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**An Instantaneous Phase Angle Detection Algorithm under Unbalanced Line Voltage Condition
**

Hong-seok Song, Hyun-gyu Park, and Kwanghee Nam

Department of Electrical Engineering, POSTECH University Hyoja San-31, Pohang, 790-784 Republic of Korea Tel:82562-279-2218, Fax:82562-279-5699, E-mail:kwnam@postech.ac.kr

Abstract If a negative sequence is generated by voltage sag and or unbalance, it appears as an oscillating error in a synchronous reference frameSRF. In the power conditioning equipment, the exact value of positive sequence is needed for achieving the desired goal of the system, e.g., unity power factor and constant output voltage, whereas the exact value of negative sequence is needed for compensation. To measure the positive sequence separately from the negative sequence, one uses normally a low pass lter having a narrow bandwidth. But, such a lter causes a lot of phase delay or measurement delay, thus the response time of the system tends to be lengthened. We propose a method of estimating the positive and the negative sequence voltages separately without a signi cant delay by utilizing the weighted leastsquares estimation WLSE method having the covariance resetting technique. We demonstrate through simulation and experiment the superior performance of the proposed scheme in measuring the positive and the negative sequence voltages at the time of abrupt transition. This method can be applied to UPS, PWM AC DC converter, active lter, series voltage compensator, etc.

I. Introduction

transient state. Haddad and Joos 4 obtained the phase angle of each phase voltage in a three-phase voltage from two sampled values in a short time interval. They used the phase angles for three single-phase AC voltage compensators. But, in their scheme the relationships among the phases in a three-phase system were neglected. Note that the phase di erences among three phases under voltage sag and or unbalance conditions are not generally even 2 . Thus, we cannot compensate completely voltage unbalance or sag with such a phase detection scheme under general voltage sag and or unbalance conditions. In this work, we propose an instantaneous phase angle detection algorithm under voltage sag and or unbalance conditions using the weighted least-squares estimation WLSE method having the covariance resetting technique. With the proposed detection method, one can nd the positive and the negative sequence voltage almost without a delay, and thus obtain the instantaneous phase angle. An unbalanced three-phase line voltage fEa ; Eb ; Ec g without zero sequence can be represented as the orthogonal sum of a positive and a negative sequence such that p n Edqs ti = ej!t Edqe ti + e,j!t Edqe ti ; 1

i i

The phase angle of a line voltage is used to calculate and control the ow of active reactive power, and transform the feedback variables to a synchronous reference frame SRF 1 2 . The phase angle, therefore, is critical piece of information for the operation of most power conditioning equipment such as: controlled AC DC converter, UPS, series voltage compensator, static VAR compensator, active harmonic lter, etc. If a voltage sag takes place in one or two phases in a three-phase power system, it causes voltage unbalance by generating a negative sequence voltage. The voltage unbalance induces an oscillating error in the measurement of the phase angle. In the power conditioning equipment, if there is an error in the phase angle estimation then it may directly a ect the compensation voltage, and thus deteriorate the performance. To avoid the performance deterioration, it is necessary to nd the positive and the negative sequence voltage instantaneously. However, it is normally di cult to estimate the positive and the negative sequences separately from their summed values. Enjeti and Chaoudhury 3 measured the positive sequence voltage by using a lter and they used the phase angle of the positive sequence under the voltage unbalance condition. However, the use of a lter typically generates some measurement delay or phase delay so that an AC voltage compensator looses half or several cycles in the

II. Effects of a Voltage Unbalance on Phase Measurement

p where Edqs = 2 Ea + Eb ej2=3 + Ec e,j2=3 , Edqe = 3 p p n n n Ede + jEqe , Edqe = Ede + jEqe , and ! 120 60Hz is the angular frequency. The subscripts s and e denote the quantities in the stationary frame and in the SRF of !ti , respectively. The superscripts p and n denote the quantities of positive and negative sequences, respectively. Note that one can ignore the e ects of a zero sequence voltage in a three-wired three-phase system, since a zero sequence voltage does not appear in a three-wired three-phase system. Multiplying e,j!t to 1, we measure the phase angle o set, 'ti : , 'ti =

e,j!t Edqs ti ; p n = Edqe ti + e,2j!t Edqe ti ; = ti + ~ti ; 2 p where ti Edqe ti denotes the phase angle of the positive sequence voltage in the SRF of !ti and ~ti

i i i

In this work. we obtain yi = H i xti . etc.e. III./div) (60deg. 3 where !t cos!ti sin i H i cos!t i . these methods cannot be good solutions for voltage compensator and UPS in which fast response is essential. 2. yi We choose the cost function such that: Eds ti : Eqs ti i X J xi = k =0 . under voltage sag and or unbalance conditions.1 H iP i. Instantaneous Phase Angle Detection Algorithm using the WLSE p Edqe ti denotes the oscillatory phase error caused ωt+ϕ ωt+ϕ (a) (60deg. Plots in columnb show clearly that the negative sequence n voltage Edqe resulting from the voltage unbalance causes an 120Hz oscillating error ~ti in the phase angle measurement. there exists an inherent problem: to obtain DC signal ti . re i = I + H iP i. and 'ti . volt. For power conditioning equipment such as voltage compensator. Thus. UPS. On the other hand. 4 where 0 0 is the initial covariance constant and 2 0. When one intends to measure ti by using a conventional PLL or a lter.1 H iT re i.1 H iT re i. 'ti and !ti + 'ti ./div) 'ti ./div) (50V. sin i cos!ti !ti i p p n n xi Ede ti Eqe ti Ede ti Eqe ti T . It should be noted that ~ti contains 120Hz AC ripple. sin!t cos!ti . 1 is the forgetting factor. when the three-phase voltage is unbalanced. ^ ^ x 5 kp. Phase angle measurement when a line voltage is a balanced. 1 + kp. P .1 of theI positive . 'ti = ti and ~ti = 0. Plots in columna show the three-phase line voltage.1 Eqe ti =Ede ti : ^p ^p 6 ./div) (b) (60deg. ~ti .sequence voltage: the phase o set ^ti = tan.1 : ^ 1 = = 0 2 IR44 From 5. Ec g. and 'ti .i = P i. 1.i yi . H kxk + 0 1 xkT xk./div) (4msec. (60deg. by the negative sequence. . The solution xi that ^ minimizes the cost function J xi is obtained by the following the least-squares algorithm: xi = xi . Fig. Under the normal balanced line voltage condition. axis) ω ti +ϕ (ti ) ϕ(ti ) arbitrary SRF (60Hz) (50V. axis) Stationary Q-axis Ea Eb Ec Ea Eb Ec (unbalanced volt. if one uses the distorted phase angle without taking account of the e ects of the voltage sag and or unbalance. ~ti . i. 'ti contains AC component. the LPF having the narrow bandwidth generates a lot of phase delay or measurement delay. positive and negative sequence voltages by applying the weighted least-squares estimation WLSE method. H i^i .1 P i. Fig.angle0. H kxk T . and causes sluggish response. sin!t ..1 . yk . 2 shows the e ect of the unbalanced voltage on the phase angle measurement. 1 . fEa . plots in columnb show the same things. one should employ a low pass lter LPF having a narrow bandwidth enough to eliminate ~ti . seq. we develop an estimation algorithm for where x.k yk . one may need to identify ti ./div) (4msec. For the complete compensation for voltage sag and or unbalance. Phase relationship of ti . we obtain In this section. But.. pressing 1 in the matrix form. we solve this problem by using the WLSE method having the covariance resetting technique. then it results in the phase angle error so that the output performance is degraded correspondingly.2 ω ti + φ (ti )= θ (ti ) (pos. b unbalanced./div) Fig. 'ti contains only DC component. Eb . Ex- P i = . when a balanced three-phase voltage is applied. since ~ti 6= 0./div) ~(ti) φ φ (ti ) ω ti Stationary D-axis ϕ ϕ Fig. 1 shows the relationship among ti .1 . However.1 P i.1 H iT . active lter.

/div. Fig.) Fig.i [ y(i) . 3. x(i-1) = x(i) Ec [V] -80 1 Eb [V] -80 80 Ea [V] -80 80 (a) Noise (300Hz. Then.H(i) x(i-1) ] ^ ^ -1 ^ φ (ti ) = tan [ Eqe(ti ) / Ede(ti )] _ _ ^ ^ Pi-1 = Pi . Flowchart of the instantaneous phase detection algorithm.λ Pi-1 H(i) re(i) H(i) Pi-1 ^ ^ ^ x(i) = x(i-1) + kp. 10% amplitude) (50msec. 4. Three-phase voltage used in the simulation study and the experiments: a its waveforms and b the frequency spectrum. the phase angle of the the line voltage is obtained ^ such that .) FFT [pu] 0 (b) (100Hz/div.3 80 Measure Edqs ( t i ) ( = y(i) ) ^ || y(i) .H(i) x(i-1) || > ε no yes covariance resetting _ P i-1 = π 0 _ _ T re(i) = I + H(i) P i-1 H(i) _ _ -1 T kp.i = P i-1 H(i) re(i) _ _ _ _ -1 -1 T_ -1 Pi = λ Pi-1 .

Eb . 0 g = f0:95. 62:9 +6 cos5!t . 100g and f0:85. That is.ti = !ti + ^ti . 4a shows an example line voltage used in the simulation study and in experiments. i. 4b shows its frequency spectrum. 33 cos!t . the boundary value " needs not to be very small. Ec g = f60 cos!t+6 cos5!t.1 with the x initial covariance 0 I . computer simulation study was conducted. respectively. A heuristic guide line is to set " equal to 20 40 of the peak amplitude of the nominal line voltage. 66 cos!t + 181:1 + 6 cos5!t + 120 g was applied in a step manner.e.120 + 6 cos5!t . kyi . Simulation and Experimental Results To verify the feasibility of the proposed phase angle estimation scheme. Fig. The existence of a phase angle jump is discerned from the normal condition by the estimation error magnitude. 60 cos!t +120 +6 cos5!t +120g was applied for t = 250msec. one can increase noise immunity of the estimator by selecting a larger . 1k ". 4b. H i^i . 10g. 126. 100g. Fig.. if the estimation error is larger than a given boundary value ". an unbalanced three-phase voltage f59 cos!t + 31:3 + 6 cos5!t. 3 shows the owchart of the proposed phase detection algorithm. then we reset P i. A balanced three-phase voltage fEa . Note also that with the WLSE. To enhance the tracking speed of the phase angle jump caused by sudden voltage sag and or unbalance. fs = 3kHz. f0:95. IV. Fig. 5 shows the simulation results of the estimation with " = 18V . Plots in the rst ^ and second row show ^ and . 60 cos!t. we add the covariance resetting technique. Note that the 5th harmonics are observed in the spectrum shown in Fig. Fig. 10g. f0:85. Note that we added 5th harmonics 300Hz intentionally in order to check the robustness of the estimation algorithm against noise. 126 . To avoid frequent resetting caused by noise under the normal condition. Plots in columns a-d show the estimation results with f. After t = 250msec.

7 shows the oscillation error of the estimated phase o set. respectively. we can ^p ^p ^n ^n separately measure fEde . The convergence time t is de ned by the required time for the estimated phase o set ^ to reach the real phase o set after a sudden phase angle change. when we add 10 5th harmonic disturbance. Plots ^p ^p ^n ^n in the third and forth row show fEde . Ede g. = !t + ^. Ede g and fEde . Fig. Eqe g and fEde . caused by the 5th harmonic noise. As shown in the simulation results. the initial covariance constant 0 and the sampling frequency fs . 0 and fs . and fs . Note that t is signi cantly a ected by 0 . and obtain the instantaneous phase angle of the positive sequence voltage even under voltage sag and or unbalance conditions. 0 . 6 shows the convergence time t with respect to . the use . respectively. Fig. we performed the simulation study with varying . Note that is signi cantly a ected by . Eqe g almost without a delay. In other words. To show the characteristics of the estimation with respect to the forgetting factor .

c f0:85.) Fig. and the use of the larger presents the smaller ./div. the smaller t. t = 780sec: and = 0:7 . 6.. Simulation results of phase angle detection under the voltage sag and or unbalance condition with f. The voltage limit of the AC power supply prevented us from increasing the magnitude of the line voltage more than 80V. Simulation results of the convergence time t with respect Fig. 8 shows the experimental results of the estimation with ^ fs = 3kHz and " = 18V . when we adopt = 0:95. Fig.) (d) ^n Ede (10msec. the control board was made with the TMS320C31 DSP processor. 0 and fs . of the larger 0 presents the faster convergence. 100g. 5. 0 g set at a f0:95. Plots in row a show ^. 7. 100g and d f0:85. For example. i.) (b) ^n Ede (10msec. to . Simulation results of the oscillation error caused by the 5th harmonic disturbance with respect to and fs ./div. . For the experiments.4 [deg] 360 ^ φ ^ φ ^ φ ^ φ 0 [deg] 360 ^ θ ^ θ ^ θ ^ θ 0 [V] 80 ^p Ede 0 ^p Eqe ^p Ede ^p Eqe ^p Ede ^p Eqe ^p Ede ^p Eqe -80 80 [V] ^n Eqe ^n Eqe ^n Eqe ^n Eqe 0 -80 (a) ^n Ede (10msec.e.) (c) ^n Ede (10msec./div. Fig./div. 10g. 10g. b f0:95. The unbalanced voltage sag was made by a programmable AC power supply. 0 = 100 and fs = 3kHz.

= 0:95. Eqe g. ^p ^p ^p ^p fEde . = 0:95. One can clearly see that the proposed method can estimate the instantaneous phase angle of the positive sequence under voltage sag and or unbalance conditions. The overall shapes are quite similar to the simulation results.. The proposed algorithm was derived from V. Concluding Remarks . We proposed a phase angle detection algorithm that acted promptly when a sudden voltage sag and or unbalance took place. Eqe g with 0 = 100. and fEde . Plots in row b show the same things with 0 = 10.

4. A Fast Algorithm for Voltage Unbalance Compensation and Regulation in Faulted Distribution Systems. pp. 1993. 34. In many applications. 2 Gulali Yalcinkaya. b f0:95. 963-969. 549-558. 3 P./div.) ^n Eqe [V] -80 ^ φ [deg] 80 80 0 (a) 360 -80 80 0 (10msec." IEEE Trans./div. Sayed. Ali H. Bollen. and Geza Joos. No.) -80 (10msec. According to simulation study. 4. 4 Kevork Haddad. 538-544. Experimental results of phase angle detection under voltage sag unbalance conditions with f.) ^n Eqe [V] -80 ^ θ [deg] ^n Ede [V] -80 80 ^ φ [deg] (10msec. active lter. Melhorn. No. recommended parameters are 2 0:9." IEEE-APEC Annual Meeting.) Fig." IEEE Trans. 1998. 493-500. July 1998. No. May 1998. Choudhury. pp. Davis. . 100g.. Voltage Sags: Their Impact on the Utility and Industrial Customers./div. Technically.5 780usec 360 ^p Ede [V] ^n Ede [V] -80 80 (10msec." Stanford University. It enables us to measure instantaneously both the positive and the negative sequences separately. Vol. Appl. Appl." IEEE Trans. pp. References 1 Christopher J. Oct. 1989. A new control strategy to improve the performance of a PWM AC to DC converter under unbalanced operating conditions. Power Elect.N. 6 Thomas Kailath. 1 and 0 2 10.) 80 80 ^p Ede [V] 0 (b) 360 -80 80 ^p Eqe [V] 0 (10msec. No. Characterization of Voltage Sags in Industrial Distribution Systems.2. 682-688. one can increase the robustness to noise by choosing a larger and obtain the faster convergence speed by choosing the larger 0 .. it is thought to be suitable to UPS." IEEE Trans. 5 Clark Hochgraf and Robert H. and the estimated negative sequence component will be used for unbalance compensation. and Babak Hassibi./div. April 1998.6msec 360 ^p Eqe [V] -80 ^ θ [deg] (10msec. pp. We have demonstrated the superior performance through computer simulations as well as through experiments./div. Math H. Timothy D.) 1." Prentice Hall. Vol. 1000 . 8. or voltage compensator in which the fast response is essential. and Peter A. and George E. 13. and Petre Stoica. the estimated phase angle of the positive sequence will be used for setting reference frame. Statcom Controls for Operation with Unbalanced Voltages.. State Space Estimation Theory. 34. pp. J. Vol. 1996. Enjeti and S. Indus. the weighted least-squares estimation method having the covariance resetting technique. Hence. 7 Torsten Soderstrom. Vol. Beam. 10g. Indus. Power Delivery.A. Crossley. The proposed method can be distinguished from the conventional lter technique by the fast transient response. 0 g set at: a f0:95. 8. System Identi cation. Lasseter. 3./div.

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