-
planes (rom Ellington Field,
Houston, Tex. to Selfridge
Field. Mich. Flying time: 16:
10 :00.
AUG. I. 87 ai r planes engaged in
fire patrol over national forests.
AUG. 2. Unofficial J-lIIan altitude
record of 2J,350 ft. iet at Mc-
Cook Field, Dayton, Ohio by
Lt. L. Wade. Capt. A. W. Ste-
vens and Sgt. Langham in super-
charged bomber.
4. First transcontinental
crossing within 24 hrs. made by
Lt. J. H. Doolittle ( r ebuilt
DH4B-Liber ty 400), Pablo
Beach, Fla. to Rockwell Field.
San Diego. Calif. Distance: 216J
miles. Elapsed time: :22: 35 :00.
Flying time : 21 :20 :00.
SEI'T. 14. Fi rst t r ial of the LWF
Owl , largest American bomber
to date, made at A-litchel Field ,
N. Y.
SEPT. 14-2.3. First transcontinental
airship flight is made by the
non-rigid C2, Longley Field. Va.
to Ross Field, Arcadia. Calif.,
with Capt. G. W. McEntire com-
OCT. 1, During a 2-month mapping
project in Tennessee. Capt. A. W.
Stevens and Lt. G. W. Polk, Jr.,
photograph 5000 square miles.
OCT. 6. Unofficial world durati on
record set by Lt s. J. A. Macready
and O. G. Kell y (Fokker T2-
Liberty J75) at .Rockwell Field,
San Diel{o. Time: 35: 18 :30.
OCT. 13. Liberty Engine Trophy
Race won by Lt. T. J . Koenig
400). Speed:
128.8 mph over 257.7 mile course.
OCT. '4. Pulitzer Trophy Race
won by Lt. R. L. Maughan
(Army Curtiss racer- Dl2 Cur-
tiss 375). Speed: 205.8 mph over
250 km course.
OCT. '4. John L. Mitchell Trophy
won by Lt. Donald F. Stace
(Thomas-Morse M BJ-Wright
300) . Speed: 147.8 mph over 200
kill course.
OCT. 18. World's speed record of
222.Q6 IJIph for 1 kill 'let by
Brig. Gen. Will . Mit chell (Cur.
tiss Racer used by Lt. Maughan
in Pulitzer Race).
HOV. 14. Unofficial Amer ican dis-
tance record set by Lts. O. G.
Kell y and J. A. Macready (Fok-
ker T2- Liberty 375), in non-stop
flight, San Diego, Calif. to Ft.
Benjamin Harrison, Ind. Dis-
tance: 2060 miles.
nEe. 18. DeBothezat helicopter
test -flown I min. 42 sec. by Maj .
T. H . Bain, McCook Field, Day-
ton, Ohio.
] 923 : JAri. 31. Armored GAX tri-
plane flown to 6000 ft. altitude at
Kelly Field, San Antonio, Tex. ,
by Lt. D. V. Gaffney.
FEB. 6. New 12-place airship D2
(190,000 cu. (t.-2 Wright
180's) test-flown at Scott Field,
111. , by Lts. H. H . Holland, A.
Thomas and D. L. Hutchins.
Time : 1 :04 :00.
),fAit. I. TCI, largest American
non-rigid airship, delivered.
MAR. 2. $12,626,000 appropriated
for Air Service for 1924.
),fAR. J-APR. Approximately 6000-
mile San Antonio-Puerto Rico-
Washington flight made by 6
DH4Bs, Capt. T. G. Lanphier
MAR. 5. Auxiliary jetti sonable
belly tank, fitted to bomb r ack of
MB3A at Selfridge Field, Mich.,
increases flying radius to about
400 miles.
MAR. 29. 167.769 mph speed rec-
ord for 500 km set at McCook
Field, Dayton, Ohio. by Lt. A.
Pea rson (Verville Sperry R3-
Wright 350).
MAR. 29. 236.587 mph world max-
imum speed r ecord set by Lt.
R. L. Maughan (Curti ss 465) at
McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio;
127.42 mph world speed record
for 1000 km is set by Lts.
H. R. Harris and R. Lockwood
(DH4L Liberty 400) at s.1.llle
" I'JI. . 16- 17. Non-rcflle1ed world
duration and di s tance records set
by Lu. ). A. Macready amI O.
G. Kelly (Fokker T2- Libert y
375) at Dayton, Ohio. Duration:
36 :04 :34. Distance: 25
A1'2. 17. World's speed records of
114.35 mph for 1500 km and
114.22 mph for 2000 kill set by
Lt. H. R. Harris (DH4L-Lib-
erty 375) .
),lAY 2-J. First non-stop transcon-
tinental flight, New York to San
Diego, Calif. , accomplisheo by
Lts. O. G. Kelly and J. A. Mac-
ready (Fokker T2-Libe:rty 375).
Di stance: 2520 miles. Flying
time: 26 :50 :00. DFC and
Mackay Trophy awarded.
),IAV 26. Non-stop transcontinen-
tal south-north Hight. ElIinJ{ton
Field, Houston, Tex. to Gordon,
Ontario, made by Lt. H. G.
Crocker (DH4B-Liberty 400).
Flying l illie: 11:55 :00.
J UNE 20. First Right of first all-
metal plane (Gallaudet COt-
Liberty 400), designed by engi-
neering division, made at Mc-
Cook Field, Dayton. Ohio.
J UNE 28-29. New r efueled world's
speed records of 85. tO mph for
2500 km and 84.49 mph for 3000
km set by Lts. L. H. Smitll and
] . P. Richter ( DH4BJ-Libert)'
J UNE JO. Cited among engineer-
ing developments of the fiscal
year 1923 are: Curtiss and Elias
2-engined night bombers: in-
verted, and air--cooled Liberty
engines; Douglas world crl1i se
planes; Curtiss rW8. Boeing
PW9 planes , Curtiss 0.2 lan-
dem, 375·11p engine.
JULY I. Ai r Service st r ength: 867
officers. 9578 enli sted men; 1364
JULY 4-5. National Balloon Race
at Indianapolis, Ind. won by LIS.
R. S. Olmstead and ]. W. Shop-
t.aw. Distance: 449.5 miles.
JULY 10. Night motion pictures
made from grDllOd of senr ch-
light -illuminated planes fl ying at
3000 (I. at Ft. Totten. N. Y.
AUG. 22. Initial flight of Barling
bomber ( 6 Liberty 400 engines).

largest, ai rpia.ne made in U. S.,
at, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohi o.
Pdot, Lt. H. R. Harri s.
AUG. 27-:8. New worl d's refueled
durattor, and distance record of
37: IS; 14.8 for .l293.z6 miles set
b>: L15. L. H. Smi th a nd J. P.
Richter (OH4B-Libe rt y 400) at
Rockwell Field, San Di ego
Calif. '
SEPT. S. Destructi on by bombi ng
of naval vessel s NEW
JERSEY and V I RGINIA is accom-
plished during Army bombing
tests, Cape Hatteras, Va.
SEPT" IJ-DEC. 14 . Double t rans-
contlDental tOUf , anticipating !la-
tional ai r,ways, is made by Lts.
]. F. Whiteley and H. D. Smith
and crew (Marti n-2 Liberty
400), Ltngler Field, Va. to San
Diego, Calif., and return. Dis-
tance; 8 0 00 miles.
OCT. 3-6. At Nationa l Air Races
at S1. Louis, Mo.; Liberty En-
gine Trophy won by
Lt . C.
400) ; 1.19.03 mph. Gen-
William Trophy
event w:m by Capt. B. E. Skeel
3 Wri ght 300).
. Iph.
1921:. .2. F light
on fr om
Field, Ohi o
eJ Field
Lt. E. H.
gator B. ]
APR. 28.
w.orld au t our, trans- Pacific
first Atlan-
tic c;r o88lng by Air
( Douglas-Li b_
erty 4()0 bombe rs ) .
from at Seattle: 26,345
rout e mi les. Elapsed 175
daYI. Flying t ime: 36J hrs. For
thi s flight t he Coll ier Trophy
awa r ded to the Ai r Ser vice '
Mackay Trophy and DSM
awar ds made to Capt. L. H.
Smith and Lts. L. Wade, L. P.
!\rnold, E. H. Nelson, ). Hard-
IIIg and H. H. Ogden.
J UNE 7· $ 12,798,576 appropriated
for t he Air Service.
J UNE 23. Daylight transcontinen-
ta l Aight, New York to San
F rancisco, accomplished by Lt.
R. L. Maughan (Cur tiss PW8-
012 Curtiss 4S0). Distance:
26iO miles. 21 :48 :30.
J ULY 6. New s peed record set
be.tween Field, Sa n
Diego, San Francisco, Calif..
by Ma}. H. H. Arnold. Dis-
tance: 500 mi les. Time: 4 :25 :
AUG. 6-14. cr oss-coun-
t ry circui t , Dayton- San Diego
and ,return , made by Lt. J. H.
Doohttle (J?H4L-Li ber ty 400) .
OCT. 2-4. Air race at
Wright Field, Dayton Ohio in-
Liberty Builders
T,rophy, Lt. D. G. Duke ( DH4B-
Liberty 400) , speed 130.34 mph
over 180-mlle John L
Trophy, Lt.' C.
(Curti ss PW8--DI 2HC Curt iss
0) , s peed 175.4 1 mph over 200
km course; Pulitzer Tr ophy
Race, Lt. H. H. Mills (Ver ville
Sperry-D 12AHC Curtiss 520)
2 16.55 mph 200 km'
192ii : n :8. 8. Test s made of glider
ta r ge!s for aer ial machine gun
practIce, Langley Field, Va.
J UNF. 26. New heli copter
Aown at Washington, D. C. by
Lt. H. R. Ha rris.
AUG. I. Fi rst of new series the
Curti ss Condor' night is
Rown at Mitchel Field . N. V.'
IS .. RS I , first great semi -
ngld helium ai rship to be con-
struct ed ir,t Amcri ca, completed
at Scott F ield, I II .
OCT . 8- 10. National Air Races
Mitc hel F ield, N. Y. : 200 km'
won by Lt. C.
Bettis (Curtiss R3Ct-V1400
Cur tiss 619) ; speed : 248.9 mph.
New worl d speed recor ds of
249. 342 mph for roo km, and
248.975 mph for 200 km
set . Mackay Trophy a warded.
J ohn L. Mit chell Trophy Race
won by Lt. T. K. Matthews
(Curti ss PWS--D '2 Curtiss
400); s peed: 161.47 mph over
120 mile course.
OCT. 26. Schneider Tro-
phy Race, Baltimore, Md. , won
by Lt. ] . H. Doolittle ( Cur ti ss
R3C2- VJ400 Curtiss 6 19 ).
Speed: 232.57 mph over 350
km Mackay Trophy
NOV. 20. Night photographs from
Martin bomber taken by Lt. G.
W. Goddard, Rochester, N. Y.,
using so-lb. magnesium bombs.
DEC. 31. Developments of the year
include: Cur tiss P W I and Boe-
ing PW9 fighters to sll persede
the PWS; the Huff'- Dal and light
bomber XLB I with 5 machine
guns; Curtiss
XOI; the Thomas- Morse all
metal observation plane; the
Consolidated P T J and Huff-Da-
land ATI for t raini ng ; and the
Douglas CI transpor t (Liber ty
400). Engine developments in
600 hp Cur tiss, t he 500 Pack-
ard, the geared Packard 800, the
air-cooled Liberty, and 1200
hp "X" engines. 6 to 10 machine
gllnS mounted on gr ound-strafi ng
planes. standardized ai r way light
beacons, the radio beacon,
s-Icns camera, oleo-pneumati c
shock absorbers and
addit ional
1926: JAN. 29. American alt it ude
record of 38,704 ft . set by Lt.
] . A. Macready (XC05A-Lib-
er ty 400). Dayton, Ohio.
F E8 . I I. Ski p-bombing tests
portcd at Kell y F ield, San An-
tonio, where Lt. R. G.
has conducted at
20 to 25 ft. to determine r olling
and boundi ng characteri sti cs of
APR. I S. $15,256,964
f or t he Ai r Servicc for fi scal
year 1927.
JUNE 30. of Air Servi ce:
91 9 offi cers, 8583 enl isted men,
142 flying cadets. I t8 planes
deli vered duri ng fi scal year 1926.
JULY 2. Air Corps Act becomes
law. The Air is r edesig-
nated Air Cor ps. A 5-year ex-
pansion progra m initiated for
15 14 officers, 16,00'0 enlisted
men ; 1800 ser viceable planes.
SEPT. 4-1 1. National Air Races,
Philadelphi a, Pa. : Libert y En-
gi ne Bui lders T rophy won by Lt.
O. S. Stephens (OI - DI2 Cur tiss
400). Speed : 14 2.26 mph.
DEC. 2I - MAY 2, 1()27: P an-Ameri -
can Goodwill fl ight from San
Antonio, Tex. a round South
Amer ica t o Washington, D. C.
wi th Maj. H. A. Dar gue com-
ma ndi ng 4 Loening a mphibi.ans
(Liberty 400). Distance: 22,065
miles. Mackay Trophy and DFC

1927 : FEB. 23. $20,602.594 appro-
priated f or Ai r Corps for fiscal
year 1925.
MAR. 9. 2 world alt itude records
and 3 American records broken
in 28,510 ft. ascension by Capt.
H. C. Gray at Scott F ield , III.
MA Y 4. 42,470 ft. 11II0fficiai alti-
t ude in fr ee balloon rcached by
Capt. H. C. Gray.
MAY 25. Outside loop accom-
plished by Lt. J. H. Dooli tt le.
JUNE 28-29. F irst non-stop Ha-
waii fli ght, Oakland, Cali£. to
\Vheeler Field, Honol uitl, madt:
by Lts. L. J. Mait land a nd
A. F. Hegenber gcr (Fokker C2-3
Wright 220). Distance: 2407
miles. Flying t ime : 25 :50 :00.
Navigation is by
d!rectiomJ beacons at San Fran-
CiSCO and Mackay Trophy
awarded In 1!J29. DFe also
awarded for thiS flight.
]UIU: lO. Strength of the Ai r
Corps: 060 officers, BSS? enlisted
men, '23 flying cadets.
1ULY 5-8. Transcontinental flight
from Field, D. C. to
Field. Cali!., made by
C. Spa.atz. R. Royce and
J. H. Jouet,.
'9-24. Air Derby:
Liberty Engtne Builders Trophy
by Lt. H. A'Johnson (Cur-
tluXO' ,lA):Spee ; 17o. ls6mph.
OCT" u. Wright Field, Dayton,
, OhiO, fonnally dedicated and the
, Materiel I?ivision from
McCook Field to the new site
The Joh'1 L. Mitchell Trophy
, Race won I. A. Woodring,
, ut Group, during the
ceremOnies. Speed: 158"968 mph
DEC. 14. Maj" Gen. 1. E. Fechet
¥aJ . Gen. M. M. Pat-
nck as Ole£ of A,ir Corps ; Bri .
Gen. B. D. FouIOlS, Asst. Chief.
'1':8. IS.
Ized (or new primary flying
tcr at San. Antoni o, Tex., out o(
an authOrized appropriation of
nearly $7.000,000.
liAR. Amphibian transconti _
nental flight, New York City to
Rockwell Field, Calif., made by
Lt. B. R .. Dall.U and Beckwith
verted Ltl)ertr 400). Distance :
about 3300 mIles. Elapsed time'
J2 :45 :00. .
IIAI . 10 .. $)00,000 authori zed for
o( Wr!ght Field,
ton, OhiO, experimental la bora-
••· $25,4
8,564 appropriated
or Ir Corps for '929
P'. 26. Receiven, radio' beacon
.I-way telephone between air and
.,ound, A'1d other radi o equill-
ment in a radio labora-
airplane (C2 transl>ort).
pt· O'.P. Echols and Lt. L. M:
o1fe. Pllotll.
MAY 12- 16. Rec:ord crosi-country
flight for single-seater planes
J;rance Field, C. Z. to Boi -
ling F,eld, D. C. made by Lts.
R. Dou.glas and J. E. Parker
(Boeing PW9-D,2 Curtiss)
)lAY 30-31. National Balloon Race
(rom Pittsburgh, Pa. won by
Capt. W. E. Kepner and Lt. W.
0: Eareckson. Distance: 261.5
JUNE 16. Successful tests made
at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio.
of superchargers designed to give
sea level pressure at 30 000 (t
and of a .new 1i9uid oxygen sys::'
tem for high altttude flying.
JUNE 30-JULY I. International
Gordon Bennett Balloon Race
Mich., won by U. S. fo;
t hi rd successive time, insuring
permanent po!'!session o( trophy'
pilot, Capt. W. E. Kepner; aide:
Lt. W. p. Eareckson. Distance :
460.9 mtles.
SEPT. 12. Nationa l Air Races'
John L. Mitchell Trophy WOII by
Lt. B .. H. Lawson. Distance :
120 nll ics. Speed: 154.74 mph.
OCT. 19. G-man machine gun team
from 6· airplane for-
matIOn over. Brooks Field, Tex. ;
• up eqUIpment in 3 minutes.
29. JAN. 1- 7. Unofficial record
f?r refueled endurance airplanc
flight set by Maj. C. Spa at? and
Capt. I. C. Eaker in UUESTION
MARK ( Fokker C2- 3 Wright 220)
o.ver Los Angeles Airport. F lying
time : 150 :40 : , 5.
JAN. 9-.16. C-2 Army transport .
airplane ferri ed br Army
Af Ir Corp! to foreign statI on fli es
r o!n Wright Field, D;Ylon.
Ohi O to France Fi eld C Z
about 3130 miles ; Maj . P. -t:
Beck commanding.
PEB. 2i' Speci al goggles,
gloves and a device
or wa rmmg OXygen before use
ann!'unced. by Materiel Di vi"ioll
Wrtght rl C; ld, Dayton, Ohio. .
.; . 3· Night photogra phs r')f
Ite House a nd Capitol de-
veloPl?d in air, a re ta ke;1 to
Amert ca n Telegraph & Telephone
Co., then wi red to principal
U. S. eities; ai r men, Capt. A. W.
Stevens and Lt. ]. D. Corki lle
(02-obser vation plane equipped
wi th K-3 camera) .
APR. ,S-21. F light f rom Bolli ng
Field, D. C. to Havana. Cuba,
and return made by Capt. W. F.
Kraus and Lt. J . E. Upston.
Flying t ime: south-bound. J 3 :
25 :00; return. I I :00 :00.
AUG. 2. Formation flight delivery
made from factory to (oreign
service: 4 LB-6 bombers, Key-
stone factory, Bristol , Pa. , to
France Field, C. Z. Distance:
about 4250 miles.
AUG. t 2. Colored motion pictures
from the air reported made by
Capt. A. W. Stevens.
1930 : J UNE 20- 21. Randolph
Field, San Antonio, Tex. dedi -
NOV. 6. Medal of Honor presented
Capt. Edward V. Rickenbacker
for World War I service.
1981: AUG. 31. Air Corps Tactical
School trans ferred from
ley Field, Va., to Maxwell Field,
Montgomery, Ala.
NOV. 3. Cross-country flight at 20,-
000 ft. , from Selfridge Field,
Mich. to Washington, O. C. ,
completed by 94th Pursuit
Squadron, all pilots using liquid
oxygen. Flyi ng time : 2 :05 :00.
DEC. IS. Lt. W. A. Cocke, in Ha-
waii , makes world durat ion rec-
ord for gliders. Time : 21 :34 : 1 5.
DEC. 22. Ma j . Gen. B. D. F oulois
take!! oa.th as alief of Air Corps.
1932: MAY 9. First blind Ai ght
without a check pilot aboard and
solely on instruments made by
Lt. A. F . Hegenberger, Dayton,
Ohio. Awarded Colli er Trophy.
SEI' T. 2 1. Intensit y of cosmic rays
at vari ous altit udes test ed by per-
sonnel of I I th Bombardment
Squadron (Condor bomber ) in
fligh ts from March Fi eld , Cali f.
17. Frank Luke Trophy, pre-
hy Ari zona Amer ica n le-
gion, accepted for Wa r Dept. by
Lt. Col. H. 1-1 . Arnold.
] 9381 Fornlal design proposals
made for the Boeing B-17 heavy
pu. I.,. Mackay T rophy awarded
Maj. Gen. B. D. Fouloi ! for
flight leadership during Air
Corps exercises and maneuvers
during 1931.
:WAY 29. First class of " instrument
landing" Ai ers demonstrat e ex-
pertness at Wright Field, Day-
ton, Ohio.
] 9:1<1: Ft.:B. 19. Army Air Cor ps
starts flying domesti c a irmail by
Presidential Order .
MAY 22. Mackay Trophy for 1933
is awarded Capt. W. T. Larson
(or development of procedures
of aeri al fr ontier defense: involv-
ing instrument ta keoffs a nd land-
ings on land and sea , and instru-
ment flying over waler.
J UNE I. Army Ai r Cor ps termi-
nates airmail operations.
J UNE IS. Contract made with
Boeing Aircra ft Co. for design
data, mock-up a nd wind tunnel
t est of B- 17.
J ULY ' 9-AUC. 20. Fli ght f r om
Boll ing Field, O. C. to Fai r-
b;'[nks, Alaska and retu rn ac-
complished by 10 Ma r lin bomb-
ers (B-lO), Lt . Col. H. H.
Arnold commandi ng. Di stance :
8290 miles. Flying time : north-
bound, 25 :30 :00 ; sOllt hbound.
26 :00 :00. Mackay T rophy and
DFC awarded to Lt. Col. H. H.
J ULY 2S. 60,613 fl. a ltitude
reached in Air Corps-National
Geographic Societ y StralO-
sphere Balloon Flight by Maj.
W. E. Kellner and Capl s. A.
W. Stevens and O. A. Ander -
son ; all receive DFC.
l Bar;: MAR. I. General H ead-
Quar ters Ai r Force is organized
under cOlllmand of Bri g. Gen.
F ra nk 1-1. Andrews.
MAY 21. Hickam Field, near
Fort Kalllehameha, Hawaii.
AUG. 24. 3 new worl d seaplane
records are est abli shed in
Bights from Langley Field, Va.
to Benrett Field. N. Y. and
return. by Brig. Gen. F. M.
Andrewl (Martin B-1 2 W
bomber, with pontoon flotation
rear replacing landing wheels).
AUG, 38. Automatic radio navi·
gation equipment comprising
Sperry automatic pilot mecban-
ically linked t o standard radio
compau is tested by equipment
branch, Wright Field. Dayton,
MO\' . II. 72,394.795 ft. world
record balloon ascent made by
Capts. A. W. Stevens and 0, A.
Anderson, Rapid City, S. D. ,
in cooperation with National
SocietY; Hubbard
raid medal awarded.
DEC. 1- 2. Mass flight of 29
bombardment planes of 7th Bom-
bardment Group made from Ham-
ilton Field, Calif. to Vero Beach,
Fla. Elapsed time: 21 :50 :00.
DEC. 24. Brig. Gen. Oscar West-
over ap})?inted Chief of Air
Corps with rank of major gen-
bEC. 2, . Aerial bombardment di-
verts Mauna Loa lava flow
from waterworks at Hilo, Ha-
bEC. 28. Brig. Gen. H. H. Arnold
becomes Asst. Chief of Air
bEC. 31. Device auto-
matic fuel transfer in airplanes
with reserve fuel tanks devel-
ofH:d by Air Corps Materiel Di-
VI Sion.
1838: J UXE 24. Amendment to
Air Corp' Act of Jul y 2, 1926
increases serviceable planes
from 1800 to 2320.
JUNE 29. World's airline dis-
tance record for amphibians
act by Maj . Gen. Frank M.
Andrews and Maj . John White-
ley and crew (Douglas YOA
5-2 Wright 800) in flight from
San Juan. Puerto Rico to
Lanlle), Field, Va. Distance:
10429.685 miles.
DEC. 1,,-18 Goodwill flight made
to Bogota, Colombia by 5
B-loBs, 7th Observation
Squadron, France Field, C. Z.
1837: FEB. 4-11. Longest over-
water Right of land planes to
date made by 96th Bombard-
ment Sguadron, 2nd Bombard-
ment Grouf-' during a trip
from Lang cy Field, Va. to
Albrook Field, C. Z.
MAR. J. First YIB-17A (Flying
Fortress) delivered to 2nd
Bombardment Group, Langley
Field, Va.
JULY I. Air Corps assumes re-
sponsibility for weather service
activities of aerial arm and for
providing weather forecasts reo
quired by divisions and higher
headquarters; First, Second
and Third Weather Squadrons
DEC. 2. XB-IS, largest bombard-
ment plane to date, leaves Boe-
ing plant at Seattle, Wash. for
Wright Ficld, Dayton, Ohio for
1938: FEB. 2,. Goodwill flight,
Langley Field, Va. to Buenos
Aires, Argentina, completed by 6
B-I,s. Flying time: southbound,
33 :30 :00; return, 33 :45 :00.
AFIL 13. Expansion of Air Corps
to 2092 commissioned officer s au-
thorized by Congress.
AFR. 20. First class in Air Corps
school for autogiro training and
maintenance opens at Patterson
Field, Ohio.
J UNE I J. Expansion of Air Corps
t o 21,500 enli sted men author·
JULY 28. 278 mph average speed
in transcontinental flight achieved
by Lt. H. L. Neely (Seversky
P-3S). Elapsed time: It :29 :00.
Flying time: 9 :54 :00.
AUG. 3-12. Goodwill mission from
Langley Field, Va. to Bogota,
Colombia, made by 3 B- 17S of
2nd Bombardment Group.
AUG. 6. Deli very made of B- 15
bombardment airplane (wing
spread I so ft.; four 1000 hi) en-
gines) to 2nd Bombardment Gp.
AUG. 19. First transcontinental
non-stop flight by B- 18 bomber
made from Hamilton Field, Calif.
to Mitchel Field, N. Y. Fiying
time: 15 :38 :00,
S EPT. IS. Announcement made of
Collier Trophy award to Army
Air Corps for development of
pressurized cabin substratosphere
SEPT. 21. Daedalian and Colom-
bian Trophies awarded 19th
Bombardment Gp., March Field,
Cali £. for record of 10,942 flying
hrs. with only one accident.
s nT. 22. Maj. Ge.n. H. H. Arnold
appointed Chief of the Air Corps.
OCT. 14. Mackay Trophy for 193'
awarded Capts. G. J. Crane and
G. V. Holloman for devel opment
of automatic landing system.
OCT. 26. 350 mph average speed
achieved by new Army pursuit
plane during flight from Day-
ton, Ohio t o Buffalo, N. Y. ; pilot ,
Lt. B. S. Kelsey.
1939: JAN. 12. President Roose-
velt asks Congress for revision
of authorization for Army air-
planes, an appropriation of $300,-
000,000 for plane purchases and
for authorization to train 20,000
civilian pilots a year.
MAR. I. To insure coordination of
expansion activities and immedi-
ate availability of an operating
staff in the event of war, the
GHQ Air Force placed under the
Chief of the Air Corps ; com-
mand dut ies of the Commanding
General , GHQ Air Force are not
AI'R. 3. Expansion bill signed by
President , Authorizes 6000 air-
planes for Air Corps and appro-
priat ion of $300,000,000. Bill
contains provisions for calling
Air Corps Reserve officers t o
active duty. Peacetime strength
of Air Corps, Regular Army, in-
creased to 3203 officers and 45,-
000 enlisted men.
MAY-First 4-blade controllable
pitch propeller known t o be built
In U. S. is installed on a P- j6A
at Wright Field, Ohio.
JUNE l. 72 civilian instructors
from 9 civilian elementary flying
schools report for 2-weeks' course
at Randol ph Field, Texas, pre-
paratory to the inauguration 011
July I, 1939 of the plan to util-
Ize civilian flying schools for the
primary training of Air Corps
flying cadets.
J UNE 27. Civilian Pilot Training
Act authorizes Civil Aeronautics
Authority to train civilian pilots.
JUNE 30. War Department an-
nounces Ai r Corps enlisted
strcngth to be increased by 25,-
794 during fiscal year 1940:
about 19,000 to be trained as
tcchnical specia li sts.
JULY I. Air Corps Primary Pilot
Training in Civil Contract
Schools begins.
JULY 30. U . S. regains world rec-
ord for payload-carrying when
Maj. C. V. Haynes and Cwt.
W. D. Old fiy Army Boeing B- 1 5
to 8200 ft. with payload of 1 5
tons at Wri ght Field, Ohio.
AUG. I. The YIB-I,A, flown by
Capts. C. S. Irvine and Pearl
Robey over a closed course of
1000 km (621 miles ) and car-
r ying a payload of 5000 kilo-
grams tons), averages 259
mph, new international record.
AUG. 7. War Department an-
nounces award of contracts to-
taling $J66.386.80 to 7 civilian
schools; program calls {or train-
ing of 1000 airplane and engine
NOV. 7. Mackay Trophy for 1938
is awarded znd Bombardment
Group for 10,000-mile flight fr om
Langley F ield, Va. to Buenos
Aires. Argentina.
NOV. 20-21. Total of '1,133 nliles
of ni Kht 8ying reported by the
Air Corps Advanced Flying
School, Kent Field, Tex.
1.D: JA'f. 23_ In the fir st Ameri-
can test of the practicability of
moving a complete troop Unit by
air, a batta1ion of 65th Coast
Artillery is transported 500 miles
the 7th Bombardment Group,
Hamilton Field. Calif.
PEa. 2. Initial tests announced for
XB-a.4. 4-engine bomber, at
Lindberih Field, San Diego,
PE •. 12. Plans announced for Air
Corps at Fairbanks and
Anchorage, Alaska.
MAil. 25. Sales of modern types of
Army combat airplanes to anti-
Axis governments by Air Corps
contractors authorized under a
"liberalilcd release policy," as a
means f"r expanding future Air
Corps facilities.
AP •. '4. First Air Corps detach-
ment to Alaskan station
arrives at Fairbanks.
MAY 2J·2) . First demonst ration of
complete military maneuvers sim·
ulatlng European combat opera-
tions are held at Barksdale Field,
La., by 320 Army aircraft during
Third Ar my maneuvers.
JUNE. WU Department announces
plans for training 7000 pilots and
3600 bombardiers and navigators
JUNE 21. KeU{ Field, Tex. grad·
uates el3!lS 0 236, largest in its
J UNY. 29. Program of 12,835 air-
planes (54 combat groups) by
April I, 1942 approved as the
"Army's first aVIation objective
f or training, organization and
JULY. $7,500,000 building program
nears completion at Scott Field,
111. i $9,364,000 is all otted Mof-
fet Field, Calif., for conversion
to West Coast Air Corps Train-
ing Cent(r.
'JULY 2. All exi sting limitations
susvended during fi scal year '94'
on the number oC flying cadets
in the Air Corps, the number and
rank of Reserve Air Corps of-
ficers who may be ordered to ex·
tended act ive duty, and on the
number of ser viceable airplanes,
airships, and free and captive
balloons that may be equipped
and maintained.
JULY 8. 3 Air Corps Training
Centers established; Ai r Corps
Training Center at Randolph
Field. Tex. redesignated Gulf
Coast Training Center , and
Southeast and West Coast Train-
ing Centers established with
headquarters at Maxwell Field,
Ala. and Moffet Field, Calif. re·
specti vely.
JULY 16. First bombar dier train-
ing in Air Corps Schools begins
at Lowry Field, Colo., with the
entrance of t he first class of
bombardier instr uctors.
AUG. 10. War Department an-
nounces opening of navigator's
course conducted by Pan·Ameri-
can Airways at Miami, Fla. wit h
initial enroll ment of 50.
A uc. 2 I. Contracts announced
amounting to $10,893,248.94
awarded to civilian schools, put-
ting into effect the program for
the training of 7000 pilots and
3448 mechanics annually.
OCT. 23. Announcement made that
several Boeing B-17CS are de·
livered to Wright Field, Ohio for
flight tests.
OCT. 24. Northeast, Southeast,
Northwest and Southwest Air
Di stricts constituted for the pur·
poses of decentralizing training
and tactical control.
OCT. 25. Maj. Gen. H , H. Arnold
designated Acting Deputy Chief
of Staff for Air.
NOV. First navigator training in
Air Corps school s begins at
Barksdale Field, La.
s ov. J . Hq and Hq Sq, Hawaiian
Air Force activated.
NOV. '9. GHQ Air Force removed
from j uri sdi ction of the Chief of
the Air Corps and as a n element
of the field forces, is placed un-
der the command of the general
commanding the field forces.
NOV. 20. Hq and Hq Panama
Canal Air Force, activated.
NOV. 21-23. Announcement of
flight tests of B-25 and B-26
made. H 5 d
]941: JAN. 16. Hq and q qua-
rons Northeast,
east and Southwest Au Dlstncts
activated. . d '
MAR. 26. Air Distncts re eSlg-
nated as Air Forces: Northeast
as 1St, Northwest as 2nd, South-
east as 3rd and So'-!-thwest .as
4th' Air Corps Technical Tram·
ing 'Command established. .
)o(AY 6. Air
F orce activated and placed under
Brig. Gen. Henry B.
MAY 15. Air Corps.
Flying School at Eghn F ield .re·
designated Air Corps Provmg
Ground. . C
MAY 29. Air Corps Ferrymg om-
mand established.
JUNE 3. Grade of aviation cadet
created. .' d t
JUNE 4. Grade of aVI3t1on stu en
created. . F .
JUNE 20. The Army AIr 'orces.ls
created to coordinate the acti v-
ities of the Air Force
Command (formerly GHQ An
Force) and the Office of
alief of the Air Corps; Maj.
Gen. H. H. Arnold IS
Chief Army Air Forces; Maj.
Gen. 'G. H. Brett, Chief of the
Air Corps; and Lt .. Gen. D. C.
Emmons, Commanding General,
Air Force Combat
J UNE 27. The B'19, fi ymg labo-
rator y" of the AAF, makes first
test fli ght. .
Plan No. 1 to War
in answer to request from the
SEI'T. In the first of
heavy bombers by :1Ir across
western Pacific, Q B-17S fl y from
Hawaii to the .
SEPT. 2. Hq and Hq Sq. 5th Air
SU1,port Command, activated.
SEPT. I I. First lise of paratrc;>Opers
in large·scale maneuvers IS an·
nounced. .'
SEI'T. 29. First class begills tram-
ing in heavy bombardment crew
school. .
OCT. '7. Air Corps M?-llltenaT!ce
Command becomes Air ServIce
OCT. 23. Increase in AAF expan-
sion program from 54 to 84 com-
bat gr oupS announced by \Va.r
Department. .
OCT. 30. Reco;d-makmg wor.ld.
circling flight III a B'24 ,,:ar;y11l.g
members of Harriman MI SSion IS
completed at Bolling Field. D. C.
Pilot : Maj. A. V.
Elapsed time: 17 days. Distance:
24,;00 miles.
NOV. 21. First of 16 "8:-245, the
fir st tactical pilot ed t o
overseas destination by Ar my
Air Forces personnel, leaves
Bolling Field, D. C. for the
British at Cairo.
NOV. 22. 35 heavy all
B- 17S, now in the PhlhpPlOes.
J ULY 1 North AtlantIC Transport
for ae rial of DEC. 7. ] ap ...mese attack J?carl Har·
passengers and mall- bor. (For a chronological report
gurate<i in a B·24 pilot ed by Col. of events from Dcc. 7, 194 1, to
C. V. 1-laynes, in fli ght from March IS , 1944, War Calt", -
Bolling Field, D. c.. . )
AUG. 12. AAF sl1blnt ts Air \ Var dar, page 3
9. . .
Note: \oVhere original records not avaibblc for \'cnfi catJon, the
information in Historical l-'lghhghts is subject to rcyision.
T he following Jist is quite deliberately a sc1cction focus-
109 attention 011 only one small part of the publications in the
field : new American publications which present in readable
fashion impOfL1nt information on the various aspects of the
Arm}' Air Forces and the aviation scene today. Tbe purpose of
this ) jbJiography is to serve as a guide to important recent
literature of aviation and the Army Air Forces. Most of the
books are available either through bookstores Or librari es. Those
no longer avaiJable for purchase are marked with the'" symbol.
In sections 8 and 9 the t symbol indicates books written for
the non-technical reader.
Dennis, Willard K. AN AERO_
N. Y., Special Libraries Asso-
ciation, ' 943. $1.00
U. S Smithsonian Institution.
compiled by Paul Brockett.
Wasl ington, Smithsonian Inst i-
tution, '910. (Published as Vol.
55 oi the Institution's Miscel-
laneoJs Collections. Records the
literature to 1909)
u. S. National Advisory Com-
mittet for Aeronautics. BIBL.IOG-
ington, Government Printing
Office, 1921 - 1936. (13 volumes
to date. Records the literature
from '909 through 1932)
• U. S. Works Progress Admini s_
trat ion. BIBLIOGR .... PHV OF AERO_
N .... UTICS. N. Y., W. P. A .• 1936-
1941. 51 vols. (Continued by the
following item)
U. S. Library of Congress. Divi-
s ion of Aeronautics. AF:RONAU_
TIC .... L INDEX. N. Y., Ins titute of
the Aeronautical Sciences, 1939,
1943· ( Records the literature
for the years 1938 and 1939 )
Arnold. Henry H., and Eaker, TORY OF THE D .... NIEL GUGGEN-
Funk & \Vagnalls, '944. $3.00 TION OF AEKONAUTICS. N. Y.,
Bruno, Harry. \VINGS OVER Pitman, '942. $2.50
AWF.UCA. N. Y., McBride. '942. · Coldstrolll, J ohn. NARR .... TIVE
Olanrler, Charles de F., and Macmillan, 19'30. $4.00
Lalnn, F. P. How OUIt ARMV Grey, Charles G. I-II STORV OF
GIIY.'" WINGS. N. Y ., Ronald, COMBAT AIRPL .... NY.S. Northfield,
1943· $3.75 Vt., Norwich University, ' 941.
Reginald M. AWE.. $1.00
ICA FI.I1:DG£S WINGS, THE HIS· Herzberg, Max J., and others.
Houghton, 1942. $2.50
Johnston, S. Paul. FL.YING SQUAD-
N. Y., Duell, Sloan & Pearce,
1942. $3.50
J ohnston, S. Paul. HORIZONS
UrnIMITED. N. Y., Duell, Sloan
& Pearce, 1941. $3·75
Leyson, Burr W. AM:EIUCAN
WINGS_ N. Y., Dutton, 1943.
FORCES. N _ Y., Duell, Sloan &
Pearce, 1(144. $3·00
Milbank, Jeremiah. FIRST . CEN:
Princeton, N. J., Princeton
University. 1943. $2.75
Miller Franci s T. WOUD IN Tit !':
N. Y., Putnam, 1930.
2 vols. $10.00
Puffer , Claude. E. AI!l TRAN.S-
PORTATION. PhiladelphIa, BJaklS-
ton, 1941. $3.75
Rickenbacker, Edward V. FIGHT-
Stokes, 1919. $2.00
Smith, Henry L. AIRWAYS ; THE
N. Y., Knopf, 1942. h.50
Coward- McCann, 1940. $ 12.50
Driggs Laurence L. H EROES OF
AVIA-r'ION. Boston, Little, Brown,
1928. $2.50
·Fraser, Chelsea C. FAMOUS
ell, 1942. $2.00
Fraser Chelsea C. HEROES OF
TilE AIR. N. Y., Crowell, 1942.
$2·50 d W '
· Gardner , Lester D .• e. n o S
ICAN' AIRMEN. N. Y., Gardner,
1922- 1928. 3 editions. $2.00
Gauvreau, Emile, and Cohen,
N Y Dutton, 1942. $2.50
"James N., and Nordhoff,
Boston, Houghton •. 1920. 7 vols.
$ 15.00. Vol. I BIographies .of
Personnel, Vol. 2 Narrative
Hi st ory. B
• Hoagland, Rol and W., ed. LUE
AVIATION. Los Angeles Hoag·
Army Air Forces. OFFIC IAl.
land, 1932. $15.00
Kelly, Fred C. WRIGHT BROTU-
ERS. N. Y., Harcourt, 1943.
$3.50 p
Levine Isaac D. MITCHELL.
Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1943.
$3· 50
·Maitland, Lester J. KNI GIITS
OF THF. AIR. N. Y ., Doubleday,
1929. $3.50
Mann, Carl. LIGHTNING IN Til E
DOOLITTLE. N. Y. , McBnde.
194 3· $2.75 H R-
Mingos, Howard. AMERICAN .
N. Y., Lanciar, 1943. Vol. I.
Shenton, Edward.
FOR FREEDOl-1. Pllliadelplua,
Wr iter s' P r ogram. WHO S \VII O
UNITED STATES: 1942. 1943.
Chicago. 2iff- DaVIS, 1942. $5.00
Pocket Dooks. 1944. $.25. Simon
& Schllster. 1944 . $2.50
Anny Air Forces Training Com-
mand. WIIIGS POll CO .... AT, THE
Ala FORCE. Brooklyn, Ullman
Co., '.'3. $ .••
Arnold, Henry H., and Eaker ,
I. C Auav FLYn, N. Y.,
Harper. 1942. $2. 50
Amold. Henry H., and Eaker ,
I. C. WltfCEO WUPAalt, N. Y.,
Harper. !941. h.oo
Collison, Thomu. FLYING FOIl-
TaltSIl, THE SToay 0,. THE BOI!:-
IHC BO ... ER. N. Y., Scribner 's,
1943. $41.50
DcLonae. Merrill E. MODEU A ta-
MENT. N. Y., Pitman, 1943. $4.00
Ford, Corey, and MacBain . Ala-
stair . Faoy THE GROUNO UP.
N. Y., Scri bner 's, 1943. $2.50
-Graham, Frederick p" and Ku-
lick. H. W. H£'s I N THE AlR.
Co .. , Now. N. Y., McBride,
1942. $2,50
Hartnrr, Harold E. WHAT You
FOllcn. N. Y., Norton, 1942.
Hibbits, John j. TAu: In UP
ALONE, MISTER I as told to
F. C. Rechnitzcr. N. Y.,
GI"a",Hill. 1943. h.50
Ind, A!lison. BAT ... M., TUE J UDGE-
FORcE. May, 1941, to May, 1942.
N. Y., Macmillan, 1944. $].50
Knox, John. WINGS 01' WAR, THY.
N. Y. , Macmillan, 1944. h.oo
Lent, Henry B. BOW .... RDIU,
WITH THE BO".E& COW .. ... ND.
N. Y., Macmillan, 19 43. $2.00
Leyson, Burr W. WINGS FOR OF-
FENSE. N. Y., Dutton, 1942.
LOOK (magazine). AIRPOWER.
N. Y .. Duell, Sloan &. Pearce.
1943· $41.75
Miksche, Ferdinand O. PARA-
T.OOPS. N. Y., Random House,
1943· $2.50
Rathbone, Alfred D. HE'S IN THE
Bride, 1943. $2.50
Ryan. Richard N. SPIN IN,
DUMBWHACKS. P hil adelphia,
Lippincott, 1943· $1.75
Sagendorph , Kent. T HUNDER
-TO .. ORROW. Chicago, Reilly &
Lee, 1942. $2.50
Sears, Hugh. \VHAT'S NEW I N
THE AIR CORPS? N. Y., Gros!';et
& Dunl ap, 1941. $.50
Steinh«k, John. BowBs AWAY,
N. Y., Viking, 1942. $2.50
Winter, William. ARM yAIR
COMW",NDS. N. Y., Crowell,
1944. h.oo
Wri ters' Program, Texas. RAN-
GUIDE. N. Y., Devin-Adair.
1942. $2.00
Ha rri ,burg, Pa. , Military Serv-
ice, I Q43. $2.00
Blunt , Vernon E. R. URp. OF A'R
POWEI . Harri sburg, Pa., Mili-
tary Service, 1943. $1.00
Caldwell, Cyril C. AliI; POWF.III.
AND TOTAL WAil . N. Y., Coward-
McCann, '943. $41. 50
De Sevenky, Alexancler P. VIC-
Toav THROUGn AlII. Pown.
N. Y .. Sinlon &: ScbU8ler, 1942.
Douhet, Giulio. COM M ... ND OF
Cann, 1942. $4.00
Drake, Francis V. VERTICAl.
W ... RF", Re. N. Y. , Doubleday,
1943· $].00
Hershey, Burnet. AIR FUTUItE,
N. Y., Duell , Sloan &. Pearce,
Huie, William
Fi scher, 19 42.
N. Y., L.
8 .
AND F ... LLACIES. N. Y., Morrow,
1942. $1.
Michie, Allan A. AIR OFFENSIVE
1943. $2.00
Miksche, Ferdinand O. ATTA>CiC,
TICS. N. Y., Random House,
1942. $2.5
.Mitchell, Wilham. WINGED DE-
TARY. N. Y., Putnam, 19
Williams, Alford J. AIRPOWER.
N. Y., Coward-McCann, 19 4
Ziff William B. COM 1 SG "TTLE
OF' GEIUIANY. N. Y., Duell ,
Sloan & Pearce, 1942. $ 2.5
Booth , Harold H. BOOK OF MOD*
N. Y., Garden City, 1942. $ 1.00
N. Y., National Aeronauttcs
Council , 1943. $1.00 ,
Kinert, Reed C. AMEln CA S
N. Y., Macmillan, 1943· $2.50
Law Bemard A. FIGHTING
Random House, 1942. $1.00
Balchen, Bernt, and other s. \VAR
BELOW ZERO_ Boston, Houghton ,
1944. $2.5
Childers, J ames S. WAR EAGLES,
SQUADRON. N. Y., Appleton ,
1943. $3·75
Donahue, Arthur G. TALLV- Ho I
YANKEE I N ... SPIrt' IKE. N. Y.,
Macmillan, 1941. $2_5
Ford, Corey. S HORT CUT TO
AU:UTI ANS. N. Y., Scnbner 5,
1943. $ 1.75
Greenlaw, Olga S. LADV AND TlIl':
T IGEKS. N. Y., Dutton, 1943·
priscilla, and Worm-
ser, Anne. Suzv-Q. Boston,
,Holl ghton, $2.00
Hotz, Robert B., and others.
TI GI'. RS. N. Y., Coward*McCann,
1943. $3.00
Leyson, Burr \V. \VARPLASE ANI)
How IT \VORKS. N. Y., Dutton,
1943. $2.5
N. Y., Dodd, Mead, $1.00
Pitkin Walte r B. Wu ... r S THAT
PLAN'E? Washington, Infantry
J ournal , 1942. $.25
Saville-Sneath, R. A. AIRCRAFT
RECOGN ITI ON. \Vashington, In-
fant r y Journal, 1943· $.25
Winter. William J. WAR PLASES
Crowell, 1943. $2.50
OF WORLD W ... R 11
Kennerl y, Byron. THE EAGLES
ROAR I N. Y. , Ha r per, 1942.
Lawson, Ted \V. TlIlRTY SEC-
dom House, 1943. $2.00
FLYING TI GERS. Plnladelphta.
Macrae-Smith, 1943. $2.00
Reddi ng, J olm M., and Leysholl,
I N ENGLAN D. Indianapoli s,
Bobbs- Merrill 1943· $2.75
Rickcnbacker , Edwa rd V. SEVEN
THROUGH. N. Y., DOllble*
day, 11)43. $ 1. 5
Ri ver Walter L. :MALTA STORY ,
HOWAKI) r-.-1, COYFI N. N. Y.,
Dutton, 1943. $2.50
Scott. Robert L .. Jr . Goo .IS
CO-PILOT. N. Y., Scnbner fl.
1943. $2.5
Taggart, William C., and Cross
Christopher. My F I GHTING CON:
GREGAriOK. N. Y., Doubleday,
1943· h.75
OF TlU. VIII 8 0 M 8E. CoM-
kOI'£, N. y" Simon &: Schuster ,
1943. $1.00 &: h.oo
Whelan, Russell . FLYING T IGERS.
N. Y. , Viking, 194J. $2·50
White, William L. QUEENS On:
PROUDLY. N . Y., Harcourt, 1943.
Whittaker, James C. WE
ANGELS Suw. N. Y., Dutton,
1943. $1.50
Barringer, Lewin B. FLIGHT
Pitman, 194 2. $3.00
tBJack Archi bald. STORY OF
FLYJI'. (;. N. Y., Whittlesey,
Chaptn, Mary K. W H Y MEN CAN
FL\'. N. Y. , Reynal & Hitchcock
h.50 '
tCleveDger , Cloyd P. MODERN
FLI(a.T. N. Y. , Noble, 1941.
Columbia University. Teacher s
College. Aviation Education Re-
Karch Group. SCIENCE OF PRE-
Macnullan, 1942. $1.32. (Air-
a bIbliography of thiS series)
FROIf SHOP TO SKY. Philadel-
phia, Lippincott, 194 I. $2.00
tGann, Ernest K. GETTI NG THEM
I NTO tHE BLUE, N, y" Crowell,
tHall , Char les G, How A PLANE
KNOW? N. Y., Funk & Wag-
nall s, 1942. $2,00
Harold E, CONI'LET!!:
MANUAL. N. Y., Na-
t ional Aer onauti cs Council, 1940,
$1. 2 5
tHunt, J ack, and Fahri nger , Ray.
N. Y. , Books, 1943, $2·50
tJor danoff, Assen. YOUR WI NGS.
N. Y., Funk & Wagnall s, 1942.
tKnerr, Hugh J. STUDENT PI-
Van Nost r and, 194 1. $ 1. 75
Manley, Ga rdener B, AVIATION
Drake, 1940. $3·00
Niles, Alfred S, and Newell
N, y" Wiley, 1943 . .2 vols. $9.00
Page, Victor W. A. B. C, OF
AVIATION. N. Y. , Henley, 1942.
Peck, James L. H. So YOu' RE
Mead. 1941. $2.50 '
Robinson, Pearle T., and others.
01' ..h :RONAUTI CS. N. Y., Holt,
1943. $2.00
Shields, Bert. AIR PILOT TRAIN-
ING. N. Y., McGraw-Hili, 1943.
tStieri, Emanuele. GLID .. : RS AND
G,.WER TRAI NING. N. Y., Duell,
Sloan & Pearce, 1943. Sa.OO
Stout, William B., and Reck
N. y" Crowell, 1943. $2,00
Turner, Roscoe, and Dubuque,
j, H . . WI N YOUll. WI NGS. Chi -
cago, Drake, 1943 . .2 vols. $6.00
Flight T r aining Se-
ries, S. Y .. McGr aw- Hili , 1943.
AItROLO(;Y ,.OR P ILOTS. $1.25.
AIR NAVIGATION. Parts 1-3, 5,
PECTS, $.60, MATIH: MATI CS 1'0)(
Wright, Bailey A" and others.
Qlicago, American Technical 50-
ciety, 1941-1942. AIRCRAFT EN-
Earley, Armand J. AERIAL PHO-
N. Y. , Harper,
1942, $2.75
Field, Richard M" and Stetson,
Van Nost rand, 1942. $2.5
t Heavy, William F. MAP AND
1'1.1 1'1£0. Ha rri sburg, Pa., Mili-
tary Service, 1943. $1.00
Sharp, Howard O. PHOTOGRAM-
METRY. N. Y., Wiley. 1943·
Colvin, Fred H. AIRCRAFT H AND-
BOOK. N. Y., McGraw-Hili,
1942. $5.00
tHylander , Clarence J. FLYING
POWER. N. y" Macmillan, 1943·
tJordanoff, Assen. MAN BElliNO
A IRMEN. N, Y. , Harper, 194
r ...fanl ey, Gardener B. AIRCRAFT
Drake, 1942. $4.00
Nor cr oss, Carl, and Quinn , J. D.
McGraw-Hili, 194 1, $3,5
Ayres, Frank. BASIC MAT HE-
H oughton, $3.
Barr, Eugene O. FLYING MEN
BODY. N. Y., Funk & Wagnal\s,
1943. $2.5
Grow, Malcolm C. FIT TO FLY, A
Appleton, 194 1. $2.5
Kafka, r..L Martyn. FLYING
HEAI.Til, Harri sburg, Pa., Mili -
tary Service, 1942. $2.00
tZim, Herbert 5. MAN IN THE
H ar court, 1943, $3.
Eaton , Elbert L. WEATHER
Ronald, 1943. $2.00
Harri son, Louis P. METEOK-
OLOGY. N. Y., National Aero-
nautics Council, 1942. $2.00
tJordanofi, Assen. THROUG H THE
OV .. : RCAST. N. Y., Funk & Wag-
nalls, 1943. $3,00
tSloane, Eric. CLOUDS, A IR AND
WIND. N, Y., Devin-Adair ,
1941. $3.00
Wenstrom, William H. WEATHEK
AND THE OCEAN OF Alit. Boston,
Houghton, 1942. $4,5
Sticri, Emanuele. BUILDING
ARMY AND NAVY. N. Y., Duell,
Sloan & Pearce, 1943, $2.5
Stieri , Emanuele. SUI'PLEMENT
NAVY. (60 full s ize construction
patterns.) N, y" Duell , Sloan
& Pearce, 1943. $1.
Hurt, Haworth W., and Wolf,
N. Y., Nation ... 1 Aer onautics
COl1ncil. 1942. $1.00
L7011. Thobum C. AERIAL NAYI-
GATIO', N. Y., National Aero--
nautio Council, $ 1.50
Smith, Frederick H. FLYING n
INSTRUMENTS. N. Y., National
Aeronautics Council, 1942. $1.50
Weems Philip V. H. Ala NAVI-
GATtO •• N. Y .• McGraw- Hill ,
1943· h.50
tZim, Herbert S. AIR N AVI GA-
TION. N. Y., Harcourt, 1943.
Fechet . James E., and others.
P" .... CHUTU. N. Y .• National
Aeronautics Council, 1942. $1.00
fZim, Herbert S. PARACHUTES.
N. Y., Harcourt , 1942. $2.50
Fechet, James E., and othen.
National Aeronautics Council ,
1943. $1.00
Morgan , Howard K. AIRCRAFT
MENT. N. Y .• Pitman, 1941.
Benet. Wi lliam R. WITH WUICS
LADa 01" THE A, •. N. Y., Dodd,
Mead, $2.00
Collison Thomas. THIS WINGED
AV1ATIDIf FICT10ff. N. Y. , Cow-
ard-McCann, 1943. h·50
RaDdcm House, 1943. $2.00
Uaclberrb Anne M. LI STEN I THE
WIND. N. Y., Harcourt, 1938.
' •• 50
TH£ ORIENT. N. Y., Harcourt,
1935· h.50
Rodman, Selden. POETRY OF
Duell , Sloan & Pearce, 1941.
Saint Exupery, Antoine de. AIR-
)(A!,; 'S OOYSSEY. N. Y. , Reynal
&: Hitchcock, 1943. h.oo. ( In-
cludes Wnw, S"'ND ... ND ST ... RS,
ARR ... S)
VE ..... OOKS
A U08PHERE. N. Y., Aircraft
Publications, 1939-1944. Vol. 4,
'94+ $15.00
AIK .. " YE ..... OOIC. N. Y.,
Aeronamcal of Com-
merce of America, 1919- 1943.
Vol. 25 19-43. $5.00 ( Vol. 26 t o
be pubished June, 194-4)
Wuhinrton. American Aviation
Auoc:iales, 19-40- 1943. Vol. 7.
'943· $5.00
ADdrew., Phillip. AI. NEWS
Yuaaoox. N. Y., Duell , Sloan
• Pea.ru, 1942. $3.75. ( Vol. .2
10 be .... n. hed Jun., '944>
Oenland, Reginald M., and
Graham, Frederick P. AVI ... TIOH
ANNUAL OF ' 944. N. Y.,
Doubleday, 1943. $J·So
Cooke, David C. AIRCRAFT AN-
NU"'L ' 944. N. Y., McBride,
1943. $3.00
Cooke. David C. , a nd Davidson,
Jesse. PL"'NE ANNU ... L.
N. Y. , McBride, 1941 - 1943.
Vol. 2, 1943. h'50
Cooke, David C. ( formerly
edi ted by Frederi ck P. Graham
and Regi nald M. Oeveland.)
ANNU ... L. N. Y., Mc Bride, 1940-
Vol. 4, 1943· h.50
J ... Nf: S ALI. THP. \VOkLO'S AIR-
CR ... FT. N. Y., Macmillan, 1909-
1943· Vol. 32, 1943. $19·00
.... hrens. Lothar. DICTION ... RY 0'
FRENCH, GERM ... N, I T ... ', .... N,
SP ... NI SII. N. Y., Frederick
Ungar , 1943. $5.00
Baughman, Harold E. AVIATION
GUlDE. Glendale, California,
Aero Publishers, 1942. $6·50
Jordanoff, Assen. jORO ... NOFF'S
TION ... RY. N. Y., Harper, 1942.
Thorpe, Leslie A.
KOMENCI. ... -
ARY. San Francisco, Aviati on
Press, 1942. $2.00
U. S. Army Air Force" Director
of Intelligence Service. Dl c-
FRENC'; , GERMAN. Washington.
Government Printing Office,
1942. $.35
12. MAC ... ZINES
AERO DI GEST. N. Y., Aeronauti-
cal Digest Publishing Cor pora-
tion. Semi-monthly, 192 I-date.
VIEW. N. Y., Institute of the
Aeronautical Sciences. Monthly.
AIR F"'CTS. N. Y., Ai r Facts Inc.
Monthly, I9 38-date.
AIR NEWS. N. Y., Phillip A.n-
drews. Monthl y, 1941 -date.
( formerly Sportsman Pilot).
N. Y .. F. A. Tichenor. Monthly,
AIR TECH. N. Y., Phillip _An-
drews. Monthly, 1942-date.
AI R TR ... ILS. N. Y. , St reet &
Smith. Monthly, 19 I s -date.
AIR TR ... NSPORT. N. Y., McGraw-
Hill. Monthly, I943-dat e.
AMt:RI C ... N AVI ... TION. \ Vashi ng-
ton, American Aviation Asso-
ciates. Semi-mont hly, 1937-date.
Philadelphia. Qlillon
Co. Semi-monthly, 1899-date.
AVI ... TION. N. Y. , McGraw- Hill.
Monthly, 19 I 6-dat e.
Graw-Hill. \yeekly,
FL\' I NG. Chicago. Zlff- Dans.
Monthl y, 1927-date.
SCIENCES. N. Y., Institute of
the Aeronautical Sciences. Quar·
terly, 1934-<late.
St. Paul, Minn., Bruce Publish-
ing Co., Bi -monthly , I 930·date.
Morri s, Ill., Air Age Inc.
l\Ionthly, I 929-dale.
N ... TION ... I, AERON ... UT ICS. \-Vash·
inl,rton, National Ae r onautic As-
sociation. Monthly, 1923-date.
SKYW ... YS. N. Y .. Henry Publish-
ing Co. Monthl y, 1942-date.
Texas, Air Review Publishing
Corp. Monthl y, 1934-date.
U. S. AIR SERVICES. Washing-
Ion. Air Sen·ice Publishing Co.
Mont hly, 1919-date.
\Vt:STERN FLYING. Los Angeles.
Occidental Publishing Co.
Monthly. 1926-date.
THE OFFICI ... L SERVICE JOURNAL-AAF personnel, both commi s-
sioned and enl isted, each mont h are furnished copies of Alii.
the Official Ser vice Journal of the U. S. Ar my Air Forces. Popularl y
st yled for general interest, AIR FORCE keeps personnel informed on
tacti cal technical and organizational developments within the AA F
and on perti nent informat ion regarding the air war. Its articles
Me contributed by AA F offi cers and men, and it serves as a !'lediulll
for the exchange of ideas and information among both Ayll\l( anti
ground personnel. Alii FORCE: is di stributed wit hout charw:e on a
prorate(\ basis through station and field channels.
Below are listed abbreviations found In this book and a few
others commonly used in the AAF:
AACS-Army Airways Communi-
cations System
AAF- Anny Ai,. Forces
AAFA5-Army Air Force.t Aid
AAFSAT-Army Ai,. Forces
School rJI Applied Tactics
AAFTAC- Ar my A i,. Forces Tac-
tical Cent er
AAFTAD-Army Air Forces
Trainin, Aids Division
AAFTC-Army Air Forces Train-
inl1 C"""mand
AC-Ai,. Corps
A/ C-ovU;ti(m cadet
ACER-Air Corps Enlisted Re-
AEAF-Allied Expeditionary Air
Forces (Europe)
AFCE-ANlomatic Flight Control
AFSWA- Assistan' Secretary of
lVar 1M Ai,.
AGF- A" fty Cround Forces
AGO-Ad;utont General's Office
AlA-Air Judge A dvocate
AM- Air Medal , airplaJl e me-
cM" ;c
ANC-A,.lnY Nurse Corps
ANSCOL-Army-Nav y S taff Col-
A PO- Anny Post 0 Dice
AR-Army Regulat ion
A Se-A ir Service Command
ASF- ArIllY Service Forces
A SN-Ar1'lY senal "limber
ATC-Air Transport Command
A TS-Ar1llY Transport Service
AUS-ArMY of the United S tates
AVe.-American Volunteer Group
(Fl ying Tigers)
I AWC-Army War College, Air-
craft W.rning Corps
A wit hout official
A \VS-Aircra f t If ' arm·ng Service
AWVS- Americall rVomell 's Vol-
untary Services
BOQ-bacllelor officers' quarters
BPR- Bll reall of Pllblic Relations
BTC- Basic Training Center
CAA-Civil Aeronautics Adminis-
CAP-Civil Air Patrol
CAVU-ceiUnO alld visibiWy un-
CBI -Chilla-Burma-India Theat er
of OPeratiolls
CCRC-Combat Crew Replace-
ment Center
CFE-co1ttractor furnished equi p-
CG-Commanding General
CO-Commanding Officer
CWS-Chemica/ Warfare S ervice
DFC- Distingrlished Flying Cross
D/ R- dead recko"ing
DSC-Distinguished Service Cross
DS M-Distinglt islted Service
EM-enlisted man
ETA-est i fmJt ed time of arrival
ETO-European Theater of
FlO-fl ight officer
FM-jicld rnalillal
FTC-Fl ying Training Command
GCr-urolflld controlled intercep-
GCT- Ot!llcral classification test ·
Greenwich Civil Time '
GFE-oovernment furnished
GHQ- General Headqlwrtcrs
G.l.-Government issue
GOC- Ground Observer Corps
eSC-General S taff CorPS
HE- high explosive
lAS-indicated airspeed
JAC- Joint A ircraft Commi ttee
LM-Legion of Merit
MH- Medal of Honor
MOS-military occupat ional
special ty .
MP_Military PolIce
mph- miles per hOllr
MTU-mobile trai lling uni t
N A AF-Northwest African Air
Forces . .
NAAFW-Natiollal ASSOCtat loll of
A ir Forces Women
N ACA-National Advisor), Com-
for Acrollardics
NCO_II Oll commissioned offi cer
NS Ll-National Service Lif e In-
OC(S)-Officer Catl didate
( S cltool )
OO-officer of the day .. oUve
o RC-Officers' Reserve Cor ps
oSW-Office Secretary of War
OTS-O ffice r Traill j'lg School
OT U_Operati onal Tra-i ll ing
U n i t
PD- Port of Debarkation
POI- pilot direc/ioll indicator
PCC-Proving Grolmd COlll malld
PH-Purple Heart .
POE-Port of E mbarkatIon
POM-Preparation for Overseas
M at/emellt
POW- prisoller of war
PRO_Publi c Relatioll s Officer
QM(C)_Qlforter",aster (Corps)
RA- Reoular A rmy .
RAA F-Roy/JI Australian Air
RAF-Royal Air Force (Great
Bri tain) .
ReAF-Rol'al Ca,lodion Ai r Force
RNZA F-Royal New Zea/Dlld
Air Force
rpm-revo/ll tiotl s pcr mi!lII.te
RTC-Replacemellt TraIning
Center . . .
RTU_Rcplacement Trarllul g Utili
SAAF-Sollth A frican A ir Force
S HAEF-Supreme Headll.".arters
of the Allied Expedl iiollary
Forces (Europe)
S M-Soldier' s Medal .
SOP-standard operatUig pro-
TCe- Troop Carrier Co-mmalld
T I E-table of eqrli pmcnt
TM-tcchtlical manltal
TO-technical order
T I O-table of organj:;.at.i
TTC-Techllical Tralll tng Com-
T V-terminal velocity
UR-lIflsatisfactory report
USAAF-U. S. Army Air Forces
USMA-U. S. Military .Acat!cmv
USSTAF-V. S. StrategIc AI'
Forces (Europe)
V HF-very high freqltellcy
VOCO-verbal onlers comma II d-
illg officer
VOQ-visiting qUarters
VP_variable pitch
\ VAC- H"ome,,'s A n n).! Corps
Wac-a member of the WAC
·WAS P-Women's Airforce Serv-
ice Pilots
Wasp-A member 0/ the IV ASP
\"ID_ IVar Department
WO-tuorrant officrr
ZI-:;oll e of interior
--- ---
I T he language 01 the AAF has been expanded by the addition
of words and phrases peculiar to aircraft and aerial combat.
The expressions given below are only a few examples chosen
I from those most common and most widely used. Some of them
will undoubtedly serve only lor the duratIon; others may find a
place in our language. Many of them have other
baksheesh-easy mission; no
ellcm)' encountercd.
bandits-er.cmy planes.
bathtub-bllll turret.
I belly landing-landing withOltl
big friends-bombers.
big jeep-klrgc bomber.
I biscuit gun-imaginary applipllcc
for shoO/ing food to pilols who
ore having difficulty i,l lal/ding.
bogie-unidentified aircraft.
bomb-up--loadino with bombs.
buzz-dive low over- on arca.
cadd wid;)ws-girls wllo date
many coicts.
chairborne troops-lIoll·/lying
· AAF personnel.
I chauffeur-pilot.
Chinese I .. nding-londing with
one wing low.
ciocks-ins;ruments on panel in
coffee grinder-aircraft enolne.
conk-slfddc!tt stopping of engine
during !liU/11.
cra1r-apponmt sid,"wise motiOIl of
I an airplane with respect to
· urolOld 'WllelJ flyill {1 with a
side 'Wind.
: dodo-aviation cadet who has IIOt
yet soloed.
· dry run-,ractice, or dress re-
I h(!arsal for operlltions.
· £an'!+-propcllcrs,
. flak happy-condition resllltinU
from combat fatigu(· .
flying coffi n-dilapidated plal.c.
gaggle-group of aircralt in for -
geese-bombers ill formalion.
get cracking-sho'tv action; hltrry
glory wagon-Flying Fortress.
greenhouse-gJass elicloSltre,
ally bombardier compartment.
ground-gripper-tlotl-/lying per-
hangar fiying-conversatioll about
/lying and killdred subjects.
hangar pilot-olle who docs his
best " flying" in cOllversalioll.
hanging 011 props-near Poillt of
hang out the laundry-dropping
hedge-hop-/lyitlg belo'w level of
obstacles atld /lopping over
hemp st retcher-member of bal-
100' 1 outfit.
hit the silk-bail out.
hot pilot-fighter pilot whose abil-
ily is rccogw·:;/.·d as superlative,
fiflll/I!r Pilot slio1l'-o/J or brag-
hot- plane- aircraft nceding careful
halldling 'Un'tll IIigh takcoff or
landillg speed.
in the drink-Iorceli ll01.lm at sea.
junior prom-hot mission.
junior birdman- rccipielll of Air
Medal .
kiwi-a non-jlyj"f) officer.
Mae West-inflatable life vest.
Messerschmitt May tag- light, low
horsepowcr liaison type air-
craft.. elaeck ship in washout
milk-run-routine ,,,,iss;o" flOWfl,
mustard cluster-mythical award
for poor bombing.
on the beam-actiug effectively or
on the deck- minimu.n altit/lde;
lIear the ground or water.

POI chaser- pilot.
peashooter-fighter pilot of fighter
peel-olI-to h,rn a corller. or
leave a group of friC1lds.
pencil pusher- navigator.
photo Joe-pilot of sillgle scat
photographic aircraft.
picklebarrel-shack or target '"
bombardier trailling.
prop wash-gossip.
Purple Heart corner-olltside-
plane in lowest fl)'i ng elemellt
of bomber formation.
raunchy-sloppy /lying Icchlliq'l e.
ribbon happy-airman 1vitIJ e.r-
t reme interest in his decora-
liolls or in collecting t/l em.
Roger-all rigllt. (OK ); "] IIIlder-
stalld"; "[ have received all of
your last ( radio) tra'lSmission."
short-snorter-member of ulloffi-
cial Iraternity reiating to ac-
compJishment of
flight . Many concepts of on!!.",
lind eligibility to membersh,p.
Members erell/mge $i'guaturcs on
paper mOlley atta<;hed
luually from ",a"'ous countnes
in whiel, they have served.
socked in-ceiling
solid bundle of blitz-large for-
mation of Il't/emy aircro/t .
sp!nning your wheels-'ttlOstino
t,me or energy alld accomplish-
ing nothing.
static-bender- radio operator.
stratosphere Joe-a tall man.
stuff-dO/Ids or weatller.
sweat it out-to wait expectantly.
tail-end (or low-hole) Charlie-
willY man i n formation.
Tokyo tanks-auxi/iary gas tanks.
t ruck dri ver-transport pilot.
Tojo-soldicr who is readino
technical orders (tech ordcr
togg 1 ier-bom ba rd ier.
washout-one who has beet! elimi-
nated tram /lying training.
washing machine-flight com-
",allder's airpla'lf! for aviation
cadet qualification flights; a
platle in which an fUloSllcccssful
cadet is "'Washed out."
willcQ-'I'en'lI comply.. will do;
"your last message (or message
indicatcd) has been received,
utldl' rSIOod, alld ( whcre appli-
cable) ten'lf be complied with."
; boldfaee t'\curt9 Indicate
prlndpal I'!ferences
I U.-Wustrattons (drawlnp)
\ Note: A1t B'lrees arc listed

AU Board 1
ebaUenge'" 2
combat llUama" 282
dDrtrine 2. 16
&rowtb 3,4,37,38,
ch.39. 42, 96, 357
bilItoll' 9
orpnizatlm 9, 356
place in Wu Department
9, elLIa, 34. 330
reorpnUalion 3;$8
A-I, A-2. A·a, A-4
27.28, ch.29
access road 209.219
aee1deD1. 122
Acera 195, 2la
AdU bland 195. 291
aIrbue at U.225
I adJutaDt lene:a1 30, 46
, Admlralt, lslmds 215. 291-2
aerial qll'Ittr 18. 43.
46, 112, 200
I aerial gunner 18.42,44,52,
63,ph. 73.eh 102,101,111
aeroembolism 244., 245
AeronautJcl. Bureau of
MWury 340. 344
Ael'OftaUtieal Chart plant 16
air, eharaeterllUt:8 231
'pressure 245
Afra(:obro (P-39) ph. 163
allbase 6. 14, 115. 204-228
advanee H.ll4, 218. 294
batUe for 214,211
bomber 205,209,219.
220,222, 226
eaaouftace 219. 2Zl, 222
eonttructioo 24,28.34,
pb.84, 1:4, 215. 11.219,
control tonr 16,11.208,
defense 23.114,209,
210, 222
3, 205. 212-3
in innslon

1D tbeatell
CIdna 223
Nortb Afrlta ph.H.
Unlted Kln&dom 3. 4.
c:b. ---chart.
under Air Foreell, Continental, and Air Fortes, Overseas
turnover 218
use of 226
use of native labor In 37.t.
ph.84. 220,
varieties defined 211
intercept eQuipment 214
troops 15,35,112. 2n.
Air Brigade. 1stl Provisional
AlrCommunieatiof13 OftIcer
Afr'Corps. see Army Air Corps
aircraft 32. 123-150,
aeceptances. 1943-44
airframe cb,124, 135-6
all-metal, 1st 349
allocatton 179
appropriations 123. 341
armament 18. 109,
armor cb.131. 149. 150
bomb l oads eh.130
camouHage 128
cbaracteristlcs 129,
speed ch,132
design 32. 126. 133, 174
desigrultion of 125. 126
dimensions ch.130
electrical system 145. 146
engine ch.130. ch,132,
135,136. 139.11.140
ftre extinguisher 172
flaps 136,11.138, 146
fuel 136, 142, 143
guns ch.131, 136, 146,
gunslght 141
hydraulle.9}'stem 146
inspection 31, 125
jet propelled ch,132.141
land-based 2, 124. 258.
294, 297
landlnuear 136, 139. 146
load 129. ch,186
maintenance 15.28,
pb,74, ph.75, 96, 109.
114. 1U:i, 178. 197-200
maintenance omcer 44,46
markings, AAF 11.235
materials 123, 135-6
moelc-up 13:1
modJncation 125,134. 199
names and numbers 126-1
ilormal range ch. 132
obsolescence 125. 134
operational ceiling ch.130
oxsgen equipment 134,
173, 174
pay-loads m186.355
P1!rtonnance 129, cl1.130
power plant 135, 143
pressurized eabln ch.131,
l..38, 355
procurement 15, 124, 125
production 5.35, 123.
propeller 135. 143.
range, Ofer years ch.134
rotary wing 134, 329
sabage or 7. 22, 28.
178. 199, 203
celliiii'. ch.132
shipment 188-189
speelotaUong ch.130·
131. 133
BIlCed. over years ch.133
supereharger 136, 138.
141. n.142
tactical rsdlUS' ch.131
test ftlghts 15.175
tires 131)
types 126, ch.130
weights ch.124, ch.132
wing 135, 137
See also individual type9,
and by name
alreraft control 274
Aircraft Production. Bureau
of 340.344
alreraft warning 46, 47.
103, 209. 274, 276
Aircraft Warning. Corps
air ru!rense
air discipline
All"'f)l st rlcts
air dh'lslon
8. 2T. 43, 47.
43.n.50, 52.
53. 107
4,209. 275-6
209. 210 •. 276
283 strategiC
airdrome squadron
110. 275
air evacuation 24, ph.81.
94, 112, 196, 290,
Air Evacuation, School of
alr ton
94, lUI
"Air Force," &enice journal
air foree 17, 20. 283
air service c:ommand 22-4,
178, 181. 183, 190, 193
basiC unit ot 17
bomber command 22, 23
command 20-26. eb.29,
derense command 23
englnee\"9 30. 218
,fighter command 22. 23.
group 20,21,26.260
parts of IT
squadron 17. HI, 21, 26
strategic 20, 24, 25, 26,
258, 284-286. 333, 337
supporting units 22
tactical 20.24-26.
258. 287.288.333, 33T
troop carrier command
23.24, 178
20, 260
Air Foree Combat Command
9. 330, 357
Air Foree.q. Continental 10,
14, 15. 16. 103, 122
lst 14.16,59. U.235,
300, 32Q. 331,335. 357
2nd 14.16,60.11.235,
329, :Ja7
3rd 14.16.60,11.235,
4th 14,16, 60. 11.235,
AlrForces,Ove\"9eas 282-300
5th 65.11.235, 289.
6th 67, 1l.235. 298, 330
7th 66,,
331,332,335, 336, 338
8th 23. 62, 116.226.
U.235, 283-285, 289,
9tb 62, D.235. 284, 287,
11th (l6. n.235, 282.
297.330. 331,334.335
12th 24.63, U.235,
13th 6tt. 213, U.235.
14th 64, 120, U.235,
295, 296. 333. 336
15th 23.62,11.235.
shoulder patches 11.235
Air Forces Aid Soetety 100
Air Forces Women. Nat.
Asso. of 97. cb.n8, 09
alrfmmes eb.124. ] 35
Air lnspedor 12,31
Air Judge Advocate ] 2
alrma.lI 3U, 353
air ol!'enslY! 2. S, 6, 23,
257. 283. 284
massaUae!I. 1,3.282,285
airplane, see . aircraft, also
by types and by names
alrpol\·er. strategic 1, 2, 25.
34, U.255, 282-300, 34 7
tactical 2,25.11. 255,
with surface rorces 2,
25. 2n, 286, 287-289,
air program, 1039 6, 354-5
1940 3T, 355, 356
1941 3, 4, 5
air routes. ATe 15, 118,
193,194, mp.1D5
air·sea rescue 24, 118,
119, 228, 252
AIr Service, U. So Army
Alr ServIce Command 14.
15, 103, 178, n.180
189, 351
air depot 14.180· 1, 199
base suppl y 114,180.181
branch depot 181. ch.182
etvlllan employees 96
general depot 181,
service centers ph.75,
181. ch.182
Tech. Orden! 202-203
In theaten! 22,178. 181
airship 341.348
semi-rigid 348
D2 349
RSI 350
'l'C1 349
Air Starr 10, cb.13. 34
Assistant Chiefs 10, 11.
Chief 10, ch.lS, 58
Deputy Chief's 10, 11
Air 8urgeon 11. 122. 248
alrtask force 215
air trans\'Kltt 3!i. ph.S1,
ph. S4, 185, ch.186. 193
combat unlLS. 193-4,31Q
emergency 35, 185. 194
priorities In 196. 191
Air 'l'ransport Command
15. 35, 61, 103. 112,
118. 184-5. ] 90. 193,
tLI04, 295. 320. 331,
332. 333, 336
air freight terminals 188
emergency route 335
ferl'}'lng dMslon 15,95,
178. 19.3
Indla-Cblna wi ng 295,
.320, 332,338
pilot ] t 2. 113
ports of aerial embntka-
Hon 190
Air Wac. see Women's Army
Air War Plan .3, 4, 351
alnrays. Set al so Arm1 Alr-
,mrs Com_ System 350
tlrst 341
detachmenl!J 199
station ph.77,114,211
Alabam.a, test bombing 347
Alaskan Air Force 297.329
Al eutians campaign 297, 331
Alexlshllfen 336
Alli ed Expeditionary Air
lI'orces 63
all-I\'eatber operations 112,
Amchltka I sland 215, 29T
American Ited Crosg 98,
99, 228
ammunition, Set bombs 115
small-arms ph. 73,14 7 , 149
ampblblous operations 215.
Anchorage. Alaska 356
Andaman Islands 330
Anderson, Maj. Gen. F. L. ,
Jr. ph.6S
Anderson, Brig. Gen. O. A.
Andrews. Lt. Gen. F. M.
Anklam 335
anoxia 242.243.248
antialreraft 46.41.210,
264,275, 277.284
Antiaircraft, Special Asst.
for 12
Antill es Air Command 299
Antisubmarine Command
35, 299, .300, 332, 835
Antwerp 333
Apamama 335
Applied Tactles, School of
117, 332
Appropriations 123, eh.128
AAF ch.128
Air Corps eb.128,351-2
Air Service ch.128, 344
Aviation Section, Signal
Corps ch. 128.340-344
ArcUc. Uesert and Tropic
lnfo rm:lUon Center 253
armament omcers 19. 44,
arming devices 152
annorers 18, 44
armor-piercing bombs 150
Army Airways Communica-
tions System (AACS)
16. 35, ph.71, 194,
Army Air Corps 9
Act 351.354
Chler of S30, 354-357
Enlisted Reserve 3Q,
S30, SM
exp.1llSlon 351. S54-356
rcorRlnlzntlon 9. 356
Anny Air Set A.AF
372 •• DElI
A,.,- Air Aid 8odet,.
Ana)' Foree, U. 8.
iD Middle East 66, 882
in South A.t1antic 61
1D Soutb Paellk 65
Ann, General CtusifteaUoD
Tnt (OC'T) 4S
Army Grourd Forces 9. 15,
16. M. 110, 21'1, 330
Arm), Institute 89
Arm), Reorpntzatlon Blll
AfIII,. 8emce For'UII 9, 22,
34. 35, 103, 115, 178,
180,183. eb.IDI. 330
Arm, Transportation Corps
11., 180, 185, 189
Amold. Otn. H. H. 10.
56, phS7. QU.68, lOa,
qu.153, 229. qu.aDl,
830, SS2, 333, 3S6.
340, 342. 350, 353-6
Amold. Lt. L. P. 350
AIceMlon kland 195.331
...... -Buma-China rerry-
inc Collaand 330
....... 'nt, airer&R 179
penor:me. 334
Athem 286
&tatOlpbH'k preaufe 242-3
A-20 cb.130. ph.164
A-36 cb.ISt
Atta 298, 333
AupburC 286.331
AultraUa 6. 290, 329-31
IUtoClro 135, 35"
Automatic Fll&bt Control
EquIPlHf'lt (AIi'CE)
il.71, 262, 333, 354
autoJDatle Jandtn, systelD 355
Arlatloo Cul et 40, 41, 53,
I!ualDiIc Board 41
tnLl 42,104
tndrum. 102. 104, 108
AmUon Mec:banictan (AM)
amUou IDldldne 16,30.
115. 117,118,242,248
ArlaUon &Iedleine. 8ehool or
16. 117,248
"mUon Section. Slenal
Corpe 9, 340, 342, 343
aflaUon Btuient 41,351
",rdl, chlUan n.96
IalllWJ 229·231, U.236

BldceJ, aJ.ation
H. 40, il.49·S3
baUlnt: out 116, 244,11.249
baUoul bottle 244. 250
BaIn, Maj. T. II. 349
Baller 1I1a., d 226
Bater, Lt. Col. A. E. ph.321
bUllttlcs 105, 280
balloon 340.341,348·50
Balloon 8eetlon (AEF) 344
blUlk and tum i ndicator
Barksdale. Lt. E. H. 350
Barksdale Field 355. Sri1
base, see alrbast
basic tratninc 15. 43,
1030 1D4. 108
Battle Honors 311,331
bearlne ratio 220
Beck, Lt. P. W. 341-2.352
BeU, Dr. A. G. 341
RerUn 284. plL31e. 331
Bt mbul'l 331
BeUIs. Lt. C. 350, 3n
Benns. Maj. Gen. J. M.
BlUaneourt 333
Bismuct Sea, batUe of
mp.211, 290, 333
BIsseI1. MaJ. Gtn. C. L.
294, 3S1, 348
Bberte 281. 333
blackout 245.11.246
Bwck Widow (P-61)
bUnd ftying 120. 212, 241,
block buster 151
Bogadjlm 336
bombardier lS,42,4S,ph.ll
combat duties IS, 152,
260, 262, 263
school 106
IilnPOSts for n.222
tr&ln!na: ph.18. ch.l02,
103, lOS. 356
bombardler.naflgator 106,
bombardment, test.,1921341
)923 350
bomb bay 152
bomb damal e lSI, 152,
251. ph- 803, ph.306,
pb.309. ph.313
bomber 126
hea'Y 3,21, 251, 258,
Jllht 23,251.258.261
)onR· range 2,124, 251·8
medium 23,251, 258.
super 3
yery hea." 251
8· 12 212, 353
B-l1 18,21.125.
ch.130, pb.Hi6, ph. 168.
169, pb.. 31l-2, 353-356
B-18 299, 355
B· 19 139. 351
B-24 cb.llO, ph.154,
300, ph.a05, 356, 351
B-25 129, ch.130,
ph. 102. n.249. ph.3 15,
8-26 cb.130, ph. l OO, 351
8-29 103, 106, 109-
111, ch.130, 11.157
X8-1fi 354, 355
8arllnl 349-3i'i0
Curtiss CondO'/' 350,353
LWF 348
Martin 346, 341
bomber command 22, 23
bomber crew (beaf)') 17,
(b,18, n . pb.B8-B9.
homber Iroup (buf)') 21,
moftment of 186-18S
ilansport required 181,
bomblQl:, altitude 1
hiIh 3, 259, pll.301,
pb.302, ph.30S, ph.306,
pb.309, ph.312. ph.313,
ph.3lf. ph.316, 348
low 259, 260, 265,
290, ph.305. 326
medium 259, 265
minimum 259, U.261-8
air-to-air 265
anti-personnel 267
dayllKbt 259. 283-285,
denectlon 262. 263
dire 348
error 262, 263
horizontal 262
lire 341
night 283
orercast 264. 284,
ph.SU, 335, 336, 331
precision 2. 226. 259,
260, 262, 264, 283-4,
ph.30l. ph.306, 340
problem 259
range 11. 262,263
nm 18. t1.262. 265
shuttle 334
skip 201, 290, 351
strare 261,290
t echnique 260, 11.262-3
time lapse ineft'ectll.250-1
t orpedo 265
bombs 34
&lr -to· alr 264
anti -tank 341
arming or pb.11,152
combustion or 11.151
ertect of 150-52. ph.SOS
rncks for 18, 152. 332
rel ease 152, 263
stor"e pb. 82, 101, 281
types ch.150
uses of 258. 259
' relcht9 11.150
bomhslp;ht 221
precblon 200, 333
B>' nchronous 259, 262
SCOU 342
teleseope 262, 11.263
Bond. Col. C. F. 348
.NDU 373
DordeauJ: 335·g36
Borum In
ChIef of statr for Air 356
Cblefs of 8tatr, Combined
10, 33,34
Chiefsof Stair, Joint 10. 33-4
China Air Task Force 296.
331, 333
command, air force 20-24
command.ltytls of 20, ch.29
command, principl e 26. ch..29
Command, 5th Interceptor
Bougalnvllle ch216,292
Branshaw,Maj.Gen.C.E.. 15
Bt'!men 333. 336
Brereton, Lt. Gen. L. H.
ph.62, 288-9, 29:4.3SD-2
Bt'!tt. Lt.. Gen. G. H.
ph.61, 289, 332, 357
briefing 28, ph."81, 221, 219
Britain, as base 3.4,6.283
Brisbane 195
Broadwlck, C. 342
Bnmswlcll 285, 336-338
Bud&;et Flscal.mOl 12, 32
Bu];:a mp.216,324
Buna 332
Burma 295, ph-306, 330
Butler. MaJ, Gen. W. O.
"Buy a Bomber" plan 12S-9
cadres 110, 116
cadets. see AdaUon Cadet.!
<:&lro 195,213
Calcutta 195
camera, nerlal 112
map-making ph.85.114
telephoto 174
camoutlaie pb.82. 112,
114, 128,221,222.216
Camp Mystic 3S4
cannon, aerial 129,146
Cannon. Maj. Gen. J. K.
pb. 63.286
Canton Islands 195
Cape Gloucester mp.216.291
ea.rgo planes ph.82, 121
C-46 ch.130, ph.165.
C. 47 ch.l S0. ph.165
CoM ch.130. pb.1SS, 330
C-69 th.130
C.81 ch. l 31, cuLl55
career gunner 101
Carl lJbean Ai r Force 298,330
Carl blJean Defense Command
67,200, 332
Carolln, Capt. N. 344, 347
Casablanca directh'e 284
Cassino 286, 338
Castle 1Iot Springs 334
Catania 3SS
Cal/det (PT. l1) ph.161
cent rifugal force 245, :11.246
Chaniller,Cnpt.C. de F. 342
Channcl Coast 288, 330
chaplulns 30,46.89,90
Chartres ;l35
Chtll, n. ph.S28
cheml calorocer 30,46
Chemical Warfare Serrice
S4, 114 , 180, 210
ChennHult. Maj. Gen. C. L.
p11.04, 295, 3ln, g3S
CWer of Start. cb.13.33
64. 191,
Chinese-American Composi te
Wing 120, 296
chow call ph.8S
Christmas Islands 195
cited units 317
Ciphers 221, 228
CiYU Aeronaut ics Adminlstca-
tl on 36, 212, 336, 35ri
civil air carriers 5, 193.
194. 356
CiYU Air Patrol 36, 40,
cMI airport u pans1;;,n
program (CAA) 36,212
chilian personnel 96
ClVIUan l'i1ot Training Ad.
Claggett, Brig. Gen. R_ B.
Clark Field 311, 329
cl assifi cation 42, 108
cloud, com 240.270,284
types 11.240
Cochran. JacqueUne 334
Cocke, Lt. W. A. 353
cold weather t esting st ati on
176, 331
Cologne 338
combat ai r crew 5, 8,21,
101,110,116. 226
combat box 260
combat camera. crew 41. 112
combat experience 1i, 6,
110, 116
combat operations 34,254-
300, ph. 301-3l6
ai rborne 2n,290,pb. 301
1, 9, 36,
bom!>!r 23.25.214,
260-265. ph.301-303,
310. ph.312-3l G
fighter 23.25, 271-3
ph.S04. pb.315
ground-air operations 23.
24,25, 200
intruder rnlds 213
night fig hter 213
st rat egic 23, 25,
34, 214. n .255, 256,
259.265, l)h.30l·303.
ph.305, ph-S09. ph.312-
313, plL31G
tactical 23,25.34,214,
11.255. 257, 265. 269-
274, ph.S04, ph. 301,
ph.3 lG
Combat'Operatlons, AAF 282
combat win&: 200
Commands, AAF 12
see also Indivi dual titles,
as Alr SefTl ce Com.
Commander-In-Cb!ef fr. , S3
Commanding AAF
10, ch. 13, 14, 31, 34,
56, 229, 330, 335
Commando (C-46) ph. 165
Commando-type t ralnlng 106
communlcaUons 22, 28.
32. 41.109.115
airways system 193
alr-to-al r 280
alr. ground 18, 209, 228.
214, 280, 341, 34S,
346, 352
interplane 280, 346
world-lVide routes 193,
194, mp. 195. 241
Communicati ons Oft\cer
19. 30, 44, 46. lOS
compass, gyroscopic 170, 341
Coney, Lt. W. D. 341
Air Vi ce
Marshal Sir Artllur 333
cont rol tower 16, 11.208, 209
comalescent st ations 90,
ch. " l, 99. 119
copilot 18. 48, 111. 112
Coral Sea, battle of 330
CorkUle, Col. J... D. 352-3
CorneU (l' T-19) ph.167
Court ral 333
Cral l: , Maj. Gen. H. 11. 11
crash l andl rc 252. 11.253
Crane, Capt.. G. J. 365
Craw, Col. D. T. ph.323
crew chI ef 19
Crlssy. Lt. M. B. 342
Crocker, Col. 11. 6 . 349
Dakar 195
Dallas, Lt.. B. n. 352
damage assessment 279,
ph.303, pll.306, pll.3lS
Danzig 335
Dargue. Maj. Gen. n. A.
Danrin 31S
Daddson, Maj. Gen. II. C.
ph.04, 293, 294
Dulson. Col. T. 1<'_ 12
dayroom 89
dawn mission 226
dead reekonin$t 106.278
decorations 229-230, 11.236
defense, see also alrdefenle 16
alrbllse 209,210
hemi silhere "
Aid" 5,3:1, 356
de-king equipment 1301
denitrolenll.tlon 245
374 IDX
•• '1lI' aIInaneeI M.
_ 21. "'''. m, 1BO-
111. m1S2. la9·90,
eb.191. 199.201
Depat, Cmaander. AAB'
EI_Ddorfll"leld. Awb 829
r..derI 333. 885
emel'lme:)' lmdtna: 249-258
emelJetlCy I'tICUI!
Bmmonl, Lt. Oen.. D. C.
ph.59. 329, 3n
enemy aircrart destroyed 10,68
dartrorer-bue deal 213
diet. bleb alUtude 221.248
bleppe 331
dlleeUon-'luflnc 274.279
Dlndor d WODeD PUo18
dilperal 206. 226
dispenioo n.208,276
Dkt.anet 1Habta. He Ileeordl
Alastan 341. 353
H."ulan 351
Inter-A_rlean 349,
S5 l . 352. 353. 354
Ptdllpplnl!S 357
Round the world SilO, au
TranI·AUIU)Ue 350
Trant.('onUnenta] 341
348,349, 350, 352. 354
Trllll-Paclt\c 350
dltdJinc 228. 250. U.251
dlftTSiollal)" .mlon 221
Oobadul'lo lIIp.tI8. 211
doctrine. MF 2. 18
Dodd. CaJt. T. r. 342
DooUUJe. Lt.. Om. J. H.
ph.S!. 2S!!, 285. 286.
,un 380, 832. 333,
houaJq, U. B. W. 352
dnndratt 239
huh. Lt. D. 0. 3110
OImlap. Cd. L. R. 207
llunton, M..,. Gen. D. H. 348
Duaeldorf 338
Duteb HlT:lOr 291,331
OJen, Lt. Col. W. E. 331

Eater. Lt. Gen. I. C. pb.el,
283, 330, 3!12, 336, 352
II'.areeUon. Col. W. O. 352
Eut. lola,. J . W. 843
Eutem AI- Command 64
Eutem Dflense Command
330. 335
I!OIIIman4 20. 26. en2D
I lIIatnt.enmce
' 198, 11.199, 201
air I ll, 181. 188, 199
JI'Ound 19. 181, 188
'.dJoI •• MaJ. ('.en. O. P. II
lP.ce. Col. W.8. ]2
r.,lIn Field 15, 116, 351
279. 282. oI>.SO.
tDI!III7taeUes 258,264,289,
219, ph.S04. ph.315
dlanie ph.15
In-line dt.130.t36.11.140
radIal m.130.1I.l40,tH
enc!nurlni 346,341,348
1923 349
1925 351
World War 340, 346
ena;lneerlna otneer
19. eh.29. 108,111
Er1ctneering School 108
Englnem, Airborne
Engfneel"l, AmUon
46. ph.84. 109. 114.
210. 2l:'i. 21S. 223-226
Eilclneers, CoI'II$ 01
34. ISO, 212
enllllted lIIen 42. 53, 108
Military OeeuJ)Iltlonal
BpedaIUes (MOS) 'U,41
pa, and raUnp 55
Enl isted Restne. AC
Ent. 8111. Gen. U. G.
16. pb.60
Escadrille Allleriealne 343
eseape h.oItcbe& 11.249.250
eseort nr:hter
ph.SS, eh.lRl, 143. 251
t1Ioort rendezvous 221,273
EspIritu-Santo eh.216, 291
European 'nleater
EYaetJation. aIr
24, ph. AI. 94, 112
f)·AM, Brill[. Gen. F. W. 15
el'uhe action
111. 264, 265, 269
Jl'lIlrbanu. A1IIskll 195, 356
289,311, :'130
flltlglH!. nylng 248
l elltherlllll: 11.145
f1'fChet, Maj. Gen. J. E. 352
Federation Aeronautlque
Intematlol'lll ie 342
Ferrying Command
ferl'}'lna servlee
tlcbtlr eontrol 103.115,274,
ftchter eootrolltr 214, 215
ftabt.erl!KOrt.23, ph,88, 272..
0.212-3, 215, 284, 288,
292, pb.315, 334
"'httr ,roup 21
IDOfelllent of ] 88
"'htlrs ]26. 257,269
lIWII!UYerablllty 269-70
tattles 269-214, ph.315
P-35 354
P-S8 chISO, tut.1.36,
149, ph.162, 331-3.
P-39 eh.130, 149. ph. I S!'!
P-40 dl.I80.ph.163,332
P-47 eh.130,
146, ph.159. ph.:U 1.
ph.Sl5, 338. 334. 335
p.:i1 ch.130. ph. 158
P-6J 1Il,eh.130,llh.164
IInance oIYIcer 30. 46
lire. ancle or 11.266
IIrepo'lll'tr 146, 264. 266.
269, 272. 280, 342
FitzGerald, Brl,. Gen.
S. W. 342
nat. barl'&(e' 22i. 228, 265
Bult ph.73,227
naps I ll6, D.lll8, 139, 146
Fleet. Commander-m_
Chlero! the 33
IIlght 260
eft'eet on-body 242
ftl,bt commander
]7,27, th.29
night oontrol 28. 122'. 338 .
ll'llabt Control. Command
IIItl:ht leader 11. ] 8
IIIRhtomcer 52,104, J06. 7
IIlght IUTlteM 19,30.11.51,
94. 111-18. 248, 844
F10renee 338
fbotnc. fonna,tlon 8, 110. 259,
11 .261.264,210, 341
low-al titude 1] 2
Flying su Arlatl on
F'Iytng FortrESS CD-17)
F'ly:lnrSafetr, (lmte of
lIylnuult ph. 73. 246. 247
FlyIng TIller! 296. 320-31
IIY111& training pb. 7D,104.
BlleUm 331
IQ Alamelll 288-289
eleal'Oflle dn'lcet
19.3. 330. 352
FIdeI, Maj. Gen. J. E. 342
Ileld lIafety ] 22
I!a:llter-bomber 21, 23. J IJ,
I1'b1I1& Training rommand.
l!Ce AIIIO trAlnlns: nnd
Tralnloa Olmmand
fog 11.239
Foggla 2] 5. 285, ph.309, 1l44
foreed l&lldlnl 2ri2
172, 264,
ClI..." Lt. C.
284, 300
J1, 260
th.ISI. 25i. 268. 272
nghter tommnnd 22, 2S
foreign sales 5,35
Foreign Senlce Concentrn_
tlon Qjmllland 331
forest lire patror 346, 348
formatlon,lIyinl 8,110,
1I.261, 264, 270-1, 353
bomber 8, ph.88. 110,
259,.il261. 853
tighter 8, 270
Formosa 296. ph.30S
Fouloill, Maj. Gen. B. D. 840,

fragmentation bombs. see
al80 parafrap 150
Frank, Maj. Gen. W. n.
free faU
Free "'rencb
285, 337. 338
aid in air routes 213
rrostblte 246
fuel. avlflUon 142,149,110
monthly rate of use 190
fuzes 151
(lnQ Air Foree 9, 14.
Gaft'ney, Brig. (len.. D. V. 349
(lardner,BrIa.(len.B.E. 15
garnished nels 221
Gates, 8rlg. Gen. B. E. 11
Keoetal purpose bombs
(GI') !lISO.l51
(leneral Statr
9, eb.lS, 32, 34, 3S0
generators 146
air foree 4, 285, 287,
ph..3M, ph.308, 331,931
defenses 8, 116,264,283
industrial s)'Stem
I , 2. 3, 33, 284 ,285,
286, ph.a02, ph.303.
ph.305, ph.S13, ph..316
George, Maj. Oen. II . 1..
15, ph.61
GllbertJslands 215, 294, 335
Giles, Llrlg. Gen. B. fI' , pb.66
Olles, Lt. Gen. LI. l'ol
10, ph.58. 100
glider ph.83, 112, 135, 353
pilot training lOG
In SIcily 334
t.ugets 850
CO-4 eh.132, ph.16G,334
CO-I ll ph.83,
ch.lS2, ph.16G
global network, AAF 1,6, 7
Goddard. Col. O. W. 351
Goose Uay. LabrfldOf 195
Grant, Maj. Gen. O. N. W. 12
Gmy, ClI llt. If. C. 351
gray vision 245
Great Falls. Mont. 195
Green lslandil 202
,round erew 8,19,44.
ph.14. 199, 201, 226
composition 19
Ground Observer Corps
96, tUn
lroundunlts 8,17,113-115
duties ] 14, lUi
mo'ement 20, 186, 181
Iroup 20,21, 260
orgrmb .. Uon 20
strenath or typical AAF
Ameritlln Volunteer
(AVG) 296,320-331
Antisubmarine. 480tb 320
44th 319
93rd S19
98th 319,331
316th 319
389th 319
Fighter,49th 318
Troop CarrIer, 314th 319
Guadaleanal 195,213,
eh..216,290, 292,384
Gulf Task Foree 330
gwmery IS, 111, 280. 350
clock system 11.2S1
sebool ph.80, 105, 122
guns 136, 140-149
fixed 146,11. 141,
269.281. 347
flexible ph.1S.1l.147,34. 7
147, 3:42,347,350
controlled 146
gunslghUng 147,281
il.170, 171, 347
Halnan 296
IIRlbersladt 3S7
Hale, 1\Iaj. Gen. W. n .
nall. DrI,. Cen. W. E 11
Jlamburg 836
Il lI milton, Col. P. M, ph.323
hangars 209
Hanover 285,387,338
Uansell. Drlg. Gen.
II . S., Jr. 11
n ardlng. Lt. J. 350
hardstand 20G. 11.207. 228
Har mon, Lt. E. E. 34.G
Harmon, 1\IaJ. Gen. II. n.
ph.6a, 291. 298
Hannon. Lt. Gen. M.
Harper, Maj. Gen. R. W, 11
Harriman mission 357
Harris. Lt..II . n. 347. 340-5'0
Hartz. Lt. Col. It B. 34G
Harvey, Col. A. L. 357
HawaIIan Air Force
293. 330,S57
IIl1yes. Brig. Gen. W. I' . 299
llavoc (A-20) ph.l04
Haynes, nrlG. Gen. C. V.
355, 351
n eadqunrters, Mil'
button n.10
patch n.235
Hedrlek, Brig. Gen. L. n. 12
Jl egenberger, Brli- Gen.
A.F. 351 ,353
be]lt:opter 134-5, 330, 349
Berliner 348.350
Sikorsty ch..132
n-4 eh.132. ph.. 166, 329
hemisphere defense 4
Henderson li'le1d 213, 292
!leroya 284,334
IlIckllm Field 320, 353
I1Igh School Vlelol')'
Corps 40, 121-122
lUmalaya air route, see
"Hump" route
RoUand. Col. H. H. 349
1I0lioman. Capt.. G. V. 855
Hong-Kong 296
Hornet, U.S.N. 321, S30
hospitals 92
housing 28
alrbase D.208, 209, 225
lIughes.2nrtU.L.U. ph.. 827
"Hump" route 1,196,
Humphries. Lt. b'. E. 389-4. 1
iluuter, Maj. Gen. F. 0'0.
]6, ph..59
Hutchins, Col. D. L. 349
''] Bombed Oub 7
lba, P. I. 329
Iceland 331.833
Ielng: U. 238
ljmulden 333
35, 149-151, pb.S01
ammunition 149
bombs 150-1, ph.307, 334
India-China air route 196.
2tHi, 296, 320, 330
information 2;4
Insignia 54-5,232, n.234
installntions. AAF 14, 2 10
Inspecti on 30, 31, 11 1, 202
l!\Speclor General 30
120, ph.lG9, 170, 247
engIne ] 7"0
flight ] 20. 110, 353
M\'!gat!on ph. 72,170
Instnlm(:nt panel. U-11
Intelligence 11,16,19,
21,28, ch. ZO, 46
intelll!;enee 11 7, 218
c:lptnred 111,280
combat 117.219
28, 219, ph.SOS
intercept omcer 274
lntercellt tacties 209

... :eepll:r at_II 0.215
IDWn:IpUoG 28. 228
IDteUIpnee 28.2211. 2i9
prIIaner 0' .... 28, lIT
IatenabllC.er sea
IMnIder nidi 218
InIN. Cap\. C. .. 355
1n1Dc. leIlit 3f6
291.318. SSO
• Mal. I. J. paS2?
250, 268
.I0bns0n. )bJ. OeD. D.
Johnson. Brl&. Gen. n. A. 352
Johnson, Drt&- Gen. J,.. W.
l olntAlreraftComlDlttee 35
Jones. ( apt. B 350
JoDeS. It. B. Q. 342
Jones. III1&: . OeD. J. W. 12
judie .oeate SO, 46
JoueU, Maj. J. H. 351
KIM, O:lL I . B. pb. S26
KonIG'" (A7·11) plLl 6T
KaradJI 195
Kauer1le Pus 287
Kaflml: Dlp.2lB.338
Kearb,.OII. N. Eo ph.S2S
Ke1I1. (apt , C. P. 329
KeU, Fiel d 348,356
Kelb. ( 01. O. G. 347·349
Keher. Col. B. 8. 355
Kenl,. MaJ. Gen. W. L. 346
Kemer. LL Gen. O. C.
ph. 6S, 289, 331
Kepner,Maj. Om. W. E-
352, 353
Klwto4I. 195. 21 3
Kiel 333, 33G
KlfldJe" LL 1'. 345
Kilb 282.297-8,331.
KOInI • • Cot. T . .I. 348
Knut. BrI, . Om. W. I1'. 852
KunmhlJ: 195. 320
KurUe 1. lands 298. 334
Kuter. Maj. Gal. 1.. B. 11
" IUD 116,331
Lafayette Eseadrlil e
1I.232, 343
w;.-- Capt. r. II. 344
• !Ibl. Om. r. D.
take IAre 839-341
_Ina, dow 131, 188
136, 139, 146
......... au 206, 216,
220, U.22J . 225
". l tr1p 208. 211
Landll. Col. a. O. 345
Lt. R. Ii'. 341
Laneley Field 343,3H.
347. 3t8, 353
LancII!J'. 8. P. 841
Lanphier. Maj. T. O. 3tD
unon. Maj. Gen. W. '1'.
16, ph.60. 300, 832, 358
La1l1lOf1. Lt. B. H. 352
UctslaUve 8eniees,
OftIeuf 12
5. 35, 19), 920. 951
In tralnln& 35. 120
Ua1son. air and semce com-
mands 23.36. 218
plants 126. eh.132
1r4 eh.132
. irS dl. 132, ph.166
LiberalOJ' (B-24) ptL154
UbI!rt.y. DR4 344
life rarts 250.252
IUe fest (Mil! West)
. . 221.250
Llghtnlng (P-38) pb. 162
Ull e 332
I!IM! ehl er 19
Lint Trainer
II d
H , 0. 105, 109, 121
qui -eoolln& 140
Loetwood, Lt. R. 349
Iotisties 28, 177, 178
IAl ri ent 332
lm'eu., RobertA. ph.58, lOO
low-Inel bombing. see
bombl na:. low-altitude
Lowry Field 356
Lll(hrllt!l ha' en 336,338
lAI t e. U . FrUit J r. 345
Lynd, Maj. Gen. W. E.
I .. 16, ph.60
..., on, Bric. Gen. E. B. 299
Mabry, capt D. 348
Mae&BW' St raU 330
machine guns
ph.13. 146-1.40, 11.141,
269, 281. 342. 346
Macnady. Lt. Col. J . A.
341,348,349. 351
Mnda01t 336
maintenance 28. 197
eehelons 198, 11.199·201
emergency 198
in ft lllht 18. 198. 200
Il'IIIpection record 202
met hods 200. 201
mobile ] 81. ] 98, 200
In theaters
] 9. 28. 47. ph. H, 178
181, 183. 108· 201 228
225-plane mission . 108
Maintenance Command. AC
Maitl and, U. Col. L J . 351
Matin 335. 330
Management Control 11
Mandalay 205. 332
Manuracturer', Repn-
sentatJ\'es 203
Marauder tB-28) ph,180
March n eld 853
MUrtlll, BIt. H. 342
Mureth LIne 281
ph.812.S1S, 335
&t&rlne{;oI1ll, U. 8. 292. 294
ManelUlI 286
marshallll( 221
Marshall hlands 215. 294
Marston lIIat 220, U.221
MartlD. Maj. Om. F. L. 293
mass attack
2, S, 25. 257, 282, 284-
Materiel Command
14, Hi. 96, 108. 118,
124. 125. 114, H.115
Materiel D1dslon
9. 15. 852. 354
Materi el , Maintenance and
I)\strlbuUon 11
lIathls, Lt. J. W. ph. 323
Matthews. Lt. T. K. 35 1
Maubol'lRe, Lt. J. O. 842
Maughan, Col. R. L.
348. 340,850
Mauna Loa 354
MWfeU Fteld 353, 356
McClelland, Brig. Gen.
R. M. 12
MeCoot Field
344, 346,34'1', 349
McEntire. Capt. G. W. 348
McKenny, Lt. J. C. 344
McMull en. Lt. C. 350
McNamey, Lt. Oen. J. T.
medals 229. iI.236
Medal or Honor men.
AAF 320· 328
lI ubbard 354.
National Safety Council
MedJeal Corp9
medical omcel'll
46, pil:81. 111
mediealSllrety division 122
MedllerraneUI Allied Air
Force 61, 286
Mediterranean Theatt r
01, 285, 2ff7.288
Menther, Maj. Gen. C. T. 845
Messina 280,384
meteorolou 95, 106
meteorologyofftcer 22, ..
Mi ddl e East Air Foree
Mi dway 294,331.332
Mill 386
Mllitary. Avllltor (MA)
Military Aviator, Jr •
(JMA) 342.348
Mili tary (ktupaUonal
Specialti es 45 46 41
military poll ee 22. 46-7.
l HI. 210
l\1l\1er. Brig. Gen. L. W. 12
Mill ing. Col. T. de W. 342
Mills. Lt . n. n. 350
Mitchel Field 16,347
M it chell (11· 25) ph.102
Mit chell (8·25 ) atta.ck
model cut. l 0l
Mitchell, Brig. Gen. W. E-
343, 344,346,8
mock. up 133
modification center 134, 211
l\t orrett fc' leJd 356
MOrgM. Lt. J. C. ph. 325
Moseley. Lt. C. C. 347
Moti on I' lcture Unit. 1st III
movement, oversellS 188
8111mdron 19,20,28, 188
In tbealera 28, 186, 181
Muller. Capt. n. Le R. 342
Munster 338
Mm tang (P·51) ph-158
NACA 35. 96. :143
Nac.tzab mp:216, 225
Nogo),a 330
Naples 289, 332,335
Nauru 294, ph.310, 335
Navarrlno Day 28l\
navlgaUon 106, 239,2'1'8· 9
navigational aids
115,122. 241, 218
navigator 18. 42,43,
pb.72. ph. 81, l OG. 112
training ch. l 02. 103.
105. 121. 356, 351
NtJvi{ltJt or (AT·7) ph.l 0'l'
Navy, U. S. 9, 34. 202,
204,300, 33a
Neely, Lt. n. L, 354
Nelson. Lt. Jil II. 350
New DeIhl 330
New Guinea eampalgn
23, 290. 310. 338
New Jerle", t est bombing
of 350
Nichols Field 31'1', 329
night fighter 7. 111,
eh.130, 273. 345
nlght' islon 244, 2011
nitrogen 245
Nort h African campaign
25, 26, 36. ph. 80. 284.
2S7, 288, 323. 332
Northwest African Ai r
Forces ch.24 , 25.
20, 281, 333, 335
Nonmea 105
nurses 4. '1' . 94
thltles of 118
11.51, ph.81,94, 118
obsen·atlon. see Tecon·
nal ssance
obJed hes 4. 284
IUiO.1, 101, 111, 118
octane ratings 142,143
Orocer Candidate School
15,39. 107, 108, 330
Admini strative 107, 108
omcers. Insignia 11. 54.
l\1II1ta.ry Occupational
Special ties 46
pay 53, 54
squadron 10
starr 111
Ogden. I,t, 11 . n. 350
Old. lI r1g. Gen. W. O. 555
OIdneld, M;l.J. II . n. 12
Olmstead, Lt. It S. 349
Opera. tl onaJ. Tra.l nlng
Unit!! ph.80, 103,
109. ] 11, 111. 290
Operations ch. 29
operations bulldln!; 1I. 208·!)
Operations, Commitments
and Itequlrements 11
19. ch. 29. 4G. 218
8 peratlons and Training 21
32,34. 41 , 115, 180
ordnftnce omcer 19, 81, 4G
organization D. 32
air rorce 1'1'·21
squadron 19
filArr 21
wing 20
orientation 16, 43. 89
Oschersleben 331
OBt/Tics/a1Id, test bomb·
Ing or 541
overcast 172.242
overcast.bomblng 1'1' 2. 264,
284. [Ih. 314.335·7
shl[l ment 188·100
oxygen 28. 110.242,
[Ih.73. 134, 11.243, 244
systems 113.114,
PAA. air base e:l:pansion 213
l'aclne'I'hea.ter mi-tlO,
ph.n. ph,82. 190
Central 203. 204
North 291. 298
South 65,289,290
Sout hwest 291,202
Palermo 280
I'unama Canal Air Force In t heatel'll 94. {l 5
t raining 94, 108. 118
nylon 112.113
Plln1l. 1'Io, 1. New Tn land :\38
Pnntellerln 287.280.3:\4
1' 1l1111unl··orces. U. S. 318-9
parachut e 44.172,250
Obert rallbl nng 286
cargo ph.82,
jumps 244,340, 341,348
personnel 41. 172· 3 , :i 42
troops 121. 277, 352
pal'llfrags 2G8. 290,
l' aramushlru 334, 33ri
paratroopers 35, 11 2.
271, pb. 301, 351
PariS 33G
Parker. Brig. Gen. J . E. 852
parking aprons 20:;
Parmnlee , Lt. r . W. 342
pas-de-Calais 33G. SSR
patch". shoulder 11. 233
sped allsts' 11A5
pl ane 211
Patrick, lI r1g. Gen. M. M.
Patterson Field 15,335. 354
pay 54· 5, 342,343, 346
l' earl Harbor
3.5,294, 329,351
Pearson. Lt. A. 340
Pease, Capt. II. Jr. ph,322
penetration 213
Performance Number
Senle 142. 143
Perr1n. Brig. Gell. E. S. 11
Pershi ng. Gen. J.. J. 343
l' ersonal Alt'alrs Dldslon
89. 00
Women's Branch 98, 09
Personal equipment omcer
40, 117,227, 249
11.21, 28, ch.20, ch.30
civilian 31, 96
c1assillcatlon of 28
enlisted men 47
growth 38, ch,30, 9G
military 38. 42
omcer 39.46
redistribution of 38
Philippine Air School 342
Phlli l)plne Department
Ai r t-'orte 280.351
Phlll ppine l sland3 nttacked
by 329-:\0
by Japllnese 329-30
phologra.phlc omcn J9.2:!.
80. 44.40. 108. 227, 228
Photography. aerial 41.
111, 174, 219. 280.
341. 844. 351
photo.lnlerpretatlon 11 'f.
114.210. ph.S03. ph.30G
pholo.reconnalsstmCe 24,
28. ph.85. 111. 174.
278. 200. 325, 348. 350
phYSical fitness ph,86. SD
pilot 18. 27 . 42, 43,
ph. '1'0 , 1)1\· 88
41.9,11.51· 2. 343.341
t est ]75.170
trnlnlng ch. l 02.103· 5
women 95,96, 334
_ 100.m
DIteb 0.144. 14:1, 346
)oiaDel, tee alraln. also bJ
t,. (oo.btr. etc.) • b,
Dllltl (A arocobro, et.e.)
PlUII:I, f.l1, 20, 27-8,32-4
plMtk. In plmes 131
PkIeIU 284. 289. pb.SO:;.
319. 828. 331, 334
Pbnod 131
PoD; , Col 0. W. Jr. 848
Port lI.oreIbJ 195. m2la
debubUoa c:b. 182. 100.
_lark,UOD lSD,ml9l
predllon oolDblnc 2. 226,
200-264,283-4, ph.301,
plaOa. plL30S. pb.aOD,
ph.31S. ph.3U. 340
predlettd ftre 265
Prepaatlon lor Overseas
ifmment (POM) 31
PltiQlll! Isle lap.lOl
Prest"iet 195
Price, CoL G. Co 12
air tflJllP)rt 198.191
1aDdJ¥ 2HI.228
184. 281
alre.'&fl 115.124,125
penoanei 28,38.42
IUPJba 179-184
IIf'OIktd,Ioft. IllIo tee alreratt
123. m.12 • • 11. 153,179
UJIIDIion 5, 123. 355
S-QPtLer135. 14l,U.144-45
_.Jot '"
PM1nc; Ground Command
1!J 32, 176. 338, 351
pnttOI1 •• nhal 30. 46
publk: relaUOIII 28, 46
ruu-. Lc.. D. E. 345
QaarUrauur Corps 31
__ . m. ,iid
_lion Mar. 362

Rabia1 m2HI. 290, 291
.. 818, 322. 335
Oo,jon Bennett 341,352
IJbtrty EI18lne 847"-9
Natlor.al Air 850-2
Natlonal Ballo01'l 348,
_ .,. 349. 350. 352
.-u ur 347 -51
8ctnelckr Seaplane 8!5l
22,35.46.91, 107
108, 114, 274
clbtmer 101,111. 118
aJr to ,round 18, 280,
&.. __ 3U, 344, 346, 352
-- 2ft
operator 18, 43,
piL1Z, 107. Ill,.1U
raRaunhal 115,252
BIDdolpb F1dd 16, 353,
nncJnc. 1D rmmer1 281
Bancoon 295
rat ...
aeronautlea1 48, S2. 348
rKOCnltion 105 112
".Recommendations for' Cone
duet of \be War," Mr
reconnaIssance 23, 103,
photo Ill, 218, 278.
taetleaJ 112,218
reeonnalssanee planes
ph.85, 121, 251
Ill, ch.131, 138 N
' -6
112, m131
Ill, eh.I31
altitude 342-48,351,353;
croS9-e(luntry 342,346,
348, 350, 352, 353
wratlon 342-3,348-52
lone dlstance 332, 342,
343, 346-350
paraehute 346, 341, 348
speed 349-355
strat.o!lphere 353-354
Bed CrosS', see Amerlean Red
RedJst.rlbutlon Centers 16,
4.1, 90, ch.91, 334
redout 245. lI.248
Rtlensbul"lt 284-6,334,337
RebabUltaUon 90. 99
Renault worb ph309,333,
Re1ldoTa mp.216
ReplacemtTlt center 116
Benluement TralnlJII: Unlta
rest CIImp ch,9t, 334
pitch 144, 346
r"etment 201,11.210
Richter. Col. J. P. 349,350
Rlckenbachr, Capt. E. V.
" 'h 100, 232, 345, 353
"res I t 141
Rio de JllItero 195
RJllkan 236
Robey, Capt.. P. 355
roekets, projectUe 141. US
"I.... 264, pb.304
R oma 341
289, 334, 338
lII&I.&l-tUr-&lDt 335
Roomelt. F. D. fr., 355
Rouen 331
Royal Air Fol'tfI 283-5,281
Army CooperaUon Com-
mand 25
Royal Aul1.raUan Air Forte
IUDnJ' 205-6. 219-20. 225
t)'pical eonstruct&oo 212,
Roree,M.tJ,Gen.R. 343.352
8-1.8-2.8-8, S-t 21-8.
wetyeducatlon 122
Salerno 226,241,281,335
San Antonio, 343,849,358
Samoskl, LL J. JL p\l.325
satellite fi el d 211
8clJroeder. Maj. R. W. 844-7
8ehll'elnrurt 28f, 834., 335
scramble 214
&leetil'e Senlte 40
Selfridge Field 848, 353
Selfridge, Lt. T. E. 339 841
Senti'lel (L-5) ph.166
llen'iee, centers ph,15, l S1-3.
cll,182, 11.192,199,200
ribbollll 230-231,11.236
squadrons 22,200-1,221
shelter 201 210
Sherman, Lt. W. C. • 342
Shoptaw, LL J . W. 349
Short, Lt. Gen. W. O. 329
Sicily 281
Sip&l Corps 35,115,180,
aviation 9, 229, 339- 43
Simmons. O. O. 341
Simpeon Harbor 336
Skeel. Capt. E. E. 350
(C-5f) pb.l65
Sklltrcm (C-47) 165
slit trench 210
Smink, 81t. G. E. 341
Smith, Floyd 346
Smith, U . H. D. 850
Smith, Col. 1.. H. 349 350
Smith, Sgt. FIf. H. ph. 324
Smith. U. CoL R. D. 12
8oereba)'a. 318,334
Sofia. 280, 330-331
soil. slllblllty 206,220
Solomons-Nell' Guinea. eam-
p<1lsn 36, 2ItS , mp,21G-
paatz. Lt. Gen. C. ph,Ol,
283, 830, 332, 333,
335, a52
lpsre part.. 170
Special Projects 12
Speclal 8ervictl 46
special serYlee omcer 30
,peelalUes, tectmlC&l 45
fPOtters 98 99
Sprlnp, Capt. E, W. iWi
sQuadron 11, 19. 21, Ad
supercharger 13G. 138,
141, 11,142. :Wl , 352
administration 19,45,
1 i. 26
i nsignia
Aero, 1st ("Dr) 342-4
Aero pursuit, 103rd
(AEF) 344
Bombardment , 11t h 353
96th 344. 354
435th 11.318
Nleuport 124.11. 232,243
l' ro,'15lonal , 29th (AEio')
Pursuit, 11th 11.318
94th U,232,344
Brig. Gen. D. F. 348
starr 27. ch.29
omcers ch.29,111
organization 21
special 30
StalT College, Army-Navy
35, 111
StalT Course 118
staging, nrea ch.191,1 89
field 205,211,225
Statistical Control Officer
30, 32.46
Stephens. Lt, 0, S. 351
Stevens, Lt. CoL A. W.
348. 352, 353, 354
Stewart Field 331
Steyr 286
storage 28,206,207,219
bombs ph,82. 181, 201
gasoline 181,201, 11.208
011 181,207, iI.208
straftnit 25,273, 282
strategic, alrbase 214.
air force 20. 23-26. 258,
283, 284,333,331,341
command 258
operations 6, 23, 34,
214, 226, U.255. 283,
284, ph.301, ph,302-
303, ph.305; Jlll.309.
ph.312-313, ph.31S
taTl:et!l 1,2.34,124
St rategic Atr Forces In
Europe, U. S. 61.63, S3G
strate"y 226, 254,251
Stratemeyer, Maj. Oeo. O.
Street. Maj. Gen. 8t. C. 341
strengt h, A,W 5,6.37-38,
9G, 329, 334, aHB
Air Corps 3M. 355
Air Seo'ice 346-351
Aviati on Section. S. C.
341.342, 343
1n Nntlonnl Guard 39
typical AAF unit. ch,21
Stuttgart 331
subbase 211
submarine warrare 6, 36,
284,299,300, 320, 329
aubstratos"here 138
SuperCortress ( " .20) 103.
111, n.151
supply 15.21,28, ch. 29.
45, p1l.81. 117-184
rurnlshed by AAIi' to
Army 183
for onrseas units 181.
190. ch. IOI
procedures eh. 182,183
rel'erse lend-leaSt! l S4.
In theaters 28. ph.S2,
180-4, ch.182
1000-bomher mlS&lon 180
types required 170
Swub, Lt. J. M. 1145
SlI'eeley, Lt. L. D. !H6
Sydney 195
Table of .. :qulpment (TI E)
Table or Organization
(T/ O) 18,341
tactic!!.I, airbase 214
air fo rce 20, 24, 25, 26,
287, 288, 333, 3:!T
bombardment 2a, 25,
265, 261, 281, ph,30G
command Hi, 258
cont rol cent er 2Hi
operation9 25.26, 28,
34, 214, n,255. 257.
265, 275
targets 25, 26, 34. 251,
26u, 287, 288
unit training 16,35
Tactlea.l Center. AAF 16.
32. a5. 116- 118,
Tactical School. A. C. 353
tactics 32, 116-7, 254,258
bomber 260·269, 290
fighter 269·274, ph.SlS
Jlghter-bomber 208
tallillrul 18, 330
t anks, droppable 1:\G.143,
334, 335, 349
seU-seallng 143, 346
T1I rawa 19a, 294. 3Sa
19, 3:1
analysis 19, 2S. 227,256
area 258
fUe d and fl eet\nl( 2110
selection of 28.33,34,06,
221,250, 257,2iO. 284
strategic 25, IN. 124.
11.25(;. 256, 2M
tattlel'! 34, U,255,
257, 205, 281, 288
tu: llI'ay 205, 207, 225
teamll'ork. In AA\I' 8, 34
36. 101, 110. 214
Technlclli Training Com-
mand, set: 'J'rll.!nlng
Commllnd. Tethnltal
omctOr 12
teclullque 32, 116, 255
t erh, order!!
t eclmlcal slleClalists 11.4:;,
47,48, 53,355
t empt!ralUre, at various
altitudes 1L240, 246
tests 42-3. 10"
Teum (AT-6) ph.167
Th ..llInnd 295. 332
llldl.ter commander, ground
rorces 22, ch.29
Thomas. Brill:_ Gen. A. 340
Thunderbolt (P-41)
thunderhead 241
Timberlake, Brig. Oen. P. 11
Tinker. Mllj. Oen. C. 1..
tim 130
Tobruk 288
Tokyo 321, 330
torpedo, aerial 341
Toul on 2S6, 336, 338
tOll'target 106.350
traekl nK (In gunnery) 2S1
track plan 222
trainers '1 , 127
AT-6 104,ch,132, ph.161
AT-1 ch.132, ph.l01
AT-IO 104, ch. 132.
I'T- 17

106, ell. 132,
cb.132, ph.lS1
ch.132, ph.161
c11.132, ph.161
5. 11, 15, 16,
AF.F 344
Admlnlstrsth'e 108
air transport 113, 194
basic 43, 103, 104. 108
bombardier cb.102, 103,
105, 356,
c:h1l1an 5,36, 121
combat 16. pll.SO, 103.
110, 116, 299, 356
combined 113
commando-t ype l OG
contract 355, 356
cOlll'aleseent 99. 119
crew 41. 101. 110, 116
rescue 11 8.
enlist ed men 41, 108,
113, 114, 115
fIghte r 105
rordgn student 35, 120,
grolLnd units 35, 113-11 5
Instructor H, 120, 355
l end. lease 35,120
medical ofI\eel'll 108
officer 41. lOS. 116-11S
on-the-job ph.18. 113
o"erli eIlS 24,28,116
sUlrr Course 35. 118
13.35. ttl
&rooIHU1'Iet )07
anh 21. 105
Wed"'" 331
,..... 38.fO,121
trDdII aWl 85, pb.1'8.
'tnIaIIIAIdl DlridGn 121
,.....en--·nd 14.15,
IS, 16. 103. 122. S3t
If. lS. 102. )03, 329,
tnb ... o-.and. Ttdt-
__ 102
)131 8,355
lItO 355.358
'I"IIIDlnI Prorra-. Collt1e
&raInInc 'lDltI 18
... raUonal J)h..8O. 103,
109. 11 t. 299
"""1a1a Fe.....,.. CoaI-
.... 330
bltbutert 22.178.191-.
'I'ranIpo11. 8e"lee. Nortb
338, 357
tranIportalion IIItd by AAI'
242. 334
Troop c.rler Cm. .. nd 15,
ttS. 0.196, 223, 331
Nur mt., 289, 335
ill &butm 23,24. 118
troop came,..,eratllms 198
InIGp curler unitt
.,. . 112.m.
Collier S38, 350, 353, 855
........ 1aD 355
DaedaIan 355
rnnk Luke, .Jr. 353
UbertJ BufMers
148. "49,3:;0.352
.... , 842-3,348·355
.leba L IIltdMU at8--81i2
8rta. Om. W .. &.
Id'eEWer 851
V.,... 856
Ird 215.291
'!MIl TIDl 1IP.216.225
"-lIIID aapaIpI T.
287.289, pb.808
..... In
&Iube ....... rpr ...
tart.lIDet U.239, tn
188, 338
turnarounds table 185
tumtl 18.146.348
.. ,-pes 18. H1,itUS,17S
'nJtow 337
Tw1n1nc. Maj. (;en. N. 11'.

Unit Citations 229, 31 '1
updnUt 239
UJiltoh, Bril. Gen. J. B.
U88K 338
Volimlt ph. 161
Vandenbft'l. ita.,i. (]en. II. 8.
Vaapan. Lt. 0. A. 345
\ 'ecesaet 323,333
,ertlW tntelopment 225
Vel')' pistol 252
VirqJnio, tnt bo.blfll( 350
,0lWltter Ilorktrs in AM"
VtUl'IDI' AdalnistraUon 90
Vl&:an 329
Vlllaorba 337
Villa PeroA 286
Wade. Lt. L. 348, 350
nlJt cun 18, pll. 73
Wake Island 294, 332, 338
Walcheren bland 333
nlt-around bottle 244
Walter, Bril. Gen. K. N.
Walah. Maj. Gen. R. LeG.
War Department 3. 32. J4,
AAJ' place in ch.lS,33,119
War. 8tcretarr of 13
War, AlsI,tant Secreta..,.,
'or Air 13.58, 129
War, Undtl'leCrri.Jry of 13
War Manpower Co_tulon
3 •
War Pmdletlon Board 35
Warhnwk W-40) ph.IS3
. ·arrlnt omeer 52
WA8PS 1).51, pb.,16. 92,
u a"apon
11. 95
• ather 28, 48, lOi, 238,
16, 22,35,
oftIm 30, 46, 108, 111,
Wtlther 8el'Tlce 35. ph.T6.
Wen!'-r RqI,adron 354
W llher Wlnc 16
\\' H1.em Defente Command
WutDrer, BI1I. Ocn. O.
Wewu 225, au,
Wheeler Fidd 329
Whitt. Capt. E. 11'. 348
White, Brl,. Gen. T. D. 11
WhItely. Col. J. Jr, 350.354
Withi£n (AT-IO) ph.J61
Wiener toeustadt 286,
289, 334, 335-336
WllhelmlMyeh 333,331
Wlilon. 811,. Gen. D. 11
Wilson. Lt. J. H. 341
wlmls n.238, 23!)
wind tuMel 133. 115
,,-Inc tyPtl U.137
lI'!ng, in &ir force 20
WIn( 260
Chlntlt-Ameriun Com-
posite 120. 296
India-China 320. 338
.. Ines 11.49-50, 104. 106-1
withdrawal 272.213
Women', Army Corps (Air
Wac) ph.16, 92, 93
.omen In A ..... F 92, 98
Women VoluntunI 91,98
WOIIIen'! Alrforee 8emee
Pilot!, Ate WASP8
Women'! P'lJ1n& TrainIng
Procr!m ' 95,334
Woodru.. Lt, I. A. 352
Wooten. Brie. Gen. R.
World Wlr I 9, 340, 343
Aet!I 345
alr-Itfound cooperation 34 2
AIr 8cn1ce 9, 340.
Balloon Companies 344
Chateau-nllerry 344
rombllt 8l1mmsry 345
complrlson with .Ir Wlr
today 210
bomhrd 344
ftyinlC ftelm 343, 344
Meuse-Argonne orrenslve
8t. Mlhlet. battle of 3U
technlclll developments
:'140, 345
WrlCbt FIeld 15, 108. 114,
3!i0. :)52
Wrlt:bt, O. 339-842
Wright, W. 338,341,3012
XU-Hi, lite bomber
YIlr\Ctze nllef 334
Y"koha"", 330
)'outh lrlllnln( lUI, 40, 121
Yount, Lt. Gen. B. K. llS.
Zettmer. Maj. J. , Jr.
ZtUel. Lt. U. G. Sri I
Zulder Ztt 333
( .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful