Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

LIST OF CONTENTS Study 1 I, you, he, she, it, welcome 2 Pronunciation 3 Tonal marks; plural; good 4 Questioning “is it so?” 5 very, indeed; not 6 Verbs: be; know of 7 one; a; friend; measure word “…ge” 8 person; this, that one 9 these, those ones 10 of; 's; s' 11 Vocabulary review 1-10 12 Future actions; today; come, go, learn 13 Past actions; not done (mëi) 14 a book; “yðbën …”; house; give, take, learn 15 If, then 16 Connectives: and, but; there is, there is not 17 Interrogatives: what? who? 18 Relative pronouns: such thing = what; such person = who 19 Prepositions: to, through, from 20 Locations: up, in, by 21 with, before, since 22 Combined verbs: can do 23 Yes; No; Not 24 “Measure words” 25 Comparison; gender 26 Vocabulary review 1-25
2

Appendix A Greetings B Meetings C Nouns D Verbs E Adjectives F Adverbs G Vocabulary English to Mandarin H Vocabulary Mandarin to English I Incremental Phrases

Exercises set for Studies

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 1 VOCABULARY 1.1
[Instructor: Clap. Memory prompt: think of lively “Juanita” dancing to the music of ‘men’ playing on stringed instruments.… Students clap and sing, “wó

… nï … tå” ] I you he, she, it

wó * nï tå PRACTICE 1.1

[Instructor: Clap, repeat prompt: “Juanita” >>>> Get all to stand, gesturing :wó point to self (= 1st. person) nï point to partner (= 2nd. person) tå point to another (= 3rd. person) Repeat singing and clapping. Repeat gesturing without singing. Repeat singing and clapping. Repeat singing and gesturing.]

VOCABULARY 1.2 huånyîng * qïng pøtñnghuè xiìxie Welcome! Please! Mandarin Thanks!

* See guidance on Mandarin pronuciation and Pinyin script. Check especially “h”, “q”, and “x” in Vocabulary 2.1. Check tones and tonal marks in Vocabulary 3.2.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

3

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 2 VOCABULARY 2.1 Pinyin script provides an approximate method for representing the pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese. Some letters are pronounced as in English, but others have very different sounds. Pronunciation also varies in different regions, but the following guidance is generally acceptable.
Letters a b c ch d e f g h i j k l m n INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS Pronounciation Letters a as in “atone” o b as in “bag” p ts as in “bats” q tsh as in “hatshop” r d as in “dog” s e as in “the book” sh f as in “fun” t g hard as “get” u guttural like ch in “loch” w i as in “bistro”; ea as in “tea” wu j as in “jam” x k as in “kitchen” y l as in “love” yi m as in “mug” z n as in “nibble” zh SPECIAL Sounds like blunder (no r) urn or un dough bung jung (German) yowl VOWEL Group ye/ ie you/ iu yan/ ian yang/ iang yong/ iong ua uai Pronunciation o as in “or” p as in “pun” as chh in “matchhead” r rolled as in “curl” s as in “sat like sh in “rashly” t as in “top” u as in “put” (See group below) w as in “water” like u, not wu like s in “see” like y as in “yam” yi is i, not yi like ds in “suds” like dge in “hedgeless”

SOME Group (z, c, s, zh, ch, sh, r)i en ou eng ong yao/ iao

GROUPS AND SYLLABLES Sounds like Group Sounds like the air; ee-ye uan won yoyo uang wangle yen, try any we/ ue ú-ye young ui win Jung (German) uo wall wax (j, q, x, y)u ú as German ú; wide (l, n)ú chew your food

Easier recognizable sound groups are: aisle; ban; bang; naos/(now); eight; tiara; ring.
© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

4

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 3 VOCABULARY 3.1 …men hço * VOCABULARY 3.2 Mandarin is pronounced with tones. These are indicated in Pinyin script by tone marks. Mandarin Tone First tone Second tone Third tone Fourth tone (Toneless) GRAMMAR 3.1 wómen hço. nïmen hço. tåmen hço. We [are] fine. YOU [are] fine. They [are] fine. Pinyin Tone mark à á â ã (No mark) Description of Tone highest and level pitch starts high and rises falls first and then rises starts high and then falls unstressed or neutral Example må (mother) mæfan (trouble) mç (horse) mè (scold) ma (eh, surely!) _s (plural ending) well, good fine

(* Remember “h” is pronounced raspingly, like “ch” in Scottish “loch”)

Note that the verb word indicating “being” can be omitted, where the clause just has a ‘subject’ (doer) and an adjective describing the doer.

PRACTICE 3.1
[Students split into groups of three and exchange statements using:wó, nî, tå, wómen, nïmen, tåmen, hço.]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

5

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 4 VOCABULARY 4.1 ma? PRACTICE 4.1 wó hço ma? nï hço ma? tå hço ma? PRACTICE 4.2 wómen hço ma? nïmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? PRACTICE 4.3 Questions (wìntî) and Answers (dæfù) Q wó hço ma? A nï hço ma? tå hço ma? wómen hço ma? nïmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? PRACTICE 4.4 [Students work in groups of three, and exchange questions and answers.] nï hço! wó hço! tå hço! nïmen hço! wómen hço! tåmen hço! How are we? We're O.K., surely? How are you? YOU're fine, eh? How are they? They're O.K., mm? How am I? I'm O.K., eh? You're O.K., mm? How are you? Is it O.K.? It's fine, mm? He's well? mm, eh, surely, is it so?

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

6

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 5 VOCABULARY 5.1 hën very or, as a substitute for ‘is indeed’ bù (bö before a fourth tone syllable not, not want to, No ã or before a toneless syllable) PRACTICE 5.1 wó hën hço! wó bù hço. wó bù hën hço. PRACTICE 5.2
[Students in twos or threes converse and iterate through the following examples.]

I sure [am] fine! I['m] very well. I [am] not well. I [am] not very well.

Questions (wìntî) and Answers (dæfù) wó hço ma? nï hço ma? tå hço ma? wómen hço ma? nïmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? tåmen hço ma? PRACTICE 5.3
[Instructor splits students into groups of three. Students converse, exchanging questions and answers.]

nï hën hço! wó bù hço. tå hën hço! nïmen bù hço! wómen hën hço! tåmen bù hço! tåmen bù hën hço!

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

7

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 6 VOCABULARY 6.1 shð zèi rìnshi dö; [nièn …] kèn PRACTICE 6.1 wó wó tå wó tå shð rìnshi bö rìnshi bö shð rìnshi John. Jack. Jill. Jim. Fred ma? I am (=‘be’) John. I know Jack. He ‘not know’ (doesn't know) Jill. I ‘not be’ (am not) Jim. He knows Fred, eh? [to] be (am, is, are) [to] be located, present, alive; exist know, be acquainted with read; [read …aloud] [to] read, look and comprehend; [to] look at; [to] watch

PRACTICE 6.2
[Instructor splits students into groups of three. Students converse, introducing themselves and others, making statements, and exchanging questions and answers. Use rìnshi, shð, and bö.]

PRACTICE 6.3 wó nï tå wómen nïmen tåmen qïng

dö kèn

[Instructor gets students to make statements, questions, and instructions using theses elements.]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

8

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 7 VOCABULARY 7.1 pêngyou * friend(s) xiåoxi; xðnxí message yîge ‡ a (can be for a thing or a person) yi one -ge † a ‘measure word’ used generally * Note that the syllable “you” in pêngyou is a neutral tone, even in effect. ‡ Pronounce ‘ge’ hard as in English ‘get’, (never soft as in ‘gel’). † A ‘measure word’ is used for focusing on a thing, person or action. ‘ge’ is acceptable for general use. See Vocabulary 14.1 and Study 24 for others.
[Instructor's hints: ‘penfriend’, ‘penguin’?] [Instructor comments to students about the use of various ‘measure words’. Are there any in English? Perhaps think of manage-r, manage-ress, sheep-flock. Refer also to Vocabulary 14.1 about “bën” for ‘a volume of’.]

PRACTICE 7.1 yîge pêngyou nï shð yîge pêngyou ma? wó shð yîge pêngyou! tåmen bö shð hço pêngyou. wó/nï/tå + wómen/nïmen/tåmen PRACTICE 7.2 wó/nï/tå wómen/nïmen/tåmen + qïng dö kèn bù dö + yîge hço xiåoxi a friend You are a friend, eh? Are you a friend? I am a friend! They aren't good friends. shð bö shð + yîge pêngyou pêngyou

[Instructor randomly points at students and each responds with statements or questions using these elements.]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

9

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 8 VOCABULARY 8.1 rên person; persons, people dñngxi thing(s) zhì * ; zhìi this (some person or thing here) zhìge … this … nè … that (some person or thing there) nège that … * Note, pronounce ‘zh’ like ‘dge’ in ‘hedgeless’. Curl back the tongue. PRACTICE 8.1 wó zhì nège rên nè zhìge pêngyou tå rìnshi shð shð bö shð rìnshi zhìge rên. I know this person. yîge pêngyou. This is a friend. yîge pêngyou ma? That person is a friend, mm? yîge pêngyou That is not a friend. nège rên This friend knows that person. She doesn't know that person.

bö rìnshi nège rên

PRACTICE 8.2
[Instructor dictates to students the sentences in Exercise 8.1, and they write the Pinyin.]

PRACTICE 8.3
[Instructor reads the sentences in Exercise 8.1. they write the English translation.]

PRACTICE 8.4
[Instructor reads the sentences in Exercise 8.2. they write the Mandarin translation.]

PRACTICE 8.5
[Instructor leads game of “Old Grady says do this, do that” using “this”, “that”, “zhì”, and “nè”]
© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

10

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 9 VOCABULARY 9.1 ...xié * ...se (plural determiner); some yðxié some zhìxié these; these ones nèxié those; those ones * Note, remember to pronounce ‘sh’ like the English ‘sh’ in ‘rashly’, but pronounce ‘x’ rather like ‘hss’ or the ‘s’ in ‘see’. PRACTICE 9.1 zhìxié rên zhìxié nèxié pêngyou nèxié pêngyou shð shð shð rìnshi hço pêngyou. hço pêngyou. hço rên. zhìxié rên. These persons are good friends. These are good friends. Those friends are good persons. Those friends know these people.

[Instructor uses students in threes, doing Columns 1, 2, and 3, respectively.]

PRACTICE 9.2 zhìxié rìnshi nèxié rên. These know those people. nïmen rìnshi zhìxié hço pêngyou. YOU know these good friends.
[Instructor uses students in threes, doing Columns 1, 2, and 3, respectively.]

PRACTICE 9.3
[Students work in twos or threes. Taking turns, one says the Mandarin in Practices 9.1 and 9.2; then the next turns the statement into a question by adding “ma?”; then another student says the negative of this by putting “bö” in front of “shð” or “rìnshi”.]

PRACTICE 9.4
[Instructor reads sentences in Exercise 9.1, and students write the Pinyin.]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

11

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 10 VOCABULARY 10.1 de wóde nïde tåde wómende nïmende tåmende of; …'s; …s' of me; my of you; your of him, her, it; his, her, its of us; our of YOU; YOUR of them; their

[Instructor randomly points at students and quizes them on translation of a Mandarin or English word listed.]

PRACTICE 10.1 wó shð nïde pêngyou. I am your friend. nège rên shð wóde pêngyou. That person is my friend. tåmende pêngyou bö shð hço rên. Their friends are not good people. zhìxié rìnshi tåde pêngyou. These know her friends. yðxié pêngyou rìnshi nï Some friends know you.
[Instructor touches articles in the room (such as a pencil). Individual students upon demand simultaneously point at self and say “wóde …” (such as “wóde pencil”); or look at someone else and say “nïde …”; or just point away at someone else and say “tåde …”. With discretion, a game could be played, eliminating anyone who does the wrong combination of gesture and words!]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

12

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 11 VOCABULARY 11.1 (Review of Words Learned)
This is a review of all the vocabularies covered in Studies 1-10. [See Vocabulary 2.1 for guidance on Mandarin pronuciation and Pinyin script. Check especially tones and tonal marks in Vocabulary 3.2.]

a, an yîge, etc. (Appendix shows more ‘measure words’.) Use yð before …à, …á, or …â, else yî answer dæfù be (am, is, are) shð be present zèi exist zèi fine hço friend pêngyou good hço he tå her … tåde … his tåde I wó indeed, surely hën is it so? ma? it tå its tåde know (person) rìnshi Mandarin pøtñnghuè message xiåoxi; xðnxí mm, is it so? ma? my wóde not bù (Note: bö shð) of … …de one yí

our person, people Please! question read read … aloud …s …'s, …s' several, some Thanks! that (pronoun) that … their these; these … they thing this (pronoun) this … those; those … very we Welcome! well you YOU[R] your

wómende rên qïng! wìntî kèn; dö dö …; nièn … …men …de yðxié xiìxie! nè nège … tåmende zhìxié; zhìxié … tåmen dñngxi zhì; zhìi zhìge … nèxié; nèxié … hën wómen huånyîng! hço nï nïmen[de] nïde

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

13

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 12 VOCABULARY 12.1 (Future Actions) huð jíntiån mîngtiån xiènzèi nèshî; dångshî læi qù xuêxî GRAMMAR 12.1 wó huð xuêxî tå PRACTICE 12.1 wó wó nï tå wómen nïmen tåmen zhìge rên jíntiån [mîngtiån] [jíntiån] [xiènzèi] [nèshî] bö huð læi qù læi xuêxî tå dö tå I will study it. will (future action) today tomorrow now then; at that point in time [to] come [to] go [to] study, learn

[huð] (‘huð’ can be omitted, if a [bö] word like ‘mîngtiån’ makes it obvious that the action will take place in the future.)

PRACTICE 12.2
[Students work in pairs exchanging questions and answers.]

nï tå jíntiån

huð læi? xuêxî?

wó wó tå tå
14

bö jíntiån bù mîngtiån

huð læi. huð læi. xuêxî. [huð] xuêxî.
5 August 2005

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 13 VOCABULARY 13.1 (Past Actions) … le mêi … zuòtiån jùhuð; [dèhuð] lù fångfç; [fångshð] GRAMMAR 13.1 wó xuêxî pøtñnghuè le wómen rìnshi tåmen le GRAMMAR 13.2 wó mêi xuêxî pøtñnghuè wómen mêi rìnshi tåmen PRACTICE 13.1 wó læi le nï qù dèhuð le tå xuêxî le nïmen rìnshi tåmen le wó mêi læi nï mêi qù tå mêi xuêxî nïmen mêi rìnshi wómen
[Students work in pairs and converse.]

did … , have done … (past action) (See dictionary under “have”) did not … ; have not done … yesterday meeting; [assembly, convention] road, way, means way, manner; [method, style]

I did study (I studied) Mandarin. We knew them.

I did not study Mandarin. We knew them not; we didn't know them.

I came. You went [to the] meeting. He studied. YOU knew them. I did not come. You did not go. He did not study. YOU did not know us.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

15

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 14 VOCABULARY 14.1 (Another ‘Measure Word’) yðbën … (= yí + bën) shõ fængzi gëi næ shuñ shuñhuè gèosu a … ; an … ; (e.g. a volume of …) book house [to] give [to] take, grasp hold [to] say …, speak … [to] converse with; speak words to [to] tell; [to] say to

Generally use “yð…”, but use “yî…” before 4th tone (…ã) or plain. Hence, yðbën but yîge.

PRACTICE 14.1 yðbën shõ qïng dö zhìbën shõ, nèbën shõ PRACTICE 14.2 wó gëi nï wóde fængzi le nï gëi wó tåmende shõ wómen huð gëi tåmen yðbën shõ PRACTICE 14.3 qïng, nï næ wóde shõ. wó gëi nï wóde shõ le. nï mêi gëi wó nïde shõ. wó jíntiån bö huð næ nèbën shõ. nïde fængzi hën hço
[Students work in threes and converse.]

a book Please read this book, that book

I gave you my house. You give me their book. We will give them a book.

Please, take my book. I gave you my book. You did not give me your book. I will not take that book today. Your house is very good.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

16

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 15 VOCABULARY 15.1 (Conditional Sentences) yèoshi … , (jiù) … If (in the case that) …, (then) … [see ‘whether’] jiçrö [or yèoshð] …, … If (supposing that) …, … röguó …, (nèmuó) … If (on the condition) that …, (then) … VOCABULARY 15.2 zhídao [zèi] zhìr; [zèi] zhìlï [zèi] nèr; [zèi] nèlï GRAMMAR 15.1 yèoshð nï bù hën hço* , wó (jiù)† bö huð qù nèr. yèoshð mîngtiån nèxié shõ [huð] læi, wómen huð xuêxî tåmen. If you are not very well, (then) I will not go there. If tomorrow those books [‘will’] come, we will study them. [to] know, have knowledge of a fact [located; be located] here [located; be located] there

* When a third tone (…â) precedes another third tone, pronounce it as a second tone (…á). Hence “hën hço” is pronounced ‘hên hço’. † Note word order with jiù after the noun wó.

GRAMMAR 15.2 jiçrö nïde shõ bö zèi nèr, nï [huð] zhídao tå ma? jiçrö tå zèi nèr, tå huð læi ma? GRAMMAR 15.3 röguó nï xöexî, wó huð læi nèr. röguó tåmen læi zhìlï, wómen xuêxî zhìbën shõ.
© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

If (supposing) your book is not there, will you know it? If he is there, will he come?

If you study, I will come there. If they come here, we study this book.

17

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 16 VOCABULARY 16.1 (Connectives) … hê … … êrqië … … dènshð …; … këshð … bù … êr … … nèshî …; … dångshî … … huô[zhë] … huô[zhë] … … hæishð … … bùræn … GRAMMAR 16.1 wó hê nï shð hço pêngyou wó hço dènshð nège rên bù hço tå huð læi nèshî wómen huð xuêxî wó huô jíntiån huô mîngtiån læi. tå jîntian hæishð mîngtiån huð læi? wómen qù nèr bùræn tå bù xuêxî! PRACTICE 16.1 tå læi êrqië tå xuêxî wómende shõ. tå læi le dènshð wó mêi zhídao tå huð læi zhìr nèshî nïmen huð qù huôzhë wó huôzhë nï huð qù nèr nï jín tian huð xuêxî nïde shõ hæishð wóde shõ ma? wó zuòtiån xuêxî nèbën shõ le, bùræn wó bö huð zhídao dæfù tå huð læi xiènzèi bùræn wó qù nèr He comes and he studies our book. He came, but I did not know. She will come here, then YOU'll go. Either I or you will go there. Today will you study your book or my book? Yesterday I studied that book, or I would not know the answers. He'll come now, or I (will) go there. I and you are good friends. I'm fine, but that man is not well. He will come [and] then we'll study. I'll come either today or tomorrow. Wiil he come today or tomorrow? We go there or else he does not study! and (links nouns or pronouns) and (joins phrases, adjectives, adv's) but not … but …; and not …; but not … [and] then (either) … or … … or (alternatively) … … or (otherwise; if not) …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

18

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 16.2 (More Connectives) yíncï …; suóyï … yuænyín yínwìi … [omit ] shðfóu [mêi] yóu … GRAMMAR 16.2 wó bù hço yíncï wo bö huð læi. yínwìi tå xuêxî tåde shõ le suóyï tå rìnshi zhìge rên. wó bù zhídao shðfóu tå huð læi tå bù zhídao nï huð læi zhìlï hæishð wómen huð qù nèr yuænyín wó bö huð qù nèr jíntiån yóu dèhuð … … dènshð mêi yóu shõ PRACTICE 16.2 wó xuêxî shõ le, … … yíncï wó zhídao dæfù tå mêi gëi wó tåde shõ yuænyín wó jíntiån bö huð gëi nï nè yínwìi nï læi le, suóyï wómen jíntiån huð xuêxî nïde shõ wó zhídao nï bù hën hço nï zhídao ma fængzi shðfóu zèi zhìr? Yóu yîge fængzi, dènshð mêi yóu lù! I studied the book, … … therefore I know the answer. He didn't give me his book. For this reason I won't give you that today. Since you have come, we'll study your book today. I know [that] you are not very well. Do you know if the house is there? There is a house, but there is no road! I'm not well therefore I'll not come. As he studied his book, [so] he knew (knows) this person. I don't know whether he will come. He doesn't know [whether] you will come here or [whether] we'll go there. For this reason I will not go there. Today there is a meeting … … but there are no books. therefore …; so, … [this is the] reason as …; since …; because [of] … … that … whether have [not] …; there is [not] …; there are [not] …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

19

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 17 VOCABULARY 17.1 (Interrogatives, Questions) shênme …? shêi …? wìishênme …? shênme shîhou … ? nçlï …? nçr …? GRAMMAR 17.1 zhìge jùhuð shð shênme? nè(ge dñngxi) shð shênme? nè(ge rên) shð shêi? shêi qù nèr? tåmen wìishênme bù læi? nï shênme shîhou xuêxî? nïde fængzi zèi nçlï? PRACTICE 17.1 tåmen zhìr xuêxî shênme? nï zhídao shênme? nïmen shð shêi? shêi zuòtiån læi le? nï wìishênme bù zhídao nè? tå wìishênme næ wóde shõ le? tåmen shênme shîhou huð qù jùhuð? wómende shõ zèi nçlï? dèhuð de fængzi zèi nçr? nï wìishênme bö huð læi zhìr? What do you study there? What do you know? Who are you? Who came yesterday? Why don't you understand that? Why did he take my book? When will they go to the meeting? Where is our book? Where is the house of meeting? Why will you not come here? What is this meeting? What's that (thing)? Who's that (person)? Who goes there? Why aren't they coming? When do you study? Where is your house? what …? who …? why …? (what … for?) when …? (what time …?) where …?

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

20

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 17.2 (More Interrogatives, Questions) zënme …? zënyèng duñ [shén] …? duñshço …? shêi de? shuî de? nç [yî]ge? (singular); nçxié? (plural) mèma, mø qín bèba, fù qín GRAMMAR 17.2 nïde pêngyou jíntiån duñ hço? nïmen yóu duñshço rên? zhìge fængzi shð shêi de? nïmen xuêxî nçbën shõ? nïmen xuêxî nçxié shõ? PRACTICE 17.2 nï zënme huð læi zhìr? tåmen xuêxî duñ shén le? duñshço fængzi shð nïmende? nï yóu duñshço pêngyou? shêi de shõ zèi zhìr? nège rên shð shêi de pêngyou? tå qù le shêi de fængzi? wómen huð xuêxî nçbën shõ? tåmen zënme qù nèr le? nçge rên gëi nï zhìbën shõ le? [zèi] zhìlï duñshço shõ? tå shð shêi de mèma? shêi de bèba gëi nï nè le? How will you come here? How [far] did you study? How many houses are YOURS? You have how many friends? Whose book is here? That person is whose friend? He went to whose house? We will study which book? How did they go there? Which person gave you this book? Here are how many books? She is whose mother? Whose father gave you that? How well is your friend today? How many of you are there? This house is whose? Which book do YOU study? Which books do YOU study? how …? (in what manner …? how [far, much] …? (what extent) how much … ? how many …? whose? which? [Change ‘ge’, if necessary] mother father

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

21

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 18 VOCABULARY 18.1 (Uses of “de”) shðdang dèo … zuô dðfang proper, suitable can, [to] be able to accomplish … [to] do; [to] make place

GRAMMAR 18.1 (Uses of “de”; Relatives and Correlatives) … de 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ‘of …’ of possessor ‘…’ of quality described as ‘…’ the thing of the quality described as ‘…’ of manner described as ‘…’ of action described as ‘…’ Possibility of an action of relative/correlative description ‘…’

GRAMMAR 18.2 (Use of “de” : ‘Of’) fængzi de lù dèhuð de fængzi way of the house house of the meeting; meeting house

GRAMMAR 18.3 (Use of “de” : Possession) wóde shõ my book wóde mine wóde shõ shð zhìr My book is here. nè shð wóde That is mine. wó * mèma my mother nï * bèba de shõ your father's book; the book of your father * NOTE: Omit “de” for closely related persons

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

22

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

GRAMMAR 18.4 (Use of “de” : Quality — Adjectives Describing Nouns) Use “de” if the quality described is written in more than one character hën hço de pêngyou very good friend(s) bù hço de rên not a good person; bad person(s) Omit “de” if the quality is described using only one written character hço pêngyou good friend(s) GRAMMAR 18.5 (Use of “de” : Person or Thing of the Quality Described)

hço de shð wóde

The good one is mine

GRAMMAR 18.6 (Use of “de” : Manner — Adjectives to Form Adverbs) shðdang shðdang de tå shðdang de shuñ proper, suitable properly, suitably He speaks properly

GRAMMAR 18.7 (Use of “de” : Action — Forming an Adverbial Phrase) nï shuñ de hën hço tå shuñ de bù hço. wó shð zuòtiån læi de How you speak is very good. You speak very well. How he speaks is not good. He speaks badly. I came yesterday ! (Emphasis)

GRAMMAR 18.8 (Use of “de” : Possible Result of an Action) zuô de dèo wómen shuñ de xuêxî wómen shuñ bù xuêxî * can manage to; is capable of doing We [would] learn to speak We would not learn to speak

* For a negative possibility, ‘bù’ replaces ‘de’.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

23

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

GRAMMAR 18.9 (Use of “de”: Relative and Correlative Pronouns) ‘person or thing of this description’ The use of “de” transforms the words “… …” into a noun or a ‘noun phrase’. zhì shð (shuñhuè hço de ) pêngyou This is a friend (who speaks well). This is a friend ([of this description:] “he speaks well”). The above example has expressed the relative pronoun “who”. Also, “de” is used to express the relative forms of what, who, where, why, when, how, whose, and which. (hço fængzi de ) rên person (of / with a nice house) …… de GRAMMAR 18.10 zhì shð (tå * gëi wó de) This is (what he gave me). This is (the thing that he gave me). nège rên shð (hço de) That person is a friend pêngyou (who is good). nèxié (bù xuêxî de) rên Those are persons (who don't study). This is ([the thing of this description:] “he gave it”). That person is a friend ([of this description:] “good”.) Those are persons ([of this description:] “they don't study”).
whatever I said

* “suó” can be inserted for ‘whatever’— wó suó shuñ de

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

24

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

GRAMMAR 18.10 (Continued) zhì shð (wó bù xuêxî nèbën shõ de) yuænyín This is the reason (why This is the reason ([of I don't study that book). this description:] “I don't study that book”). mîntiån shð (wómen qù Tomorrow is (when we Tomorrow is ([the time dèhuð nèshî de) * go to the meeting). of this description:] “we go to the meeting then). zhì shð (tåmen xuêxî This the house (where This is the house ([of de) fængzi we study). this description:] “we study”). zhì shð (wómen qù This is how we go to This is the way ([of this wómende dèhuð de) lù our meeting. description:] “we go to our meeting”). nè shð (wó xuêxî tåde That is the person That is the person ([of shõ de) rên whose book I study. this description:] “I study his book”). zhì shð (nï gëi de) shõ This is the book which This is the book ([of you gave. this description:] “you gave”). wó qù (zað nïde fængzi lï I'm going to the I'm going to the de) dèhuð meeting which is in meeting ([of this your house. description:] “in your house”).
* “nèshî” can be omitted

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

25

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 19 VOCABULARY 19.1 (Direction) hê …; tòng …; gén … dèo … chuångguô … tñngguô … fìng … de mîng còng … còng … chõ lùguô GRAMMAR 19.1 nï gén wó shuñhuè le. tå huð gëi nï wóde shõ. tå huð gëi nïmen nèbën shõ. wó tñngguô zhìbën xuêxî le. shõ tå lùguô nège fængzi le. nï còng Zhñnglæi ma? guò tå còng wóde læi le. fængzi chõ wó còng zhìgì xuêxî tå le. wó shuñ fìng wó bèba de mîng wó shuñ gén nï mèma le tåmen qù dèo Löndõn wómen læi còng Bëijíng le You spoke to (with) me. She will give you my book. He will give YOU that book I learned by way of this book. It came through that house. You came (come) from China, mm? He came [out] from my house. I learned it from this. to … (speaking ‘with’ a hearer) to … (a place); up to …; as far as … through: from one side to the other through: by way of, via … through …; in the name of … from … (from such place, e.g. China) from …; out from …; out of … pass by way of

I speak in the name of my father. I spoke with your mother. They went to London. We came from Beijing.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

26

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 19.2 (Purpose) gëi …; wìi … wìi[le] … yòuyö … êr … tð …; dèi … GRAMMAR 19.2 nèbën shõ shð gëi zhìge rên zhì wìi[le] nïde hço jùhuð shð That book is for this person. This is for the purpose of your nice meeting. wómen læile yòuyö nïmende dèhuð We came due to YOUR convention. wó læile tð wó bèba I came on behalf of my father tå yínwìi mèma bù hço êr mêi læi He did not come because his mother is not well. for … [a beneficiary] for the purpose of … due to … on the grounds of; because of (linking the cause of an action with the action itself) on behalf of …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

27

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 20 VOCABULARY 20.1 (Location) (zèi) … lï (zèi) … lïmian (zèi) … shang [mian] (zèi) … [mian] … mian GRAMMAR 20.1 tå * tå wó zèi shõ lï [zèi] fængzi lïmian … zèi shõ shang [mian] zèi tåde fængzi [mian] It [is] (positioned) in the book. Inside the house … It [is] (located) on the book. I [am] (positioned) at his house. (is) in … (is) inside … (is) on … , upon … (is) at … in the location (described by ‘zæi …’)

* Note that ‘zèi’ is normally omitted, if it would start a sentence. PRACTICE 20.1
[Use words from Study 26 or other vocabulary lists and make more sentences.]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

28

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 20.2 (zèi) … shang; zèi shèngmian (zèi) … xiè [mian] (zèi) … lï[mian] (zèi) … wèi[bian], (zèi) wèimian (zèi) … qiæn[mian] (zèi) … hôu[mian]; (zèi) … hôu[bian] (zèi) … pæng[biån] (zèi) … [fù]yðn GRAMMAR 20.2 nïde shõ zèi fængzi zèi tåde fængzi zèi tå wómen tå wó tå tåmen nè nè zhì shang [mian] shèngmian xiè [mian] Your book [is] up there The house [is] up there. Her house [is] down there. It [is] in your book. We will come [and be] outside your house. He [was] in that house. I [am] behind your house. He went * beside YOU. They [are] in there. (is) up, over ; located upon, on top of (is) down; under …; below … (is) in[side] … (is) out[side] … (is) [located] ahead; in front of … (is) [located] behind … (is) by [the side of] …; beside … (is) near[by]

zèi nïde shõ lïmian zèi fængzi wèibian huð læi zèi zèi zèi nège lï le fængzi nïde hoùmian fængzi nïmen pængbiån qù le nèr lï

* [continuing in the position beside; alongside] PRACTICE 20.1
[Students converse in groups of two, exchanging informative statements.]

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

29

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 21 VOCABULARY 21.1 (Circumstance) (zèi) yông … hê … (yðqï); gén … yðqï; tòng … mêiyóu …; [mêiyóu] (zèi) … yïqiæn (zèi) … qíjiån (zèi) … yïhôu còng … yïlæi; còng … qï; … yïhôu dèo … guånyö … PRACTICE 21.1 wó xuêxî nè zèi yông zhìbën shõ. wó zèi jùhuð yïqian læi le wómen xuêxî zhìlï dèo nï læi le tå xuêxî zèi fængzi lïmian le tå læi le mêiyóu tåde shõ wómen bù nêng xuêxî yínwìi wómen mêiyóu nèbën shõ wómen zèi jùhuð yïhôu qù fængzi wó còng nège jùhuð yïlæi zhídao tå hê wó læi zhìlï le tåmen zèi jùhuð qíjiån mêi læi wó zhídao tå còng wó dö zhìge xiåoxi yïlæi tå shuñhuæ guånyö dèhuð ma? wó huð qù nèr gén nï yðqï I study it by means of this book. I came before the meeting. We studied here until you came. He studies inside the house. He came without his book. We cannot study because we are without (don't have) that book. We go to the house after the meeting. I [have] know[n] since that meeting. He came here with me. (He and I …) They didn't come during the meeting I [have] know[n] it since I read this message Did he speak about the convention? I'll go there along with you. with (by means of, by the use of) … with (in the company of) … without …; [do not have; didn't] before … during … after … since …; from … on until …; to … about …; on the subject of …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

30

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 22 VOCABULARY 22.1 (Auxilliary Verbs — Desire) xïhuan …; xï'èi … xíwèng … xiçng … këwèng … PRACTICE 22.1 wó xïhuan xuêxî pøtñnghuè wó xíwèng qù dèhuð tå xiçng xuêxî zhìbën shõ tå këwèng shð nïde pêngyou tåmen xiçng mîngtiån læi nï xïhuan yóu zhìbën shõ ma? wó këwèng qù wóde fængzi nège rên xíwèng shð nèr wómen xiçng qù nèr tåmen këwèng læi zhìr nï xíwèng dö zhìge xiåoxi ma? wó këwèng shuñ pøtñnghuè I like (am interested) to study Mandarin I'd like (hope) to go to the meeting. He wants to study this book. He wishes to be your friend. They want to come tomorrow. Are you interested to have this book? I wish to go to my house. That person hopes to be there. We want to go there. They wish to come here. Would you like to read this message? I wish to speak Mandarin. [to] like to …, have an interest in …; [to] enjoy … [to] like to …, have a desire to … [to] hope to …; would like to … [to] want to … [to] wish to …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

31

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 22.2 (Auxilliary Verbs — Compulsion) xõyèo … yîdðng bðxõ …; yîdðng dëi …; bùdêbù yîdðng yèo … xiçng yèo … yínggåi … PRACTICE 22.2 wó xõyèo xuêxî pøtñnghuè wó bðxõ qù dèhuð tå yîdðng yèo xuêxî zhìbën shõ tå yínggåi shð nïde pêngyou nïmen xõyèo mîngtiån læi tå yîdðng dëi shuñhuè zhì nï yínggåi gëi tå tåde shõ nï bðxõ læi jíntiån tå bùdêbù qù nèr xõyèo nïde fængzi huð zèi nèr wómen yîdðng yèo qù jùhuð wó xiçng yèo nège dñngxi I need to study Mandarin I must go to the convention. He must study this book. He ought to be your friend. YOU need to come tomorrow. He's obligated to say this. You ought to give him his book. You have to come today. He has no option but to go there. It is necessary that your house [will] be there. We must go to the meeting. I would like to order that thing. [to] need to …, have to …; it is necessary that … definitely, surely, indeed, really [to] have an obligation to …; must [to] to have a necessity to …; must [to] want to order … (meals, products) should …; ought to …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

32

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 22.3 (Auxilliary Verbs — Ability) kënêng …; yëxø … këyï … nêng … nêng …; dèo … huð …; nêng … jðnlð …; lðtö … shð … shðyông … rèng … gëi … PRACTICE 22.3 wó këyï xuêxî pøtñnghuè wó kënêng qù dèhuð tå nêng xuêxî zhìbën shõ tå jðnlð shð tåmende pêngyou tåmen dèo mîngtiån læi nï rèng tå næ wóde shõ ma? wómen shð qù dèhuð le tå shðyông xuêxî còng wóde shõ wómen rèng tå qù nèr tåmende pêngyou dèo læi ma? nï huð shuñ pøtñnghuè ma? wó lðtö shuñ shðdang de pøtñnghuæ gëi wó kèn nè! I'm permitted to study Mandarin. I have a chance to go to the meeting. He can to study this book. He tries to be their friend. They could to come tomorrow. You let him take my book? We tried to go to the meeting. He is trying to study using our book. We let him to go there. Their friend could come, is it so? Can you speak Mandarin? I try to speak Mandarin properly. Let me see that! may …, [to] have a chance or opportunity to … may …, [to] have permission to … can … [to] have a possibility or ability to … can …, [to] know how to … [to] try (endeavour) to … [to] try (attempt) to … [to] try out in use… [to] let; [to] allow … [to] let … be done

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

33

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 22.4 (Combining of Verbs) zhén; [zhénxiång; zhénshî]; [zhénlï] bång; bångzhù zhù huî fçngwìn liù xiæ; liùxia; dåi jiènmièn zuô PRACTICE 22.4 zhìbën shõ shuñ zhén de dñngxi nï huð bång wó ma? tåmen zhù zhìr tå huî fængzi le wómen qù nège rên fçngwìn le tåmen dåi nèr wómen jiènmièn zhìr nï huð zuô zhì ma? This book says true things. Can you help me? They live here. He returned to the house. We went to visit that person. They stay there. We meet here. Can you do this? true; [the truth]; [a truth] [to] help, assist [to] live, reside [to] return, go back [to] visit, call on [to] stay, remain [to] meet [to] do, make (something)

PRACTICE 22.5 (Combining of Verbs) wó xïhuan zuô nè wó xíwèng zhù zèi zhìr tå xiçng huî fængzi wó këwèng qù fçngwìn tå yèoshi tåmen jíntiån nêng læi hço le. tåmen xõyèo mîngtiån læi. wómen xõyèo qù bång tå. nï nêng tòng wó jiænmiæn ma? I like to do that. I'd like to live here. He wants to return to his house. I wish to go and visit him. I wish they could come today. = If they could come today it would be good. They'll have to come tomorrow. We must go and help him. Can you meet with me?

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

34

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 22.5 (Combining of Verbs) mîngbai; lïjië; dóng jièn; (kènjian) kèn dö …; nièn … xië xðn èi èihèo yóu [to] understand [to] see; ([to] see a sight) [to] read, look at and comprehend; [to] look at [to] read … aloud [to] write [a letter] [to] love (someone) [to] love (something) [to] have, possess

PRACTICE 22.6 (Combining of Verbs) nï mîngbai pøtñnghuè ma? nï kènjian wóde fængzi ma? mîngtiån jièn! wó dö nèbën shõ qïng huð nièn zhì qïng gëi wó xië xðn nï èi tå ma? tåmen yóu wìntî ma? Can you understand Mandarin? Can you see my house? See you tomorrow! I [do] read that book. Please read this aloud. Please write me [a letter] Do you love her? Do they have [any] questions?

PRACTICE 22.7 (Combining of Verbs) wó xïhuan dö shõ tå xiçng mîngbai zhìgì tåmen xõyèo mîngtiån nièn wómende xiåoxi wómen xõyèo qù kèn nège fængzi nï nêng kènjian shênme? wó lðtö shuñ zhén de xiåoxi wómen mèma rèng wó læi tå èihèo nièn tåde shõ I like to read books. She wants to understand this [thing]. They'll have to read aloud our message tomorrow. We must go and look at that house. What can you see? I try to speak what is [a] true message. Our mother let[s] me come. He loves to read his book aloud.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

35

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 23 VOCABULARY 23.1 (No, Not) mêi yóu mêiyóu …; mêi …; [biê …] bù zèi; [bù … dñu] yóngyuçn bù cònglæi bù cònglæi mêi [yóu] bùxø …!; jðnzhï …! bù! shðde! duð! shðde! bù! PRACTICE 23.1 wó bù læi wó bø nêng læi wó yóu shõ. wó gëi le nï tåmen. wó mêi yóu shõ wó cònglæi mêi qù nèr wó yóngyuçn bö qù nèr. PRACTICE 23.2 nï xïhuan ma? … … bù [xïhuan], wó bù xïhuan! nï bù xïhuan, duð ma? … … duð, wó bù xïhuan! … shðde, wó bö zèi xïhuan! … bù, wó xïhuan tå! Do you like it? … … No, I don't like it! You don't like it, do you? … … [Correct] No, I don't like it! … [Correct] No, I don't like it any more! … [Incorrect] Not so, I do like it! I don't come; I don't want to come. I can't come. I have [some] books. I gave you them. I do not have [any] books. I never went there. I'll never go there do not have did not …; [don't …] no more; not any more; no longer; [not all] never (in the future) never (present or habitual) never (past) No …; … is not permitted! No! (responding to positive words) [Correct] No! (responding to negative words) Yes! [Correct!] No! = but yes! (faulting negative words)

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

36

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 24 VOCABULARY 24.1 zæzhð yðjièn huè wênzhång zhuñzi leaflet, thin magazine, document idea, opinion painting or drawing article written; editorial; essay table

VOCABULARY 24.2 (Measure Words) yð… (before …à a, an; (one) yðbën shõ = a book …á …â) yî (before …ã …) yîge pêngyou = a friend liçng… a pair of;(two) liçngbën shõ = a couple of books …ge …bën …fìn …cð …zhóng …bièn …diçn …duèn …fö …lìi …piån …tiæo …zhång …zuô (used generally) (thick books) (leaflets, newspapers) (-ce; times) (kinds of) (full cycles) yîge pêngyou = a friend yðbën shõ = a book liçngfìn zæzhð = a pair of leaflets, thin magazines, or documents yîcð = once; liçngcð = twice liçng zhóng rên = two kinds of people

nèbën shõ wó kènle liçngbièn = I read that book twice [completely]. (ideas) liçngdiçn yðjièn = two opinions (sections, parts) zhìduèn lù = this section of road (pictures) yðfö huè = a painting or a drawing (types of) zhìlìi dñngxi = this type of thing (write-up) nèpiån wênzhång = that article (item of news) zhìtiæo xiåoxi (/ xðnxí) = this message (flat, squarish) yîzhång zhuñzi = a table (buildings) yîzuô fængzi = a house
37

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

PRACTICE 24.1 tå læile zhìr liçngcð næ zhìfên zæzhð nièn nè hço de yîzhóng rên shð hço bù hço PRACTICE 24.1 zhì shð yîge hço rên nï zhídao yîge yuænyín ma? wó mêi kèn nèbën shõ gëi wó mèma zhìbën zæzhð wómen gëile liçng fìn zæzhð tå qù nèr liçngcð wó rìnshi yîzhóng pêngyou PRACTICE 24.2 tå dåi zèi dèhuð qíjiån liçngbièn le She stayed during [all] the assembly twice. wómen yóu yîdiçn yðjièn guånyö We have one idea about the truth. zhénxiång zèi nèduèn jùhuð wómen huð xuêxî In that section of the meeting we will zhìfìn zæzhð study this magazine. nèlìi fèngzi huð shð hën hço wêi That house will be very good for our wóde jùhuð meeting. qïng kèn jíntiån nèfìn zæzhð de Please read today this article in that zhìpiån wên zhång magazine. wó kènjian tå le zèi nèzhång I saw it on that table zhuñzi shang wó xíwèng zuñ yízuô hço fængzi I would like to make a nice house. This is a nice person. Do you know a reason? I did not read that [volume of the] book. Give my mother that (thick) magazine We gave a pair of (thin) magazines. He went there on a couple of occasions. I know one kind of friend. She came here twice. Take this magazine. Read that [aloud] well. Two kinds of person are good and bad.

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

38

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 25 VOCABULARY 25.1 bï zuð nænný- ; nýxðng de nænhæir nýhæir GRAMMAR 25.1 nè shð hço de shõ zhìbën shõ shð hço (de) zhìbën shõ shð hën hço de nèbën shõ shð bù hço de zhìbën shõ bï nèbën shõ hço zhì bï nè hço wómende bï tåmende hço GRAMMAR 25.2 zhìbën shõ shð zuð hço de zhìbën shõ shð zuð hço de zhì shð zuð hço de shõ GRAMMAR 25.3 zhìge nænrên shð tåde nænpêngyou wó shð nège nýhæirde bèba zhìge nýrên rênshi nège nænhæir nège nænrên bï nèxié rên hço This man is her boyfriend. I am that girl's father This woman knows that boy. That man is better than those people. This book is best. This book is the best. This is the best book. That is a good book. This book is good. This book is very good. That book is not good. This book is better than that book. (= this book compared to that book is good) This is better than that. Ours is better than theirs. than (in comparison with) most, the most (indicating the superlative) male (relating to humans) female (relating to humans) boy girl

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

39

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

STUDY 26 VOCABULARY 26.1 (Vocabulary Review English to Chinese Mandarin) > a, an yîge, etc. (Study 24 shows more ‘measure words’.) Use yð before …à, …á, or …â, else yî have the ability to; can nêng; dèo about, on the subject of … guånyö … after … [zèi] … yïhôu ahead [zèi] … qiæn[mian] ahead of [zèi] … qièn allow rèng allow to …; let rèng …; gëi … and hê and (joining > be (be present; be located) zèi because of yínwìi … because of (linking the

êr [zèi] … yïqiæn tð …; dèi … [zèi] … hôu[mian]; [zèi] … hoù[bian] [located] below [zèi] … xiè[mian] two verbs or beside … [zèi] … pæng[biån] adjectives) … êr[qië] … best, the best zuð hço de and not êr better than … bï … hço answer dæfù (a) book (yðbën) shõ (an) article writboy nænhæir ten; essay (yðpiån) wênzhång … built things …-zuô (MW) as, since yínwìi … but dènshð; këshð assembly dèhuð but not êr assist; help bång; bångzhù by (the side of) [zèi] … pæng[biån] assistance, help bångmång; bångzhù by (near to) [zèi] … yðn [located] at [zèi] … mian call on; visit fçngwìn attempt to shð can nêng go back; return huî be (am, is, are) shð before … on behalf of behind

cause of an action with the action itself)

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

40

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

> can; be able to accomplish, manage dèocan; have an ability or possibility to nêng; dèo can; know how to huð; nêng have a chance to …; may … kënêng …; yëxø … China Zhñngguò come læi convention dèhuð converse shuñhuè a couple of liçng- (method as for ‘yð-’: e.g. ‘liçngge’) … (complete) cycles of …-bièn (MW) desire to … xíwèng … did … (past) … le did not … mêi … do, make zuô (a) document (yîfìn) zæzhð down [zèi] xiè (a) drawing (yðfö) huè due to … yòuyö … during … [zæi] … qíjiån (an) editorial; essay (yðpiån) wênzhång (either)… or … huôzhë…huôzhë …; huô … huô … else, otherwise … bùræn …

> endeavour, try jðnlð; lðtö (an) essay; article written (yðpiån) wênzhång exist zèi father bèba; fù qín female … nýfine hço for [one who benefits] wìi …; gëi … for [the purpose of] wìi[le] friend pêngyou from [China] còng [Zhñngguò] from … on; since … còng … yïlæi; còng … qø in front of [zèi] … qiæn[mian] girl nýhæir give gëi go qù good hço grasp hold næ have, possess yóu have not mêi yóu he tå help; assist bång; bångzhù help; assistance bångmång; bångzhù her … tåde … [located] here [zèi] zhìr; [zèi] zhìlï his tåde

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

41

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

> hope to; would like to … xíwèng … how (in what manner)? zënme? zënyèng? how [far, much] (what extent) duñ [e.g. shén] how much? duñshço? I wó [an] idea (yðdiçn) yðjièn if (in the case that) … then yèoshi … (jiù) if (on the condition that) …, then röguó …, nèmuó … if (supposing) jiçrö (or yèoshi) [an] illustration [yðfö] huè … images of, … copies of (of pictures) …-fö (MW) [located] in [zèi] … lï in (joining in) chånjiå indeed, surely hën [located] inside [zèi] … lïmian have an interest in …; like to xïhuan …; xï'èi … is it so? ma? it tå … (news) items of …-tiæo (MW) its tåde … kind(s) of …-zhóng (MW)

> know (be acquainted with) rìnshi know (facts) zhídao [a] leaflet [yîfìn] zæzhð learn xuêxî let; allow to … rèng …; gëi … letter (document) xðn like to; enjoy xïhuan …; xï'èi …would like to; hope to … xíwèng … live, reside zhù located zèi be located zèi in the location (described by ‘zèi’) … mian love [someone] èi love [something] èihèo [a] thin magazine [yîfìn] zæzhð make (something); do zuô male … næn-… man nænrên Mandarin pøtñnghuè manner, way fångfç may, have a chance to … kënêng …; yëxø …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

42

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

> may, have permission to … këyï … meet jiènmièn meeting jùhuð [a] message [yðtiæo] xiåoxi; xðnxí method, way fångshð more … than [that] bï [tå] … [the] most … zuð … mother mèma; mø qín mm, is it so? ma? my wóde nearby [zèi] …fùyðn it is necessary that … xõyèo … have a necessity to … yîdðng yèo … need to; have to it is necessary that … xõyèo … never (future) yóngyuçn bù never (present or habitual) cònglæi bù never (past) cònglæi mêi [yóu] No bù No! That's not so! (respond-

> No, as you say! (confirming

negative words)

shðde! duð!

But it is! = No!, that's not the case! (faulting

a negative suggestion) No …! (not permitted)

shðde!; (bù!) bùxø …!; jðnzhï …! bö zèi bö zèi bù (Note: bö shð) bù xiènzèi

ing to positive words) bù!

no longer no more not not want to now have an obligation to; must bðxõ …; yîdðng dêi …; bùdêbù … of … …de [located] on [zèi] … shang one yí once; one time yîcð (an) opinion (yðdiçn) yðjièn have an opportunity to … kënêng …; yëxø … or (alternatively) … hæishð … or (either…or) huôzhë…huôzhë…; huô…huô…

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

43

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

> or (otherwise) … bùræn … otherwise … bùræn … ought to … yínggåi … our wómende out [zèi] … wèi[bian]; [zèi] … wèi[mian] outside zèi … wèibian; zèi … wèimian [a] painting [yðfö] huè a pair of liçng- (method as for ‘yð-’: e.g. ‘liçngge’) … parts of …-duèn (MW) pass close to lùguô have permission to; may këyï … person, people rên place dðfang … planar things (flat, squarish) …-zhång (MW) Please! qïng! proper shðdang properly shðdang de question wìntî read dö read (look at kèn … read aloud [something] niæn …; dö … [the] reason [is] yuænyín remain; stay liù xiæ; liùxia; dåi

and understand) …

> reside, live zhù return, go back huî road, way lù …s …men …'s, …s' …de say … shuñ say to; tell gèosu … sections of …-duèn (MW) see, watch jièn see a sight kènjièn not see a sight kèn bù jièn See you tomorrow mîngtiån jièn! see, understand mîngbai; lïjië; dóng should, ought yínggåi … since, as yínwìi … since, from còng … yïlæi; còng … qø so, therefore yíncï …; suóyï … speak … shuñ speak words to converse shuñhuè stay, remain liù xiæ; liùxia; dåi study xuêxî on the subject of …; guånyö … suitable shðdang suitably shðdang de [a] table [yðzhång] zhuñzi take, grasp næ tell gèosu

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

44

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

> more … than [that] Thanks! that (pronoun) that … that (conj.) then, at that moment their [located] there there are [not] there is [not] therefore … these; these … they thing this (pronoun) this (pronoun, emphasized) this … those; those … … thoughts of through (by way of; via) through (from bï [tå] … xiìxie! nè nège … [omit] nèshî; dångshî tåmende [zèi] nèr; [zèi] nèlï [mêi] yóu [mêi] yóu yíncï …; suóyï … zhìxié; zhìxié … tåmen dñngxi zhì zhìgì zhìge … nèxié; nèxié … …-diçn (MW) tñngguô …

one side to the other) chuångguô … through (in the name of) fìng … de mîng
pass through; pass by lùguô

> … time(s) …-cð (MW) once; one time yîcð to (a place) dèo … to (speaking with) hê…; tòng …; gén … today jíntiån tomorrow mîngtiån on top of [zèi] … shèngmian true; genuine zhén a truth zhénlï the truth zhénxiång; zhénshî try, attempt to shð try, endeavour jðnlð; lðtö try out in use shðyông twice liçngcð two …; pair of liçng- (method as for ‘yð-’: e.g. ‘liçngge’) … types of …-lìi (MW) under [zèi] … xièmian understand mîngbai; lïjië; dóng until …; to … dèo … [located] upon [zèi] … shèngmian use, (a benefit) yông make use of yông; shïyông try out in use shðyông very hën visit; call on fçngwìn visit; see (e.g. a doctor) kèn … volume of …-bën (MW)

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

45

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

want to … watch way, manner way, method way, road way, style we Welcome! well what …? whatever when? what time? where? whether which? (sing.)

> xiçng … kèn fångfç fångshð lù fångshð wómen huånyîng! hço shênme …? suó shênme shîhou? nçlï? nçr? shðfóu nç [yî]ge? (change

> write xië write a letter xië xðn … write-ups of …-piån (MW) Yes! shð[de] That idea is correct, as you say! (confirming

negative words)

shðde! duð!

But yes it is! = that's not the case! (faulting

a negative suggestion)

which? (plural) nçxié? who …? shêi …? whose? shêi de? shuî de? why? for what? wêishênme? will … (future) huð … wish to … këwèng … with (by using) [zèi] yông … with (company) tòng …; hê … [yðqï] gén … yðqï without (not having …) mêiyóu … woman nýrên

‘ge’ to ‘bën’, etc. as necessary)

yesterday you YOU your YOUR

shðde!; (bù!) zuòtiån nï nïmen nïde nïmende

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

46

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

VOCABULARY 26.2 (Vocabulary Review Chinese Mandarin to English) < love [someone] èi love [something] èihèo father bèba; fù qín assist; help bång; bångzhù assistance, help bångmång; bångzhù … volume of …-bën (MW) better than … bï … hço more … than (that) bï (tå) … have an obligation to; must bðxõ …; yîdðng dêi …; bùdêbù … … (complete) cycles of …-bièn (MW) No bù No! That's not so! (respondno more not not want to not all … No …! (not permitted) else, otherwise in (joining in) through (from < bö zèi bù (Note: bö shð) bù xïhuan; bù xiçng bù … dñu bùxø …!; jðnzhï …! … bùræn … chånjiå chuångguô … …-cð (MW) yîcð còng [Zhñngguò] còng … yïlæi; còng … qø cònglæi bù cònglæi mêi [yóu] dåi; liù xiæ; liùxia nèshî; dångshî dæfù dèhuð dèi … dènshð; këshð dèo … dèo …

one side to the other)

… time(s) once; one time from [China] from … on; since …

never (present or habitual) never (past) But it is! = No!, remain; stay that's not the then, at that case! (faulting moment a negative answer suggestion) shðde!; (bù!) assembly, have an obligconvention ation to; must bðxõ …; yîdðng dêi on behalf of …; bùdêbù … but No …! (not to (a place) permitted) bùxø …!; jðnzhï …! until …; to … no longer bö zèi

ing to positive words) bù!

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

47

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

< have the ability to; can nêng; dèo can; be able to accomplish, manage dèo have an obligation to; must yîdðng dêi … of …; …'s, …s' …de (See Study 18 because of (linking the

<

cause of an action with the action itself)

on uses of ‘de’

place dðfang … thoughts of …-diçn (MW) thing dñngxi see, understand mîngbai; lïjië; dóng read; read aloud dö … parts or sections of …-duèn (MW) No, as you say! (confirming

but not manner, way method, way call on; visit through (in

êr êr fångfç fångshð fçngwìn

negative words) [See ‘shðde’]

shðde! duð!

how [far, much] (what extent) duñ [e.g. shén] how much? duñshço? and (joining

two verbs or adjectives) … êr …
êr

and not

the name of) fìng … de mîng [an] illustration [yðfö] huè … images of, … copies of (of pictures) …-fö (MW) father bèba; fù qín nearby [zèi] …fùyðn say to; tell gèosu to (speaking with) tòng …; gén … with (company) tòng …; gén … yðqï give gëi allow to …; let rèng …; gëi … for [one who benefits] wìi …; gëi … about, on the subject of … guånyö … fine, good, well hço or (alternatively) … hæishð … and hê

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

48

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

< to (speak with) hê…; tòng …; with (company) tòng …; hê … [yðqï] very, indeed, surely hën behind [zèi] … hôu[mian]; [zèi] … hoù[bian] Welcome! huånyîng! (a) drawing, painting (yðfö) huè go back; return huî will … (future) huð … can; know how to huð; nêng [either]… or … huô … huô … [either]… or … huôzhë…huôzhë … today jíntiån endeavour, try jðnlð; lðtö No …! (not permitted) bùxø …!; jðnzhï …! if (supposing) jiçrö (or yèoshi) see, watch jièn See you tomorrow! mîngtiån jièn! meet jiènmièn if (in the case that) … then yèoshi … [jiù] meeting jùhuð read (look at

and understand) … kèn … visit; see (e.g. a doctor) kèn

< see a sight kènjièn not see a sight kèn bù jièn have a chance to …; may … kënêng …; yëxø … but dènshð; këshð wish to … këwèng … may, have permission to … këyï … come læi … types of …-lìi (MW) did … (past) … le [located] in [zèi] … lï see, understand lïjië; mîngbai; dóng tomorrow mîngtiån [located] inside [zèi] … lïmian a couple of liçng- (method as for ‘yð-’: e.g. ‘liçngge’) endeavour, try jðnlð; lðtö remain; stay liù xiæ; liùxia road, way lù pass close to lùguô mother mèma is it so? ma? did not … mêi … have not; there isn't/aren't mêi yóu without (not having …) mêiyóu … …s …men [located] at [zèi] … mian

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

49

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

< in the location (described by ‘zèi’) … mian through (in the name of) fìng … de mîng see, understand mîngbai; lïjië; dóng mother mø qín grasp hold næ male … næn-… boy nænhæir man nænrên which? (sing.) nç [yî]ge? (change

<

can; know how to huð; nêng you nï YOU nïmen your nïde YOUR nïmende read aloud (something) niæn … female … nýgirl nýhæir woman nýrên beside … [zèi] … pæng[biån] ‘ge’ to ‘bën’, etc. by [the side of] [zèi] … pæng[biån] as necessary) friend pêngyou which? (plural) nçxié? … write-ups of …-piån (MW) where? nçlï? Mandarin pøtñnghuè where? nçr? during … [zæi] … qíjiån that (pronoun) nè Please! qïng! that … nège … ahead of [zèi] … qièn that (conj.) [omit] ahead; in front [located] there [zèi] nèlï of [zèi] … qiæn[mian] if (on the condgo qù ition that) …, allow rèng then röguó …, nèmuó … allow to …; let rèng …; gëi … [located] there [zèi] nèr person, people rên then, at that know (be acqumoment nèshî; dångshî ainted with) rìnshi those; those … nèxié; nèxié … if (on the condhave the ability ition that) …, to; can nêng; dèo then röguó …, nèmuó … can nêng [located] on [zèi] … shang [located] upon [zèi] … shèngmian

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

50

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

who …? whose? what …? when? what time? shênme shîhou? why? for what? wêishênme? make use of yông; shïyông attempt to; try shð be (am, is, are) shð Yes! shð[de] No, as you say: [Yes, that idea is correct, as you say!] (confirming shðde! duð! But yes it is! = No!, that's not the case! (faulting

< shêi …? shêi de? shuî de? shênme …?

negative words)

a negative suggestion)

shðde!; (bù!) shðdang shðdang de shðfóu shðyông [yðbën] shõ shêi de? shuî de? shuñ

proper; suitable properly suitably whether try out in use [a] book whose? say …; speak

converse whatever so, therefore he, she, it; also him, her, to it tå her, his, its tåde … they tåmen their tåmende on behalf of tð …; dèi … … (news) items of …-tiæo (MW) through (by way of; via) tñngguô … with (company) tòng …; hê … [yðqï] to (speaking with) tòng …; gén … out[side] [zèi] … wèi[bian]; out[side] [zèi] … wèi[mian] why? for what? wêishênme? [an] article written; editorial, essay [yðpiån] wênzhång for [one who benefits] wìi …; gëi … for [the purpose of] wìi[le] question wìntî I, me wó my wóde we, us wómen our wómende

< shuñhuè suó yíncï …; suóyï …

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

51

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

< down because of yínwìi … now once; one time yîcð desire/hope/ have an obligwould like ation to; must yîdðng dêi … to … xíwèng … have a neceshave an interest sity to … yîdðng yèo … in …; like to xïhuan … a, an yîge, etc. (Study 24 have an interest shows more ‘measure words’.) in …; like to xï'èi … Use yð before …à, …á, or …â, else yî letter (docu(an) article writment) xðn after … [zèi] … yïhôu [a] message [yðtiæo] xðnxí before … [zèi] … yïqiæn [a] message [yðtiæo] xiåoxi [an] idea [yðdiçn] yðjièn want to … xiçng … [an] idea [yðdiçn] yðjièn [located] below [zèi] … xiè[mian] by (near to) [zèi] … yðn Thanks! xiìxie! [an] article writwrite xië ten; editorial, write a letter xië xðn essay [yðpiån] wênzhång need to; have to with (company) hê … [yðqï] it is necessary gén … yðqï that … xõyèo … [a] table [yðzhång] zhuñzi learn, study xuêxî use, (a benefit) yông if (in the case make use of yông; shïyông that) … [then] yèoshi … [jiù] try out in use shðyông if (supposing) jiçrö [or yèoshi] with (by using) [zèi] yông … have a chance due to … yòuyö … to …; may … kënêng …; yëxø … never (future) yóngyuçn bù one yí have, possess; so, therefore yíncï …; suóyï … there is/are yóu ought to … yínggåi … have not; there as, since yínwìi … isn't/aren't mêi yóu

< [zèi] xiè xiènzèi

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

52

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

< [the] reason [is] yuænyín be (be present;

be located; be alive; exist) zèi

behind [zèi] … hôu[mian]; behind [zèi] … hoù[bian] [located] in [zèi] … lï [located] inside [zèi] … lïmian [located] at [zèi] … mian [located] there [zèi] nèr; [zèi] nèlï beside …; by (the side of) [zèi] … pæng[biån] during … [zæi] … qíjiån ahead of [zèi] … qièn ahead; in front of [zèi] … qiæn[mian] [located] on [zèi] … shang [located] upon [zèi] … shèngmian out(side) [zèi] … wèi[bian]; out(side) [zèi] … wèi[mian] down [zèi] xiè after … [zèi] … yïhôu before … [zèi] … yïqiæn by (near to) [zèi] … yðn [located] below [zèi] … xiè[mian] [located] here [zèi] zhìlï [located] here [zèi] zhìr [a] document, leaflet, thin magazine [yîfìn] zæzhð how (in what manner)? zënme?

how (in what manner)? zënyèng? … planar things (flat, squarish) …-zhång (MW) true; genuine zhén a truth zhénlï the truth zhénxiång; zhénshî this (pronoun) zhì this (pronoun, emphasized) zhìgì this … zhìge … these; these … zhìxié; zhìxié … [located] here [zèi] zhìlï [located] here [zèi] zhìr know (facts) zhídao China Zhñngguò … kind(s) of …-zhóng (MW) live, reside zhù [a] table [yðzhång] zhuñzi [the] most … zuð … best, the best zuð hço de yesterday zuòtiån do, make zuô … built things …-zuô (MW)

<

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

53

5 August 2005

Pinyin Mandarin Preliminary Course

© B. J. Burford and E. J. Burford 2003

54

5 August 2005

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful