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LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE MANAGEMENT

CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP


21ST CENTURY APPROACHES
LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES

LECTURE 2

BY

RAHAT KAZMI

SEPTEMBER 2010

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Content:
Contingency theories of leadership

– Favourability of leadership situation


– Quality and acceptance of leader‟s decision
– Path-goal theory
– Maturity of followers

21st century approaches

– Transformational leadership
– Transactional leadership
– Inspirational leadership

Leadership development initiatives


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Objectives:
 To define what is meant by leadership

 To examine the different styles of leaders in terms of


their focus and nature

 To discuss the concept and measurement of leader


effectiveness

 To apply the issues surrounding leader, leadership


style and effectiveness of leaders to own experiences

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LEADERSHIP IN THE
WORKPLACE

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Definition of leadership:

“as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an


organized group in its efforts towards goal setting
and goal achievement”
(Stogdill, 1950: pg 3)

“(the) process by which one person directs group


members toward the attainment of specific goals”
Moghaddan (1998; pg 455)

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Your experience of ‘good leadership’!

 Think of someone who has held a position of


leadership over you & whom you have been happy to
work for

 What made them able to lead?


 What made them able to organise a group
effectively?
 What made you happy in the group?
 What made you want to co-operate with the leader?

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Key issues of leadership in work:

 What sort of leader can keep a group together?

 What sort of leader can make the group


productive?

 What sort of leader can maintain a good deal of


job satisfaction among the group members?

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Contingency theories of leadership
• Favourability of leadership situation- This was an experiment
carried out by Fiedler where the relationship between leadership
and organizational performance was considered.
• Fiedler suggests that leadership behaviour is dependent upon the
favourability of the leadership situation which is ultimately
determined by
- Leader-member relations-the degree to which the leader is
trusted and liked by group members
– The task structure-the degree to which the task is clearly defined
for the group
– Position power-the power of the leader by virtue of position in
the organization.

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Quality and Acceptance of Leader’s
Decision
• This model is provided by Vroom and Yetton.
• They base their analysis on two aspects of a leader

– Decision quality-the effect decisions have on group


performance

– Decision acceptance-the motivation and commitment of group


members in implementing the decision.

– A third consideration is the amount of time required to make


the decision

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Path-goal theory

• House and Dessler worked on this model.


• This model is based upon the belief that the individual‟s motivation is dependent
upon expectations that increased effort to achieve an improved level of
performance will be successful.
•The path-goal theory of leadership suggests that the performance of subordinates
is affected by the extent to which the manager satisfies their expectations.
•Path-goal theory holds that subordinates will see leadership behaviour as a
motivating influence.
•Under this model, House identifies four main types of leadership behaviour

- Directive leadership-giving specific directions and rules to subordinates


- Supportive leadership
- Participative leadership
- Achievement-oriented leadership-setting challenging goals for subordinates
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Maturity of followers

•Hersey and Blanchard present this model of leadership based on the


readiness level of the people the leader is attempting to influence
•Readiness is the extent to which followers have the ability and willingness
to accomplish a specific task.
• Readiness is divided into a continuum of four levels
– R1-low follower readiness-refers to followers who are both unable and
unwilling and who lack commitment and motivation
– R2-low to moderate follower readiness-followers who are unable but
willing
– R3-moderate to high follower readiness-followers who are able but
unwilling
– R4-high follower readiness-refers to followers who are both able and
willing and who have the ability and commitment to perform
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Findings of the Fiedler Model

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Task Behaviour and Relationship
Behaviour
•For each of the four levels of maturity, the appropriate style of
leadership is a combination of task behaviour and relationship
behaviour

– Task behaviour-is the extent to which


leaders provide directions for the actions
of followers

– Relationship behaviour-is the extent to


which the leader engages in two-way
communication with followers

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Task Behaviour and Relationship
Behaviour
 Reflecting back on your experiences of „good
leadership‟.

 Was the person you were happy to work for „task-


oriented‟ or „people-oriented‟?

 Do you think a good leader can be both?

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Transformational versus Transactional
Leadership
•Transactional leadership is based on legitimate authority within the
bureaucratic structure of the organization.

– Emphasis is on the clarification of goals and objectives, work tasks and


outcomes, and organizational rewards and punishments

•Transformational leadership, by contrast, is a process of


engendering higher levels of motivation and commitment among
followers.

– Emphasis is on generating a vision for the organization and the


leader‟s ability to appeal to higher ideals and values of followers

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Components of Transformational
Leadership
•Transformational leaders motivate followers to do more than
originally expected

•Four basic components make up transformational leadership


namely:

– Idealised influence-the charisma of the leader and the respect


and admiration of the followers
– Inspirational motivation-the behaviour of the leader
– Intellectual stimulation-leaders who solicit new and novel
approaches for the performance of work
– Individualised consideration-leaders who listen and give specific
concern to the growth and developmental needs of the followers
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Guidelines for transformational
leadership
• Articulate a clear and appealing vision
• Explain how the vision can be attained
• Act confident and optimistic
• Express confidence in followers
• Provide opportunities for early success
• Celebrate success
• Use dramatic, symbolic actions to emphasize key
values
• Lead by example
• Empower people to achieve the vision
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Inspirational Leadership

• Successful transformational leaders are usually identified in terms


of providing a strong vision and sense of mission in followers

• Inspirational leadership today is associated with the concept of


creating a vision with which others can identify.

• An author, Adair argues that to be a truly inspirational leader one


must understand the spirit within.

• The inspirational leader connects with the led, appreciates the


capabilities of others and through trust will unlock the power in
others
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Interaction of Focus & Nature of
Leadership Style:

 If a leader is autocratic & task-oriented, how would


they act towards their subordinates?

 If a leader is autocratic & relationship-oriented,


how would they act towards their subordinates?

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Interaction of Focus & Nature of
Leadership Style:

 If a leader is democratic & task-oriented, how


would they act towards their subordinates?

 If a leader is democratic & relationship-oriented,


how would they act towards their subordinates?

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Leadership development initiatives

• A survey carried out by the Development Dimensions International (DDI) indicated that
majority of staff in more than 52 companies do not have confidence in the abilities of
their leaders to guide and direct the organization in the future.
• According to Investors in People, leadership development is not just a corporate issue,
all organizations small or great should be identifying the managers they will need in a
few years time and developing them
• All top managers should be planning their succession and supporting the people who
will step into their shoes
• Gratton suggested four new developmental expectations from managers namely:

– Dream collectively
– Balance the short term with longer term
– Build an organization that values people
– Understand the reality of the organization
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Leaders of the Future
• Bennis suggests that leaders will have to learn new
skills and that four competencies will determine the
success of new leadership

– The new leader understands and practises the power


of appreciation
– The new leader keeps reminding people of what is
important
– The new leader generates and sustains trust
– The new leader and the led are intimate allies
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Theories of Leadership:
 Dispositional theories – Is a leader born, not made?
 „great man theories‟, trait theories, behaviour theories

 Situational theories – given the right circumstances


anyone is a potential leader?
 Central figure in communication networks

 Contingency theories – good leader outcome is


dependent on a number of factors

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Leader Characteristics:
Early work suggested that leaders tended to be higher
than non-leaders on:

 Intelligence
 Dominance/need for power
 Self-confidence
 Energy/persistence
 Knowledge of the task
(Stogdill, 1974)
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Leader Characteristics:
Current research focuses on characteristics such as:
 Sociability

 Need for power

 Need for achievement

 Style (as discussed earlier)

 Nature (as discussed earlier)

 Charisma (more details to follow next session)

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References

• Laurie J Mullins (2007) Management and Organisational behaviour, 7th edition

• Richard L Daft (2007) Organization theory and design, 8th edition, page

• John Pearson and Robinson (2005) Strategic management; Formulation,


implementation and control, 7th edition

• IAM Diploma in Administrative Management: Study guide

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